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Sample records for child institutionalized

  1. The impact of institutionalization on child development.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Kim

    2003-01-01

    During the past 10 years researchers studying children adopted from Romanian orphanages have had the opportunity to revisit developmental questions regarding the impact of early deprivation on child development. In the present paper the effects of deprivation are examined by reviewing both the early and more recent literature on studies of children who spent the first few years of life in institutions. Special attention is given to the Canadian study of Romanian adoptees in which the author has been involved. Findings across time and studies are consistent in showing the negative impact of institutionalization on all aspects of children's development (intellectual, physical, behavioral, and social emotional). Results of studies show, however, that institutionalization, although a risk factor for less optimal development, does not doom a child to psychopathology. However, the impact of institutionalization is greater when coupled with risk factors in the postinstitutional environment. Methodological and conceptual difficulties in research with institutionalized samples of children are discussed and future directions for research are considered.

  2. Child Maltreatment and Social Connectedness Among Formerly Institutionalized Females: Links With Depression.

    PubMed

    van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Verbruggen, Janna

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of child maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence) and cumulative child maltreatment on depressive symptoms in adulthood, and examine the protective effects of social connectedness in a sample of formerly institutionalized females. The sample consisted of 124 females who were institutionalized in a Dutch juvenile justice institution during adolescence and were followed-up when they were on average 32 years old. Information about child maltreatment was extracted from treatment files. Retrospective data on social connectedness in young adulthood were established during interviews using a Life History Calendar. Relationship quality at follow-up was assessed with items derived from the Rochester Youth Development Study. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in adulthood. Results showed that 85.5% of the females experienced child maltreatment, and co-occurrence of subtypes was high. Cumulative child maltreatment increased the risk of depression in adulthood. Furthermore, social connectedness, that is, more employment over time and the quality of the romantic relationship at follow-up, protected against the development of depression. However, social connectedness did not buffer the effect of maltreatment on depression. Our findings indicate that treatment of these girls should focus on improving the social-emotional development to promote positive interpersonal relationships and include educational and vocational components to guide these girls toward increased opportunities on the labor market. PMID:25586915

  3. Controlling Child Abuse in America: An Effort Doomed to Failure and Effects of Preinstitutional History and Institutionalization on the Behavior of the Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward

    Two papers, one on child abuse and the other on effects of preinstitutional history and institutionalization on the behavior of the retarded, are presented. In the first paper the author stresses the need to document the scope and nature of child abuse in American society and discusses the difficulties in defining where on the continuum discipline…

  4. Underlying Constructs in the Development and Institutionalization of the Child Drama Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodson, Stephani Etheridge

    1998-01-01

    Examines the invisible incorporation of constructions from the Victorian and Progressive eras regarding children, women, and theatre art, into the field of child drama. Discusses child drama as a moral calling; women and the gendered status of child drama; child drama as an amateur field; child drama as education in democracy; and the construction…

  5. Institutionalizing Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Jack

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the problem of institutionalizing dance, its effect and consequences, with Shirley Ririe, Co-Director with Joan Woodbury of the Ririe-Woodbury Dance Company based in Salt Lake City. (Author/RK)

  6. Institutionalization and psychological suffering: notes on the mental health of institutionalized adolescents in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ligia Costa; Schmid, Patricia C

    2004-06-01

    This article examines the relationship between the institutionalization of needy children and adolescents and the resulting psychological suffering. Individuals who have been institutionalized for long periods suffer from increased fragility in psychological structure, becoming more vulnerable and at risk as a direct consequence of the treatment they receive in such institutions. The work described here is part of the Research Program on Adolescents, Mental Health and Culture, which is being conducted at the Child and Youth Care and Rehabilitation Center at the Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil (CARIM/IPUB/UFRJ). PMID:15446725

  7. Institutionalized and the non-institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, N

    1982-01-01

    A survey covering all the elderly over 65 years of age at home and in institutions was made in a rural town of Japan in order to reveal the physical and socio-psychological factors which were related to their current placement status. The proportion of those over 65 in this town is 13%, of which 53% are living either alone or with spouse only, which anticipates the future national trend. Of the 3039 enumerated, 6.0% were hospitalized, 1.5% in the Home for the aged and only one in a Nursing home. As the level of disability became more serious, the proportion institutionalized increased; however, even at the severe level only half were in institutions. This situation could only be understood when the family caring capacity was taken into consideration. Those at home had a greater possibility of having a healthy, not employed caring person. Economic factors were relevant only for the Home for the aged subjects. At the same disability level, the family of the institutionalized expressed a greater subjective burden in caring compared with those at home. A tentative criteria for evaluating institutional care need based on the level of disability and family caring capacity is proposed.

  8. Institutionalizing Faculty Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagin, Claire M.

    1986-01-01

    This article places efforts to institutionalize practice in the context of their historical antecedents. It also describes developments at the University of Pennsylvania in what the authors are calling a partnership. The clinician-educator faculty position is examined at length. (CT)

  9. Institutionalizing Educational Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Michael H.

    The success of Philadelphia's "What Works in Reading?" report shows how educational research can be a catalyst for school change and indicates a way for school districts to institutionalize this process. Ten factors were associated with the report's immediate impact on educational policy: identification of the research clients, topical importance,…

  10. Positive Consequences of Institutionalization: Solidarity Between Elderly Parents and Their Middle-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kristen Falde; Bengtson, Vern L.

    This research questions the frequent observation that elderly persons in long-term care institutions are isolated from their families, and that institutionalization is the final step in the breakdown of family relations. Data consisted of open-ended interviews with institutionalized elderly parents and with the child most involved with the parent…

  11. Institutionalizing solar energy education

    SciTech Connect

    Arwood, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    As America entered the final decade of the 20th century, millions of people turned out to celebrate Earth Day`s 20th anniversary. Environmental awareness was on an upswing, and as a result, environmental education became a priority across the country. Environmental education was making significant headway into the public school system, and recycling emerged as the vanguard of this movement. At first the exclusive province of school children, recycling soon became a household habit. As children collected cans for cash, they also taught their parents to recycle. In its movement from classroom to curbside, recycling rode the school bus to Main Street and, within a few short years, became institutionalized. In this paper, the author demonstrates how the Solar Information and Education Program has evolved to the point where it has become an institutionalized, lasting part of the school experience for thousands of Arizona students. It is hoped that the solar experience for the state`s young people will duplicate the recycling experience of a decade ago, this time taking solar technology from chalkboard to rooftop.

  12. The International Institutionalization of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Norman G.

    A study of student opinions in a developing country--Malaysia--shows that the institutionalization of education in developed countries has been transferred to developing countries in the status given to Western degrees. Ideas about what constitutes knowledge and professionalism, disseminated by universities of the Western world, have come to…

  13. 42 CFR 435.1009 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Institutionalized individuals. 435.1009 Section 435... Institutionalized individuals. (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for services provided to— (1) Individuals who are inmates of public institutions as defined in § 435.1010; or (2) Individuals under age 65...

  14. 42 CFR 436.1005 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Institutionalized individuals. 436.1005 Section 436....1005 Institutionalized individuals. (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for services provided to— (1) Individuals who are inmates of public institutions as defined in § 435.1010 of this chapter;...

  15. Field dependence in the institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Mosley, J; Guyot, G

    1987-01-01

    The institutional-inducement hypothesis of field dependence regression in the elderly was assessed by administering the Children's Embedded Figures Test (CEFT) to a group of elderly upon admission to a nursing home and to a group of community-living elderly. Both groups were retested four months later. The institutionalized group exhibited significantly lower CEFT scores on initial testing than the community-living group. In addition, the CEFT scores for the institutionalized group declined significantly from pretest to posttest. The results suggested that greater field dependence in the institutionalized elderly may be due to pre-institutional dependence regression that continues after institutionalization. Additional measures of mental status and activity levels were also lower in the institutionalized group upon admission supporting a pre-institutional generalized regression effect.

  16. Cognitive disturbance in hospitalized and institutionalized elders.

    PubMed

    Roberts, B L; Lincoln, R E

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between empirical findings and a theoretical model of cognitive disturbance among 94 hospitalized and 78 institutionalized elders. Path analysis was used to determine the magnitude of relationships between variables described in the model. Neural function was the only variable in both groups that was significantly associated with greater cognitive disturbance. In the hospitalized group, neural structural changes and physiologic alterations contributed indirectly to cognitive disturbance by their effects on neural function. Further, neural function indirectly affected cognitive disturbance through its effects on sensory deficits. In the institutionalized group, environmental deficits and neural functions were significantly related to greater cognitive disturbance. Except for the direct effects of neural function on activity limitations and physiologic alterations on mental health, all the relationships between the variables described by the model were significantly different between hospitalized and institutionalized elders. The results suggest that different interventions to reduce cognitive disturbances may be required for institutionalized and hospitalized elders.

  17. Longitudinal Predictors of Institutionalization in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Lange, Carolin; Posselt, Tina; Wiese, Birgitt; Steinmann, Susanne; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Stein, Janine; Luck, Tobias; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate time-dependent predictors of institutionalization in old age using a longitudinal approach. Methods In a representative survey of the German general population aged 75 years and older predictors of institutionalization were observed every 1.5 years over six waves. Conditional fixed-effects logistic regressions (with 201 individuals and 960 observations) were performed to estimate the effects of marital status, depression, dementia, and physical impairments (mobility, hearing and visual impairments) on the risk of admission to old-age home or nursing home. By exploiting the longitudinal data structure using panel econometric models, we were able to control for unobserved heterogeneity such as genetic predisposition and personality traits. Results The probability of institutionalization increased significantly with occurrence of widowhood, depression, dementia, as well as walking and hearing impairments. In particular, the occurrence of widowhood (OR = 78.3), dementia (OR = 154.1) and substantial mobility impairment (OR = 36.7) were strongly associated with institutionalization. Conclusion Findings underline the strong influence of loss of spouse as well as dementia on institutionalization. This is relevant as the number of old people (a) living alone and (b) suffering from dementia is expected to increase rapidly in the next decades. Consequently, it is supposed that the demand for institutionalization among the elderly will increase considerably. Practitioners as well as policy makers should be aware of these upcoming challenges. PMID:26658776

  18. Understanding psychiatric institutionalization: a conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since Goffman’s seminal work on psychiatric institutions, deinstitutionalization has become a leading term in the psychiatric debate. It described the process of closure or downsizing of large psychiatric hospitals and the establishment of alternative services in the community. Yet, there is a lack of clarity on what exactly the concept of institutionalization means in present-day psychiatry. This review aims to identify the meaning of psychiatric institutionalization since the early 1960s to present-day. Method A conceptual review of institutionalization in psychiatry was conducted. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the findings. Results Four main themes were identified in conceptualizing institutionalization: bricks and mortar of care institutions; policy and legal frameworks regulating care; clinical responsibility and paternalism in clinician-patient relationships; and patients’ adaptive behavior to institutionalized care. Conclusions The concept of institutionalization in psychiatry reflects four distinct themes. All themes have some relevance for the contemporary debate on how psychiatric care should develop and on the role of institutional care in psychiatry. PMID:23773398

  19. Nutritional assessment of institutionalized elderly

    PubMed Central

    Volpini, Milena Maffei; Frangella, Vera Silvia

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To define the nutritional profile of institutionalized elderly individuals. Methods: Comparative correlation and quantitative field study conducted in a Long-Stay Institution in Sao Paulo (SP), Brazil, between December 2010 and January 2012. To define nutritional diagnosis, data were collected from patient files, such as body mass index, circumferences, triceps skinfold, muscle area of the arm, thickness of the adductor pollicis, handgrip strength, and biochemical test results. The anthropometric variables were presented as mean, standard deviation, and percentages, and were grouped by gender and stratified by age. The level of statistical significance was p<0.05. Results: One hundred and two elderly individuals were selected, and 84 were females. Excess weight was the most common anthropometric diagnosis in men (n=11; 61%), with the detection of protein depletion in those aged 70 years, and possible cases of sarcopenic obesity. All women were in good health conditions (n=84; 100%). However, in 27% (n=23) of them, protein depletion was evident. Conclusion: More anthropometric studies are necessary which would allow a definition of local reference standards, stratified by gender and age group. The difference between populations and factors, such as inclusion and exclusion criteria, and methodological characteristics, limit the use of international standards, interfering in the reliability of the nutritional diagnosis. PMID:23579741

  20. The impact of oral disease among the institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    McMillan, A S; Wong, M C M; Lo, E C M; Allen, P F

    2003-01-01

    The study aimed to describe and compare the psychosocial and functional impact of oral disease on the quality of life of the institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly in Hong Kong. A total of 268 institutionalized and 318 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60-80 years took part. The 49-statement Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) was administered in a structured interview format and sociodemographic information collected prior to a clinical, oral examination. A greater number of the institutionalized were edentulous (19%); they also had more untreated dental disease. The number of elderly reporting negative impacts was generally low. The percentage of institutionalized elderly reporting a negative impact was significantly lower in one of the OHIP subscales (handicap, P < 0.001) and similar in the other six. The main factors affecting the OHIP score were living location, socio-economic status, dental disease and treatment seeking behaviour. In conclusion, the psychosocial and functional impact of oral conditions was low and similar in the institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly although the pattern of oral disease was different. Life events and socially and culturally derived values appeared to affect the elderly perception of the impact of oral disease.

  1. Attachment in institutionalized children: a review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, Francesca; Pastore, Massimiliano; Barone, Lavinia

    2015-04-01

    In this article we review the literature on attachment patterns in institutionalized children and then perform a meta-analysis on data from 10 attachment studies involving 399 children in institutional settings. We computed the overall attachment distribution of secure, insecure, and disorganized rates and explored the effect of a set of moderating variables (i.e., country of institutionalization, attachment assessment procedure, age at entry, and age at assessment). To overcome bias related to the small number of studies, we conducted both classical and Bayesian meta-analysis and obtained comparable results. Distribution of children's attachment patterns was: 18% secure, 28% insecure, and 54% disorganized/cannot classify. Compared to their family-reared peers, children living in an institution were found to be at greater risk for insecure and disorganized attachment, with a similar medium effect size for both distributions (d=0.77 and d=0.76, respectively). The following moderating variables were associated with insecure attachment: representational assessment procedures (d=0.63) and Eastern European countries of origin (d=1.13). Moderators for disorganized attachment were: Eastern European countries of origin (d=1.12), age at institution entry before the first birthday (d=0.93), and age at assessment under three years of age (d=0.91). Implications for child development and policies are discussed.

  2. Attachment in institutionalized children: a review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, Francesca; Pastore, Massimiliano; Barone, Lavinia

    2015-04-01

    In this article we review the literature on attachment patterns in institutionalized children and then perform a meta-analysis on data from 10 attachment studies involving 399 children in institutional settings. We computed the overall attachment distribution of secure, insecure, and disorganized rates and explored the effect of a set of moderating variables (i.e., country of institutionalization, attachment assessment procedure, age at entry, and age at assessment). To overcome bias related to the small number of studies, we conducted both classical and Bayesian meta-analysis and obtained comparable results. Distribution of children's attachment patterns was: 18% secure, 28% insecure, and 54% disorganized/cannot classify. Compared to their family-reared peers, children living in an institution were found to be at greater risk for insecure and disorganized attachment, with a similar medium effect size for both distributions (d=0.77 and d=0.76, respectively). The following moderating variables were associated with insecure attachment: representational assessment procedures (d=0.63) and Eastern European countries of origin (d=1.13). Moderators for disorganized attachment were: Eastern European countries of origin (d=1.12), age at institution entry before the first birthday (d=0.93), and age at assessment under three years of age (d=0.91). Implications for child development and policies are discussed. PMID:25747874

  3. The consequences of early institutionalization: can institutions be improved? – should they?

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and scope The focus of this review is on institutionalized children, one of the most inequitably and severely treated groups of children. Although institutions vary, many share some common characteristics, including large groups, high children: caregiver ratios, many and changing caregivers, and caregiver-child interactions that lack warm, sensitive, contingently-responsive, and child-directed behaviors. Resident children develop poorly physically, mentally, and social-emotionally, but those adopted from institutions display substantial catch-up growth in many domains of development. If they are adopted at an early age, there have been no long-term consequences of institutionalization yet measured; but if institutionalization is prolonged, they display higher rates of long-term deficiencies and problems in many domains. Methods This review is based on a database search of the literature, focusing on the development of children while residents, and the development of post-institutionalized children who have been transitioned from institutions to family care. It also draws on the reports and findings of the St. Petersburg–USA Orphanage Intervention. Findings A combination of theories pertaining to attachment (especially caregiver attachment to the infant/toddler), chronic stress, and genetics may explain these outcomes. It appears that caregiver-child interactions are a major contributor to children’s outcomes, and interventions in institutions that improve such interactions produce substantial increases in children’s physical, mental, and social-emotional development, including for children with disabilities. Conclusions Deinstitutionalization and the creation of comprehensive professional child welfare systems emphasizing family care alternatives is a preferred goal, but this is likely to take many low-resource countries decades to develop. If substantial numbers of children remain in institutions despite best efforts to find families for them

  4. School climate and the institutionalization of the CATCH program.

    PubMed

    Parcel, Guy S; Perry, Cheryl L; Kelder, Steven H; Elder, John P; Mitchell, Paul D; Lytle, Leslie A; Johnson, Carolyn C; Stone, Elaine J

    2003-08-01

    School climate refers to various physical and psychosocial structures that shape schools' social and physical environments. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) study provided an opportunity to study how aspects of school climate are associated with continued implementation of the CATCH program. Nutrient analysis of menus, observations of physical education (PE) classes, and teacher and staff self-reports were used to measure CATCH program components. Results of this study indicate that aspects of school climate were associated with continued implementation of the CATCH classroom component but not the CATCH food service or PE components. These findings have implications for how we plan for the progression of innovative school health promotion programs from the initial trial stage to institutionalization. Measures of school climate may be useful in determining a school's readiness to adopt and implement an innovative health promotion curriculum.

  5. Attachment security representations in institutionalized children and children living with their families: links to problem behaviour.

    PubMed

    Torres, Nuno; Maia, Joana; Veríssimo, Manuela; Fernandes, Marilia; Silva, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    The present work analyses differences in the attachment representations of institutionalized children as compared with children from low and high educational level living with their natural families. Participants were 91 Portuguese children, 52% girls, aged 48-96 months. There were three different groups: 19 institutionalized children, 16 low educational level families' children and 56 from high educational level families'. Attachment representations were assessed for Security of the narratives of the Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist for parents and caretakers. Verbal skills were assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Revised. Results show that institutionalized children have significantly lower security of attachment representations, less verbal skills and higher aggressive behaviour than the other two groups. Attachment representations were associated with social/withdrawal and aggression, independently of age, verbal skills and parents' education. The main effect of institutionalization on externalizing aggressive behaviour was completely mediated by the security of attachment representations. 

  6. Depressive symptoms in institutionalized older adults

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Lívia Maria; Mattos, Inês Echenique

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals. PMID:24897042

  7. Cognitive Changes among Institutionalized Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Jose I.; Menacho, Inmaculada; Alcalde, Concepcion; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Aguilar, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of different cognitive training procedures in elderly people was studied. Two types of methods to train cognitive and memory functions were compared. One method was based on new technologies and the other one on pencil-and-paper activities. Thirty-six elderly institutionalized people aged 68-94 were trained. Quantitative and memory…

  8. Peer Relationships Among Institutionalized Juvenile Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preveaux, Neal E.; Ray, Glen E.; LoBello, Steven G.; Mehta, Sheila

    2004-01-01

    This study examined peer relationships (sociometric status and friendship) of institutionalized juvenile males ages 12 to 18. Results replicated previous studies using "normal" nondelinquent samples demonstrating that sociometrically popular status juveniles were evaluated higher on sociability and leadership than were average- or rejected-status…

  9. [Institutionalized elderly: functional capacity and physical fitness].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Lúcia Hisako Takase; Silva, Aline Huber da; Mazo, Giovana Zarpsellon; Benedetti, Tânia R Bertoldo; dos Santos, Silvia Maria Azevedo; Marques, Sueli; Rodrigues, Rosalina A Partezani; Portella, Marilene Rodrigues; Scortegagna, Helenice de Moura; Santos, Silvana Sidney C; Pelzer, Marlene Teda; Souza, Andrea dos Santos; Meira, Edmeia Campos; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Creutzberg, Marion; Resende, Thais de Lima; Rezende, Tais de Lima

    2010-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between physical fitness and functional capacity in 78 residents of long-stay institutions for low-income elderly located in five regions of Brazil. The majority of the sample consisted of women, and mean age was 77.4 years (SD = 7.9). Physical fitness was assessed with the AAHPERD test, adjusted for institutionalized elderly. The Katz scale was used for functional capacity. The five components of physical fitness rated fair for flexibility, coordination, agility, and aerobic endurance and good for strength. The mean general physical fitness (GPF) index was fair. According to the findings, the greater the degree of dependency in institutionalized elderly, the lesser their strength and GPF level; meanwhile, better coordination and agility are associated with greater independence for performing activities of daily living. The results can contribute to appropriate physical exercise programs for maintenance and/or recovery of functionality.

  10. [Self-perception of oral health condition of the institutionalized and non institutionalized elders].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Evanildo Henrique Macêdo; Saintrain, Maria Vieira de Lima; Vieira, Anya Pimentel Gomes Fernandes

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated the self-perception of oral health condition of institutionalized and non institutionalized elder population using a oral examination and a questionnaire divided in three parts: demographic data, general health and the GOHAI index. A total of 96 individuals above 60 years old living in Fortaleza, Brazil, were interviewed. They were divided in two groups, G1--institutionalized (n=48) and G2--non-institutionalized (n=48). The mean age of the study population was 69.8 years (SD 7.5) and 70.8% of the interviewed were woman. 62% had some type of medical treatment in the last year, and despite the fact that the majority (84.4%) of the elders thought that their general health was good or regular, the average number of teeth presented was 3.9 in both groups. Among them, 47.9% were using superior prosthesis and 26% inferior prosthesis. The GOHAI average was 17.53 qualifying as negative the self-perception of oral health. There was no difference between the two groups regarding physical and psychological aspects.

  11. Psychiatric outcomes in young children with a history of institutionalization.

    PubMed

    Bos, Karen; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S; McLaughlin, Katie A; Nelson, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    Children raised in institutions, considered an extreme example of social deprivation, are one group through which we can better understand the impact of neglect on child health and development. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) is the first randomized, controlled trial of foster care as an intervention for institutionalized children. In this review we describe the mental health outcomes from the BEIP. Specifically, we report findings on attachment styles, attachment disorders, emotional reactivity, and psychiatric symptomatology for children in the BEIP. We describe the impact of the foster care intervention on these outcomes and also describe how outcomes differ by gender and by length of time spent in the institution. In addition, we explore the influence of genetic variation on individual outcomes and recovery from early severe social deprivation, as well as the role of differences in brain development in mediating later psychiatric morbidity. The results from the BEIP confirm and extend the previous findings on the negative sequelae of early institutional care on mental health. The results also underscore the benefit of early family placement for children living in institutions. PMID:21250893

  12. Institutionalizing Equitable Policies and Practices for Contingent Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Sam, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    This study is a qualitative inquiry into the institutionalization of equitable policies for non-tenure-track faculty. Through the theoretical framework of institutionalization, we examine factors and strategies forwarding various policies and practices and the challenges that arise. The results highlight themes throughout the stages of…

  13. 43 CFR 17.252 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Education at 34 CFR 104.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering in any way the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Education of institutionalized persons. 17... § 17.252 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises a program...

  14. 43 CFR 17.252 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Education at 34 CFR 104.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering in any way the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 17... § 17.252 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises a program...

  15. 45 CFR 84.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 84.54..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this... its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 84.33(b). Nothing...

  16. 7 CFR 15b.39 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 15b.39 Section... § 15b.39 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates...)(2), in its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in §...

  17. 45 CFR 84.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 84.54..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this... its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 84.33(b). Nothing...

  18. 45 CFR 605.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 605.54... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient... appropriate education, as defined in § 605.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering...

  19. 45 CFR 84.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 84.54..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this... its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 84.33(b). Nothing...

  20. 45 CFR 84.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 84.54..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this... its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 84.33(b). Nothing...

  1. 7 CFR 15b.39 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 15b.39 Section... § 15b.39 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates...)(2), in its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in §...

  2. 7 CFR 15b.39 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 15b.39 Section... § 15b.39 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates...)(2), in its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in §...

  3. 45 CFR 605.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 605.54... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient... appropriate education, as defined in § 605.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering...

  4. 45 CFR 605.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 605.54... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient... appropriate education, as defined in § 605.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering...

  5. 7 CFR 15b.39 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 15b.39 Section... § 15b.39 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates...)(2), in its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in §...

  6. 43 CFR 17.252 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Education at 34 CFR 104.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering in any way the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 17... § 17.252 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises a program...

  7. 45 CFR 605.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 605.54... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient... appropriate education, as defined in § 605.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering...

  8. 43 CFR 17.252 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Education at 34 CFR 104.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering in any way the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 17... § 17.252 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises a program...

  9. Institutionalization of Gerontological Curricular Change in Schools of Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernet, Stephen P.; Singleton, Judy L.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses factors associated with sustainability and institutionalization of change in the 67 Geriatric Enrichment in Social Work Education (GeroRich) projects, and the ways innovations introduced became institutionalized at the respective colleges and universities. An unobtrusive qualitative-descriptive research design was used to…

  10. Suicide Experiences among Institutionalized Older Veterans in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Yan-Chiou; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Lin, Yan-Chiou; Lin, Yea-Pyng

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Institutionalized veterans in Taiwan are a high-risk group for completing suicide due to their institutionalization and social minority status. The purpose of this study was to understand the suicide experiences, especially the triggers of suicide in this group. Design and Methods Data: about suicide experiences were collected from 19…

  11. 7 CFR 15b.39 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 15b.39 Section... § 15b.39 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates...)(2), in its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in §...

  12. 45 CFR 605.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 605.54... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient... appropriate education, as defined in § 605.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering...

  13. 43 CFR 17.252 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Education at 34 CFR 104.33(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering in any way the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 17... § 17.252 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises a program...

  14. 45 CFR 84.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 84.54..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this... its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 84.33(b). Nothing...

  15. Interpreting treatment effects when cases are institutionalized after treatment.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Daniel F; Morral, Andrew R; Ridgeway, Greg; Griffin, Beth Ann

    2007-07-10

    Drug treatment clients are at high risk for institutionalization, i.e., spending a day or more in a controlled environment where their freedom to use drugs, commit crimes, or engage in risky behavior may be circumscribed. For example, in recent large studies of drug treatment outcomes, more than 40% of participants were institutionalized for a portion of the follow-up period. When longitudinal studies ignore institutionalization at follow-up, outcome measures and treatment effect estimates conflate treatment effects on institutionalization with effects on many of the outcomes of interest. In this paper, we develop a causal modeling framework for evaluating the four standard approaches for addressing this institutionalization confound, and illustrate the effects of each approach using a case study comparing drug use outcomes of youths who enter either residential or outpatient treatment modalities. Common methods provide biased estimates of the treatment effect except under improbable assumptions. In the case study, the effect of residential care ranged from beneficial and significant to detrimental and significant depending on the approach used to account for institutionalization. We discuss the implications of our analysis for longitudinal studies of all populations at high risk for institutionalization.

  16. Ataxia in institutionalized patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Young, G B; Oppenheimer, S R; Gordon, B A; Wells, G A; Assis, L P; Kreeft, J H; Lohuis, N A; Blume, W T

    1994-08-01

    Fifty-four per cent of 41 chronically institutionalized adult patients with epilepsy had ataxia of gait (wide mean stride width). None of the following correlated with stride width: serum phenytoin, previous phenytoin toxicity, seizure frequency, or status epilepticus. Seventeen of the 41 patients had computed tomographic head scans. Patients with radiological evidence of cerebellar atrophy had a wider mean stride width, later age of onset of seizures, greater peak serum concentrations of phenytoin than did those without cerebellar atrophy. Ataxia of gait was inconsistently associated with cerebellar atrophy. Elevated serum/plasma concentrations of phenytoin may be a risk factor for cerebellar atrophy, but seizure frequency or status epilepticus are not independently related to this complication.

  17. Astigmatism among institutionalized and noninstitutionalized mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    Courtney, G R

    1977-06-01

    Astigmatism was measured retinoscopically for 709 subjects residing in an institution for the mentally retarded and for 56 noninstitutionalized mentally retarded subjects at a community training center. About 60% of the subjects were between 15 and 45 years old. Compared to an intellectually normal sample of young men, astigmatism in the mentally retarded was greater in frequency and degree. For subjects with greater degrees of mental retardation, the prevalence of high astigmastism was significantly greater for whites than for nonwhites. There was no difference in astigmatism between institutionalized retardates and those living in a community setting, a finding that implies that the institutional environment was not the cause of the astigmatic differences between retarded and normal subjects.

  18. On the Production of China Universities' Non-Institutionalized Power Structure and the Dialectical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuting

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing reasons for and problems in China universities' non-institutionalized power structure, this paper tries to prove the limits of non-institutionalized power structure making up for institutionalized power structure in universities, with the hope of revealing the deep reasons for the institutionalized structure imbalance in universities.

  19. Forced Conscription of Children during Armed Conflict: Experiences of Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; Derluyn, Ilse; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child soldiering can be considered as one of the worst practices of institutionalized child abuse. However, little is known about the scope and nature of this abuse and the consequent experiences of children enrolled in an armed faction. This research aims at enriching the knowledge on the experiences of child soldiers in the Lord's…

  20. Institutionalizing Change in Teacher Education: Indiana University, A Retrospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, James T.

    1988-01-01

    The article examines the development, implementation, and dismantling of the Division of Teacher Education, Indiana University during the mid-1970s. This reform effort sought to institutionalize change in preservice teacher preparation. (IAH)

  1. Institutionalizing Safeguards By Design for Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, James B; Kovacic, Donald N; Whitaker, J Michael

    2008-01-01

    Safeguards for nuclear facilities can be significantly improved by developing and implementing methodologies for integrating proliferation resistance into the design of new facilities. This paper proposes a method to systematically analyze a facility's processes, systems, equipment, structures and management controls to ensure that all relevant proliferation scenarios that could potentially result in unacceptable consequences have been identified, evaluated and mitigated. This approach could be institutionalized into a country's regulatory structure similar to the way facilities are licensed to operate safely and are monitored through inspections and incident reporting to ensure compliance with domestic and international safeguards. Furthermore, taking credit for existing systems and equipment that have been analyzed and approved to assure a facility's reliable and safe operations will reduce the overall cost of implementing intrinsic and extrinsic proliferation-resistant features. The ultimate goal is to integrate safety, reliability, security and safeguards operations into the design of new facilities to effectively and efficiently prevent diversion, theft and misuse of nuclear material and sensitive technologies at both the facility and state level. To facilitate this approach at the facility level, this paper discusses an integrated proliferation resistance analysis (IPRA) process. If effectively implemented, this integrated approach will also facilitate the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards.

  2. Scoliosis in the institutionalized cerebral palsy population.

    PubMed

    Madigan, R R; Wallace, S L

    1981-01-01

    A prospective review of 272 institutionalized cerebral palsy residents was undertaken in order to determine the incidence and characteristics of neuromuscular scoliosis in this population. The types of cerebral palsy in the group consisted of 75% spastic, 8% dyskinetic, 4% ataxic, 8% mixed, and 5% undefined. There was a 64% incidence of roentgenographic scoliosis greater than 10 degrees. Two distinct curve patterns were determined with equal frequency, single and multiple. The significance of the curve patterns could not be determined. Scoliosis was most common in the spastic group with the highest incidence in the spastic quadriplegics. The incidence directly paralleled the severity of the neurologic deficit but also appeared to be aggravated by the effects of gravity when the individuals were artificially placed in the sitting position. There was a definite inverse relationship between the level of ambulation and scoliosis: the higher the level of ambulation the lower the incidence of scoliosis. Hip stability per se could not be correlated with the incidence of scoliosis. The most important factors in predicting scoliosis in this population are the presence of spasticity and the severity of the neurologic deficit.

  3. [Life course and institutionalization: the deceptive effect of the percentage].

    PubMed

    van der Zanden, G H

    1982-08-01

    At one moment in time the percentage of elderly people living in an old people's home (bejaardenoord) or nursing-home (verpleeghuis) is much higher in the Netherlands than in comparable western countries. About 11% of people 65 years of age and more are living in such institutions. However, in discussions about institutionalization, people are making the same fallacious statements based on the percentage at one moment in time as indicated in literature as "% fallacy" (Kastenbaum & Candy, 1973). In this article we have calculated that about 35% of all elderly people in the Netherlands will be institutionalized before before death. Although at one moment in time about 2% of the elderly are living in a Dutch nursing-home, the incidence is as high as in the old people's home. That is why almost the same number of elderly people will be institutionalized before death in both institutions. Three examples are given of the fallacious use of the percentage at one moment in time. An attempt is made to calculate the chance which persons have, at different ages, to be institutionalized in later life. We use the incidence-rate in 1977 and 1978 and the life expectancy inthe period 1970-1975. The results indicate high chances for elderly people at different ages to be institutionalized in later life in an old people's home.

  4. Predicting Institutionalization after Traumatic Brain Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Seel, Ronald T.; Goldstein, Richard; Brown, Allen W.; Watanabe, Thomas K.; Zasler, Nathan D.; Roth, Elliot J.; Zafonte, Ross D.; Glenn, Mel B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Risk factors contributing to institutionalization after inpatient rehabilitation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been well studied and need to be better understood to guide clinicians during rehabilitation. We aimed to develop a prognostic model that could be used at admission to inpatient rehabilitation facilities to predict discharge disposition. The model could be used to provide the interdisciplinary team with information regarding aspects of patients' functioning and/or their living situation that need particular attention during inpatient rehabilitation if institutionalization is to be avoided. The study population included 7219 patients with moderate-severe TBI in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database enrolled from 2002–2012 who had not been institutionalized prior to injury. Based on institutionalization predictors in other populations, we hypothesized that among people who had lived at a private residence prior to injury, greater dependence in locomotion, bed-chair-wheelchair transfers, bladder and bowel continence, feeding, and comprehension at admission to inpatient rehabilitation programs would predict institutionalization at discharge. Logistic regression was used, with adjustment for demographic factors, proxy measures for TBI severity, and acute-care length-of-stay. C-statistic and predictiveness curves validated a five-variable model. Higher levels of independence in bladder management (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.88; 95% CI 0.83, 0.93), bed-chair-wheelchair transfers (OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.83–0.93]), and comprehension (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.68, 0.89]) at admission were associated with lower risks of institutionalization on discharge. For every 10-year increment in age was associated with a 1.38 times higher risk for institutionalization (95% CI, 1.29, 1.48) and living alone was associated with a 2.34 times higher risk (95% CI, 1.86, 2.94). The c-statistic was 0.780. We conclude that this

  5. Oral health issues in the nutrition of institutionalized elders.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Michèle J; Stattmiller, Susan P; Kirk, Kathleen M

    2007-01-01

    Oral health is critical to systemic health and quality of life for the elderly, especially the institutionalized elderly, who are at high risk for oral and nutritional problems. Oral health is an integral component of overall nutritional health, just as nutrition plays a vital role in overall oral health. This article reviews the critical factors in the relationship among oral, nutritional, and systemic health and urges ongoing collaboration of providers of health care to reduce the rate of morbidity and mortality in institutionalized elders.

