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Sample records for child institutionalized

  1. Child Maltreatment and Social Connectedness Among Formerly Institutionalized Females: Links With Depression.

    PubMed

    van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Verbruggen, Janna

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of child maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence) and cumulative child maltreatment on depressive symptoms in adulthood, and examine the protective effects of social connectedness in a sample of formerly institutionalized females. The sample consisted of 124 females who were institutionalized in a Dutch juvenile justice institution during adolescence and were followed-up when they were on average 32 years old. Information about child maltreatment was extracted from treatment files. Retrospective data on social connectedness in young adulthood were established during interviews using a Life History Calendar. Relationship quality at follow-up was assessed with items derived from the Rochester Youth Development Study. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in adulthood. Results showed that 85.5% of the females experienced child maltreatment, and co-occurrence of subtypes was high. Cumulative child maltreatment increased the risk of depression in adulthood. Furthermore, social connectedness, that is, more employment over time and the quality of the romantic relationship at follow-up, protected against the development of depression. However, social connectedness did not buffer the effect of maltreatment on depression. Our findings indicate that treatment of these girls should focus on improving the social-emotional development to promote positive interpersonal relationships and include educational and vocational components to guide these girls toward increased opportunities on the labor market.

  2. Institutionalizing Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Jack

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the problem of institutionalizing dance, its effect and consequences, with Shirley Ririe, Co-Director with Joan Woodbury of the Ririe-Woodbury Dance Company based in Salt Lake City. (Author/RK)

  3. Institutionalized Discontent.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Neil

    Examining past experiences of student activism at Berkeley this article suggests that the present storm of political correctness sweeping American universities represents more than just another of the periodic crusades that have disrupted academic life over the years. The current wave of activism is different largely because the ever-present minorities of militant faculty and student activists have gained significant reinforcements in their struggle to transform the culture and mission of higher education. Over the last several decades federal regulations and funds have created an alternative bureaucracy within universities that is devoted, not to the core academic mission of teaching and research, but to improving the social climate of university life. The legitimacy and power of the social climate bureaucracy depend on heightening the perception that academic life involves a dangerous environment, from which students need protection - a service provided through creating safe spaces, helping students to recognize micro-aggressions, training them in sexual assault prevention, conducting sensitivity training for faculty and the like. Devoted to heightening this perception of the university campus as a hostile environment, the climate bureaucracy has become a source of institutionalized discontent.

  4. Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

    2011-01-01

    Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

  5. Positive Consequences of Institutionalization: Solidarity Between Elderly Parents and Their Middle-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kristen Falde; Bengtson, Vern L.

    This research questions the frequent observation that elderly persons in long-term care institutions are isolated from their families, and that institutionalization is the final step in the breakdown of family relations. Data consisted of open-ended interviews with institutionalized elderly parents and with the child most involved with the parent…

  6. The institutionalization of operations research.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J F; Simmons, R; Simmons, G

    1991-01-01

    When the conceptualization of OR is inappropriate, institutionalization will not take place. For this reason, the discussion here has focused as much on the pitfalls in OR design as on factors that facilitate institutionalization. Research that is inappropriately adapted to the societal or programmatic context will not be institutionalized, nor will OR lead to institutionalized research capabilities if theory is ignored or the research lacks credibility. The institutionalization of credible and scientifically sound OR requires well-trained social scientists who can carry out this task. Career opportunities must persist in OR so that well-trained scientists will find in an attractive and rewarding pursuit. Long-term projects facilitate institutionalization by providing a setting where work teams can be developed and career tracks defined. Academics and universities institutionalize OR by sponsoring training in applied research and developing high-level research leadership. For this reason, institutional linkages and mechanisms that nurture collaboration facilitate the institutionalization of OR. Finally, institutionalization of OR implies that research is being utilized for action by program management and the policy community. There is extensive literature on the determinants of research utilization, much of which is relevant to the question of how OR can be institutionalized.

  7. Unraveling the Mystery of Institutionalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Matthew B.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of educational change have not looked at institutionalization of new programs. This study found four approaches to institutionalizing changes: (1) mandated, stable use; (2) skillful, committed use; (3) vulnerability; and (4) indifference. Teacher-administrator harmony is critical to success. (MD)

  8. Institutionalization of Planned Organizational Change,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    issue of group forces as they bear on institutionalization. The level of interaction among members of the target group seems to determine whether the...group will play a major role in the institutionalization process. The more meetings among target group members, the greater is the number of...interactions and the greater the identity within the target group (Walton, 1975; Goodman, 1979). Identification serves as one force to maintain the new

  9. Institutionalizing a Vision for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miserandino, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    Institutionalizing a vision for diversity should include (1) commitment to serving students' perceived needs; (2) seeing through the lens of others' experiences; (3) moral leadership from teachers; (4) a sufficient pool of support and goodwill; and (5) focus on students first. (SK)

  10. The Institutionalized Geriatric Patient Considered in a Framework of Developmental Deprivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erber, Joan T.

    1979-01-01

    An overview is presented of several areas of deprivation research (animal, child, young adult) and methods of conceptualizing and measuring deprivation is applied to institutionalized geriatric patients. Suggestions are made for more precise approaches to studying and treating deprivation in this population. (Author/SS)

  11. Institutionalization of a Retention Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. J.; Campbell, A.

    2006-05-01

    Bowie State University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center have, for the past 10 years, worked diligently together to enhance the science, mathematics, engineering and technology (SMET) domain. Efforts made, because of a Model Institutions for Excellence (MIE) Award, have changed the landscape of the SMET domain by increasing the retention and graduation rates, the number of students entering graduate and professional schools, and the number of students entering SMET related careers for minorities and women. Several initiatives a Scholarship Program, PRISEM Tutoring Center, Safety-net Program, Research emphasis, Focused Mentoring, a Summer Academy for accepted incoming students, a Bridge Program for students needing assistance being admitted to the University, the RISE Program and the Bowie State Satellite Operations and Control Center (BSOCC) provide the nurturing, mentoring, and opportunities for our students. As a result of efforts made, the retention rate has increase to approximately 80%, the graduation rate has increased 40%, and 85% of the SMET students are now interested or entering graduate and professional schools. Successes that have been documented by various assessment activities have led to the institutionalization of the Retention Model of the MIE Initiative. It is anticipated that University-wide application of the retention model will prove the incentives necessary to obtain similar results as the MIE Initiative.

  12. School climate and the institutionalization of the CATCH program.

    PubMed

    Parcel, Guy S; Perry, Cheryl L; Kelder, Steven H; Elder, John P; Mitchell, Paul D; Lytle, Leslie A; Johnson, Carolyn C; Stone, Elaine J

    2003-08-01

    School climate refers to various physical and psychosocial structures that shape schools' social and physical environments. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) study provided an opportunity to study how aspects of school climate are associated with continued implementation of the CATCH program. Nutrient analysis of menus, observations of physical education (PE) classes, and teacher and staff self-reports were used to measure CATCH program components. Results of this study indicate that aspects of school climate were associated with continued implementation of the CATCH classroom component but not the CATCH food service or PE components. These findings have implications for how we plan for the progression of innovative school health promotion programs from the initial trial stage to institutionalization. Measures of school climate may be useful in determining a school's readiness to adopt and implement an innovative health promotion curriculum.

  13. Serotonin transporter polymorphism moderates the effects of caregiver intrusiveness on ADHD symptoms among institutionalized preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Joana; Belsky, Jay; Mesquita, Ana; Soares, Isabel

    2017-03-01

    Research consistently chronicles a variety of mental health difficulties that plague institutionally reared children, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), even if not all institutionalized children evince such problems. In seeking to extend work in this area, this research on gene × environment (GXE) interplay investigated whether the effect of the quality of institutional care-most notably, caregiver intrusiveness-on ADHD symptoms is moderated by the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism. One hundred and twenty-seven institutionalized preschoolers were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist. Caregiver-rated attention problems and hyperactivity were unrelated to both 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and caregiver intrusiveness. A significant GXE effect, independent of age at placement or duration of institutionalization, emerged, however, consistent with the differential-susceptibility hypothesis: s/s homozygotes manifest the most and least ADHD symptoms when they experienced, respectively, more and less intrusive caregiving. These results provide new insight into the reasons why some institutionalized children, but not others, exhibit ADHD symptoms.

  14. Family Caregivers' Perspectives on Institutionalization Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Aloen L.

    Family caregivers may face ethical dilemmas when deciding whether a parent or spouse should enter a nursing home. There is considerable evidence that decisions about institutionalization are usually stressful and difficult for family members. This study obtained qualitative and quantitative data from two studies conducted at the Margaret Blenkner…

  15. Cognitive Changes among Institutionalized Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Jose I.; Menacho, Inmaculada; Alcalde, Concepcion; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Aguilar, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of different cognitive training procedures in elderly people was studied. Two types of methods to train cognitive and memory functions were compared. One method was based on new technologies and the other one on pencil-and-paper activities. Thirty-six elderly institutionalized people aged 68-94 were trained. Quantitative and memory…

  16. How Does Ethics Institutionalization Reduce Academic Cheating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popoola, Ifeoluwa; Garner, Bart; Ammeter, Anthony; Krey, Nina; Beu Ammeter, Danielle; Schafer, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Extant research on academic cheating primarily focuses on the impact of honor codes on academic cheating. However, the influence of ethics institutionalization is curiously missing in past research. The authors developed and validated a structural equations model in the R programming language to examine the impact of formal (explicit) and informal…

  17. Attachment Representation of Institutionalized Children in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsurada, Emiko

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study represents one of the first attachment investigations of Japanese children who have been institutionalized. Mental representation of attachment was assessed using George and Solomon's (1990, 1996, 2000) Attachment Doll Play Classification System of the Bretherton et al. (1990) doll play story stems. Participants were 32…

  18. Alternatives to Institutionalization: A Definitive Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, James R., Comp.

    This bibliography catalogs all the literature in the National Criminals Justice Reference Service database on the topic of alternatives to institutionalization. The materials represented pertain to such diverse alternatives as juvenile training schools, pre-release centers, halfway houses, work-release programs, weekend sentencing, restitution,…

  19. A Practical Guide to Institutionalizing Educational Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambour, Gary, Ed.; And Others

    The booklet focuses on methods for institutionalizing innovative special education or other educational programs and was developed by the 1980 meeting of the Invisible College on the Institution of Change. An introductory section briefly considers the legal mandate of Public Law 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) to supply all…

  20. Depressive symptoms in institutionalized older adults

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Lívia Maria; Mattos, Inês Echenique

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals. PMID:24897042

  1. [Nutritional characterization by anthropometrics of institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly Venezuelan].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Nayka; Meertens, Lesbia; Solano, Liseti; Peña, Evelyn

    2005-06-01

    In order to evaluate nutritional status by anthropometry, a group of elderly (60 to 83 years old) was studied: 63 institutionalized and 37 non-institutionalized elderly from Valencia city, Venezuela. Weight, height, triceps skinfold and mid-arm circumference were measured and the body mass index (weight/height2) was calculated. The average age for the institutionalized group was 77.3 +/- 7.5 years old and 69.5 +/- 7.6 years old for the free-living elderly group. Tricipital skinfold (TSF) and mid-arm circumference (MAC) means were within the normal reference range for both groups, without significant differences by sex. Body mass index (BMI) was higher in the institutionalized group. Lower BMI and MAC were found in older elderly (> or =80 y). According to the nutritional classification by BMI, 16% of nutritional deficit, 45% of normal status and 39.7% with of excess weight were found in institutionalized elderly; while in free-living elderly, prevalences were 8%, 62% and 29.7% respectively. Even though normal nutritional status was highly prevalent, institutionalized elderly showed higher prevalences of nutritional alterations (underweight and overweight).

  2. Institutionalization in Taiwan. The role of caregiver gender.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hsueh-Fen Sabrina

    2003-10-01

    The role of caregiver gender in the likelihood of institutionalization of Taiwanese older adults was explored in this study. A sample of 78 male and 69 female primary caregivers of elderly patients who had experienced a stroke at least 6 months prior to the study were interviewed. Logistic regression analyses were applied to examine direct and interaction effects of the elderly adult's functioning the caregiver's available resources, the degree of caregiver burden, perceived public opinion toward institutionalization, and precipitating events on the likelihood of institutionalization among Taiwanese male and female caregivers. Women were more likely to institutionalize the older adult for whom they cared. The proposed model correctly predicted the likelihood of institutionalization of an elderly adult based on male versus female caregivers at the 92% level. Perceived public opinion toward institutionalization was the most significant predictor of institutionalization for both genders. Perceived public opinion toward institutionalization has a strong influence on whether or not caregivers institutionalize an elderly relative. This is consistent with Chinese culture in which public opinion has a much stronger effect on individual behavior than in the United States. American concepts of "minding one's own business" do not exist in Taiwan. It is logical that the older adults' level of functioning would predict the likelihood of institutionalization regardless of caregiver gender. In terms of caregiver characteristics, working hours in male caregivers is more predictive, and the quality of the relationship with the older adult was more predictive of institutionalization for female caregivers.

  3. CBCL Behavior Problems of Post-Institutionalized International Adoptees

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Brandi

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in international adoptions during the last decade, many researchers have investigated the developmental outcomes of these adoptees, including their extreme behaviors. Collectively, these results have not always appeared consistent across studies, perhaps because studies have used children reared in institutions or not, the institutional environments vary in severity, children spend different lengths of time in the institution and are assessed at different ages, and studies use different outcome measures. In an attempt to discern more order in the literature, this review focuses on 18 studies, each of which used the Child Behavior Checklist, and their outcomes are viewed with respect to these parameters. Results suggest that the major factor contributing to extreme behaviors is age at adoption, with those adopted after 6/18 months having more behavior problems, especially Internalizing, Externalizing, and Attention problems. Generally, samples of post-institutional children have more problems than samples of mixed or non-institutional internationally adopted children, and some problems are more likely to be manifest in adolescence, suggesting the effects of deficient early experiences are not simply the persistence of learned behavior but more general dispositions that become more noticeable or severe during adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of early deficient social–emotional caregiver–child interactions that characterize most institutional environments as a possible major cause of later difficulties in post-institutionalized children. PMID:20514520

  4. Suicidal Ideation, Depressive Symptomatology, and Self-Concept: A Comparison Between Mexican Institutionalized and Noninstitutionalized Children.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Hernandez, Ana-Maria; Correa-Romero, Fredi-Everardo; Acosta-Rojas, Irma-Beatriz; Cardoso-Espindola, Karen-Viviana; Padilla-Gallegos, Gustavo M; Valadez-Figueroa, Isabel

    2017-03-06

    Previous research reports a significant prevalence of child depression worldwide and self-concept as a predictor of depression and suicide behavior. Although suicide in children is an increasing problem in Mexico, there are scarce studies reporting risk factors and none of children in foster care institutions. This was a comparative, ex post facto study whose aim was to analyze associations between suicidal ideation, depression, and self-concept in two paired samples of Mexican children (83 institutionalized and 83 noninstitutionalized). Results show 16% of the children reported suicidal ideation and statistically significant differences among variables in both samples. Suggestions are made to address this problem from early ages.

  5. Psychiatric Outcomes in Young Children with a History of Institutionalization

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Karen; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy S.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Children raised in institutions, considered an extreme example of social deprivation, are one group through which we can better understand the impact of neglect on child health and development. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) is the first randomized, controlled trial of foster care as an intervention for institutionalized children. In this review we describe the mental health outcomes from the BEIP. Specifically, we report findings on attachment styles, attachment disorders, emotional reactivity, and psychiatric symptomatology for children in the BEIP. We describe the impact of the foster care intervention on these outcomes and also describe how outcomes differ by gender and by length of time spent in the institution. In addition, we explore the influence of genetic variation on individual outcomes and recovery from early severe social deprivation, as well as the role of differences in brain development in mediating later psychiatric morbidity. The results from the BEIP confirm and extend the previous findings on the negative sequelae of early institutional care on mental health. The results also underscore the benefit of early family placement for children living in institutions. PMID:21250893

  6. Institutionalizing Equitable Policies and Practices for Contingent Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Sam, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    This study is a qualitative inquiry into the institutionalization of equitable policies for non-tenure-track faculty. Through the theoretical framework of institutionalization, we examine factors and strategies forwarding various policies and practices and the challenges that arise. The results highlight themes throughout the stages of…

  7. Institutionalization and Response Maintenance in Organizational Behavior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2006-01-01

    A review of the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" (1991-2002) was conducted to determine to what extent researchers in OBM programmed for "institutionalization" of applied interventions. Criteria for the term "institutionalization" were derived from McSween and Matthews (2001), and Grindle, Dickinson, and Boettcher (2000). Four…

  8. Suicide Experiences among Institutionalized Older Veterans in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Yan-Chiou; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Lin, Yan-Chiou; Lin, Yea-Pyng

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Institutionalized veterans in Taiwan are a high-risk group for completing suicide due to their institutionalization and social minority status. The purpose of this study was to understand the suicide experiences, especially the triggers of suicide in this group. Design and Methods Data: about suicide experiences were collected from 19…

  9. Factors Influencing the Institutionalization of Distance Education in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Anthony A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine actions that colleges and universities can take to institutionalize their distance education programs. Thirty factors found to influence the institutionalization of innovations were identified from the literature. These were rated by distance education faculty and leaders as to their importance for…

  10. Relationship between Health and Social Participation among the Institutionalized Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Dorothy E.

    Although researchers have found a correlation between health and social participation, more data are needed to determine the influence of health on the institutionalized elderly's participation. A study was conducted to explore the relationship between the perceived health status of the institutionalized elderly and their social participation. The…

  11. 7 CFR 15b.39 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 15b.39 Section... § 15b.39 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates...)(2), in its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in §...

  12. 43 CFR 17.252 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 17... § 17.252 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises a program or... activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in the regulation set forth by the Department...

  13. 43 CFR 17.252 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Education of institutionalized persons. 17... § 17.252 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises a program or... activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in the regulation set forth by the Department...

  14. 45 CFR 84.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 84.54..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this... its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 84.33(b). Nothing...

  15. 45 CFR 84.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 84.54..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this... its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 84.33(b). Nothing...

  16. 7 CFR 15b.39 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 15b.39 Section... § 15b.39 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates...)(2), in its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in §...

  17. 7 CFR 15b.39 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 15b.39 Section... § 15b.39 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates...)(2), in its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in §...

  18. 45 CFR 605.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 605.54... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient... appropriate education, as defined in § 605.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering...

  19. 43 CFR 17.252 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 17... § 17.252 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises a program or... activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in the regulation set forth by the Department...

  20. 7 CFR 15b.39 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 15b.39 Section... § 15b.39 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates...)(2), in its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in §...

  1. 45 CFR 605.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 605.54... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient... appropriate education, as defined in § 605.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering...

  2. 45 CFR 605.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 605.54... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient... appropriate education, as defined in § 605.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering...

  3. 7 CFR 15b.39 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 15b.39 Section... § 15b.39 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates...)(2), in its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in §...

  4. 43 CFR 17.252 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 17... § 17.252 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises a program or... activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in the regulation set forth by the Department...

  5. 45 CFR 605.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 605.54... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient... appropriate education, as defined in § 605.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering...

  6. 45 CFR 84.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 84.54..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this... its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 84.33(b). Nothing...

  7. 45 CFR 84.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 84.54..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this... its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 84.33(b). Nothing...

  8. 45 CFR 605.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 605.54... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient... appropriate education, as defined in § 605.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering...

  9. 43 CFR 17.252 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 17... § 17.252 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises a program or... activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in the regulation set forth by the Department...

  10. 45 CFR 84.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 84.54..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this... its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 84.33(b). Nothing...

  11. Institutionalization of Gerontological Curricular Change in Schools of Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernet, Stephen P.; Singleton, Judy L.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses factors associated with sustainability and institutionalization of change in the 67 Geriatric Enrichment in Social Work Education (GeroRich) projects, and the ways innovations introduced became institutionalized at the respective colleges and universities. An unobtrusive qualitative-descriptive research design was used to…

  12. Modification of Biases Held by Teacher Trainees Toward the Disturbingness of Child Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, David E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The effect of an intensive camp counseling experience with institutionalized, emotionally disturbed adolescents on the perceptions of the camp counselors regarding the disturbingness of certain child behaviors was investigated. (MM)

  13. On the Production of China Universities' Non-Institutionalized Power Structure and the Dialectical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuting

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing reasons for and problems in China universities' non-institutionalized power structure, this paper tries to prove the limits of non-institutionalized power structure making up for institutionalized power structure in universities, with the hope of revealing the deep reasons for the institutionalized structure imbalance in universities.

  14. Forced Conscription of Children during Armed Conflict: Experiences of Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; Derluyn, Ilse; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child soldiering can be considered as one of the worst practices of institutionalized child abuse. However, little is known about the scope and nature of this abuse and the consequent experiences of children enrolled in an armed faction. This research aims at enriching the knowledge on the experiences of child soldiers in the Lord's…

  15. Locus of Control, Perceived Constraint, and Morale among Institutionalized Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Gayle; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Contrary to an earlier report, this study showed that life satisfaction of 56 institutionalized elderly women was associated with internality. Satisfaction was inversely related to their perception of institutional constraints, its most powerful determinant. (Author)

  16. Self-perceived health in institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Jerez-Roig, Javier; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra; Andrade, Fabienne Louise Juvêncio Paes de; Lima, Bartolomeu Fagundes de; Medeiros, Rafaela Jordânia de; Oliveira, Nayara Priscila Dantas de; Cabral, Sadote Macêdo; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to verify health self-perception, its prevalence and associated factors in institutionalized elderly. A cross-sectional study is presented herein, conducted in 10 Long-Term care Institutions for the Elderly (LTIE) in the city of Natal (Northeast Brazil), between October and December 2013. Sociodemographic variables were analyzed, along with institution-related and health state variables. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were carried out (Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test or linear trend Chi-squared test), as well as multivariate analysis (logistic regression). The final sample consisted of 127 elderly. The prevalence of negative self-perceived health was 63.19% (CI 95%: 55.07-70.63), and was associated with weight loss (PR: 1.54; CI 95%: 1.19-1.99), rheumatic disease (PR: 1.46; CI 95%: 1.05-2.01) and not-for-profit LTIE (PR: 1.37; CI 95%: 1.03-1.83), adjusted by sex. More than half of the elderly reported negative self-perceived health, which was associated with weight loss, rheumatic disease and type of institution. Actions must be developed to promote better health conditions in LTIE, such as nutrition consulting and physical therapy, to improve quality of life.

  17. Potential Selective Responding in a Parent Questionnaire Study of Post-Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Brandi N.; Wright, Amanda; Julian, Megan M.; Rosas, Johana M.; Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Selective responding bias, though under-researched, is of particular concern in the study of post-institutionalized children because many studies rely on mailed questionnaires and response rates are often low. The current study addresses the impact of selective responding in a single wave of data collection and in a multi-wave study. Participants were 121 parents from a larger four-wave study of post-institutionalized children, identified as Never Responders, Previous Responders (but not to the current wave), or Wave 4 Responders. Parents were telephoned and asked about their adopted child's family, school, peer, and behavioral adjustment. The children (47% male) ranged in age from 2 to 20 years (M = 10.79, SD = 4.59) and had been adopted between 5 and 54 months of age (M = 15.49, SD = 9.94). There were no differences in parent ratings of adjustment for a single wave of data collection; however, participants who never responded reported poorer family and peer adjustment than those who had responded to at least one wave of data collection. Within a single wave of data collection, there was no evidence that selective responding contributes much bias. Over a multi-wave study, however, results may under-represent adjustment difficulties, especially with family and friends. PMID:23710124

  18. Indiscriminate Behaviors in Previously Institutionalized Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy S.; Smyke, Anna T.; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study included 54-month-old children with a history of institutional care. Our goal was to: (1) examine differences in indiscriminate social behaviors in children with a history of institutional care compared with home-reared children; (2) test whether foster care reduces indiscriminate social behaviors in a randomized controlled trial; and (3) examine early predictors of indiscriminate behaviors. METHODS: Participants were 58 children with a history of institutional care and 31 never-institutionalized control (NIG) subjects enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutional care, assessed from toddlerhood to 54 months. Indiscriminate social behaviors were measured naturalistically by using the Stranger at the Door procedure. RESULTS: In the Stranger at the Door procedure, children with a history of institutional care left with a stranger at higher rates than NIG subjects (33% vs 3.5%; P < .001). Children in the care as usual group left more than NIG subjects (41.9% vs 3.6%; P ≤ .001). The differences between the foster care group (24.1%) and the care as usual group and between foster care group and NIG were not significant. In a logistic regression, early disorganized attachment behaviors, baseline developmental quotient, and caregiving quality after randomization contributed to variance at 54 months. In the same analysis using only children with a history of institutional care, only disorganized attachment contributed significantly to 54-month indiscriminate social behaviors (Exp[B] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.1–2.5]). CONCLUSIONS: Observed socially indiscriminate behaviors at 54 months were associated with prolonged exposure to institutional care. Young children raised in conditions of deprivation who fail to develop organized attachments as toddlers are at increased risk for subsequent indiscriminate behaviors. PMID:24488743

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors in Institutionalized Elderly.

    PubMed

    Jerez-Roig, Javier; de Oliveira, Nayara Priscila Dantas; de Lima Filho, Bartolomeu Fagundes; de Farias Bezerra, Maria Amanda; Matias, Monayane Grazielly Leite; Ferreira, Lidiane Macedo; Dos Santos Amaral, Fabienne Louise Juvêncio; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Study Context: Depression is a common psychiatric disorder in the elderly that leads to a decrease in quality of life and functional impairment, among other health problems. The study of depressive symptoms in institutionalized elderly is scarce in Latin America and can contribute to plan prevention and treatment actions in order to improve health conditions for the residents as well as quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and identify its associated factors in institutionalized elderly.

  20. Predicting Institutionalization after Traumatic Brain Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Seel, Ronald T.; Goldstein, Richard; Brown, Allen W.; Watanabe, Thomas K.; Zasler, Nathan D.; Roth, Elliot J.; Zafonte, Ross D.; Glenn, Mel B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Risk factors contributing to institutionalization after inpatient rehabilitation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been well studied and need to be better understood to guide clinicians during rehabilitation. We aimed to develop a prognostic model that could be used at admission to inpatient rehabilitation facilities to predict discharge disposition. The model could be used to provide the interdisciplinary team with information regarding aspects of patients' functioning and/or their living situation that need particular attention during inpatient rehabilitation if institutionalization is to be avoided. The study population included 7219 patients with moderate-severe TBI in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database enrolled from 2002–2012 who had not been institutionalized prior to injury. Based on institutionalization predictors in other populations, we hypothesized that among people who had lived at a private residence prior to injury, greater dependence in locomotion, bed-chair-wheelchair transfers, bladder and bowel continence, feeding, and comprehension at admission to inpatient rehabilitation programs would predict institutionalization at discharge. Logistic regression was used, with adjustment for demographic factors, proxy measures for TBI severity, and acute-care length-of-stay. C-statistic and predictiveness curves validated a five-variable model. Higher levels of independence in bladder management (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.88; 95% CI 0.83, 0.93), bed-chair-wheelchair transfers (OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.83–0.93]), and comprehension (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.68, 0.89]) at admission were associated with lower risks of institutionalization on discharge. For every 10-year increment in age was associated with a 1.38 times higher risk for institutionalization (95% CI, 1.29, 1.48) and living alone was associated with a 2.34 times higher risk (95% CI, 1.86, 2.94). The c-statistic was 0.780. We conclude that this

  1. A Case Study of the Institutionalization of Service-Learning at a Baptist College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jody Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study, utilizing the case study method, sought to address the issues associated with the lack of institutionalization of service-learning practices on college campus by describing the institutionalization of service-learning practices at a Baptist-affiliated college. The study describes the development and institutionalization of…

  2. Institutionalizing Sustainability in Community Colleges: The Role of the College President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Peter G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to describe and improve understanding of the meaning of institutionalized sustainability and the role that a college president plays in institutionalizing sustainability on a community college campus. The following questions guided the research: (a) What does it mean to have sustainability "institutionalized"…

  3. The Effects of Duration of Caregiving on Institutionalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Kane, Robert L.; Kane, Rosalie A.; Clay, Ted; Newcomer, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Our objective in this analysis was to determine how the duration of caregiving interacts with key care demands (i.e., severity of problem behaviors) to influence the institutionalization of individuals suffering from dementia. Methods: We utilized multiregional data from 4,761 caregivers of individuals with dementia over a 3-year period.…

  4. Mechanisms for Institutionalizing Service-Learning and Community Partner Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stater, Keely Jones; Fotheringham, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Using data on service-learning partnerships from 255 universities receiving Learn and Serve America Grants in 2005, we ask (1) how different strategies used to institutionalize service-learning shape the perceived impact of the partnership on community groups, (2) how the level of service-learning program formality affects the perceived impact of…

  5. Institutionalizing in Loco Parentis after Gott v. Berea College (1913)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loss, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: The institutionalization of in loco parentis in the wake of Gott v. Berea College (1913) marked a major turning point in the evolution of student management theory and practice. Focusing on the crucial decade of the 1920s, when American higher education first became a mass enterprise, this study explores the interaction of…

  6. Institutionalization of Information Security: Case of the Indonesian Banking Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, Muhamad Faisal Fariduddin Attar

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the institutionalization of information security in the banking sector. This study is important to pursue since it explicates the internalization of information security governance and practices and how such internalization develops an organizational resistance towards security breach. The study argues that information…

  7. Supplementary Auditory and Vestibular Stimulation: Effects on Institutionalized Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Lawrence

    1975-01-01

    Supplementary stimulation was supplied for 30 minutes per day for approximately six weeks to 156 normal, full-term institutionalized infants prior to adoption. The Gesell Developmental Schedules were administered regularly (until age 27 months), to determine whether development had been enhanced by the treatment. (JMB)

  8. 42 CFR 441.13 - Prohibitions on FFP: Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibitions on FFP: Institutionalized individuals. 441.13 Section 441.13 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... institution for mental diseases, except an individual who is under age 22 and receiving inpatient...

