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Sample records for child protection case

  1. Child Protection Decision Making: A Factorial Analysis Using Case Vignettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Jacqueline; Schmidt, Glen

    2012-01-01

    This study explored decision making by child protection social workers in the province of British Columbia, Canada. A factorial survey method was used in which case vignettes were constructed by randomly assigning a number of key characteristics associated with decision making in child protection. Child protection social workers (n = 118) assessed…

  2. Criminal investigations in child protective services cases: an empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Cross, Theodore P; Chuang, Emmeline; Helton, Jesse J; Lux, Emily A

    2015-05-01

    This study analyzed the frequency and correlates of criminal investigation of child maltreatment in cases investigated by child protective service (CPS), using national probability data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Criminal investigations were conducted in slightly more than 25% of cases. Communities varied substantially in percentage criminally investigated. Sexual abuse was the most frequent type of maltreatment criminally investigated followed by physical abuse. Logistic regression results indicated that criminal investigations were more likely when caseworkers perceived greater harm and more evidence; when CPS conducted an investigation rather than an assessment; when a parent or a legal guardian reported the maltreatment; and when cases were located in communities in which CPS and police had a memorandum of understanding (MOU) governing coordination. Most variation between communities in criminal investigation remained unexplained. The findings suggest the potential of MOUs for communities wanting to increase criminal investigation.

  3. Child Protection and Justice Systems Processing of Serious Child Abuse and Neglect Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlak, Andrea J.; Schultz, Dana; Wells, Susan J.; Lyons, Peter; Doueck, Howard J.; Gragg, Frances

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trajectory of cases through four systems: child protection, law enforcement, the dependency courts, and the criminal courts. Method: This study focused on a county selected from a 41-county telephone survey conducted for the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-3). For this…

  4. Comments on "How Child Protective Services Investigators Decide to Substantiate Mothers for Failure-to-Protect in Sexual Abuse Cases"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadoin, Amy L.; Carnes, Connie N.

    2006-01-01

    This commentary discusses the decisions of child protective service (CPS) investigators to substantiate mothers for failure-to-protect (FTP) in child sexual abuse cases. Four areas are identified in which the scientific literature remains inadequate to fully inform child maltreatment researchers, CPS practitioners and child welfare policymakers on…

  5. Medical social work practice in child protection in China: A multiple case study in Shanghai hospitals.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Hämäläinen, Juha; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2017-01-24

    With the rapid development of the child welfare system in China over recent years, medical social work has been increasingly involved in providing child protection services in several hospitals in Shanghai. Focusing on five cases in this paper, the exploratory study aims to present a critical overview of current practices and effects of medical social work for child protection, based on a critical analysis of the multidimensional role of social work practitioners engaged in the provision of child protection services as well as potential challenges. Implications and suggestions for future improvements of China's child protection system are also discussed.

  6. Discourses of Education, Protection, and Child Labor: Case Studies of Benin, Namibia and Swaziland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses discontinuities between local, national and international discourse in the fields of education, protection of children, and child labor, using Benin, Namibia and Swaziland as case studies. In Benin, child abuse and child labor are related to poverty, whereas in Namibia and Swaziland they are also interrelated with HIV/AIDS.…

  7. Re-Referral to Child Protective Services: The Influence of Child, Family, and Case Characteristics on Risk Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Christian M.; Bergeron, Natasha; Katz, Karol H.; Saunders, Leon; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines child, family, and case characteristics that impact rates of re-referral to Child Protective Services (CPS) using data on all closed CPS investigations for the state of Rhode Island between 2001 and 2004. Method: A longitudinal dataset of all referrals to CPS was created using state submissions to the National…

  8. How Child Protective Services Investigators Decide to Substantiate Mothers for Failure-to-Protect in Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how Child Protective Services (CPS) investigators decide to substantiate mothers for failure-to-protect from sexual abuse. A case-comparison study was used to compare 31 mothers who were and 62 mothers who were not substantiated for failure-to-protect by CPS. The multivariate analysis showed that mothers…

  9. Male Victims of Sexual Abuse: A Case Review within a Child Protective Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roane, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective review of 77 cases of sexual abuse of boys who were assessed by a multidisciplinary child protection team in Florida provided data on age at time of referral, findings of medical examinations, the relationship of offender to child, and type of abuse. (BB)