  6. Predicting institutionalization after traumatic brain injury inpatient rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Eum, Regina S; Seel, Ronald T; Goldstein, Richard; Brown, Allen W; Watanabe, Thomas K; Zasler, Nathan D; Roth, Elliot J; Zafonte, Ross D; Glenn, Mel B

    2015-02-15

    Risk factors contributing to institutionalization after inpatient rehabilitation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been well studied and need to be better understood to guide clinicians during rehabilitation. We aimed to develop a prognostic model that could be used at admission to inpatient rehabilitation facilities to predict discharge disposition. The model could be used to provide the interdisciplinary team with information regarding aspects of patients' functioning and/or their living situation that need particular attention during inpatient rehabilitation if institutionalization is to be avoided. The study population included 7219 patients with moderate-severe TBI in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database enrolled from 2002-2012 who had not been institutionalized prior to injury. Based on institutionalization predictors in other populations, we hypothesized that among people who had lived at a private residence prior to injury, greater dependence in locomotion, bed-chair-wheelchair transfers, bladder and bowel continence, feeding, and comprehension at admission to inpatient rehabilitation programs would predict institutionalization at discharge. Logistic regression was used, with adjustment for demographic factors, proxy measures for TBI severity, and acute-care length-of-stay. C-statistic and predictiveness curves validated a five-variable model. Higher levels of independence in bladder management (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.88; 95% CI 0.83, 0.93), bed-chair-wheelchair transfers (OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.83-0.93]), and comprehension (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.68, 0.89]) at admission were associated with lower risks of institutionalization on discharge. For every 10-year increment in age was associated with a 1.38 times higher risk for institutionalization (95% CI, 1.29, 1.48) and living alone was associated with a 2.34 times higher risk (95% CI, 1.86, 2.94). The c-statistic was 0.780. We conclude that this simple model

  7. Oral sensorial complaints, salivary flow rate and mucosal lesions in the institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Glazar, I; Urek, M M; Brumini, G; Pezelj-Ribaric, S

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of oral sensorial complaints, salivary flow rate and oral mucosal lesions in the institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly. The study included 280 institutionalized and 61 non- institutionalized elderly people. Dry mouth, burning mouth sensations, taste disturbances, salivary flow rate and oral mucosal lesions were assessed and compared between groups. A greater number of the institutionalized elderly had dry mouth (P = 0.001) and taste disturbance (P = 0.035) compared to non-institutionalized elderly. The institutionalized elderly also had significantly lower salivary flow rate (P < 0.0001). Positive correlation was found between salivary flow rate and perception of dry mouth in the institutionalized elderly (r(s) = 0.26; P < 0.05), as well as in the non-institutionalized elderly (r(s) = 0.35; P < 0.05). Moreover, positive correlation was observed between salivary flow rate and the sensation of burning mouth in the institutionalized elderly (r(s) = 0.13; P < 0.05) and non-institutionalized elderly (r(s) = 0.31; P < 0.05). The number of institutionalized elderly people with oral mucosal diseases was higher compared with non-institutionalized ones (P = 0.01). The most common oral mucosal lesions in both groups were related to wearing dentures. It can be concluded that the institutionalized elderly are significantly affected with oral sensorial complaints, including dry mouth and taste disturbance, as well as decreased salivary flow rate and oral mucosal diseases compared with the non-institutionalized elderly.

  8. Institutionalization of Higher Vocational Education in China: A Neoinstitutionalist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiong, Jie

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of neoinstitutionalism, higher vocational education has become an emerging institution in Chinese society. Its development over three decades entails a trend of institutionalization of higher vocational education. In such a process, higher vocational education is gaining legitimacy and experiencing isomorphic changes. Various…

  9. Filipino Arts among Elders in Institutionalized Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Satuito, James Cyril B.; Satumba, Miko Anne E.; Segui, Diego Rey A.; Serquina, Faith Evelyn C.; Serrano, Lawrence Jan P.; Sevilla, Madelyn D.

    2011-01-01

    The use of traditional art in recreational therapies is unexplored. This paper, thus, attempts to surface the unique power of traditional Filipino arts (TFA) as synergizing lens in capturing the individual and the collective experiences of a select group of Filipino elderly in an institutionalized care setting relative to their feelings of…

  10. Social Communication Difficulties and Autism in Previously Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Levin, April R.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk of difficulties with social communication and restricted/repetitive behaviors as well as the rate of autism in children institutionalized in early infancy and to assess the impact of a foster care intervention on ameliorating this risk. Method Children abandoned at birth and raised in institutions in Bucharest, Romania were randomly assigned to a care-as-usual group (institutional care, CAUG), or placed in family-centered foster care (FCG) as part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). At approximately 10 years of age, the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) was administered to caregivers of children in both groups, as well as to parents of a typically developing community sample (Never Institutionalized group, NIG) residing in Bucharest, Romania. Children scoring ≥ 12 on the SCQ underwent clinical evaluation for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results Caregivers of children with a history of institutionalization reported that these children had significantly more deviant behavior than never institutionalized children on all subdomains of the SCQ (all p<0.001). Children in the FCG had significantly lower scores on the SCQ than children in the CAUG (p<.001), particularly in the reciprocal social interaction domain, indicating that the intervention reduced problems in social communication. Three of 60 CAUG children, 2 of 57 FCG children, and none of the NIG children received a formal ASD diagnosis. Conclusion Early institutional rearing was associated with an increased risk of social communication difficulties and ASD. A family-centered foster care intervention improved social communication skills. PMID:25617251

  11. Predictors of Increased Death Following Relocation in Institutionalized Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosty, Mark; And Others

    Because research studies on post-relocation mortality in the elderly have come to inconsistent and contradictory conclusions, clinical teams recommending patients for placement are still relying on educated intuition as a basis for clinical decisions in what may be a life-or-death matter for elderly institutionalized patients. This study was…

  12. 38 CFR 18.454 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Education of... Social Services § 18.454 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises... is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 18.433(b). Nothing in this section shall...

  13. 38 CFR 18.454 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Education of... Social Services § 18.454 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises... is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 18.433(b). Nothing in this section shall...

  14. 34 CFR 104.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 104.54 Section 104.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  15. 34 CFR 104.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 104.54 Section 104.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  16. 34 CFR 104.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 104.54 Section 104.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  17. 34 CFR 104.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 104.54 Section 104.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  18. 38 CFR 18.454 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Education of... Social Services § 18.454 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises... is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 18.433(b). Nothing in this section shall...

  19. 38 CFR 18.454 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Education of... Social Services § 18.454 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises... is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 18.433(b). Nothing in this section shall...

  20. Institutionalization of Technology Transfer Organizations in Chinese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Han; Pinheiro, Rómulo

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of in-depth studies on how technology transfer organizations (TTOs) are organized and developed. This paper examines the evolution/institutionalization of TTOs in Tsinghua University (TU), as a microcosm of the development of TTOs in Chinese universities. It explores two issues in particular: what kinds of TTOs have been developed…

  1. Pharmacotherapy for Institutionalized Adolescents: Report of a Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalogerakis, Michael G., Ed.

    Presented are 34 guidelines and related charts developed by a New York panel of experts on psychotherapy with disturbed institutionalized adolescents. The guidelines are organized into general principles, specific indications (acute disturbances subacute, and chronic disturbances), and the patient's rights. Charts include a list of commonly used…

  2. Family Involvement Following Institutionalization: Modeling Nursing Home Visits over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Zarit, Steven H.; Pearlin, Leonard I.

    2003-01-01

    Gerontological research has emphasized family members' continued involvement in the lives of loved ones following institutionalization. However, many of these studies are cross-sectional in design and do not ascertain how family members' visits change over time. The present study utilized a growth curve analysis to examine preplacement and…

  3. Under Constriction: Colonization and Synthetic Institutionalization of Web Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Draws on a study of 106 personal homepages in order to present a theoretical model of how citizens' potentials as Web publishers are being compromised by the leadership of institutional discourses. Proposes an analogous process of synthetic institutionalization, in which personal homepage publishers affect institutional poses by adapting Norman…

  4. Institutionalizing Innovation in an Organization: A Model and Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawski, Carl

    A policy systems theoretical analysis of the problem of institutionalizing innovation in an organization is summarized in a flow diagram. The model is presented in terms of specific hypotheses, and then illustrated with a case of frustrated innovation, the 1968-69 crisis and strike at San Francisco State College. The model is set up (1) to help…

  5. Long-Term Adaptation to Institutionalization in Dementia Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Pot, Anne Margriet; Zarit, Steven H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Longitudinal research in dementia has acknowledged the importance of transitions during the course of family caregiving. However, long-term adaptation to institutionalization has received little attention. This study attempts to describe caregivers' adaptation (changes in stress, well-being, and psychosocial resources) to placement up to…

  6. Institutionalized Adolescents' Perceptions of a Summer Camp Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, David E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the facilities of Camp Easter Seal, Virginia, for institutionalized adolescents from different hospitals in Virginia. Also includes the attitudes of the patients toward their camping experience, their camp counselors, and what they learned from their camping experience. (Author/RK)

  7. Institutionalizing in Loco Parentis after Gott v. Berea College (1913)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loss, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: The institutionalization of in loco parentis in the wake of Gott v. Berea College (1913) marked a major turning point in the evolution of student management theory and practice. Focusing on the crucial decade of the 1920s, when American higher education first became a mass enterprise, this study explores the interaction of…

  8. Family Functioning in Families with Older Institutionalized Retarded Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazak, Anne E.

    1989-01-01

    Psychological distress, marital satisfaction, family adaptability, and cohesion are explored in 41 families with mentally retarded (MR) institutionalized youth and 38 comparison families. Multivariate analyses found no differences between groups, but univariate analyses revealed greater cohesion in families with MR offspring and stressed the…

  9. Institutionalization of Community Partnerships: The Challenge for Academic Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Magwood, Gayenell S.; Andrews, Jeannette O.; Zapka, Jane; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan; Stuart, Gail W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Current public health priorities emphasize the elimination of health disparities, translational research, and transdisciplinary and community alliances. The Center for Community Health Partnerships is a proactive initiative to address new paradigms and priorities in health care through institutionalization of community-university partnerships. This report highlights innovative strategies and lessons learned. PMID:23698666

  10. Institutionalization of evidence-informed practices in healthcare settings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effective and timely integration of the best available research evidence into healthcare practice has considerable potential to improve the quality of provided care. Knowledge translation (KT) approaches aim to develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to address the research-practice gap. However, most KT research has been directed toward implementation strategies that apply cognitive, behavioral, and, to a lesser extent, organizational theories. In this paper, we discuss the potential of institutional theory to inform KT-related research. Discussion Despite significant research, there is still much to learn about how to achieve KT within healthcare systems and practices. Institutional theory, focusing on the processes by which new ideas and concepts become accepted within their institutional environments, holds promise for advancing KT efforts and research. To propose new directions for future KT research, we present some of the main concepts of institutional theory and discuss their application to KT research by outlining how institutionalization of new practices can lead to their ongoing use in organizations. In addition, we discuss the circumstances under which institutionalized practices dissipate and give way to new insights and ideas that can lead to new, more effective practices. Summary KT research informed by institutional theory can provide important insights into how knowledge becomes implemented, routinized, and accepted as institutionalized practices. Future KT research should employ both quantitative and qualitative research designs to examine the specifics of sustainability, institutionalization, and deinstitutionalization of practices to enhance our understanding of these complex constructs. PMID:23171660

  11. Mechanisms for Institutionalizing Service-Learning and Community Partner Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stater, Keely Jones; Fotheringham, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Using data on service-learning partnerships from 255 universities receiving Learn and Serve America Grants in 2005, we ask (1) how different strategies used to institutionalize service-learning shape the perceived impact of the partnership on community groups, (2) how the level of service-learning program formality affects the perceived impact of…

  12. Institutionalization of Information Security: Case of the Indonesian Banking Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, Muhamad Faisal Fariduddin Attar

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the institutionalization of information security in the banking sector. This study is important to pursue since it explicates the internalization of information security governance and practices and how such internalization develops an organizational resistance towards security breach. The study argues that information…

  13. The Effects of Duration of Caregiving on Institutionalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Kane, Robert L.; Kane, Rosalie A.; Clay, Ted; Newcomer, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Our objective in this analysis was to determine how the duration of caregiving interacts with key care demands (i.e., severity of problem behaviors) to influence the institutionalization of individuals suffering from dementia. Methods: We utilized multiregional data from 4,761 caregivers of individuals with dementia over a 3-year period.…

  14. Supplementary Auditory and Vestibular Stimulation: Effects on Institutionalized Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Lawrence

    1975-01-01

    Supplementary stimulation was supplied for 30 minutes per day for approximately six weeks to 156 normal, full-term institutionalized infants prior to adoption. The Gesell Developmental Schedules were administered regularly (until age 27 months), to determine whether development had been enhanced by the treatment. (JMB)

  15. 34 CFR 104.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 104.54 Section 104.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  16. 38 CFR 18.454 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Education of... Social Services § 18.454 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient that operates or supervises... is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 18.433(b). Nothing in this section shall...

  17. Dental condition and weight loss in institutionalized demented patients.

    PubMed

    Horn, V J; Hodge, W C; Treuer, J P

    1994-01-01

    This reports the results of a retrospective clinical study evaluating the role of dentures on weight maintenance in an institutionalized demented population. Records of 57 demented long-term (greater than 3 months) residents of the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC, Nursing Home Care Unit were evaluated to determine body weight, mental acuity, independence in daily living, and dental condition. Fourteen (24%) of the patients possessed dentures, 19 (33%) were edentulous and functioned without dentures, while 24 patients (42%) were dentate. Overall mean weight change was -2.03 lbs +/- 0.81 lbs in 3 months. There was no significant difference in weight loss based on dental condition. There was, however, an apparent correlation of weight loss and mental acuity. Thus, it was concluded that dentures did not influence weight maintenance among institutionalized demented patients.

  18. Factors connected with alveolar bone resorption among institutionalized elderly people.

    PubMed

    de Baat, C; Kalk, W; van 't Hof, M

    1993-10-01

    In this socio-dental investigation among 175 institutionalized somatically disabled edentulous elderly people correlations are described between the test subjects' degree of alveolar bone resorption, their gender and age, their duration of edentulousness, and the number of complete dentures worn. All test subjects were interviewed by dental students and clinically examined by dentists. The mandibular alveolar bone resorption was significantly stronger in women than in men and stronger in people who had been edentulous longer. The longer the test subjects had been edentulous and the greater their degree of mandibular alveolar bone resorption was, the more mandibular dentures they had worn. This study among institutionalized elderly people provides for the most part the same results as a previously presented study among much younger people. Obviously, in these respects there are no differences between these groups.

  19. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Slunge, Daniel; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen

    2014-09-15

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries.

  20. The comparative effectiveness among institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly people in Taiwan of reminiscence therapy as a psychological measure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Jy

    2004-09-01

    This study examined the comparative effects of reminiscence on self-esteem, self-health perception, depressive symptoms, and mood status of elderly people residing in long-term care facilities and at home. A quasi-experimental design was conducted, using pre-intervention and post-intervention tests and purposive sampling. Rosenberg ' s Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), Health Perception Scale (HPS), Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form (GDS-SF), and Apparent Emotion Rating Scale (AER) were used as study instruments. Each subject was administered pre- and post-experimental tests at a four month interval and all subjects underwent weekly individual reminiscence intervention. Forty-eight subjects completed the study, with 25 institutionalized elderly people and 23 non-institutionalized home-based elderly people. Independent t-tests and paired t-tests were conducted to measure the differences in variable means between and within groups. A significant difference was found between groups in mood status post-test (t = 5.96, p <.001) and significant differences were noted in self-health perception, depressive symptoms, and mood status (t = -2.56, 2.83, -3.02; p =.018,.009,.007) between the pre- and post-intervention tests in the institutionalized group. These results suggest that reminiscence therapy is especially appropriate for older people who reside in care facilities. Implementing strategies that enrich the lives of elderly people residing in long-term cares is crucial, and reminiscence offers a method for promoting healthy aging.

  1. Sexual interest, attitudes, knowledge, and sexual history in relation to sexual behavior in the institutionalized aged.

    PubMed

    White, C B

    1982-02-01

    Although the idea that sexuality is a lifelong need is gaining greater research support and greater acceptability to the general public, few consider the institutionalized aged as having sexual needs or being able to benefit from sexual intimacy. The research presented here indicates that sexual activity in the institutionalized aged is related to their attitudes and behavior toward sexuality and to their sexual interest level and prior frequency of sexual activity. Institutionalized aged persons evidence sexual needs and do engage in sexual behavior.

  2. Treatment of acrophobia of an institutionalized adult with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C R; Conrad, P L

    1989-02-01

    Treatment of an institutionalized 34-year-old female with mental retardation (who may have been psychotic) for acrophobia was described. Prior to therapy her phobia had precluded her placement in an upper-level ward. Assessment and therapy took place over 6 weeks and involved 13 sessions, totalling 15 hours of graduated exposure. A further 10 hours of therapy were undertaken 7 months later due to the demands of her new setting. Eighteen-month follow-up indicated that all gains had been maintained. Unprogrammed generalization was limited.

  3. Family functioning in families with older institutionalized retarded offspring.

    PubMed

    Kazak, A E

    1989-12-01

    Psychological distress, marital satisfaction, family adaptability, and cohesion are explored in 31 families with mentally retarded (MR) institutionalized offspring (late adolescence and young adulthood) and 38 comparison families. Multivariate analyses indicate no differences between the groups, although univariate analyses point to higher levels of cohesion in the families with MR offspring and the importance of the construct of adaptability in understanding family functioning. The results are discussed in terms of the adaptive coping mechanisms of the families with MR offspring and the implications of this for intervention, research, and policy.

  4. M*A*S*H: A Program of Social Interaction Between Institutionalized Aged and Adult Mentally Retarded Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalson, Leon

    1976-01-01

    Restoration of a major social role to institutionalized aged through a program of social interaction and socialization with adult mentally retarded is described and evaluated. The over-all findings encourage this innovative opportunity for institutionalized aged. (Author)

  5. How Institutionalized Is Distance Learning? A Study of Institutional Role, Locale and Academic Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piña, Anthony A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine areas of strengths and weaknesses in the institutionalization of distance learning at colleges and universities. To accomplish this goal, 30 factors found to influence the institutionalization of innovations were identified from the literature of several area. These factors were rated by distance learning…

  6. Institutionalization of Organizational Change: A Study of HRD Interventions in Singaporean, US, Japanese, and German Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman-Gani, AAhad M.; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    Institutionalizing organizational change has emerged as an issue among organization researchers and managers alike. Institutionalization of change is derived from change management theory in its emphasis on understanding the roots of organizational success and failure. The field of HRD appears particularly poised to help organizations…

  7. Will It Last? Evidence of Institutionalization at Carnegie Classified Community Engagement Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    The traditional question inferred by attention to institutionalization is, "Will it last?" or "Will it die out when there is a new leader or when the grant ends?" In the case of community engagement, attention to institutionalization reveals a more complex portrait of organizational change that includes a critical reflection on not only the…

  8. Theorizing Teacher Agency and Reform: How Institutionalized Instructional Practices Change and Persist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridwell-Mitchell, E. N.

    2015-01-01

    One reason reform does not dramatically change public schools is because instructional practices are highly institutionalized. This article advances a theory for how teacher agency can both change and maintain institutionalized instructional practices in schools. Based on findings from one U.S. urban public school undergoing state-mandated reform,…

  9. An Alcohol Education and Traffic Safety Program for Institutionalized Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Glenn E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a preventive, educational program on alcohol and traffic safety conducted with institutionalized delinquents (N=66) identified as a high risk group for drinking and driving. Results supported the success of the program and confirmed that institutionalized delinquents were in fact an extremely high risk group. (LLL)

  10. Institutionalize Reciprocity to Overcome the Public Goods Provision Problem.

    PubMed

    Ozono, Hiroki; Kamijo, Yoshio; Shimizu, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is fundamental to human societies, and one of the important paths for its emergence and maintenance is reciprocity. In prisoner's dilemma (PD) experiments, reciprocal strategies are often effective at attaining and maintaining high cooperation. In many public goods (PG) games or n-person PD experiments, however, reciprocal strategies are not successful at engendering cooperation. In the present paper, we attribute this difficulty to a coordination problem against free riding among reciprocators: Because it is difficult for the reciprocators to coordinate their behaviors against free riders, this may lead to inequality among players, which will demotivate them from cooperating in future rounds. We propose a new mechanism, institutionalized reciprocity (IR), which refers to embedding the reciprocal strategy as an institution (i.e., institutionalizing the reciprocal strategy). We experimentally demonstrate that IR can prevent groups of reciprocators from falling into coordination failure and achieve high cooperation in PG games. In conclusion, we argue that a natural extension of the present study will be to investigate the possibility of IR to serve as a collective punishment system.

  11. Institutionalizing telemedicine applications: the challenge of legitimizing decision-making.

    PubMed

    Zanaboni, Paolo; Lettieri, Emanuele

    2011-09-28

    During the last decades a variety of telemedicine applications have been trialed worldwide. However, telemedicine is still an example of major potential benefits that have not been fully attained. Health care regulators are still debating why institutionalizing telemedicine applications on a large scale has been so difficult and why health care professionals are often averse or indifferent to telemedicine applications, thus preventing them from becoming part of everyday clinical routines. We believe that the lack of consolidated procedures for supporting decision making by health care regulators is a major weakness. We aim to further the current debate on how to legitimize decision making about the institutionalization of telemedicine applications on a large scale. We discuss (1) three main requirements--rationality, fairness, and efficiency--that should underpin decision making so that the relevant stakeholders perceive them as being legitimate, and (2) the domains and criteria for comparing and assessing telemedicine applications--benefits and sustainability. According to these requirements and criteria, we illustrate a possible reference process for legitimate decision making about which telemedicine applications to implement on a large scale. This process adopts the health care regulators' perspective and is made up of 2 subsequent stages, in which a preliminary proposal and then a full proposal are reviewed.

  12. [Understanding homicides in Latin America: poverty or institutionalization?].

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Homicides occur the world over, but they are not homogeneously distributed by geographical areas (continents, countries, regions), either over long or short periods of time, or in social groups, namely age, gender, social class or ethnicity. Why are there more homicides in some countries than in others? Why do killings increase in some countries, while they decrease in others? There are two fundamental schools of thought for social explanations of crime and violence: those attributing its origins to poverty and inequality and those blaming institutionalization or social norms. To discuss these theories, this paper analyzes and compares the changes in Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil in the first decade of the twenty-first century, where the homicide rate has decreased, increased and remained the same, respectively. Using the measurement of six variables (poverty, inequality, unemployment, national wealth, human development and the rule of law) and the technique of trajectory analysis, the results revealed that institutionalization is more to blame for the change than poverty and inequality. The text concludes that poverty and inequality affect crime and homicides, although not directly, but mediated by the institutions instead. PMID:23175393

  13. [Understanding homicides in Latin America: poverty or institutionalization?].

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Homicides occur the world over, but they are not homogeneously distributed by geographical areas (continents, countries, regions), either over long or short periods of time, or in social groups, namely age, gender, social class or ethnicity. Why are there more homicides in some countries than in others? Why do killings increase in some countries, while they decrease in others? There are two fundamental schools of thought for social explanations of crime and violence: those attributing its origins to poverty and inequality and those blaming institutionalization or social norms. To discuss these theories, this paper analyzes and compares the changes in Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil in the first decade of the twenty-first century, where the homicide rate has decreased, increased and remained the same, respectively. Using the measurement of six variables (poverty, inequality, unemployment, national wealth, human development and the rule of law) and the technique of trajectory analysis, the results revealed that institutionalization is more to blame for the change than poverty and inequality. The text concludes that poverty and inequality affect crime and homicides, although not directly, but mediated by the institutions instead.

  14. Factors Associated with Anemia in the Institutionalized Elderly.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emanuelle Cruz da; Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; Eickemberg, Michaela; Mello, Adriana Lima; Côrtes, Elvira Barbosa Quadros; Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Medeiros, Jairza Maria Barreto; Ramos, Lílian Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    As a common problem in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), anemia affects 25-63% of the elderly. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of anemia and its associated factors in the institutionalized elderly. The cross-sectional study was carried out with three hundred thirteen individuals aged ≥ 60 years, of both genders, living in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Poisson regression (PR) with robust variance estimates was used to assess the factors related to anemia. The prevalence of anemia was 38%. Mild anemia was predominant in both genders (male: 26.8%; female: 21.1%), as normocytic and normochromic anemia, with no anisocytosis (69.75%). Anemia was associated with thinness (PR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04-2.72) and with moderate (PR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.07-3.63) and total (PR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.34-5.07) dependence in the final model. Severe dependence exhibited borderline significance (PR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.00-3.77). The prevalence of anemia was high in the institutionalized elderly in both genders, with characteristics suggesting chronic diseases as the causal factor, and the frequency of occurrence was higher in thinness elderly with moderate to total dependence. PMID:27607057

  15. Factors Associated with Anemia in the Institutionalized Elderly

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Emanuelle Cruz; Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; Eickemberg, Michaela; Mello, Adriana Lima; Côrtes, Elvira Barbosa Quadros; Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Medeiros, Jairza Maria Barreto; Ramos, Lílian Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    As a common problem in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), anemia affects 25–63% of the elderly. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of anemia and its associated factors in the institutionalized elderly. The cross-sectional study was carried out with three hundred thirteen individuals aged ≥ 60 years, of both genders, living in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Poisson regression (PR) with robust variance estimates was used to assess the factors related to anemia. The prevalence of anemia was 38%. Mild anemia was predominant in both genders (male: 26.8%; female: 21.1%), as normocytic and normochromic anemia, with no anisocytosis (69.75%). Anemia was associated with thinness (PR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04–2.72) and with moderate (PR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.07–3.63) and total (PR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.34–5.07) dependence in the final model. Severe dependence exhibited borderline significance (PR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.00–3.77). The prevalence of anemia was high in the institutionalized elderly in both genders, with characteristics suggesting chronic diseases as the causal factor, and the frequency of occurrence was higher in thinness elderly with moderate to total dependence. PMID:27607057

  16. [Prevalence of malnutrition in institutionalized intellectually disabled patients].

    PubMed

    Bronberg, Ruben A; Alfaro, Emma L; Bejarano, Ignacio F; Dipierri, Jose E

    2011-01-01

    As patients with intellectual and developmental disability (ID) may be more exposed to unfavorable factors, they are at higher risk of suffering nutritional alterations. Our objective was to determine prevalence of malnutrition in institutionalized patients with ID. An evaluation of the nutritional status through determination of transversal anthropometric parameters of weight (kg) and height (cm) was made on 614 individuals (352 men and 262 women) institutionalized at Colonia Nacional Montes de Oca, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Body mass index and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity cases by sex and ID type: mild, moderate and severe intellectual disability were determined. Regardless of sex, prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity were of 2.9%, 30% and 27.7%, respectively. Regardless of degree of ID, greater prevalence of obesity (41.2%) was found amongst women, while overweight (34.7%) was more frequent amongst men. Taking the degree of ID and regardless of sex, greater prevalence of underweight was observed in severe ID, and overweight and obesity amongst mild ID. No any of the patients with mild ID presented underweight. Taking into account sex and ID, higher prevalence of underweight and overweight were observed amongst men with mild ID, (7% and 38.4%, respectively) and of obesity in women with moderate ID (44%). Results obtained would indicate the importance of caloric intake and energy consumption control in adults with ID, paying particular attention to life conditions and alimentary disorders in terms of the degree of ID and their multiple associated disabilities.

  17. Institutionalize Reciprocity to Overcome the Public Goods Provision Problem.

    PubMed

    Ozono, Hiroki; Kamijo, Yoshio; Shimizu, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is fundamental to human societies, and one of the important paths for its emergence and maintenance is reciprocity. In prisoner's dilemma (PD) experiments, reciprocal strategies are often effective at attaining and maintaining high cooperation. In many public goods (PG) games or n-person PD experiments, however, reciprocal strategies are not successful at engendering cooperation. In the present paper, we attribute this difficulty to a coordination problem against free riding among reciprocators: Because it is difficult for the reciprocators to coordinate their behaviors against free riders, this may lead to inequality among players, which will demotivate them from cooperating in future rounds. We propose a new mechanism, institutionalized reciprocity (IR), which refers to embedding the reciprocal strategy as an institution (i.e., institutionalizing the reciprocal strategy). We experimentally demonstrate that IR can prevent groups of reciprocators from falling into coordination failure and achieve high cooperation in PG games. In conclusion, we argue that a natural extension of the present study will be to investigate the possibility of IR to serve as a collective punishment system. PMID:27248493

  18. Developing proper mealtime behaviors of the institutionalized retarded1

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, F.; Azrin, N. H.

    1972-01-01

    The institutionalized mentally retarded display a variety of unsanitary, disruptive, and improper table manners. A program was developed that included (1) acquisition-training of a high standard of proper table manners and (2) maintenance procedures to provide continued motivation to maintain proper mealtime behaviors and decrease improper skills. Twelve retardates received acquisition training, individually, by a combination of verbal instruction, imitation, and manual guidance. The students then ate in their group dining arrangement where the staff supervisor provided continuing approval for proper manners and verbal correction and timeout for improper manners. The results were: (1) the trained retardates showed significant improvement, whereas those untrained did not; (2) the trained retardates ate as well in the institution as non-retarded customers did in a public restaurant; (3) proper eating was maintained in the group dining setting; (4) timeout was rarely needed; (5) the program was easily administered by regular staff in a regular dining setting. The rapidity, feasibility, and effectiveness of the program suggests the program as a solution to improper mealtime behaviors by the institutionalized mentally retarded. PMID:16795363

  19. Institutionalize Reciprocity to Overcome the Public Goods Provision Problem

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is fundamental to human societies, and one of the important paths for its emergence and maintenance is reciprocity. In prisoner’s dilemma (PD) experiments, reciprocal strategies are often effective at attaining and maintaining high cooperation. In many public goods (PG) games or n-person PD experiments, however, reciprocal strategies are not successful at engendering cooperation. In the present paper, we attribute this difficulty to a coordination problem against free riding among reciprocators: Because it is difficult for the reciprocators to coordinate their behaviors against free riders, this may lead to inequality among players, which will demotivate them from cooperating in future rounds. We propose a new mechanism, institutionalized reciprocity (IR), which refers to embedding the reciprocal strategy as an institution (i.e., institutionalizing the reciprocal strategy). We experimentally demonstrate that IR can prevent groups of reciprocators from falling into coordination failure and achieve high cooperation in PG games. In conclusion, we argue that a natural extension of the present study will be to investigate the possibility of IR to serve as a collective punishment system. PMID:27248493

  20. [Impact of oral health in the daily life of institutionalized and non institutionalized elder in the city of Recife (PE, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Eliane Helena Alvim; Barbosa, Maria Bernadete Cavalcanti Bené; de Oliveira, Pierre Andrade Pereira; Espíndola, Juliane; Gonçalves, Karla Joselita

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the influence of oral health in the daily routine of both institutionalized and non-institutionalized elders living in the city of Recife-PE, as well as to come to conclusions concerning the relevance level of oral health in both groups. In order to assess the perception of oral health, it was used the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The GOHAI levels, concerning the perception, were categorized in: low (≤ 50), average (51 to 60) and high (57 to 60). Oral health conditions were represented by the DMFT index (with cavity, lost and repaired teeth). It was observed that the percentage of elderly with a GOHAI not higher than 50 (low perception of oral health) was rather higher in the non-institutionalized group than in the institutionalized (92.2% x 64.9%). The average DMFT and the number of lost teeth were higher in the institutionalized group (96.01% x 87.87%). The perception of oral health was lower for more than half of the examined elderly population, but there being a meaningful difference between the two groups concerning the GOHAI, with lower levels for the non-institutionalized group. The result of the perception of oral health was compatible with the high number of decayed and lost teeth.

  1. The Effects of Early Experience on Face Recognition: An Event-Related Potential Study of Institutionalized Children in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Westerlund, Alissa; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Data are reported from 3 groups of children residing in Bucharest, Romania. Face recognition in currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized, and never-institutionalized children was assessed at 3 time points: preintervention (n = 121), 30 months of age (n = 99), and 42 months of age (n = 77). Children watched photographs of caregiver…

  2. Institutionalized nursing staff: planning and developing a specialized educational framework that enhances psychiatric nurses' roles and promotes de-institutionalization.

    PubMed

    Loukidou, E; Ioannidi, V; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, A

    2010-11-01

    For centuries psychiatric services were provided by mental health hospitals, which were operating upon bureaucratic principles: strict hierarchies, slow processes and segmentation of duties. Research has shown that psychiatric nursing, as exercised in these traditional settings, has dealt with several problems in relation to: the amount and quality of time spent with patients, the type of duties performed, the lack of autonomy etc. The closure of many psychiatric institutions and their substitution with community-based settings, signified that health professionals should perform a variety of new duties, exhibit new skills and develop new perceptions about their work and the patients. In order for such alterations to occur, education can play a vital role in the re-conceptualization of psychiatric nursing and in the practical preparation of students for their future work. The present paper focuses on the contradiction between nursing as practised in Greek mental health hospitals and the current trends and demands placed upon nurses, to exhibit a new 'face'. The purposes of this paper are: first, to review the research on psychiatric nurses' behaviours in mental health hospitals. Second, to present the outcomes of bureaucracy on employees and finally, to propose an educational scheme that could reinforce the shift from institutionalized work to de-institutionalized.

  3. Infants and Young Children in Orphanages: One View from Pediatrics and Child Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Deborah A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores pediatric and child psychiatric research covering five areas of potential biological and social risk to infants and children in orphanage care, specifically, infectious morbidity, nutrition, growth, cognitive and socioaffective development, and physical and sexual abuse. Results showed that institutionalization in early childhood…

  4. A Long Road to an Unresolved Problem: Comprehensive Child Care in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauth, Marilyn

    This booklet reviews the history, current conditions, and future prospects of child care programs in America. Institutionalization of children, placement in foster homes and nurseries, the professionalization of day nurseries, federal monetary assistance to nursery schools, increases in the number of working mothers, and recent proposals for…

  5. [The institutionalization of the elders in Argentina. Imaginary and realities].

    PubMed

    Fassio, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    The institutionalization is an alternative to the social and health policy to gather for vulnerable frail elderly needs. Despite the low numbers of old people in nursing homes, long term care is associated by the public and, in particular, by old people as a common solution to the latter's special needs of care. This article examines the proposals of international organisations regarding old people's care. Then, from the analysis of the Survey Health, Wellbeing and Ageing in Latin America and Caribbean (SABE), carried out in Buenos Aires in 2001 the views of elderly about nursing homes are examined. Finally, using data gathered by the National Census of Population and Housing (2001), we compare and contrast some key socio-demographic characteristics and living conditions of old people who live in households, those who live in the streets, and those who live in nursing homes.

  6. [Evaluation of growth and development of institutionalized children].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Caroline Magna Pessoa; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Mendonça, Larissa Bento de Araújo; Custódio, Ires Lopes; Matias, Erica Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the growth and development of institutionalized children from 0-6 years old. It had a descriptive, transversal and quantitative approach, and was held in a shelter from the Bureau of Labor and Social Development of the Government of the State of Ceará, in the months of March and April 2011. The sample comprised 44 children. It the sample prevailed male children (59.1%), aged 24 to 72 months (56.8%) and with time of sheltering more than one year (72.7%). It was found that the children were in the normal range of nutrition; however, 65.9% of children did not achieve at least one of the development milestones proposed by the Ministry of Health. The study suggests a reflection on how children living in shelters are being assisted by the health team, making it necessary follow up their growth and development, in order to intervene on the alterations.

  7. The use of a meditation programme for institutionalized juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Witoonchart, Chatree; Bartlet, Leslie

    2002-08-01

    The study applied intensive-seven consecutive days meditation programme in 101 late adolescent male delinquents in Upekkha Detention Centre. All of the boys completed the programme and answered the questionnaires. All of them felt that the meditation practice had been beneficial. 70 per cent of the subjects described feelings of contentment and calm, 53 per cent requested the programme to be repeated, 52 per cent of the subjects declared a clearer undestanding in the doctrine of Karma, 44 per cent referred to improved concentration and awareness, 36 per cent felt less impulsive, 22 per cent had flashbacks of their criminal behavior and their victims. In conclusion, the boys in Upekkha Detention Centre had the willing to join and complete the intensive meditation programme. Their self assessment reports showed a positive attitude to the programme. It is possible to develop a meditation programme as an adjunctive therapy for institutionalized juvenile delinquents.