  9. Institutionalization of Technology Transfer Organizations in Chinese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Han; Pinheiro, Rómulo

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of in-depth studies on how technology transfer organizations (TTOs) are organized and developed. This paper examines the evolution/institutionalization of TTOs in Tsinghua University (TU), as a microcosm of the development of TTOs in Chinese universities. It explores two issues in particular: what kinds of TTOs have been developed…

  10. Filipino Arts among Elders in Institutionalized Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Satuito, James Cyril B.; Satumba, Miko Anne E.; Segui, Diego Rey A.; Serquina, Faith Evelyn C.; Serrano, Lawrence Jan P.; Sevilla, Madelyn D.

    2011-01-01

    The use of traditional art in recreational therapies is unexplored. This paper, thus, attempts to surface the unique power of traditional Filipino arts (TFA) as synergizing lens in capturing the individual and the collective experiences of a select group of Filipino elderly in an institutionalized care setting relative to their feelings of…

  11. Social Communication Difficulties and Autism in Previously Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Levin, April R.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk of difficulties with social communication and restricted/repetitive behaviors as well as the rate of autism in children institutionalized in early infancy and to assess the impact of a foster care intervention on ameliorating this risk. Method Children abandoned at birth and raised in institutions in Bucharest, Romania were randomly assigned to a care-as-usual group (institutional care, CAUG), or placed in family-centered foster care (FCG) as part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). At approximately 10 years of age, the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) was administered to caregivers of children in both groups, as well as to parents of a typically developing community sample (Never Institutionalized group, NIG) residing in Bucharest, Romania. Children scoring ≥ 12 on the SCQ underwent clinical evaluation for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results Caregivers of children with a history of institutionalization reported that these children had significantly more deviant behavior than never institutionalized children on all subdomains of the SCQ (all p<0.001). Children in the FCG had significantly lower scores on the SCQ than children in the CAUG (p<.001), particularly in the reciprocal social interaction domain, indicating that the intervention reduced problems in social communication. Three of 60 CAUG children, 2 of 57 FCG children, and none of the NIG children received a formal ASD diagnosis. Conclusion Early institutional rearing was associated with an increased risk of social communication difficulties and ASD. A family-centered foster care intervention improved social communication skills. PMID:25617251

  12. Attachment in Institutionalized and Community Children in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Smyke, Anna T.; Koga, Sebastian F.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This study examined attachment in institutionalized and community children 12-31 months of age in Bucharest, Romania. Attachment was assessed using ratings of attachment behaviors and ratings of caregiver descriptions in a structured interview. As predicted, children raised in institutions exhibited serious disturbances of attachment as assessed…

  13. Under Constriction: Colonization and Synthetic Institutionalization of Web Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Draws on a study of 106 personal homepages in order to present a theoretical model of how citizens' potentials as Web publishers are being compromised by the leadership of institutional discourses. Proposes an analogous process of synthetic institutionalization, in which personal homepage publishers affect institutional poses by adapting Norman…

  14. Long-Term Adaptation to Institutionalization in Dementia Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Pot, Anne Margriet; Zarit, Steven H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Longitudinal research in dementia has acknowledged the importance of transitions during the course of family caregiving. However, long-term adaptation to institutionalization has received little attention. This study attempts to describe caregivers' adaptation (changes in stress, well-being, and psychosocial resources) to placement up to…

  15. 38 CFR 18.454 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Education of... Social Services § 18.454 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises... is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 18.433(b). Nothing in this section shall...

  16. 38 CFR 18.454 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Education of... Social Services § 18.454 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises... is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 18.433(b). Nothing in this section shall...

  17. 38 CFR 18.454 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Education of... Social Services § 18.454 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises... is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 18.433(b). Nothing in this section shall...

  18. 34 CFR 104.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 104.54 Section 104.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  19. 34 CFR 104.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 104.54 Section 104.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  20. 34 CFR 104.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 104.54 Section 104.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  1. 34 CFR 104.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 104.54 Section 104.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  2. 38 CFR 18.454 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Education of... Social Services § 18.454 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises... is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 18.433(b). Nothing in this section shall...

  3. 38 CFR 18.454 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Education of... Social Services § 18.454 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises... is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 18.433(b). Nothing in this section shall...

  4. 34 CFR 104.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 104.54 Section 104.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  5. IV. Growth Failure in Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Dana E.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    Children within institutional care settings experience significant global growth suppression, which is more profound in children with a higher baseline risk of growth impairment (e.g., low birth weight [LBW] infants and children exposed to alcohol in utero). Nutritional insufficiencies as well as suppression of the growth hormone–insulin-like growth factor axis (GH-IGF-1) caused by social deprivation likely both contribute to the etiology of psychosocial growth failure within these settings. Their relative importance and the consequent clinical presentations probably relate to the age of the child. While catch-up growth in height and weight are rapid when children are placed in a more nurturing environment, many factors, particularly early progression through puberty, compromise final height. Potential for growth recovery is greatest in younger children and within more nurturing environments where catch-up in height and weight is positively correlated with caregiver sensitivity and positive regard. Growth recovery has wider implications for child well-being than size alone, because catch-up in height is a positive predictor of cognitive recovery as well. Even with growth recovery, persistent abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system or the exacerbation of micronutrient deficiencies associated with robust catch-up growth during critical periods of development could potentially influence or be responsible for the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional sequelae of early childhood deprivation. Findings in growth-restricted infants and those children with psychosocial growth are similar, suggesting that children experiencing growth restriction within institutional settings may also share the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome in adulthood (obesity, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease). Psychosocial deprivation within any care-giving environment during early life must be viewed with as much concern as any severely debilitating

  6. Political Party System Institutionalization and Democracy: The Case of Panama

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    factor in democratic erosion and corrosive to democratic processes,6 and Guillermo O’Donnell argues that lack of political party institutionalization...Sovereignty: Collectively Defending Democracy in the Americas (John Hopkins University Press, 1996), p. 63. 7 Guillermo O’Donnell, "Delegative...Study of the Transition to Democracy," in Guillermo O’Donnell, et al, eds., Transitions from Authoritarian Rule; Comparative Perspectives (John

  7. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Slunge, Daniel; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen

    2014-09-15

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries.

  8. Theorizing Teacher Agency and Reform: How Institutionalized Instructional Practices Change and Persist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridwell-Mitchell, E. N.

    2015-01-01

    One reason reform does not dramatically change public schools is because instructional practices are highly institutionalized. This article advances a theory for how teacher agency can both change and maintain institutionalized instructional practices in schools. Based on findings from one U.S. urban public school undergoing state-mandated reform,…

  9. Will It Last? Evidence of Institutionalization at Carnegie Classified Community Engagement Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    The traditional question inferred by attention to institutionalization is, "Will it last?" or "Will it die out when there is a new leader or when the grant ends?" In the case of community engagement, attention to institutionalization reveals a more complex portrait of organizational change that includes a critical reflection on not only the…

  10. The Institutionalization of Sociology in France: Its Social and Political Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund, III

    1984-01-01

    Through an examination of the development of the discipline of sociology in France in the period 1880-1925, this article sheds light on some of the more general processes at work in the institutionalization of the social sciences and on the social and political consequences of that institutionalization. (RM)

  11. The Effects of Involuntary Residential Relocation on Institutionalized Populations: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar

    This paper reviews the research of the effects of involuntary residential relocation on the personal adjustment of institutionalized individuals, i.e., the institutionalized elderly, mentally ill, and mentally retarded. Discrepant findings in studies of involuntary relocation are discussed in terms of the transferees' personal characteristics, the…

  12. [Prevalence of malnutrition in institutionalized intellectually disabled patients].

    PubMed

    Bronberg, Ruben A; Alfaro, Emma L; Bejarano, Ignacio F; Dipierri, Jose E

    2011-01-01

    As patients with intellectual and developmental disability (ID) may be more exposed to unfavorable factors, they are at higher risk of suffering nutritional alterations. Our objective was to determine prevalence of malnutrition in institutionalized patients with ID. An evaluation of the nutritional status through determination of transversal anthropometric parameters of weight (kg) and height (cm) was made on 614 individuals (352 men and 262 women) institutionalized at Colonia Nacional Montes de Oca, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Body mass index and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity cases by sex and ID type: mild, moderate and severe intellectual disability were determined. Regardless of sex, prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity were of 2.9%, 30% and 27.7%, respectively. Regardless of degree of ID, greater prevalence of obesity (41.2%) was found amongst women, while overweight (34.7%) was more frequent amongst men. Taking the degree of ID and regardless of sex, greater prevalence of underweight was observed in severe ID, and overweight and obesity amongst mild ID. No any of the patients with mild ID presented underweight. Taking into account sex and ID, higher prevalence of underweight and overweight were observed amongst men with mild ID, (7% and 38.4%, respectively) and of obesity in women with moderate ID (44%). Results obtained would indicate the importance of caloric intake and energy consumption control in adults with ID, paying particular attention to life conditions and alimentary disorders in terms of the degree of ID and their multiple associated disabilities.

  13. Institutionalize Reciprocity to Overcome the Public Goods Provision Problem

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is fundamental to human societies, and one of the important paths for its emergence and maintenance is reciprocity. In prisoner’s dilemma (PD) experiments, reciprocal strategies are often effective at attaining and maintaining high cooperation. In many public goods (PG) games or n-person PD experiments, however, reciprocal strategies are not successful at engendering cooperation. In the present paper, we attribute this difficulty to a coordination problem against free riding among reciprocators: Because it is difficult for the reciprocators to coordinate their behaviors against free riders, this may lead to inequality among players, which will demotivate them from cooperating in future rounds. We propose a new mechanism, institutionalized reciprocity (IR), which refers to embedding the reciprocal strategy as an institution (i.e., institutionalizing the reciprocal strategy). We experimentally demonstrate that IR can prevent groups of reciprocators from falling into coordination failure and achieve high cooperation in PG games. In conclusion, we argue that a natural extension of the present study will be to investigate the possibility of IR to serve as a collective punishment system. PMID:27248493

  14. [Understanding homicides in Latin America: poverty or institutionalization?].

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Homicides occur the world over, but they are not homogeneously distributed by geographical areas (continents, countries, regions), either over long or short periods of time, or in social groups, namely age, gender, social class or ethnicity. Why are there more homicides in some countries than in others? Why do killings increase in some countries, while they decrease in others? There are two fundamental schools of thought for social explanations of crime and violence: those attributing its origins to poverty and inequality and those blaming institutionalization or social norms. To discuss these theories, this paper analyzes and compares the changes in Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil in the first decade of the twenty-first century, where the homicide rate has decreased, increased and remained the same, respectively. Using the measurement of six variables (poverty, inequality, unemployment, national wealth, human development and the rule of law) and the technique of trajectory analysis, the results revealed that institutionalization is more to blame for the change than poverty and inequality. The text concludes that poverty and inequality affect crime and homicides, although not directly, but mediated by the institutions instead.

  15. Factors Associated with Anemia in the Institutionalized Elderly

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Emanuelle Cruz; Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; Eickemberg, Michaela; Mello, Adriana Lima; Côrtes, Elvira Barbosa Quadros; Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Medeiros, Jairza Maria Barreto; Ramos, Lílian Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    As a common problem in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), anemia affects 25–63% of the elderly. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of anemia and its associated factors in the institutionalized elderly. The cross-sectional study was carried out with three hundred thirteen individuals aged ≥ 60 years, of both genders, living in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Poisson regression (PR) with robust variance estimates was used to assess the factors related to anemia. The prevalence of anemia was 38%. Mild anemia was predominant in both genders (male: 26.8%; female: 21.1%), as normocytic and normochromic anemia, with no anisocytosis (69.75%). Anemia was associated with thinness (PR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04–2.72) and with moderate (PR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.07–3.63) and total (PR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.34–5.07) dependence in the final model. Severe dependence exhibited borderline significance (PR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.00–3.77). The prevalence of anemia was high in the institutionalized elderly in both genders, with characteristics suggesting chronic diseases as the causal factor, and the frequency of occurrence was higher in thinness elderly with moderate to total dependence. PMID:27607057

  16. Factors Associated with Anemia in the Institutionalized Elderly.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emanuelle Cruz da; Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; Eickemberg, Michaela; Mello, Adriana Lima; Côrtes, Elvira Barbosa Quadros; Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Medeiros, Jairza Maria Barreto; Ramos, Lílian Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    As a common problem in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), anemia affects 25-63% of the elderly. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of anemia and its associated factors in the institutionalized elderly. The cross-sectional study was carried out with three hundred thirteen individuals aged ≥ 60 years, of both genders, living in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Poisson regression (PR) with robust variance estimates was used to assess the factors related to anemia. The prevalence of anemia was 38%. Mild anemia was predominant in both genders (male: 26.8%; female: 21.1%), as normocytic and normochromic anemia, with no anisocytosis (69.75%). Anemia was associated with thinness (PR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04-2.72) and with moderate (PR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.07-3.63) and total (PR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.34-5.07) dependence in the final model. Severe dependence exhibited borderline significance (PR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.00-3.77). The prevalence of anemia was high in the institutionalized elderly in both genders, with characteristics suggesting chronic diseases as the causal factor, and the frequency of occurrence was higher in thinness elderly with moderate to total dependence.

  17. [A survey on urinary incontinence in the institutionalized elderly].

    PubMed

    Homma, Y; Takai, K; Takahashi, S; Higashihara, E; Aso, Y; Urushibara, A

    1992-08-01

    A survey on urinary incontinence in 161 (41 male, 120 female) institutionalized elderly was independently performed by urologists and attending nurses. Urinary incontinence was found in 107 cases (66%), with 76 cases (47%) suffering from severe leakage (more than 5 times a day and needs diaper). The prevalences of incontinence and severe leakage were 63% and 52% at geriatric hospitals, 59% and 29% at intermediate care centers and 78% and 63% at nursing homes, respectively. The risk factors for incontinence were consciousness disturbance, urinary urgency, impaired mobility and dementia, and those for severe leakage were apathy, loss of urinary sensation, dementia and impaired mobility. The type of incontinence was considered functional one in 81% of cases. The agreement of the incontinence type evaluated by urologists and that by nurses was found in 90% of incontinent cases. Incontinence was estimated "incurable" in 54% of cases by attending nurses. These observations indicate a high prevalence of severe and "incurable" incontinence in the institutionalized elderly, urgently warranting an effective remedy for the increasing aged society.

  18. The Effects of Early Experience on Face Recognition: An Event-Related Potential Study of Institutionalized Children in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Westerlund, Alissa; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Data are reported from 3 groups of children residing in Bucharest, Romania. Face recognition in currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized, and never-institutionalized children was assessed at 3 time points: preintervention (n = 121), 30 months of age (n = 99), and 42 months of age (n = 77). Children watched photographs of caregiver…

  19. Institutionalized nursing staff: planning and developing a specialized educational framework that enhances psychiatric nurses' roles and promotes de-institutionalization.

    PubMed

    Loukidou, E; Ioannidi, V; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, A

    2010-11-01

    For centuries psychiatric services were provided by mental health hospitals, which were operating upon bureaucratic principles: strict hierarchies, slow processes and segmentation of duties. Research has shown that psychiatric nursing, as exercised in these traditional settings, has dealt with several problems in relation to: the amount and quality of time spent with patients, the type of duties performed, the lack of autonomy etc. The closure of many psychiatric institutions and their substitution with community-based settings, signified that health professionals should perform a variety of new duties, exhibit new skills and develop new perceptions about their work and the patients. In order for such alterations to occur, education can play a vital role in the re-conceptualization of psychiatric nursing and in the practical preparation of students for their future work. The present paper focuses on the contradiction between nursing as practised in Greek mental health hospitals and the current trends and demands placed upon nurses, to exhibit a new 'face'. The purposes of this paper are: first, to review the research on psychiatric nurses' behaviours in mental health hospitals. Second, to present the outcomes of bureaucracy on employees and finally, to propose an educational scheme that could reinforce the shift from institutionalized work to de-institutionalized.

  20. Potential Consequences of Abandonment in Preschool-Age: Neuropsychological Findings in Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Juan F.; Manes, Facundo; Escobar, Josefina; López, Jéssica; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Several longitudinal studies had shown that early deprivation and institutionalization during the first six months of life affects the emotional, cognitive, social and neurophysiologic development. Nevertheless, our understanding of possible similar effects of delayed institutionalization, in preschool-age remains unclear to this day. The goal of this study is to evaluate the cognitive performance of institutionalized children with history of preschool-age physical abandonment. Method: 18 male institutionalized children with history of abandonment during the preschool-age (2–5 years old) and comparison group matched by age, handedness, gender, educational and socioeconomic level were tested on multiple tasks of attention, memory and executive functions. Results: We found a cognitive impairment in the institutionalized children in several measures of attention, memory and executive functions. This is the first report of cognitive impairment related to late abandonment and institutionalization effects (after 2 years old), extending the already known effects on early institutionalization. Conclusions: This preliminary study suggests that environmental factors including abandonment and institutional care, can affect not only the infancy period, but also the preschool period providing new insights into our understanding of neurocognitive development. PMID:22713373

  1. [The history of the institutionalization of medical psychology in Austria].

    PubMed

    Hirnsperger, Hans; Mundschütz, Reinhard; Sonneck, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with Freudian psychoanalysis and the Zürich school of psychiatry, which in the early 20th century were the first to call for studies in medical psychology at universities, the article traces the path to the institutionalization of medical psychology in Austria especially in Vienna. Particular attention is devoted to the Academic Society for Medical Psychology (Akademischer Verein für Medizinische Psychologie) which held lectures and courses at the University of Vienna from 1926 to 1938. The Society can thus be viewed as a predecessor of the foundation of the institutes for medical psychology and psychotherapeutic clinics, starting in the late 1960s and continuing into the early 1980s.

  2. Brazilian sanitary reform: dilemmas between the instituing and the institutionalized.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the trajectory of social policies in Brazil and identifies, at each stage, the existing social protection model. It affirms that the Federal Constitution of 1988, when it introduced the concept of Social Security and created the National Health Care System, represented a rupture with what came before. The subordination of the principles of justice and social inclusion, which guided the design of this new social protection model, to a liberal and monetarist policy had important impacts in the phase of implementation of the social policies. However, the dilemma that such policies go through and, in particular, the construction of the National Health Care System must be analyzed from a theoretical perspective that encompasses the agreements and disagreements between the three movements that characterize Brazilian Sanitary Reform, which are: subjectivation, constitutionalization and institutionalization.

  3. Institutionalizing social support through the church and into the community.

    PubMed

    Eng, E; Hatch, J; Callan, A

    1985-01-01

    The positive influence of social support on such health related outcomes as patient adherence to medical regimens and stress reduction at the worksite has captured the attention of public health researchers and practitioners alike. Yet, the broader social outcome of building community competency to undertake and sustain health related solutions without constant intervention from professionals still remains elusive. The difficulty may lie with the need to uncover on each occasion the various roles and functions of social support structures that may or may not exist in a given community. The intent would then be to graft an intervention onto these existing roles and functions in order to mirror the naturally occurring social support structures. A conceptual framework that has been used to institutionalize health related activities through the role and function of the black Church, as a social unit of identity and solution for rural black communities in North Carolina, is put forth for consideration.

  4. [The institutionalization of the elders in Argentina. Imaginary and realities].

    PubMed

    Fassio, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    The institutionalization is an alternative to the social and health policy to gather for vulnerable frail elderly needs. Despite the low numbers of old people in nursing homes, long term care is associated by the public and, in particular, by old people as a common solution to the latter's special needs of care. This article examines the proposals of international organisations regarding old people's care. Then, from the analysis of the Survey Health, Wellbeing and Ageing in Latin America and Caribbean (SABE), carried out in Buenos Aires in 2001 the views of elderly about nursing homes are examined. Finally, using data gathered by the National Census of Population and Housing (2001), we compare and contrast some key socio-demographic characteristics and living conditions of old people who live in households, those who live in the streets, and those who live in nursing homes.

  5. [Evaluation of growth and development of institutionalized children].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Caroline Magna Pessoa; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Mendonça, Larissa Bento de Araújo; Custódio, Ires Lopes; Matias, Erica Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the growth and development of institutionalized children from 0-6 years old. It had a descriptive, transversal and quantitative approach, and was held in a shelter from the Bureau of Labor and Social Development of the Government of the State of Ceará, in the months of March and April 2011. The sample comprised 44 children. It the sample prevailed male children (59.1%), aged 24 to 72 months (56.8%) and with time of sheltering more than one year (72.7%). It was found that the children were in the normal range of nutrition; however, 65.9% of children did not achieve at least one of the development milestones proposed by the Ministry of Health. The study suggests a reflection on how children living in shelters are being assisted by the health team, making it necessary follow up their growth and development, in order to intervene on the alterations.

  6. Institutionalization of Migration Policy Frameworks in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Makaryan, Shushanik; Chobanyan, Haykanush

    2015-01-01

    This article is a comparative study of the institutionalization of the migration policy frameworks of post-Soviet states Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. All three countries share common historical legacies: a Soviet past, wars and conflicts, unemployment, high emigration, and commitment to integration into European bodies. To what extent do the migration policies of these three countries (driven by contextual forces, i.e. domestic challenges) address country-specific migration dynamics? Or are they imposed by the European Union? In which dimensions have the national policies on migration of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia evolved, and around which issues have they converged or diverged? Have these trends led to an integration of migration policymaking at the regional level in the South Caucasus? PMID:26435548

  7. [Prevalence and features of falls of institutionalized elders].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Denise Cristina de Oliveira; Yoshitome, Aparecida Yoshie

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study seeks to check the prevalence of falls in older people from a long-term care institution for elderly people, in São Paulo, to describe the fallers and the events. We analyzed 121 medical records and 87 fall reports, between August 2006 and August 2007. There were 114 falls suffered by 45 ancians, a prevalence of 37,2%. The majority of fallers are women, average age 83,75 years. We found recurrent falls, various diagnoses and polipharmacy. The majority occurred in own height, in their bedroom, producing mainly hematomas. There is a need of implementation of fall preventive guidelines, due to the importance of this issue and its repercussions to the functional status of the institutionalized elderly.

  8. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  9. The unwanted child.

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1982-12-01

    The problem of the unwanted child is a most grievous aspect of the complex of negative factors associated with underdevelopment. Although the problem of the unwanted child exists in industrialized countries as well, the incidence is much higher in the 3rd world. In industrialized nations modern contraceptives are widely available, public awareness of them is high, and legal abortion may be an option in the event of contraceptive failure or nonuse. In Colombia alone, nearly 1 million women are living in immediate danger of an unwanted pregnancy. In the 3rd world as a whole there are an estimated 150 million who do not want another pregnancy but who lack access to contraceptive information and services. Research from a variety of sources suggests that being unwanted and unloved can have a lasting effect on a child's development. Sociological research confirms the need to preserve the bond between mother and child. Studies of adopted children have established a clear relationship between their physical and psychological development and the age at which they were adopted. If this affective bond is not established in the early months of life, the negative effects which result may prove difficult to overcome. Yet, however late it comes, adoption is always preferable to the relative deprivation a child experiences when institutionalized. Studies conducted in Eastern Europe comparing children whose parents had requested an abortion but had not been granted permission with a control group of children revealed a pattern of inferior physical development and social adjustment in the 1st group. Intelligence, in addition to its important genetic foundation, requires physical nurturing and psychological stimulation from the surrounding environment, provided during the final months of pregnancy or the 1st few years of life. Religious doctrine postulates that universal maternal instinct allows the mother to overcome her problems, but this is often not the case. Infanticide dates

  10. Behavioral and Emotional Symptoms of Post-Institutionalized Children in Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Wiik, Kristen L.; Loman, Michelle M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Pollak, Seth D.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Experience in institutional/orphanage care has been linked to increased mental health problems. Research suggests children adopted from institutions experience specific difficulties related to inattention/overactivity. Evidence of internalizing and conduct problems relative to non-adopted peers has been found in early childhood and early adolescence, but problems may not differ from other adopted children. This study clarifies the understanding of behavioral and emotional symptoms of post-institutionalized (PI) children during middle childhood. Methods Eight to eleven-year-old PI children (n=68) and two comparison groups, children internationally adopted from foster care (n=74) and non-adopted children (n=76), and their parents completed the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire related to ADHD, externalizing, and internalizing symptoms. Group means for symptom level and number of children with symptoms above clinical cutoffs were compared. Results PI children displayed an increased level of ADHD symptoms per parent report. PI child and parent report indicated a higher number of PI children above clinical ADHD cutoff. Both groups of internationally adopted (IA) children had higher levels of externalizing symptoms relative to non-adopted children, with parent report indicating higher numbers of IA children above the externalizing clinical threshold. Informants differed in their report of internalizing symptoms. Parents indicated both IA groups displayed increased internalizing symptom levels and greater numbers above clinical threshold; however, children reported this to be true only for the PI group. Conclusions PI children differ from non-adopted peers across symptom domains in middle childhood. Whether these concerns were more broadly associated with international adoption rather than institutional care depended on symptom domain and informant. An understanding of this variability may be beneficial for treatment and intervention. PMID:20649913

  11. 42 CFR 50.206 - Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.206 Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual. Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall...

  12. 42 CFR 50.206 - Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.206 Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual. Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall...

  13. Caring for our own: the role of institutionalized support structures in Native American nursing student success.

    PubMed

    Cech, Erin A; Metz, Anneke M; Babcock, Tracy; Smith, Jessi L

    2011-09-01

    In this project, the authors asked 19 Native American baccalaureate nursing students to discuss their experiences with a formal institutionalized student support program called "Caring for Our Own: A Reservation/University Partnership Program." The authors investigated the importance of different types of support structures within this program, as viewed by Native American nursing students. They distinguished between four institutionalized support structures: tangible, informational, emotional, and belonging. The authors found that students consider tangible support (such as stipends) to be comparatively less important than other types of support, particularly emotional and belonging support. Responses also revealed the importance of a fifth type of institutionalized support-motivational. The authors further discuss how these institutionalized support structures might lead to successful outcomes for Native American nursing students.

  14. Institutionalizing Support for Undocumented Latino/a Students in American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely; Vigil, Darsella

    2015-01-01

    This chapter investigates the institutionalization of support for undocumented students across states that either extend or deny in-state resident tuition (ISRT) benefits. In their review, the authors highlight promising practices.

  15. Teaching Community Skills to Formerly Institutionalized Adults: Eating Nutritionally Balanced Diets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, Andrew L.

    1984-01-01

    Three formerly institutionalized adults increased their rate of appropriate food serving when cash reinforcement was made contingent on their meeting specified daily criteria. Instructions and self-monitoring and praise had little or no effect on the men's diets. (CL)

  16. Institutionalizing the option of dam removal: the New Hampshire initiative.

    PubMed

    Lindloff, S D

    2003-01-01

    For two years, the State of New Hampshire has worked to institutionalize the option of dam removal. The high gradient streams that flow through the granite hills and mountains of this small northeastern state provided ideal conditions for dam construction, particularly during America's Industrial Revolution of the 1800s when mills were constructed throughout the area. With more than 4,800 dams in the state's database, there are many opportunities for the removal of dams that no longer serve a useful purpose, have become a public safety hazard and impact the river environment. Efforts to facilitate removal of dams in New Hampshire include the formation of a River Restoration Task Force and the creation of a dam removal program within the state agency responsible for regulating dams. This has led to the removal of two dams in the past year, with approximately ten additional projects in various stages of planning. A history of this agency-led initiative, as well as a discussion of the program's strengths, challenges and goals for the future are presented.

  17. Inhibitory Control and Working Memory in Post-Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.; Wright, Amanda J.; Luna, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitory control and working memory were examined in post-institutionalized (PI) children adopted into United States families from Russian institutions. The PI sample originated from institutions that were less severely depriving than those represented in previous studies and approximated the level of psychosocial deprivation, which is characterized by adequate physical resources but a lack of consistent and responsive caregiving. PI children (N=75; 29 male) ranged in age from 8–17 years (M=12.97; SD=3.03) and were grouped according to whether they were adopted after 14 months or before 9 months. A non-adopted comparison group (N=133; 65 male) ranged in age from 8–17 years (M=12.26; SD=2.75). PI children adopted after 14 months of age displayed poorer performance on the stop-signal and spatial span tasks relative to PI children adopted before 9 months of age after controlling for age at assessment. The two PI groups did not differ in their performance on a spatial self-ordered search task. Older-adopted PI children also showed poorer spatial span task performance compared to non-adopted children, but younger-adopted PI children did not. Task performance was significantly associated with parent-rated hyperactive-impulsive behavior in everyday contexts. These findings suggest that exposure to prolonged early institutional deprivation may be linked with inhibitory control and working memory difficulties years after adoption. PMID:23519375

  18. Toxocariasis: seroprevalence in abandoned-institutionalized children and infants.

    PubMed

    Archelli, Susana; Santillan, Graciela I; Fonrouge, Reinaldo; Céspedes, Graciela; Burgos, Lola; Radman, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is an infection that has worldwide distribution. Toxocara canis is the most relevant agent due to its frequent occurrence in humans. Soil contamination with embryonated eggs is the primary source of T. canis. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in 10-month to 3 year-old abandoned infants, considered to be at high risk because of their orphanhood status and early age. Blood samples were collected from 120 children institutionalized in an orphanage in the city of La Plata. In this study, we observed 38.33% of seropositive cases for T. canis by ELISA and 45% by Western blot techniques; significant differences among groups A (<1 year), B (1-2 years) and C (>2 years) were also found. In research group A, children presented a seropositivity rate of 23.91%, in group B of 42.85% and in group C of 56%, which indicates an increase in frequency as age advances, probably because of greater chances of contact with infective forms of the parasite since canines and soil are frequently infected with T. canis eggs. Abandoned children come from poor households, under highly unsanitary conditions resulting from inadequate or lack of water supply and sewer networks, and frequent promiscuity with canines, which promotes the occurrence of parasitic diseases. These children are highly vulnerable due to their orphanhood status and age.