  10. Mediation in Child Protection Cases: An Alternative to the Adversary System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Sally E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses two concerns regarding adverse effects of increased litigation in child protection cases: (1) fallout from the adversarial process on agencies' work with families; and (2) dissonance between the approaches of social workers and lawyers to decision-making about families. Recommends mediation to prevent less serious cases from going to…

  11. Data Surveillance in Child Protection Systems Development: An Indonesian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boothby, Neil; Stark, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Successful implementation of child protection program interventions and child and family welfare services is contingent upon the availability and use of good quality information, as emphasized by the recent Convention on the Rights of the Child's General Comment 13. Yet, the role of information within child protection is not well…

  12. Protecting the Hoosier Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Presented are proceedings of a conference designed to provide a statewide forum for the exploration of the issues of child abuse and neglect, to maximize interdisciplinary communication as well as communication between the professional and lay communities of Indiana concerned with child protection, and to develop strategies for future coordinated…

  13. "I Made Her Realise that I Could Be There for Her, that I Could Support Her": Child Protection Practices with Women in Domestic Violence Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapierre, Simon; Cote, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that investigated child protection policies and practices, and focuses on data gathered in a child protection agency located in Quebec, Canada. This research project draws upon a qualitative case-study methodology, involving a documentary analysis of both national and local child protection policies, as…

  14. Systematically Identifying Relevant Research: Case Study on Child Protection Social Workers' Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Paula; Taylor, Brian J.; Campbell, Anne; McQuilkin, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Context: The development of a consolidated knowledge base for social work requires rigorous approaches to identifying relevant research. Method: The quality of 10 databases and a web search engine were appraised by systematically searching for research articles on resilience and burnout in child protection social workers. Results: Applied Social…

  15. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  16. Rethinking Compassion Fatigue Through the Lens of Professional Identity: The Case of Child-Protection Workers.

    PubMed

    Geoffrion, Steve; Morselli, Carlo; Guay, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Compassion fatigue is currently the dominant model in work-related stress studies that explain the consequences of caring for others on child-protection workers. Based on a deterministic approach, this model excludes the role of cognition a priori and a posteriori in the understanding of the impact of caregiving or providing social support. By integrating the notion of professional identity, this article adds a subjective perspective to the compassion fatigue model allowing for the consideration of positive outcomes and takes into account the influence of stress caused by accountability. Mainly, it is argued that meanings derived from identity and given to situations may protect or accelerate the development of compassion fatigue or compassion satisfaction. To arrive at this proposition, the notions of compassion fatigue and identity theory are first reviewed. These concepts are then articulated around four work-related stressors specific to child-protection work. In light of this exercise, it is argued that professional identity serves as a subjective interpretative framework that guides the understanding of work-related situations. Therefore, compassion fatigue is not only a simple reaction to external stimuli. It is influenced by meanings given to the situation. Furthermore, professional identity modulates the impact of compassion fatigue on psychological well-being. Practice, policy, and research implications in light of these findings are also discussed.

  17. Commentary on "How Child Protective Service Investigators Decide to Substantiate Mothers for Failure-to-Protect in Sexual Abuse Cases"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieth, Victor I.

    2006-01-01

    As this author traveled around the country, many university professors and domestic violence advocates told him that prosecuting or even intervening with social services is morally "wrong" in cases in which parents fail to protect their children. There are two problems with these arguments. First, these arguments assume that mothers should "never"…

  18. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…

  19. Prevention and the Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The nation's child protection system (CPS) has historically focused on preventing maltreatment in high-risk families, whose children have already been maltreated. But, as Jane Waldfogel explains, it has also begun developing prevention procedures for children at lower risk--those who are referred to CPS but whose cases do not meet the criteria for…

  20. Children with Disabilities in the Child Protective Services System: An Analog Study of Investigation and Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manders, Jeanette E.; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The study used a series of vignettes to investigate how the presence of three disabilities (cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, emotional/behavioral disabilities) affects the processes and outcomes of child abuse investigations at two levels of child injury severity (moderate, severe). Method: Seventy-five CPS case workers…

  1. Adoption and Child Welfare Protection in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Rosset, Dominique-Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the French Child Protection system, which is managed by Child Welfare of the local authorities (Aide Sociale a l'Enfance) and by Judicial Juvenile Protection depending on the central government (Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse) Children's judges are involved in child protection. The majority of children in care live in…

  2. A qualitative case study of child protection issues in the Indian construction industry: investigating the security, health, and interrelated rights of migrant families