  8. Animal-assisted activity: experiences of institutionalized Japanese older adults.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Namiko; Niiyama, Masayoshi; Niiyama, Harue

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a group of institutionalized elderly Japanese women perceived animal-assisted activity (AAA) and how their perceptions may be relevant to clinical nursing practices in the AAA context. The participants in this study, 8 elderly Japanese women residing in a nursing home in a northern Japanese city, had attended AAA sessions two times per month for 2 years prior to this study's data collection. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and data were analyzed using phenomenological procedures. Six themes emerged concerning the interactive relationships between the participants and the animals; in addition, participants were able to develop interest in themselves, other residents, and their environment, due to feelings of ease and the development of one-on-one relationships with the AAA dogs. Volunteers from outside the nursing home made residents feel refreshed and gave them opportunities to broaden their contact with society. PMID:19227109

  9. Institutionalization of Migration Policy Frameworks in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Makaryan, Shushanik; Chobanyan, Haykanush

    2015-01-01

    This article is a comparative study of the institutionalization of the migration policy frameworks of post-Soviet states Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. All three countries share common historical legacies: a Soviet past, wars and conflicts, unemployment, high emigration, and commitment to integration into European bodies. To what extent do the migration policies of these three countries (driven by contextual forces, i.e. domestic challenges) address country-specific migration dynamics? Or are they imposed by the European Union? In which dimensions have the national policies on migration of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia evolved, and around which issues have they converged or diverged? Have these trends led to an integration of migration policymaking at the regional level in the South Caucasus? PMID:26435548

  10. Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

  11. Nutritional status of institutionalized and free-living elderly in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Shabayek, M M; Saleh, S I

    2000-01-01

    Because of an increase in the number of elderly and the problems of nutrition associated with them, it is of interest to study the nutritional status of elderly persons in Alexandria City. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status of elderly population and to compare between the nutritional status of those institutionalized and those living free. The study was conducted on 240 elderly persons (120 institutionalized and 120 free living) selected randomly from institutions and from different sites. The basic data, weight, height, body mass index (BMI) of each were recorded. Dietary intake study was done by using 24 hours recall for 3 consecutive days and food frequency were used to obtain the best estimate of food intake. Energy and nutrient intakes were obtained and compared with the recommended dietary allowance (RDAs). The main findings of the study revealed that the mean age of the institutionalized elderly was greater than those living free. Percent of obesity among females was 71.7% among free living and 45% among institutionalized. Under-nutrition was present in 11.7% and 8.3% of institutionalized males and females respectively. Food habits showed that institutionalized subjects consume more amounts of many food items than free-living. Total daily energy intake was found to be below the recommendation for all subjects, with higher intake among institutionalized than free living. Nutrient intakes among institutionalized and free living elderly were inadequate except thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C and iron. The nutrients least adequately supplied in the diets of elderly are vitamin A and calcium along with energy deficits. In conclusion both institutionalized and free living are at risk for developing nutrient deficiencies. Deficient energy, calcium and vitamin A are common problems among most subjects. The composition of the diet among free living subjects seem to be also poor in some micronutrients. We recommended a nutrition intervention

  12. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z ... Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC Child Development Note: ...

  13. [The relationship between depressive symptoms and family functioning in institutionalized elderly].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Simone Camargo; dos Santos, Ariene Angelini; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between family functioning and depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of quantitative character. A total of 107 institutionalized elderly were assessed using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Geriatric Depression Scale (to track depressive symptoms) and the Family APGAR (to assess family functioning). The correlation coefficient of Pearson's, the chi-square test and the crude and adjusted logistic regression were used in the data analysis with a significance level of 5 %. The institutionalized elderly with depressive symptoms were predominantly women and in the age group of 80 years and older. Regarding family functioning, most elderly had high family dysfunctioning (57 %). Family dysfunctioning was higher among the elderly with depressive symptoms. There was a significant correlation between family functioning and depressive symptoms. The conclusion is that institutionalized elderly with dysfunctional families are more likely to have depressive symptoms. PMID:24676110

  14. Effects of Sociaization Games on Proximity and Prosocial Behavior of Aggressive Mentally Retarded Institutionalized Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Barbara; Han, Sung Soon

    1983-01-01

    Rates of friendly behavior were significantly greater after six moderately/severely retarded aggressive institutionalized adults participated in socialization games. The games also significantly decreased interpersonal distance. Unfriendly behavior and inactivity were higher after placebo sessions (simple craft projects). (CL)

  15. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  16. Toxocariasis: seroprevalence in abandoned-institutionalized children and infants.

    PubMed

    Archelli, Susana; Santillan, Graciela I; Fonrouge, Reinaldo; Céspedes, Graciela; Burgos, Lola; Radman, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is an infection that has worldwide distribution. Toxocara canis is the most relevant agent due to its frequent occurrence in humans. Soil contamination with embryonated eggs is the primary source of T. canis. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in 10-month to 3 year-old abandoned infants, considered to be at high risk because of their orphanhood status and early age. Blood samples were collected from 120 children institutionalized in an orphanage in the city of La Plata. In this study, we observed 38.33% of seropositive cases for T. canis by ELISA and 45% by Western blot techniques; significant differences among groups A (<1 year), B (1-2 years) and C (>2 years) were also found. In research group A, children presented a seropositivity rate of 23.91%, in group B of 42.85% and in group C of 56%, which indicates an increase in frequency as age advances, probably because of greater chances of contact with infective forms of the parasite since canines and soil are frequently infected with T. canis eggs. Abandoned children come from poor households, under highly unsanitary conditions resulting from inadequate or lack of water supply and sewer networks, and frequent promiscuity with canines, which promotes the occurrence of parasitic diseases. These children are highly vulnerable due to their orphanhood status and age.

  17. Institutionalizing the option of dam removal: the New Hampshire initiative.

    PubMed

    Lindloff, S D

    2003-01-01

    For two years, the State of New Hampshire has worked to institutionalize the option of dam removal. The high gradient streams that flow through the granite hills and mountains of this small northeastern state provided ideal conditions for dam construction, particularly during America's Industrial Revolution of the 1800s when mills were constructed throughout the area. With more than 4,800 dams in the state's database, there are many opportunities for the removal of dams that no longer serve a useful purpose, have become a public safety hazard and impact the river environment. Efforts to facilitate removal of dams in New Hampshire include the formation of a River Restoration Task Force and the creation of a dam removal program within the state agency responsible for regulating dams. This has led to the removal of two dams in the past year, with approximately ten additional projects in various stages of planning. A history of this agency-led initiative, as well as a discussion of the program's strengths, challenges and goals for the future are presented.

  18. Inhibitory Control and Working Memory in Post-Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.; Wright, Amanda J.; Luna, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitory control and working memory were examined in post-institutionalized (PI) children adopted into United States families from Russian institutions. The PI sample originated from institutions that were less severely depriving than those represented in previous studies and approximated the level of psychosocial deprivation, which is characterized by adequate physical resources but a lack of consistent and responsive caregiving. PI children (N=75; 29 male) ranged in age from 8–17 years (M=12.97; SD=3.03) and were grouped according to whether they were adopted after 14 months or before 9 months. A non-adopted comparison group (N=133; 65 male) ranged in age from 8–17 years (M=12.26; SD=2.75). PI children adopted after 14 months of age displayed poorer performance on the stop-signal and spatial span tasks relative to PI children adopted before 9 months of age after controlling for age at assessment. The two PI groups did not differ in their performance on a spatial self-ordered search task. Older-adopted PI children also showed poorer spatial span task performance compared to non-adopted children, but younger-adopted PI children did not. Task performance was significantly associated with parent-rated hyperactive-impulsive behavior in everyday contexts. These findings suggest that exposure to prolonged early institutional deprivation may be linked with inhibitory control and working memory difficulties years after adoption. PMID:23519375

  19. The epidemiology of skin tears in the institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Malone, M L; Rozario, N; Gavinski, M; Goodwin, J

    1991-06-01

    While skin tears are a common occurrence in the institutionalized elderly population, nothing has been written about this problem. We retrospectively studied all incident reports during a 1-year period at a large, urban, long-term-care facility to identify residents with skin tears. The overall incidence of skin tears was 0.92 per patient per year. The incidence rate for females, but not for males, increased significantly with age (P = 0.012). The mean length of the skin tear was 1.9 cm +/- 1.4 (mean +/- SD). Eighty percent occurred in the upper extremities, with the most frequent location being the forearm. Almost half of the skin tears reported had an unknown cause. Wheelchairs and accidentally bumping into an object each accounted for a quarter of the skin tears where the cause was known. Transfers and falls contributed to a lesser extent. Impaired mental status was no more likely to be present in residents experiencing a skin tear than in all nursing home residents. Twenty-four of the 147 residents with skin tears had four or more tears, accounting for 40% of all skin tears reported. Ninety-seven percent of the episodes resulted in no attending physicians' orders other than the standing orders. Future studies should be designed to determine if there are adverse consequences of skin tears and to suggest programs to reduce their occurrence.

  20. INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED, A SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF STATE LAWS GOVERNING ADMISSION TO RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES, AND LEGAL RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS OF INSTITUTIONALIZED PATIENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEWMAN, ROGER W., ED.

    SUMMARIZING AND ANALYZING LAWS GOVERNING THE ADMISSION OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED TO RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES AND THE LEGAL RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS OF INSTITUTIONALIZED PATIENTS, THIS REPORT COVERS THE 50 STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA AT THE END OF 1966. AFTER A CONSIDERATION OF THE METHOD OF REPORTING, TERMINOLOGY, AND DEFINITIONS, 13 TABLES AND…

  1. The Self-Concept and Academic Performance of Institutionalized and Non-Institutionalized HIV/AIDS Orphaned Children in Kisumu Municipality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimani, Chege Gabriel; Cheboswony, M.; Kodero, H. M.; Misigo, Benard L.

    2009-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic has increasingly become a major factor in the emergence of orphans in the developing countries. These orphans are usually traumatized due to the multiple losses, isolation, stigma and grief. The study sought to investigate the effect of institutionalization of children on the self-concept of the AIDS-orphaned children and to…

  2. Issues in the creation of organizations: initiation, innovation, and institutionalization.

    PubMed

    Kimberly, J

    1979-09-01

    Kimberly presents a case study of the birth and early development of an innovative medical school. When the school opened in 1971, the existing 86 medical schools all offered similar programs: two years of basic science training in lecture halls and laboratories, followed by two years of direct contact with patients in clinical settings. In the new school, students were taught didactically only during the first year. During the second year, each student was assigned to a community physician who acted as an advisor and who discussed with students those patients afflicted with the diseases the student was currently studying. Available evidence indicated that the school's innovative curriculum was favorably received by the students and that they performed as well as their peers on standardized year-end exams. The author found the case of this medical school to be of particular interest from an organizational viewpoint in that: (1) the early development of the school was shaped by the first dean's entrepreneurial activity, ambitions, visions, strengths, and weaknesses; (2) the uncertainty resulting from the school's novelty forced individuals to assume new roles and face unclear performance criteria; and (3) the transition of an innovative school to an institutionalized one was problematic because it modified the decision-making process. The author suggests that those things which lead to an organization's success during its early years are not the same as those that lead to longer-run success. He says that a new organization creates new norms, values, and procedures whereas the elements of an existing organization interact within an established culture. He concludes that organizational birth is a phenomenon about which relatively little is known, but which may be an important constraint on later development. A comparative analysis of the birth, life, and death of organization is advocated.

  3. Cervical spine abnormalities in institutionalized adults with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, R A; Fidler, K E; Yeh, H; Hodgetts, P G; Pharand, G; Chau, M

    1993-06-01

    The prevalence of increased anterior atlanto-odontoid distance (AAOD), a risk factor for spinal cord compression, and degenerative disease of the cervical spine (DDCS) in a population of institutionalized adults with Down's syndrome (DS) was determined and compared with age- and sex-matched 'normals' presenting to a hospital emergency department. Radiographs of the cervical spines of 99 adults with DS and 198 'normals' were compared using a standardized rating scale. The prevalence of an AAOD of 3 mm or greater, the threshold of risk from the literature, was 8% for DS cases and 2% for controls (P < 0.01). The mean AAOD for DS cases was 2.0 +/- 1 mm and for controls 1.5 +/- 0.5 mm (P < 0.01). There was a negative correlation between AAOD and age of DS cases. The prevalence of any degree of DDCS among the DS cases was 64%, the controls 39% (P < 0.001); for moderate or severe DDCS the prevalence among DS cases was 45%, controls 12% (P < 0.001). The prevalence of DDCS increased with age in both groups, but the severity of DDCS was significantly increased with age in both groups, but the severity of DDCS was significantly greater for DS individuals in all age groups. The levels of the cervical spine affected ranged from C2 to C6; the most commonly affected level was C5-C6. While DS adults are at increased theoretical risk for spinal cord compression due to increased AAOD, its clinical significance would appear to be small and to decline with age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Food habits and anthropometric measurements in a group of independent and institutionalized elderly people in Spain.

    PubMed

    Lasheras, C; González, C; Patterson, A M; Fernández, S

    1998-12-01

    Because of an increase in the number of elderly and the problems of nutrition associated with them, we considered it of interest to study the eating habits of 352 elderly persons (134 males and 218 females) 65 to 95 years of age in an urban area in the north of Spain (Oviedo). The purpose of this study was specifically to describe the differences in the eating habits of elderly institutionalized persons and those resident at home and to detect the nutritional status of 161 subjects living in institutions and 191 living at home. The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and triceps skinfold (PTP) of each were recorded. To determine the eating habits, a questionnaire measuring the frequency of food consumption was distributed to the subjects. The mean age of the institutionalized elderly was greater than those living independently. The mean values of BMI indicated overweight in all cases, with values around those of obesity in independent females (BMI = 29.97). The value of PTP was found to be within normal limits, but a greater percentage of institutionalized subjects showed PTP values of less than P10 (males, 10.2%; females, 11%). Food habits showed that the consumption of fish and margarine/oil was greater in institutionalized subjects of both sexes. Independent males consumed more vegetables; females consumed more milk and greens. Milk, vegetables, fruit, and fish were the food groups with consumption frequencies less than those recommended. A greater percentage of noncompliance was seen among the institutionalized elderly.

  5. Deciding to institutionalize: why do family members cease caregiving at home?

    PubMed

    McLennon, Susan M; Habermann, Barbara; Davis, Linda Lindsey

    2010-04-01

    The primary purpose of this secondary analysis was to identify common themes from the statements of caregivers who ultimately decided to institutionalize their relative with Alzheimer or Parkinson disease. Content analysis of transcripts from caregivers (n=11) who institutionalized their relative during their participation in a caregiver intervention study was performed. Two categories identified from the caregivers' stories were anticipating the inevitable and reaching the limit. The results of the descriptive analysis indicated that 3 to 4 months before institutionalization, caregivers discussed knowing that they would not be able to continue caring for their relative. The most frequent reasons for institutionalization were serious health events. The incidental finding that there were more institutionalizations in the Alzheimer disease participant group than in the Parkinson disease group may indicate that caregiving is more difficult for caregivers in Alzheimer disease than in Parkinson disease. This analysis contributes new and important information about the time interval between caregivers' anticipation of the need for alternative care arrangements and the subsequent placement in formal care. Nurses and other healthcare providers should be alert to the fact that when caregivers express anticipation of the need for change in care arrangements, it may be a signal for immediate assessment and referral to appropriate resources for assistance.

  6. Helping students survive institutionalized patients and burn-out in staff in chronic psychiatric care facilities.

    PubMed

    Bissell, B P; Feather, R B; Ryan, D M

    1984-01-01

    In summary, we have discussed the problem of institutionalized patients and burn-out in staff as well as the effect they both have on nursing students during their mental health-psychiatric nursing rotation. The stages in which specific student behaviors occur during the psychiatric nursing rotation as a result of the students' perceptions, and the interventions faculty members can employ in decreasing the subjective aspects of these perceptions have also been presented. We conclude that nursing students will emerge from their experience with better understanding of institutionalization and burn-out, and better equipped to cope with reality shock if they are introduced to these concepts early in the lecture series and are sent to a variety of psychiatric care facilities for observational experience. The facilities selected should be those in which patients are coping with less chronic behavior problems than found in state hospitals and where observable behavioral changes in patients are measured in weeks or months, rather than years. Facilities such as outpatient clinics and crisis intervention centers where clients may be more stabilized, less overwhelming, and have more resources available to them would meet these criteria. Finally, we recommend that instructors be made more aware than they are of the institutionalization and burn-out process early in their teaching responsibilities; that faculty group discussions on institutionalization as maladaptive behavior be held; and that the faculty encourage an open atmosphere where students can discuss their reactions to institutionalization in patients and burn-out in staff freely.

  7. Health Care Service Utilization of Dementia Patients before and after Institutionalization: A Claims Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzkopf, Larissa; Hao, Yi; Holle, Rolf; Graessel, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based and institutional dementia care has been compared in cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal information on the effect of institutionalization on health care service utilization is sparse. Methods We analyzed claims data from 651 dementia patients via Generalized Estimation Equations to assess health care service utilization profiles and corresponding expenditures from four quarters before to four quarters after institutionalization. Results In all domains, utilization increased in the quarter of institutionalization. Afterwards, the use of drugs, medical aids, and non-physician services (e.g., occupational therapy and physiotherapy) remained elevated, but use of in- and outpatient treatment decreased. Cost of care showed corresponding profiles. Conclusion Institutional dementia care seems to be associated with an increased demand for supportive services but not necessarily for specialized medical care. PMID:25337076

  8. Deepening the Institutionalization of Service-Learning: The Added Value of Assessing the Social Return of Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Nichols, Kathleen; Hatcher, Julie; Cecil, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to institutionalize service-learning are well documented (Furco 1996; Holland, 2000). Using Kecskes (2009) Community-Engaged Department Rubric we evaluated service-learning institutionalization within a school at a metropolitan campus. As a result, we propose adding an additional dimension, social return on investment. This added…

  9. Where's the Justice in Service-Learning? Institutionalizing Service-Learning from a Social Justice Perspective at a Jesuit University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Sondra; Anderson, Jeffrey B.

    2007-01-01

    We attempt to answer "where" the social justice is in service-learning by probing "what" it is, "how" it looks in the process of being institutionalized at a Jesuit university, and "why" it is important. We develop themes about institutionalizing service-learning from a social justice perspective. Our themes were developed through an analysis of…

  10. The Effects of Foster Care Intervention on Socially Deprived Institutionalized Children's Attention and Positive Affect: Results from the BEIP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghera, Melissa M.; Marshall, Peter J.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Smyke, Anna T.; Guthrie, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of a foster care intervention on attention and emotion expression in socially deprived children in Romanian institutions. Methods: Institutionalized children were randomized to enter foster care or to remain under institutional care. Subsequently, the institutionalized and foster care groups, along with a…

  11. Leadership Behavior and Job Performance of Teachers in Public and Private Kindergartens: The Perspectives of Institutionalization, Reason, and Feeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yigean; Cheng, Jaonan

    2012-01-01

    Chinese society is accustomed to using feelings, reasons, and institutionalizations to determine how to deal with events, which raises a number of questions. How can the directors of early education institutions incorporate feelings, reasons, and institutionalizations into their management? How can they enhance the job performance of teachers?…

  12. Institutionalized racism and end-stage renal disease: is its impact real or illusionary?

    PubMed

    Callender, Clive O; Miles, Patrice V

    2004-01-01

    Racism is the subjugation of one group (superior) over another (inferior) and may be divided into two categories: overt (gross) and covert. Covert racism (subconscious) is categorized as institutionalized racism. Although institutionalized racism is a more tolerant and restrained practice of this superior/inferior ethnic construct in which African Americans or other people of color are treated as inferiors, it has led to important health disparities between blacks and whites. One area where its mark is most indelible is in the treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

  13. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  14. INSTITUTIONALIZING SAFEGUARDS-BY-DESIGN: HIGH-LEVEL FRAMEWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Trond Bjornard PhD; Joseph Alexander; Robert Bean; Brian Castle; Scott DeMuth, Ph.D.; Phillip Durst; Michael Ehinger; Prof. Michael Golay, Ph.D.; Kevin Hase, Ph.D.; David J. Hebditch, DPhil; John Hockert, Ph.D.; Bruce Meppen; James Morgan; Jerry Phillips, Ph.D., PE

    2009-02-01

    participation in facility design options analysis in the conceptual design phase to enhance intrinsic features, among others. The SBD process is unlikely to be broadly applied in the absence of formal requirements to do so, or compelling evidence of its value. Neither exists today. A formal instrument to require the application of SBD is needed and would vary according to both the national and regulatory environment. Several possible approaches to implementation of the requirements within the DOE framework are explored in this report. Finally, there are numerous barriers to the implementation of SBD, including the lack of a strong safeguards culture, intellectual property concerns, the sensitive nature of safeguards information, and the potentially divergent or conflicting interests of participants in the process. In terms of SBD implementation in the United States, there are no commercial nuclear facilities that are under IAEA safeguards. Efforts to institutionalize SBD must address these issues. Specific work in FY09 could focus on the following: finalizing the proposed SBD process for use by DOE and performing a pilot application on a DOE project in the planning phase; developing regulatory options for mandating SBD; further development of safeguards-related design guidance, principles and requirements; development of a specific SBD process tailored to the NRC environment; and development of an engagement strategy for the IAEA and other international partners.

  15. Changing District Priorities for School-Business Collaboration: Superintendent Agency and Capacity for Institutionalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.; Thompson, Hugh C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School district superintendents continue to favor collaborative relationships with their local business communities amid concerns over free-market competition, maintaining public legitimacy, and scarce financial resources. Prior research is inadequate regarding the development, implementation, and institutionalization of school and…

  16. Political Parties and the Institutionalization of Education: A Comparative Analysis of Party Manifestos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobi, Anja P.

    2011-01-01

    Education has been featured prominently in recent election campaigns in different countries. This article explains this observation by the idea of a world culture and the global institutionalization of education. It compares party manifestors of 25 OECD countries from 1946 onward, analyzing how education developed in election campaigns over time…

  17. An exercise program to prevent falls in institutionalized elderly with cognitive deficits: a crossover pilot study.

    PubMed

    DeSure, Ariell R; Peterson, Karen; Gianan, Faith V; Pang, Lorrin

    2013-11-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury among older adults in the United States, with the institutionalized elderly at elevated risk for injury and death. Physical weakness and mental frailty, prevalent in institutionalized elderly, are major risk factors for falls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program that addresses both the physical and mental aspects of exercise to reduce falls in institutionalized elderly. Twenty-seven volunteer subjects residing in an assisted living facility participated in the 24 week randomized crossover study. After demographic, fall history, and mental status examinations, subjects were randomly assigned first to ten weeks of either an exercise class or a control group, followed by a four week "washout period" of no activity, then cross assigned to ten weeks as either a control group or exercise class, respectively. Falls as well as mental status changes were monitored during the study. After adjusting for differences in baseline risk between the control and treatment groups, and for potential residual effects of the treatment during the crossover phase, a statistically significant (P = .025) reduction in falls was found during treatment compared to the control periods. No change in mental status was seen. This small, pilot study shows that exercise programs, which emphasize mental strengthening as well as physical fitness, have the potential to reduce falls among mentally impaired, institutionalized seniors.

  18. Retrospective Study of Lithium Use for Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Individuals with Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langee, Harvey R.

    1990-01-01

    Severely and profoundly mentally retarded institutionalized residents (N=74) who received lithium carbonate for behavior disorders were followed in a 10-year retrospective study. Thirty-one subjects demonstrated a sustained major reduction or elimination of behavioral symptoms. Lithium responders were likely to be older and to present symptoms of…

  19. The Effects of Early Institutionalization on the Discrimination of Facial Expressions of Emotion in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Hana; Moulson, Margaret C.; Fox, Nathan; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles A., III

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of institutionalization on the discrimination of facial expressions of emotion in three groups of 42-month-old children. One group consisted of children abandoned at birth who were randomly assigned to Care-as-Usual (institutional care) following a baseline assessment. Another group consisted of children…

  20. Institutionalization: How Can We Continue Good Practices and Functions When Funding Ends? Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emory, Ruth

    Based on the conference for which the related document (EA 015 290) was prepared, this document reports the discussions and results of the meeting of the Northwest Regional Exchange (NWRx) Advisory Board with its staff and several consultants on the problem of how to institutionalize dissemination functions in the region's states--that is, how to…

  1. The Applied Humanities and the Institutionalizing of Change in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Allen B.

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a guideline to the four-year applied humanities course for professional schools. Concludes that the ability of assessing and predicting the professional decision consequences is the end product which can be obtained by institutionalizing the change mechanism in normal educational programs. (For Part One of this article, see SE 509 318,…

  2. Vitamin/Mineral Supplements and Intelligence of Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    1983-01-01

    Vitamin/mineral supplements were administered to 19 institutionalized mentally retarded adults in a double-blind study over a seven-month period. No changes were observed in IQ nor in adaptive behavior. This was a replication with adults of a previous study of children that had obtained positive results. (Author/CL)

  3. The Effects of Family Structure on Institutionalized Children's Self-Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Roger L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined effects of family structure (intact, stepparent, and single parent) on institutionalized children's (N=166) self-concepts in grades 5 through 12. Found trend for students from single-parent families to check fewer positive adjectives, although not significant difference from children from intact or stepfamilies. (Author/ABL)

  4. The Effects of Family Structure on Institutionalized Children's Self-Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Roger L.; And Others

    The number of nontraditional families, including single-parent families and stepfamilies, in America has been steadily increasing. This study was conducted to examine the effects of family structure (intact, stepparent, and single-parent) on institutionalized children's self-concepts using Parish and Taylor's Personal Attribute Inventory for…

  5. Iron Deficiency and the Cognitive and Psychomotor Development of Children: A Pilot Study with Institutionalized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driva, A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a pilot study, involving 48 institutionalized infants and toddlers, which aimed to treat iron deficiency anemia and to discover other factors contributing to the problem. Results indicate improvement in cognitive development after the administration of iron among three groups, while no significant differences were observed in psychomotor…

  6. Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Alzheimer-Type Dementia in Institutionalized Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, F. E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Institutionalized patients with Down syndrome (N=307) were monitored for 5 to 10 years to determine prevalence of Alzheimer-type dementia. Prevalence increased from 11% between ages 40 and 49 to 77% between 60 and 69. All patients 70 and over had dementia. Mean age of onset of dementia was 56 years. Neuropathological findings were consistent with…

  7. 42 CFR 441.102 - Plan of care for institutionalized beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plan of care for institutionalized beneficiaries. 441.102 Section 441.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Medicaid for Individuals Age 65 or Over in Institutions for Mental...

  8. Identification and Vocational Training of the Institutionalized Deaf-Retarded Patient. Part I, The Diagnostic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Mental Health, Lansing.

    In planning vocational rehabilitation, 169 institutionalized deaf retardates (aged 10 to 40) were studied. The 106 males and 63 females were divided into two groups with the median age, 22 years, used as a cutoff point. All received various tests and evaluations. Results indicated that IQ scores ranged from 58 (verbal) to 61 (performance) on the…

  9. Corporate social policy - problems of institutionalization and experience of Russian oil and gas companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekhoda, E.; Kolbysheva, Yu; Makoveeva, V.

    2015-11-01

    The article examines a range of problems related to the process of institutionalization in the corporate social policy, characterizing the social responsibility of business and representing a part of the general strategy of corporate social responsibility. The experience of the social policy implementation in oil and gas companies is analyzed.

  10. Waves of Educational Model Production: The Case of Higher Education Institutionalization in Malawi, 1964-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Dana G.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of national education systems has been identified as one of the richest areas for exploring questions about globalization, particularly the degree of worldwide convergence in educational institutions. This article addresses questions about the transnational production and institutionalization of educational models through a historical…

  11. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  12. The Relationship between Social Competence and Intelligence in Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roszkowski, Michael J.; Isett, Robert D.

    1982-01-01

    The social quotient from Vineland Social Maturity Scale was found to be moderately associated with IQ as measured by the Stanford Binet, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Slosson Intelligence Test, and the Leiter International Test for institutionalized mentally retarded persons. (CL)

  13. Factors Determining the Decision to Institutionalize Dementing Individuals: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carole A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Conducted longitudinal study of 196 caregiver/care receiver dyads to determine variables predictive of caregiver decision to institutionalize dependent with dementia. Use of services, enjoyment of caregiving, caregiver burden and health, caregiver rating and reaction to care receiver behavior and memory problems, and presence of troublesome…

  14. Deciding on Institutionalization for a Relative with Dementia: The Most Difficult Decision for Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Chantal D.; Ducharme, Francine; Griffith, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The decision to move a family member with dementia to a nursing home is a difficult experience for caregivers. Complex psychosocial factors are involved and knowledge of predictive factors alone is insufficient. Using grounded theory, this study explores the decision-making process with regards to institutionalization, from the perspective of…

  15. Black-White Differentials in the Institutionalization of the Elderly: A Temporal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kart, Cary S.; Beckham, Barry L.

    1976-01-01

    Concludes that socioeconomic factors and racial discrimination account for some of the variation in institutionalization for blacks and whites. Available data are inconclusive as to whether blacks are over represented in mental hospitals because they suffer from greater mental impairment than whites. (Author/AM)

  16. Characteristics of the institutionalized and community-residing oldest-old in China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Danan; Dupre, Matthew E; Liu, Guangya

    2007-02-01

    Existing research on the institutionalized population of older adults is primarily limited to Western countries. This study is the first to use nationally representative data to examine differences in the institutionalized and community-residing population of the oldest-old (ages 80+) in China. Using three waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) (1998, 2000, and 2002), we examine differences in sociodemographic characteristics, family caregiving resources, health practices, religious activity, chronic conditions, and mortality risk. The results indicate that the institutionalized oldest-old are younger, male, reside in urban areas, have lower family-care resources, and exhibit poorer health compared to those living in the community. We also find that the 2-year mortality risk for institutionalized elders is 1.35 times greater than for those residing in the community. However, the mortality differential is eliminated once the sociodemographic, family caregiving, and health characteristics of the oldest-old are taken into account. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. A Diffusion of Innovations Approach to Gerontological Curriculum Enrichment: Institutionalizing and Sustaining Curricular Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.; Murty, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a gerontological enrichment model for institutionalizing and sustaining curricular change utilizing Rogers' (1995, 2003) diffusion of innovations approach to organizational change. The goal of the project, funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation, is to transform the social work curriculum at a major state university so…

  18. Post-Institutionalized Chinese and Eastern European Children: Heterogeneity in the Development of Emotion Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda A.; Perlman, Susan B.; Fries, Alison B. Wismer; Pollak, Seth D.

    2006-01-01

    Post-institutionalized Chinese and Eastern European children participated in two emotion understanding tasks. In one task, children selected facial expressions corresponding to four emotion labels (happy, sad, angry, scared). The second task required children to match facial expressions to stories describing situations for these emotions. While…

  19. Reactions to the Labels "Institutionalized" and "Mentally Retarded" by Retarded and Nonretarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gibbons, Barbara N.

    The effects of labels, "mentally retarded" and "institutionalized" on the evaluations and causal attributions of nonretarded persons, and on the social distance preferences of EMR persons, were assessed. In addition, each group was asked to predict the likelihood of a labeled (mentally retarded) or a nonlabeled target person achieving success at a…

  20. Educational Support Group in Changing Caregivers' Psychological Elder Abuse Behavior toward Caring for Institutionalized Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti

    2009-01-01

    Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…

  1. The Institutionalization of Scientific Information: A Scientometric Model (ISI-S Model).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinkler, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a scientometric model (ISI-S model) for describing the institutionalization process of scientific information. ISI-S describes the information and knowledge systems of scientific publications as a global network of interdependent information and knowledge clusters that are dynamically changing by their content and size. (Author/LRW)

  2. Institutionalizing Service-Learning in Faith-Based Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amborn, Jennifer; Clark, Yorton, Jr.; Wegley, David

    2010-01-01

    The identification of key elements for effective campus-wide sustainable service-learning programs at faith-based colleges and universities was examined. This qualitative research investigated an extensive range of documents, web sites, and literature to determine the conditions of institutionalization that must be met in conjunction with…

  3. Placement in Foster Care Enhances Quality of Attachment among Young Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyke, Anna T.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Guthrie, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This study examined classifications of attachment in 42-month-old Romanian children (N = 169). Institutionalized since birth, children were assessed comprehensively, randomly assigned to care as usual (CAU) or to foster care, and compared to family-reared children. Attachment classifications for children in foster care were markedly different from…

  4. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  5. Oral Health and Nutritional Status of Semi-Institutionalized Persons with Mental Retardation in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Luciana Rodrigues Vieira; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Rauen, Michelle Soares; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck

    2009-01-01

    Association between oral health status and nutritional status was investigated in 200 semi-institutionalized persons with mental retardation aged 5-53 years, 45.5% female, in the cities of Florianopolis and Sao Jose, province of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, clinical-odontological examination revealed a high percentage of…

  6. Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saadoon, Muna; Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Nour, Ibtisam El; Al-Said, Basma

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is common worldwide, and can take many forms. It may even endanger the child’s life, especially when younger children are the victims. CM affects the child’s quality of life and consequently leads to long term issues to be dealt with by the child, family and community. This case series discusses six children who have been subjected to CM, and diagnosed by the child protection team of the departments of Child Health and Behavioural Medicine at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman. The aim of this case series is to increase the level of awareness of CM among Oman’s medical professionals and to highlight the difficulties encountered in diagnosing and providing optimal care for these children. Although treatment is provided in Oman’s health care system, it is clear that there are gaps in the existing system which affect the quality of child protection services provided to the children and their families. PMID:22375265

  7. Disruptions of working memory and inhibition mediate the association between exposure to institutionalization and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tibu, F.; Sheridan, M. A.; McLaughlin, K. A.; Nelson, C. A.; Fox, N. A.; Zeanah, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Young children raised in institutions are exposed to extreme psychosocial deprivation that is associated with elevated risk for psychopathology and other adverse developmental outcomes. The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is particularly high in previously institutionalized children, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. We investigated whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) explain the link between institutionalization and ADHD. Method A sample of 136 children (aged 6–30 months) was recruited from institutions in Bucharest, Romania, and 72 never institutionalized community children matched for age and gender were recruited through general practitioners’ offices. At 8 years of age, children’s performance on a number of EF components (working memory, response inhibition and planning) was evaluated. Teachers completed the Health and Behavior Questionnaire, which assesses two core features of ADHD, inattention and impulsivity. Results Children with history of institutionalization had higher inattention and impulsivity than community controls, and exhibited worse performance on working memory, response inhibition and planning tasks. Lower performances on working memory and response inhibition, but not planning, partially mediated the association between early institutionalization and inattention and impulsivity symptom scales at age 8 years. Conclusions Institutionalization was associated with decreased EF performance and increased ADHD symptoms. Deficits in working memory and response inhibition were specific mechanisms leading to ADHD in previously institutionalized children. These findings suggest that interventions that foster the development of EF might reduce risk for psychiatric problems in children exposed to early deprivation. PMID:26470598

  8. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  9. The Avahan Transition: Effects of Transition Readiness on Program Institutionalization and Sustained Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Suneeta; Singh, Kriti; Chhabra, Vibha; Bennett, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background With declines in development assistance for health and growing interest in country ownership, donors are increasingly faced with the task of transitioning health programs to local actors towards a path to sustainability. Yet there is little available guidance on how to measure and evaluate the success of a transition and its subsequent effects. This study assesses the transition of the Avahan HIV/AIDS prevention program in India to investigate how preparations for transition affected continuation of program activities post-transition. Methods Two rounds of two surveys were conducted and supplemented by data from government and Avahan Computerized Management Information Systems (CMIS). Exploratory factor analysis was used to develop two measures: 1) transition readiness pre-transition, and 2) institutionalization (i.e. integration of initial program systems into organizational procedures and behaviors) post-transition. A fixed effects model was built to examine changes in key program delivery outcomes over time. An ordinary least square regression was used to assess the relationship between transition readiness and sustainability of service outcomes both directly, and indirectly through institutionalization. Results Transition readiness data revealed 3 factors (capacity, alignment and communication), on a 15-item scale with adequate internal consistency (alpha 0.73). Institutionalization was modeled as a unidimensional construct, and a 12-item scale demonstrated moderate internal consistency (alpha 0.60). Coverage of key populations and condom distribution were sustained compared to pre-transition levels (p<0.01). Transition readiness, but not institutionalization, predicted sustained outcomes post-transition. Transition readiness did not necessarily lead to institutionalization of key program elements one year after transition. Conclusion Greater preparedness prior to transition is important to achieve better service delivery outcomes post

  10. Institutionalizing evidence-based practice: an organizational case study using a model of strategic change

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a general expectation within healthcare that organizations should use evidence-based practice (EBP) as an approach to improving the quality of care. However, challenges exist regarding how to make EBP a reality, particularly at an organizational level and as a routine, sustained aspect of professional practice. Methods A mixed method explanatory case study was conducted to study context; i.e., in terms of the presence or absence of multiple, inter-related contextual elements and associated strategic approaches required for integrated, routine use of EBP ('institutionalization'). The Pettigrew et al. Content, Context, and Process model was used as the theoretical framework. Two sites in the US were purposively sampled to provide contrasting cases: i.e., a 'role model' site, widely recognized as demonstrating capacity to successfully implement and sustain EBP to a greater degree than others; and a 'beginner' site, self-perceived as early in the journey towards institutionalization. Results The two sites were clearly different in terms of their organizational context, level of EBP activity, and degree of institutionalization. For example, the role model site had a pervasive, integrated presence of EBP versus a sporadic, isolated presence in the beginner site. Within the inner context of the role model site, there was also a combination of the Pettigrew and colleagues' receptive elements that, together, appeared to enhance its ability to effectively implement EBP-related change at multiple levels. In contrast, the beginner site, which had been involved for a few years in EBP-related efforts, had primarily non-receptive conditions in several contextual elements and a fairly low overall level of EBP receptivity. The beginner site thus appeared, at the time of data collection, to lack an integrated context to either support or facilitate the institutionalization of EBP. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence of some of the key contextual elements

  11. Child Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Michel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Uprooted Children Threatened by Exploitation" (Bonnet); "Child of the Wind" (Roess); "At the Fishing School with the Sampaneers" (Bertrand); and "The Street Kids of Nairobi: Surviving in the City" (Goodson). (SK)

  12. Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    Children's healthy development depends on safe and positive experiences when they are very young. If you work or go to school, you want to know that your child is in good hands while you are away. You may ...