  19. Institutionalization: A Model of Retention Through Student Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. J.; Campbell, A.; Strand, D.

    2005-12-01

    Bowie State University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center have, for the past 10 years, worked diligently together to enhance the science, mathematics, engineering and technology (SMET) domain. Efforts made because of a Model Institutions for Excellence (MIE) Award have changed the landscape of the SMET domain by increasing the retention and graduation rates, the number of students entering graduate and professional schools, and the number of students entering SMET related careers. Several initiatives - a Scholarship program, PRISEM Tutoring Center, Safenet Program, Research Emphasis, Focused Mentoring, a Summer Academy for accepted and enrolled incoming students, a Bridge Program for students needing assistance being admitted to the University, the RISE Program and the Bowie State Satellite Operations and Control Center - provides the nurturing and mentoring focus, and opportunities that have resulted in a retention rate of approximately 80%, a 40% increase in the graduation rate, and an 85% increase in the number of students interested/entering graduate school. Successes that have documented by various assessment activities have led to the institutionalization of the retention model of the MIE Initiative. It is anticipated that University-wide application of the retention model will provide the incentives necessary to obtain similar results as has the MIE Initiative.

  20. INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED, A SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF STATE LAWS GOVERNING ADMISSION TO RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES, AND LEGAL RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS OF INSTITUTIONALIZED PATIENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEWMAN, ROGER W., ED.

    SUMMARIZING AND ANALYZING LAWS GOVERNING THE ADMISSION OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED TO RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES AND THE LEGAL RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS OF INSTITUTIONALIZED PATIENTS, THIS REPORT COVERS THE 50 STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA AT THE END OF 1966. AFTER A CONSIDERATION OF THE METHOD OF REPORTING, TERMINOLOGY, AND DEFINITIONS, 13 TABLES AND…

  1. Power Exercise in the Institutionalization of an eProcurement System in Indonesian Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahid, Fathul

    2017-03-01

    Power possessed by institutional entrepreneur is believed to have an influential role in navigating the institutionalization process of an idea. However, only few studies that have examined how the institutional entrepreneur exercise his power throughout the institutionalization process. This study aims at examining this phenomenon in the context of developing countries with special reference to the implementation of an eProcurement system in Indonesia. It finds that the power has been exercised by the institutional entrepreneur differently along the process. Smart power was exercised by combining soft power at the early stage of institutionalization process. At this stage level of reluctance among organizational members was high, no authorization from higher-level agencies, and the benefits of adopting the system were opaque. Hard power was then exercised at the later stage, when the legal support was well formulated, and the system’s benefits were confirmed. The study also reveals that value-based power that is used wisely make organization change runs smoothly until it becomes institutionalized. Keywords: Institutionalization, smart power, soft power, hard power, value-guided power, eGovernment, eProcurement, Indonesia, developing countries.

  2. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children™ study. Multimedia & Tools Videos, podcasts and widgets. Child Development: What's New Article: Differences in health care, family, ... and share it with the child’s doctor. More Child Development Basics Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting ...

  3. Deepening the Institutionalization of Service-Learning: The Added Value of Assessing the Social Return of Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Nichols, Kathleen; Hatcher, Julie; Cecil, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to institutionalize service-learning are well documented (Furco 1996; Holland, 2000). Using Kecskes (2009) Community-Engaged Department Rubric we evaluated service-learning institutionalization within a school at a metropolitan campus. As a result, we propose adding an additional dimension, social return on investment. This added…

  4. The Effects of Foster Care Intervention on Socially Deprived Institutionalized Children's Attention and Positive Affect: Results from the BEIP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghera, Melissa M.; Marshall, Peter J.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Smyke, Anna T.; Guthrie, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of a foster care intervention on attention and emotion expression in socially deprived children in Romanian institutions. Methods: Institutionalized children were randomized to enter foster care or to remain under institutional care. Subsequently, the institutionalized and foster care groups, along with a…

  5. U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare: Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment...U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority...Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority The character of

  6. An Examination of Factors that Affect the Institutionalization of Service-Learning at American Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Alisha

    2010-01-01

    Service-Learning as a scholarly, academic activity has been gaining momentum. However, colleges and universities often have difficulty institutionalizing service-learning as a course-based, credit-bearing, form of scholarship that is equal in merit to research or teaching. This study examines how the degree of institutionalization at Campus…

  7. 42 CFR 435.832 - Post-eligibility treatment of income of institutionalized individuals: Application of patient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... institutionalized individuals: Application of patient income to the cost of care. 435.832 Section 435.832 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN THE STATES, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS... institutionalized individuals: Application of patient income to the cost of care. (a) Basic rules. (1) The...

  8. Leadership Behavior and Job Performance of Teachers in Public and Private Kindergartens: The Perspectives of Institutionalization, Reason, and Feeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yigean; Cheng, Jaonan

    2012-01-01

    Chinese society is accustomed to using feelings, reasons, and institutionalizations to determine how to deal with events, which raises a number of questions. How can the directors of early education institutions incorporate feelings, reasons, and institutionalizations into their management? How can they enhance the job performance of teachers?…

  9. [Child and juvenile delinquency and legal system in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Folino, Jorge O; Domenech, Ernesto; Gutiérrez, María A; Lescano, María J

    2009-01-01

    Taking into account the social relevance of child and juvenile delinquency, the little availability of local scientific evidence concerning the subject and the moment of change in the system, this article is intended to describe the criminal system of responsibility in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Psychiatric and psychological aspects of youth involved in crimes and of those who are institutionalized in the Legal Department of La Plata shall be explored.

  10. Retrospective Study of Lithium Use for Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Individuals with Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langee, Harvey R.

    1990-01-01

    Severely and profoundly mentally retarded institutionalized residents (N=74) who received lithium carbonate for behavior disorders were followed in a 10-year retrospective study. Thirty-one subjects demonstrated a sustained major reduction or elimination of behavioral symptoms. Lithium responders were likely to be older and to present symptoms of…

  11. An innovative strategy for institutionalizing a community-based tobacco program.

    PubMed

    Freestone, J; Linzer, J; McKetney, C; Basnett, D; Prendergast, E

    2001-01-01

    When Proposition 99 tobacco control program funding to state health departments was reduced in 1993, Contra Costa County developed a strategy to institutionalize its tobacco control programs in other organizations. This effort identified seven funding priorities and three stable, experienced community organizations "adopted" these priorities.

  12. Educational Support Group in Changing Caregivers' Psychological Elder Abuse Behavior toward Caring for Institutionalized Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti

    2009-01-01

    Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…

  13. Changing District Priorities for School-Business Collaboration: Superintendent Agency and Capacity for Institutionalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.; Thompson, Hugh C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School district superintendents continue to favor collaborative relationships with their local business communities amid concerns over free-market competition, maintaining public legitimacy, and scarce financial resources. Prior research is inadequate regarding the development, implementation, and institutionalization of school and…

  14. Placement in Foster Care Enhances Quality of Attachment among Young Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyke, Anna T.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Guthrie, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This study examined classifications of attachment in 42-month-old Romanian children (N = 169). Institutionalized since birth, children were assessed comprehensively, randomly assigned to care as usual (CAU) or to foster care, and compared to family-reared children. Attachment classifications for children in foster care were markedly different from…

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Social Skills Training Program for Physically Aggressive Institutionalized Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Frank J.

    This study replicated a social skills training program previously designed to eliminate verbally aggressive behavior in six institutionalized elderly, by substituting physical acts of aggression for verbal ones. The treatment package consisted of instructions, modeling, role playing, and feedback. Dependent measures included confirmed incidents of…

  16. An Exercise Program to Prevent Falls in Institutionalized Elderly with Cognitive Deficits: A Crossover Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Karen; Gianan, Faith V; Pang, Lorrin

    2013-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury among older adults in the United States, with the institutionalized elderly at elevated risk for injury and death. Physical weakness and mental frailty, prevalent in institutionalized elderly, are major risk factors for falls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program that addresses both the physical and mental aspects of exercise to reduce falls in institutionalized elderly. Twenty-seven volunteer subjects residing in an assisted living facility participated in the 24 week randomized crossover study. After demographic, fall history, and mental status examinations, subjects were randomly assigned first to ten weeks of either an exercise class or a control group, followed by a four week “washout period” of no activity, then cross assigned to ten weeks as either a control group or exercise class, respectively. Falls as well as mental status changes were monitored during the study. After adjusting for differences in baseline risk between the control and treatment groups, and for potential residual effects of the treatment during the crossover phase, a statistically significant (P = .025) reduction in falls was found during treatment compared to the control periods. No change in mental status was seen. This small, pilot study shows that exercise programs, which emphasize mental strengthening as well as physical fitness, have the potential to reduce falls among mentally impaired, institutionalized seniors. PMID:24251085

  17. Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Alzheimer-Type Dementia in Institutionalized Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, F. E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Institutionalized patients with Down syndrome (N=307) were monitored for 5 to 10 years to determine prevalence of Alzheimer-type dementia. Prevalence increased from 11% between ages 40 and 49 to 77% between 60 and 69. All patients 70 and over had dementia. Mean age of onset of dementia was 56 years. Neuropathological findings were consistent with…

  18. 42 CFR 441.102 - Plan of care for institutionalized beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plan of care for institutionalized beneficiaries. 441.102 Section 441.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Medicaid for Individuals Age 65 or Over in Institutions for Mental...

  19. 42 CFR 441.102 - Plan of care for institutionalized beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plan of care for institutionalized beneficiaries. 441.102 Section 441.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Medicaid for Individuals Age 65 or Over in Institutions for Mental...

  20. 42 CFR 441.102 - Plan of care for institutionalized recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plan of care for institutionalized recipients. 441.102 Section 441.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... SPECIFIC SERVICES Medicaid for Individuals Age 65 or Over in Institutions for Mental Diseases §...

  1. Quality of Life, Family Support, and Comorbidities in Institutionalized Elders With and Without Symptoms of Depression.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; Rebouças Barbosa, Rosa Angélica Silveira; de Menezes, Marília Stefani Souza; de Medeiros, Ingrid Iana Fernandes; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Medeiros, Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier

    2016-06-01

    The institutionalization of elders can decrease the health status and quality of life in this population. The aim of this study was to analyze the socio-demographic, quality of life, family support, and comorbidities variables in institutionalized elders with and without symptoms of depression. This was a cross-sectional study in institutions for long permanence for the elderly in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Two institutionalized elderly groups were compared (138 elders: 69 with and 69 without depressive symptoms). The instruments used were: mini-mental state examination, geriatric depression scale in the reduced version, socio-demographic questionnaire, quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life abbreviated-WHOQOL-bref), and inventory of perception of family support. Elders with depressive symptoms had inferior quality of life than those without depressive symptoms. Other factors that negatively influenced the quality of life in this population include: low economic conditions, occurrence of comorbidities, and deficient family assistance. These results have important implications in the decision making process with regard to strategies for improving the health status of institutionalized elders.

  2. Activity Level, Organization, and Social-Emotional Behaviors in Post-Institutionalized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlec, Mary Beth; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2002-01-01

    Compared activity and behaviors of 36- to 82-month-olds adopted from Romanian orphanages and with varying lengths of institutionalization (more than 6 months or less than 2 months) with those of age- and gender-matched American-born control groups. Found that each Romanian group exhibited more problems in activity level, organization, and…

  3. Toward a Model of Academic Integrity Institutionalization: Informing Practice in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Tricia Bertram; Drinan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The strategic choices facing higher education in confronting problems of academic misconduct need to be rethought. Using institutional theory, a model of academic integrity institutionalization is proposed that delineates four stages and a pendulum metaphor. A case study is provided to illustrate how the model can be used by postsecondary…

  4. Vitamin/Mineral Supplements and Intelligence of Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    1983-01-01

    Vitamin/mineral supplements were administered to 19 institutionalized mentally retarded adults in a double-blind study over a seven-month period. No changes were observed in IQ nor in adaptive behavior. This was a replication with adults of a previous study of children that had obtained positive results. (Author/CL)

  5. The Institutionalization of Scientific Information: A Scientometric Model (ISI-S Model).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinkler, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a scientometric model (ISI-S model) for describing the institutionalization process of scientific information. ISI-S describes the information and knowledge systems of scientific publications as a global network of interdependent information and knowledge clusters that are dynamically changing by their content and size. (Author/LRW)

  6. A Diffusion of Innovations Approach to Gerontological Curriculum Enrichment: Institutionalizing and Sustaining Curricular Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.; Murty, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a gerontological enrichment model for institutionalizing and sustaining curricular change utilizing Rogers' (1995, 2003) diffusion of innovations approach to organizational change. The goal of the project, funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation, is to transform the social work curriculum at a major state university so…

  7. Variation in neural development as a result of exposure to institutionalization early in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    We used structural MRI and EEG to examine brain structure and function in typically developing children in Romania (n = 20), children exposed to institutional rearing (n = 29), and children previously exposed to institutional rearing but then randomized to a high-quality foster care intervention (n = 25). In so doing, we provide a unique evaluation of whether placement in an improved environment mitigates the effects of institutional rearing on neural structure, using data from the only existing randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutionalized children. Children enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project underwent a T1-weighted MRI protocol. Children with histories of institutional rearing had significantly smaller cortical gray matter volume than never-institutionalized children. Cortical white matter was no different for children placed in foster care than never-institutionalized children but was significantly smaller for children not randomized to foster care. We were also able to explain previously reported reductions in EEG α-power among institutionally reared children compared with children raised in families using these MRI data. As hypothesized, the association between institutionalization and EEG α-power was partially mediated by cortical white matter volume for children not randomized to foster care. The increase in white matter among children randomized to an improved rearing environment relative to children who remained in institutional care suggests the potential for developmental “catch up” in white matter growth, even following extreme environmental deprivation. PMID:22826224

  8. Predictors of Institutionalization of Dementia Patients in Mild and Moderate Stages: A 4-Year Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eska, Kathrin; Graessel, Elmar; Donath, Carolin; Schwarzkopf, Larissa; Lauterberg, Joerg; Holle, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Background Institutionalization is the most important milestone in the care of dementia patients. This study was aimed at identifying relevant predictors of institutionalization in a broad empirical context and interpreting them on the basis of the predictor model proposed by Luppa et al. [Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:65-78]. Methods At the start of this study, 357 patients with mild to moderate dementia were examined by their general practitioners, and a telephone interview was conducted with their caregivers. Four years later, the outcomes ‘institutionalization’ and ‘death’ were determined from health insurance data. Forty-one variables were examined for their predictive influence by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Results The risk of institutionalization increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with older ages of patients [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.05] and caregivers (HR = 1.03), a higher educational level of the caregiver (HR = 1.83), greater use of community health services (HR = 1.59), greater caregiver burden (HR = 1.02), and when the caregiver and patient lived apart (HR = 1.97). Conclusion The results show that there is a multifactorial influence on institutionalization of dementia patients by sociodemographic, health-related, and psychological aspects as well as the care situation, thus validating the predictor model by Luppa et al. [Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:65-78]. Caregiver burden was found to be the strongest predictor accessible to interventions. PMID:24348504

  9. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  10. The Effects of Early Institutionalization on the Discrimination of Facial Expressions of Emotion in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hana; Moulson, Margaret C; Fox, Nathan; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles A

    2010-03-01

    The current study examined the effects of institutionalization on the discrimination of facial expressions of emotion in 3 groups of 42-month-old children. One group consisted of children abandoned at birth who were randomly assigned to Care as Usual (institutional care) following a baseline assessment. Another group consisted of children abandoned at birth who were randomly assigned to high-quality foster care following a baseline assessment. A third group consisted of never-institutionalized children who were reared by their biological parents. All children were familiarized to happy, sad, fearful, and neutral facial expressions and tested on their ability to discriminate familiar versus novel facial expressions. Contrary to our prediction, all three groups of children were equally able to discriminate among the different expressions. Furthermore, in contrast to findings at 13-30 months of age, these same children showed familiarity rather than novelty preferences toward different expressions. There were also asymmetries in children's discrimination of facial expressions depending on which facial expression served as the familiar versus the novel stimulus. Collectively, early institutionalization appears not to impact the development of the ability to discriminate facial expressions of emotion, at least when preferential looking serves as the dependent measure. These findings are discussed in the context of the myriad domains that are affected by early institutionalization.

  11. Political Parties and the Institutionalization of Education: A Comparative Analysis of Party Manifestos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobi, Anja P.

    2011-01-01

    Education has been featured prominently in recent election campaigns in different countries. This article explains this observation by the idea of a world culture and the global institutionalization of education. It compares party manifestors of 25 OECD countries from 1946 onward, analyzing how education developed in election campaigns over time…

  12. Institutionalizing Support Services for Undocumented Students at Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern, Kyle G.

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies institutional practices supporting undocumented students' educational success across a three-phase institutionalization model. Data are drawn from interviews with higher education professionals in California. The roles of undocumented student ally educators are also examined as institutional agents supporting this student…

  13. Inequality in the characteristics of the institutionalized elderly in the city of Natal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Natália Cristina Garcia; Holanda, Vinicius Carlos Duarte; Melo, Laércio Almeida de; Medeiros, Annie Karoline Bezerra de; Lima, Kenio Costa de

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the profile of elderly residents in non-profit and for-profit Long-Term Residential Institutions for the Elderly (ILPI). We visited 12 ILPIs in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. Six of them were non-profits housing 260 elderly, and six were for-profit institutions, housing 127 elderly. The unequal characteristics of the elderly in these facilities are based on socioeconomic data and the reason for institutionalization. The data was submitted to Chi-squared or Student's t, with a significance level of 5%. Illiterate, single, black or brown, individuals with no retirement/pension or healthcare plan, no children and no visitors who purchase something outside the institution with their own money are associated with non-profit ILPIs. When analyzing the reasons for institutionalization, family conflict, abandonment and being homeless were associated with the elderly institutionalized in non-profit ILPIs. The main reason for the elderly institutionalized in for-profit ILPIs was "being ill". The conditions of the elderly in non-profit ILPIs were poorer, reflecting the social inequality these subjects experienced throughout their lifetime.

  14. Iron Deficiency and the Cognitive and Psychomotor Development of Children: A Pilot Study with Institutionalized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driva, A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a pilot study, involving 48 institutionalized infants and toddlers, which aimed to treat iron deficiency anemia and to discover other factors contributing to the problem. Results indicate improvement in cognitive development after the administration of iron among three groups, while no significant differences were observed in psychomotor…

  15. Reactions to the Labels "Institutionalized" and "Mentally Retarded" by Retarded and Nonretarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gibbons, Barbara N.

    The effects of labels, "mentally retarded" and "institutionalized" on the evaluations and causal attributions of nonretarded persons, and on the social distance preferences of EMR persons, were assessed. In addition, each group was asked to predict the likelihood of a labeled (mentally retarded) or a nonlabeled target person achieving success at a…

  16. The Effects of Early Institutionalization on the Discrimination of Facial Expressions of Emotion in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Hana; Moulson, Margaret C.; Fox, Nathan; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles A., III

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of institutionalization on the discrimination of facial expressions of emotion in three groups of 42-month-old children. One group consisted of children abandoned at birth who were randomly assigned to Care-as-Usual (institutional care) following a baseline assessment. Another group consisted of children…

  17. Factors Related to the Self-Concept of Institutionalized, White, Male, Adolescent Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Barbara; Griffing, Penelope

    1983-01-01

    Examined factors related to the self-concept of institutionalized male drug abusers (N=140). The Tennessee Self Concept Scale, a family questionnaire, and an interview were administered. Results yielded several predictors of self-concept, including parent-adolescent relationship, number of prior status offenses, and preference for nondepressant…

  18. Oral Health and Nutritional Status of Semi-Institutionalized Persons with Mental Retardation in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Luciana Rodrigues Vieira; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Rauen, Michelle Soares; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck

    2009-01-01

    Association between oral health status and nutritional status was investigated in 200 semi-institutionalized persons with mental retardation aged 5-53 years, 45.5% female, in the cities of Florianopolis and Sao Jose, province of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, clinical-odontological examination revealed a high percentage of…

  19. Corporate social policy - problems of institutionalization and experience of Russian oil and gas companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekhoda, E.; Kolbysheva, Yu; Makoveeva, V.

    2015-11-01

    The article examines a range of problems related to the process of institutionalization in the corporate social policy, characterizing the social responsibility of business and representing a part of the general strategy of corporate social responsibility. The experience of the social policy implementation in oil and gas companies is analyzed.

  20. De-Institutionalizing for the Blind: Life Learning Center for the Blind Retarded, Boston

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Suzanne

    1978-01-01

    A projected learning center in an urban area will be a transitional home, part of an evolving effort to "de-institutionalize" the living environment of the blind and train them to become self-sufficient enough to lead normal lives. (Author/MLF)

  1. Development of Level of Institutionalization Scales for Health Promotion Programs [and] Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Robert M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Responses from 322 (71%) health promotion program administrators tested a level of institutionalization scale. Results support four factors for routinization of program in each subsystem (production, maintenance, support, management) and four on degree of program saturation in subsystems. Routinization correlated more highly with program…

  2. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  3. INSTITUTIONALIZING SAFEGUARDS-BY-DESIGN: HIGH-LEVEL FRAMEWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Trond Bjornard PhD; Joseph Alexander; Robert Bean; Brian Castle; Scott DeMuth, Ph.D.; Phillip Durst; Michael Ehinger; Prof. Michael Golay, Ph.D.; Kevin Hase, Ph.D.; David J. Hebditch, DPhil; John Hockert, Ph.D.; Bruce Meppen; James Morgan; Jerry Phillips, Ph.D., PE

    2009-02-01

    participation in facility design options analysis in the conceptual design phase to enhance intrinsic features, among others. The SBD process is unlikely to be broadly applied in the absence of formal requirements to do so, or compelling evidence of its value. Neither exists today. A formal instrument to require the application of SBD is needed and would vary according to both the national and regulatory environment. Several possible approaches to implementation of the requirements within the DOE framework are explored in this report. Finally, there are numerous barriers to the implementation of SBD, including the lack of a strong safeguards culture, intellectual property concerns, the sensitive nature of safeguards information, and the potentially divergent or conflicting interests of participants in the process. In terms of SBD implementation in the United States, there are no commercial nuclear facilities that are under IAEA safeguards. Efforts to institutionalize SBD must address these issues. Specific work in FY09 could focus on the following: finalizing the proposed SBD process for use by DOE and performing a pilot application on a DOE project in the planning phase; developing regulatory options for mandating SBD; further development of safeguards-related design guidance, principles and requirements; development of a specific SBD process tailored to the NRC environment; and development of an engagement strategy for the IAEA and other international partners.

  4. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  5. Institutionalizing evidence-based practice: an organizational case study using a model of strategic change

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a general expectation within healthcare that organizations should use evidence-based practice (EBP) as an approach to improving the quality of care. However, challenges exist regarding how to make EBP a reality, particularly at an organizational level and as a routine, sustained aspect of professional practice. Methods A mixed method explanatory case study was conducted to study context; i.e., in terms of the presence or absence of multiple, inter-related contextual elements and associated strategic approaches required for integrated, routine use of EBP ('institutionalization'). The Pettigrew et al. Content, Context, and Process model was used as the theoretical framework. Two sites in the US were purposively sampled to provide contrasting cases: i.e., a 'role model' site, widely recognized as demonstrating capacity to successfully implement and sustain EBP to a greater degree than others; and a 'beginner' site, self-perceived as early in the journey towards institutionalization. Results The two sites were clearly different in terms of their organizational context, level of EBP activity, and degree of institutionalization. For example, the role model site had a pervasive, integrated presence of EBP versus a sporadic, isolated presence in the beginner site. Within the inner context of the role model site, there was also a combination of the Pettigrew and colleagues' receptive elements that, together, appeared to enhance its ability to effectively implement EBP-related change at multiple levels. In contrast, the beginner site, which had been involved for a few years in EBP-related efforts, had primarily non-receptive conditions in several contextual elements and a fairly low overall level of EBP receptivity. The beginner site thus appeared, at the time of data collection, to lack an integrated context to either support or facilitate the institutionalization of EBP. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence of some of the key contextual elements

  6. The Avahan Transition: Effects of Transition Readiness on Program Institutionalization and Sustained Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Suneeta; Singh, Kriti; Chhabra, Vibha; Bennett, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background With declines in development assistance for health and growing interest in country ownership, donors are increasingly faced with the task of transitioning health programs to local actors towards a path to sustainability. Yet there is little available guidance on how to measure and evaluate the success of a transition and its subsequent effects. This study assesses the transition of the Avahan HIV/AIDS prevention program in India to investigate how preparations for transition affected continuation of program activities post-transition. Methods Two rounds of two surveys were conducted and supplemented by data from government and Avahan Computerized Management Information Systems (CMIS). Exploratory factor analysis was used to develop two measures: 1) transition readiness pre-transition, and 2) institutionalization (i.e. integration of initial program systems into organizational procedures and behaviors) post-transition. A fixed effects model was built to examine changes in key program delivery outcomes over time. An ordinary least square regression was used to assess the relationship between transition readiness and sustainability of service outcomes both directly, and indirectly through institutionalization. Results Transition readiness data revealed 3 factors (capacity, alignment and communication), on a 15-item scale with adequate internal consistency (alpha 0.73). Institutionalization was modeled as a unidimensional construct, and a 12-item scale demonstrated moderate internal consistency (alpha 0.60). Coverage of key populations and condom distribution were sustained compared to pre-transition levels (p<0.01). Transition readiness, but not institutionalization, predicted sustained outcomes post-transition. Transition readiness did not necessarily lead to institutionalization of key program elements one year after transition. Conclusion Greater preparedness prior to transition is important to achieve better service delivery outcomes post

  7. Disobedient Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... of growing up and testing adult guidelines and expectations. It is one way for children to learn ... At times, it is due to unreasonable parental expectations. Or it might be related to the child's ...

  8. [Child abuse].

    PubMed

    V Essen, H; Schlickewei, W; Dietz, H-G

    2005-02-01

    Child abuse is most often diagnosed by an emergency doctor on call who sometimes "feels" more than knows what he is confronted with. He should nevertheless always take a medical history and make a physical and radiological examination. X-ray imaging and an ophthalmologic retinal examination are the most important diagnostic steps. Typical findings are multiple and/or dorsal rib fractures, complex skull fractures, physeal fractures, all fractures within the first 12 months, multiple fractures in different localisations and stages of healing, all injuries with uncommon distributions, all patterned bruises, immersion burns, intramural hematoma and every unexplained loss of consciousness. The first step towards victim protection is always the removal of the abused child from its caregivers by admitting it to hospital, as 95% of all cases of reported child abuse take place within the child's family.

  9. [Child labour].

    PubMed

    Marsella, L T; Savastano, L; Saracino, V; Del Vecchio, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors emphasize the violation of children's and adolescents' rights as a result of the exploitation of child labour. Besides the legal aspect, they pointed out the medical features related to the delicate growing process of the child in the phases of development and adaptation of the main organs to hard work. Currently the problem is being supervised by those states that recognize the right for minors to be protected against any kind of physical, mental, spiritual and moral risk.

  10. Evacuation effect on excess mortality among institutionalized elderly after the fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yasumura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake hit Fukushima Prefecture on March 11, 2011, just over 3 years ago and it continues to affect our lives. In Fukushima, many people are confirmed dead or still missing due to the earthquake and/or tsunami. Additional "disaster-related deaths" have been attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. Mortality among the institutionalized elderly rates after the NPP accident were exceptionally high during the first 3 months, and persisted at a lower level for 9 months, in comparison with similar periods before the accident. This study demonstrates the great impact of evacuation on mortality of institutionalized elderly, excluding inpatients. We need to pay special attention to evacuation of the elderly, regardless of whether voluntary or forced.

  11. Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) limitations: immigration and other factors associated with institutionalization.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Chi, Monica

    2012-09-07

    This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203), Korean (n = 131), Japanese (n = 193), Filipino (n = 309), Asian Indian (n = 169), Chinese (n = 404), Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54), and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040) aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8%) (p < 0.001). After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively). When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting.

  12. Cognitive and affective assessment in day care versus institutionalized elderly patients: a 1-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Maseda, Ana; Balo, Aránzazu; Lorenzo–López, Laura; Lodeiro–Fernández, Leire; Rodríguez–Villamil, José Luis; Millán–Calenti, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cognitive decline and depression are two common mental health problems that may create a need for long-term care among the elderly. In the last decade, the percentage of older adults who receive health care in nursing homes, day care centers, or home support services has increased in Europe. The objectives of this descriptive and nonrandomized longitudinal study were to evaluate and to compare the cognitive and affective evolution of day care versus institutionalized older patients through a 1-year period, and to assess the presence of cognitive and affective impairment as a function of the care setting. Patients and methods Ninety-four patients were assessed at baseline, and 63 (67.0%) were reassessed 1 year later. Neuropsychological assessment included measures of cognitive performance (general cognitive status, visuospatial, and language abilities) and affective status (depressive symptoms). Results Our findings indicated that the majority of the participants (day care and institutionalized patients) had mild–moderate cognitive impairment at baseline, which significantly increased in both groups after 1-year follow-up. However, the rate of change in global cognitive function did not significantly differ between groups over time. Regarding language abilities, naming function maintained among day care patients in comparison with institutionalized patients, who showed worse performance at follow-up. As regards to affective status, results revealed that institutionalized patients had a significant reduction in depressive symptoms at follow-up, when compared to day care patients. Results also highlight the high frequency of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms regardless of the care setting. Conclusion Our findings revealed a similar global cognitive decline rate between patients receiving day care services and those residing in a nursing home at the 1-year follow-up, and slightly different trajectories in other outcomes such as naming function and

  13. Hospital information system institutionalization processes in indonesian public, government-owned and privately owned hospitals.