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many of India’s estimated 40 million migrant workers in the construction industry migrate with their children. Though India is undergoing rapid economic growth, numerous child protection issues remain. Migrant workers and their children face serious threats to their health, safety, and well-being. We examined risk and protective factors influencing the basic rights and protections of children and families living and working at a construction site outside Delhi. Methods Using case study methods and a rights-based model of child protection, the SAFE model, we triangulated data from in-depth interviews with stakeholders on and near the site (including employees, middlemen, and managers); 14 participants, interviews with child protection and corporate policy experts in greater Delhi (8 participants), and focus group discussions (FGD) with workers (4 FGDs, 25 members) and their children (2 FGDs, 9 members). Results Analyses illuminated complex and interrelated stressors characterizing the health and well-being of migrant workers and their children in urban settings. These included limited access to healthcare, few educational opportunities, piecemeal wages, and unsafe or unsanitary living and working conditions. Analyses also identified both protective and potentially dangerous survival strategies, such as child labor, undertaken by migrant families in the face of these challenges. Conclusions By exploring the risks faced by migrant workers and their children in the urban construction industry in India, we illustrate the alarming implications for their health, safety, livelihoods, and development. Our findings, illuminated through the SAFE model, call attention to the need for enhanced systems of corporate and government accountability as well as the implementation of holistic child-focused and child-friendly policies and programs in order to ensure the rights and protection of this hyper-mobile, and often invisible, population. PMID:24044788

  3. Mothers, domestic violence, and child protection.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Heather; Walsh, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    This article explores the relationship between understandings of domestic violence and the child protection response drawing on material gathered in focus groups with workers who support mothers dealing with both domestic violence and child protection issues. The interviewees expressed concern that the dynamics of domestic violence are often misunderstood and inappropriately responded to by child protection workers. This article critically examines the interviewees' concerns and concludes that to properly protect children, it is crucial that child protection workers have a clear understanding of the dynamics of and issues related to domestic violence.

  4. Differential program evaluation model in child protection.

    PubMed

    Lalayants, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly attention has been focused to the degree to which social programs have effectively and efficiently delivered services. Using the differential program evaluation model by Tripodi, Fellin, and Epstein (1978) and by Bielawski and Epstein (1984), this paper described the application of this model to evaluating a multidisciplinary clinical consultation practice in child protection. This paper discussed the uses of the model by demonstrating them through the four stages of program initiation, contact, implementation, and stabilization. This organizational case study made a contribution to the model by introducing essential and interrelated elements of a "practical evaluation" methodology in evaluating social programs, such as a participatory evaluation approach; learning, empowerment and sustainability; and a flexible individualized approach to evaluation. The study results demonstrated that by applying the program development model, child-protective administrators and practitioners were able to evaluate the existing practices and recognize areas for program improvement.

  5. Child protection decisions to substantiate hospital child protection teams' reports of suspected maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Jedwab, Merav; Benbenishty, Rami; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Siegal, Gil; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2015-02-01

    The present study focuses on the way child protection officers (CPOs) in Israel assess suspected abuse and neglect (SCAN) reports made by hospital child protection teams (CPTs), to determine whether the alleged maltreatment is substantiated. The study was conducted in six medical centers and included 358 reports investigated by CPOs for SCAN. A structured questionnaire was completed by hospital CPTs to capture all relevant information on each child referred to the CPTs. Structured phone interviews were conducted with each of the CPOs who received a CPT report. Bivariate associations and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the substantiation rate of cases reported by CPTs and the types of maltreatment substantiated, as well as to identify case characteristics of the child and the family that were associated with the CPOs' substantiation decision. CPO follow-up investigations revealed a substantiation rate of 53.5%. The maltreatment type most commonly substantiated was neglect. The case characteristics associated with substantiation included socio-demographic background, parents' health and functioning, previous contact with social services, characteristics of the hospital referral, medical findings and an assessment of the parents' behaviors. The findings of the study highlighted the importance of cooperation between the health and welfare services and the policy makers. This cooperation is essential for identifying early signs of maltreatment. Enhanced cooperation and effective information transfer between various professionals would help prevent or at least reduce the recurrence of maltreatment and would ensure that the children and their families are treated appropriately.