  13. Disobedient Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... friendless, or even suicidal If your family has developed a pattern of responding to disagreements with physical or emotional abuse If you or your spouse or child use alcohol or other drugs to feel better ...

  14. Highest prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in institutionalized women compared with noninstitutionalized women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bruyere, Olivier; Decock, Caroline; Delhez, Melanie; Collette, Julien; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    The reduced capacity of older skin to synthesize vitamin D(3) under the influence of ultraviolet light makes older persons at risk of vitamin D deficiency. The risk could even be increased in institutionalized persons owing to their lower sunshine exposure. It has been reported that an inadequate vitamin D level is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover, and bone loss, which increase fracture risk. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of inadequate serum vitamin D levels in institutionalized, postmenopausal, osteoporotic women. Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was performed in 445 institutionalized, osteoporotic women from nine countries (Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain and UK). For each institutionalized woman, three age-matched, noninstitutionalized, osteoporotic controls were also included. Four cutoffs of 25(OH)D inadequacy were fixed: less than 80, less than 75, less than 50 and less than 30 nmol/l. Mean age was 79.7 years (standard deviation [SD] = 5.8) for the institutionalized women and 79.5 years (SD = 5.5) for the noninstitutionalized women (p = 0.45). Significantly fewer institutionalized women received vitamin D supplements (13.2 vs 24.0%; p < 0.0001). In women without vitamin D supplements, the level of 25(OH)D was significantly lower in institutionalized women (56.9 [SD = 23.9] nmol/l) compared with noninstitutionalized women (63.2 [SD = 22.0] nmol/l; p < 0.0001). In institutionalized women (without vitamin D supplements), the prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy was 10.4, 41.2, 80.3 and 84.2% when considering cutoffs of 80, 75, 50 and 30 nmol/l, respectively. In the control group, the prevalence was 2.7, 22.9, 74.4 and 81.7%, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy was significantly higher in institutionalized women when considering the 75, 50 and 30 nmol/l cutoffs but not when considering the 80 nmol/l cutoff. This study highlights a high

  15. [Factors associated with institutionalization: perspectives for children who suffered domestic violence].

    PubMed

    Gabatz, Ruth Irmgard Bärtschi; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello; Neves, Eliane Tatsch; Terra, Marlene Gomes

    2010-12-01

    This is a qualitative study aimed to understand the factors associated with institutionalization of children who suffered domestic violence. It was carried out in two institutions for shelter in Southern Brazil in June and July, 2008. The creative sensitive method was chosen for data production and involved two dynamics of creativity and sensibility: playing on stage and body knowledge with four school-age children. The data were submitted to French discourse analysis. The results pointed out as factors associated to institutionalization: mother's mental disorders and alcohol abuse and aggression. We believe that the reconnaissance of the factors associated with domestic violence enables a preventive work, minimizing its deleterious effects to family as a whole. In this way, caring must be directed not only to the children whom suffered domestic violence but also to their families involving victims and aggressors. PMID:21805876

  16. [Consequences of an institutionalized childhood: the case of the "Duplessis orphans"].

    PubMed

    Boucher, Sophie; Paré, Nikolas; Perry, J Christopher; Sigal, John J; Ouimet, Marie-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the immediate consequences of institutionalized placements on children have been documented, no study has investigated adults who were raised in orphanages or institutions. In Quebec, les enfants de Duplessis offer a unique testimony of the long term consequences of an institutionalized childhood. Stories collected from 40 men and 41 women who grew up in institution in Duplessis'era indicate a high number of abuse and aversive experiences, including physical, psychological and sexual aggressions. In addition, the environment was poor in stimulation and opportunities to develop positive attachment relationships with adults. When matched and compared to adults from the Santé-Québec survey, les enfants de Duplessis report a higher number of health problems associated with stress and more psychological distress. Moreover, our results indicate that those who had fewer strengths and aptitudes in childhood are the most affected by unfavourable experiences. PMID:19370267

  17. Institutionalizing the academic health department within the context of the 3-fold academic mission.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Goldhagen, Jeffrey; Bryant, Thomas; Harmon, Robert G; Wood, David L

    2014-01-01

    A mature model of an academic health department (AHD) that has been institutionalized over 2 decades is described within the context of the 3-fold traditional mission of academics (teaching, research, and service/practice). This adaptive model for AHDs, based on mutual benefits that can be viewed through the lenses of both the academic health center mission and the public health functions and services, has important implications for AHD sustainability. Continued collaboration in any academic-public health partnership will depend in part on the commitments of the changing leadership. However, institutionalizing support for the academic mission enables this collaboration to transcend changing leadership styles and priorities. The collaboration of Duval County Health Department and University of Florida College of Medicine-Jacksonville is an example of a model of AHD that has endured major changes in leadership within both the academic center and the Duval County Health Department. PMID:24667196

  18. [Factors associated with institutionalization: perspectives for children who suffered domestic violence].

    PubMed

    Gabatz, Ruth Irmgard Bärtschi; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello; Neves, Eliane Tatsch; Terra, Marlene Gomes

    2010-12-01

    This is a qualitative study aimed to understand the factors associated with institutionalization of children who suffered domestic violence. It was carried out in two institutions for shelter in Southern Brazil in June and July, 2008. The creative sensitive method was chosen for data production and involved two dynamics of creativity and sensibility: playing on stage and body knowledge with four school-age children. The data were submitted to French discourse analysis. The results pointed out as factors associated to institutionalization: mother's mental disorders and alcohol abuse and aggression. We believe that the reconnaissance of the factors associated with domestic violence enables a preventive work, minimizing its deleterious effects to family as a whole. In this way, caring must be directed not only to the children whom suffered domestic violence but also to their families involving victims and aggressors.

  19. Differences in breakfast habits between institutionalized and independent elderly Spanish people.

    PubMed

    Redondo, M R; Ortega, R M; López-Sobaler, A M; Quintas, M E; Zamora, M J; Andrés, P; Encinas-Sotillos, A

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was made into the breakfast habits of 150 elderly people between 65 and 95 years of age. The food intake of 58 institutionalized subjects was followed by means of "precise individual weighing of food". The food intake of 92 subjects living independently was followed using a prospective method involving the keeping of a "weighed food record". For all subjects the study lasted 5 consecutive days including a Sunday. Institutionalized subjects spent more time at breakfast (p < 0.01 in women) and the food they consumed was more varied, both in terms of number of foods (p < 0.001) and food groups (p < 0.001). Their breakfasts included more fruit (P < 0.001), fibre (P < 0.05 in women) and vitamin A (P < 0.01) than those of independent subjects, 7% of whom took no breakfast at all with a further 8% consuming only a glass of milk or fruit juice. 62.7% of independent and 43.1% of institutionalized subjects consumed an inadequate breakfast (i.e. their breakfasts provided less than 20% of their energy expenditure). The breakfasts of institutionalized subjects contained a greater percentage of their total daily intake of carbohydrates (P < 0.001 in women), fibre (P < 0.01 in women), thiamine (p < 0.05 in women), vitamin B12 (p < 0.05 in women, p < 0.001 in men), vitamin D (p < 0.01 in women) and magnesium (p < 0.05 in women). Given the importance of breakfast in the maintenance of a satisfactory nutritive condition, these results suggest that both qualitative and quantitative improvements of elderly people's breakfasts are required. Residing at an old people's home seems to improve the quality of breakfast consumed, especially for elderly women.

  20. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the institutionalized elderly: A regional study.

    PubMed

    Wong, C W; Ip, C Y; Leung, C P; Leung, C S; Cheng, J N; Siu, C Y

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age and is suggested to be even higher in the elderly living in institutions. This retrospective study evaluated the vitamin B12 and folate status of 1996 institutionalized elderly residents aged over 65years. Among them, 34.9% had vitamin B12 deficiency (serum vitamin B12 <150pmol/L), 11.8% had folate deficiency (serum folate <6.8nmol/L), and 4.9% had both. The majority of vitamin B12 deficient residents (68%) had serum vitamin B12 between 100pmol/L and 149pmol/L. Macrocytosis was found in 24.2% of vitamin B12 deficient residents. A significant increase in macrocytosis was associated with a decrease in serum vitamin B12 below 100pmol/L. Macrocytosis was most common in those with vitamin B12 ≦69pmol/L (50.9%). Overall, vitamin B12 deficiency is common in the institutionalized elderly, however macrocytosis cannot predict deficiency. More liberal testing for vitamin B12 status in the institutionalized elderly may be warranted.

  1. Relationship between Inflammation and Oxidative Stress and Cognitive Decline in the Institutionalized Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina N.; Moro, Angela M.; Brucker, Natália; Freitas, Fernando; Gauer, Bruna; Durgante, Juliano; Bordignon, Suelen; Zibetti, Murilo; Trentini, Clarissa M.; Duarte, Marta M. M. F.; Grune, Tilman; Breusing, Nicolle; Garcia, Solange C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Cognitive impairment reduces quality of life and is related to vascular and neurodegenerative disorders. However, there is also a close relationship between these diseases and oxidative stress. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess whether inflammation and oxidative damage are associated with low cognitive performance in the elderly with different housing conditions. Methods. The study groups consisted of 32 institutionalized and 25 noninstitutionalized Brazilian elderly subjects. Oxidative damage, inflammation markers, and cognitive function were evaluated. Results. The results demonstrated pronounced oxidative stress in the institutionalized elderly group, which also had a lower antioxidant status compared to noninstitutionalized subjects. High levels of proinflammatory cytokines were also observed in the institutionalized elderly. Furthermore, the raised levels of inflammatory markers were correlated with increased oxidative stress, and both were associated with low cognitive performance. However, based on multiple linear regression analysis, oxidative stress appears to be the main factor responsible for the cognitive decline. Conclusions. The findings suggest that individuals with lower antioxidant status are more vulnerable to oxidative stress, which is associated with cognitive function, leading to reduced life quality and expectancy. PMID:25874023

  2. Hypotensive responses to common daily activities in institutionalized elderly. A potential risk for recurrent falls.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, P V; Lipsitz, L A; Kelley, M; Koestner, J

    1990-07-01

    Transient hypotension may be one of many factors contributing to the high prevalence of falls among elderly people. To determine the frequency and magnitude of hypotensive responses to common daily activities, and their potential relationship to falls in the elderly, we examined blood pressure (BP) and heart rate during a standardized series of activities in 38 institutionalized recurrent fallers (age, 87 +/- 6 years), 20 institutionalized nonfallers (age, 85 +/- 5 years), and 10 healthy young control subjects (age, 24 +/- 3 years). The coefficient of variation for systolic BP during all activities was higher in elderly subjects (fallers, 14% +/- 5%; nonfallers, 12% +/- 3%) than in young control subjects (8% +/- 1%). In contrast, the coefficient of variation for heart rate during all activities was higher in young subjects than in the elderly subjects. Elderly subjects had marked BP reduction following meals and nitroglycerin, which was significantly greater in fallers than in nonfallers, independent of the cause of the fall. Thus, institutionalized elderly have marked BP variability and hypotensive responses to meals and nitroglycerin. A decline in BP during common preload-reducing stresses may predispose some elderly people to falls.

  3. Which factors are associated with mortality in institutionalized older adults with dementia?

    PubMed

    Navarro-Gil, Patricia; González-Vélez, Abel E; Ayala, Alba; Martín-García, Salomé; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Forjaz, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    Residential facilities are increasingly used as a resource for dependent older adults and a high percentage of patients with dementia die there. Information about the leading medical causes and exposures to risk factors of mortality in institutionalized older patients with dementia could guide the development of clinical management interventions. The data of 387 institutionalized adults aged over 60, diagnosed with dementia, was analyzed retrospectively. Information about sociodemographic, comorbidities, quality of life and leisure and free time variables was collected in a survey answered by caregivers; after 19 months, information was collected on the result variable (living vs. deceased). A multivariate logistic regression model was created to determine the factors associated with mortality, which were: age (odds ratio (OR)=1.986; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.229-3.209); diabetes (OR=2.322; 1.350-3.996); hypertension (OR=1.695; 1.044-2.752); diseases of the genitourinary system (OR=2.455;1.419-4.248), worsening of health over last twelve months (OR=1.653; 1.018-2.685) and not performing passive (OR=1.616; 0.968-2.700) or social (OR=2.242; 1.170-4.299) leisure activities. Besides age, the number of comorbid illnesses and the inability to perform leisure activities predicted mortality in institutionalized adults with dementia. These predictors might be useful clinical markers for identifying patients at increased risk for mortality. PMID:25103852

  4. Determinants of Child Malnutrition and Infant and Young Child Feeding Approaches in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Reinbott, Anika; Jordan, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    nutrition education programme carried out by government and community health volunteers as well as local NGOs addressing caregivers with a child between 5 and 18 months of age has great potential to improve IYCF practices. Since no impact on average height-for-age Z-scores could be demonstrated in this RCT, we suggest for Cambodia that (1) more emphasis be put on animal-source food and other protein sources in nutrition education, (2) nutrition education be implemented in the community through trained government and community members including peers as trainers, (3) sessions on family nutrition be included in the curriculum and the continuation of breastfeeding be emphasized, and (4) nutrition education be institutionalized, including continuous in-service training for sustainability. PMID:27197522

  5. Determinants of Child Malnutrition and Infant and Young Child Feeding Approaches in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Reinbott, Anika; Jordan, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    nutrition education programme carried out by government and community health volunteers as well as local NGOs addressing caregivers with a child between 5 and 18 months of age has great potential to improve IYCF practices. Since no impact on average height-for-age Z-scores could be demonstrated in this RCT, we suggest for Cambodia that (1) more emphasis be put on animal-source food and other protein sources in nutrition education, (2) nutrition education be implemented in the community through trained government and community members including peers as trainers, (3) sessions on family nutrition be included in the curriculum and the continuation of breastfeeding be emphasized, and (4) nutrition education be institutionalized, including continuous in-service training for sustainability.

  6. Child's Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolsey, Kristina; Woolsey, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Emerging digital technologies enable teachers and students to access and manipulate sights and sounds in their school environments. The challenge is to systematically include these new media in academic environments, and to include adults who are ill prepared in technical issues as primary guides in this effort. This article suggests that child's…

  7. Child Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... them Limit fast food and junk food Offer water or milk instead of sugary fruit drinks and sodas Learn about your children's nutrient requirements. Some of them, such as the requirements for iron and calcium, change as your child ages. NIH: ...

  8. Child CPR

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  9. Physical activity, quality of life and symptoms of depression in community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Salguero, Alfonso; Martínez-García, Raquel; Molinero, Olga; Márquez, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate in a sample of Spanish elderly whether measures of physical activity are related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptoms of depression in community dwelling and institutionalized elderly. The sample was a cohort of 436 elderly (234 women and 202 men, aged 60-98 years) from the North of Spain. 58% were community-dwellers and 42% were institutionalized in senior residences. Participants completed measures of physical activity (Yale Physical Activity Survey, YPAS), HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, SF-36) and symptoms of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS). All SF-36 domains, except role-emotional, were significantly correlated with the YPAS activity dimension summary index. Physical function, role-physical, general health and vitality correlated with total time activity, and correlations were observed between weekly energy expenditure and physical function, role physical, vitality and mental health. Depressive symptom scores correlated significantly with the YPAS activity dimension summary index and the weekly energy expenditure. Scores for various domains of the SF-36 and for depressive symptoms significantly differed among less and more active individuals of the same sex and institutionalization category. Differences generally reached a higher extent in institutionalized subjects in comparison to community dwellers. In conclusion, physical activity was related to different domains of both the physical and mental components of HRQoL and to decreased depressive symptoms. Results emphasize the positive effects of physical activity in both community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults.

  10. Influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' postural balance and risk of falls: a transversal study1

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Wagner Oliveira; Alves, Edmundo de Drummond; Porto, Flávia; Pereira, Fabio Dutra; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' balance and risk of falls. METHOD: to evaluate the risk of falls, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Get Up and Go test were used; and for measuring postural balance, static stabilometry was used, with acquisition of the elliptical area of 95% and mean velocities on the x and y axes of center of pressure displacement. Parametric and nonparametric measures of association and comparison (α<0.05) were used. RESULTS: there was no significant correlation between the length of institutionalization and the tests for evaluation of risk of falling, neither was there difference between groups and within subgroups, stratified by length of institutionalization and age. In the stabilometric measurements, there was a negative correlation between the parameters analyzed and the length of institutionalization, and difference between groups and within subgroups. CONCLUSION: this study's results point to the difficulty of undertaking postural control tasks, showing a leveling below the clinical tests' reference scores. In the stabilometric behavior, one should note the reduction of the parameters as the length of institutionalization increases, contradicting the assumptions. This study's results offer support for the development of a multi-professional model for intervention with the postural control and balance of older adults living in homes for the aged. PMID:25296149

  11. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation in institutionalized elderly: 12-months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dias E Dias de Macedo, Liliane; De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized – I) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized – NI). In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old) with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old). Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months) after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4–6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly affected by institutionalization and time, two variables that interacted and reduced these scores. Moreover, I group reduced the Montréal cognitive assessment battery language tests scores 4 months before NI group. It remains to be investigated what mechanisms may explain the earlier and more intense language losses in institutionalized elderly. PMID:26316730

  12. Leadership for Evidence-Based Practice: Strategic and Functional Behaviors for Institutionalizing EBP

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Ritchie, Judith A; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Charns, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Background Making evidence-based practice (EBP) a reality throughout an organization is a challenging goal in healthcare services. Leadership has been recognized as a critical element in that process. However, little is known about the exact role and function of various levels of leadership in the successful institutionalization of EBP within an organization. Aims To uncover what leaders at different levels and in different roles actually do, and what actions they take to develop, enhance, and sustain EBP as the norm. Methods Qualitative data from a case study regarding institutionalization of EBP in two contrasting cases (Role Model and Beginner hospitals) were systematically analyzed. Data were obtained from multiple interviews of leaders, both formal and informal, and from staff nurse focus groups. A deductive coding schema, based on concepts of functional leadership, was developed for this in-depth analysis. Results Participants’ descriptions reflected a hierarchical array of strategic, functional, and cross-cutting behaviors. Within these macrolevel “themes,” 10 behavioral midlevel themes were identified; for example, Intervening and Role modeling. Each theme is distinctive, yet various themes and their subthemes were interrelated and synergistic. These behaviors and their interrelationships were conceptualized in the framework “Leadership Behaviors Supportive of EBP Institutionalization” (L-EBP). Leaders at multiple levels in the Role Model case, both formal and informal, engaged in most of these behaviors. Linking Evidence to Action Supportive leadership behaviors required for organizational institutionalization of EBP reflect a complex set of interactive, multifaceted EBP-focused actions carried out by leaders from the chief nursing officer to staff nurses. A related framework such as L-EBP may provide concrete guidance needed to underpin the often-noted but abstract finding that leaders should “support” EBP. PMID:24986669

  13. Nutritional status and clinical outcomes among institutionalized elderly Chinese in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Kung; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Wang, Pein; Chwang, Leh-Chii

    2007-01-01

    Nutrition is an important issue in institutional care, and is related to clinical outcomes in many aspects. Although Taiwan is marching to an aged society, related studies were lacking. Elderly residents in two long-term care facilities (LTCF) were enrolled for study. Nutritional status including anthropometric measurements and laboratory examinations was assessed every 3 months for 12 months. Age, sex-matched community-dwelling elderly participating in the annual health check-up was randomly selected as the control subjects. In total, 66 subjects in LTCF and 870 age, sex-matched community-dwelling elderly were enrolled. Body mass index, serum levels of albumin, and total cholesterol were significantly poorer in LTCF residents than the community-dwelling elderly. Triceps skinfold thickness, hemoglobin, serum albumin, and total cholesterol were progressively deteriorated among the institutionalized elderly during the 6-month follow-up. Thirteen subjects of the study group had been hospitalized during the follow-up. Body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, serum albumin at screening were significantly poorer and unintentional weight loss within 6 months was significantly greater in subjects who had been hospitalized. By using multivariate logistic regression model, only weight loss >5% within 6-month follow-up was the significant independent predictive factors to hospitalization. In conclusion, nutritional status of institutionalized elderly Chinese was significantly poorer than the community-dwelling elderly. Nutritional markers were progressively deteriorated in LTCF residents during the follow-up period. Unintentional weight loss >5% within 6 months was the only significantly independent predictive factor for hospitalization among the institutionalized elderly Chinese.

  14. More Vesalian Second Thoughts. The Annotations to the Institutiones anatomicae secundum Galeni sententiam, 1538.

    PubMed

    Nutton, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    In 1538 Andreas Vesalius published his unauthorised revision of Guinther von Andernach's little anatomical textbook, the Institutiones anatomicae. Immediately on publication he set to work on a further revision, making around 250 changes. This paper presents these changes for the first time, discussing them in the context of Vesalius as a reviser of his own work and as anatomist moving away from reliance on Galen towards the independence of the 1543 Fabrica. As well as simple proof corrections, the notes show corrections to Vesalius' earlier anatomical observations as well as page references to passages in Galen discussed at greater length in the Fabrica. PMID:26403057

  15. Retrospective study of lithium use for institutionalized mentally retarded individuals with behavior disorders.

    PubMed

    Langee, H R

    1990-01-01

    Severely and profoundly mentally retarded institutionalized residents (N = 74) who received lithium carbonate for various behavior disorders were followed in a 10-year retrospective study. Their disorders had not been responsive to other medications or treatments. Behavioral data had been recorded regularly and coordinated with medication use. Subjects who demonstrated a sustained major reduction or elimination of behavioral symptoms were classified as lithium responders (n = 31). Characteristics that indicated greater likelihood of response included older age and presenting symptoms of psychosis, although all characteristics studied were seen in both the responder and nonresponder group.

  16. Long-term usefulness of thioridazine for institutionalized mentally retarded patients.

    PubMed

    Heistad, G T; Zimmermann, R L; Doebler, M I

    1982-11-01

    Thioridazine (Mellaril) medication was discontinued for 4 to 5 weeks for 106 institutionalized mentally retarded patients after an extended period of previous drug treatment. Time-sampling of behavior while patients were receiving medication and while receiving placebo showed a significant increase in self-stimulation and active negative behavior and decreased work and life skills while receiving placebo. Although most patients' behavior was better while on active medication, some showed significant improvement when medication was temporarily discontinued. Favorable long-term progress among those who had medication restored was greater for patients whose behavior had worsened to the greatest degree during the placebo trial.

  17. Dilemmas of the institutionalization of social policies in twenty years of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988.

    PubMed

    Lobato, Lenaura de Vasconcelos Costa

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to discuss and analyze some elements of the process of institutionalization of social policies in Brazil after the Constitution of 1988, especially those of social welfare (social security, health and social assistance). It is assumed that this process present hybrids that compromise the results prescribed by the Constitution. From one hand, there are important advances in political and organizational apparatus and in the concept of the social question (treated here through three elements: constitutionalization, scope and expansion). Moreover, obstacles remain, particularly in universalization, financing and quality of services, which are contradictory to the advances achieved. The permanence of these hybrids prevents the fairness and citizenship aimed by the 1988 Constitution.

  18. [Bacteriological examination of saliva of institutionalized severely mentally retarded persons with chronic rumination].

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, H; Ogawa, A; Kojima, K; Ookouchi, K; Osano, E

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate dental caries prevalence, the pH and the presence of bacteria in the saliva of institutionalized severely mentally retarded persons with chronic rumination. The results obtained were as follows: The prevalence of dental caries among the group with chronic rumination was higher than among the group not suffering from rumination. The viable cell number of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and yeasts in the group with chronic rumination was significantly higher than that of group without rumination. These results suggested that the saliva of the group with chronic rumination creates a favourable environment for aciduric bacterial growth.

  19. More Vesalian Second Thoughts. The Annotations to the Institutiones anatomicae secundum Galeni sententiam, 1538.

    PubMed

    Nutton, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    In 1538 Andreas Vesalius published his unauthorised revision of Guinther von Andernach's little anatomical textbook, the Institutiones anatomicae. Immediately on publication he set to work on a further revision, making around 250 changes. This paper presents these changes for the first time, discussing them in the context of Vesalius as a reviser of his own work and as anatomist moving away from reliance on Galen towards the independence of the 1543 Fabrica. As well as simple proof corrections, the notes show corrections to Vesalius' earlier anatomical observations as well as page references to passages in Galen discussed at greater length in the Fabrica.

  20. Exergames: neuroplastic hypothesis about cognitive improvement and biological effects on physical function of institutionalized older persons

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Vaghetti, César Augusto Otero; Nascimento, Osvaldo José M.; Laks, Jerson; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz

    2016-01-01

    Exergames can be considered a dual task because the games are performed by a man-videogame interface, requiring cognitive and motor functions simultaneously. Although the literature has shown improvements of cognitive and physical functions due to exergames, the intrinsic mechanisms involved in these functional changes have still not been elucidated. The aims of the present study were (1) to demonstrate the known biological mechanisms of physical exercise regarding muscle adaptation and establish a relationship with exergames; and (2) to present a neurobiological hypothesis about the neuroplastic effects of exergames on the cognitive function of institutionalized older persons. These hypotheses are discussed. PMID:27073355

  1. Social-learning procedures for increasing attention and improving basic skills in severely regressed institutionalized patients.

    PubMed

    Menditto, A A; Baldwin, L J; O'Neal, L G; Beck, N C

    1991-12-01

    Seven severely debilitated and chronically institutionalized forensic psychiatric patients were enrolled in intensive shaping classes as part of a comprehensive social-learning treatment program. Results compiled over 1 year reveal that six of these patients demonstrated marked improvements in their ability to attend to basic academic tasks and five also showed consistently high rates of successful task completion or increased rates over time. Evidence for the generalization of these effects comes from the fact that all four of the residents who went on to regular academic classes demonstrated consistently high rates of successful task completion. Recommendations are made for further applications of intensive shaping procedures for such severely impaired subgroups.

  2. Paired-associate learning in institutionalized and noninstitutionalized old people: an analysis of interference and context effects.

    PubMed

    Winocur, G; Moscovitch, M

    1983-07-01

    Groups of old people were impaired, relative to young adults, on a test of negative transfer involving lists of paired-associate words. Susceptibility to interference effects were greater in old people living in institutions than in old people living in their own homes. The effects of varying contextual cues on performance on this task were also assessed. All participants, regardless of age, benefitted from manipulations that were intrinsic to the task (e.g., relatedness of paired associates), but only the institutionalized aged responded to extrinsic contextual manipulations (e.g., environmental changes). In general, the performance of institutionalized old people resembled that of brain-damaged amnesic patients tested under similar conditions; old people living at home generally behaved more like normal, young people. The results were discussed in terms of specific age differences in cognitive function, declining brain function, and possible selective effects of institutionalization.

  3. Federal Assistance to States to Prevent the Abuse of Children in Child Care Facilities. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (April 11 and September 18, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    These Congressional hearings provide the text of and materials related to proposed Senate Bill S. 521, intended to promote the public welfare by protecting institutionalized children from abuse, and Senate Bill S.1924, which would create a central federal file of sexual assault and child molesting arrests and convictions. This federal file would…

  4. Child Care in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Clotilde Juarez

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the following issues pertaining to Mexican child care: history of child care in Mexico; prevalence of child care in the national system; other agencies providing child care and the nature of their services; extent to which working families use child care; circumstances requiring day care; licensing, accreditation, and quality standards;…

  5. Deciding to institutionalize: caregiving crisis, intergenerational communication, and uncertainty management for elders and their children in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological study integrated crisis theory, social identity theory, and uncertainty management theory to conceptualize the decision-making process around institutionalization among nursing home residents and their children in Shanghai. I conducted face-to-face, semistructured interviews with 12 dyads of matched elders and their children (N = 24). The findings suggest that caregiving crises triggered intergenerational communication about caregiving alternatives and new arrangements, although each generation had different stances and motivations. Children finalized the decision by helping their parents to manage the uncertainties pertaining to institutionalization. This study sheds light on caregiving decision-making dynamics for the increasing aging population across cultures.

  6. Deciding to institutionalize: caregiving crisis, intergenerational communication, and uncertainty management for elders and their children in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological study integrated crisis theory, social identity theory, and uncertainty management theory to conceptualize the decision-making process around institutionalization among nursing home residents and their children in Shanghai. I conducted face-to-face, semistructured interviews with 12 dyads of matched elders and their children (N = 24). The findings suggest that caregiving crises triggered intergenerational communication about caregiving alternatives and new arrangements, although each generation had different stances and motivations. Children finalized the decision by helping their parents to manage the uncertainties pertaining to institutionalization. This study sheds light on caregiving decision-making dynamics for the increasing aging population across cultures. PMID:25000532

  7. Duration of Early Adversity and Structural Brain Development in Post-Institutionalized Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hodel, Amanda S.; Hunt, Ruskin H.; Cowell, Raquel A.; Van Den Heuvel, Sara E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    For children reared in institutions for orphaned or abandoned children, multiple aspects of the early environment deviate from species-typical experiences, which may lead to alterations in neurobehavioral development. Although the effects of early deprivation and early life stress have been studied extensively in animal models, less is known about implications for human brain development. This structural neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing environments in a large sample of 12–14 year old children (N = 110) who were internationally adopted from institutional care as young children (median age at adoption = 12 months) relative to a same age, comparison group reared with their biological families in the United States. History of institutional rearing was associated with broad changes in cortical volume even after controlling for variability in head size. Results suggested that prefrontal cortex was especially susceptible to early adversity, with significant reductions in volume (driven primarily by differences in surface area rather than cortical thickness) in post-institutionalized youth. Hippocampal volumes showed an association with duration of institutional care, with later-adopted children showing the smallest volumes relative to non-adopted controls. Larger amygdala volumes were not detected in this sample of post-institutionalized children. These data suggest that this temporally discrete period of early deprivation is associated with persisting alterations in brain morphology even years after exposure. Furthermore, these alterations are not completely ameliorated by subsequent environmental enrichment by early adolescence. PMID:25451478

  8. Validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration screening tool in community-dwelling and institutionalized elderly people.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Susana; Silva, Joana; Severo, Milton; Inácio, Cátia; Padrão, Patrícia; Lopes, Carla; Carvalho, Joana; do Carmo, Isabel; Moreira, Pedro

    2015-03-02

    Dehydration is common among elderly people. The aim of this study was to perform validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration-screening tool (DST) in the assessment of hydration status in elderly people. This tool was based on the DST proposed by Vivanti et al., which is composed by 11 items (four physical signs of dehydration and seven questions about thirst sensation, pain and mobility), with four questions extra about drinking habits. The resulting questionnaire was evaluated in a convenience sample comprising institutionalized (n=29) and community-dwelling (n=74) elderly people. Urinary parameters were assessed (24-h urine osmolality and volume) and free water reserve (FWR) was calculated. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the scale's dimensionality and Cronbach's alpha was used to measure the reliability of each subscale. Construct's validity was tested using linear regression to estimate the association between scores in each dimension and urinary parameters. Two factors emerged from factor analysis, which were named "Hydration Score" and "Pain Score", and both subscales showed acceptable reliabilities. The "Hydration Score" was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality in community-dwelling; and the "Pain Score" was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality, and positively associated with 24-h urine volume and FWR in institutionalized elderly people.