    PubMed

    Handayani, P W; Hidayanto, A N; Ayuningtyas, Dumilah; Budi, Indra

    2016-11-01

    The Hospital Information System (HIS) could help hospitals as a public entity to provide optimal health services. One of the main challenges of HIS implementation is an institutional change. Using institutional theory as the analytical lens, this study aims to explain the institutionalization of HIS as an instance of e-health initiatives in Indonesia. Furthermore, this paper aims for hospital management and researchers to improve the understanding of the social forces that influence hospital personnel's HIS acceptance within an organizational context. We use case studies from four public, government-owned hospitals and four privately owned (public and specialty) hospitals to explain the HIS institutionalization process by exploring the three concepts of institutional theory: institutional isomorphism, institutional logic, and institutional entrepreneurship. This study reveals that differences exist between public, government-owned and private hospitals with regard to the institutionalization process: public, government-owned hospitals' management is more motivated to implement HIS to comply with the regulations, while private hospitals' management views HIS as an urgent requirement that must be achieved. The study findings also reveal that various institutional isomorphism mechanisms and forms of institutional logic emerge during the process. Finally, three factors-self-efficacy, social influence, and management support-have a significant influence on the individual acceptance of HIS.

  14. Relationship between Inflammation and Oxidative Stress and Cognitive Decline in the Institutionalized Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina N.; Moro, Angela M.; Brucker, Natália; Freitas, Fernando; Gauer, Bruna; Durgante, Juliano; Bordignon, Suelen; Zibetti, Murilo; Trentini, Clarissa M.; Duarte, Marta M. M. F.; Grune, Tilman; Breusing, Nicolle; Garcia, Solange C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Cognitive impairment reduces quality of life and is related to vascular and neurodegenerative disorders. However, there is also a close relationship between these diseases and oxidative stress. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess whether inflammation and oxidative damage are associated with low cognitive performance in the elderly with different housing conditions. Methods. The study groups consisted of 32 institutionalized and 25 noninstitutionalized Brazilian elderly subjects. Oxidative damage, inflammation markers, and cognitive function were evaluated. Results. The results demonstrated pronounced oxidative stress in the institutionalized elderly group, which also had a lower antioxidant status compared to noninstitutionalized subjects. High levels of proinflammatory cytokines were also observed in the institutionalized elderly. Furthermore, the raised levels of inflammatory markers were correlated with increased oxidative stress, and both were associated with low cognitive performance. However, based on multiple linear regression analysis, oxidative stress appears to be the main factor responsible for the cognitive decline. Conclusions. The findings suggest that individuals with lower antioxidant status are more vulnerable to oxidative stress, which is associated with cognitive function, leading to reduced life quality and expectancy. PMID:25874023

  15. Strength training and light physical activity reduces the apnea-hypopnea index in institutionalized older adults

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Bliwise, Donald L.; Puri, Shipra; Rogers, Sandy; Richards, Kathy C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of 7-weeks of resistance training and walking on the apneahypopnea index (AHI) in institutionalized older adults compared to a usual care control group. Design Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled-trial. Setting Ten nursing and three assisted living facilities in Arkansas. Participants Institutionalized older adults. Interventions Exercise group (EG) performed supervised resistance training to arm and hip extensors on 3 days a week with additional 2 days a week of light walking. Usual care group (UC) participated in the usual activities provided within their living facility. Measurements 2 nights of polysomnography before and following 7-week intervention. Results Adjusted means in the EG group showed a decrease in AHI from 20.2 (SD±1.3) at baseline to 16.7 (SD±0.9) at 7 weeks. Absolute strength gains were not associated with improved AHI. Conclusion Supervised resistance training and light walking reduced the severity of OSA in institutionalized older adults. PMID:25294621

  16. Placement in Foster Care Enhances Quality of Attachment Among Young Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Smyke, Anna T.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Guthrie, Donald

    2014-01-01

    This study examined classifications of attachment in three groups of children in Bucharest, Romania at age 42 months. The first two groups had been placed in institutions soon after birth, assessed comprehensively and then randomly assigned to either care as usual, including institutionalization (care as usual/institutional group) or to foster care (intervention group). These groups were compared to a group of family-reared children recruited from pediatric clinics (never institutionalized group). Attachment was assessed using ratings of attachment behavior in the Strange Situation Procedure at 42 months of age. Attachment classifications for children randomly assigned to foster care were markedly different from those of children who received care as usual, particularly at the extremes of the classifications (Secure and Insecure-other). Importantly, children placed in foster care before 24 months were more likely to have secure attachments with their caregivers. In addition, children placed into foster care earlier showed more likelihood of being organized in their relationships with their caregivers. Further, cognitive status predicted greater likelihood of organized attachment for children in the Care as Usual/Institution group and greater likelihood of secure attachment in the foster care group and the never institutionalized group. These findings demonstrate that foster care is an important intervention to address the effects of early adverse rearing conditions. PMID:20331663

  17. A matter of attachment? How adoptive parents foster post-institutionalized children's social and emotional adjustment.

    PubMed

    Barone, Lavinia; Lionetti, Francesca; Green, Jonathan

    2017-03-22

    The current study investigates the contribution of children's age at adoption (M = 46.52 months, SD = 11.52 months) and parents' attachment on post-institutionalized children's attachment and social-emotional adjustment. A total of 132 subjects, 48 post-institutionalized children aged 3-5 years, and their adoptive parents, took part in the study. One year from adoption, children's attachment distribution was as follows: 31% secure, 42% disorganized, and 27% insecure. Parents' secure attachment increased children's probability of presenting a secure attachment pattern; specifically, mothers' attachment patterns were most strongly associated with those of their adopted children, with fathers' making an additional contribution. Two years from adoption, secure children showed more adequate social competences than their insecure and disorganized peers and presented better emotional comprehension. The effect of age at adoption was delimited to a marginal association with behavioral problems. This pattern of associations suggests that attachment - both of adoptive parents and of children - substantially fosters social-emotional adjustment of post-institutionalized children who have experienced a period in emotionally neglecting environments beyond their first year of life, regardless of their age at adoption. Implications for policies and practices are discussed.

  18. My Child Is Stealing

    MedlinePlus

    ... a habit with your child or teen, consider speaking with a doctor or therapist to get to ... Can Be Done About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood ...

  19. Office of Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early Head Start-Child Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child Care supports low-income working families through child care financial assistance and ...

  20. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse ...

  1. Project CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Helen F.; And Others

    This document described Project CHILD, a program of educational change and curriculum development for disadvantaged prekindergarten and kindergarten children. The historical part of this report indicates that the project began in 1966 with a small-scale study of teacher behavior and children's responses in a few classrooms in a Harlem school…

  2. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... same sex. Peer approval becomes very important. Your child may try new behaviors to be part of "the group." This can also be the time that parents or teachers recognize learning disabilities or ... can get worse as time goes on, so it is important to get help early.

  3. Influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' postural balance and risk of falls: a transversal study1

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Wagner Oliveira; Alves, Edmundo de Drummond; Porto, Flávia; Pereira, Fabio Dutra; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' balance and risk of falls. METHOD: to evaluate the risk of falls, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Get Up and Go test were used; and for measuring postural balance, static stabilometry was used, with acquisition of the elliptical area of 95% and mean velocities on the x and y axes of center of pressure displacement. Parametric and nonparametric measures of association and comparison (α<0.05) were used. RESULTS: there was no significant correlation between the length of institutionalization and the tests for evaluation of risk of falling, neither was there difference between groups and within subgroups, stratified by length of institutionalization and age. In the stabilometric measurements, there was a negative correlation between the parameters analyzed and the length of institutionalization, and difference between groups and within subgroups. CONCLUSION: this study's results point to the difficulty of undertaking postural control tasks, showing a leveling below the clinical tests' reference scores. In the stabilometric behavior, one should note the reduction of the parameters as the length of institutionalization increases, contradicting the assumptions. This study's results offer support for the development of a multi-professional model for intervention with the postural control and balance of older adults living in homes for the aged. PMID:25296149

  4. Self-perceived oral health status in institutionalized elderly in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Piuvezam, Grasiela; de Lima, Kenio Costa

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify self-perceived oral health status in institutionalized elderly in Brazil, using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and to seek associations with objective and subjective conditions and behavior related to oral health, individual traits, and environmental factors. A cross-sectional study using census with institutionalized elderly in Brazil. A total of 1192 individuals were evaluated, and 587 (49.2%) responded to the GOHAI. A questionnaire and an epidemiological survey were applied. The Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's exact, chi-square, and multiple logistic regression tests were performed. Mean age was 74.98 ± 9.5 years, 51.4% (302) were male. The mean DMFT-index (DMFT=decayed, missing, filled teeth) was 28.8 ± 5.5 and 54.5% (320) of the elderly were toothless. Categorized GOHAI showed that 75% (440) of the individuals had positive self-perception of oral health status. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that the last visit to the dentist (adjusted prevalence ratio=PR=4.058; confidence interval=CI=1.526-10.789), presence of gingival problems (adjusted PR=5.703; CI=1.754-18.544), and self-rating of teeth, gums, or prosthesis (adjusted PR=19.514; CI=5.075-75.041) remained significant in the model. Predominance of positive self-perception of oral health status was observed despite poor oral conditions. Thus, for the institutionalized population, the present study recommends epidemiological and self-perception surveys to ensure adequate planning of oral health strategies.

  5. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation in institutionalized elderly: 12-months follow-up.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized - I) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized - NI). In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old) with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old). Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months) after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4-6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly affected by institutionalization and time, two variables that interacted and reduced these scores. Moreover, I group reduced the Montréal cognitive assessment battery language tests scores 4 months before NI group. It remains to be investigated what mechanisms may explain the earlier and more intense language losses in institutionalized elderly.

  6. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation in institutionalized elderly: 12-months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dias E Dias de Macedo, Liliane; De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized – I) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized – NI). In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old) with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old). Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months) after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4–6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly affected by institutionalization and time, two variables that interacted and reduced these scores. Moreover, I group reduced the Montréal cognitive assessment battery language tests scores 4 months before NI group. It remains to be investigated what mechanisms may explain the earlier and more intense language losses in institutionalized elderly. PMID:26316730

  7. Exergames: neuroplastic hypothesis about cognitive improvement and biological effects on physical function of institutionalized older persons

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Vaghetti, César Augusto Otero; Nascimento, Osvaldo José M.; Laks, Jerson; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz

    2016-01-01

    Exergames can be considered a dual task because the games are performed by a man-videogame interface, requiring cognitive and motor functions simultaneously. Although the literature has shown improvements of cognitive and physical functions due to exergames, the intrinsic mechanisms involved in these functional changes have still not been elucidated. The aims of the present study were (1) to demonstrate the known biological mechanisms of physical exercise regarding muscle adaptation and establish a relationship with exergames; and (2) to present a neurobiological hypothesis about the neuroplastic effects of exergames on the cognitive function of institutionalized older persons. These hypotheses are discussed. PMID:27073355

  8. Dilemmas of the institutionalization of social policies in twenty years of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988.

    PubMed

    Lobato, Lenaura de Vasconcelos Costa

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to discuss and analyze some elements of the process of institutionalization of social policies in Brazil after the Constitution of 1988, especially those of social welfare (social security, health and social assistance). It is assumed that this process present hybrids that compromise the results prescribed by the Constitution. From one hand, there are important advances in political and organizational apparatus and in the concept of the social question (treated here through three elements: constitutionalization, scope and expansion). Moreover, obstacles remain, particularly in universalization, financing and quality of services, which are contradictory to the advances achieved. The permanence of these hybrids prevents the fairness and citizenship aimed by the 1988 Constitution.

  9. [Institutionalized and Individual Crisis Intervention Between Youth Welfare and Adolescent Psychiatry, Specified for Unaccompanied Minor Refugees].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Institutionalized and Individual Crisis Intervention Between Youth Welfare and Adolescent Psychiatry, Specified for Unaccompanied Minor Refugees Minor refugees put a challenge to the intercultural openness, including an abdication from diagnostic schemes. They need creativity, modification of treatment manuals and the therapist's ability to engage himself as a person. They need another notion of abstinence and the ability to cooperate with interpreters of language and culture. In cooperation with youth welfare institutions for unaccompanied minor refugees, principles that have been developed for institutional cooperation and individual crisis intervention plans have been modified: high threshold inpatient admission, multi-step-approach and reliability of cooperation.

  10. Federal Assistance to States to Prevent the Abuse of Children in Child Care Facilities. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (April 11 and September 18, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    These Congressional hearings provide the text of and materials related to proposed Senate Bill S. 521, intended to promote the public welfare by protecting institutionalized children from abuse, and Senate Bill S.1924, which would create a central federal file of sexual assault and child molesting arrests and convictions. This federal file would…

  11. Predictive factors for hospitalized and institutionalized care-giving of the aged patients with diabetes mellitus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Toshioki; Sakurai, Takashi; Kuranaga, Masako; Endo, Hidetoshi; Yokono, Koichi

    2011-01-21

    To identify predictive factors for hospitalized and institutionalized care-giving among a group of aged patients with diabetes mellitus in Japan, retrospective chart review was performed in 288 diabetic subjects aged 65 years or older. Independent variables, based on the chart review, were age, sex, diagnosis, diabetic control and complications. Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed to obtain information on the functional capacity and demographic variables, including physical and mental function, and socioeconomic status. 131 diabetic patients were considered as frail elderly and characterized for their higher age, longer duration of diabetes, higher frequency of insulin use, lower cognitive function, and lower QOL, in comparison with those of non-frail patients. All non-frail diabetic patients were independently treated at their homes, while 38 subjects out of 131 frail diabetic patients were hospitalized or institutionalized. Apparent clinical features of hospitalized/institutionalized patients were higher age, higher serum creatinine, and higher prevalence of stroke episodes, advanced cognitive decline and absence of key caregiver in the family members, in comparison with those of in-home frail diabetic patients. The predicted probabilities from the multivariate logistic regression analysis in predicting hospitalized and institutionalized care-giving were as follows: Log p/(1 - p) = -19.801x1 - 54.269x2 + 721.405; where x1 = cognitive function (score), x2 = social support (score). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a satisfactory discrimination for hospitalized and institutionalized care-giving in frail diabetic elderly with 92.9% of sensitivity and 91.4% of specificity, when the cutoff point of the model was set at 0.992. We concluded that cognitive decline and low social support are the predictive for hospital and institutional care-giving, and that demographic and mental information as well as diagnostic data should be

  12. Duration of Early Adversity and Structural Brain Development in Post-Institutionalized Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hodel, Amanda S.; Hunt, Ruskin H.; Cowell, Raquel A.; Van Den Heuvel, Sara E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    For children reared in institutions for orphaned or abandoned children, multiple aspects of the early environment deviate from species-typical experiences, which may lead to alterations in neurobehavioral development. Although the effects of early deprivation and early life stress have been studied extensively in animal models, less is known about implications for human brain development. This structural neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing environments in a large sample of 12–14 year old children (N = 110) who were internationally adopted from institutional care as young children (median age at adoption = 12 months) relative to a same age, comparison group reared with their biological families in the United States. History of institutional rearing was associated with broad changes in cortical volume even after controlling for variability in head size. Results suggested that prefrontal cortex was especially susceptible to early adversity, with significant reductions in volume (driven primarily by differences in surface area rather than cortical thickness) in post-institutionalized youth. Hippocampal volumes showed an association with duration of institutional care, with later-adopted children showing the smallest volumes relative to non-adopted controls. Larger amygdala volumes were not detected in this sample of post-institutionalized children. These data suggest that this temporally discrete period of early deprivation is associated with persisting alterations in brain morphology even years after exposure. Furthermore, these alterations are not completely ameliorated by subsequent environmental enrichment by early adolescence. PMID:25451478

  13. Duration of early adversity and structural brain development in post-institutionalized adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hodel, Amanda S; Hunt, Ruskin H; Cowell, Raquel A; Van Den Heuvel, Sara E; Gunnar, Megan R; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2015-01-15

    For children reared in institutions for orphaned or abandoned children, multiple aspects of the early environment deviate from species-typical experiences, which may lead to alterations in neurobehavioral development. Although the effects of early deprivation and early life stress have been studied extensively in animal models, less is known about implications for human brain development. This structural neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing environments in a large sample of 12-14 year old children (N = 110) who were internationally adopted from institutional care as young children (median age at adoption = 12 months) relative to a same age, comparison group reared with their biological families in the United States. History of institutional rearing was associated with broad changes in cortical volume even after controlling for variability in head size. Results suggested that prefrontal cortex was especially susceptible to early adversity, with significant reductions in volume (driven primarily by differences in surface area rather than cortical thickness) in post-institutionalized youth. Hippocampal volumes showed an association with duration of institutional care, with later-adopted children showing the smallest volumes relative to non-adopted controls. Larger amygdala volumes were not detected in this sample of post-institutionalized children. These data suggest that this temporally discrete period of early deprivation is associated with persisting alterations in brain morphology even years after exposure. Furthermore, these alterations are not completely ameliorated by subsequent environmental enrichment by early adolescence.

  14. Childhood Abuse and Delinquency: A Descriptive Study of Institutionalized Female Youth in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D M; Ng, Vivienne P Y

    2009-03-01

    Childhood abuse experiences appear prevalent in institutionalized children and youth, but research to date has been limited. Moreover, there is no published study that has examined the issue of childhood abuse and delinquency within institutionalized children and youth in Singapore. This study was cross-sectional in design with follow-up criminal record checks. Data were collected from multiple data sources including official records, structured clinical interviews, and self-report questionnaires on 79 adolescent female residential youth. Two thirds reported having experienced childhood abuse and a higher proportion reported having previously engaged in self-harming behaviours. Participants with multiple types of abuse reported being abused at a younger age, were more likely to be subjected to repeated physical abuse, to have overdosed on medication, and to have reported more health and sexual concerns and trauma symptomatology than those who reported either experiencing one or no previous types of abuse. Fourteen (18%) of the sample had been convicted of further criminal offences over a 6½-year follow-up. The adolescents with histories of multiple types of abuse in childhood presented with more health concerns and traumatic symptomatology, self-reported delinquency, as well as past self-harming behaviour during their institutional stay. Identification of these additionally vulnerable adolescents has important clinical implications for identification, assessment and intervention planning.

  15. The role of civil society organizations in the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Babis, Deby

    2014-12-01

    December 2013 marked a significant shift in Bolivia with the enactment of a law for the inclusion of indigenous doctors in the National Health System. This article traces the constellation of forces that led to the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia. It identifies three factors contributing to this health policy change. The first factor is the crystallization of a strong indigenous movement fighting for the recognition of cultural rights through the foundation of civil society organizations. Second is the rise to power of Evo Morales, the first Latin American president of indigenous origin, who has promoted multicultural policies, formally supported through the promulgation of a new constitution. Lastly is the influence of the global acceptance of alternative medicine. Indigenous doctor organizations in Bolivia have been highly involved throughout the entire process of institutionalization and have played a crucial role in it. An analysis of the relationship between these civil society organizations and the Bolivian government reveals a strong partnership. This dynamic can be described in terms of Interdependence Theory, as each party relied on the other in the promotion and practice of the law to achieve the integration of indigenous medicine as part of the Bolivian Health System.

  16. Validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration screening tool in community-dwelling and institutionalized elderly people.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Susana; Silva, Joana; Severo, Milton; Inácio, Cátia; Padrão, Patrícia; Lopes, Carla; Carvalho, Joana; do Carmo, Isabel; Moreira, Pedro

    2015-03-02

    Dehydration is common among elderly people. The aim of this study was to perform validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration-screening tool (DST) in the assessment of hydration status in elderly people. This tool was based on the DST proposed by Vivanti et al., which is composed by 11 items (four physical signs of dehydration and seven questions about thirst sensation, pain and mobility), with four questions extra about drinking habits. The resulting questionnaire was evaluated in a convenience sample comprising institutionalized (n=29) and community-dwelling (n=74) elderly people. Urinary parameters were assessed (24-h urine osmolality and volume) and free water reserve (FWR) was calculated. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the scale's dimensionality and Cronbach's alpha was used to measure the reliability of each subscale. Construct's validity was tested using linear regression to estimate the association between scores in each dimension and urinary parameters. Two factors emerged from factor analysis, which were named "Hydration Score" and "Pain Score", and both subscales showed acceptable reliabilities. The "Hydration Score" was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality in community-dwelling; and the "Pain Score" was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality, and positively associated with 24-h urine volume and FWR in institutionalized elderly people.

  17. Prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI) and associated factors in institutionalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Jerez-Roig, Javier; Souza, Dyego L B; Amaral, Fabienne L J S; Lima, Kenio C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the prevalence of FI and associated factors in institutionalized elderly. A cross-sectional study is presented herein, conducted between October and December 2013, in 10 nursing homes (NHs) of the city of Natal (Northeast Brazil). Individuals over the age of 60 were included in the study, while those hospitalized or in terminal phase were excluded. Data collection included sociodemographic information, FI characterization, as well as variables related to the institution itself and to health conditions (comorbidities, medication, pelvic floor surgery, Barthel Index for functional capacity and Pfeiffer test for cognitive status). FI was verified through the Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0, which was also used to assess toileting programs. The Chi-square test and the linear Chi-square test were performed for bivariate analysis, as well as logistic regression for multivariate analysis. The final sample consisted of 321 elderly, mostly females, with mean age of 81.5 years. The prevalence of FI was 42.68% (CI 95%, 37.39-48.15). Most residents presenting FI were always incontinent (83.9%) and the most frequent incontinence type was total FI (solid and liquid stools). Incontinence control measures were applied only to 9.7% of the residents. The final model revealed a statistically significant association between FI and functional and cognitive impairments. It is concluded that FI is a health issue that affects almost half of the institutionalized elderly, and is associated with functional and cognitive disability.

  18. Sociodemographic and health factors associated with chronic pain in institutionalized elderly

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Maria Helena; Bolina, Alison Fernandes; Tavares, Jordânia Lumênia; Cordeiro, Aldenora Laísa Paiva de Carvalho; Luiz, Raíssa Bianca; de Oliveira, Karoline Faria

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to characterize chronic pain in institutionalized elderly and verify the associated factors. METHOD: observational, cross-sectional and non-experimental study with a quantitative approach. The study participants were 124 elderly living in Long-Term Care Institutions for the Elderly (LTCIs) in a city in Minas Gerais (Brazil). Approval for the project was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee. The elderly's clinical and sociodemographic variables and pain-related aspects were assessed. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis (chi-squared). RESULTS: the prevalence of chronic pain corresponded to 58.1%; for more than 10 years (26.4%); in lower limbs (31.9%); characterized as "twinges" (33.3%); 33.3% adopted medication treatment; the pain did not improve (41.7 %); or worsen (34.7 %). It was evidenced that elderly aged 60├ 70 old had 70% less chances of chronic pain than those aged 80 years and older (p=0.018). CONCLUSION: institutionalized elderly have a high prevalence of chronic pain, mainly in the lower limbs. No factors of pain improvement or worsening were identified and medication was evidenced as the preferred treatment. Age showed to be associated with the presence of pain. It is considered important to accomplish multiprofessional actions at the LTCIs to guide prevention and rehabilitation actions of the pain episodes in these elderly. PMID:25591097

  19. Partnership: The Missing Link in the Process of De-Institutionalization of Mental Health Care.

    PubMed

    Quah, Stella R

    2015-11-19

    This study discusses the main barriers to partnership between family and health services in the context of schizophrenia and de-institutionalization (reduction of the length of hospitalization whenever possible and returning the patient to the community) addressed to deal with the increasing costs and demand for health care services. Thus, in de-institutionalization the burden of care is not resolved but shared with the family, under the assumption that the patient has someone-a family caregiver-who can take up the responsibility of care at home. Despite the high burden of care faced by the family caregiver in mental illness, the necessary systematic partnership between the medical team and the family caregiver is missing. Subjects were 47 family caregivers of persons living with schizophrenia. Data were collected using in-depth interviews, structured questionnaires and attitudinal scales. Data analysis included factor analysis and odds ratios. Two types of barriers to partnership are identified in the literature: health services barriers and barriers attributed to the family. The findings confirm the health services barriers but reject the assumed family barriers.

  20. Child Care Aware

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aware of America Symposium 2016 Looking for child care? Need resources for your child care business? There are more than 500 local Child Care Resource & Referral (CCR&R) agencies across the United ...

  1. Ileostomy and your child

    MedlinePlus

    ... embarrassment. You may see some changes in your child's behavior at first. Sometimes teenagers have a harder time ... You being open and natural will help your child's behavior stay positive. Help your child learn how to ...

  2. Institutionalized Facilities Program, 1983-84. E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, Part B. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    In 1983-84, the Education Consolidation Improvement Act (E.C.I.A.), Chapter 1, Part B Institutionalized Facilities Program was sponsored jointly by the Division of Special Education and, for the first time, the Division of the High Schools of the New York City Public Schools. The program provided supplementary career education and daily living…

  3. E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, Part B. Institutionalized Facilities Program, Summer 1983. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; And Others

    The 1983 summer E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, Part B Institutionalized Facilities Program provided supplementary career education and daily living skills instruction to 780 students residing in facilities for neglected and delinquent children and youth. Analyses of the pupil achievement data indicated that the program was highly effective: nearly all…

  4. E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, Part B, Institutionalized Facilities Program, 1989-90. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ronald C.

    This report evaluates a program funded under the Educational Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA), Chapter 1, Part B, in New York (New York). The Program for Neglected and Delinquent Children, District 75/Citywide Institutionalized Facilities Program provides after-school supplementary instruction in prevocational skills, activities of daily…

  5. Institutionalized Facilities Program, 1986-87. E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, Part B. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ronald C.; And Others

    The New York City Public Schools' Institutionalized Facilities Program, which provides after-school supplementary instruction in pre-vocational skills and activities of daily living for students residing for short or long terms in institutions for the neglected and delinquent, was evaluated for the 1986-87 school year. The purpose of this program…

  6. Institutionalized Facilities Program Summer, 1985. E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, Part B. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    This document is an evaluation report on a program in which 288 students aged 6 to 20 received supplementary career education and daily living skills instruction under the ECIA, Chapter 1, Part B Institutionalized Facilities Program. The students resided in 10 institutions for the neglected and delinquent. The evaluation summary states that: (1)…

  7. District 75/Citywide E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, Part B, Institutionalized Facilities Program. Summer 1989. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    This report evaluates a program funded under Chapter 1, Part B, of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act in New York (New York). The New York City Division of Special Education administers the Institutionalized Facilities Program to provide instruction to neglected and delinquent children and adolescents residing in group homes and…

  8. Influence of Multiple Models on the Behavior of Institutionalized Retarded Children: Increased Generalization to Other Models and Other Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marburg, Carol C.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Institutionalized retarded children were reinforced for imitating the same model or three different models. A posttest to assess levels of imitation was then conducted by a new model. Pretest-posttest comparisons indicated that imitation with new models was greater for children trained with multiple as opposed to single models. (Author)

  9. 42 CFR 435.725 - Post-eligibility treatment of income of institutionalized individuals in SSI States: Application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., deductibles, or coinsurance charges; and (ii) Necessary medical or remedial care recognized under State law... institutionalized individuals in SSI States: Application of patient income to the cost of care. 435.725 Section 435... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN THE STATES, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, THE NORTHERN...

  10. 42 CFR 435.733 - Post-eligibility treatment of income of institutionalized individuals in States using more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; and (ii) Necessary medical or remedial care recognized under State law but not covered under the State... institutionalized individuals in States using more restrictive requirements than SSI: Application of patient income..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN THE...

  11. 42 CFR 436.832 - Post-eligibility treatment of income of institutionalized individuals: Application of patient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Necessary medical or remedial care recognized under State law but not covered under the State's Medicaid... institutionalized individuals: Application of patient income to the cost of care. 436.832 Section 436.832 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN GUAM, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...

  12. INDISCRIMINATE BEHAVIOR OBSERVED IN THE STRANGE SITUATION AMONG INSTITUTIONALIZED TODDLERS: RELATIONS TO CAREGIVER REPORT AND TO EARLY FAMILY RISK

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Paula S.; Soares, Isabel; Martins, Carla; Silva, Joana R.; Marques, Sofia; Baptista, Joana; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2014-01-01

    Socially disinhibited or indiscriminate behavior (IB) has traditionally been investigated using caregiver reports. More recently, an observational measure based on the Strange Situation Procedure (M. Ainsworth, M. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978), the Rating of Infant and Stranger Engagement (RISE; C. Riley, A. Atlas-Corbett, & K. Lyons-Ruth, 2005), was validated in home-reared at-risk children. The present study aimed to validate the RISE in an institutionally reared sample using the caregiver report, to assess whether IB assessed with the RISE was elevated among the institutionalized children, and to explore potential risk factors associated with IB. The study was conducted among 74 institutionalized toddlers aged 11 to 30 months. Sociodemographic questionnaires were used to assess pre-admission experiences, and aspects of institutional placement were coded from the children’s files in the institution and staff’s report. Institutionalized children displayed high frequencies of IB as assessed on the RISE, and this instrument was validated against caregiver report. Pre-admission experiences of the institutionalized children in their biological families—namely, prenatal risk and maternal emotional neglect risk—predicted IB. Results suggest that the RISE is adequate to use among institutionally reared toddlers and point to aspects of the early familial environment that may be implicated in IB. PMID:25552781

  13. Effects of early intervention and the moderating effects of brain activity on institutionalized children's social skills at age 8

    PubMed Central

    Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Radulescu, Anca; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the social skills of previously institutionalized, 8-y-old Romanian children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project and the influence of attachment security and brain electrical activity (alpha power) on these skills. Participants included children randomized to an intervention involving foster care [Foster Care Group (FCG)], children randomized to remain in institutions [Care As Usual Group (CAUG)], and never-institutionalized children living with their families in the Bucharest community [Never-Institutionalized Group (NIG)]. A continuous rating of children’s attachment security to their primary caregiver was assessed at 42 mo of age. When children were 8 y old, teachers rated their social skills, and the children’s resting electroencephalogram alpha power was recorded. Teachers rated social skills of FCG children who were placed into foster care before 20 mo of age as no different from NIG children, and both of these groups were higher than CAUG children and FCG children placed after 20 mo. Electroencephalogram alpha power at age 8 significantly moderated the relations between attachment security and social skills. These findings characterize institutionalized children’s social skills in middle childhood within the context of a randomized intervention while highlighting the roles of both relational and biological factors in these developmental trajectories. PMID:23045660

  14. 34 CFR 461.32 - What are programs for corrections education and education for other institutionalized adults?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... education for other institutionalized adults? 461.32 Section 461.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM How Does a State Make an Award to...