  6. Law: protection of the unborn child.

    PubMed

    Finch, J

    1983-04-20

    Under the provisions of the UK's Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability) Act 1976 a duty of care is owed to an unborn child via his/her mother, and, although not conclusively settled, a duty of care is probably owed to an unborn child in common law, that is independent of the statute. Thus, it is clear that the law protects the child before birth in the form of an action for damages brought on his/her behalf in respect of disabilities caused during the mother's pregnancy by someone's negligence. In certain cases the law also allows the lives of unborn children to be terminated at some time before birth, or, more precisely, until such time as the unborn child is capable of being born alive. The age at which a child can be born alive is a question of fact and "bona fide" medical evidence in each case. Children who are capable of a live birth are protected under a 1929 Act of Parliament which makes it a serious criminal offense to kill an unborn child who is capable of being born alive. The practice is often either ignored or overlooked, but this vitally important statute should not be forgotten. The offense referred to must be distinguished from the offense of abortion. Staff nurse Karen Smith needs to remember this if she becomes involved in abortions. There are circumstances in which abortion is permitted by law but this is not the same as saying that abortion is lawful. It is necessary to return to 1st principles relating to the law's protection of human life and its provision for the criminal punishment of those who offended against those principles. Subject to certain exceptions, it is murder by a deliberate act to cause or accelerate the death of a person who is "in being." From a legal perspective, this is distinguished as the deliberate ending of the life of someone before their birth. That it is not murder is not because of the fact that the unborn are not "human." Rather it is because they are not yet "in being." In the words of the Infant Life

  7. Essential Elements of Child Protection Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsky, Allan Edward

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the process of mediation in child protection (CP) and the essential aspects which may contribute to developing more effective working relationships with child welfare families. The study focused on neutrality, one of the primary aspects of CP mediation. Interviews were conducted with 17 adult family…

  8. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…

  9. Protect Your Child from Rotavirus Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... will be protected from severe rotavirus disease. Most vaccinated children will not get sick from rotavirus at all. ... does not cover vaccines for your child, the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program may be able to help. This ...

  10. Prevention and the child protection system.

    PubMed

    Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The nation's child protection system (CPS) has historically focused on preventing maltreatment in high-risk families, whose children have already been maltreated. But, as Jane Waldfogel explains, it has also begun developing prevention procedures for children at lower risk--those who are referred to CPS but whose cases do not meet the criteria for ongoing services. Preventive services delivered by CPS to high-risk families, says Waldfogel, typically include case management and supervision. The families may also receive one or more other preventive services, including individual and family counseling, respite care, parenting education, housing assistance, substance abuse treatment, child care, and home visits. Researchers generally find little evidence, however, that these services reduce the risk of subsequent maltreatment, although there is some promising evidence on the role of child care. Many families receive few services beyond periodic visits by usually overburdened caseworkers, and the services they do receive are often poor in quality. Preventive services for lower-risk families often focus on increasing parents' understanding of the developmental stages of childhood and on improving their child-rearing competencies. The evidence base on the effectiveness of these services remains thin. Most research focuses on home-visiting and parent education programs. Studies of home visiting have provided some promising evidence. Little is as yet known about the effects of parent education. Waldfogel concludes that researchers have much more to learn about what services CPS agencies should expand to do a better job of preventing maltreatment. Some families, especially those with mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence problems, are at especially high risk, which suggests that more effective treatment services for such parents could help. Very young children, too, are at high risk, suggesting a potentially important role for child care-one area where the

  11. Protecting Your Child's Privacy Online

    MedlinePlus

    ... parent, you have control over the personal information companies collect online from your kids under 13. The ... example, you may get an email from a company letting you know your child has started the ...

  12. History of Child Welfare and Protection Social Work in Northern Ireland: Finding Continuity amongst Discontinuity in Case Files from 1950 to 1968

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skehill, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on research carried out on 189 child welfare files from the largest welfare authority in Northern Ireland from 1950 to 1968. The literature review provides a commentary on some of the major debates surrounding child welfare and protection social work from the perspective of its historical development. The report of the…

  13. Defining Child Neglect Based on Child Protective Services Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, H.; Pitts, S.C.; Litrownik, A.J.; Cox, C.E.; Runyan, D.; Black, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives:: To compare neglect defined by Child Protective Services official codes with neglect defined by a review of CPS narrative data, and to examine the validity of the different neglect measures using children's functioning at age 8 years. Methods:: Data are from 740 children participating in a consortium of longitudinal studies on child…

  14. Role Definitions and Boundary Problems in Child Protection Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Michael C.