  9. The role of civil society organizations in the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Babis, Deby

    2014-12-01

    December 2013 marked a significant shift in Bolivia with the enactment of a law for the inclusion of indigenous doctors in the National Health System. This article traces the constellation of forces that led to the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia. It identifies three factors contributing to this health policy change. The first factor is the crystallization of a strong indigenous movement fighting for the recognition of cultural rights through the foundation of civil society organizations. Second is the rise to power of Evo Morales, the first Latin American president of indigenous origin, who has promoted multicultural policies, formally supported through the promulgation of a new constitution. Lastly is the influence of the global acceptance of alternative medicine. Indigenous doctor organizations in Bolivia have been highly involved throughout the entire process of institutionalization and have played a crucial role in it. An analysis of the relationship between these civil society organizations and the Bolivian government reveals a strong partnership. This dynamic can be described in terms of Interdependence Theory, as each party relied on the other in the promotion and practice of the law to achieve the integration of indigenous medicine as part of the Bolivian Health System. PMID:25043560

  10. Sociodemographic and health factors associated with chronic pain in institutionalized elderly

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Maria Helena; Bolina, Alison Fernandes; Tavares, Jordânia Lumênia; Cordeiro, Aldenora Laísa Paiva de Carvalho; Luiz, Raíssa Bianca; de Oliveira, Karoline Faria

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to characterize chronic pain in institutionalized elderly and verify the associated factors. METHOD: observational, cross-sectional and non-experimental study with a quantitative approach. The study participants were 124 elderly living in Long-Term Care Institutions for the Elderly (LTCIs) in a city in Minas Gerais (Brazil). Approval for the project was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee. The elderly's clinical and sociodemographic variables and pain-related aspects were assessed. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis (chi-squared). RESULTS: the prevalence of chronic pain corresponded to 58.1%; for more than 10 years (26.4%); in lower limbs (31.9%); characterized as "twinges" (33.3%); 33.3% adopted medication treatment; the pain did not improve (41.7 %); or worsen (34.7 %). It was evidenced that elderly aged 60├ 70 old had 70% less chances of chronic pain than those aged 80 years and older (p=0.018). CONCLUSION: institutionalized elderly have a high prevalence of chronic pain, mainly in the lower limbs. No factors of pain improvement or worsening were identified and medication was evidenced as the preferred treatment. Age showed to be associated with the presence of pain. It is considered important to accomplish multiprofessional actions at the LTCIs to guide prevention and rehabilitation actions of the pain episodes in these elderly. PMID:25591097

  11. Duration of early adversity and structural brain development in post-institutionalized adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hodel, Amanda S; Hunt, Ruskin H; Cowell, Raquel A; Van Den Heuvel, Sara E; Gunnar, Megan R; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2015-01-15

    For children reared in institutions for orphaned or abandoned children, multiple aspects of the early environment deviate from species-typical experiences, which may lead to alterations in neurobehavioral development. Although the effects of early deprivation and early life stress have been studied extensively in animal models, less is known about implications for human brain development. This structural neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing environments in a large sample of 12-14 year old children (N = 110) who were internationally adopted from institutional care as young children (median age at adoption = 12 months) relative to a same age, comparison group reared with their biological families in the United States. History of institutional rearing was associated with broad changes in cortical volume even after controlling for variability in head size. Results suggested that prefrontal cortex was especially susceptible to early adversity, with significant reductions in volume (driven primarily by differences in surface area rather than cortical thickness) in post-institutionalized youth. Hippocampal volumes showed an association with duration of institutional care, with later-adopted children showing the smallest volumes relative to non-adopted controls. Larger amygdala volumes were not detected in this sample of post-institutionalized children. These data suggest that this temporally discrete period of early deprivation is associated with persisting alterations in brain morphology even years after exposure. Furthermore, these alterations are not completely ameliorated by subsequent environmental enrichment by early adolescence. PMID:25451478

  12. Childhood Abuse and Delinquency: A Descriptive Study of Institutionalized Female Youth in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D. M.; Ng, Vivienne P. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood abuse experiences appear prevalent in institutionalized children and youth, but research to date has been limited. Moreover, there is no published study that has examined the issue of childhood abuse and delinquency within institutionalized children and youth in Singapore. This study was cross-sectional in design with follow-up criminal record checks. Data were collected from multiple data sources including official records, structured clinical interviews, and self-report questionnaires on 79 adolescent female residential youth. Two thirds reported having experienced childhood abuse and a higher proportion reported having previously engaged in self-harming behaviours. Participants with multiple types of abuse reported being abused at a younger age, were more likely to be subjected to repeated physical abuse, to have overdosed on medication, and to have reported more health and sexual concerns and trauma symptomatology than those who reported either experiencing one or no previous types of abuse. Fourteen (18%) of the sample had been convicted of further criminal offences over a 6½-year follow-up. The adolescents with histories of multiple types of abuse in childhood presented with more health concerns and traumatic symptomatology, self-reported delinquency, as well as past self-harming behaviour during their institutional stay. Identification of these additionally vulnerable adolescents has important clinical implications for identification, assessment and intervention planning. PMID:25892943

  13. Localization of urinary tract infection in elderly, institutionalized women with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, L E; Muir, P; Harding, G K; Norris, M

    1988-01-01

    We determined the site of urinary tract infection in 51 elderly, institutionalized women (mean age, 80.5 years) with asymptomatic bacteriuria by using the Fairley bladder washout technique. Thirty-four (67%) infections were localized in the kidney and 17 (33%) in the bladder. Women with renal infection were older than those with bladder infection (81.9 vs. 77.6 years of age; P = .04). The antibody-coated bacteria test had a sensitivity of 58%, specificity of 71%, positive predictive value of 82%, and negative predictive value of 43% for upper-urinary-tract infection. A quantitative urinary leukocyte count of greater than or equal to 20 leukocytes/mm3 had a positive predictive value of 80% and a negative predictive value of 88% for upper-urinary-tract infection. This study suggests that the majority of elderly, institutionalized women with asymptomatic bacteriuria have upper-urinary-tract infection. Both the antibody-coated bacteria test and the quantitative urinary leukocyte count may be useful as noninvasive tests for localization of urinary tract infection in this population.

  14. Site-specific relative risk of fractures in the institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Visentin, P; Ciravegna, R; Uscello, L; Molaschi, M; Fabris, F

    1995-01-01

    A 3-year prospective study was performed to evaluate the incidence of fractures in institutionalized elderly and associated risk factors. A total of 197 subjects (47 males and 150 females, mean age 81.5 +/- 8.0 years) were included in the study. The annual fracture incidence was 7.8%. All hip fractures occurred in female subjects (annual incidence = 3.7%). As expected, the incidence of fractures is higher in walking subjects. In walking subjects (n = 128) logistic regression analysis showed falls [adjusted relative risk (RR) = 3.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-8.4] and age (adjusted RR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.1-2.3) to be variables independently and significantly associated with fractures, after adjusting for baseline bone mineral density (BMD) and sex. Hip fractures were associated with age (RR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1-2.3), and non-hip fractures with falls (RR = 4.1; 95% CI = 1.3-13.4). The importance of low BMD as a risk factor for fractures is reduced in the institutionalized elderly. However, other fracture-site-specific risk factors exert a greater influence.

  15. The role of civil society organizations in the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Babis, Deby

    2014-12-01

    December 2013 marked a significant shift in Bolivia with the enactment of a law for the inclusion of indigenous doctors in the National Health System. This article traces the constellation of forces that led to the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia. It identifies three factors contributing to this health policy change. The first factor is the crystallization of a strong indigenous movement fighting for the recognition of cultural rights through the foundation of civil society organizations. Second is the rise to power of Evo Morales, the first Latin American president of indigenous origin, who has promoted multicultural policies, formally supported through the promulgation of a new constitution. Lastly is the influence of the global acceptance of alternative medicine. Indigenous doctor organizations in Bolivia have been highly involved throughout the entire process of institutionalization and have played a crucial role in it. An analysis of the relationship between these civil society organizations and the Bolivian government reveals a strong partnership. This dynamic can be described in terms of Interdependence Theory, as each party relied on the other in the promotion and practice of the law to achieve the integration of indigenous medicine as part of the Bolivian Health System.

  16. Ileostomy and your child

    MedlinePlus

    ... embarrassment. You may see some changes in your child's behavior at first. Sometimes teenagers have a harder time ... You being open and natural will help your child's behavior stay positive. Help your child learn how to ...

  17. Child Care Aware

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connected With Enews Subscribe Child Care Aware® of America Overview Vision & Mission Audience Partners Child Care Providers ... Public Policy Agenda 2016-2017 Child Care in America: 2016 State Fact Sheets We Can Do Better – ...

  18. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  19. Exploring the Current Theoretical Background about Adoption until Institutionalization of Online Education in Universities: Needs for Further Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanovas, Ines

    2010-01-01

    Online education in institutional contexts means new organizational problems. The fact that universities need to change to accommodate the impact of technology on learning is already known and accepted. Coping with changes from adoption until institutionalization of online education represents a formidable management challenge for universities.…

  20. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education and Institutionalizing Preventive Education. Education in the Context of HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Hill, Roy; Katabaro, Kamugisha Joviter; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza; Oulai, Dramane

    This book examines the impact of HIV/AIDS on education in sub-Saharan African countries. It looks at the situation at both macro and micro levels and emphasizes the need to react quickly and to institutionalize the response of education systems to the negative consequences of the pandemic. Drawing on studies of a few countries in sub-Saharan…

  1. Absence of Intervention Training Programs: Effects Upon Institutionalized Retardates, Part II: Selected Cases with Minimal Behavioral Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naor, Ellen M.; Balthazar, Earl E.

    Fourteen institutionalized profoundly retarded Ss (seven females, median age 20 years, and seven males, median age 10 years) who received no intervention training program were assesed on the Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior (BSAB), Sections I and II, to determine whether the Ss' spontaneous social coping behavior would improve as a result of…

  2. Institutionalization and indiscriminate social behavior: Differential-susceptibility versus diathesis-stress models for the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF genotypes.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, A R; Belsky, J; Li, Z; Baptista, J; Carvalho-Correia, E; Maciel, P; Soares, I

    2015-12-01

    Institutionalization adversely impacts children's emotional functioning, proving related to attachment disorders, perhaps most notably that involving indiscriminate behavior, the subject of this report. In seeking to extend work in this area, this research on gene X environment (GXE) interplay investigated whether the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and val66met Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) polymorphisms moderated the effect of institutional care on indiscriminate behavior in preschoolers. Eighty-five institutionalized and 135 home-reared Portuguese children were assessed using Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). GXE results indicated that s/s homozygotes of the 5-HTTLPR gene displayed significantly higher levels of indiscriminate behavior than all other children if institutionalized, something not true of such children when family reared. These findings proved consistent with the diathesis-stress rather than differential-susceptibility model of person×environment interaction. BDNF proved unrelated to indiscriminate behavior. Results are discussed in relation to previous work on this subject of indiscriminate behavior, institutionalization and GXE interaction. PMID:26386404

  3. Effects of early intervention and the moderating effects of brain activity on institutionalized children's social skills at age 8.

    PubMed

    Almas, Alisa N; Degnan, Kathryn A; Radulescu, Anca; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A

    2012-10-16

    The present study examined the social skills of previously institutionalized, 8-y-old Romanian children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project and the influence of attachment security and brain electrical activity (alpha power) on these skills. Participants included children randomized to an intervention involving foster care [Foster Care Group (FCG)], children randomized to remain in institutions [Care As Usual Group (CAUG)], and never-institutionalized children living with their families in the Bucharest community [Never-Institutionalized Group (NIG)]. A continuous rating of children's attachment security to their primary caregiver was assessed at 42 mo of age. When children were 8 y old, teachers rated their social skills, and the children's resting electroencephalogram alpha power was recorded. Teachers rated social skills of FCG children who were placed into foster care before 20 mo of age as no different from NIG children, and both of these groups were higher than CAUG children and FCG children placed after 20 mo. Electroencephalogram alpha power at age 8 significantly moderated the relations between attachment security and social skills. These findings characterize institutionalized children's social skills in middle childhood within the context of a randomized intervention while highlighting the roles of both relational and biological factors in these developmental trajectories.

  4. Oral health care activities performed by caregivers for institutionalized elderly in Barcelona-Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo-Ovalle, Marco; Costa-de-Lima, Kenio; Pérez, Glória; Borrell, Carme; Casals-Peidro, Elías

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the frequency of brushing teeth and cleaning of dentures, performed by caregivers, for institutionalized elderly people. Methods: A cross-sectional study in a sample of 196 caregivers of 31 health centers in Barcelona. The dependent variables were frequency of dental brushing and frequency of cleaning of dentures of the elderly by caregivers. The independent variables were characteristics of caregivers and institutions. We performed bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses. Robust Poisson regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with the dependent variables and to assess the strength of the association. Results: 83% of caregivers were women, 79% worked on more than one shift, 42% worked only out of necessity, 92% were trained to care for elderly persons, 67% were trained in oral hygiene care for the elderly, and 73% recognized the existence of institutional protocols on oral health among residents. The variables explaining the lower frequency of brushing teeth by caregivers for the elderly, adjusted for the workload, were: no training in the care of elderly persons (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.6-1.8), not fully agreeing with the importance of oral health care of the elderly (PRa 2.5 CI95%: 1.5-4.1) and not knowing of the existence of oral health protocols (PRa 1.8 CI95%: 1.2-2.6). The variables that explain the lower frequency of cleaning dentures, adjusted for the workload, were lack of training in elderly care (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.3-1.9) and not knowing of the existence of protocols (PRa 3.7 CI95%: 1.6-8.7). Conclusion: The majority of caregivers perform activities of oral health care for the elderly at least once per day. The frequency of this care depends mainly on whether caregivers are trained to perform these activities, the importance given to oral health, the workload of caregivers and the existence of institutional protocols on oral health of institutionalized elderly persons. Key words:Institutionalized elderly

  5. Effects of an adapted mattress in musculoskeletal pain and sleep quality in institutionalized elders.

    PubMed

    Ancuelle, Victor; Zamudio, Rodrigo; Mendiola, Andrea; Guillen, Daniel; Ortiz, Pedro J; Tello, Tania; Vizcarra, Darwin

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact in sleep quality and musculoskeletal pain of a Medium-Firm Mattress (MFM), and their relationship with objective sleep parameters in a group of institutionalized elders. The sample size included forty older adults with musculoskeletal pain. We did a clinical assessment at baseline and weekly trough the study period of four weeks. We employed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Pain Visual Analog Scale (P-VAS). Additionally a sub-group of good sleepers, selected from PSQI baseline evaluation, were studied with actigraphy and randomized to MFM or High Firm Mattress (HFM), in two consecutive nights. We found a significant reduction of cervical, dorsal and lumbar pain. PSQI results did not change. The actigraphy evaluation found a significant shorter sleep onset latency with MFM, and a slightly better, but not statistically significant, sleep efficiency. The medium firmness mattress improved musculoskeletal pain and modified the sleep latency. PMID:26779317

  6. Effects of an adapted mattress in musculoskeletal pain and sleep quality in institutionalized elders

    PubMed Central

    Ancuelle, Victor; Zamudio, Rodrigo; Mendiola, Andrea; Guillen, Daniel; Ortiz, Pedro J; Tello, Tania; Vizcarra, Darwin

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact in sleep quality and musculoskeletal pain of a Medium-Firm Mattress (MFM), and their relationship with objective sleep parameters in a group of institutionalized elders. The sample size included forty older adults with musculoskeletal pain. We did a clinical assessment at baseline and weekly trough the study period of four weeks. We employed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Pain Visual Analog Scale (P-VAS). Additionally a sub-group of good sleepers, selected from PSQI baseline evaluation, were studied with actigraphy and randomized to MFM or High Firm Mattress (HFM), in two consecutive nights. We found a significant reduction of cervical, dorsal and lumbar pain. PSQI results did not change. The actigraphy evaluation found a significant shorter sleep onset latency with MFM, and a slightly better, but not statistically significant, sleep efficiency. The medium firmness mattress improved musculoskeletal pain and modified the sleep latency. PMID:26779317

  7. 'You can't turn back the clock': conceptualizing time after institutionalization.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, Elaine C

    2012-03-01

    ABSTRACTTime is a phenomenon that is often taken for granted. In gerontology, time is often equated with chronological or linear time, which thereby causes time to be defined as chronological age. With this paper, my purpose is to illuminate further understandings of time and how the passage of time is experienced in old age, particularly in the context of a move to a long-term care institution. Towards that end, I describe a case study of a gentleman coming to live in a long-term care facility. In this case study, time was perceived as an element outside day-to-day experience that structured daily life. Specific dimensions of temporality are evident, including biographical time, embodied time, and embedded time (including institutional time). These dimensions of time provide further understanding of the experiences of age and institutionalization.

  8. [The emergence and institutionalization of sexology in Portugal: processes, actors, and specificities].

    PubMed

    Alarcão, Violeta; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's field theory, this article analyzes the emergence and institutionalization of sexology as a science and profession in Portugal, identifying relevant institutions, actors, and professional practices and discussing its relations and specificities. The analysis begins by contextualizing the emergence of modern Western sexology in order to comprehend the Portuguese case in the international sexology context. The second section describes the social, cultural, and institutional factors that have driven the professionalization of sexology. The third section describes the emergence of Portuguese sexology and its principal historical milestones, institutions, and actors. Finally, the article discusses some implications of this process for the role of sexology as a science and profession. The study reveals the dynamics of national and international processes in the field, in the transition from a holistic perspective of sexology to the hegemony of sexual medicine, and sheds light on its mechanisms of legitimation as a transdisciplinary science of sexuality, suggesting future perspectives. PMID:27598015

  9. Lessons learned in institutionalization of quality assurance programs: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Brown, L D

    1995-12-01

    A sustainable quality assurance (QA) program depends on development of a QA structure, ongoing standard setting, routine monitoring, quality improvement activities and the development of a culture of quality. A review of QA implementation in five countries identifies some practical guidelines for successful institutionalization of QA. These experiences underscore the importance of organizational assessment and provide insight about the advantages and disadvantages of an initial QA assessment. Developing a methodology that is both standardized and flexible is stressed, as well as a training strategy that integrates classroom learning, coaching and application. Gradual development of QA structure, based closely on existing systems, is recommended. Issues relating to gaining and sustaining political support, dealing with personnel changes, using appropriate incentives and dissemination are also discussed. Finally, the definition and dimensions of quality are put forth as the foundation for a culture of quality, which develops as individuals and groups commit themselves to their quality ideal.

  10. [The emergence and institutionalization of sexology in Portugal: processes, actors, and specificities].

    PubMed

    Alarcão, Violeta; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-09-05

    Based on Bourdieu's field theory, this article analyzes the emergence and institutionalization of sexology as a science and profession in Portugal, identifying relevant institutions, actors, and professional practices and discussing its relations and specificities. The analysis begins by contextualizing the emergence of modern Western sexology in order to comprehend the Portuguese case in the international sexology context. The second section describes the social, cultural, and institutional factors that have driven the professionalization of sexology. The third section describes the emergence of Portuguese sexology and its principal historical milestones, institutions, and actors. Finally, the article discusses some implications of this process for the role of sexology as a science and profession. The study reveals the dynamics of national and international processes in the field, in the transition from a holistic perspective of sexology to the hegemony of sexual medicine, and sheds light on its mechanisms of legitimation as a transdisciplinary science of sexuality, suggesting future perspectives.

  11. On the failed institutionalization of German comparative psychology prior to 1940.

    PubMed

    Kressley-Mba, Regina A

    2006-02-01

    Despite an illustrious history marked by the work of Wolfgang Köhler and Mathilde Hertz, among others-the significance of which still resonates in different fields of animal behavior research-and the fact that interesting work in the field continues, comparative psychology has no official status within German psychology. A partial explanation for this lack of official representation might derive from unsuccessful attempts historically to secure institutional status. "Gifted" animals served as much of the impetus for the beginning of a scientific animal psychology in Germany and contributed to its institutionalization by providing the incentive for the establishment of organizations dealing with animal psychology. Although initially serving as a catalyst for an interdisciplinary exchange on animal psychology, the case of Clever Hans was also exploited to help psychology gain institutional status in the field, albeit without lasting success.

  12. Institutionalizing dissent: a proposal for an adversarial system of pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Justin

    2013-12-01

    There are serious problems with the way in which pharmaceutical research is currently practiced, many of which can be traced to the influence of commercial interests on research. One of the most significant is inadequate dissent, or organized skepticism. In order to ameliorate this problem, I develop a proposal that I call the "Adversarial Proceedings for the Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals," to be instituted within a regulatory agency such as the Food and Drug Administration for the evaluation of controversial new drugs and controversial drugs already in the market. This proposal is an organizational one based upon the "science court" proposal by Arthur Kantrowitz in the 1960s and 1970s. The primary benefit of this system is its ability to institutionalize dissent, thereby ensuring that one set of interests does not dominate all others.

  13. Sustainable institutionalized punishment requires elimination of second-order free-riders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2012-03-01

    Although empirical and theoretical studies affirm that punishment can elevate collaborative efforts, its emergence and stability remain elusive. By peer-punishment the sanctioning is something an individual elects to do depending on the strategies in its neighborhood. The consequences of unsustainable efforts are therefore local. By pool-punishment, on the other hand, where resources for sanctioning are committed in advance and at large, the notion of sustainability has greater significance. In a population with free-riders, punishers must be strong in numbers to keep the ``punishment pool'' from emptying. Failure to do so renders the concept of institutionalized sanctioning futile. We show that pool-punishment in structured populations is sustainable, but only if second-order free-riders are sanctioned as well, and to a such degree that they cannot prevail. A discontinuous phase transition leads to an outbreak of sustainability when punishers subvert second-order free-riders in the competition against defectors.

  14. Effects of psychotropic drugs on intelligence test performance of institutionalized mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Breuning, S E; Davidson, N A

    1981-05-01

    Twenty-four institutionalized mentally retarded persons received intelligence tests under both standard and reinforcement conditions while on and off psychotropic medication. Medications included chlorpromazine (Thorazine), thioridazine (Mellaril), haloperidol (Haldol), mesoridazine (Serentil), and lithium carbonate (Lithane). Results showed that when on medication there were no differences between IQs obtained under standard and reinforcement conditions. When off medication there were significant increases in scores obtained under both standard and reinforcement conditions. The increase in scores under the reinforcement condition was 23 points greater than the increase obtained under the standard condition (increases of 30.2 and 6.9 points, respectively). Results were discussed in terms of the sensitivity--insensitivity of intelligence test scores to medication effects, medications impairing responding to external reinforcement contingencies, and legal implications.

  15. Effects of socialization games on proximity and prosocial behavior of aggressive mentally retarded institutionalized women.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, B; Han, S S

    1983-01-01

    Socialization games, designed to reinforce prosocial behavior between moderately and severely mentally retarded aggressive institutionalized women, were presented to two groups on 12 occasions over 8 weeks, randomly interspersed with 12 sessions of arts and crafts or filmstrip stories. Half of the sessions were presented in the morning and half in the afternoon. Video-taped observations of interpersonal behavior for 10 minutes after each session were analyzed in terms of friendly, unfriendly, and inactive behavior, and the distance of each subject from each other subject was measured. The rate of friendly behavior was significantly greater after the games and was higher in morning than afternoon sessions. The games also significantly decreased interpersonal distance. Both unfriendly behavior and inactivity were higher after the "placebo" sessions. The relevance of these results to institutional programming was discussed.

  16. Self-perception of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: effects on institutionalized mentally retarded adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, D Y; Syrnyk, R

    1977-01-01

    Self-perception theory predicts that the introduction of extrinsic rewards for behavior that was intrinsically rewarding may decrease rather than enhance overall motivation. This hypothesis was tested on a group of institutionalized mentally retarded adolescents (34 boys, 10 girls). Intrinsic (high and low task interest) and extrinsic (high- and low-incentive objects) motivation were both manipulated as independent variables, and the dependent variable was task persistence during a free-play period. Results indicated that for a high intrinsically interesting task, the task persistence was greater under the external reward of low- rather than high-incentive value conditions. The opposite trend was revealed for the low intrinsically interesting task. The results provided some evidence that the greater the amount of the reward for an interesting activity, the greater the degree to which the intrinsic interest is undermined.

  17. Effects of socialization games on proximity and prosocial behavior of aggressive mentally retarded institutionalized women.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, B; Han, S S

    1983-01-01

    Socialization games, designed to reinforce prosocial behavior between moderately and severely mentally retarded aggressive institutionalized women, were presented to two groups on 12 occasions over 8 weeks, randomly interspersed with 12 sessions of arts and crafts or filmstrip stories. Half of the sessions were presented in the morning and half in the afternoon. Video-taped observations of interpersonal behavior for 10 minutes after each session were analyzed in terms of friendly, unfriendly, and inactive behavior, and the distance of each subject from each other subject was measured. The rate of friendly behavior was significantly greater after the games and was higher in morning than afternoon sessions. The games also significantly decreased interpersonal distance. Both unfriendly behavior and inactivity were higher after the "placebo" sessions. The relevance of these results to institutional programming was discussed. PMID:6829621

  18. Institutionalizing dissent: a proposal for an adversarial system of pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Justin

    2013-12-01

    There are serious problems with the way in which pharmaceutical research is currently practiced, many of which can be traced to the influence of commercial interests on research. One of the most significant is inadequate dissent, or organized skepticism. In order to ameliorate this problem, I develop a proposal that I call the "Adversarial Proceedings for the Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals," to be instituted within a regulatory agency such as the Food and Drug Administration for the evaluation of controversial new drugs and controversial drugs already in the market. This proposal is an organizational one based upon the "science court" proposal by Arthur Kantrowitz in the 1960s and 1970s. The primary benefit of this system is its ability to institutionalize dissent, thereby ensuring that one set of interests does not dominate all others. PMID:24552075

  19. Bone is more susceptible to vitamin K deficiency than liver in the institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Fujii, Minori; Kawai, Nobuko; Tozawa, Kunihiko; Kido, Shoko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In Japan, γ-carboxylation of blood coagulation factors is the basis for determining adequate intake (AI) for vitamin K in Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) issued in 2010. Recently, vitamin K is also known to be essential for preventing fracture. In this study, relative susceptibility of liver and bone to vitamin K deficiency was studied. Thirty-seven elderly institutionalized subjects were evaluated for vitamin K status by measuring serum PIVKA (protein induced by vitamin K absence) -II and ucOC (undercarboxylated osteocalcin) levels, as sensitive markers for hepatic and skeletal vitamin K deficiency, respectively. Serum PIVKA-II and ucOC levels, with their cut-off values in the parentheses, were 20.2±8.9 mAUmL (28 mAU/mL) and 4.7±3.0 ng/mL (4.5 ng/mL), respectively. Median vitamin K intake was approximately 200 μg/day, which is more than 3 times higher than the current Japanese AI. Vitamin K intake was significantly correlated with serum PIVKA-II and ucOC/OC levels, but not with serum ucOC level. Although serum ucOC level is generally a good indicator for vitamin K status, multiple regression analysis revealed that elevated bone turnover marker significantly contributed to serum ucOC level. All subjects had vitamin K intake exceeding AI for vitamin K. Nevertheless, serum PIVKA-II and ucOC concentrations exceeded the cut-off value in 14% and 43% of subjects, respectively. The present findings suggest that vitamin K intake greater than the current AI is required for the skeletal health in the institutionalized elderly.

  20. The institutionalization of River Basin Management as politics of scale - Insights from Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdret, Annabelle; Dombrowsky, Ines; Horlemann, Lena

    2014-11-01

    River Basin Management (RBM) as an approach to sustainable water use has become the dominant model of water governance. Its introduction, however, entails a fundamental realignment and rescaling of water-sector institutions along hydrological boundaries. Creating such a new governance scale is inherently political, and is being described as politics of scale. This paper analyzes how the politics of scale play out in the institutionalization of RBM in Mongolia. It furthermore scrutinizes the role of the broader political decentralization process in the introduction of RBM, an issue that has so far received little attention. Finally, it assesses whether the river basin is an adequate water management scale in Mongolia. This article finds that institutionalizing RBM in Mongolia is indeed a highly political negotiation process that does not only concern the choice of the governance scale, but also its detailed institutional design. It furthermore reveals that Mongolia's incomplete political decentralization process has for a long time negatively impacted the decentralization of water-related tasks and the implementation of RBM. However, the 2011 Budget Law and the 2012 Water Law provide for a fiscal strengthening of local governments and clearer sharing of responsibilities among the various different institutions involved in water management. Nevertheless, only if the 2012 Water Law is complemented by adequate by-laws - and if the newly created river basin institutions are adequately equipped - can RBM be effectively put into practice. This article confirms the usefulness of a politics-of-scale approach to understand scalar practices and changes in water management. However, the article also argues for a broadening of the analytical perspective to take the interdependencies between changes in water governance and other political processes, such as decentralization, into account.

  1. Child Care Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    This book discusses various aspects of child care programs. Chapter titles include: Child Care Needs and Issues; Present Influences on Early Childhood Programs; Licensing and Standards; The Program; Stories and Music; Art and Science; The Physical Environment Staffing the Child Care Center; Working with Parents; Guidance of the Young Child; Health…

  2. Child Support Report, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 12 monthly issues of the 1998 "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

  3. Child Support Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2000 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

  4. Toilet Training Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be present when you go to the bathroom and make your child feel comfortable in the bathroom. Allow your child to see urine and bowel ... begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep your child in loose, easily removable pants. ...

  5. THE DIFFICULT CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROUCEK, JOSEPH S.

    THIS BOOK CONSISTS OF 16 ESSAYS BY SPECIALISTS ON PROBLEMS WHICH MAY MAKE A CHILD DIFFICULT. EACH AUTHOR DISCUSSES ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS, CHARACTERISTICS, AND HOW DIFFICULTIES MAY BE REDUCED. THE FOLLOWING TOPICS ARE CONSIDERED--(1) "THE CREATIVE CHILD" BY E.P. TORRANCE, (2) "THE INATTENTIVE CHILD" BY I.W. SCHERER, (3) "THE CHILD WITH LANGUAGE…

  6. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  7. Child Support Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and funding…

  8. Child abuse: a black perspective utilizing a social-psychological model.

    PubMed

    Butts, H F

    1979-09-01

    The majority of models utilized in the formulation of the dynamics of child abuse rely upon an individual psychopathological frame of reference. Not only is this approach limited, but it renders primary preventive approaches virtually impossible. The author presents a social-psychological model, with the recommendation that it be applied among blacks. Essential to the model's applicability is the vulnerability of blacks to institutionalized racism and to the universal and destructive institutional abuse to which blacks are subjected. While often quite covert, this abuse is nonetheless extremely noxious, and serves to potentiate the view blacks have of themselves as undervalued individuals, and as individuals who have no alternative other than to commit abuse to others. Child abuse in blacks is viewed as reactive in nature-reactive to societal abuse. This adaptational model of child abuse, rather than precluding an individual psychopathological model, complements it. Use of this model should facilitate primary prevention with respect to child abuse. Current approaches to child abuse are comparable to "an ambulance service at the bottom of a cliff." What is lacking is an approach that will "fix the road on the cliff that causes the accidents." Only by examining the intricate interplay between individual and society can the factors that lead to child abuse be modified.

  9. Implications of access, utilization and need for oral health care by the non-institutionalized and institutionalized elderly on the dental delivery system.

    PubMed

    Dolan, T A; Atchison, K A

    1993-12-01

    . Additional research is needed to accurately characterize the oral health status and needs of the growing number of homebound and institutionalized elders. This will be of growing importance with the emergence of the vast array of home health care services available to older adults, and the changing emphasis on home care often seen as the preferred and lower cost alternative to nursing home care.

  10. From institutionalization of user fees to their abolition in West Africa: a story of pilot projects and public policies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the historical background of the institutionalization of user fees and their subsequent abolition in West Africa. Based on a narrative review, we present the context that frames the different articles in this supplement. We first show that a general consensus has emerged internationally against user fees, which were imposed widely in Africa in the 1980s and 1990s; at that time, the institutionalization of user fees was supported by evidence from pilot projects funded by international aid agencies. Since then there have been other pilot projects studying the abolition of user fees in the 2000s, but these have not yet had any real influence on public policies, which are often still chaotic. This perplexing situation might be explained more by ideologies and political will than by insufficient financial capacity of states. PMID:26559564

  11. Predictors of mortality and institutionalization after hip fracture: the New Haven EPESE cohort. Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Marottoli, R A; Berkman, L F; Leo-Summers, L; Cooney, L M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Hip fractures can have devastating effects on the lives of older individuals. We determined the frequency of occurrence of hip fracture and the baseline factors predicting death and institutionalization at 6 months after hip fracture. METHODS. A representative cohort of 2812 individuals aged 65 years and older was followed prospectively for 6 years. Hip fractures were identified, and the occurrence of death and institutionalization within 6 months of the fracture was determined. Prefracture information on physical and mental function, social support, and demographic features and in-hospital data on comorbid diagnoses, fracture site, and complications were analyzed to determine predictors of death and institutionalization after hip fracture. RESULTS. Of 120 individuals suffering a hip fracture, 22 (18%) died within 6 months and 35 (29%) were institutionalized at 6 months. The predictors of death in multiple logistic regression included fracture site, a high number of comorbid conditions, a high number of complications, and poor baseline mental status. The primary predictor of institutionalization was poor baseline mental status. CONCLUSIONS. The frequency of death, institutionalization, and loss of function after hip fracture should prompt a reevaluation of the current approach to this problem. PMID:7977922

  12. Emotional intelligence and depressive symptoms in Spanish institutionalized elders: does emotional self-efficacy act as a mediator?

    PubMed

    Luque-Reca, Octavio; Augusto-Landa, José María; Pulido-Martos, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. This work examines the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and depressive symptomatology in institutionalized older adults, delving into the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Considering that previous evidence of the variation of the EI-depression relationship depending on whether the emotional ability or the perception of that ability is evaluated, a model of multiple mediation was tested in which the dimensions of emotional self-efficacy (ESE) act as mediators in the relationship between ability EI and depressive symptomatology. Methods. The sample consisted of 115 institutionalized older adults (47.82% women; 80.3 ± 7.9 years of age) from the province of Jaén (Spain) who completed a test of ESE, a measure of ability EI, and a self-administered questionnaire of depressive symptoms. Results. The results showed a positive association between older adults' emotional performance and depressive symptomatology, finding stronger associations with ESE than with EI abilities. In addition, multiple mediation analyses showed that two of the four dimensions of ESE fully mediated the relationship between ability EI and depressive symptoms. Discussion. These findings suggest that older adults' high levels of emotional competence generate a feeling of ESE which can protect them against depressive symptoms. This work supports the predictive validity of emotional abilities and ESE for the mental health of a group that is particularly vulnerable to depression, institutionalized older adults. The limitations of the work are discussed, and future lines of research were considered.

  13. Emotional intelligence and depressive symptoms in Spanish institutionalized elders: does emotional self-efficacy act as a mediator?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. This work examines the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and depressive symptomatology in institutionalized older adults, delving into the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Considering that previous evidence of the variation of the EI-depression relationship depending on whether the emotional ability or the perception of that ability is evaluated, a model of multiple mediation was tested in which the dimensions of emotional self-efficacy (ESE) act as mediators in the relationship between ability EI and depressive symptomatology. Methods. The sample consisted of 115 institutionalized older adults (47.82% women; 80.3 ± 7.9 years of age) from the province of Jaén (Spain) who completed a test of ESE, a measure of ability EI, and a self-administered questionnaire of depressive symptoms. Results. The results showed a positive association between older adults’ emotional performance and depressive symptomatology, finding stronger associations with ESE than with EI abilities. In addition, multiple mediation analyses showed that two of the four dimensions of ESE fully mediated the relationship between ability EI and depressive symptoms. Discussion. These findings suggest that older adults’ high levels of emotional competence generate a feeling of ESE which can protect them against depressive symptoms. This work supports the predictive validity of emotional abilities and ESE for the mental health of a group that is particularly vulnerable to depression, institutionalized older adults. The limitations of the work are discussed, and future lines of research were considered. PMID:27547553

  14. Emotional intelligence and depressive symptoms in Spanish institutionalized elders: does emotional self-efficacy act as a mediator?

    PubMed

    Luque-Reca, Octavio; Augusto-Landa, José María; Pulido-Martos, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. This work examines the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and depressive symptomatology in institutionalized older adults, delving into the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Considering that previous evidence of the variation of the EI-depression relationship depending on whether the emotional ability or the perception of that ability is evaluated, a model of multiple mediation was tested in which the dimensions of emotional self-efficacy (ESE) act as mediators in the relationship between ability EI and depressive symptomatology. Methods. The sample consisted of 115 institutionalized older adults (47.82% women; 80.3 ± 7.9 years of age) from the province of Jaén (Spain) who completed a test of ESE, a measure of ability EI, and a self-administered questionnaire of depressive symptoms. Results. The results showed a positive association between older adults' emotional performance and depressive symptomatology, finding stronger associations with ESE than with EI abilities. In addition, multiple mediation analyses showed that two of the four dimensions of ESE fully mediated the relationship between ability EI and depressive symptoms. Discussion. These findings suggest that older adults' high levels of emotional competence generate a feeling of ESE which can protect them against depressive symptoms. This work supports the predictive validity of emotional abilities and ESE for the mental health of a group that is particularly vulnerable to depression, institutionalized older adults. The limitations of the work are discussed, and future lines of research were considered. PMID:27547553

  15. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a child of any race, religion, or economic status. HELP AN ABUSED CHILD Learn about the ... as cigarette burns Choke marks around the neck Circular marks around the wrists or ankles from twisting ...

  16. FPG Child Development Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Education October 4, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  17. Concussion - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge; Mild traumatic brain injury - child - discharge; Closed head injury - child - discharge ... mild brain injury that can result when the head hits an object or a moving object strikes ...

  18. Estimating Local Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ards, Sheila

    1989-01-01

    Three conceptual approaches to estimating local child abuse rates using the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect data set are evaluated. All three approaches yield estimates of actual abuse cases that exceed the number of reported cases. (SLD)

  19. Normal Child Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... age. Development can be uneven, too, with a child's social development lagging behind his intellectual growth, or vice versa. ... members, and others. They may interfere with the child's intellectual development. They may be forbidden by law, ethics, religion, ...

  20. Toilet Teaching Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... child small rewards, such as stickers or time reading with Mommy, every time your child goes in ...

  1. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  2. Child Dental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  3. What makes a child a 'competent' child?