  15. 34 CFR 461.32 - What are programs for corrections education and education for other institutionalized adults?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... education for other institutionalized adults? 461.32 Section 461.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM How Does a State Make an Award to...

  16. 34 CFR 461.32 - What are programs for corrections education and education for other institutionalized adults?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... education for other institutionalized adults? 461.32 Section 461.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM How Does a State Make an Award to...

  17. 34 CFR 461.32 - What are programs for corrections education and education for other institutionalized adults?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... education for other institutionalized adults? 461.32 Section 461.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM How Does a State Make an Award to...

  18. An analysis of a partial task training strategy for profoundly retarded institutionalized clients.

    PubMed

    Cipani, E

    1985-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of a partial task training strategy on productivity and on-task behavior in three profoundly retarded institutionalized clients in a pre-skills workshop classroom. Partial task training consisted of the presentation of "mini-tasks," with reinforcement for completion of those tasks. Additionally, behavior monitors were used to provide the clients with further positive comments and prompts. The results indicated that this strategy was effective in decreasing high rates of off-task behavior and in substantially increasing the number of pieces completed during the session. However, the effect on other inappropriate behaviors was minimal. This strategy demonstrated that profoundly retarded clients could be taught to increase on-task behavior and productivity in pre-skills workshop classes.

  19. [Plans for the establishment of central vaccination committees in the institutionalization of Medicine in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Frias Nuñez, M

    1993-01-01

    The fight against smallpox epidemics in the Granada at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries involved a whole series of actions which demonstrated the new ways of treating the disease. First the application of the innoculation and then the vaccination coincided with a greater general concern for the health of the population. At this time and especially with the arrival of José Celestino Mutis on Latin-American soil science in Colombia embarked upon an institutionalization process which also involved Medicine. José Salvany's proposals of stablishing Central Vaccination Committees were made in this context. The analysis of these proposals and their contribution towards "establishing institutional spaces" are the axes upon which this study is based.

  20. Sustainable institutionalized punishment requires elimination of second-order free-riders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2012-03-01

    Although empirical and theoretical studies affirm that punishment can elevate collaborative efforts, its emergence and stability remain elusive. By peer-punishment the sanctioning is something an individual elects to do depending on the strategies in its neighborhood. The consequences of unsustainable efforts are therefore local. By pool-punishment, on the other hand, where resources for sanctioning are committed in advance and at large, the notion of sustainability has greater significance. In a population with free-riders, punishers must be strong in numbers to keep the ``punishment pool'' from emptying. Failure to do so renders the concept of institutionalized sanctioning futile. We show that pool-punishment in structured populations is sustainable, but only if second-order free-riders are sanctioned as well, and to a such degree that they cannot prevail. A discontinuous phase transition leads to an outbreak of sustainability when punishers subvert second-order free-riders in the competition against defectors.

  1. Institutionalizing dissent: a proposal for an adversarial system of pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Justin

    2013-12-01

    There are serious problems with the way in which pharmaceutical research is currently practiced, many of which can be traced to the influence of commercial interests on research. One of the most significant is inadequate dissent, or organized skepticism. In order to ameliorate this problem, I develop a proposal that I call the "Adversarial Proceedings for the Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals," to be instituted within a regulatory agency such as the Food and Drug Administration for the evaluation of controversial new drugs and controversial drugs already in the market. This proposal is an organizational one based upon the "science court" proposal by Arthur Kantrowitz in the 1960s and 1970s. The primary benefit of this system is its ability to institutionalize dissent, thereby ensuring that one set of interests does not dominate all others.

  2. Spiritual Religious Coping is Associated with Quality of Life in Institutionalized Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Vitorino, Luciano Magalhães; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Santos, Ana Eliza Oliveira; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G; Ferreira, Eric Batista; Adami, Nilce Piva; Vianna, Lucila Amaral Carneiro

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between spiritual/religious coping (SRCOPE) strategies and quality of life (QoL) in institutionalized older adults. This is a cross-sectional, correlational study, with a sample of 77 older adults in Brazil. The present study found long-term care patients use religious and spiritual coping strategies to deal with their chronic health conditions. Positive SRCOPE and Total SRCOPE have positive correlations with most QoL domains from the WHOQOL-OLD and WHOQOL-BREF. On the other hand, Negative SRCOPE strategies correlated negatively with the facets of "death and dying" from the WHOQOL-OLD. These results suggest the need for an integrative approach for long-term care patients, considering the positive and negative aspects of coping.

  3. Frequency of Fra X syndrome among institutionalized mentally retarded males in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurczak, T.; Bocian, E.; Milewski, M.

    1996-07-12

    Results of cytogenetic studies, performed in a group of 201 institutionalized mentally retarded males, are presented. At least two cytogenetic methods for eliciting the Xq27.3 fragile site, recommended by the Fourth International Workshop on the Fra X Syndrome were used. A subgroup of 67 out of 201 studied males was also examined using molecular methods. In 6 (2.9%) males fra X syndrome was diagnosed. All cytogenetic positive results were confirmed by molecular analysis. Five patients had full expansion CGG repeats and one had both premutation and full mutation. Postulated frequency of fra X syndrome in Polish population being 0.2-0.4 / 1,000 males seems to be lower than it could be expected on the basis of previous literature data. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. [The emergence and institutionalization of sexology in Portugal: processes, actors, and specificities].

    PubMed

    Alarcão, Violeta; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-09-05

    Based on Bourdieu's field theory, this article analyzes the emergence and institutionalization of sexology as a science and profession in Portugal, identifying relevant institutions, actors, and professional practices and discussing its relations and specificities. The analysis begins by contextualizing the emergence of modern Western sexology in order to comprehend the Portuguese case in the international sexology context. The second section describes the social, cultural, and institutional factors that have driven the professionalization of sexology. The third section describes the emergence of Portuguese sexology and its principal historical milestones, institutions, and actors. Finally, the article discusses some implications of this process for the role of sexology as a science and profession. The study reveals the dynamics of national and international processes in the field, in the transition from a holistic perspective of sexology to the hegemony of sexual medicine, and sheds light on its mechanisms of legitimation as a transdisciplinary science of sexuality, suggesting future perspectives.

  5. On the failed institutionalization of German comparative psychology prior to 1940.

    PubMed

    Kressley-Mba, Regina A

    2006-02-01

    Despite an illustrious history marked by the work of Wolfgang Köhler and Mathilde Hertz, among others-the significance of which still resonates in different fields of animal behavior research-and the fact that interesting work in the field continues, comparative psychology has no official status within German psychology. A partial explanation for this lack of official representation might derive from unsuccessful attempts historically to secure institutional status. "Gifted" animals served as much of the impetus for the beginning of a scientific animal psychology in Germany and contributed to its institutionalization by providing the incentive for the establishment of organizations dealing with animal psychology. Although initially serving as a catalyst for an interdisciplinary exchange on animal psychology, the case of Clever Hans was also exploited to help psychology gain institutional status in the field, albeit without lasting success.

  6. Effects of an adapted mattress in musculoskeletal pain and sleep quality in institutionalized elders

    PubMed Central

    Ancuelle, Victor; Zamudio, Rodrigo; Mendiola, Andrea; Guillen, Daniel; Ortiz, Pedro J; Tello, Tania; Vizcarra, Darwin

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact in sleep quality and musculoskeletal pain of a Medium-Firm Mattress (MFM), and their relationship with objective sleep parameters in a group of institutionalized elders. The sample size included forty older adults with musculoskeletal pain. We did a clinical assessment at baseline and weekly trough the study period of four weeks. We employed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Pain Visual Analog Scale (P-VAS). Additionally a sub-group of good sleepers, selected from PSQI baseline evaluation, were studied with actigraphy and randomized to MFM or High Firm Mattress (HFM), in two consecutive nights. We found a significant reduction of cervical, dorsal and lumbar pain. PSQI results did not change. The actigraphy evaluation found a significant shorter sleep onset latency with MFM, and a slightly better, but not statistically significant, sleep efficiency. The medium firmness mattress improved musculoskeletal pain and modified the sleep latency. PMID:26779317

  7. Effects of socialization games on proximity and prosocial behavior of aggressive mentally retarded institutionalized women.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, B; Han, S S

    1983-01-01

    Socialization games, designed to reinforce prosocial behavior between moderately and severely mentally retarded aggressive institutionalized women, were presented to two groups on 12 occasions over 8 weeks, randomly interspersed with 12 sessions of arts and crafts or filmstrip stories. Half of the sessions were presented in the morning and half in the afternoon. Video-taped observations of interpersonal behavior for 10 minutes after each session were analyzed in terms of friendly, unfriendly, and inactive behavior, and the distance of each subject from each other subject was measured. The rate of friendly behavior was significantly greater after the games and was higher in morning than afternoon sessions. The games also significantly decreased interpersonal distance. Both unfriendly behavior and inactivity were higher after the "placebo" sessions. The relevance of these results to institutional programming was discussed.

  8. ADHD Symptoms in Post-Institutionalized Children Are Partially Mediated by Altered Frontal EEG Asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Tahl I; Koss, Kalsea J; Donzella, Bonny; Frenn, Kristin A; Lamm, Connie; Fox, Nathan A; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-09-29

    Individual differences in the propensity for left versus right frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry may underlie differences in approach/withdrawal tendencies and mental health deficits. Growing evidence suggests that early life adversity may shape brain development and contribute to the emergence of mental health problems. The present study examined frontal EEG asymmetry (FEA) following the transition to family care in children adopted internationally from institutional care settings between 15 and 36 months of age (N = 82; 46 female, 36 male). Two comparison groups were included: an international adoption control consisting of children adopted from foster care with little to no institutional deprivation (N = 45; 17 female, 28 male) and a post-adoption condition control consisting of children reared in birth families of the same education and income as the adoptive families (N = 48; 23 female, 25 male). Consistent with evidence of greater approach and impulsivity-related behavior problems in post-institutionalized (PI) children, PI status was associated with greater left FEA than found in the other two groups. In addition, left FEA served as a mediator between institutionalization and age 5 ADHD symptoms for girls. Age at adoption and other preadoption factors were examined with results suggesting that earlier adoption into a supportive family resulted in a more typical pattern of brain functioning. Findings support the idea that the capacity of brain activity to evidence typical functioning following perturbation may differ in relation to the timing of intervention and suggest that the earlier the intervention of adoption, the better.

  9. The institutionalization of River Basin Management as politics of scale - Insights from Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdret, Annabelle; Dombrowsky, Ines; Horlemann, Lena

    2014-11-01

    River Basin Management (RBM) as an approach to sustainable water use has become the dominant model of water governance. Its introduction, however, entails a fundamental realignment and rescaling of water-sector institutions along hydrological boundaries. Creating such a new governance scale is inherently political, and is being described as politics of scale. This paper analyzes how the politics of scale play out in the institutionalization of RBM in Mongolia. It furthermore scrutinizes the role of the broader political decentralization process in the introduction of RBM, an issue that has so far received little attention. Finally, it assesses whether the river basin is an adequate water management scale in Mongolia. This article finds that institutionalizing RBM in Mongolia is indeed a highly political negotiation process that does not only concern the choice of the governance scale, but also its detailed institutional design. It furthermore reveals that Mongolia's incomplete political decentralization process has for a long time negatively impacted the decentralization of water-related tasks and the implementation of RBM. However, the 2011 Budget Law and the 2012 Water Law provide for a fiscal strengthening of local governments and clearer sharing of responsibilities among the various different institutions involved in water management. Nevertheless, only if the 2012 Water Law is complemented by adequate by-laws - and if the newly created river basin institutions are adequately equipped - can RBM be effectively put into practice. This article confirms the usefulness of a politics-of-scale approach to understand scalar practices and changes in water management. However, the article also argues for a broadening of the analytical perspective to take the interdependencies between changes in water governance and other political processes, such as decentralization, into account.

  10. The child dream and the child transference.

    PubMed

    De Francisco, D

    1986-01-01

    This paper explores the symbolic meaning of dreams in which children appear with special attention to the way children in dreams symbolize the self, particularly the dependent and developing self. It is suggested that patients' growth in analysis can be monitored by observing what happens to the children in their dreams. This paper also explores the vicissitudes of the child transference, in which the patient treats the analyst as a child. An analysis is described in which the child dream and the child transference played an important role in elucidating the patient's neurotic behaviors. The author contends that the child dream and the child transference are common and clinically useful phenomena, especially important in the analysis of dependency conflicts. An additional thesis of this paper is that the child transference is most likely to be found in instances where a patient played a parental role with one of their parents during childhood.

  11. Child Support Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2001 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of…

  12. Child Support Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

  13. Child Support Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2000 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of…

  14. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  15. Child Support Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve issues of "Child Support Report" newsletter published during 1997. Monthly issues typically explore problems related to child support enforcement, report on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarize research related to child support. Editorials and information…

  16. Previous Institutionalization Is Followed by Broader Amygdala–Hippocampal–PFC Network Connectivity during Aversive Learning in Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Lumian, Daniel S.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Gee, Dylan G.; Goff, Bonnie; Fareri, Dominic S.; Caldera, Christina; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Early institutional care can be profoundly stressful for the human infant, and, as such, can lead to significant alterations in brain development. In animal models, similar variants of early adversity have been shown to modify amygdala–hippocampal–prefrontal cortex development and associated aversive learning. The current study examined this rearing aberration in human development. Eighty-nine children and adolescents who were either previously institutionalized (PI youth; N = 46; 33 females and 13 males; age range, 7–16 years) or were raised by their biological parents from birth (N = 43; 22 females and 21 males; age range, 7–16 years) completed an aversive-learning paradigm while undergoing functional neuroimaging, wherein visual cues were paired with either an aversive sound (CS+) or no sound (CS−). For the PI youth, better aversive learning was associated with higher concurrent trait anxiety. Both groups showed robust learning and amygdala activation for CS+ versus CS− trials. However, PI youth also exhibited broader recruitment of several regions and increased hippocampal connectivity with prefrontal cortex. Stronger connectivity between the hippocampus and ventromedial PFC predicted significant improvements in future anxiety (measured 2 years later), and this was particularly true within the PI group. These results suggest that for humans as well as for other species, early adversity alters the neurobiology of aversive learning by engaging a broader prefrontal–subcortical circuit than same-aged peers. These differences are interpreted as ontogenetic adaptations and potential sources of resilience. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Prior institutionalization is a significant form of early adversity. While nonhuman animal research suggests that early adversity alters aversive learning and associated neurocircuitry, no prior work has examined this in humans. Here, we show that youth who experienced prior institutionalization, but not comparison youth, recruit

  17. Effect of sublingual administration of interferon-alpha on the immune response to influenza vaccination in institutionalized elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Launay, Odile; Grabar, Sophie; Bloch, Frédéric; Desaint, Corinne; Jegou, David; Lallemand, Christophe; Erickson, Robert; Lebon, Pierre; Tovey, Michael G

    2008-07-29

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of sublingual administration of IFNalpha on the immune response to influenza vaccination in elderly institutionalized individuals. Sublingual administration of 10 million IU of IFNalpha immediately prior to vaccination, reduced the geometric mean haemagglutination inhibitory (HAI) and IgG2 circulating antibody titers, and the secretory IgA (sIgA) response in saliva, to the New York strain of influenza A virus, 21 days post-vaccination, without detectable drug-related local or systemic toxicity. IFN treatment did not inhibit the immune response to the other components of the vaccine; the New Caledonia strain of influenza A virus, or the Jiangsu strain of influenza B virus. At the dose tested sublingual administration of IFNalpha reduces the immune response to influenza vaccination in elderly institutionalized individuals.

  18. From institutionalization of user fees to their abolition in West Africa: a story of pilot projects and public policies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the historical background of the institutionalization of user fees and their subsequent abolition in West Africa. Based on a narrative review, we present the context that frames the different articles in this supplement. We first show that a general consensus has emerged internationally against user fees, which were imposed widely in Africa in the 1980s and 1990s; at that time, the institutionalization of user fees was supported by evidence from pilot projects funded by international aid agencies. Since then there have been other pilot projects studying the abolition of user fees in the 2000s, but these have not yet had any real influence on public policies, which are often still chaotic. This perplexing situation might be explained more by ideologies and political will than by insufficient financial capacity of states. PMID:26559564

  19. Attachment security as a mechanism linking foster care placement to improved mental health outcomes in previously institutionalized children

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Children reared in institutions experience elevated rates of psychiatric disorders. Inability to form a secure attachment relationship to a primary caregiver is posited to be a central mechanism in this association. We determined whether the ameliorative effect of a foster care (FC) intervention on internalizing disorders in previously institutionalized children was explained by the development of secure attachment among children placed in FC and evaluated the role of lack of attachment in an institutionalized sample on the etiology of internalizing disorders within the context of a randomized trial. Methods A sample of 136 children (aged 6-30 months) residing in institutions was recruited in Bucharest, Romania. Children were randomized to FC (n=68) or to care as usual (CAU; n=68). Foster parents were recruited, trained, and overseen by the investigative team. Attachment security at 42 months was assessed using the Strange Situation Procedure, and internalizing disorders at 54 months were assessed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Results Girls in FC had fewer internalizing disorders than girls in CAU (OR=0.17, p=006). The intervention had no effect on internalizing disorders in boys (OR=0.47, p=.150). At 42 months, girls in FC were more likely to have secure attachment than girls in CAU (OR=12.5, p<.001), but no difference was observed in boys (OR=2.0, p=.205). Greater attachment security predicted lower rates of internalizing disorders in both sexes. Development of attachment security fully mediated intervention effects on internalizing disorders in girls. Conclusion Placement into FC facilitated the development of secure attachment and prevented the onset of internalizing disorders in institutionalized girls. The differential effects of FC on attachment security in boys and girls explained gender differences in the intervention effects on psychopathology. Findings provide evidence for the critical role of disrupted attachment in the

  20. Dental Caries Status of Institutionalized Orphan Children from Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Tangade, Pradeep; Ravishankar, TL; Tirth, Amit; Pal, Sumit; Batra, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It has been well documented that the absence of family support influences the general and oral health of the children. Factors that lead to the development of disease at a given point in time are likely to have their roots in a complex chain of environmental events that may have begun years before. A number of studies have examined the relationship between dental caries and material deprivation and found a positive association between them. Though orphans contribute to 2% of world’s population, literature regarding their oral health status is very scarce. This study was carried out with the aim to assess the dental caries status of institutionalized orphan children from Jammu and Kashmir. Materials and methods A total of 1,664 children that included 1,201 boys and 463 girls from registered orphanages in the state of Jammu and Kashmir were included in the study. Written informed consent was obtained prior to the start of the study; decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft)/ decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)/decayed, missing, and filled surface (DMFS) indices were used to assess the caries status of primary and permanent dentition. Multiple choice, close-ended questionnaires were administered to assess the oral hygiene habits, knowledge, and dietary behavior of orphan children prior to examination. The study subjects were divided into three groups according to the age of ≤ 6, 7 to 11, and ≥12 years. Results Results showed that caries prevalence in primary dentition was higher in subjects’ ≤6 years of age where the prevalence was 50.9%; in subjects 7 to 11 years of age, the prevalence was 25.2%. Caries prevalence in permanent dentition within the age group 7 to 11 was 69.1%, while in subjects’ ≥12 years, the prevalence was 66.2%. Use of toothbrush was the most prevalent method of cleaning the teeth in both the genders, while toothpaste was reported to be the most prevalent material to be

  1. Emotional intelligence and depressive symptoms in Spanish institutionalized elders: does emotional self-efficacy act as a mediator?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. This work examines the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and depressive symptomatology in institutionalized older adults, delving into the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Considering that previous evidence of the variation of the EI-depression relationship depending on whether the emotional ability or the perception of that ability is evaluated, a model of multiple mediation was tested in which the dimensions of emotional self-efficacy (ESE) act as mediators in the relationship between ability EI and depressive symptomatology. Methods. The sample consisted of 115 institutionalized older adults (47.82% women; 80.3 ± 7.9 years of age) from the province of Jaén (Spain) who completed a test of ESE, a measure of ability EI, and a self-administered questionnaire of depressive symptoms. Results. The results showed a positive association between older adults’ emotional performance and depressive symptomatology, finding stronger associations with ESE than with EI abilities. In addition, multiple mediation analyses showed that two of the four dimensions of ESE fully mediated the relationship between ability EI and depressive symptoms. Discussion. These findings suggest that older adults’ high levels of emotional competence generate a feeling of ESE which can protect them against depressive symptoms. This work supports the predictive validity of emotional abilities and ESE for the mental health of a group that is particularly vulnerable to depression, institutionalized older adults. The limitations of the work are discussed, and future lines of research were considered. PMID:27547553

  2. Spleen removal - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity restrictions will depend on: The type of surgery (open or laparoscopic) Your child's age The reason for the operation Ask your doctor about specific activity instructions and ... other pain medicines to use at home if your child needs them.

  3. Cholesterol and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  4. FPG Child Development Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 'alternative facts,' science can reliably inform policy. Child development research advises that a sense of security provided ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ...

  5. Your Child's Growth

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... There's a Problem Some parents worry about their child's growth and development. So it can be reassuring to know that ...

  6. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn ... changed; or goes to sleep ) Movement and Physical Development moves in response to sights and sounds rooting ...

  7. Fussy or irritable child

    MedlinePlus

    ... home Irregular day-to-day schedule Using your parenting skills, you should be able to calm your child and make things better. Getting your child on a regular eating, sleeping, and daily schedule can also help.

  8. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be ... friends, neighbors or babysitters. About one-third of abusers are related to the child. Most abusers are ...

  9. Child Dental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  10. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  11. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  12. Child Behavior Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  13. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  14. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  15. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  16. Child Study and Observation: Child Development 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna

    This syllabus outlines the structure, objectives, and lesson plans for Child Development 101, a twelve-week course on child study and observation offered at Chaffey Community College. A statement of the educational philosophy upon which the course was developed precedes a list of course objectives, competencies, and the grading system. The bulk of…

  17. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  18. The Limping Child

    PubMed Central

    Tredwell, Stephen J.

    1979-01-01

    The challenge of the limping child demands that the primary care physician identify those problems which are urgent, when neglect can harm the child, and to provide appropriate supportive care for those which are not. The approach to the limping child should consider the child's age, whether or not the limp is painful, and certain key physical findings. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 7b PMID:21297725

  19. Emergence, institutionalization and renewal: Rhythms of adaptive governance in complex social-ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Brian C; Gunderson, Lance H

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive governance provides the capacity for environmental managers and decision makers to confront variable degrees of uncertainty inherent to complex social-ecological systems. Current theoretical conceptualizations of adaptive governance represent a series of structures and processes best suited for either adapting or transforming existing environmental governance regimes towards forms flexible enough to confront rapid ecological change. As the number of empirical examples of adaptive governance described in the literature grows, the conceptual basis of adaptive governance remains largely under theorized. We argue that reconnecting adaptive governance with foundational concepts of ecological resilience-specifically Panarchy and the adaptive cycle of complex systems-highlights the importance of episodic disturbances and cross-scale interactions in triggering reorganizations in governance. By envisioning the processes of adaptive governance through the lens of Panarchy, scholars and practitioners alike will be better able to identify the emergence of adaptive governance, as well as take advantage of opportunities to institutionalize this type of governance in pursuit of sustainability outcomes. The synergistic analysis of adaptive governance and Panarchy can provide critical insight for analyzing the role of social dynamics during oscillating periods of stability and instability in social-ecological systems. A deeper understanding of the potential for cross-scale interactions to shape adaptive governance regimes may be useful as society faces the challenge of mitigating the impacts of global environmental change.

  20. Association between complaints of dizziness and hypertension in non-institutionalized elders

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Anália Rosário; Moreira, Michelle Damasceno; Trelha, Celita Salmaso; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Advancing age increases the risk for a number of chronic diseases. Hypertension and dizziness are highly prevalent in the elderly population and represent major health problems. Objective: To verify the association between complaints of dizziness and the presence of hypertension in non-institutionalized elders. Method: This was a prospective cross-sectional cohort study of the elderly population of Londrina, Paraná in terms of aging and longevity. The required sample size was calculated, and subjects e” 60 years of age of both genders were selected at random. Data were collected using a questionnaire covering socio-demographic information and self-reported cases of hypertension and dizziness. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test with p d” 0.05 as the level of significance. Results: The study included 493 elderly subjects, of whom 257 (52.1%) complained of dizziness and 308 (62.5%) reported a diagnosis of arterial systemic hypertension. Dizziness was significantly associated with hypertension (χ2 = 6.26, p = 0.01) and female sex. Conclusions: Hypertension and dizziness were both highly prevalent and were significantly associated, showing the great need for investments in preventive measures. PMID:25992007

  1. Televisits: sustaining long distance family relationships among institutionalized elders through technology.

    PubMed

    Mickus, M A; Luz, C C

    2002-11-01

    The role of social support in the health of older persons is well documented. This support is particularly important for isolated nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using low-cost videophones to enhance communication between nursing home residents and their families. Ten pairs of residents and family members received videophones and engaged in regular televisits for six months. All participants completed brief survey instruments prior to and after the study period to determine the effects of the televisits on the frequency and quality of contacts. A post-study survey assessed ease and satisfaction with using videophones. Findings include identification of technical and design problems, possible solutions, factors affecting actual use of equipment, and conditions under which benefits of use may be optimal. Categories for estimating potential actual users are suggested. Importantly, the study demonstrates that videophones can be used successfully by a wide range of frail nursing home residents and can enhance social interactions, regardless of distance. Affordable videophone technology offers the potential for reduced isolation among institutionalized elders and others with distance and mobility barriers.

  2. Clinical outcome of root caries restorations using ART and rotary techniques in institutionalized elders.

    PubMed

    Cruz Gonzalez, Alberto Carlos; Marín Zuluaga, Dairo Javier

    2016-05-31

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical performance of root caries restorations after a six-month period using two methods, a conventional technique with rotary instruments and an atraumatic restorative technique (ART), in an institutionalized elderly population in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Root caries represents a multifactorial, progressive, chronic lesion with softened, irregular and darkened tissue involving the radicular surface; it is highly prevalent in the elderly, especially in those who are physically or cognitively impaired. A quasi-experimental, double-blind, longitudinal study was carried out after cluster randomization of the sample. Two different experienced dentists, previously trained, performed the restorations using each technique. After six months, two new investigators performed a blind evaluation of the condition of the restorations. The results showed a significantly higher rate of success (92.9%) using the conventional technique (p < 0.03). However, we concluded that ART may have been the preferred technique in the study population because 81% of those restorations survived or were successful during the observation period.

  3. Infections and antimicrobial use among institutionalized residents in Hungary: increasing need of microbiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Rita; Böröcz, Karolina

    2015-03-01

    As a result of the age-related changes, more elders live in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Due to their susceptibility, infections and excess use of antimicrobials are common. The aim was to estimate the burden of infections and antimicrobial use in Hungarian LTCFs in order to increase the attention given to the prevention. European-wide point prevalence survey was conducted between April and May 2013. For each resident who had a signs and symptoms of an infection and/or treated with an antibacterial for systemic use a resident questionnaire was completed. Descriptive statistics were used to present the data. In total, 91 LTCFs with 11,823 residents were selected in this survey. The 252 residents had a sign/symptom of an infection (2.1%) and 156 received antimicrobial (1.3%). Skin and soft tissues (36.5%) was the most frequent infection. However, antimicrobials were mostly prescribed for respiratory tract infections (40.4%). The most common therapeutic antimicrobial agent (97.5%) belonged to the quinolone antibacterials (34.2%). Our results emphasise the need for targeted improvement of antimicrobial use including: reducing the use of quinolone antibacterials in order to prevent the spread of Clostridium difficile and other antimicrobial resistant microorganisms among institutionalized residents.

  4. DNA methylation at stress-related genes is associated with exposure to early life institutionalization

    PubMed Central

    Non, Amy L.; Hollister, Brittany M.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Childebayeva, Ainash; Esteves, Kyle; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Drury, Stacy S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Differences in DNA methylation have been associated with early life adversity, suggesting that alterations in methylation function as one pathway through which adverse early environments are biologically embedded. This study examined associations between exposure to institutional care, quantified as the percent time in institutional care at specified follow-up assessment ages, and DNA methylation status in two stress-related genes: FKBP5 and SLC6A4. Materials and Methods We analyzed data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, which is a prospective study in which children reared in institutional settings were randomly assigned (mean age 22 months) to either newly created foster care or care as usual (to remain in their current placement) and prospectively followed. A group of children from the same geographic area, with no history of institutionalized caregiving, were also recruited. DNA methylation status was determined in DNA extracted from buccal epithelial cells of children at age 12. Results An inverse association was identified such that more time spent in institutional care was associated with lower DNA methylation at specific CpG sites within both genes. Discussion These results suggest a lasting impact of early severe social deprivation on methylation patterns in these genes, and contribute to a growing literature linking early adversity and epigenetic variation in children. PMID:27218411

  5. [Factors associated with the danger of accidental falls among institutionalized elderly individuals: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Erika Carla Cavalcanti; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Barros, Benvinda Pereira de

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this research is to identify the major risk factors associated with accidental falls among the elderly. It involves an integrative review of the literature between 2002 and 2012 in English and Portuguese. The selection of articles was based on the following key words in the Lilacs, Medline and BDENF databases: accidental falls, homes for the elderly and health services. In the final sample 19 articles were selected, of which 11 were national and 8 were international. They indicate that the major factors related to the risk of accidental falls in Homes for the Elderly are: being female, being diagnosed with chronic disease, treatment with benzodiazepine, earlier cases of accident falls, and mobility restriction. The research reveals that architectonic and furniture inadequacies in Homes for the Elderly may be predisposing factors for accidental falls. Analysis of the articles reveals the need for further longitudinal studies and, consequently, enhanced monitoring of the conditions of the functional capacity of the elderly, especially the risks related to falls, considered one of the leading causes of death among institutionalized elderly individuals.