    PubMed

    van Rooyen, Amanda; Water, Tineke; Rasmussen, Shayne; Diesfeld, Kate

    2015-12-01

    Competence is a vital component of the informed consent process. The perceived level of a child's competence may influence their degree of participation in health decisions that affect them. It is the responsibility of the health professional to gauge a child's level of competence. Child competence, however, is not a static attribute that is linked to age. Rather, it is dynamic, changing in nature and dependent on a child's previous experiences, personal attributes, network of relationships around them and cultural and environmental context. Consequently, there is no single verified assessment tool to assist in the recognition of competence for New Zealand children. Adding to this complexity are the unclear interpretations of New Zealand health legislation and policy regarding whether or not a child can legally consent or refuse healthcare advice and treatment without the consent of a legal guardian. Under the Care of Children Act 2004 and the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights 1996, the Health and Disability Commissioner states "a child may consent themselves [to health treatment] if and when the child achieves sufficient understanding and maturity to understand fully what is proposed". This paper poses the question: What is 'competency' and how is this decided? For the purpose of this article, 'child' pertains to those under the age of 16 years. PMID:26913912

  4. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  5. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  6. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  7. Association between complaints of dizziness and hypertension in non-institutionalized elders

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Anália Rosário; Moreira, Michelle Damasceno; Trelha, Celita Salmaso; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Advancing age increases the risk for a number of chronic diseases. Hypertension and dizziness are highly prevalent in the elderly population and represent major health problems. Objective: To verify the association between complaints of dizziness and the presence of hypertension in non-institutionalized elders. Method: This was a prospective cross-sectional cohort study of the elderly population of Londrina, Paraná in terms of aging and longevity. The required sample size was calculated, and subjects e” 60 years of age of both genders were selected at random. Data were collected using a questionnaire covering socio-demographic information and self-reported cases of hypertension and dizziness. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test with p d” 0.05 as the level of significance. Results: The study included 493 elderly subjects, of whom 257 (52.1%) complained of dizziness and 308 (62.5%) reported a diagnosis of arterial systemic hypertension. Dizziness was significantly associated with hypertension (χ2 = 6.26, p = 0.01) and female sex. Conclusions: Hypertension and dizziness were both highly prevalent and were significantly associated, showing the great need for investments in preventive measures. PMID:25992007

  8. Workplace violence on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Wang, Jung-Der; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lin, Yi-Ping

    2007-07-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in psychiatric settings. The purpose of this study was to explore the workplace violence, including violence situation, victims' feeling, and the prevention strategies, on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. We conducted a face-to-face, in-depth, and semi-structured interview with 13 health care workers suffering from physical violence and/or sexual harassment by patients in 2002. First, the interviews were taped and/or paper-notes recorded, then transcribed, organized, and analyzed. Results found that all of the victims alleged they did not receive enough post-incident support, and more than a half of the victims could not call others for help during the violence. To avoid further attack, most victims offered prevention strategies which were considered valuable for establishing guidelines. However, some victims regarded workplace violence as inevitable and part of the job. The most common situations of workplace violence were during routine ward inspections, especially when the victims were alone. The most serious psychological harm was post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In conclusion, we recommended a re-engineering of the organization to a supportive and safe working environment for prevention of workplace violence in the study hospital. PMID:17690525

  9. Increased freezing and decreased positive affect in post-institutionalized children

    PubMed Central

    Stellern, Sarah; Esposito, Elisa; Mliner, Shanna; Pears, Katherine; Gunnar, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Background Early neglect is associated with increased risk of internalizing disorders in humans and with increased fear behavior in animals. When children are adopted out of orphanages in which they experienced institutional neglect, anxiety and depressive disorders often are not seen until adolescence. What has not been examined is whether even young children adopted from institutional care exhibit heightened fear or behavioral inhibition. Method Children adopted between 15 and 35 months from institutional care were examined twice during their first year post-adoption and compared to children of the same age reared in their birth families. A modified version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery for Preschoolers was used with the children being exposed to two mechanical toys designed to be highly arousing and fear-eliciting. Because children in institutions tend to exhibit low levels of positive affect, the children were also examined during exposure to two positive stimuli. Sessions were videotaped and coded by observers blind to the study purpose. Results Post-institutionalized children froze more in fear vignettes and were less positive in both fear and positive vignettes than non-adopted children. Group differences did not diminish significantly from the first session to the next, 6 months later. Conclusions Children exposed to early institutional neglect exhibit emotional biases that are consistent with their previously demonstrated risk for the development of internalizing disorders. PMID:24482804

  10. A Pilot Physical Activity Initiative to Improve Mental Health Status amongst Iranian Institutionalized Older People

    PubMed Central

    Matlabi, Hossein; Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Amiri, Shahriar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sufficient level of physical activity may promote overall and mental health of old people. This study was carried out to investigate the practi­cability of a physical activity promotion initiative amongst institutionalized older people in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: Purposive sampling method was used in this semi-experimental study to recruit 31 older people living in a selected residential care in Tabriz. Moderate-intensity aerobic and mus­cle-strengthening activity was planned for those who had not severe baseline cognitive impairment or were not too frail to undertake the survey. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to measure mental health status be­fore and after intervention through a face-to-face interview. Descriptive statistics, Wilkcoxon rank-sum, Mann-Whitney U and Chi-Square tests were employed to analyses the data. Results: The applied intervention was significantly improved status of physical health, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression. Conclusion: Incorporation of physical activity promotion programs into routines of older people residential care homes in Iran is feasible but may need training of physical activity specialists to work with older people based on their physical endurance and limitations. PMID:25097839

  11. Emergence, institutionalization and renewal: Rhythms of adaptive governance in complex social-ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Brian C; Gunderson, Lance H

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive governance provides the capacity for environmental managers and decision makers to confront variable degrees of uncertainty inherent to complex social-ecological systems. Current theoretical conceptualizations of adaptive governance represent a series of structures and processes best suited for either adapting or transforming existing environmental governance regimes towards forms flexible enough to confront rapid ecological change. As the number of empirical examples of adaptive governance described in the literature grows, the conceptual basis of adaptive governance remains largely under theorized. We argue that reconnecting adaptive governance with foundational concepts of ecological resilience-specifically Panarchy and the adaptive cycle of complex systems-highlights the importance of episodic disturbances and cross-scale interactions in triggering reorganizations in governance. By envisioning the processes of adaptive governance through the lens of Panarchy, scholars and practitioners alike will be better able to identify the emergence of adaptive governance, as well as take advantage of opportunities to institutionalize this type of governance in pursuit of sustainability outcomes. The synergistic analysis of adaptive governance and Panarchy can provide critical insight for analyzing the role of social dynamics during oscillating periods of stability and instability in social-ecological systems. A deeper understanding of the potential for cross-scale interactions to shape adaptive governance regimes may be useful as society faces the challenge of mitigating the impacts of global environmental change. PMID:26426283

  12. Infections and antimicrobial use among institutionalized residents in Hungary: increasing need of microbiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Rita; Böröcz, Karolina

    2015-03-01

    As a result of the age-related changes, more elders live in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Due to their susceptibility, infections and excess use of antimicrobials are common. The aim was to estimate the burden of infections and antimicrobial use in Hungarian LTCFs in order to increase the attention given to the prevention. European-wide point prevalence survey was conducted between April and May 2013. For each resident who had a signs and symptoms of an infection and/or treated with an antibacterial for systemic use a resident questionnaire was completed. Descriptive statistics were used to present the data. In total, 91 LTCFs with 11,823 residents were selected in this survey. The 252 residents had a sign/symptom of an infection (2.1%) and 156 received antimicrobial (1.3%). Skin and soft tissues (36.5%) was the most frequent infection. However, antimicrobials were mostly prescribed for respiratory tract infections (40.4%). The most common therapeutic antimicrobial agent (97.5%) belonged to the quinolone antibacterials (34.2%). Our results emphasise the need for targeted improvement of antimicrobial use including: reducing the use of quinolone antibacterials in order to prevent the spread of Clostridium difficile and other antimicrobial resistant microorganisms among institutionalized residents.

  13. "How do I feel today?" An Analysis of HRQOL Variability among Institutionalized Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Roppolo, Mattia; Kunnen, Saskia; Mulasso, Anna; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; van Geert, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Intra-individual variability is a central topic in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems (NDS) studies of human development, because the theory predicts that particular forms or properties of intra-individual variability will serve as indicators or predictors of bifurcations, and stable states in individual development. Currently, there are almost no studies that address intra-individual changes and variability of Health Related Quality of Life in old age. The main aim of this paper is to analyze the role of day-to-day HRQOL variability and long term HRQOL and disability development in a sample of institutionalized older adults. 22 older adults took part in this longitudinal study. Daily diary-based assessments were made for a period of 100 days. Furthermore, monthly assessments of HRQOL and disability with validated questionnaires were performed. The intra individual variability on a day-to-day basis was found to be related to HRQOL and disability development. Furthermore, life events as operationalized by extreme values in HRQOL were related to the level of day-to-day HRQOL variability. As predicted by NDS theory, day-to-day variability emerges as an important indicator of levels of and changes in HRQOL and disability and as such, it may be an important indicator of developmental processes in old age. PMID:27262421

  14. Psychic and somatic symptoms of depression among young adults, institutionalized aged and noninstitutionalized aged.

    PubMed

    Zemore, R; Eames, N

    1979-09-01

    Beck Depression Inventory scores were obtained from 48 elderly who had been residing in homes for the aged for more than one year, 31 elderly residing in the community and waiting to enter an old-age home, and 424 young adults enrolled in a fist-year psychology course. The residents of old-age homes reported no more symptoms of depression than the waiting-list controls, a finding that provides no support for the hypothesis that the institional nature of old-age homes increases depression in the elderly. Both the institutionalized and noninstitutionalized aged reported more somatic symptoms of depression than the young adults, but no greater cognitive or affective symptoms of depression. These results were interpreted as providing no support for the widely belief that the aged are more depressed than any other age group. Finally, it was argued that somatic complaints can be valid indicators of depression in the elderly if normative differences between young and old are taken into account.

  15. Relationships between health status, depression and cognitive functions of institutionalized male veterans.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pei-Jung; Chiou, Chii-Jun; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among health state, depression, and cognitive functions of institutionalized male veterans. A cross-sectional and correlation research design with a cluster sampling was conducted. A total of 223 veterans who were above 65 years old, with no psychiatric disorders and no organic brain lesions were recruited from two veterans' institutions in Southern Taiwan. The researcher interviewed them one-on-one using structural questionnaires, including demographic data, health status, Taiwan Geriatric Depression Scale (TGDS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The results of this study were as follows: (1) Veterans who were able to read, were married, had good dietary habits, avoided over-oiled and high-fat food to keep healthy, took exercise at least 30 min each time, and had static leisure activities had significant differences in cognitive functions. (2) Cognitive functions were significantly negatively correlated with age and depression, whereas positively correlated with education level, the number of children and perceived health status. (3) Depression, literacy, education level and age were the four predictors of cognitive functions, accounting for 29% of the variance. The findings of this study provide a reference to caregivers and health care professionals for home care, clinical practice and cohort study in the future.

  16. Clinical outcome of root caries restorations using ART and rotary techniques in institutionalized elders.

    PubMed

    Cruz Gonzalez, Alberto Carlos; Marín Zuluaga, Dairo Javier

    2016-05-31

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical performance of root caries restorations after a six-month period using two methods, a conventional technique with rotary instruments and an atraumatic restorative technique (ART), in an institutionalized elderly population in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Root caries represents a multifactorial, progressive, chronic lesion with softened, irregular and darkened tissue involving the radicular surface; it is highly prevalent in the elderly, especially in those who are physically or cognitively impaired. A quasi-experimental, double-blind, longitudinal study was carried out after cluster randomization of the sample. Two different experienced dentists, previously trained, performed the restorations using each technique. After six months, two new investigators performed a blind evaluation of the condition of the restorations. The results showed a significantly higher rate of success (92.9%) using the conventional technique (p < 0.03). However, we concluded that ART may have been the preferred technique in the study population because 81% of those restorations survived or were successful during the observation period. PMID:27253146

  17. The effect of physical restraints on fall rates in older adults who are institutionalized.

    PubMed

    Dunn, K S

    2001-10-01

    Since the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1987, there has been a significant reduction in the use of physical restraints to prevent falls in older adults who are institutionalized because of the developing awareness of the physical and psychological problems associated with them. The purpose of this ex post facto descriptive study was to determine if there is a difference in falls when physical restraints are allowed or prohibited in one older adult population. Data from incident reports from a purposive sample of 97 older adults in one long-term care facility were analyzed before and after the implementation of a restraint-free policy. The results indicated no significant difference in the number of falls before and after the policy change. However, there was a significantly lower number of falls with injuries and a significantly higher number of falls without injuries. These findings suggest older adults will continue to fall with or without the use of physical restraints because of changes associated with the aging process and risk factors. Removing physical barriers from older adults and allowing freedom of movement may decrease the severity of injury sustained in a fall.

  18. A cognitive intervention to enhance institutionalized older adults' social support networks and decrease loneliness.

    PubMed

    Winningham, R G; Pike, N L

    2007-11-01

    Nearly all older adults experience social losses, which can disrupt their social support networks and impair their quality of life. Events such as retirement, an inability to drive, death of a spouse and/or close life-long friends, or moving to an elder care facility may negatively affect the quality of older adults' social support networks. Low levels of perceived social support are associated with increased depression, impaired immune functioning and reduced life expectancy. Moreover, social interactions can be cognitively stimulating and may help older adults preserve their cognitive abilities. In the present study, institutionalized older adults were exposed to either a cognitive enhancement programme designed to enhance social networks or a control group. Measures of perceived social support and loneliness were administered before and after a 3-month, group-based intervention. There was a significant interaction between group and time. Those who did not participate in the intervention experienced a decrease in perceived social support and an increase in perceived loneliness. Participants in the intervention group stayed the same on the above measures. Helping older adults increase or maintain the quality of their social networks may lead to enhanced cognitive functioning, decreased depression and improved quality of life. Recommendations to help assisted living facilities, nursing homes, retirement communities and senior centres develop social and cognitive interventions are provided.

  19. Educational support group in changing caregivers' psychological elder abuse behavior toward caring for institutionalized elders.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti

    2009-08-01

    Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's psychological abusive behavior, reducing work stress and promoting knowledge of geriatric care-giving among a group of caregivers. A quasi-experimental design using a case control pre-post test approach was conducted. A total of 100 participants completed the study with 50 caregivers in each group. The research instruments included the Caregiver Psychological Elder Abuse Behavior Scale (CPEAB), the Work Stressors Inventory (WSI), and the Knowledge of Gerontology Nursing Scale (KGNS). The results showed that the intervention had significant effects in alleviating caregiver psychological abuse behavior and increasing care-giving knowledge in the experimental group (p = .048; .018). However, the intervention had no measurable effect on work stress (p = .66). Findings have important implications for education and programming for facility administers and long-term care policy makers when planning quality improvement for elderly care.

  20. Academic Institutionalization of Community Health Services: Way Ahead in Medical Education Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman

    2012-01-01

    Policy on medical education has a major bearing on the outcome of health care delivery system. Countries plan and execute development of human resource in health, based on the realistic assessments of health system needs. A closer observation of medical education and its impact on the delivery system in India reveals disturbing trends. Primary care forms backbone of any system for health care delivery. One of the major challenges in India has been chronic deficiency of trained human resource eager to work in primary care setting. Attracting talent and employing skilled workforce seems a distant dream. Talking specifically of the medical education, there are large regional variations, urban - rural divide and issues with financing of the infrastructure. The existing design of medical education is not compatible with the health care delivery system of India. Impact is visible at both qualitative as well as quantitative levels. Medical education and the delivery system are working independent of each other, leading outcomes which are inequitable and unjust. Decades of negligence of medical education regulatory mechanism has allowed cropping of multiple monopolies governed by complex set of conflict of interest. Primary care physicians, supposed to be the community based team leaders stand disfranchised academically and professionally. To undo the distorted trajectory, a paradigm shift is required. In this paper, we propose expansion of ownership in medical education with academic institutionalization of community health services. PMID:24478994

  1. Emergence, institutionalization and renewal: Rhythms of adaptive governance in complex social-ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Brian C; Gunderson, Lance H

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive governance provides the capacity for environmental managers and decision makers to confront variable degrees of uncertainty inherent to complex social-ecological systems. Current theoretical conceptualizations of adaptive governance represent a series of structures and processes best suited for either adapting or transforming existing environmental governance regimes towards forms flexible enough to confront rapid ecological change. As the number of empirical examples of adaptive governance described in the literature grows, the conceptual basis of adaptive governance remains largely under theorized. We argue that reconnecting adaptive governance with foundational concepts of ecological resilience-specifically Panarchy and the adaptive cycle of complex systems-highlights the importance of episodic disturbances and cross-scale interactions in triggering reorganizations in governance. By envisioning the processes of adaptive governance through the lens of Panarchy, scholars and practitioners alike will be better able to identify the emergence of adaptive governance, as well as take advantage of opportunities to institutionalize this type of governance in pursuit of sustainability outcomes. The synergistic analysis of adaptive governance and Panarchy can provide critical insight for analyzing the role of social dynamics during oscillating periods of stability and instability in social-ecological systems. A deeper understanding of the potential for cross-scale interactions to shape adaptive governance regimes may be useful as society faces the challenge of mitigating the impacts of global environmental change.

  2. Child Care Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum is designed to be a handbook for the development of child care programs. It details the competencies, developed through a survey of child care provider-employers in Alaska, that students will require in a vocational child care program. The handbook is organized in seven sections. Section I introduces the concept of…

  3. Child Care Bulletin, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Bulletin, 1998

    1998-01-01

    These two issues address topics related to state and federal public policy concerning child care. Issue 19 focuses on how various federal agencies work with the Child Care Bureau to strengthen and support child care services across the country. The issue includes articles describing initiatives of the Departments of Transportation, Labor,…

  4. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  5. Managing the Difficult Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on ways parents can manage the difficult child with special needs. Characteristics of the difficult child are listed including poor listening skills, irritableness, impulsivity, and tendency to have tantrums. Typical reactions to the difficult child by parents, siblings, other relatives, neighbors, the school, and…

  6. [Autism and child protection].

    PubMed

    Coron, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The fostering of an autistic child deemed to be a child at risk leads one to question one's professional practices. In a children's home, an approach guided by psychoanalysis can recognise the benefits of behavioural or cognitive approaches. The aim of the professional's particular educational position is therefore to construct a relationship with each child.

  7. Child Care Bulletin, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Marilyn, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document is comprised of six issues of the Child Care Bulletin, a bimonthly publication of the National Child Care Information Center. The January-February issue focuses on involving communities in child care planning. Topics discussed in this issue include: community mobilization strategies, assessing needs and establishing goals, and…

  8. Child Care Update: 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Vic; And Others

    This paper provides information on child care needs, existing services, and special topics related to child care in Dane County, Wisconsin. Section I describes and compares needs and services; indicates locations of current full-day services; and offers specific recommendations for expanding child care. Section II concerns cost and affordability…

  9. Child Care Design Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Anita Rui

    This book provides architects, interior designers, developers, and child-care professionals with detailed information on the planning and design of child care centers. Part 1 examines the current state of child care in the United States and offers an overall philosophical concert--the spirit of place--as the framework for all center design. Part 2…

  10. Mother-Child Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joseph Chilton

    1994-01-01

    Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)

  11. From child to child: children as communicators.

    PubMed

    Phinney, R; Evans, J

    1993-01-01

    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  12. Developmental logics: Brain science, child welfare, and the ethics of engagement in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Kathryn E

    2015-10-01

    This article explores the unintended consequences of the ways scholars and activists take up the science of child development to critique the Japanese child welfare system. Since World War II, Japan has depended on a system of child welfare institutions (baby homes and children's homes) to care for state wards. Opponents of institutional care advocate instead for family foster care and adoption, and cite international research on the developmental harms of institutionalizing newborns and young children during the "critical period" of the first few years. The "critical period" is understood as the time during which the caregiving a child receives shapes neurological development and later capacity to build interpersonal relationships. These discourses appear to press compellingly for system reform, the proof resting on seemingly objective knowledge about child development. However, scientific evidence of harm is often mobilized in tandem with arguments that the welfare system is rooted in Japanese culture, suggesting durability and resistance to change. Further, reform efforts that use universalizing child science as "proof" of the need for change are prone to slip into deterministic language that pathologizes the experiences of people who grew up in the system. This article explores the reasons why deterministic models of child development, rather than more open-ended models like neuroplasticity, dominate activist rhetorics. It proposes a concept, "ethics of engagement," to advocate for attention to multiple scales and domains through which interpersonal ties are experienced and embodied over time. Finally, it suggests the possibility of child welfare reform movements that take seriously the need for caring and transformative relationships throughout life, beyond the first "critical years," that do not require deterministic logics of permanent delay or damage. PMID:25530189

  13. How Nigeria built child survival themes into national television.

    PubMed

    Gleason, G

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Government of Nigeria's goal of providing universal child immunization, a strategy was developed to strengthen the production capacity of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) and to award higher priority to health issues in NTA programming. At the national level, a child survival-oriented training, coordination, and production unit was established to produce "spot messages" on primary health care. In 1985-86, radio and television staff from all Nigerian states attended workshops at which Ministry of Health officials outlined Nigeria's maternal-child health problems and emphasized the potential of the broadcast media in health education. Each station was linked with an officer in the local Ministry of Health to ensure ongoing collaboration on technical problems and health programs in need of promotion. Another set of state-level workshops brought together media producers and radio and television writers to encourage them to integrate primary health care themes into their programs. In addition, a Nigerian nongovernmental organization has organized workshops for electronic media writers and producers aimed at incorporating family planning themes into several popular television programs. In 1986, both NTA and the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria signed agreements further committing their networks to the child survival campaign. The Nigerian experience exemplifies the potential for creating and institutionalizing long-term efforts to use the mass media to bring new information to the general population on health-related issues. Needed at this point is more knowledge about specific communication strategies that are most effective in promoting sustainable behavioral change on the family and community levels in a country with much social and cultural diversity.

  14. How Nigeria built child survival themes into national television.

    PubMed

    Gleason, G

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Government of Nigeria's goal of providing universal child immunization, a strategy was developed to strengthen the production capacity of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) and to award higher priority to health issues in NTA programming. At the national level, a child survival-oriented training, coordination, and production unit was established to produce "spot messages" on primary health care. In 1985-86, radio and television staff from all Nigerian states attended workshops at which Ministry of Health officials outlined Nigeria's maternal-child health problems and emphasized the potential of the broadcast media in health education. Each station was linked with an officer in the local Ministry of Health to ensure ongoing collaboration on technical problems and health programs in need of promotion. Another set of state-level workshops brought together media producers and radio and television writers to encourage them to integrate primary health care themes into their programs. In addition, a Nigerian nongovernmental organization has organized workshops for electronic media writers and producers aimed at incorporating family planning themes into several popular television programs. In 1986, both NTA and the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria signed agreements further committing their networks to the child survival campaign. The Nigerian experience exemplifies the potential for creating and institutionalizing long-term efforts to use the mass media to bring new information to the general population on health-related issues. Needed at this point is more knowledge about specific communication strategies that are most effective in promoting sustainable behavioral change on the family and community levels in a country with much social and cultural diversity. PMID:12343010

  15. Mother-child planning and child compliance.

    PubMed

    Gauvain, Mary; Perez, Susan M

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated child compliance and maternal instruction during planning. Based on the Child Behavior Checklist and free-play observations, 40 mothers and their 4- to 5-year-old children were assigned to a group with children who behaved within the normal range of compliance (n = 20) or a group with children with high rates of noncompliance for this age (n = 20). Mothers in the noncompliant group provided more low-level, directive, and negative instruction; requested more compliance; and shared less task responsibility with children. Mothers in both groups responded to child compliance by increasing or maintaining the level of instruction. Results are discussed in relation to the role of child compliance in regulating opportunities for cognitive development in social context. PMID:18489426

  16. The effects of early foster care intervention on attention biases in previously institutionalized children in Romania.

    PubMed

    Troller-Renfree, Sonya; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-09-01

    Children raised in institutions experience psychosocial deprivation that can negatively impact attention skills and emotion regulation, which subsequently may influence behavioral regulation and social relationships. The current study examined visual attention biases in 8-year-old children who were part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). Relations among attention biases and concurrent social outcomes were also investigated. In early childhood, 136 children abandoned at birth or shortly thereafter into institutional care were randomized to receive a high-quality foster care intervention or care-as-usual within the context of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). At 8 years of age, 50 care-as-usual, 55 foster care, and 52 community controls performed a behavioral dot-probe task, and indices of attention biases to threat and positive stimuli were calculated. Concurrent data on social behavior were collected. Children placed into the foster care intervention had a significant attention bias toward positive stimuli, while children who received care-as-usual had a significant bias toward threat. Children in the foster care intervention had a significantly larger positive bias when compared to the care-as-usual group. A positive bias was related to more social engagement, more prosocial behavior, less externalizing disorders, and less emotionally withdrawn behavior. The magnitude of positive bias was predicted by age of placement into foster care among children with a history of institutionalization. An attention bias towards positive stimuli was associated with reduced risk for behavioral problems amongst children who experienced early psychosocial deprivation. Research assessing attention biases in children experiencing early environmental stress may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later psychiatric and social disorders and inform prevention efforts.

  17. Psychiatry and Military Conscription in Brazil: The Search for Opportunity and Institutionalized Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique Pareja

    2010-01-01

    Since the fall of the Brazilian military dictatorship in 1984, a number of structural and ideological changes associated with demilitarization and democracy have changed the face of psychiatric theory and practice. Around the country, pockets of innovative, politically sensitive and Marxist-inspired community-based forms of “psi” practice are developing. This emergent psi movement is making a range of positive contributions to the lives of average citizens, including those of poor disenfranchized youth. This paper, however, explores one particular dimension of the work of psi practitioners that has proven antithetical to the psi community’s current politicized community-based aims. Based on qualitative and quantitative longitudinal ethnographic fieldwork with therapists and young men in Pelotas, this paper analyzes how certain kinds of psi interventions being carried out in schools for a subset of lower-class young men during their early teen years are encouraging some youth to seek military training as a life option. Although these young men initially had quite captivating, engaged and politicized—if also conflicting—interactions with therapists, their eventual disillusionment with their therapeutic and scholastic experiences resulted in high levels of social alienation and depoliticization. In these young men’s search for what can best be described as formulaic solutions to troubling psychological experiences associated with a tumultuous institutionalized transition to adulthood, military training came to represent a form of self-cultivation and self-therapy. Several youth also hoped military training would enable them to actively disengage with local political processes and find shelter from troubling social inequities and injustice. The paper ends by reviewing the implications of these results for the future of psi knowledge and practice in Brazil. PMID:18347961

  18. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among non institutionalized elderly in Monastir City

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a major public health problem worldwide. This problem is particularly relevant to the elderly. The prevalence of each condition increase with age. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) among elderly; we also examined socio-economic factors and life style that are likely to be associated with DM. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008–2009, and used a multistage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample among non institutionalized elderly in Monastir City. A total of 598 elderly aged 65 to 95 years were included. Results The prevalence of DM was 27.4% (29.2% in males’ vs 26.5% in females). Elderly with DM showed higher prevalence of hypertension, obesity and abdominal obesity. DM prevalence decreased with advancing ages in both men and women. Urban residents had a higher prevalence than did their rural counterparts. In multivariate analysis, DM was associated with abdominal obesity (OR [95% CI], 2.6 [1.1-6]; p <0.01), co-existing diseases (3.8 [2.4-6]; p <0.01), and hypertension (2.7 [1.6-4.5] ; p <0.01). Conclusion The study highlights the DM problem in Tunisia. An ageing population together with social, economic and lifestyle changes have led to a dramatic increase in DM. These data emphasize the urgent need for a comprehensive integrated population-based intervention program to ameliorate the growing problem of DM. PMID:22898260

  19. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Venkataraam; Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Managoli, Noopur A; Gugawad, Sachin C; Hitesh, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was planned to assess the dental caries status among disabled children as dental health is an integral part of general body health and this group is deprived of health care needs. Materials & Methods: A sample of 310 disabled children was gathered including 195- Hearing impaired, 115 – blind. Of which 226 were males and 84 were females. A study questionnaire was prepared to include demographic information and WHO oral health assessment form (1997) to record dental caries status.Data was analysed using student’s test and ANOVA test was used at p≤0.05. Results: The overall mean for DMFT scores for males and females was 2.11 (1.753) and 1.75 (1.275) respectively. Similarly overall mean for dft was 0.31 (0.254) for males and 0.27 (0.143) for females. Mean DMFT of blind students was more as compared to hearing impaired ones as 2.16 (2.005) and 1.80 (1.264) respectively. Age factor showed a significant increase in the mean DMFT scores with advancing age at p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Overall mean scores of caries was very high and it increased with increasing age. Blind children experienced more caries then hearing impaired children in permanent, whereas it was opposite in primary dentition. So there is urgent need of both comprehensive and incremental dental care for this subgroup of population. How to cite the article: Sanjay V, Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Managoli NA, Gugawad SC, Hitesh D. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):55-8. PMID:24653604

  20. Psychiatry and military conscription in Brazil: the search for opportunity and institutionalized therapy.

    PubMed

    Béhague, Dominique Pareja

    2008-06-01

    Since the fall of the Brazilian military dictatorship in 1984, a number of structural and ideological changes associated with demilitarization and democracy have changed the face of psychiatric theory and practice. Around the country, pockets of innovative, politically sensitive and Marxist-inspired community-based forms of "psi" practice are developing. This emergent psi movement is making a range of positive contributions to the lives of average citizens, including those of poor disenfranchized youth. This paper, however, explores one particular dimension of the work of psi practitioners that has proven antithetical to the psi community's current politicized community-based aims. Based on qualitative and quantitative longitudinal ethnographic fieldwork with therapists and young men in Pelotas, this paper analyzes how certain kinds of psi interventions being carried out in schools for a subset of lower-class young men during their early teen years are encouraging some youth to seek military training as a life option. Although these young men initially had quite captivating, engaged and politicized-if also conflicting-interactions with therapists, their eventual disillusionment with their therapeutic and scholastic experiences resulted in high levels of social alienation and de-politicization. In these young men's search for what can best be described as formulaic solutions to troubling psychological experiences associated with a tumultuous institutionalized transition to adulthood, military training came to represent a form of self-cultivation and self-therapy. Several youth also hoped military training would enable them to actively disengage with local political processes and find shelter from troubling social inequities and injustice. The paper ends by reviewing the implications of these results for the future of psi knowledge and practice in Brazil. PMID:18347961

  1. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  2. Implications of oral infections on systemic diseases in the institutionalized elderly with a special focus on pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Limeback, H

    1998-07-01

    Systemic infection in the elderly patient living in a chronic care setting presents a significant burden to the health care system. The extent to which oral organisms cause systemic infections through hematogenous dissemination in the institutionalized elderly is still unknown. A more likely and common route of systemic infection by oral microorganisms is through aspiration of oropharyngeal fluids containing oral pathogenic microorganisms, which colonize the lower respiratory tract and cause pneumonia. Respiratory pathogens emerge in the dental plaque of elderly patients with very poor oral hygiene and severe periodontal disease. In the chronic care setting, aspiration of oropharyngeal fluids contaminated with these bacteria occurs in patients with diminished host defenses, resulting in bacterial pneumonia. This is also a problem in intensive care units in the hospital setting. In one study, pre-rinsing with a 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash significantly lowered the mortality rate from postsurgical pneumonia in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Selective digestive decontamination, a technique involving the topical application of antimicrobials to reduce the risk of colonization of the respiratory tract, has been used to reduce the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia in the acute care setting of hospitals. This technique has not been employed in the nursing home setting. Whether improving oral hygiene would also lower the risk in either of these settings has not been studied. A number of obstacles must be overcome in designing studies to investigate the relationship between oral infections and lung infections in the institutionalized elderly. Ethical issues must be addressed, and full collaboration of the medical team is required. Future studies should establish whether reducing the risk for pneumonia in the institutionalized elderly is possible through improved oral health.

  3. Early Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agostino, Micheline

    1986-01-01

    This journal issue presents an overview of mother-child interaction during the first year of the child's life. Contents of the first section, which concern the development of the mother-child relationship, focus on the concept of the maternal instinct, mother and child during intrauterine life, birth of the child, the postnatal period (including…

  4. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... permanent memorialization of the crimes committed against them. Studies indicate that child victims endure depression, withdrawal, anger, and other psychological disorders. Victims also experience feelings ...

  5. Child maltreatment: international perspectives.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, I J; Darwish, A M; McLean, M

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to explore definitions, incidence, and management of child maltreatment across cultures. Articles written in the English language published from 1962 to 1991 were reviewed to answer the following questions: (1) What role does cross-cultural variability play in defining child maltreatment? (2) What is the incidence of maltreatment in developed and developing countries across continents? (3) What measures have been instituted by countries to prevent and manage child maltreatment? Cross-cultural information was found to be limited. Child rearing attitudes had an impact on the identification, prevention, and management of maltreatment across nations.

  6. The Psychometric Properties of a Modified Sit-to-Stand Test With Use of the Upper Extremities in Institutionalized Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Le Berre, Melanie; Apap, David; Babcock, Jade; Bray, Sarah; Gareau, Esther; Chassé, Kathleen; Lévesque, Nicole; Robbins, Shawn M

    2016-08-01

    Current sit-to-stand protocols do not permit use of upper extremities, limiting the protocols' utility for institutionalized older adults with diminished physical function. The objective of this study was to modify a 30-s sit-to-stand protocol to allow for arm use and to examine test-retest reliability and convergent validity; 54 institutionalized older adult men (age = 91 ± 3 year) performed the 30-s sit-to-stand twice within a span of 3 to 7 days. Results suggest good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .84) and convergent validity with the Timed Up and Go Test (r = -.62). This modified 30-s sit-to-stand can be used to assess physical function performance in institutionalized older adults and will ensure that individuals with lower physical function capacity can complete the test, thus eliminating the floor effect demonstrated with other sit-to-stand protocols.

  7. Seasonal Variation in Mortality, Medical Care Expenditure and Institutionalization in Older People: Evidence from a Dutch Cohort of Older Health Insurance Clients

    PubMed Central

    Rolden, Herbert Jan Albert; Rohling, Jos Hermanus Theodoor; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background The mortality rates of older people changes with the seasons. However, it has not been properly investigated whether the seasons affect medical care expenditure (MCE) and institutionalization. Seasonal variation in MCE is plausible, as MCE rises exponentially before death. It is therefore important to investigate the impact of the seasons on MCE both mediated and unmediated by mortality. Methods Data on mortality, MCE and institutionalization from people aged 65 and older in a region in the Netherlands from July 2007 through 2010 were retrieved from a regional health care insurer and were linked with data from the Netherlands Institute for Social Research, and Statistics Netherlands (n = 61,495). The Seasonal and Trend decomposition using Loess (STL) method was used to divide mortality rates, MCE, and institutionalization rates into a long-term trend, seasonal variation, and remaining variation. For every season we calculated the 95% confidence interval compared to the long-term trend using Welch’s t-test. Results The mortality rates of older people differ significantly between the seasons, and are 21% higher in the winter compared to the summer. MCE rises with 13% from the summer to the winter; this seasonal difference is higher for the non-deceased than for the deceased group (14% vs. 6%). Seasonal variation in mortality is more pronounced in men and people in residential care. Seasonal variation in MCE is more pronounced in women. Institutionalization rates are significantly higher in the winter, but the other seasons show no significant impact. Conclusions Seasonal changes affect mortality and the level of MCE of older people; institutionalization rates peak in the winter. Seasonal variation in MCE exists independently from patterns in mortality. Seasonal variation in mortality is similar for both institutionalized and community-dwelling elderly. Policy-makers, epidemiologists and health economists are urged to acknowledge and include the impact of

  8. Using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) for Predicting Institutionalization of Patients With Dementia in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Escorpizo, Reuben; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Chi, Wen-Chou; Yen, Chia-Feng; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is an assessment tool and it has been applied for disability status assessment of Taiwanese dementia patients since July 2012. The aim of this study was to investigate the predicting accuracy of WHODAS 2.0 for institutionalization of dementia patients. Of these patients, 13,774 resided in a community and 4406 in a long-term care facility. Demographic data and WHODAS 2.0 standardized scores were analyzed using the Chi-square test and independent t test to compare patients with dementia in an institution with those in a community. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to investigate accuracy in predicting institutionalization, and the optimal cutoff point was determined using the Youden index. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze variables to determine risk factors for the institutionalization of patients with dementia. WHODAS 2.0 scores in all domains were higher in patients with dementia in a long-term care facility than in those in a community (P < 0.01). The ROC curve showed moderate accuracy for all domains of WHODAS 2.0 (area under curve 0.6∼0.8). Binary logistic regression revealed that the male gender, severity of disease, and standardized WHODAS 2.0 scores surpassing the cutoff values were risk factors for the institutionalization of patients with dementia. Although the accuracy of WHODAS 2.0 in predicting institutionalization is not considerably high for patients with dementia, our study found that the WHODAS 2.0 scores, the male gender, education status, urbanization level, and severity of disease were risk factors for institutionalization in long-term care facilities. PMID:26632747

  9. The effects of stretching on the flexibility, muscle performance and functionality of institutionalized older women.

    PubMed

    Gallon, D; Rodacki, A L F; Hernandez, S G; Drabovski, B; Outi, T; Bittencourt, L R; Gomes, A R S

    2011-03-01

    Stretching has been widely used to increase the range of motion. We assessed the effects of a stretching program on muscle-tendon length, flexibility, torque, and activities of daily living of institutionalized older women. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were according to Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (>13), Barthel Index (>13) and Lysholm Scoring Scale (>84). Seventeen 67 ± 9 year-old elderly women from a nursing home were divided into 2 groups at random: the control group (CG, N = 9) participated in enjoyable cultural activities; the stretching group (SG, N = 8) performed active stretching of hamstrings, 4 bouts of 1 min each. Both groups were supervised three times per week over a period of 8 weeks. Peak torque was assessed by an isokinetic method. Both groups were evaluated by a photogrammetric method to assess muscle-tendon length of uni- and biarticular hip flexors and hamstring flexibility. All measurements were analyzed before and after 8 weeks by two-way ANOVA with the level of significance set at 5%. Hamstring flexibility increased by 30% in the SG group compared to pre-training (76.5 ± 13.0° vs 59.5 ± 9.0°, P = 0.0002) and by 9.2% compared to the CG group (76.5 ± 13.0° vs 64.0 ± 12.0°, P = 0.0018). Muscle-tendon lengths of hip biarticular flexor muscles (124 ± 6.8° vs 118.3 ± 7.6°, 5.0 ± 7.0%, P = 0.031) and eccentric knee extensor peak torque were decreased in the CG group compared to pre-test values (-49.4 ± 16.8 vs -60.5 ± 18.9 Nm, -15.7 ± 20%, P = 0.048). The stretching program was sufficient to increase hamstring flexibility and a lack of stretching can cause reduction of muscle performance.

  10. Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in institutionalized elderly in Barcelona (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Glòria; de Lima, Kenio C.; Casals-Peidro, Elías; Borrell, Carme

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the oral health status and the factors associated with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in people aged 65 and older institutionalized in Barcelona in 2009. Study Design: Cross sectional study in 194 elderly. The dependent variable was poor OHRQoL, according to the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The independent variables were socio-demographic data, last dental visit, subjective and objective oral health status. Robust Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with OHRQoL as well as the strengths of association (Prevalence Ratios with respective confidence intervals at 95%). Results: According to GOHAI, 94 women (68.1%) and 36 men (64.3%) had poor OHRQoL. The average DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) was 22.8, with mean 10.2 remaining teeth. According to the Community Periodontal Index only 1.9% were healthy. 33.8% of the sample (35.5% of women and 30.4% of men) presented edentulism, 54.2% needed upper dental prostheses (51.1% of women and 60.7% of men) and 64.7% needed lower ones (61.6% of women and 71.4% of men). Only 7.2% had visited a dentist in the past year (8.8% of women and 3.6% of men). After fitting several multivariate adjusted robust Poisson regression models, poor OHRQoL was found to be associated to self-reporting problems with teeth or gums, self-reporting poor opinion about teeth/gums/denture and also associated to functional edentulism, needing upper denture, but not to socio-demographic factors or time since last dental visit. Conclusions: The study population has poor objective oral health. A high percentage has poor OHRQoL associated to subjective and objective oral health conditions. Dental care is required and these services should be included in the Spanish National Health System. Key words:Oral health, homes for the aged, elderly, self-assessment, quality of life, geriatric oral health assessment index

  11. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or adults. Threatening the child with violence or abandonment. Constantly criticizing or blaming the child for problems. ... alone for a long time. This is called abandonment. These are signs that a child that may ...

  12. Loss of a child - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Child death - resources; Resources - loss of a child ... The following organizations are good resources for information on the loss of a child: The Compassionate Friends -- www.compassionatefriends.org Bereaved Parents of the USA -- www.bereavedparentsusa. ...

  13. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p < 0.05). Values ≤50(th) percentile (age ≥81 years, BMI ≥26.7 kg/m(2), aerobic endurance ≤367.6 meters, and physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults.

  14. Effectiveness of a topical antifungal regimen for the treatment of oral candidiasis in older, chronically ill, institutionalized, adults.

    PubMed

    Banting, D W; Greenhorn, P A; McMinn, J G

    1995-03-01

    Because of predisposing systemic disease, the frequent administration of medication, and the use of a complete denture, oral candidiasis is a common problem among older, chronically ill, institutionalized adults. This randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antifungal denture soaking solution (48 mL nystatin liquid, 100,000 IU/mL, dissolved in 432 mL of distilled water producing 10,000 IU nystatin mL solution), used as an adjunct to a nystatin vaginal lozenge (100,000 IU/g, dissolved in the mouth three times daily for seven days) in a group of older, chronically ill, institutionalized adults. Although the clinical signs and symptoms of oral candidiasis were resolved in all subjects following therapy, the presence of invasive Candida hyphae was detected in approximately 80 per cent of tissue and/or dentures. When compared to tap water, the use of an antifungal denture soaking solution produced no detectable difference in the presence of Candida albicans hyphae over a three-month period (M-H chi-square = 0.021, p = 0.886), but it did reduce the rate of recurrence of clinical signs and symptoms. The appropriateness of this regimen for the treatment of oral candidiasis in this type of patient is challenged. PMID:7773850

  15. Contribution of self-reported health ratings to predicting frailty, institutionalization, and death over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Gutman, G M; Stark, A; Donald, A; Beattie, B L

    2001-01-01

    Cross-sectional data from Phase 1 of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging was used to examine the relationship between two self-report health measures: "How would you say your health is these days?"(HEALTH) and "How much do your health troubles stand in the way of your doing the things you want to do?"(TROUBLE). The contribution of these measures to predictive models for institutionalization and mortality is examined, using linked data from Phases 1 and 2. Their relationship to a proposed frailty measure is also examined. At CSHA-1, a majority of respondents perceived that they were in good health and did not feel that their health problems interfered with their preferred activities. At all frailty levels, a majority of both males and females rated their health as "very good" or "pretty good." As frailty increased, health problems increasingly interfered with normal activities. Logistic regression of the longitudinal data indicated that, despite their correlation, HEALTH and TROUBLE cannot act as proxies for each other. They appear to predict independently; adding one to the other significantly improved prediction of institutionalization and mortality. PMID:11892970

  16. Selenium and vitamin E status of healthy and institutionalized elderly subjects: analysis of plasma, erythrocytes and platelets.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D; Bunker, V W; Thomas, A J; Clayton, B E

    1989-07-01

    Levels of selenium in whole blood, plasma, erythrocytes and platelets, glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9; GSH-Px) activity in erythrocytes and platelets and vitamin E, low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and vitamin E: LDL cholesterol in plasma were measured in seventy-five healthy subjects aged less than 65 years and twenty-eight healthy and twenty-three institutionalized elderly people aged greater than 65 years. Healthy elderly subjects had significantly lower levels of Se in whole blood and plasma when compared with younger subjects. Other measurements of Se status were not significantly different. In the healthy subjects plasma levels of vitamin E and LDL-cholesterol increased with age to 60 years and decreased above 80 years. Vitamin E: LDL cholesterol values were not affected by age. Measurements of Se and vitamin E status in the institutionalized elderly compared with the healthy elderly were all reduced with the exception of platelet Se levels and erythrocyte GSH-Px activity. Ageing per se had minimal effect on Se and vitamin E status but intercurrent illness and decreased food intake can lead to reduced levels in the elderly.

  17. Height and personality characteristics of 47, XYY males in a sample of tall non-institutionalized males.

    PubMed

    Dorus, E; Dorus, W; Telfer, M A; Litwin, S; Richardson, C E

    1976-12-01

    A sample of 471 enlisted men 183 cm or taller serving in the US Navy, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps was screened for Y-chromosome aneuploidy by use of quinacrine fluorescence of peripheral blood smears. Two 47,XYY males were detected, resulting in a prevalence of 00425 or approximately 1 in 236. The prevalence of 47,XYY males (00331) in a number of samples of tall, non-institutionalized males is significantly higher than the incidence in newborn males (00061), indicating that 47,XYY males are disproportionately represented in tall male populations. The 47,XYY males had significantly higher scores than 46,XY males on the Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia+1K, and Prejudice scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and significantly lower scores on the Dominance scale. Since the probability that a randomly selected pair of subjects in the sample had four or more scale scores significantly different from the remainder of the group was greater than 05, it is possible that the differences between the 47,XYY and 46,XY males occurred by chance. On the other hand, one or more of these scales may measure personality dimensions on which non-institutionalized 47,XYY males may, in fact, differ from 46,XY males.

  18. Child Wellness and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  19. Building the Biocentric Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, David

    2002-01-01

    Advocates an environmentally congruent conception of child development and includes Montessori theory as part of a biocentric view where child development connects to the laws of nature. Explains orientations to the world informing development of a biocentric vision of childhood: mastery, immersion, and engagement. Discusses how mastery and…

  20. Child Care in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Describes the experiences of American educators on a tour of "kindergarten" (preschool) programs in China, and highlights the major characteristics of child care and preschool in that country. Addresses funding, staff training, enrollment, child-staff ratios, health and immunization, parent involvement, politicization, materials and equipment, and…

  1. Child Care '92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anne; Gage, Diane

    1992-01-01

    This special issue on child care presents articles on children's health, day care, grandparents, father-child relationships, pregnancy after age 40, children's dental care, children's moral development, parties for children, children's fighting, fashions in children's clothes, sibling relationships, and health care programs for children. (BC)

  2. Defining Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovannoni, Jeanne M.; Becerra, Rosina M.

    In seeking to clarify the meaning of the terms "child abuse" and "child neglect" it has been assumed that, like other forms of social deviance, they are socially defined phenomena. Interviews were conducted with those professionals (lawyers, pediatricians, police officers, and social workers) who daily handle the problems of abuse and neglect for…

  3. [Child Abuse: 1979 Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Welfare, Harrisburg.

    As mandated by Pennsylvania's Child Protective Services Law (Act 124), the document presents the Department of Public Welfare's 1979 report on child abuse. Following an introductory section is a brief section on the nature and scope of the problem. Section III outlines the past year's activities of the Department of Public Welfare's Office of…

  4. The Child Welfare Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  5. Child Care Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the child care aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with child care center personnel, the course was prepared by teacher and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested, and…

  6. Tutoring Your Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Joanne

    The parents' role as teacher is important to a child's learning process. Parents tutoring their children are advised to remain positive and patient, be aware of the child's feelings, keep the tutoring time short, select a quiet place away from distractions, use games and manipulative objects rather than more abstract experiences, etc. Informal…

  7. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  8. Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    A series of four documents address the definition and identification of child abuse and neglect. In the first, which is designed for professionals, a historical review is followed by discussion of clinical and social evidence of abuse. Resources for managing child abuse are described, and personnel functions are outlined. The second document,…

  9. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  10. Child Development through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Elliott D., Ed.; And Others

    This volume is an attempt to provide literature that will enhance through vicarious experience and emotional involvement the adult's understanding of the principles of child development. The selections are organized into categories and cross-indexed with most of the standard texts in child development and psychology. It is divided into ten major…

  11. Headstart for Every Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Annie L.

    An early learning kit provides a booklet of ten articles on educational head starts for children along with an activity packet for classroom use. The articles deal with: the crucial early school years; emotional preparation of the child; broadening a child's background; selecting toys and games; reading readiness; mathematical skills; learning to…

  12. The Normalized Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Kathleen H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the normalized child, the ultimate goal of Montessori education. First outlines children's basic needs, then describes traits of the normalized child, including love of order, work, silence and working alone; mutual aid and cooperation; profound spontaneous concentration; obedience; independence and initiative;…

  13. Divorce Child Custody Disputes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlgate, Laurence D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines ethical issues in making policy decisions regarding divorce child custody disputes. Suggests dilemma occurs when legislator must decide between discretionary standard promoting best interest of child and nondiscretionary arbitrary assignment of custody. Advocates normative analysis of various types of dispute-settling processes and…

  14. Your Child's Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations Print A A A Text Size What's in ... But in both cases, the protection is temporary. Immunization (vaccination) is a way of creating immunity to ...

  15. Child Development Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, J. Lynne; Garfield, Nancy

    The Education for Parenthood Child Development Guide is designed to encourage Girl Scouts to choose various activities relating to: observing and working with children; drawing conclusions based on their own experiences and evidence; choosing their own activities and projects; collecting their own evidence on child development; creating projects…

  16. The Only Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marcia Ellen McGuire

    This review of the literature on the "only child" indicates that the single child is likely to be oriented more toward adults than towards peers, to be subjected more to an adult culture, to be an achiever who strikes out on his own, and to have a heightened sense of responsibility compared with children who have siblings. Statistics show only…

  17. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  18. Child Safety Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

    This document presents a set of child safety curriculum guidelines intended to help prevent child victimization and to promote safer living and learning environments for children and adolescents across America. These guidelines were developed to help educators, law enforcement personnel, and members of other youth-serving agencies teach children…

  19. The Chicano Migrant Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfaro, Manuel R., Jr.; Hawkins, Homer C.

    The paper deals with the culture and background of the Chicano migrant child and with his frustrations and conflicts in encountering the Anglo culture as represented by the school. It is pointed out that the Chicano migrant child, whose home base is in the Rio Grande Valley, lives in either a barrio or, in summer, a migrant camp and has little…

  20. [Child neurology and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, K

    2000-05-01

    The history of child neurology and the changing pattern of research methods in this field are reviewed with special reference to holoprosencephaly and recent technical advances in sleep research. This is followed by a discussion on the relationship between child neurology and rehabilitation. The majority of child neurologic disorders are developmental disabilities, but acquired child neurological diseases also show chronic progressive course in many cases. Therefore, child neurologist should understand the basis of rehabilitation approach and appreciate the three classes of disabilities; subsequently, a plan needs to be incorporating medical treatment and a program of rehabilitation for the disabled children. It is important that the role of the various rehabilitation specialists (rehabilitation doctor, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, and others) are understood in relation to the work of pediatric neurologist. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on the rehabilitation approach of patients with hypoxic encephalopathy and the information of welfare equipment.

  1. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  2. CHILD-to-Child Trial Program. Ajoya, Sinaloa, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, David

    1983-01-01

    The CHILD-to-Child program is based on the recognition that older siblings often influence their younger family members. Activities of the CHILD-to-Child Program in Ajoya, Sinaloa, Mexico, relating to teaching about diarrhea and breast-feeding, are described. (CJ)

  3. Child Outcome Measures in the Study of Child Care Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha; Halle, Tamara; Martin, Laurie; Cabrera, Natasha; Calkins, Julia; Pitzer, Lindsay; Margie, Nancy Geyelin

    2006-01-01

    This article assesses whether there are methodological problems with child outcome measures that may contribute to the small associations between child care quality and child outcomes found in the literature. Outcome measures used in 65 studies of child care quality published between 1979 and December 2005 were examined, taking the previous review…

  4. [The child and society].

    PubMed

    Diagne, A

    1990-04-01

    This article describes how important it is in traditional Africa to integrate a child to his group and environment from the time of infancy and throughout adulthood. Unfortunately today, African children are exposed to materialistic and psychological conditions that negatively affect their psychological and sociological development. This process of socialization begins during breastfeeding; the stage involves the child among his extended family and community; between 6-7 a child is separated and integrated into gender-specific and socio-cultural institutions. An African child learns at an early age the importance of remaining a close part of traditional life and must remain responsive to the needs of the collective. The traditional child differs from the modern African child in how much deviant behavior he is allowed. The process of modernization and urbanization is changing the development of the traditional African family; the needs to the collective are diminishing to that of the nuclear family. Schools' are only educating the intellect of students and leaving the psychosocial aspects of education to the family. In modern Africa where urban parents work and do not have the time to devote to their children, and there is no longer an extended family and community to socialize the child, children are growing up without the security of a community and culture and are, instead, learning to emulate marginal and materialistic values. Recommendations include redefining the roles of mothers and fathers to become sensitive to the needs of children and adolescents during their years of development.

  5. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology.

  6. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology. PMID:26439062

  7. The Institutionalization of NSF-ADVANCE at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, K.

    2011-12-01

    proportion of women on the entire scientific staff, senior and junior (excluding postdoctoral scholars) has risen from 19% in 2005 to 27% in 2011. With the revised search processes, diversity in the applicant pool (defined as the number of women and/or racial minorities as a percent of the total number of applicants) increased dramatically, with 8 out of 10 searches over the period 2009-2010 showing a diversity of at least 70% in the applicant pool compared to an average diversity of less than 50% over the period 2007-2009. Of the new scientific hires in 2009-2010 almost half were either female or a racial minority. Postdoctoral scholars at LDEO have seen the greatest increase in racial diversity, from approximately 91% white in 2005 to 67% white in 2011. This group also has the most gender diversity at LDEO - approximately 47% female in 2011 up from 41% in 2005. Overall, the LDEO experience of institutionalizing ADVANCE has the potential to serve as a model for other scientific research institutions.

  8. How Institutionalized Are Model License Use Terms? An Analysis of E-Journal License Use Rights Clauses from 2000 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eschenfelder, Kristin R.; Tsai, Tien-I; Zhu, Xiaohua; Stewart, Brenton

    2013-01-01

    This paper explored the degree to which use terms proposed by model licenses have become institutionalized across different publishers' licenses. It examined model license use terms in four areas: downloading, scholarly sharing, interlibrary loan, and electronic reserves. Data collection and analysis involved content analysis of 224 electronic…

  9. Living arrangement concordance and its association with self-rated health among institutionalized and community-residing older adults in China.

    PubMed

    Sereny, Melanie D; Gu, Danan

    2011-09-01

    Although many studies look at the relationship between living arrangement and health among older adults, very little research takes seniors' preferred living arrangements into account. This paper uses data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) to examine what factors are associated with concordance between actual and preferred living arrangements for both institutionalized and community-residing Chinese seniors, and to investigate associations between living arrangement concordance and self-rated health. Our analyses show that economic independence is negatively associated with living arrangement concordance among institutionalized older adults (net of other factors), while being older, female, minority ethnicity, having higher SES, and being unmarried are positively associated with living arrangement concordance among community-residing seniors. For both institutionalized and community-residing older adults, living arrangement concordance increases the likelihood of rating self-rated health as good, with concordance having a greater impact on health for institutionalized elders (odds-ratios of 1.67-1.93) than for community-residing elders (odds-ratios of 1.12).

  10. High School E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, Part B, Institutionalized Facilities Program 1989-90. State Report. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    This report describes and evaluates high school programs funded under Chapter 1, Part B, of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA) and administered by the Institutionalized Facilities Program of the New York City Public Schools in 1989-90. The program is designed to address the educational needs of students in facilities for…

  11. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders.

  12. Preventive Home Visits for Mortality, Morbidity, and Institutionalization in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Grant, Sean; Burton, Jennifer; Parsons, Amanda; Underhill, Kristen; Montgomery, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Home visits for older adults aim to prevent cognitive and functional impairment, thus reducing institutionalization and mortality. Visitors may provide information, investigate untreated problems, encourage medication compliance, and provide referrals to services. Methods and Findings Data Sources: Ten databases including CENTRAL and Medline searched through December 2012. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials enrolling community-dwelling persons without dementia aged over 65 years. Interventions included visits at home by a health or social care professional that were not related to hospital discharge. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two authors independently extracted data. Outcomes were pooled using random effects. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality, institutionalization, hospitalization, falls, injuries, physical functioning, cognitive functioning, quality of life, and psychiatric illness. Results Sixty-four studies with 28642 participants were included. Home visits were not associated with absolute reductions in mortality at longest follow-up, but some programs may have small relative effects (relative risk = 0.93 [0.87 to 0.99]; absolute risk = 0.00 [−0.01 to 0.00]). There was moderate quality evidence of no overall effect on the number of people institutionalized (RR = 1.02 [0.88 to 1.18]) or hospitalized (RR = 0.96 [0.91 to 1.01]). There was high quality evidence for number of people who fell, which is consistent with no effect or a small effect (odds ratio = 0.86 [0.73 to 1.01]), but there was no evidence that these interventions increased independent living. There was low and very low quality evidence of effects for quality of life (standardised mean difference = −0.06 [−0.11 to −0.01]) and physical functioning (SMD = −0.10 [−0.17 to −0.03]) respectively, but these may not be clinically important. Conclusions Home visiting is not consistently associated with differences in mortality or

  13. Training model to institutionalize population education in the in-service education programme for elementary school teachers.

    PubMed

    Dugenia, M E

    1982-12-01

    The goal of the Philippine Population Education Program (PEP) since its inception in 1972 is to institutionalize population education in the formal educational system. The PEP Training Section views institutionalization of population education in the inservice education program for elementary school teachers as part of the process of making it an integral part of that program. In practice elementary school teachers periodically attend training programs organized by division or district supervisors and school principals. This is the usual modality through which teachers are updated on or informed about new thrusts and recent developments in teaching content, strategies, and methodologies. In this context, the PEP Training Section convened a seminar workshop in December 1981 for 10 subject area supervisors from the 3 large geographic island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. They represented 10 school divisions and subject areas where population education is integrated. The specific objectives of the 5 day activity were to: discuss existing inservice training programs in the school divisions; prepare a training model incorporating population education in the overall division inservice training program; and develop a content chart or a listing of topical areas on population education for the training model. 1 of the outputs of the seminar workshop was a training model incorporating population education in the regular inservice training programs using 3 delivery schemes, i.e., seminar workship on the teaching of specific subject areas; district staff meeting and/or echo seminars organized by district supervisors following division seminars; and regular teachers' meeting at the school level organized by school principals. Another output was a content chart listing suggested topics in population education classified according to subject areas into which they will be incorporated. The semninar workshop concluded with a plan to try out the model using the identified

  14. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming. Images p452-a PMID:2507011

  15. A Psychodynamic Child Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    Research showing psychodynamic child therapy to be less effective than other forms of child treatment have used outcome measures focusing on symptomatic and behavioral change rather than on psychodynamic processes. A child therapy assessment procedure than measures the psychological functioning of the child in a psychodynamically meaningful way is…

  16. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  17. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fats and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Fats and ... an important part of a healthy diet. About Fat Fats are nutrients in food that the body ...

  18. Choosing Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... child is safe and happy in a childcare environment that is fun, educational, and nurturing. Here are ... the opportunity to learn and grow in this environment? If none of the caregivers or childcare centers ...

  19. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    MedlinePlus

    ... snacks. The child athlete, however, will have higher energy and fluid requirements. Kids and teens who are ... consume more food to keep up with increased energy demands. Most athletes will naturally eat the right ...

  20. Child safety seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... own lap and shoulder belts fit correctly. The lap belt should fall across your child's upper thighs. The ... seats. The vests are used with the vehicle's lap and seat belts. As with car seats, children should be sitting ...

  1. Child Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... important to recognize and treat mental illnesses in children early on. Once mental illness develops, it becomes a regular part of your child's behavior. This makes it more difficult to treat. ...

  2. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse and neglect reported to child protective services (CPS) in 2014. The youngest children are the most ... reported victims being under the age of three. CPS reports may underestimate the true occurrence of abuse ...

  3. Helping Your Overweight Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... in calories, sugar, and salt like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy refined grains (white flour, ... Buy fewer high-calorie foods like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy. Offer your child water ...

  4. Child safety (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Keep cleaning fluids, bug poisons, and other chemicals well out of a child's reach. Avoid storing toxic substances in unmarked or inappropriate containers (such as food containers). If you suspect poisoning or have questions, call 1-800-222-1222.

  5. Your Child's Growth

    MedlinePlus

    ... and eat healthy. Bicycling, hiking, in-line skating, sports, or any enjoyable activity that will motivate kids ... have concerns about dating, driving, and participating in sports. It's important to try to understand your child's ...

  6. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  7. Office of Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reauthorization Act of 2014 includes a requirement to design and develop a national website and hotline to disseminate publicly available child care consumer education information for parents. Learn more about this project > What ...

  8. Your Child's Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... should help your child breathe more easily. Try reading a book together to pass the time. A ...

  9. Child Behavior Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems are at higher risk for school failure, mental health problems, and even suicide. Classes or family therapy may help parents learn to set and enforce limits. Talk therapy and behavior therapy for your child can also help.

  10. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children about September 11th Talking to Kids about War and Terrorism Tantrums: Behavior Problems Tantrums Podcast Teen ... Video Games Back to top W Walking Safety Water and Pool Safety Welcome to Your Child: Development ...

  11. Disciplining Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Give your child one warning (unless it is aggression). If it happens again, send her to the ... are less likely to be consistent. Spanking increases aggression and anger instead of teaching responsibility. Parents may ...

  12. Holocaust child survivors and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during the war completed open-ended interviews. The data was qualitatively analyzed according to Tutty, Rothery, and Grinnell's (1996) guidelines. Three major themes were found: issues relating to the sexual abuse trauma, survivors' perceptions of the abuse, and survivors' general perspectives towards life. The identity of the offenders, Jewish or non-Jewish, determined the survivors' feelings towards themselves, the perpetrators, and about the worth of life.

  13. [Development and institutionalization of the first online certificate and Master Program of Biomedical Informatics in global health in Peru].

    PubMed

    García, Patricia J; Egoavil, Miguel S; Blas, Magaly M; Alvarado-Vásquez, Eduardo; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andrés G; Lopez, Diego M; Cárcamo, Cesar P

    2015-01-01

    Training in Biomedical Informatics is essential to meet the challenges of a globalized world. However, the development of postgraduate training and research programs in this area are scarce in Latin America. Through QUIPU: Andean Center for Training and research in Iformatics for Global Health, has developed the first Certificate and Master’s Program on Biomedical Informatics in the Andean Region. The aim of this article is to describe the experience of the program. To date, 51 students from Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela have participated; they come from health ministries, hospitals, universities, research centers, professional associations and private companies. Seventeen courses were offered with the participation of faculty from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, USA, Mexico and Peru. This program is already institutionalized at the School of Public Health and Administration from the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. PMID:26338399

  14. The use of social services by community-dwelling older persons who are at risk of institutionalization: a survey

    PubMed Central

    van Bilsen, P. M. A.; Don, A. A. M.; Groot, W.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2010-01-01

    The use of community-based social services additionally to regular home help services to support older persons at risk of institutionalization was studied. Structured interviews were held with 292 persons, who specifically pointed out that they prefer to remain independently at home. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were developed to study the association between social service use and personal, health-related and wellbeing characteristics. 195 respondents indicated that they made use of at least one social service (68%). Only three services (individual care, social-cultural activities and restaurant facilities), out of nine, were used regularly. Those who lived in a sheltered environment or were supported by informal caregivers or who visited day care had a significantly higher probability of using these services. More attention should be given to the nature and accessibility of community-based social services in order to have distinctive added value in enabling older persons to age in place. PMID:20730084

  15. A new option in the treatment of skin tears for the institutionalized resident: formulated 2-octylcyanoacrylate topical bandage.

    PubMed

    Milne, Catherine T; Corbett, Lisa Q

    2005-01-01

    Skin tears are a common phenomenon in elderly institutionalized adults (EIAs). Incidence ranges from 0.92 to 2.5 per person/year. Little supportive literature exists regarding optimal treatment with many regimens reported. A convenience sample of 20 patients with Payne-Martin Category II and III skin tears of less than 8 hours' duration were prospectively evaluated with the use of a formulated 2-octylcyanoacrylate topical bandage. Patients were followed weekly until the tear healed. Complete healing occurred with 1 application of 2-OTB in 90% (18/20) of study subjects; 5% (n = 1) reported transient mild pain (less than 15 seconds), and 90% (n = 19) reported no pain. There were no incidents of cellulitis or infection. Shower and bathing routines were not interrupted. Cost averaged less than $1 per application. Clinician time averaged 1.5 minutes per application. Clinicians reported high satisfaction because repeated dressing changes were eliminated.

  16. [Development and institutionalization of the first online certificate and Master Program of Biomedical Informatics in global health in Peru].

    PubMed

    García, Patricia J; Egoavil, Miguel S; Blas, Magaly M; Alvarado-Vásquez, Eduardo; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andrés G; Lopez, Diego M; Cárcamo, Cesar P

    2015-01-01

    Training in Biomedical Informatics is essential to meet the challenges of a globalized world. However, the development of postgraduate training and research programs in this area are scarce in Latin America. Through QUIPU: Andean Center for Training and research in Iformatics for Global Health, has developed the first Certificate and Master’s Program on Biomedical Informatics in the Andean Region. The aim of this article is to describe the experience of the program. To date, 51 students from Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela have participated; they come from health ministries, hospitals, universities, research centers, professional associations and private companies. Seventeen courses were offered with the participation of faculty from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, USA, Mexico and Peru. This program is already institutionalized at the School of Public Health and Administration from the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia.

  17. Predictors of female worker attitudes towards menstruation and the provision of help to institutionalized women with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-yann J; Pu, Cheng-yun; Lan, Chung-Fu

    2008-08-01

    No previous research has examined the importance of both individual and environmental factors for predicting caregivers' menstrual attitudes. To explore the predictors of female caregivers' attitudes towards menstruation and the help they give to women with intellectual disabilities, we conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey which was completed by 725 female workers from 12 institutions in Taiwan. The Menstrual Attitudes Questionnaire (MAQ) and a structured questionnaire were used. Logistic regression analysis revealed that individual characteristics such as age and education were significantly associated with menstrual attitudes of female caregivers working with institutionalized women with intellectual disabilities. Furthermore, the environmental context, such as the frequency of discussions with colleagues, training in menstrual management care and the level of difficulty when giving help in menstruation management, was important for improving caregivers' menstrual attitudes. This study contributes to the existing literature by determining both individual and environmental predictors of caregivers' menstrual attitudes.

  18. The effects of a three-month exercise programme on neuropsychological function in elderly institutionalized women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Molloy, D W; Richardson, L D; Crilly, R G

    1988-09-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the effect of a 3-month exercise programme on neuropsychological function in a population of very elderly institutionalized women. Baseline neuropsychological testing was performed, and following 3 months of exercise or control intervention, subjects were retested 3-7 days after the completion of the study period. Apart from the Word Fluency Test, there was no significant improvement in any of the neuropsychological test scores. This study may not have shown any significant improvement in neuropsychological function because our exercise programme was too light to improve aerobic fitness, or because neuropsychological tests were repeated 3-7 days after exercise was completed and any acute effects of exercise may have disappeared by that time.

  19. Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic need of the institutionalized elderly living in geriatric homes in mangalore: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Rekha P; Hegde, Vijaya

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. To promote oral health among the elderly, we need to know their prosthetic status and prosthetic need. Hence, a survey of prosthetic status and need of elderly inmates of old age homes in Mangalore was done. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was undertaken, and 133 subjects aged 60 years and above were examined (54.9% males and 45.1% females). Results. Eighty-eight percent of those examined were fully edentulous, and only 12% had complete dentures; none of the study subjects had partial dentures. Prosthetic status was significantly associated with gender (P = .024), while prosthetic need and gender were not significantly associated (P = .395). Conclusions. A high unmet need for prosthetic care existed among the institutionalized elderly surveyed.

  20. Blood selenium and glutathione peroxidase levels and dietary selenium of free-living and institutionalized elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Lane, H W; Warren, D C; Taylor, B J; Stool, E

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the selenium status of healthy free-living and institutionalized elderly people. For the 36 free-living elderly dietary selenium intake averaged 94 +/- 44 micrograms Se/day and a positive correlation coefficient was found between dietary selenium and dietary calories (r = 0.46; P less than 0.05), dietary protein (r = 0.60; P less than 0.01), and dietary fat (r = 0.43; P less than 0.05). Diet histories from the institutionalized subjects revealed a strong correlation coefficient between selenium and carbohydrate (r = 0.51; P less than 0.005) and selenium and calories (r = 0.44; P less than 0.05). Mean erythrocyte and plasma selenium levels for the free-living subjects were 0.20 +/- 0.06 micrograms/ml and 0.10 +/- 0.03 micrograms/ml, respectively, while mean erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was 27.5 +/- 5.0 units/g protein. For the free-living subjects positive correlation was found between dietary selenium and erythrocyte selenium levels (r = 0.38; P less than 0.05) but no correlation existed between dietary selenium and plasma selenium (r = 0.13; P greater than 0.05) and RBC GSH-Px (r = -0.15; P greater than 0.05). The dietary selenium levels and blood selenium and GSH-Px levels were above the levels found in populations proposed to be at risk for selenium deficiency. Thus, these elderly appear to have adequate selenium status.

  1. Assessing suspected child molesters.

    PubMed

    Becker, J V; Quinsey, V L

    1993-01-01

    Clinical evaluations can play a useful role in making a variety of dispositional decisions concerning child molesters provided they are done carefully, using relevant techniques, and their limitations are clearly understood. Assessment instruments and techniques that can differentiate child molesters from other persons, that are related to treatment planning, and that predict the commission of future sexual offending are the most useful. Sex offense history and phallometric assessments are useful in planning treatment and supervision programs and in assessing risk. The Psychopathy Checklist is also a strong predictor of sexual recidivism but its usefulness in treatment planning is equivocal. Measures of attitudes and beliefs that support child molestation are suitable for designing treatment programs but their prognostic significance remains to be established. More general measures of personality and psychopathology have not been established as predictors of recidivism but can be used to address collateral clinical issues.

  2. Child sex rings.

    PubMed

    Wild, N J; Wynne, J M

    1986-07-19

    Details of 11 child sex rings identified in one working class community were obtained by interviewing investigating police officers and examining health and social services records. The rings contained 14 adult male perpetrators and 175 children aged 6-15 years. Most perpetrators used child ringleaders to recruit victims; others became a "family friend" or obtained a position of authority over children. Secrecy was encouraged and bribery, threats, and peer pressure used to induce participation in sexual activities. Offences reported included fondling, masturbation, pornography, and oral, vaginal, and anal intercourse. Eleven perpetrators were successfully prosecuted; all but one received a sentence of three years or less. Behavioural problems were common among those children who had participated for a long time. Child sex rings are difficult to detect and may be common. Many children are seriously abused as a consequence of them. PMID:3730803

  3. Child maltreatment and memory.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Gail S; Quas, Jodi A; Ogle, Christin M

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to childhood trauma, especially child maltreatment, has important implications for memory of emotionally distressing experiences. These implications stem from cognitive, socio-emotional, mental health, and neurobiological consequences of maltreatment and can be at least partially explained by current theories concerning the effects of childhood trauma. In this review, two main hypotheses are advanced: (a) Maltreatment in childhood is associated with especially robust memory for emotionally distressing material in many individuals, but (b) maltreatment can impair memory for such material in individuals who defensively avoid it. Support for these hypotheses comes from research on child abuse victims' memory and suggestibility regarding distressing but nonabusive events, memory for child abuse itself, and autobiographical memory. However, more direct investigations are needed to test precisely when and how childhood trauma affects memory for emotionally significant, distressing experiences. Legal implications and future directions are discussed.