  6. A cognitive intervention to enhance institutionalized older adults' social support networks and decrease loneliness.

    PubMed

    Winningham, R G; Pike, N L

    2007-11-01

    Nearly all older adults experience social losses, which can disrupt their social support networks and impair their quality of life. Events such as retirement, an inability to drive, death of a spouse and/or close life-long friends, or moving to an elder care facility may negatively affect the quality of older adults' social support networks. Low levels of perceived social support are associated with increased depression, impaired immune functioning and reduced life expectancy. Moreover, social interactions can be cognitively stimulating and may help older adults preserve their cognitive abilities. In the present study, institutionalized older adults were exposed to either a cognitive enhancement programme designed to enhance social networks or a control group. Measures of perceived social support and loneliness were administered before and after a 3-month, group-based intervention. There was a significant interaction between group and time. Those who did not participate in the intervention experienced a decrease in perceived social support and an increase in perceived loneliness. Participants in the intervention group stayed the same on the above measures. Helping older adults increase or maintain the quality of their social networks may lead to enhanced cognitive functioning, decreased depression and improved quality of life. Recommendations to help assisted living facilities, nursing homes, retirement communities and senior centres develop social and cognitive interventions are provided.

  7. Proposal to institutionalize criteria and quality standards for cervical cancer screening within a health care system.

    PubMed

    Salmerón-Castro, J; Kazcano Ponce, E C; Pérez Cuevas, R; del Río Gómez, I; Torres Torija, I; Hernández Avila, M

    1998-01-01

    The uterine cervix is the most common cancer site for females. Approximately 52,000 new cases occur annually in Latin America, thus the need to improve efficiency and effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening Programs (CCSP) is mandatory to decrease the unnecessary suffering women must bear. This paper is addressing essential issues to revamp the CCSP as proposed by the Mexican official norm. A general framework for institutionalizing CCSP is outlined. Furthermore, strategies to strengthen CCSP performance through managerial strategies and quality assurance activities are described. The focus is on the following activities: 1) improving coverage; 2) implementing smear-taking quality control; 3) improving quality in interpretation of Pap test; 4) guaranteeing treatment for women for whom abnormalities are detected; 5) improving follow-up; 6) development of quality control measures and 7) development of monitoring and epidemiological surveillance information systems. Changes within the screening on cervical cancer may be advocated as new technologies present themselves and shortcomings in the existing program appear. It is crucial that these changes should be measured through careful evaluation in order to tally up potential benefits.

  8. Child Care Services Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    A companion document to the curriculum guide for a secondary level child care services curriculum, this handbook contains a variety of administrative and program resources for the teacher: The vocational curriculum outline for child care services; a calendar of suggested public relations activities; procedures for building child care services…

  9. Child Care Design Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Anita Rui

    This book provides architects, interior designers, developers, and child-care professionals with detailed information on the planning and design of child care centers. Part 1 examines the current state of child care in the United States and offers an overall philosophical concert--the spirit of place--as the framework for all center design. Part 2…

  10. Mother-Child Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joseph Chilton

    1994-01-01

    Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)

  11. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn Print A A A en español El ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a parent's ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  12. Your Child's Checkups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3- ... 2-Year-Old Your Child's Checkups KidsHealth > ... en español Las revisiones médicas de su hijo From your child's birth to young adulthood, you'll be visiting the ...

  13. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  14. Child Care Bulletin, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Marilyn, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document is comprised of six issues of the Child Care Bulletin, a bimonthly publication of the National Child Care Information Center. The January-February issue focuses on involving communities in child care planning. Topics discussed in this issue include: community mobilization strategies, assessing needs and establishing goals, and…

  15. How Nigeria built child survival themes into national television.

    PubMed

    Gleason, G

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Government of Nigeria's goal of providing universal child immunization, a strategy was developed to strengthen the production capacity of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) and to award higher priority to health issues in NTA programming. At the national level, a child survival-oriented training, coordination, and production unit was established to produce "spot messages" on primary health care. In 1985-86, radio and television staff from all Nigerian states attended workshops at which Ministry of Health officials outlined Nigeria's maternal-child health problems and emphasized the potential of the broadcast media in health education. Each station was linked with an officer in the local Ministry of Health to ensure ongoing collaboration on technical problems and health programs in need of promotion. Another set of state-level workshops brought together media producers and radio and television writers to encourage them to integrate primary health care themes into their programs. In addition, a Nigerian nongovernmental organization has organized workshops for electronic media writers and producers aimed at incorporating family planning themes into several popular television programs. In 1986, both NTA and the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria signed agreements further committing their networks to the child survival campaign. The Nigerian experience exemplifies the potential for creating and institutionalizing long-term efforts to use the mass media to bring new information to the general population on health-related issues. Needed at this point is more knowledge about specific communication strategies that are most effective in promoting sustainable behavioral change on the family and community levels in a country with much social and cultural diversity.

  16. Correlation between movement complexity during static standing and balance function in institutionalized older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Momoko; Ikezoe, Tome; Kamiya, Midori; Masaki, Mitsuhiro; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Sample entropy (SampEn) is an analysis to evaluate movement complexity of the center of pressure (COP). A lower value of SampEn indicates lower complexity of COP variability, that is, rigidity, and lower degrees of freedom. Previous studies reported the association of increased SampEn with improved standing balance ability in young subjects. However, no studies have examined these relationships among older adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between SampEn and standing balance ability in older adults. Subjects and methods The subjects were 33 institutionalized older adults (aged 82.2±6.5 years). COP during static standing was measured. The standard deviation (SD) values of COP and SampEn in the sagittal and frontal planes were calculated using time series data. One-leg standing test (OLST), functional reach (FR) test, and lateral reach (LR) test were also measured to evaluate standing balance ability. Results OLST, FR, and LR were 6.5±8.3 s, 19.8±5.9 cm, and 18.2±6.4 cm, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that SampEn in the sagittal plane significantly correlated with OLST (r=−0.35) and FR (r=−0.36). However, SampEn in the frontal plane and SD of COP in both sagittal and frontal planes had no relationship with any of the clinical balance tests. Conclusion Lower SampEn implies rigidity for postural control. In the present study, it was found that lower SampEn in the sagittal plane was related to a higher balance function, which suggests that older adults utilized body rigidity to maintain postural stability as a compensative strategy. PMID:28331301

  17. The effects of early foster care intervention on attention biases in previously institutionalized children in Romania.

    PubMed

    Troller-Renfree, Sonya; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-09-01

    Children raised in institutions experience psychosocial deprivation that can negatively impact attention skills and emotion regulation, which subsequently may influence behavioral regulation and social relationships. The current study examined visual attention biases in 8-year-old children who were part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). Relations among attention biases and concurrent social outcomes were also investigated. In early childhood, 136 children abandoned at birth or shortly thereafter into institutional care were randomized to receive a high-quality foster care intervention or care-as-usual within the context of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). At 8 years of age, 50 care-as-usual, 55 foster care, and 52 community controls performed a behavioral dot-probe task, and indices of attention biases to threat and positive stimuli were calculated. Concurrent data on social behavior were collected. Children placed into the foster care intervention had a significant attention bias toward positive stimuli, while children who received care-as-usual had a significant bias toward threat. Children in the foster care intervention had a significantly larger positive bias when compared to the care-as-usual group. A positive bias was related to more social engagement, more prosocial behavior, less externalizing disorders, and less emotionally withdrawn behavior. The magnitude of positive bias was predicted by age of placement into foster care among children with a history of institutionalization. An attention bias towards positive stimuli was associated with reduced risk for behavioral problems amongst children who experienced early psychosocial deprivation. Research assessing attention biases in children experiencing early environmental stress may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later psychiatric and social disorders and inform prevention efforts.

  18. The Clinical Presentation and Outcome of the Institutionalized Wandering Mentally Ill in India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nilima; Mehta, Ritambhara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are estimated 400,000 wandering mentally ill persons in India, found in poor physical state wandering on streets and railway stations; mainly treated either by government run Hospitals for Mental Health (HMH) or Psychiatry units of a Government Medical College (GMC). They require psychosocial rehabilitation along with treatment. Aim To study the presentation, clinical profile and rehabilitative outcome of wandering mentally ill admitted in government psychiatric care facilities. The objective was to establish them as a distinct psychiatric inpatient population requiring special attention. Materials and Methods The study was a chart review of all wandering mentally ill patients institutionalized during a period of two years in two distinct government facilities. Additionally, clinical staff was interviewed for cross checking the data and for eliciting problems faced in management. The discharged patients were contacted to assess the present status. Results Forty seven patients in HMH and 35 patients in GMC were studied. Wandering mentally ill patients were brought to mental health facility by helping person (30) and police (23). Majority of them (61) were picked up from streets and railway station. Most of them (56) belonged to <40 years age group and communication with them was difficult due to language barrier in 51. Diagnosed as Psychosis NOS (45) initially, they presented with poor physical condition, with positive viral markers (25) and pregnancy in females (4). Most common final diagnosis was schizophrenia (45) along with prominent negative symptoms and poor cognitive abilities. Forty three of them showed good improvement on treatment. Forty five gave their address; Relatives were found in 39 through police, post cards and social workers and were rehabilitated back to family. Conclusion Wandering mentally ill constitutes a unique patient population with specific challenges different from other inpatients in management and rehabilitation

  19. Psychiatry and Military Conscription in Brazil: The Search for Opportunity and Institutionalized Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique Pareja

    2010-01-01

    Since the fall of the Brazilian military dictatorship in 1984, a number of structural and ideological changes associated with demilitarization and democracy have changed the face of psychiatric theory and practice. Around the country, pockets of innovative, politically sensitive and Marxist-inspired community-based forms of “psi” practice are developing. This emergent psi movement is making a range of positive contributions to the lives of average citizens, including those of poor disenfranchized youth. This paper, however, explores one particular dimension of the work of psi practitioners that has proven antithetical to the psi community’s current politicized community-based aims. Based on qualitative and quantitative longitudinal ethnographic fieldwork with therapists and young men in Pelotas, this paper analyzes how certain kinds of psi interventions being carried out in schools for a subset of lower-class young men during their early teen years are encouraging some youth to seek military training as a life option. Although these young men initially had quite captivating, engaged and politicized—if also conflicting—interactions with therapists, their eventual disillusionment with their therapeutic and scholastic experiences resulted in high levels of social alienation and depoliticization. In these young men’s search for what can best be described as formulaic solutions to troubling psychological experiences associated with a tumultuous institutionalized transition to adulthood, military training came to represent a form of self-cultivation and self-therapy. Several youth also hoped military training would enable them to actively disengage with local political processes and find shelter from troubling social inequities and injustice. The paper ends by reviewing the implications of these results for the future of psi knowledge and practice in Brazil. PMID:18347961

  20. Risk-Taking and Sensation Seeking Propensity in Post-Institutionalized Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Loman, Michelle M.; Johnson, Anna E.; Quevedo, Karina; Lafavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Youth with histories of institutional/orphanage care are at increased risk for externalizing and internalizing problems during childhood and adolescence. Although these problems have been well described, the related adolescent behaviors of risk-taking and sensation seeking have not yet been explored in this population. This study examined risk-taking and sensation seeking propensity, and associations with conduct problems and depressive symptoms, in early adolescents who were adopted as young children from institutional care. Methods Risk-taking and sensation seeking propensities of 12- and 13-year-old post-institutionalized (PI; n=54) adolescents were compared to two groups: youth internationally adopted early from foster care (PFC; n=44) and non-adopted youth (NA; n=58). Participants were recruited to equally represent pre/early- and mid/late-pubertal stages within each group. Participants completed the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2007) and the Sensation Seeking Scale for Children (Russo et al., 1991). Parents completed clinical ratings of participants’ conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Results PI adolescents demonstrated lower risk-taking than PFC and NA peers. Pre/early-pubertal PI youth showed lower sensation seeking, while mid/late pubertal PI youth did not differ in from other groups. PI adolescents had higher levels of conduct problems but did not differ from the other youth in depressive symptoms. In PI youth only, conduct problems were negatively correlated with risk-taking and positively correlated with sensation seeking, while depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with both risk-taking and sensation seeking. Conclusions Early institutional care is associated with less risk-taking and sensation seeking during adolescence. The deprived environment of an institution likely contributes to PI youth having a preference for safe choices, which may only be partially reversed with puberty. Whether

  1. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Venkataraam; Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Managoli, Noopur A; Gugawad, Sachin C; Hitesh, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was planned to assess the dental caries status among disabled children as dental health is an integral part of general body health and this group is deprived of health care needs. Materials & Methods: A sample of 310 disabled children was gathered including 195- Hearing impaired, 115 – blind. Of which 226 were males and 84 were females. A study questionnaire was prepared to include demographic information and WHO oral health assessment form (1997) to record dental caries status.Data was analysed using student’s test and ANOVA test was used at p≤0.05. Results: The overall mean for DMFT scores for males and females was 2.11 (1.753) and 1.75 (1.275) respectively. Similarly overall mean for dft was 0.31 (0.254) for males and 0.27 (0.143) for females. Mean DMFT of blind students was more as compared to hearing impaired ones as 2.16 (2.005) and 1.80 (1.264) respectively. Age factor showed a significant increase in the mean DMFT scores with advancing age at p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Overall mean scores of caries was very high and it increased with increasing age. Blind children experienced more caries then hearing impaired children in permanent, whereas it was opposite in primary dentition. So there is urgent need of both comprehensive and incremental dental care for this subgroup of population. How to cite the article: Sanjay V, Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Managoli NA, Gugawad SC, Hitesh D. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):55-8. PMID:24653604

  2. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among non institutionalized elderly in Monastir City

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a major public health problem worldwide. This problem is particularly relevant to the elderly. The prevalence of each condition increase with age. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) among elderly; we also examined socio-economic factors and life style that are likely to be associated with DM. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008–2009, and used a multistage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample among non institutionalized elderly in Monastir City. A total of 598 elderly aged 65 to 95 years were included. Results The prevalence of DM was 27.4% (29.2% in males’ vs 26.5% in females). Elderly with DM showed higher prevalence of hypertension, obesity and abdominal obesity. DM prevalence decreased with advancing ages in both men and women. Urban residents had a higher prevalence than did their rural counterparts. In multivariate analysis, DM was associated with abdominal obesity (OR [95% CI], 2.6 [1.1-6]; p <0.01), co-existing diseases (3.8 [2.4-6]; p <0.01), and hypertension (2.7 [1.6-4.5] ; p <0.01). Conclusion The study highlights the DM problem in Tunisia. An ageing population together with social, economic and lifestyle changes have led to a dramatic increase in DM. These data emphasize the urgent need for a comprehensive integrated population-based intervention program to ameliorate the growing problem of DM. PMID:22898260

  3. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  4. Child Care and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, David B.; And Others

    The booklet examines child care as a major resource for the prevention of child abuse, and is intended to bring child care and child abuse workers together. An introductory section on child abuse is followed by an update on the family, including historical perspectives and a case study illustrating cooperation of parents and day care staff. A…

  5. Beginning Child Care Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, Pat

    These six fact sheets from Child Care Aware are designed to help parents ease their children's transition to child care. The first fact sheet, "Before Your Child's First Day," discusses tips such as: (1) "prepare your child"; (2) read and look at picture books about child care; and (3) "prepare yourself." The second fact sheet, "First Day Tips,"…

  6. Early Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agostino, Micheline

    1986-01-01

    This journal issue presents an overview of mother-child interaction during the first year of the child's life. Contents of the first section, which concern the development of the mother-child relationship, focus on the concept of the maternal instinct, mother and child during intrauterine life, birth of the child, the postnatal period (including…

  7. Child Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William C., Ed.

    Previously published articles on child development and learning are collected in this textbook for college students. Topics include cognitive development, achievement behavior, and social development. (SBT)

  8. Using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) for Predicting Institutionalization of Patients With Dementia in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Escorpizo, Reuben; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Chi, Wen-Chou; Yen, Chia-Feng; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is an assessment tool and it has been applied for disability status assessment of Taiwanese dementia patients since July 2012. The aim of this study was to investigate the predicting accuracy of WHODAS 2.0 for institutionalization of dementia patients. Of these patients, 13,774 resided in a community and 4406 in a long-term care facility. Demographic data and WHODAS 2.0 standardized scores were analyzed using the Chi-square test and independent t test to compare patients with dementia in an institution with those in a community. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to investigate accuracy in predicting institutionalization, and the optimal cutoff point was determined using the Youden index. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze variables to determine risk factors for the institutionalization of patients with dementia. WHODAS 2.0 scores in all domains were higher in patients with dementia in a long-term care facility than in those in a community (P < 0.01). The ROC curve showed moderate accuracy for all domains of WHODAS 2.0 (area under curve 0.6∼0.8). Binary logistic regression revealed that the male gender, severity of disease, and standardized WHODAS 2.0 scores surpassing the cutoff values were risk factors for the institutionalization of patients with dementia. Although the accuracy of WHODAS 2.0 in predicting institutionalization is not considerably high for patients with dementia, our study found that the WHODAS 2.0 scores, the male gender, education status, urbanization level, and severity of disease were risk factors for institutionalization in long-term care facilities. PMID:26632747

  9. Seasonal Variation in Mortality, Medical Care Expenditure and Institutionalization in Older People: Evidence from a Dutch Cohort of Older Health Insurance Clients

    PubMed Central

    Rolden, Herbert Jan Albert; Rohling, Jos Hermanus Theodoor; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background The mortality rates of older people changes with the seasons. However, it has not been properly investigated whether the seasons affect medical care expenditure (MCE) and institutionalization. Seasonal variation in MCE is plausible, as MCE rises exponentially before death. It is therefore important to investigate the impact of the seasons on MCE both mediated and unmediated by mortality. Methods Data on mortality, MCE and institutionalization from people aged 65 and older in a region in the Netherlands from July 2007 through 2010 were retrieved from a regional health care insurer and were linked with data from the Netherlands Institute for Social Research, and Statistics Netherlands (n = 61,495). The Seasonal and Trend decomposition using Loess (STL) method was used to divide mortality rates, MCE, and institutionalization rates into a long-term trend, seasonal variation, and remaining variation. For every season we calculated the 95% confidence interval compared to the long-term trend using Welch’s t-test. Results The mortality rates of older people differ significantly between the seasons, and are 21% higher in the winter compared to the summer. MCE rises with 13% from the summer to the winter; this seasonal difference is higher for the non-deceased than for the deceased group (14% vs. 6%). Seasonal variation in mortality is more pronounced in men and people in residential care. Seasonal variation in MCE is more pronounced in women. Institutionalization rates are significantly higher in the winter, but the other seasons show no significant impact. Conclusions Seasonal changes affect mortality and the level of MCE of older people; institutionalization rates peak in the winter. Seasonal variation in MCE exists independently from patterns in mortality. Seasonal variation in mortality is similar for both institutionalized and community-dwelling elderly. Policy-makers, epidemiologists and health economists are urged to acknowledge and include the impact of

  10. Using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) for Predicting Institutionalization of Patients With Dementia in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Escorpizo, Reuben; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Chi, Wen-Chou; Yen, Chia-Feng; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-11-01

    World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is an assessment tool and it has been applied for disability status assessment of Taiwanese dementia patients since July 2012. The aim of this study was to investigate the predicting accuracy of WHODAS 2.0 for institutionalization of dementia patients.Of these patients, 13,774 resided in a community and 4406 in a long-term care facility. Demographic data and WHODAS 2.0 standardized scores were analyzed using the Chi-square test and independent t test to compare patients with dementia in an institution with those in a community. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to investigate accuracy in predicting institutionalization, and the optimal cutoff point was determined using the Youden index. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze variables to determine risk factors for the institutionalization of patients with dementia.WHODAS 2.0 scores in all domains were higher in patients with dementia in a long-term care facility than in those in a community (P < 0.01). The ROC curve showed moderate accuracy for all domains of WHODAS 2.0 (area under curve 0.6~0.8). Binary logistic regression revealed that the male gender, severity of disease, and standardized WHODAS 2.0 scores surpassing the cutoff values were risk factors for the institutionalization of patients with dementia.Although the accuracy of WHODAS 2.0 in predicting institutionalization is not considerably high for patients with dementia, our study found that the WHODAS 2.0 scores, the male gender, education status, urbanization level, and severity of disease were risk factors for institutionalization in long-term care facilities.

  11. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p < 0.05). Values ≤50(th) percentile (age ≥81 years, BMI ≥26.7 kg/m(2), aerobic endurance ≤367.6 meters, and physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults.

  12. The effects of stretching on the flexibility, muscle performance and functionality of institutionalized older women.

    PubMed

    Gallon, D; Rodacki, A L F; Hernandez, S G; Drabovski, B; Outi, T; Bittencourt, L R; Gomes, A R S

    2011-03-01

    Stretching has been widely used to increase the range of motion. We assessed the effects of a stretching program on muscle-tendon length, flexibility, torque, and activities of daily living of institutionalized older women. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were according to Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (>13), Barthel Index (>13) and Lysholm Scoring Scale (>84). Seventeen 67 ± 9 year-old elderly women from a nursing home were divided into 2 groups at random: the control group (CG, N = 9) participated in enjoyable cultural activities; the stretching group (SG, N = 8) performed active stretching of hamstrings, 4 bouts of 1 min each. Both groups were supervised three times per week over a period of 8 weeks. Peak torque was assessed by an isokinetic method. Both groups were evaluated by a photogrammetric method to assess muscle-tendon length of uni- and biarticular hip flexors and hamstring flexibility. All measurements were analyzed before and after 8 weeks by two-way ANOVA with the level of significance set at 5%. Hamstring flexibility increased by 30% in the SG group compared to pre-training (76.5 ± 13.0° vs 59.5 ± 9.0°, P = 0.0002) and by 9.2% compared to the CG group (76.5 ± 13.0° vs 64.0 ± 12.0°, P = 0.0018). Muscle-tendon lengths of hip biarticular flexor muscles (124 ± 6.8° vs 118.3 ± 7.6°, 5.0 ± 7.0%, P = 0.031) and eccentric knee extensor peak torque were decreased in the CG group compared to pre-test values (-49.4 ± 16.8 vs -60.5 ± 18.9 Nm, -15.7 ± 20%, P = 0.048). The stretching program was sufficient to increase hamstring flexibility and a lack of stretching can cause reduction of muscle performance.

  13. Reducing aggressive and self-injurious behavior of institutionalized retarded children through reinforcement of other behaviors.

    PubMed

    Repp, A C; Deitz, S M

    1974-01-01

    Aggressive and self-injurious behaviors of four retarded children were reduced by combining various techniques with the differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO). In one study, aggressive responses of a severely retarded child were reduced when DRO was combined with a 30-sec timeout. In a second study, various aggressive classroom behaviors were reduced when the child was told "no" for an inappropriate response but earned puzzle pieces for periods of time when inappropriate responses resulted did not occur. Exchangeable tokens were given to a third subject for every 15 min in which aggressive responding did not occur, while each inappropriate response resulted in the loss of all tokens accrued. Responding was decreased to a level far below baseline. For a fourth child, self-injurious responses were followed by "no", and intervals of time in which no self-injurious responding occurred earned candy. The rate of this behavior reduced significantly. In each case, the DRO procedure combined with the other techniques proved to be manageable for the teacher and successful in reducing the inappropriate behavior.

  14. Talking to Your Child's Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... help you monitor your child's health explain your child's growth and development and what you can expect diagnose and treat ...

  15. Loss of a child - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Child death - resources; Resources - loss of a child ... The following organizations are good resources for information on the loss of a child: The Compassionate Friends -- www.compassionatefriends.org Bereaved Parents of the USA -- www.bereavedparentsusa. ...

  16. The Child Welfare Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  17. Child Wellness and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  18. Headstart for Every Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Annie L.

    An early learning kit provides a booklet of ten articles on educational head starts for children along with an activity packet for classroom use. The articles deal with: the crucial early school years; emotional preparation of the child; broadening a child's background; selecting toys and games; reading readiness; mathematical skills; learning to…

  19. Bullying and Your Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying happens every day in classrooms and on playgrounds all over the world. Parents, when faced with the fact that their child has become the target of a bully, experience a stream of emotions: anger, fear, the need to protect, and the realization that the child must go back to school or out to play and face the bully again the next day. Many…

  20. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  1. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  2. Building the Biocentric Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, David

    2002-01-01

    Advocates an environmentally congruent conception of child development and includes Montessori theory as part of a biocentric view where child development connects to the laws of nature. Explains orientations to the world informing development of a biocentric vision of childhood: mastery, immersion, and engagement. Discusses how mastery and…

  3. Every Child, Every Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  4. Protecting the Hoosier Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Presented are proceedings of a conference designed to provide a statewide forum for the exploration of the issues of child abuse and neglect, to maximize interdisciplinary communication as well as communication between the professional and lay communities of Indiana concerned with child protection, and to develop strategies for future coordinated…

  5. Child Development and Playgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Four major issues are explored in this study of child development research and its implications for children's playgrounds: (1) theories and philosophies of play; (2) the historical evolution of playgrounds; (3) research on child development, play, and playgrounds; and (4) creating playgrounds that meet children's developmental needs. Discussion…

  6. Child Safety Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

    This document presents a set of child safety curriculum guidelines intended to help prevent child victimization and to promote safer living and learning environments for children and adolescents across America. These guidelines were developed to help educators, law enforcement personnel, and members of other youth-serving agencies teach children…

  7. Tutoring Your Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Joanne

    The parents' role as teacher is important to a child's learning process. Parents tutoring their children are advised to remain positive and patient, be aware of the child's feelings, keep the tutoring time short, select a quiet place away from distractions, use games and manipulative objects rather than more abstract experiences, etc. Informal…

  8. Child Care Resource Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Jeanne, Comp.; Pennington, Marnee, Comp.

    "Child Care Resource Materials" is an annotated bibliography of books, films, and filmstrips on various topics related to the education and development of young children. Categories include: learning activities for children; caring for children - infants through adolescents and children with special needs; parent-child relationships; day care -…

  9. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  10. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  11. Child Development Associate. Child Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is to help the CDA intern understand the factors and principles which affect the total growth and development of children. Early sections of the module stipulate the module's competency-based objectives, define terms, and suggest procedures by which…

  12. Child Advocacy: Implications for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Brenda G.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the many diverse activities going on under the child advocacy label in order to determine if there was anything new or different about this phenomenon and to attempt some conceptual ordering of the field. Interviews were conducted with a number of people knowledgeable in children's service, and an attempt…

  13. Child maltreatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  14. How Institutionalized Are Model License Use Terms? An Analysis of E-Journal License Use Rights Clauses from 2000 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eschenfelder, Kristin R.; Tsai, Tien-I; Zhu, Xiaohua; Stewart, Brenton

    2013-01-01

    This paper explored the degree to which use terms proposed by model licenses have become institutionalized across different publishers' licenses. It examined model license use terms in four areas: downloading, scholarly sharing, interlibrary loan, and electronic reserves. Data collection and analysis involved content analysis of 224 electronic…

  15. High School E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, Part B, Institutionalized Facilities Program 1989-90. State Report. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    This report describes and evaluates high school programs funded under Chapter 1, Part B, of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA) and administered by the Institutionalized Facilities Program of the New York City Public Schools in 1989-90. The program is designed to address the educational needs of students in facilities for…

  16. Relationship of Level of Functioning of Institutionalized Women on a Task Analysis of Personal Care for Menstruation and the Adaptive Behavior Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Beverly W.; And Others

    A 40-item behavior analysis task, the Menstrual Care Scale, was developed and tested with 75 randomly selected institutionalized severely retarded women (13-59 years old). The need for developing personal care skills in menstruation habits had been identified as a priority area for sexuality instruction by staff and confirmed by analysis of…

  17. The Institutionalization of NSF-ADVANCE at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, K.

    2011-12-01

    proportion of women on the entire scientific staff, senior and junior (excluding postdoctoral scholars) has risen from 19% in 2005 to 27% in 2011. With the revised search processes, diversity in the applicant pool (defined as the number of women and/or racial minorities as a percent of the total number of applicants) increased dramatically, with 8 out of 10 searches over the period 2009-2010 showing a diversity of at least 70% in the applicant pool compared to an average diversity of less than 50% over the period 2007-2009. Of the new scientific hires in 2009-2010 almost half were either female or a racial minority. Postdoctoral scholars at LDEO have seen the greatest increase in racial diversity, from approximately 91% white in 2005 to 67% white in 2011. This group also has the most gender diversity at LDEO - approximately 47% female in 2011 up from 41% in 2005. Overall, the LDEO experience of institutionalizing ADVANCE has the potential to serve as a model for other scientific research institutions.

  18. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology.

  19. Toward Creating Synergy Among Policy, Procedures, and Implementation of Evidence-Based Models in Child Welfare Systems: Two Case Examples.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Patricia

    2017-03-01

    Over the past four to five decades, multiple randomized controlled trials have verified that preventive interventions targeting key parenting skills can have far-reaching effects on improving a diverse array of child outcomes. Further, these studies have shown that parenting skills can be taught, and they are malleable. Given these advances, prevention scientists are in a position to make solid empirically based recommendations to public child service systems on using parent-mediated interventions to optimize positive outcomes for the children and families that they serve. Child welfare systems serve some of this country's most vulnerable children and families, yet they have been slow (compared to juvenile justice and mental health systems) to adopt empirically based interventions. This paper describes two child-welfare-initiated, policy-based case studies that have sought to scale-up research-based parenting skills into the routine services that caseworkers deliver to the families that they serve. In both case studies, the child welfare system leaders worked with evaluators and model developers to tailor policy, administrative, and fiscal system practices to institutionalize and sustain evidence-based practices into usual foster care services. Descriptions of the implementations, intervention models, and preliminary results are described.