  4. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  5. Kindergarten Child Care Experiences and Child Achievement and Socioemotional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessens, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Young children's experiences outside of both home and school are important for their development. As women have entered the labor force, child care has become an increasingly important context for child development. Child care experiences prior to school entry have been well-documented as important influences on children's academic and…

  6. The Role of Child Care Providers in Child Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibel, Nancy L.; Gillespie, Linda G.; Temple, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    Child care providers are likely to be the professionals who most frequently interact with families with young children. Thus, infant and toddler child care providers are uniquely positioned to recognize and respond to families' needs for information and support. This article describes knowledge, skills, and strategies that support child care…

  7. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  8. Dateline Child Care: President Unveils Child Care Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Discusses such topics as President Bush's proposed low-income tax credits for child care; the Act for Better Child Care Services; the coming Americanization of child care in Great Britain; and state courts' upholding of church day care licensing exemptions. (BB)

  9. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  10. Death of a Special Needs Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of a Special Needs Child When a child ... Needs Child Dies The grief that follows the death of a special-needs child comes not only ...

  11. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    MedlinePlus

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... All parents and those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they ...

  12. Concussion - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... child do contact sports, such as football and soccer? When can my child go skiing or snowboarding? Does my child need to wear a helmet? How can I prevent head injuries in the future? Does my child have the ...

  13. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Quick Links Facts For Families ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  14. Does Your Child Need Eyeglasses?

    MedlinePlus

    ... limit career choices," Gable said. Look to your child's behavior for clues that he or she isn't ... work with families to help determine if a child's behavior in school or difficulty with grades might be ...

  15. Child Labor in America's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  16. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? email Send this article ... for in children under the age of two: Does your child have unusually large eyes? Is there ...

  17. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... To prevent and treat vaginal irritation, your child should: Avoid colored or perfumed toilet tissue and bubble bath. Use plain, unscented soap. Limit bath time to 15 minutes or less. Ask ...

  18. The institutionalization of biology in Mexico in the early 20th century: the conflict between Alfonso Luis Herrera (1865-1942) and Isaac Ochoterena (1885-1950).

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Mateos, Ismael; Barahona, Ana

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the role played by Alfonso Luis Herrera and Isaac Ochoterena in the institutionalization of academic biology in Mexico in the early 20th century. As biology became institutionalized in Mexico, Herrera's basic approach to biology was displaced by Isaac Ochoterena's professional goals due to the prevailing political conditions at the end of the 1929. The conflict arose from two different conceptions of biology, because Herrera and Ochoterena had different discourses that were incommensurable, not only linguistically speaking, but also socioprofessionally. They had different links to influential groups related to education, having distinct political and socioprofessional interests. The conflict between Herrera and Ochoterena determined the way in which professional biology education has developed in Mexico, as well as the advancement in specific research subjects and the neglect of others.

  19. Legal issues in child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Narang, Sandeep K; Melville, John D

    2014-10-01

    The most common medicolegal issues include reporting child maltreatment, the presentation of ethical and effective expert testimony, informed consent in child maltreatment cases, and various liability risks related to child maltreatment cases. The health care professional who remains knowledgeable about the laws within their jurisdiction, the mandates of their professional society and state medical board, and the local resources (eg, child abuse pediatrician and hospital counsel) available to them minimizes medicolegal risk. PMID:25242715

  20. Child maltreatment: every nurse's business.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline

    2015-03-18

    Every nurse has a responsibility for protecting children, even nurses who do not work directly with children. However, nurses may be reluctant to deal with child maltreatment issues because they do not want to get things wrong or make a situation worse. The aim of this article is to assist nurses in their child protection role. It describes the different types of child maltreatment, the risk factors and potential consequences. The nurse's role in recognising and responding to suspected child maltreatment is discussed.

  1. Child Care Health Connections, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Zamani, Rahman, Ed.; Evinger, Sara, Ed.; Dailey, Lyn, Ed.; Sherman, Marsha, Ed.; Oku, Cheryl, Ed.; Kunitz, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six 2002 issues of a bimonthly newsletter on children's health for California's child care professionals. The newsletter provides information on current and emerging health and safety issues relevant to child care providers and links the health, safety, and child care communities. Regular features include columns…

  2. Death of an Adult Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of an Adult Child The death of any child, regardless of cause or age, ... the situations that may have caused their child’s death. Judgmental statements from others indicating that the child ...

  3. Child Care and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Unemployment has topped 7% nationally and economists predict it will approach 10% by 2010. Child care programs experience a trickle-down effect: when businesses cut back hours or lay people off, parents cut back child care hours or pull children from programs. "We're seeing more and more families lose their child care assistance and have nowhere…

  4. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  5. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  6. Campus Child Care News, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marion F., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of the three 1998 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the National Coalition for Campus Child Care Centers (NCCCC) and providing a forum for news, research, and information concerning campus child care centers. The February issue contains stories on the White House Conference on Child Care, registration…

  7. What Works in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger, Miriam P., Ed.; Alexander, Gina, Ed.; Curtis, Patrick A., Ed.

    Noting the importance of identifying the effectiveness of child welfare programs for future policy planning, this book examines features of successful programs. The book is presented in six sections: family preservation and family support services, child protective services, out-of-home care, adoption, child care, and adolescent services. Each…

  8. The "Discovery" of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Stephen J.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys the history of social reaction to child abuse, discusses the cultural values promoting the protection of children, points out how much pediatric radiology benefited from its "discovery" of "the battered child syndrome" in the early sixties, and concludes that the labeling of child abusers as "sick" has shielded them from criminal…

  9. Morphosyntactic Annotation of CHILDES Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagae, Kenji; Davis, Eric; Lavie, Alon; MacWhinney, Brian; Wintner, Shuly

    2010-01-01

    Corpora of child language are essential for research in child language acquisition and psycholinguistics. Linguistic annotation of the corpora provides researchers with better means for exploring the development of grammatical constructions and their usage. We describe a project whose goal is to annotate the English section of the CHILDES database…

  10. Trends in Child Maltreatment Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behl, Leah E.; Conyngham, Heather A.; May, Patricia F.

    2003-01-01

    Child maltreatment articles (n=2090) published from 1977-1998 were reviewed. Across the period studied, quantitative articles and articles on child sexual abuse increased and theoretical articles and articles on physical abuse decreased. Articles examining child neglect or emotional abuse remained consistently low. Participant recruitment from…

  11. Child Care: A Level III Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    This report describes the state-mandated review of Florida's child care programs. Florida's community colleges offer a total of six different degree or certificate programs in child care: Child Development and Education; Child Care Center Management; Child Development Early Intervention; Child Care Provider (discontinued in 98-99); Early Childhood…

  12. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  13. Toward Communal Child Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Rosalind M.

    1973-01-01

    Social work's preoccupation with the preservation of the nuclear family has blinded it to the necessity of finding new ways to care for children. This myopia has impeded recognition of the forces in American life that are bringing social change and new forms of child rearing. This article describes some of these phenomena and concludes that…

  14. The Multiply Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, James M., Ed.; Anderson, Robert M., Ed.

    Articles presented in the area of the medical and educational challenge of the multiply handicapped child are an overview of the problem, the increasing challenge, congenital malformations, children whose mothers had rubella, prematurity and deafness, the epidemiology of reproductive casualty, and new education for old problems. Discussions of…

  15. The Shy Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    1987-01-01

    To further practitioners' understanding of shyness, this review of research discusses (1) origins of shyness, (2) cognition and shyness, (3) situational factors affecting shy behavior, (4) social difficulties of shy children, (5) shyness and sex differences, (6) persistence of shyness, and (7) ways for caregivers to help the shy child. (RH)

  16. Child Care Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    Based on a survey of legislation relating to full-day care for preschool children of working mothers and a study of records, this report: (1) covers the number of registered child care centers in Australia and the number of children being served, (2) sets the conditions applying to registration of centers, (3) indicates the extent and levels of…

  17. The Child Whisperer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Dane L.

    2012-01-01

    Unquestionably, Maria Montessori's insights into child development were both innate and learned, derived from her many years of working with children. Her work, practices, philosophy, and passion have staying power that, so far, spans a century and are a testament to her dedication and abilities. In this article, the author explains why he sees…

  18. The Overscheduled Child?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Before all those extracurricular activities and community-service projects listed on college applications, there were play groups, library hours, Pop Warner football games, swimming lessons, ballet, drama, soccer. Not to mention preparation for high-stakes tests mandated by the No Child Left Behind law, or the mounting minutes, even hours, of…

  19. The Young Stuttering Child

    PubMed Central

    Quarrington, Bruce

    1966-01-01

    While many workers believe that parent-child relationships are critical at the time of onset and during the development of stuttering, a review of the literature indicates there is no substantial evidence concerning the attitudes or types of behaviour that are critical. Research is needed to guide the development of more adequate means of managing the young stutterer. PMID:5928523

  20. The Migrant Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Manuel C.

    A migrant child is one who has moved with his family from one school district to another during the preceding 12 months so that a parent or other immediate family member might secure employment in agricultural or fishery activity. In California, the 92,000 migrants living in 48 of the state's 58 counties include Chicanos, Mexican Americans,…

  1. The Gifted Dyslexic Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eide, Brock; Eide, Fernette

    2009-01-01

    A major reason why dyslexia is likely to be missed or mislabeled in an intellectually gifted child is the lack of a specific, clearly recognized definition to enable diagnosis of dyslexia. It's crucial that adults working with gifted students understand that average or even above reading comprehension does not by itself guarantee that a gifted…

  2. Child Welfare Policy Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

  3. Feeding the Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary Ann Harvey, Ed.

    Presented are 35 brief papers on nutrition and handicapped children (particularly mentally retarded children) which were given at nutrition workshops at the Child Development Center of the University of Tennessee. Topics such as the following are examined: interdisciplinary approaches to nutrition services; the relationship of social work,…

  4. Project CHILD: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Presented is the final report of Project CHILD, a research effort to develop and validate screening procedures for the identification of language disabled (LD) children, three intervention models for LD children, and a competency based teacher education model. In the two phases of the first study, a battery of screening tests was evaluated with a…

  5. Child Psychopathology, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Eric J.; Barkley, Russell A.

    This text integrates state-of-the-art theory and empirical research on a wide range of child and adolescent disorders. Featuring contributions from leading scholars and clinicians, the volume provides comprehensive coverage of the biological, psychological, and social-contextual determinants of childhood problems. Each chapter focuses on a…

  6. The Hyperactive Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne

    1987-01-01

    The newsletter's main article focuses on hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder. The causes of hyperactivity, which affects 3-5 percent of all children, are elusive but may include neurological immaturity, inherent genetic problems, or fetal exposure to harmful substances. Patterns of behavior that typify a hyperactive child include a short…

  7. Child Care Update: 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Vic; And Others

    Data concerning child care in Dane County, Wisconsin, as of 1986 are provided in this report. Section I describes needs and services in terms of day care needs, the number of children enrolled in day care programs, and gaps between needs and services. Section II describes fees charged for full-day care in centers and in licensed and registered…

  8. Child Development Associate. Musicology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    One of a series of 18, this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module provides a guide to promoting acute hearing and sound discrimination in young children through both group and self-selected music activities. Upon completion of this module the trainee is expected to be able to provide daily music experiences; emphasize enjoyment of and…

  9. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  10. Treatment for Child Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, James J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.

    1974-01-01

    Staff of a child abuse program in a Philadelphia hospital worked with parents in their own homes to help them develop greater competence as adults and as parents. This article describes the use of social learning theory, with some techniques of behavior therapy, as the basis for treatment. (Author)

  11. Measuring Child Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Elinor; Post, Brechtje; Astruc, Lluisa; Prieto, Pilar; Vanrell, Maria del Mar

    2012-01-01

    Interval-based rhythm metrics were applied to the speech of English, Catalan and Spanish 2, 4 and 6 year-olds, and compared with the (adult-directed) speech of their mothers. Results reveal that child speech does not fall into a well-defined rhythmic class: for all three languages, it is more "vocalic" (higher %V) than adult speech and has a…

  12. Helping Your Overweight Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Currently, at least one child in five is overweight. Although children have fewer health problems from weight than adults, overweight children are at high risk for many health problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stroke. Several factors are cited as to why children become overweight. Genetics, lack of exercise, and…

  13. Child Welfare in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Reflecting the current state of theory and practice in child welfare in Canada, these eight papers suggest a contemporary view of Canadian children and the contexts in which they develop as defined by legal rights and society. First, Henry S. Maas argues that attention to normal social development and its contexts, and to related ongoing theory…

  14. My Child Is Stealing

    MedlinePlus

    ... behavior and address other underlying problems, like drug abuse, that may surface. continue What Should I Do? When a child has been caught stealing, a parent's reaction should depend on whether it's the first time or there's a pattern of stealing. With very ...

  15. Child-directed speech: relation to socioeconomic status, knowledge of child development and child vocabulary skill.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Meredith L

    2008-02-01

    This study sought to determine why American parents from different socioeconomic backgrounds communicate in different ways with their children. Forty-seven parent-child dyads were videotaped engaging in naturalistic interactions in the home for ninety minutes at child age 2;6. Transcripts of these interactions provided measures of child-directed speech. Children's vocabulary comprehension skills were measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 2;6 and one year later at 3;6. Results indicate that: (I) child-directed speech with toddlers aged 2;6 predicts child vocabulary skill one year later, controlling for earlier toddler vocabulary skill; (2) child-directed speech relates to socioeconomic status as measured by income and education; and (3) the relation between socioeconomic status and child-directed speech is mediated by parental knowledge of child development. Potential mechanisms through which parental knowledge influences communicative behavior are discussed.

  16. The Psychometric Properties of a Modified Sit-to-Stand Test With Use of the Upper Extremities in Institutionalized Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Le Berre, Melanie; Apap, David; Babcock, Jade; Bray, Sarah; Gareau, Esther; Chassé, Kathleen; Lévesque, Nicole; Robbins, Shawn M

    2016-08-01

    Current sit-to-stand protocols do not permit use of upper extremities, limiting the protocols' utility for institutionalized older adults with diminished physical function. The objective of this study was to modify a 30-s sit-to-stand protocol to allow for arm use and to examine test-retest reliability and convergent validity; 54 institutionalized older adult men (age = 91 ± 3 year) performed the 30-s sit-to-stand twice within a span of 3 to 7 days. Results suggest good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .84) and convergent validity with the Timed Up and Go Test (r = -.62). This modified 30-s sit-to-stand can be used to assess physical function performance in institutionalized older adults and will ensure that individuals with lower physical function capacity can complete the test, thus eliminating the floor effect demonstrated with other sit-to-stand protocols. PMID:27280453

  17. The effect of six months of elastic band resistance training, nutritional supplementation or cognitive training on chromosomal damage in institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Franzke, Bernhard; Halper, Barbara; Hofmann, Marlene; Oesen, Stefan; Pierson, Béatrice; Cremer, Ariane; Bacher, Evelyn; Fuchs, Birgit; Baierl, Andreas; Tosevska, Anela; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Wessner, Barbara; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2015-05-01

    Increased DNA and chromosomal damage are linked to aging and age-related diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or cancer. Physical activity and an optimal status of micro- and macronutrients are known to reduce the incidence of MN, a marker for chromosomal instability and mutagenicity. Once older people reach a certain age they change from a home-living situation to an institutionalized situation, which is often accompanied by malnutrition, depression and inactivity. We conducted the current study to investigate the effect of a six month progressive resistance training (RT), with or without protein and vitamin supplementation (RTS) or cognitive training (CT) only, on chromosomal damage measured by the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay in 97 Austrian institutionalized women and men (65-98years). All three intervention groups demonstrated a tendency of a reduced frequency of cells with MN (-15%) as well as for the total number of MN (-20%), however no significant time-effect was observed. Besides a significant increase in plasma B12 and red blood cell folate status, the six month change of B12 was negatively correlated with the six month change of the MN frequency in the RTS group (r=-0.584, p=0.009). Our results suggest that in this age group either physical or cognitive training may result in similar biochemical changes and therefore enhance resistance against genomic instability. Supplementation with the vitamins B12 and folic acid could contribute to reduced chromosomal damage in institutionalized elderly. PMID:25747997

  18. The Relationships between Child Temperament, Teacher-Child Relationships, and Teacher-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oren, Meral; Jones, Ithel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between child temperament, teacher-child relationships, and teacher-child interactions in four preschool classrooms. The preliminary analyses revealed classroom differences for all variables. In all the classrooms except one, the temperament factor Reactivity had positive and high…

  19. Global Threats to Child Safety.

    PubMed

    Mace, Sharon E

    2016-02-01

    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children. PMID:26613687

  20. Global Threats to Child Safety.

    PubMed

    Mace, Sharon E

    2016-02-01

    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children.

  1. Seven institutionalized children and their adaptation in late adulthood: the children of Duplessis (Les Enfants de Duplessis).

    PubMed

    Perry, J Christopher; Sigal, John J; Boucher, Sophie; Paré, Nikolas

    2006-01-01

    War, societal and familial upheaval, disease, and natural disasters have resulted in orphaned children throughout time. One societal response to providing care for orphans has been institutionalization or the orphanage. We studied a sample of adults, known as les enfants de Duplessis or Duplessis's children, who were raised in Quebec institutions from birth onward and followed up in late adulthood. Systematic study indicated a high prevalence of adverse outcomes and found high levels of gross psychological trauma and adversity which, moderated by the childhood strengths of the individuals, had adverse effects on adult outcome (Sigal, Perry, Rossignol, & Ouimet, 2003; Perry, Sigal, Boucher, Paré, & Ouimet, 2005a; Perry, Sigal, Boucher, Paré, Ouimet, Norman, & Henry, 2005b). This report describes the experiences of seven individuals in the institutions and their subsequent life history and current functioning. The individual cases reflect a wide range of childhood strengths and experiences of trauma and other adversity in relationship to adult caretakers. While the group overall appears to have had seriously diminished functioning in late adulthood, several individuals had positive outcomes. We hope that by highlighting the potentially adverse effects of institutional rearing on subsequent development into late adulthood, these stories may inform those concerned with the care of orphans. PMID:17326727

  2. Seven institutionalized children and their adaptation in late adulthood: the children of Duplessis (Les Enfants de Duplessis).

    PubMed

    Perry, J Christopher; Sigal, John J; Boucher, Sophie; Paré, Nikolas

    2006-01-01

    War, societal and familial upheaval, disease, and natural disasters have resulted in orphaned children throughout time. One societal response to providing care for orphans has been institutionalization or the orphanage. We studied a sample of adults, known as les enfants de Duplessis or Duplessis's children, who were raised in Quebec institutions from birth onward and followed up in late adulthood. Systematic study indicated a high prevalence of adverse outcomes and found high levels of gross psychological trauma and adversity which, moderated by the childhood strengths of the individuals, had adverse effects on adult outcome (Sigal, Perry, Rossignol, & Ouimet, 2003; Perry, Sigal, Boucher, Paré, & Ouimet, 2005a; Perry, Sigal, Boucher, Paré, Ouimet, Norman, & Henry, 2005b). This report describes the experiences of seven individuals in the institutions and their subsequent life history and current functioning. The individual cases reflect a wide range of childhood strengths and experiences of trauma and other adversity in relationship to adult caretakers. While the group overall appears to have had seriously diminished functioning in late adulthood, several individuals had positive outcomes. We hope that by highlighting the potentially adverse effects of institutional rearing on subsequent development into late adulthood, these stories may inform those concerned with the care of orphans.

  3. Muscle power training in the institutionalized frail: a new approach to counteracting functional declines and very late-life disability.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Mikel; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa

    2014-07-01

    Skeletal muscle power decreases earlier than muscle strength with advancing age and is more strongly associated with functional test performance than muscle strength in elderly populations. In addition, some studies have shown that resistance training designed to improve muscle power output (high speed of movement) enhances several functional outcomes in the healthy elderly. Therefore, muscle power has emerged as a factor that is also potentially associated with functional limitations in frail elderly adults. The purpose of this review was to provide recent evidence regarding the association between skeletal muscle power and functional capacity in physically frail individuals. Scielo, Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, Scopus, Sport Discus and ScienceDirect databases were searched from 1990 to 2014. Recently, it has been shown that functional capacity among frail elderly adults could be improved by performing resistance training at a high speed of movement with a loading stimulus that optimizes muscle power output. Routine multicomponent interventions that include muscle power training should be prescribed to institutionalized oldest old because such interventions improve the overall physical status of frail elderly individuals and prevent disability and other adverse outcomes. This result is especially important in frail subjects, who urgently need to improve their functional capacities to prevent adverse outcomes such as falls, hospitalizations, disability, or even death.

  4. Trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FRAXE locus is not common among institutionalized individuals with non-specific developmental disabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, J.J.A.; Julien-Inalsingh, C.; Fidler, K.

    1996-08-09

    Expansion of a polymorphic GCC-repeat at the FRAXE locus has been associated with expression of chromosome fragility at this site and cognitive impairment in some individuals previously testing negative for CGG-repeat expansion in the fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) gene. To determine the frequency of FRAXE triplet repeat expansion among persons with developmental disability, 396 individuals from two institutions were studied, all of whom were negative for FMR1 repeat expansion. Clinically, there was a wide range of mental impairment, with the majority (61.1%) being severely to profoundly affected. The distribution of FRAXE GCC-repeat numbers in the study population was 5-38:28 (5.6%) with 10-14 repeats; 366 (73.8%) with 15-19 repeats; 74 (14.9%) with 20-24 repeats; 20 (4.0%) with 25-29 repeats; and 5 (1.0%) with 30-38 repeats, with no individuals demonstrating repeat expansion. One profoundly retarded male was found to have a deletion of about 40 bp. Southern blots of HindIII-digested DNAs from individuals with {ge}26 repeats all showed normal patterns. These results suggest that FRAXE GCC-repeat expansion is not a common cause of developmental disability in institutionalized persons with mild to profound mental retardation. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Differences in social skills performance between institutionalized juvenile male offenders and a comparable group of boys without offence records.

    PubMed

    Spence, S H

    1981-09-01

    Eighteen institutionalized young male offenders and 18 boys without criminal records, comparable in terms of age, academic performance and social background, were videotaped during a five-minute standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. The videotapes were then subjected to a behavioural analysis of 13 responses which had previously been suggested to be important social skill components. The tapes were also shown to six independent judges who rated each tape in terms of social skills performance, social anxiety, friendliness, and employability. The offender group was found to differ significantly from the non-offender group in terms of the level of eye-contact, head movements, amount spoken, fiddling movements, and gross body movements. The offender group was also rated in significantly less favourably terms on the scales of social skills performance, social anxiety, and employability, compared to the non-offender groups. No significant difference was found in terms of friendliness ratings. Correlation analyses between the specific behavioural measures and the subjective rating scales revealed statistically significant associations between six of the 13 behavioural measures and one or more of the subjective rating scales. The provides some indication of the type of responses important in determining the impression made by adolescent male in an interview situation.

  6. [De-institutionalization of mental health and care practices in the context of home-based care].

    PubMed

    Amorim, Ana Karenina de Melo Arraes; Dimenstein, Magda

    2009-01-01

    In Brazil, the home-based care services (HCS) are considered strategic and essential in the de-institutionalization process of patients who passed years in psychiatric hospitals and lost their family and social links. However, this service faces a series of problems and challenges in the wider context of health care. This article seeks to analyze some of these problems and challenges based on the experience of the home-based care service in Natal RN and on the literature in this field. Proposed on the basis of the idea that the encounters between insanity and city are potent destructors of the ' asylum logic' , these home-based care services put in question the current healthcare model, claiming to destruct the rigid and hegemonic forms of residence and care. The aim of this article is to discuss this ' asylum logic' that surpasses the limits of the concrete insane asylum penetrating some daily practices of the substitute services, taking advantage of the weak articulation between the mental health services. The lack of a strong connection between the home-based care service and the psychosocial care center allows this logic to operate through day-by-day bio-political devices. Thus, we discuss the risks of this logic taking over and indicate some possibilities of avoiding this, defending a care model allowing for potent meetings with the city and for the construction of ' affectionate networks' producing life and liberty.

  7. Managing the unwell child

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Managing the unwell child can be a frightening experience for everyone involved. As GPs become more involved in delivery of care in Urgent Care Centres and Emergency Units, it is more likely that they will come across a child who is sicker than those attending the surgery. This article will help the GP and the rest of the team to be prepared for this situation – to identify the unwell infant or toddler, to know general management principles and some specific treatment pathways for common emergencies and to take steps to try and prevent children becoming critically ill wherever possible. Local management pathways may vary so please refer to your local guidelines. Advice from national bodies such as the UK Resuscitation Council, the Advanced Life Support Group and the British National Formulary for Children has been included. Please revisit these resources for updated material. PMID:25949613

  8. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education-a key indicator of both economic and social resources-than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don't have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation's effects are tied to a child's age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family and the age of the

  9. [Child sexual exploitation].

    PubMed

    Cabello, María F; Castaldi, Paula D; Cataldo, Andrea M

    2009-01-01

    Child Sexual Exploitation is a complex phenomenon in our country and the world; it dates back to an ancient past but it has a very recent conceptualization and specific approach. This article proposes a tour through this process as well as some inputs for its categorization, the attention to the affected subjects by the very design of public policies taken from a concrete institutional experience. PMID:19812796

  10. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  11. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological. PMID

  12. The relation between child death and child maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Jenny, C; Isaac, R

    2006-01-01

    The death of a child is a sentinel event in a community, and a defining marker of a society's policies of safety and health. Child death as a result of abuse and neglect is a tragic outcome that occurs in all nations of the world. The true incidence of fatal child abuse and neglect is unknown. The most accurate incidence data of such deaths have been obtained from countries where multi‐agency death review teams analyse the causes of child fatalities, as is done in the United States and Australia. PMID:16492892

  13. Struggle for the Soul: John Lawrence Childs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallones, Jared

    2010-01-01

    John Lawrence Childs was born in Eau Claire, Wisconsin on January 11, 1889, the second child of John Nelson Childs and Helen Janette (Nettie) Smith. In childhood Childs absorbed the values of industry, democracy, and a traditional, but socially conscious, religion. Childs was a Methodist and an intensely private person not given to talking about…

  14. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I ...

  15. Child Care in 1976: Goals and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provence, Sally

    Goals for future child care services are discussed in this address. It is stressed that social service agencies should consider the family as a unit in providing flexible child care services. Other goals include: (1) tailoring child care programs to parent development as well as child development, (2) insuring that child care workers are motivated…

  16. Defining Quality Child Care: Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrist, Amanda W.; Thompson, Stacy D.; Norris, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple perspectives regarding the definition of quality child care, and how child care quality can be improved, were examined using a focus group methodology. Participants were representatives from stakeholder groups in the child care profession, including child care center owners and directors (3 groups), parents (3 groups), child caregivers (3…

  17. State Plan for Child Day Care [Virginia].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravett, Marty; And Others

    Virginia's first state plan for child day care begins with 14 sections covering several aspects of child care. Section I reviews child care history and trends. Sections II, III, IV, and V argue, respectively, that child day care is important to government, business, families, and children. Elements of a comprehensive child day care delivery system…

  18. Additional Material Related to Child Care Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    Material relating to Child Care Legislation is provided. The material concerns the following: (1) Provisions of H.R. 1 relating to child care: Opportunities for families program; Family assistance plan; (2) Excerpts from House report on H.R. 1 relating to child care: Provision of child care by Department of Labor; Exclusion of child care expenses…

  19. The Child Care Problem: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.

    Addressed to both social scientists and to nonacademic readers, this book provides an overview of the United States child care market, analyzes the main aspects of child care and child care policy, and proposes a new child care policy. The main thesis of the book is that the child care market functions much better than is commonly believed.…

  20. Child neglect: assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Neglect is often a neglected form of child maltreatment even though it is the most common and deadliest form of child maltreatment. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter neglected children in their practice. It is crucial that PNPs recognize child neglect in a timely manner and intervene appropriately. This continuing education article will help PNPs understand and respond to child neglect. Neglect will be defined and risk factors will be discussed. Children who are neglected can experience serious and lifelong consequences. The medical assessment and plan of care for children with concerns of suspected neglect will be discussed.

  1. Medical ethics and child psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Black, D; Subotsky, F

    1982-03-01

    Two child psychiatrists discuss some ethical issues in child psychiatric practice in relation to the guidelines in the British Medical Association's Handbook of Medical Ethics. Many of their concerns about confidentiality, consent, and the role of the psychiatrist as the child's advocate are seen as arising from the undefined working relationships between the child psychiatrist and nonmedical professionals responsible to agencies outside the health service. At issue is whether the psychiatrist's primary responsibility to patients and their general practitioners is tenable in a nonmedical setting.

  2. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States—so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children’s wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education—a key indicator of both economic and social resources—than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don’t have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation’s effects are tied to a child’s age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family

  3. Curbing child marriages.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S I

    Demographers are interested in marriage age because women who marry early are exposed to conceptions through the most fecund years of their lives. Women who marry young are exposed comparatively to a longer duration and tend to shorten the intergenerational years, consequently influencing the fertility to be higher. In India, despite the law, child marriages occur in many states, more prevalent among the backward conservative communities. According to India's Child Marriage Restraint Act, a woman must be 18 to marry (a man 21), but in fact in 1981 the marriage age of females was 15. This young marriage age is substantiated by available survey and report data. For example, in a mass marriage solemnized at Wardha village in Vidisha district in 1981, there was not 1 of the 110 couples of the prescribed marriage age. 55 of the brides were below age 10 and 48 were between 10-12 years. Only 8 brides were older than 14 years. A survey conducted by the Population Research Center, Lucknow University, revealed that more than half of the females surveyed were married before age 15. The census data for 1981 provide the following information: 1.19 million or 2.63% of the total 45.18 million boys aged 10-14 years and 2.67 million or 6.59% of the total 40.49 million girls were married. Christians had the highest mean age at marriage followed by Sikhs and Jains, but all religious groups had shown an improvement in their age at marriage. Several factors are responsible for child marriage. Consequently, a multidimensional approach to dealing with the problem is needed. The way to bring about this change is through creating more job and educational opportunities for women.

  4. Child health in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I

    2009-11-01

    Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children. PMID:19586926

  5. Planning for Child Development: Manual. Appalachian Child Care Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Franklin, Jr.

    This group facilitator manual which forms the basis of a package of materials (including a handbook and media presentation) is designed for use with child care councils, policy advisory committees, and child advocacy groups which want to become more effective in developing programs for children. The manual is divided into two major sections. The…

  6. Musings: Does Criticizing Your Child's Teacher Disempower Your Child?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Miraca U. M.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the negative effects of criticizing a child's teacher in front of the child and the positive effects of modeling a healthy respect of the educational system. Study findings are discussed which indicate high-achieving children saw themselves as active partners with their teachers or coaches, not empty vessels. (Contains 6…

  7. The Child's Job: Talking to Parents about Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Child development is complicated. Good caring practices, environments, activities, and the expectations of children and teachers are designed to promote and foster each child's development. All children have a job. Their job is to live their lives, learn about the world, and develop into the very best people that they can be. All they need is…

  8. Child Support, Child Care and Head Start Collaboration: Innovations & Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Bureau, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This monograph highlights and compares approaches of six demonstration grant projects designed to promote collaboration between state Child Support Enforcement, Child Care, and Head Start programs. These demonstration grant projects were awarded to Alaska, Connecticut, Illinois, Maryland, Minnesota, and Missouri. These three-year projects were…

  9. Children, Child Abuse and Child Protection: Placing Children Centrally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This book provides an overview of the political, moral, and social context within which British child welfare practitioners and managers attempt to work with children, families, and others. The book reviews the development of improved policy and practices in child protection. Placing children at the center of policy, practice, and discourse, it…

  10. Child-to-Child Evangelism Hits on Parents' Religious Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Rob

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the "child-to-child evangelism" technique designed by evangelist Franklin Graham to convert America's children to his brand of Christianity. Starting in local public schools, Graham put out this plan whereby children could study evangelism techniques over the Internet and then march into their schools to…

  11. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  12. Can Doll therapy preserve or promote attachment in people with cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems? A pilot study in institutionalized patients with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pezzati, Rita; Molteni, Valentina; Bani, Marco; Settanta, Carmen; Di Maggio, Maria Grazia; Villa, Ivan; Poletti, Barbara; Ardito, Rita B.

    2014-01-01

    Doll therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention aimed at reducing behavioral and psychological disorders in institutionalized patients with dementia. This therapy as a care tool has been integrated into the context of long-term care institutions, in which the need to find solutions to cognitive, behavioral and emotional problems showed by people with dementia meets the primary objective of developing good care practices focusing on patients and their needs. In the present work we adopt the Bowlby’s theory of attachment to investigate the effectiveness of Doll therapy. The hypothesis that we here propose is that the emotional experience of the person with dementia during Doll therapy activates caregiving and exploration systems together with the attachment one. To test this hypothesis we compared institutionalized patients with dementia undergoing Doll therapy with a control group and assessed measures of the relational dimension with the environment, such as gaze direction, behaviors of exploration, and behaviors of caregiving. We used an experimental protocol consisting of 10 non-consecutive sessions structured with the goal of recreating a situation of (1) separation from a known figure and (2) interaction with the environment in order to partially recreate the prototypical phases of the “Strange situation.” All sessions were videotaped and analyzed through an observational grid. Results support the effectiveness of Doll therapy in promoting and maintaining the affective-relational dimension of attachment-caregiving and the attentive dimension of exploration in patients with advanced stage of dementia. Thus, our results suggest that the use of Doll therapy promotes clinically significant improvements in the ability to relate with the surrounding world. This may be important for managing and caring for patients with dementia in institutionalized context. PMID:24795682

  13. Are community-living and institutionalized dementia patients cared for differently? Evidence on service utilization and costs of care from German insurance claims data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dementia patients are often cared for in institutional arrangements, which are associated with substantial spending on professional long-term care services. Nevertheless, there is little evidence on the exact cost differences between community-based and institutional dementia care, especially when it comes to the distinct health care services. Adopting the perspective of the German social security system, which combines Statutory Health Insurance and Compulsory Long-Term Care Insurance (payer perspective), our study aimed to compare community-living and institutionalized dementia patients regarding their health care service utilization profiles and to contrast the respective expenditures. Methods We analysed 2006 claims data for 2,934 institutionalized and 5,484 community-living individuals stratified by so-called care levels, which reflect different needs for support in activities of daily living. Concordant general linear models adjusting for clinical and demographic differences were run for each stratum separately to estimate mean per capita utilization and expenditures in both settings. Subsequently, spending for the community-living and the institutionalized population as a whole was compared within an extended overall model. Results Regarding both settings, health and long-term care expenditures rose the higher the care level. Thus, long-term care spending was always increased in nursing homes, but health care spending was comparable. However, the underlying service utilization profiles differed, with nursing home residents receiving more frequent visits from medical specialists but fewer in-hospital services and anti-dementia drug prescriptions. Altogether, institutional care required additional yearly per capita expenses of ca. €200 on health and ca. €11,200 on long-term care. Conclusion Community-based dementia care is cost saving from the payer perspective due to substantially lower long-term care expenditures. Health care spending is

  14. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices wou...

  15. Take Care of Your Child's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Baby teeth hold space for adult teeth. Take care of your child’s teeth to protect your child from tooth decay (cavities). Tooth decay can: Cause your child pain Make it hard for your child to chew ...

  16. Will the Child be Normal? Ask Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reports that a mother's perception of her newborn infant frequently predicts how well the child will adjust in later childhood. The more positive the mother perceives the child, the more emotionally healthy the child will later become. (SL)

  17. Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... supposed to take everyday If my child has asthma, diabetes, seizures, heart disease, or any other medical problems, do I need to do any thing special before my child has anesthesia? Can my child take a tour of the ...

  18. Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature KidsHealth > For Parents > Fever and Taking Your Child's ... a mercury thermometer.) previous continue Tips for Taking Temperatures As any parent knows, taking a squirming child's ...

  19. When to use the emergency room - child

    MedlinePlus

    Before your child has a medical problem, learn what your choices are. Check the website of your health insurance company. Put these telephone numbers in the memory of your phone: Your child's doctor Emergency department your child's ...

  20. Fostering the Battered and Abused Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    1980-01-01

    This article describes a 20-hour, eight-week course for experienced foster parents. Goals include understanding the causes of child abuse, understanding the consequences of child abuse, and understanding the interaction patterns which provoke child abuse. (Author/DB)