  20. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders.

  1. Preventive Home Visits for Mortality, Morbidity, and Institutionalization in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Grant, Sean; Burton, Jennifer; Parsons, Amanda; Underhill, Kristen; Montgomery, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Home visits for older adults aim to prevent cognitive and functional impairment, thus reducing institutionalization and mortality. Visitors may provide information, investigate untreated problems, encourage medication compliance, and provide referrals to services. Methods and Findings Data Sources: Ten databases including CENTRAL and Medline searched through December 2012. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials enrolling community-dwelling persons without dementia aged over 65 years. Interventions included visits at home by a health or social care professional that were not related to hospital discharge. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two authors independently extracted data. Outcomes were pooled using random effects. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality, institutionalization, hospitalization, falls, injuries, physical functioning, cognitive functioning, quality of life, and psychiatric illness. Results Sixty-four studies with 28642 participants were included. Home visits were not associated with absolute reductions in mortality at longest follow-up, but some programs may have small relative effects (relative risk = 0.93 [0.87 to 0.99]; absolute risk = 0.00 [−0.01 to 0.00]). There was moderate quality evidence of no overall effect on the number of people institutionalized (RR = 1.02 [0.88 to 1.18]) or hospitalized (RR = 0.96 [0.91 to 1.01]). There was high quality evidence for number of people who fell, which is consistent with no effect or a small effect (odds ratio = 0.86 [0.73 to 1.01]), but there was no evidence that these interventions increased independent living. There was low and very low quality evidence of effects for quality of life (standardised mean difference = −0.06 [−0.11 to −0.01]) and physical functioning (SMD = −0.10 [−0.17 to −0.03]) respectively, but these may not be clinically important. Conclusions Home visiting is not consistently associated with differences in mortality or

  2. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming. Images p452-a PMID:2507011

  3. A Psychodynamic Child Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    Research showing psychodynamic child therapy to be less effective than other forms of child treatment have used outcome measures focusing on symptomatic and behavioral change rather than on psychodynamic processes. A child therapy assessment procedure than measures the psychological functioning of the child in a psychodynamically meaningful way is…

  4. Child Abuse Amendments of 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The booklet presents the report of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor regarding the 1983 Child Abuse Amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978. The Amendment expands the definition of child abuse to include abuse by…

  5. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  6. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing anticipatory guidance and child maltreatment risk factor screening will be described. The modalities and strengths and weaknesses of community-based prevention programs will be discussed, and providers will be given tools to identify the effectiveness of available community-based programs. At a broader level, the article will describe ways that pediatricians can advocate at the local, state, and national level for policies and programs that support families and children. PMID:25242703

  7. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... C. §2256(8)) defines child pornography as any visual depiction, including any photograph, film, video, picture or ... sexually explicit conduct, where the: Production of the visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging ...

  8. Concussion - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000125.htm Concussion in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Your child was treated for a concussion . This is a mild brain injury that can ...

  9. Caffeine and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Caffeine and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Caffeine and ... 12-ounce (355-milliliter) can of soda. How Caffeine Affects Kids A stimulant that affects kids and ...

  10. Calcium and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... the nutrients needed, talk to your doctor about changing their diet or using vitamin supplements. continue Good ...

  11. Weaning Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... cup, or maybe even just a cuddle. Try changing your daily routine so that you're otherwise ...

  12. Toilet Teaching Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... when traveling, around the birth of a sibling , changing from the crib to the bed, moving to ...

  13. Child Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... contacting the manufacturer, or by looking up safety complaints records on your child's safety seat at www. ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  14. Disciplining Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Give your child one warning (unless it is aggression). If it happens again, send her to the ... are less likely to be consistent. Spanking increases aggression and anger instead of teaching responsibility. Parents may ...

  15. Your Child's Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding ... wear glasses and contacts. Keep these tips in mind for kids who wear glasses: Let kids pick ...

  16. Toilet Training Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... sitting on the potty chair, you may begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep ... education, patient information, potty training, stool soiling, timing method, toilet training Family Health, Infants and Toddlers January ...

  17. Child Labour in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The question of child labor in Africa is complicated by the failures of the educational system, family relations, traditional forms of apprenticeship, proliferation of the informal economic sector, and continuing existence of a rural economy. Hazardous working conditions prevail. (SK)

  18. Dental care - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... hygiene. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent . 10th ed. St. ... Updated by: Michael Kapner, DDS, general and aesthetic dentistry, Norwalk Medical Center, Norwalk, CT. Review provided by ...

  19. Your Child's Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual loss and whiteness in the pupil. Infantile cataracts can occur in newborns. A cataract is a clouding of the eye's lens. Congenital ... a child more likely to develop retinoblastoma or cataracts, may require kids to have eye exams at ...

  20. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    MedlinePlus

    ... snacks. The child athlete, however, will have higher energy and fluid requirements. Kids and teens who are ... consume more food to keep up with increased energy demands. Most athletes will naturally eat the right ...

  1. Well-child visits

    MedlinePlus

    ... listening to heart, breath, and stomach sounds) Heart sounds Infantile reflexes and deep tendon reflexes as the child gets older Neonatal jaundice -- first few visits only Palpation Percussion Standard ophthalmic exam Temperature measurement (see also normal body temperature ) Immunization information: ...

  2. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... For all questions please contact the AACAP Communications & Marketing Coordinator, ext. 154. If you need immediate assistance, please dial 911. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. ... {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  3. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  4. Scoliosis surgery - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... will use steel rods, hooks, screws, or other metal devices to straighten your child's spine and support ... will often be put in to replace them. Metal instruments, such as rods, screws, hooks, or wires ...

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF THE FIRST ONLINE CERTIFICATE AND MASTER PROGRAM OF BIOMEDICAL INFORMATICS IN GLOBAL HEALTH IN PERU

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia J.; Egoavil, Miguel S.; Blas, Magaly M.; Alvarado-Vásquez, Eduardo; Curioso, Walter H.; Zimic, Mirko; Castagnetto, Jesus M.; Lescano, Andrés G.; Lopez, Diego M.; Cárcamo, Cesar P.

    2017-01-01

    Training in Biomedical Informatics is essential to meet the challenges of a globalized world. However, the development of postgraduate training and research programs in this area are scarce in Latin America. Through QUIPU: Andean Center for Training and research in Iformatics for Global Health, has developed the first Certificate and Master’s Program on Biomedical Informatics in the Andean Region. The aim of this article is to describe the experience of the program. To date, 51 students from Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela have participated; they come from health ministries, hospitals, universities, research centers, professional associations and private companies. Seventeen courses were offered with the participation of faculty from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, USA, Mexico and Peru. This program is already institutionalized at the School of Public Health and Administration from the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. PMID:26338399

  6. [Development and institutionalization of the first online certificate and Master Program of Biomedical Informatics in global health in Peru].

    PubMed

    García, Patricia J; Egoavil, Miguel S; Blas, Magaly M; Alvarado-Vásquez, Eduardo; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andrés G; Lopez, Diego M; Cárcamo, Cesar P

    2015-01-01

    Training in Biomedical Informatics is essential to meet the challenges of a globalized world. However, the development of postgraduate training and research programs in this area are scarce in Latin America. Through QUIPU: Andean Center for Training and research in Iformatics for Global Health, has developed the first Certificate and Master’s Program on Biomedical Informatics in the Andean Region. The aim of this article is to describe the experience of the program. To date, 51 students from Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela have participated; they come from health ministries, hospitals, universities, research centers, professional associations and private companies. Seventeen courses were offered with the participation of faculty from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, USA, Mexico and Peru. This program is already institutionalized at the School of Public Health and Administration from the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia.

  7. Navy Child Care, 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    34 1. Reenlistment or Retention Intentions and Career Satisfaction --------------------------- 34 2. Number ( Present ...about how best to support those families arise. One family support system is the base child-care center. Does the Navy’s present child-care system...problems and experiences of Navy active-duty women. The results of this survey are presented in Chapter II. The second survey was of primary Navy

  8. Wormholes and Child Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guendelman, E. I.

    Evidence to the case that classical gravitation provides the clue to make sense out of quantum gravity is presented. The key observation is the existence in classical gravitation of child universe solutions or "almost" solutions, "almost" because of some singularity problems. The difficulties of these child universe solutions that are due to their generic singularity problems will be very likely be cured by quantum effects, just like for example "almost" instanton solutions are made relevant in gauge theories with the breaking of conformal invariance. Some well-motivated modifcations of general relativity where these singularity problems are absent even at the classical level are discussed. High energy density excitations, responsible for UV divergences in quantum field theories, including quantum gravity, are likely to be the source of child universes which carry them out of the original space-time. This decoupling could prevent these high UV excitations from having any influence on physical amplitudes. Child universe production could therefore be responsible for UV regularization in quantum field theories which take into account semiclassically gravitational effects. Child universe production in the last stages of black hole evaporation, the prediction of absence of trans-Planckian primordial perturbations, connection to the minimum length hypothesis, and in particular the connection to the maximal curvature hypothesis are discussed. Some discussion of superexcited states in the case these states such as Kaluza-Klein excitations are carried out. Finally, the possibility of obtaining "string like" effects from the wormholes associated with the child universes is discussed.

  9. Reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index among institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala (India): A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, Kuldeep Singh; Chauhan, Arunima; Koshy, Anitha Ann; Rekha, P.; Kumar, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral health has a profound effect on the daily activities of geriatric group. India being a multilingual country, it is essential that instruments used to evaluate the quality of life is in local languages. However, the validation and translational aspect are important before involving a larger cohort of geriatrics. Aim: To assess the reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-m). Settings and Design: Institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The 12 items in GOHAI were translated into Malayalam using a back-translation technique. The comprehensibility of the Malayalam version was assessed by a pilot study. Fifty institutionalized elderly answered the questionnaire. Impact based on age and marital status was also assessed. Statistical Analysis: Independent sample t-test, Cronbach's alpha, test–retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The mean GOHAI-m scores were higher for elderly participants with slightly more impact on quality of life such as for biting or chewing food, and lower mean GOHAI-m scores indicated a positive impact on quality of life such as their self-conscious of oral health. Cronbach's alpha of 0.677 was reached with 12 items. Item 12 had a negative item-total correlation, −0.016, the deletion of Item-12 increased the item correlation to 0.7. Test–retest reliability of 0.65 for ICC indicated moderate stability. Females had more impact than males (P < 0.05). Age and marital status had no impact on their quality of life. Conclusion: The primary analysis of GOHAI-m indicated moderate stability. The elimination of negative items depends on the objectives of the study and/or after conducting a larger study keeping in view various parameters of the study. PMID:27307659

  10. PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Charles H.

    1955-01-01

    Parents and doctors have an obligation to supply children with an emotional diet leading to their eventual maturity. This is as important to the child as is his physical guidance. The proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins of a child's emotional diet are: (1) the need for security; (2) the need to achieve social adaptability; (3) the need for success; and (4) the need for independence. In helping parents provide their children with these major guideposts along the road of character development toward maturity, physicians have a challenge and opportunity for real service to the humanities—a field of endeavor far behind science in human progress. PMID:14390004

  11. Nurturing a child's spirituality.

    PubMed

    Pfund, R

    2000-01-01

    Nurturing a child's spirituality should be an integral part of holistic care. The concept of spirituality is linked to the child's cognitive, social, psycho-sexual and moral development. Knowledge of childhood spirituality can help to support children coping with traumatic life-events. The expression of beliefs and feelings that encompass spirituality can be facilitated through literature and music and through other strategies. Educators need to empower professionals to have the awareness, emotional resources and skills to ensure that they can be spiritually supportive

  12. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  13. Kindergarten Child Care Experiences and Child Achievement and Socioemotional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessens, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Young children's experiences outside of both home and school are important for their development. As women have entered the labor force, child care has become an increasingly important context for child development. Child care experiences prior to school entry have been well-documented as important influences on children's academic and…

  14. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  15. Dateline Child Care: President Unveils Child Care Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Discusses such topics as President Bush's proposed low-income tax credits for child care; the Act for Better Child Care Services; the coming Americanization of child care in Great Britain; and state courts' upholding of church day care licensing exemptions. (BB)

  16. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  17. Concussion - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about concussion - child; Mild brain injury - what to ask your doctor - child ... school people I should tell about my child's concussion? Can my child stay for a full day? ...

  18. When to use the emergency room - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency department - child; Urgent care - child; ER - when to use ... How quickly does your child need care? If your child could die or be ... team come to you right away if you cannot wait, such as for: ...

  19. The day of surgery for your child

    MedlinePlus

    Same-day surgery - child; Ambulatory surgery - child; Surgical procedure - child ... The anesthesia and surgery team will talk with you and your child before surgery. You may meet with them at an appointment before ...

  20. Institutionalizing the evaluation of health programs and policies in France: "cuisine internationale" over fast food and "sur mesure" over ready-made.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Z M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe several chronological milestones in institutionalizing the evaluation of public programs and policies in France from a governmental perspective and in the health sector, situating such references in the international context. The institutional nature of evaluation implies integrating it into an action-oriented model, linking analytical activities to management, thus constituting the formulation of an evaluation policy for policy evaluation. The study focuses on issues related to the structure, practice, and utilization of evaluation results as well as other characteristics providing the French model with a certain resistance to traditional "fast-food" or "ready-made" methodological approaches. The institutionalization of sectorial evaluation appears more promising than that of the government's centralized channel, despite the work developed by a Scientific Evaluation Council, and suggests avenues for reflection and debate pertaining to the Brazilian Unified Health System.

  1. The institutionalization of biology in Mexico in the early 20th century: the conflict between Alfonso Luis Herrera (1865-1942) and Isaac Ochoterena (1885-1950).

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Mateos, Ismael; Barahona, Ana

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the role played by Alfonso Luis Herrera and Isaac Ochoterena in the institutionalization of academic biology in Mexico in the early 20th century. As biology became institutionalized in Mexico, Herrera's basic approach to biology was displaced by Isaac Ochoterena's professional goals due to the prevailing political conditions at the end of the 1929. The conflict arose from two different conceptions of biology, because Herrera and Ochoterena had different discourses that were incommensurable, not only linguistically speaking, but also socioprofessionally. They had different links to influential groups related to education, having distinct political and socioprofessional interests. The conflict between Herrera and Ochoterena determined the way in which professional biology education has developed in Mexico, as well as the advancement in specific research subjects and the neglect of others.

  2. Child Labor in America's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  3. Birth of a Second Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... seemed so difficult with your first child — breastfeeding, changing diapers, handling illness — will seem like second nature ...

  4. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard to please, aggressiveness Trouble sleeping Vague physical complaints CHILD NEGLECT These are examples of child neglect: ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  5. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 9 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ... bye" starts pointing to objects Movement and Physical Development sits without support, pulls to stand, and walks ...

  6. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions: Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Select Free Subscriptions This survey is powered by SurveyGizmo's online survey software . Please take my survey now Children’s Bureau Child ...

  7. Parent and Child Living Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushaw, David R.

    1978-01-01

    Parent and child living centers offer a program to improve parenting skills with areas of learning including child growth and development, family management, home care and repair, and personal growth and development. (MM)

  8. Child maltreatment: every nurse's business.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline

    2015-03-18

    Every nurse has a responsibility for protecting children, even nurses who do not work directly with children. However, nurses may be reluctant to deal with child maltreatment issues because they do not want to get things wrong or make a situation worse. The aim of this article is to assist nurses in their child protection role. It describes the different types of child maltreatment, the risk factors and potential consequences. The nurse's role in recognising and responding to suspected child maltreatment is discussed.

  9. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  10. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 15 Months A A A Toddlers this age are learning ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 15 Months Delayed Speech or Language Development Nutrition Guide for ...

  11. What Works in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger, Miriam P., Ed.; Alexander, Gina, Ed.; Curtis, Patrick A., Ed.

    Noting the importance of identifying the effectiveness of child welfare programs for future policy planning, this book examines features of successful programs. The book is presented in six sections: family preservation and family support services, child protective services, out-of-home care, adoption, child care, and adolescent services. Each…

  12. Early Child Care in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Alice; Komlosi, Sandor

    The theoretical conceptions of the child and the socialization processes involved in a socialist pedagogical theory are described in this monograph on early child care in Hungary. In emphasizing the partnership between family and state in the care of the young child, this book traces the central role played by government planning in the midst of…

  13. Child Care Health Connections, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Zamani, Rahman, Ed.; Evinger, Sara, Ed.; Dailey, Lyn, Ed.; Sherman, Marsha, Ed.; Oku, Cheryl, Ed.; Kunitz, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six 2002 issues of a bimonthly newsletter on children's health for California's child care professionals. The newsletter provides information on current and emerging health and safety issues relevant to child care providers and links the health, safety, and child care communities. Regular features include columns…

  14. Predictors of Child Caregiver Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Nancy Carnahan; Lowther, Malcolm

    This study examined the relationship between child caregiver commitment and the caregiver's personal characteristics and work experience, the characteristics of the job, and the quality of the child care center. Questionnaires that included several measurement instruments were sent to 381 full-time child caregivers in 94 centers. Caregiver…

  15. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 15 Months Print A A A en español ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 15 ... Speech or Language Development Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Safe Exploring for Toddlers ...

  16. The Only Child. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Karen

    Smaller families in general (including the one-child option) are becoming more popular. This ERIC Digest focuses on changing trends in family size, reasons for choosing to have only one child, differences between only children and those with siblings, and the advantages of being an only child. Changing family patterns, economic concerns, and new…

  17. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  18. The "Discovery" of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Stephen J.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys the history of social reaction to child abuse, discusses the cultural values promoting the protection of children, points out how much pediatric radiology benefited from its "discovery" of "the battered child syndrome" in the early sixties, and concludes that the labeling of child abusers as "sick" has shielded them from criminal…

  19. A Preventative Child Abuse Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Bette Unger; And Others

    This article describes the Child Development and Parenting Program (CDP), a preventative child abuse program that assists single women who are pregnant or have preschool children to cope constructively with the problems of single parenting. The short-term goals of the program, i.e., providing education in child development and parenting skills and…

  20. Fostering Mother-Child Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Lorraine

    1988-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the replication of the Mother Child Home Program by a Canadian child welfare agency in a rural setting to determine its effectiveness in fostering a positive emotional relationship between mother and child with families at risk of abuse and neglect. (BB)

  1. Child Care and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Unemployment has topped 7% nationally and economists predict it will approach 10% by 2010. Child care programs experience a trickle-down effect: when businesses cut back hours or lay people off, parents cut back child care hours or pull children from programs. "We're seeing more and more families lose their child care assistance and have nowhere…

  2. Campus Child Care News, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marion F., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of the three 1998 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the National Coalition for Campus Child Care Centers (NCCCC) and providing a forum for news, research, and information concerning campus child care centers. The February issue contains stories on the White House Conference on Child Care, registration…

  3. Nurturing the Whole Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Manya; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Ten articles considering ways in which to help in the development of the whole child address play, childhood fears, making children feel loved, how parents can help children learn, decision making, peer pressure, competition, sports, and reading materials for adolescents. (CB)

  4. The Migrant Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Manuel C.

    A migrant child is one who has moved with his family from one school district to another during the preceding 12 months so that a parent or other immediate family member might secure employment in agricultural or fishery activity. In California, the 92,000 migrants living in 48 of the state's 58 counties include Chicanos, Mexican Americans,…

  5. Measuring Child Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Elinor; Post, Brechtje; Astruc, Lluisa; Prieto, Pilar; Vanrell, Maria del Mar

    2012-01-01

    Interval-based rhythm metrics were applied to the speech of English, Catalan and Spanish 2, 4 and 6 year-olds, and compared with the (adult-directed) speech of their mothers. Results reveal that child speech does not fall into a well-defined rhythmic class: for all three languages, it is more "vocalic" (higher %V) than adult speech and…

  6. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... corner. Mentor Advocate Donate Parenting Tip of the Week – Know the Protective Factors Last week we wrote about recognizing warning signs of child ... Donate Our Latest Resources Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Knowing the Protective ...

  7. Literacy and Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Sandra Josephs

    Fourteen examples of "literacy events" in the reading development of one preschool-age boy are described by the boy's mother, a parent-researcher who conducted a case study of her son's interaction with his literate home environment. Field notes were kept in a household diary, and audiotapes were made of the child's storytelling and…

  8. Child Welfare Policy Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

  9. The Multiply Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, James M., Ed.; Anderson, Robert M., Ed.

    Articles presented in the area of the medical and educational challenge of the multiply handicapped child are an overview of the problem, the increasing challenge, congenital malformations, children whose mothers had rubella, prematurity and deafness, the epidemiology of reproductive casualty, and new education for old problems. Discussions of…

  10. The Gifted Dyslexic Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eide, Brock; Eide, Fernette

    2009-01-01

    A major reason why dyslexia is likely to be missed or mislabeled in an intellectually gifted child is the lack of a specific, clearly recognized definition to enable diagnosis of dyslexia. It's crucial that adults working with gifted students understand that average or even above reading comprehension does not by itself guarantee that a gifted…

  11. Understanding Fatal Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Ralph A.; Gaughan, Daniel C.

    1995-01-01

    Medical, social service, and coroner reports were reviewed for 14 cases of fatal child abuse and neglect identified at a children's hospital from 1988 to 1992. Median age was 6.5 months. Six families had prior protective service involvement (though four of these had involved a sibling). The cause of death in all cases was blunt impact head injury.…

  12. The Child Whisperer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Dane L.

    2012-01-01

    Unquestionably, Maria Montessori's insights into child development were both innate and learned, derived from her many years of working with children. Her work, practices, philosophy, and passion have staying power that, so far, spans a century and are a testament to her dedication and abilities. In this article, the author explains why he sees…

  13. No Child Left Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2003-01-01

    A court case involving a student classified as a child with a disability and her battle to be named valedictorian of her graduating class. Questions the district's determination that this gifted student needed special education and the grade inflation indicated by undue competition for the extra thousandth of a point GPA. (Contains 11 references.)…

  14. Who Is This Child?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    An Idaho education dean recounts a moving encounter with a fatherless first-grader while visiting his grandson in Eugene, Oregon. Envisioning a deadbeat dad and a burned-out mother, he pondered the statistical odds of this child graduating from college. However, the girl's warm welcome from her teacher helped revise his hopes about the little…

  15. Child Psychopathology, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Eric J.; Barkley, Russell A.

    This text integrates state-of-the-art theory and empirical research on a wide range of child and adolescent disorders. Featuring contributions from leading scholars and clinicians, the volume provides comprehensive coverage of the biological, psychological, and social-contextual determinants of childhood problems. Each chapter focuses on a…

  16. Child Study Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk County Public Schools, Bartow, FL.

    This manual from the Polk County Public Schools in Bartow, Florida, was developed for school personnel and parents to aid in their efforts to develop successful behavioral and academic interventions to enhance the educational outcomes for students. Section 1 describes the child study team which is comprised of an administrator, guidance counselor,…

  17. Feeding the Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary Ann Harvey, Ed.

    Presented are 35 brief papers on nutrition and handicapped children (particularly mentally retarded children) which were given at nutrition workshops at the Child Development Center of the University of Tennessee. Topics such as the following are examined: interdisciplinary approaches to nutrition services; the relationship of social work,…

  18. The Overscheduled Child?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Before all those extracurricular activities and community-service projects listed on college applications, there were play groups, library hours, Pop Warner football games, swimming lessons, ballet, drama, soccer. Not to mention preparation for high-stakes tests mandated by the No Child Left Behind law, or the mounting minutes, even hours, of…

  19. Your Child's Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be a sign of anxiety , depression , or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) . Nose Picking Nose picking appears to be ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How ...

  20. Child Care Center Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Health and Human Services, Lincoln.

    This guide enumerates regulations for anyone caring for four or more children, from families other than their own, for compensation and on a regular basis, in the state of Nebraska. The purpose of the regulations is to protect and promote the health and safety of children in child care facilities. The first section of the guide lists specific…

  1. Helping Your Overweight Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Currently, at least one child in five is overweight. Although children have fewer health problems from weight than adults, overweight children are at high risk for many health problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stroke. Several factors are cited as to why children become overweight. Genetics, lack of exercise, and…

  2. Child Development Associate. Musicology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    One of a series of 18, this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module provides a guide to promoting acute hearing and sound discrimination in young children through both group and self-selected music activities. Upon completion of this module the trainee is expected to be able to provide daily music experiences; emphasize enjoyment of and…

  3. Rights of the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Claude, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This newsletter examines problems and rights of Romani children in East Central Europe, focusing on such topics as: the displaced childhoods of Romani children; snapshots of living conditions in various European countries; Roma child rights; Romani and non-Romani schools in Bulgaria; Romani children's rights to education in Central and Eastern…

  4. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  5. The Hyperactive Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne

    1987-01-01

    The newsletter's main article focuses on hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder. The causes of hyperactivity, which affects 3-5 percent of all children, are elusive but may include neurological immaturity, inherent genetic problems, or fetal exposure to harmful substances. Patterns of behavior that typify a hyperactive child include a short…

  6. Is Every Child Gifted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runco, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines inclusive views of giftedness. It maintains that productivity requirements should be left out of definitions of giftedness since such requirements assume a gifted child has the expressive skills to support insights and that products can be accurately evaluated. Most important, the insistence on productivity ignores children with potential…

  7. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  8. Child Indicators: Dental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewit, Eugene M.; Kerrebrock, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews measures of dental health in children and the evidence on child dental health. Although children's dental health has improved over the past two decades, many poor children do not receive necessary dental health services, and reasons for this failure are summarized. (SLD)

  9. Parent-child Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlich, A. C., Ed.

    This survey investigates 6 major questions: (1) do adolescents and their parents perceive youth as overindulged; (2) are parent-child communication channels open; (3) has understanding between parents and their children broken down; (4) do children identify with their parents; (5) has discipline been permissive; and (6) do adolescents reject the…

  10. Child Care: A Level III Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    This report describes the state-mandated review of Florida's child care programs. Florida's community colleges offer a total of six different degree or certificate programs in child care: Child Development and Education; Child Care Center Management; Child Development Early Intervention; Child Care Provider (discontinued in 98-99); Early Childhood…

  11. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.

  12. The Relationships between Child Temperament, Teacher-Child Relationships, and Teacher-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oren, Meral; Jones, Ithel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between child temperament, teacher-child relationships, and teacher-child interactions in four preschool classrooms. The preliminary analyses revealed classroom differences for all variables. In all the classrooms except one, the temperament factor Reactivity had positive and high…

  13. [Muscle mass, muscle strength, and other functionality components in institutionalized older adults from Gran Caracas-Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Barbosa Murillo, J A P; Rodríguez, N G; Hernández H de Valera, Y M; Hernández, R A; Herrera, H A

    2007-01-01

    The present study has as objective to describe behavior of the different components of functionality and muscular mass, in institutionalized older people. Because levels of muscular mass have been associated with reduced levels of force, activity, functionality, depression of the immune function and increase of the morbidity and mortality risk. Were evaluated 152 elderly people older than 60 years old, men and women, of 14 geriatric centers of the Gran Caracas. Anthropometrical variable was measured to value the muscular mass and the body mass index. It was evaluated: hand isometric force, walking time 4.88 m and getting up of a seat. Descriptive statistic was carried out for all the variables, t of Student, Anova and Scheffé. It was observed that 80 years older elderly as well as, women present higher levels of disability, performed motor activities (to walk and to get up of a seat and a impair in physical conditions (lean mass and muscular strength) that interfere with functional status.

  14. [From fantasy to reality: understanding the way of playing of institutionalized children victims of violence through therapeutic play].

    PubMed

    Giacomello, Karina Jorgino; Melo, Luciana de Lione

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research is based on the reference framework of Phenomenology--analysis of the structure of the situated phenomenon, and aims to understand institutionalized children victims of violence through therapeutic play sessions. Participants were three sheltered children of preschool age, one boy and two goals. The therapeutic play sessions of the drama type were held in a reserved place and ranged from 30 to 50 minutes, using the following guiding proposal: "Let us play that we are children who live at the shelter?" Two broad theme categories could be captured: playing and pretending and playing and reality. When they are pretending while playing, sometimes calmly, sometimes violently, the children brought contents that evidenced situations in their daily family reality. When they expose their reality, the children addressed questions about the shelter institution and the bond with these professionals and with the relatives. It can be affirmed that therapeutic play allowed for the children's effective communication by expressing their feelings, desires, experiences, criticism against the environment they live in and family relations, besides permitting a moment of pleasure and relaxation.

  15. Assessing the risk of imminent aggression in institutionalized youth offenders using the dynamic appraisal of situational aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chi Meng; Hoo, Eric; Daffern, Michael; Tan, Jolie

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior in incarcerated youth presents a significant problem for staff, co-residents and the functioning of the institution. This study aimed to examine the predictive validity of an empirically validated measure, designed to appraise the risk of imminent aggression within institutionalized adult psychiatric patients (Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression; DASA), in adolescent male and female offenders. The supervising staff members on the residential units rated the DASA daily for 49 youth (29 males and 20 females) over two months. The results showed that DASA total scores significantly predicted institutional aggression in the following 24 and 48 hrs; however, the predictive validity of the DASA for institutional aggression was, at best, modest. Further analyses on male and female subsamples revealed that the DASA total scores only predicted imminent institutional aggression in the male subsample. Item analyses showed that negative attitudes, anger when requests are denied, and unwillingness to follow instructions predicted institutional aggression more strongly as compared with other behavioral manifestations of an irritable and unstable mental state as assessed by the DASA. PMID:25999797

  16. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Short Form Berg Balance Scale in institutionalized elderly people.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Short Form Berg Balance Scale in institutionalized elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 30 elderly people in a nursing facility in Y city, South Korea, participated in this study. Two examiners administered the Short Form Berg Balance Scale to one subject to investigate inter-rater reliability. After a week, the same examiners administered the Short Form Berg Balance Scale once more to investigate intra-rater reliability. [Results] The intra-rater reliability was 0.83. The inter-rater reliability was 0.79. Both reliabilities were high (more than 0.7). [Conclusion] The Short Form Berg Balance Scale is a version of the Berg Balance Scale shortened by reducing the number of items, but its reliabilities were not lower than those of the Berg Balance Scale. The Short Form Berg Balance Scale can be useful clinically due to its short measurement time.

  17. Trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FRAXE locus is not common among institutionalized individuals with non-specific developmental disabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, J.J.A.; Julien-Inalsingh, C.; Fidler, K.

    1996-08-09

    Expansion of a polymorphic GCC-repeat at the FRAXE locus has been associated with expression of chromosome fragility at this site and cognitive impairment in some individuals previously testing negative for CGG-repeat expansion in the fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) gene. To determine the frequency of FRAXE triplet repeat expansion among persons with developmental disability, 396 individuals from two institutions were studied, all of whom were negative for FMR1 repeat expansion. Clinically, there was a wide range of mental impairment, with the majority (61.1%) being severely to profoundly affected. The distribution of FRAXE GCC-repeat numbers in the study population was 5-38:28 (5.6%) with 10-14 repeats; 366 (73.8%) with 15-19 repeats; 74 (14.9%) with 20-24 repeats; 20 (4.0%) with 25-29 repeats; and 5 (1.0%) with 30-38 repeats, with no individuals demonstrating repeat expansion. One profoundly retarded male was found to have a deletion of about 40 bp. Southern blots of HindIII-digested DNAs from individuals with {ge}26 repeats all showed normal patterns. These results suggest that FRAXE GCC-repeat expansion is not a common cause of developmental disability in institutionalized persons with mild to profound mental retardation. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Child Health in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Teresa; Ferreira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Inês

    2016-10-01

    Portugal has experienced rapid decline of neonatal and infant mortality in the last century, similar to that of other western European states. The joint venture of pediatricians and obstetricians with adequate top-down government commissions for maternal and child health for the decision making by health administrators and a well-defined schedule of preventive and managerial measures in the community and in hospitals are the most likely explanations for this success. Another achievement of child health care services is the registry for special diseases. Education of health care workers plays a fundamental role in improving health statistics. Portugal has a reasonable number of doctors, nurses, and health technicians per capita. Quality assurance monitoring systems and implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines with digital records, including international coding, are essential steps to improve health care systems.

  19. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families.

  20. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Child passenger safety has dramatically evolved over the past decade; however, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death of children 4 years and older. This policy statement provides 4 evidence-based recommendations for best practices in the choice of a child restraint system to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence: (1) rear-facing car safety seats for most infants up to 2 years of age; (2) forward-facing car safety seats for most children through 4 years of age; (3) belt-positioning booster seats for most children through 8 years of age; and (4) lap-and-shoulder seat belts for all who have outgrown booster seats. In addition, a fifth evidence-based recommendation is for all children younger than 13 years to ride in the rear seats of vehicles. It is important to note that every transition is associated with some decrease in protection; therefore, parents should be encouraged to delay these transitions for as long as possible. These recommendations are presented in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate implementation of the recommendations by pediatricians to their patients and families and should cover most situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics urges all pediatricians to know and promote these recommendations as part of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit.

  1. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  2. Parental fear of negative child evaluation in child social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Sina-Simone; Heinrichs, Nina

    2010-12-01

    Parental anxiety has been linked to child anxiety in various studies. However, specific mechanisms responsible for this relationship in the context of child social anxiety are still largely unknown. A potential mediator between parental and child social anxiety may be parental fear of negative child evaluation (FNCE). To investigate this concept, we collected self-reported data from families with 9- to 16-year old children in a non-clinical sample (458 mother-child dyads and 336 father-child dyads). While both paternal and maternal FNCE predicted child social anxiety, only maternal FNCE mediated the association between maternal and child social anxiety. Maternal report of FNCE was also found to mediate the association between maternal social anxiety and general childhood emotional problems but not externalising problems. Overall, this study is the first to identify a mediator variable that may explain the association between mother and child social anxiety in school-age children. The results shed new light on the mechanisms by which fear and anxiety may be transmitted across generations.

  3. Hip fracture causes excess mortality owing to cardiovascular and infectious disease in institutionalized older people: a prospective 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Ian D; Chen, Jian Sheng; March, Lyn M; Simpson, Judy M; Cumming, Robert G; Seibel, Markus J; Sambrook, Philip N

    2010-04-01

    An increasing risk of death after hip fracture has been well documented, but the duration and causes remain unclear, especially in very frail older people. This is a nested case-control study of 229 hip fracture cases and 229 controls matched by age, gender, institution type, and follow-up period from a cohort of 2005 institutionalized older people. The residents were assessed at baseline and followed up for hip fracture and death for at least 5 years. Time to death was measured from the same time for each case (time of the hip fracture) and the matched control. The study sample consisted of 90 males and 368 females with a mean age of 86 years (range 67 to 102 years). The hazard ratio (HR) of death for the cases compared with the controls was 3.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.83-5.22, p < .001] for the first 3 months, 1.99 (95% CI 1.13-3.51, p = .02) for the period of 3 to 9 months, and 0.88 (95% CI 0.64-1.22, p = .46) for the period beyond 9 months following a fracture, after adjusting for age, gender, institution type, weight, immobility, cognitive function, comorbidities, and number of medications. The main causes of the excess mortality in the first 9 months were infections (HR = 6.66, 95% CI 1.95-22.77, p = .002) for females and cardiac disease (HR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.39-5.15, p = .003) for both males and females. Bisphosphonate use was associated with a reduction in mortality after hip fracture (p = .002). Intensive medical supervision to reduce cardiovascular and infective complications should be provided for frail older people with recent hip fracture to reduce mortality.

  4. The institutionalization of pharmaceutical administration after the korean liberation: focusing on regulating the pharmaceutical affairs law(yaksabeop) in 1953.

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    pharmaceutical disputes such as pharmacist voluntary prescription, the separation of pharmacy and clinic, the compounding of traditional medicines, and the traditional pharmacist system. However, it was meaningful that the law was the turning point of the institutionalization of pharmaceutical administration after the Korean Liberation.

  5. Predictors, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, of all-cause mortality among institutionalized individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were examined among institutionalized people with ID. This retrospective cohort study involved 316 participants (191 males, 125 females; mean age, 36.5 ± 10.5 years) at a public facility for people with ID in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. During the follow-up from the examination day in 1984-1992 through December 31, 2007 (mean follow-up, 18.6 years), 44 deaths occurred. Mean age at death was 47.1 ± 10.0 years (range, 22.3-65.3 years). Early deaths within three years (n = 4) were treated as censored cases. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all-cause mortality. Sex- and age-adjusted analysis (p<0.15) revealed positive associations with mortality for high serum cholesterol, high thymol turbidity test (TTT), and glucosuria and negative associations with mortality for high serum albumin, high uric acid, high potassium, high calcium, and high systolic blood pressure. Multivariate analysis revealed that male sex (HR, 4.11; 95% CI, 1.59-10.59), high serum cholesterol (1.01; 1.00-1.02), high serum TTT (1.21; 1.03-1.41), and epilepsy significantly increased the mortality risk. The results indicate that the predictors of life expectancy for people with ID included both factors that are shared with healthy people (male sex, high serum cholesterol) and factors specific to people with disabilities (high serum TTT and epilepsy).

  6. Cutaneous manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Kos, Liborka; Shwayder, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Dermatologists and child abuse are not frequently associated in the minds of most physicians. Yet the most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous. This article reviews cutaneous manifestations of physical abuse, including bruises, lacerations, abrasions, human bites, and burns. It also discusses ways that dermatologists can differentiate abusive injuries from accidental ones as well as from the many dermatologic conditions that can mimic child abuse. Finally, we review what actions the dermatologist should take when suspecting abuse in a patient.

  7. Child Care in 1976: Goals and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provence, Sally

    Goals for future child care services are discussed in this address. It is stressed that social service agencies should consider the family as a unit in providing flexible child care services. Other goals include: (1) tailoring child care programs to parent development as well as child development, (2) insuring that child care workers are motivated…

  8. Struggle for the Soul: John Lawrence Childs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallones, Jared

    2010-01-01

    John Lawrence Childs was born in Eau Claire, Wisconsin on January 11, 1889, the second child of John Nelson Childs and Helen Janette (Nettie) Smith. In childhood Childs absorbed the values of industry, democracy, and a traditional, but socially conscious, religion. Childs was a Methodist and an intensely private person not given to talking about…

  9. 38 CFR 3.57 - Child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of determining entitlement of benefits based on a child's school attendance, the term child of the... exercise parental control and responsibility for the welfare and care of the child. A child of the veteran... benefits. (2) The term person legally responsible for the child's support means a person who is under...

  10. Child Care-Who Needs It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Margaret

    "Child care" is a phrase which has become inextricably linked with the political, economic, and social policies of Australian society. Antagonists and protagonists of child care have put forth arguments against and for child care, respectively, over the past two decades. Supporters of child care have variously viewed child care as a…

  11. Child physical abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited.

  12. Child neglect: assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Neglect is often a neglected form of child maltreatment even though it is the most common and deadliest form of child maltreatment. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter neglected children in their practice. It is crucial that PNPs recognize child neglect in a timely manner and intervene appropriately. This continuing education article will help PNPs understand and respond to child neglect. Neglect will be defined and risk factors will be discussed. Children who are neglected can experience serious and lifelong consequences. The medical assessment and plan of care for children with concerns of suspected neglect will be discussed.

  13. Skin manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ermertcan, Aylin Turel; Ertan, Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

  14. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    MedlinePlus

    Pruritus vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... vagina or the skin around the vagina. Vaginal yeast infection . Vaginitis . Vaginitis in girls before puberty is ...

  15. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States—so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children’s wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education—a key indicator of both economic and social resources—than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don’t have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation’s effects are tied to a child’s age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family

  16. Mother-child disagreement in reports of child anxiety: effects of child age and maternal anxiety.

    PubMed

    Niditch, Laura A; Varela, R Enrique

    2011-04-01

    The present study examined effects of maternal anxiety, child age, and their interaction on mother-child anxiety reporting disagreement while taking into account the direction of each informant's report relative to the other. Participants were 41 dyads of mothers and clinically anxious children aged 7-13. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant interaction between maternal anxiety and child age (β = .30, p < .05). A graph of this interaction indicated that when maternal anxiety is high and the child is older, maternal report of anxiety is relatively higher, and when maternal anxiety is high and the child is younger, child report of anxiety is relatively higher. When maternal anxiety is low, the reporting discrepancy is relatively stable across age. Results may help explain previous mixed findings regarding effects of age and maternal anxiety on reporting discrepancies. Possible explanations for these results are discussed.

  17. Child health in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I

    2009-11-01

    Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children.

  18. Advocacy and child neglect.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Scott D

    2014-11-01

    Pediatricians have a unique opportunity to intervene in the lives of children to identify and to prevent neglect. While it remains important to care for individual patients affected by neglect, the ecological model of child neglect requires intervention at the parent, family, community, and societal levels. Pediatricians can improve the outcomes for children by advocating for policies and interventions at each level. Effective advocacy principally requires the willingness to tackle broader issues beyond individual clinical care. Working with local, state, and national organizations, pediatricians can contribute a unified voice to promote evidence-based policies and programs that improve the well-being of children.

  19. Can Doll therapy preserve or promote attachment in people with cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems? A pilot study in institutionalized patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Pezzati, Rita; Molteni, Valentina; Bani, Marco; Settanta, Carmen; Di Maggio, Maria Grazia; Villa, Ivan; Poletti, Barbara; Ardito, Rita B

    2014-01-01

    Doll therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention aimed at reducing behavioral and psychological disorders in institutionalized patients with dementia. This therapy as a care tool has been integrated into the context of long-term care institutions, in which the need to find solutions to cognitive, behavioral and emotional problems showed by people with dementia meets the primary objective of developing good care practices focusing on patients and their needs. In the present work we adopt the Bowlby's theory of attachment to investigate the effectiveness of Doll therapy. The hypothesis that we here propose is that the emotional experience of the person with dementia during Doll therapy activates caregiving and exploration systems together with the attachment one. To test this hypothesis we compared institutionalized patients with dementia undergoing Doll therapy with a control group and assessed measures of the relational dimension with the environment, such as gaze direction, behaviors of exploration, and behaviors of caregiving. We used an experimental protocol consisting of 10 non-consecutive sessions structured with the goal of recreating a situation of (1) separation from a known figure and (2) interaction with the environment in order to partially recreate the prototypical phases of the "Strange situation." All sessions were videotaped and analyzed through an observational grid. Results support the effectiveness of Doll therapy in promoting and maintaining the affective-relational dimension of attachment-caregiving and the attentive dimension of exploration in patients with advanced stage of dementia. Thus, our results suggest that the use of Doll therapy promotes clinically significant improvements in the ability to relate with the surrounding world. This may be important for managing and caring for patients with dementia in institutionalized context.

  20. Can Doll therapy preserve or promote attachment in people with cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems? A pilot study in institutionalized patients with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pezzati, Rita; Molteni, Valentina; Bani, Marco; Settanta, Carmen; Di Maggio, Maria Grazia; Villa, Ivan; Poletti, Barbara; Ardito, Rita B.

    2014-01-01

    Doll therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention aimed at reducing behavioral and psychological disorders in institutionalized patients with dementia. This therapy as a care tool has been integrated into the context of long-term care institutions, in which the need to find solutions to cognitive, behavioral and emotional problems showed by people with dementia meets the primary objective of developing good care practices focusing on patients and their needs. In the present work we adopt the Bowlby’s theory of attachment to investigate the effectiveness of Doll therapy. The hypothesis that we here propose is that the emotional experience of the person with dementia during Doll therapy activates caregiving and exploration systems together with the attachment one. To test this hypothesis we compared institutionalized patients with dementia undergoing Doll therapy with a control group and assessed measures of the relational dimension with the environment, such as gaze direction, behaviors of exploration, and behaviors of caregiving. We used an experimental protocol consisting of 10 non-consecutive sessions structured with the goal of recreating a situation of (1) separation from a known figure and (2) interaction with the environment in order to partially recreate the prototypical phases of the “Strange situation.” All sessions were videotaped and analyzed through an observational grid. Results support the effectiveness of Doll therapy in promoting and maintaining the affective-relational dimension of attachment-caregiving and the attentive dimension of exploration in patients with advanced stage of dementia. Thus, our results suggest that the use of Doll therapy promotes clinically significant improvements in the ability to relate with the surrounding world. This may be important for managing and caring for patients with dementia in institutionalized context. PMID:24795682

  1. Mother-Child Relationship, Child Fearfulness, and Emerging Attachment: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna

    1998-01-01

    Examined mother-child relationship and child fearfulness at 8-10 months and 13-15 months in relation to child attachment at 13-15 months. Found that the mother-child relationship, and 13-15 months only, predicted child security versus insecurity but not the type of insecurity. Child fearfulness was unrelated to security versus insecurity, but…

  2. Prevalence and Development of Child Delinquency. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Espiritu, Rachele C.; Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuk, David

    The number of child delinquents entering the juvenile justice system is increasing, as evidenced by rising arrest rates and court caseloads. Compared with adolescents who become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents between the ages of 7 and 12 have a two- to threefold greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic…

  3. Child-to-Child Evangelism Hits on Parents' Religious Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Rob

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the "child-to-child evangelism" technique designed by evangelist Franklin Graham to convert America's children to his brand of Christianity. Starting in local public schools, Graham put out this plan whereby children could study evangelism techniques over the Internet and then march into their schools to…

  4. Conceptions of Child Growth and Learning. Part One: The Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Evelyn

    1972-01-01

    Child development literature suggests that the child is neither merely a victim of his biological nature nor of his environmental history. Educational programs should, therefore, be built on the concept of a dynamically active learner constantly interacting with his environment. (Author/JF)

  5. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  6. 75 FR 38611 - Child Support Enforcement Program; Intergovernmental Child Support

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... families by ensuring that parents support their children even when they live apart. Payment of child... child support enforcement are compounded when parents reside in different jurisdictions and the.... This number does not include cases where a single State established or enforced a support...

  7. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices wou...

  8. Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000184.htm Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - child To use ... with your child's doctor about the type of anesthesia that will be best for your child. Below ...

  9. Grieving the Loss of a Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... child or feeling your child's presence nearby Intense loneliness and isolation—even when around other people—and ... who are grieving Parents are the focus of attention when a child dies, and the grief of ...

  10. Will the Child be Normal? Ask Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reports that a mother's perception of her newborn infant frequently predicts how well the child will adjust in later childhood. The more positive the mother perceives the child, the more emotionally healthy the child will later become. (SL)

  11. Child abuse by drowning.

    PubMed

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E

    1989-01-01

    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  12. Modern-Day Child Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Glind, Hans; Kooijmans, Joost

    2008-01-01

    Child slavery is a contemporary global problem existing since ancient times. The concept of slavery and practices similar to it are defined in a range of international instruments. Children are particularly vulnerable to slavery-like practices, and their special plight is addressed by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC-in particular…

  13. Infant Child Care. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee

    This ERIC Digest briefly reviews studies of maternal employment, child care settings, and links between children's development and family and child care influences. Studies of maternal employment suggest that infants' positive relationships with caregivers may compensate for insecure attachments with mothers. If future research supports this…

  14. Child Mortality: A Preventable Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seipel, Michael M. O.

    1996-01-01

    Worldwide data reveal that child mortality (ages 1-5) accounts for about 10-15% of all deaths in developing countries, and less than 1% of all deaths in developed countries. Strategies for reducing child mortality include improving health services, improving environmental conditions, enhancing the social conditions of children, and protecting and…

  15. Help Your Child Get Organized

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have your child gather the supplies where the work will take place. As the project progresses, show your child how ... kind way, that you expect your kids to work on these skills and that you'll be there ... the natural place to begin. Get Comfortable in Your Role For ...

  16. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fern, Tami L.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  17. The Shy Child. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyson, Marion C.; Van Trieste, Karen

    This ERIC digest: (1) describes types and manifestations of shyness among children; (2) briefly reviews research on genetic, temperamental, and environmental influences on shyness; (3) distinguishes between normal and problematic shyness; and (4) suggests ways for parents and teachers to help the shy child by accepting the whole child, building…

  18. Child Labour Remains "Massive Problem."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World of Work, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Despite significant progress in efforts to abolish child labor, an alarming number of children are engaged in its worst forms. Although 106 million are engaged in acceptable labor (light work for those above the minimum age for employment), 246 million are involved in child labor that should be abolished (under minimum age, hazardous work). (JOW)

  19. Indian Child Welfare in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

    This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

  20. Toilet Training the Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jeffrey K.

    The booklet offers guidelines in both Spanish and English to parents who are toilet training a mentally retarded child. The toilet training process is broken down into tasks that the child must learn, and the importance of positive reinforcement for each successfully accomplished task is emphasized. It is recommended that parents keep charts…

  1. The Child's Experience of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Iser, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the agreement between parent- and child-reported quality of life (QoL) and the self-perceptions of children with ADHD. Method: A cross-sectional survey of school-aged children with ADHD and their parents was undertaken. Results: Parents reported their child's QoL as lower than the children rated…

  2. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  3. Subsidizing Success with Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groginsky, Scott; McConnell, Laurie

    1998-01-01

    Examines how states are responding to the increased need for quality child care and the funding issues raised by the costs of such care. Includes sidebars discussing federal child-care proposals, differential reimbursement rates, and programs for families with a stay-at-home parent. (HTH)

  4. Selecting Child Care Administrative Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Offers advice on the selection of child care administrative software. Directors should consider needs, computer experience, budget, time, and temperament, and should also ask lots of questions and test demo versions. Choices range from custom programs and existing business products to child care administrative software packages. Includes directory…

  5. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 6 Months A A A Notice your baby doing anything new? Big strides in development are happening this month. That's because the left side of the brain ...

  6. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 2 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 2 Months A A A Your baby develops from head ... some new skills your baby may have this month: Communication and Language Skills develops more distinct cries ...

  7. Illinois: Child Care Collaboration Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Child Care Collaboration Program promotes collaboration between child care and other early care and education providers, including Early Head Start (EHS), by creating policies to ease blending of funds to extend the day or year of existing services. While no funding is provided through the initiative, participating programs may take…

  8. New Forces Shaping Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    In an address to local, state, regional, and national groups involved with child care, characteristics of some of the programs are explained in an effort to develop a broad based national coalition for a system of universally available child care. Head Start, Title IV-A of the Social Security Act (amended) day care, and church-related day care…

  9. Child Abuse Prevention Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    Intended to heighten public awareness and provide practical information to professionals, this handbook defines and describes child abuse (including sexual abuse) and its associated signs and injuries. The societal and family environments in which child abuse most typically occurs are described, and the California penal code sections pertaining to…

  10. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael…

  11. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  12. Child Development and Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Bettye M.

    1983-01-01

    Each child is to some extent like all children, to some extent like some children, and to some extent like no other child. There are at least three sets of universals that characterize children: (1) they have the same needs and rights; (2) they go through the same developmental stages; and (3) they have essentially the same developmental goals,…

  13. Valuing Your Child Care Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsmeier, Dave; Richards, Dick; Routzong, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Offers guidelines for putting a monetary value on a child care business. Discusses reasons for valuing the business, types of valuations (book, liquidation, and fair market), fair market valuation formulas, the corporate valuation, valuing assets included in a sale, and using experts. Also offers several tips for selling a child care business. (EV)

  14. What Are Good Child Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Evans, V. Jeffery; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Roth, Jodie

    This paper considers the question "What are good child outcomes?" from the perspectives of developmental psychology, economics, and sociology. Section 1 of the paper examines good child outcomes as characteristics of stage-salient tasks of development. Section 2 emphasizes the acquisition of "human capital," the development of productive traits…

  15. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 6 Months Print A A A en español El desarrollo ... new? Big strides in development are happening this month. That's because the left side of the brain ...

  16. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 9 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 9 Months Print A A A en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 9 meses Nine-month-olds have a new understanding of the world. ...

  17. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 2 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 2 Months Print A A A en español El desarrollo ... some new skills your baby may have this month: Communication and Language Skills develops more distinct cries ...

  18. Child Abuse Intervention: Prescriptive Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchter, Arnold

    Written from a criminal justice perspective, the report on child abuse intervention provides a model system that emphasizes prompt medical treatment for the child and due process for both parents and children. The authors recommend that court action take the form of a civil proceeding whenever possible. Part I provides a framework for the…

  19. Child Abuse: Educator's Responsibilities. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This document presents the educator with a guide to child abuse. A section defining child abuse examines the issues of physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment. Areas discussed for these types of abuse include abuse indicators, location of injury, history, behavioral indicators, and types of injury. Incestuous and…

  20. Model Child Care Health Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan; Smith, Herberta

    Drawn from a review of policies at over 100 child care programs nationwide, the model health policies presented in this report are intended for adaptation and selective use by out-of-home child care facilities. Following an introduction, the report presents model policy forms with blanks for adding individualized information for the following…

  1. Reading and the Kindergarten Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursuk, Laura

    Kindergarten teachers should be concerned with the development of the child physically, psychologically, and socially. The development of readiness for reading should be part of the child's day-by-day activities in the kindergarten. Structured prereading activities should be conducted in informal, game-like ways. They should involve the active…

  2. Child Development: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, LaVerne Thornton, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on recent publications dealing with factors that influence child growth and development, rather than the developmental processes themselves. Topics include: general sources on child development; physical and perceptual-motor development; cognitive development; social and personality development; and play.…

  3. Young Child. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelland, Nicola, Ed.; DeVoogd, Glenn, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on the young child from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: (1) "Young Children and Technology: Building Computer Literacy" (Michael J. Bell and Caroline M. Crawford); (2) "Integrating Technology into the Young Child Lesson Plan"…

  4. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  5. Child Advocacy and Family Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Seymour; Feshbach, Norma Deitch

    This paper discusses the issues involved in achieving a balance between a child's rights to protection and adequate care and a family's rights to privacy and autonomy. The paper advocates a shift from the current norm of privacy concerning parents' child rearing practices towards increased openness and freer community-family communication. In view…

  6. Multicultural Issues in Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    This volume focuses on cultural differences relevant to all child-care-giving settings, including day care, nursery, and preschool programs. Based on respect for cultural pluralism, this concise supplementary text is designed to increase caregiver sensitivity to different cultural child-care practices and values and to improve communication and…

  7. If Your Child is Raped

    MedlinePlus

    ... look for and take samples of the rapist's hair, skin, nails, or bodily fluids from your child's clothes or body. If you think your child has been given a rape drug, a doctor or technician can test for this, too. Pictures of any injuries may ...

  8. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  9. Early Child Care in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luscher, Kurt K.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This monograph provides a comprehensive description of the multiple, diverse, and complex systems of child care in Switzerland today. The following topics are discussed: prevailing conceptions of the child-rearing process, the relationship between family and society, socialization, training of personnel, information dissemination, mass media and…

  10. Jamaican American Child Disciplinary Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stephaney

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about child disciplinary practices in Jamaican American families. Literature on child discipline in Jamaica and other Caribbean nations has mainly focused on physical discipline, and no empirical studies have investigated the types of discipline used in the Jamaican American community. The purpose of this study was to describe…

  11. Morphosyntactic annotation of CHILDES transcripts*

    PubMed Central

    SAGAE, KENJI; DAVIS, ERIC; LAVIE, ALON; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN; WINTNER, SHULY

    2014-01-01

    Corpora of child language are essential for research in child language acquisition and psycholinguistics. Linguistic annotation of the corpora provides researchers with better means for exploring the development of grammatical constructions and their usage. We describe a project whose goal is to annotate the English section of the CHILDES database with grammatical relations in the form of labeled dependency structures. We have produced a corpus of over 18,800 utterances (approximately 65,000 words) with manually curated gold-standard grammatical relation annotations. Using this corpus, we have developed a highly accurate data-driven parser for the English CHILDES data, which we used to automatically annotate the remainder of the English section of CHILDES. We have also extended the parser to Spanish, and are currently working on supporting more languages. The parser and the manually and automatically annotated data are freely available for research purposes. PMID:20334720

  12. [The place of the child].

    PubMed

    Molenat, F

    2008-08-01

    A child's self-construction and access to his identity depend on the conditions of affective security in which he is raised and his genealogical references, the founders of his own place in society. The quality of the professional care at the different stages of the birth process is confirmed as a major variable in the parents' sense of security, followed by the child's. The drift toward the illusion of a right to a child is tempered by the attention that can be contributed by all healthcare providers who come into contact with couples when they request artificial procreation: recognition of their request, but also of their suffering, so as to separate the child's place from parental projections that may be poorly adjusted to the child's needs.

  13. Associations between Intensity of Child Welfare Involvement and Child Development among Young Children in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. Methods: As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12-47 months old investigated by CW agencies for…

  14. The Ciência & Saúde Coletiva journal and the process of institutionalization of a field of knowledge and practices.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2015-07-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the concepts that make up the process of institutionalization of a field of knowledge in the following phases: 1. Differentiation of subjects, methods and techniques of knowledge or existing disciplines, 2. The subject previously considered as peripheral is now seem as part of a particular field of knowledge, 3. The new field becomes significant in the set of an area and starts the standardization of recruitment of human resources, selection of experts and financial resources, and 4. Consolidation of the new field, building its culture within the scientific community, with its social networks of communication, scientific associations and its own publications. Our central objective is to analyze the role of the Ciência e Saúde Coletiva Journal in the process of institutionalization of the Collective Health; we situate the Collective Health and its stages, make a brief report on the history of scientific publications by emphasizing the Brazilian studies on the public health field, and work the early stages of the Journal.

  15. Child Care Aware: A Guide to Promoting Professional Development in Family Child Care. Lessons Learned from Child Care Aware Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombro, Amy Laura

    This guide is designed to help educators and community leaders plan and implement professional development initiatives for family child care providers at the community level, and is based on Dayton Hudson Corporation's 1992 Child Care Aware (CCA) campaign to educate child care consumers about quality family child care. Part 1 provides an overview…

  16. Institutionalizing Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBrayer, Robert O.; Thomas, Dale

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Action Team (NIAT) was formed by the NASA Administrator in March 2000. The purpose of this team was to identify the actions that NASA must take to address systemic findings reported in 4 different anomaly investigations. Team membership represented senior managers from all the field centers and NASA Headquarters. NIAT report addressed 165 findings and developed 17 action plans that are described in five themes: people and teams, technology, risk, formulation rigor, and communications. The NIAT actions present a systems solution for strengthening formulation and implementation of programs and improving the environment for their support. NIAT results included: enhancing success by avoiding failures that could have been prevented through good planning and sound practice; ensuring that prudent risks do not compromise safety; and ensuring that mission risks are objectively assessed, appropriately mitigated and consciously accepted by the program team and customers. Definitions of Faster, Better, Cheaper and Success Criteria were also developed and included as part of the NIAT report. As a result of the NIAT report, program and project management process changes were incorporated into NASA's quality system documentation, including NPG 7120.513, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements. This paper describes the NIAT results and the resulting updates to NPG 7120.5 that keep this program and project management description a living process.

  17. Foster Care and Child Health.

    PubMed

    McDavid, Lolita M

    2015-10-01

    Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care.

  18. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

    1982-01-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  19. Incest and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Collins, J L; Hamlin, W T; Minor, M A; Knasel, A L

    1982-06-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed.

  20. Child pornography and the internet.

    PubMed

    Temporini, Humberto

    2012-12-01

    The dramatic increase in child pornography offenses over the past 10 years is directly related to the availability of such material on the Internet. Child pornography can be found on the Web, in newsgroups, and on peer-to-peer networks (the most common source at present). Offenders are a heterogeneous group, with different motivations and levels of risk. The possibility of crossover to a contact sexual offense exists, depending on the presence of other risk factors. Possession of child pornography without a history of contact offenses does not appear to increase the risk of future contact reoffending.