    Specific ethical problems caused by the multiple roles of the psychologist in cases involving child protection are discussed. Psychologists may serve as consultants, evaluators, therapists, reporters, or monitors for the client and/or the court. When more than one person in the family is involved, or the court orders an additional role for the…

  15. When does severe childhood obesity become a child protection issue?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Shirley M; Baur, Louise A; Magnusson, Roger; Tobin, Bernadette

    2009-02-02

    Severe childhood obesity and its associated comorbidities are increasing in prevalence. Extreme childhood obesity may be viewed as a mirror image of severe non-organic failure to thrive. Parental neglect may be a causative factor in both circumstances. When suspicion of parental neglect arises, health care professionals may have both an ethical obligation and a statutory duty to notify child protection services. Guidelines on the point at which medical practitioners should seek state assistance in cases of severe childhood obesity would be helpful, not only for medical practitioners, but also for child protection services.

  16. Burnout Stress Syndrome in Child Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstraete, Patricia A.

    1994-01-01

    Burnout stress syndrome is a complex concept reflecting a failure in both the individual's defense mechanism and in the work environment. Since child protection agencies cannot afford the costs of staff burnout, time and money spent by the organization to reduce employee stress is an investment in better service delivery. (TJQ)

  17. [Respecting minors' autonomy in child custody cases].

    PubMed

    Santa Rosa, Bárbara; Corte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Child custody decisions are among the most difficult for judges to make. The possibility of child abuse allegations or parents' deviant/ psychopathologic behaviours within this context, make the decision further complicated. Based on jurisprudence the listening of children opinion is a way to protect their best interest. In fact children have the right to express an opinion in all matters affecting their life. It should be given proper consideration to children opinion according with his/her age and maturity. Nonetheless custody disputes are emotionally draining issues. Asking the child to express an opinion during a public hearing, most likely in the presence of both parents, its not recommended because this is a potential stressful experience. Child interviews should take place in a proper environment and be set to their age. Medicine and Psychology have an important role in assessing children cognitive, emotional and volitional abilities, which is essential to properly account their opinions according to autonomy degree. This essay analyses the contribution of medico-legal and/or psychological exams to respect the autonomy of the child in cases of regulation of parental responsibilities. The conclusion is the need to establish a symbiotic relationship between the medical and legal perspectives of the (open) concept of child's best interests.

  18. Predicting the decisions of hospital based child protection teams to report to child protective services, police and community welfare services.

    PubMed

    Benbenishty, Rami; Jedwab, Merav; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Slutzky, Hanna; Siegal, Gil; Lavi-Sahar, Zohar; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2014-01-01

    This study examines judgments made by hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs) when determining if there is reasonable suspicion that a child has been maltreated, and whether to report the case to a community welfare agency, to child protective services (CPS) and/or to the police. A prospective multi-center study of all 968 consecutive cases referred to CPTs during 2010-2011 in six medical centers in Israel. Centers were purposefully selected to represent the heterogeneity of medical centers in Israel in terms of size, geographical location and population characteristics. A structured questionnaire was designed to capture relevant information and judgments on each child referred to the team. Bivariate associations and multivariate multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to predict whether the decisions would be (a) to close the case, (b) to refer the case to community welfare services, or (c) to report it to CPS and/or the police. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified a large number of case characteristics associated with higher probability of reporting to CPS/police or of referral to community welfare services. Case characteristics associated with the decisions include socio-demographic (e.g., ethnicity and financial status), parental functioning (e.g., mental health), previous contacts with authorities and hospital, current referral characteristics (e.g., parental referral vs. child referral), physical findings, and suspicious behaviors of child and parent. Most of the findings suggest that decisions of CPTs are based on indices that have strong support in the professional literature. Existing heterogeneity between cases, practitioners and medical centers had an impact on the overall predictability of the decision to report. Attending to collaboration between hospitals and community agencies is suggested to support learning and quality improvement.

  19. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse.

  20. Should Child Protection Services Respond Differently to Maltreatment, Risk of Maltreatment, and Risk of Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocme, Nico; MacLaurin, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine evidence available in large-scale North American datasets on child abuse and neglect that can assist in understanding the complexities of child protection case classifications. Methods: A review of child abuse and neglect data from large North American epidemiological studies including the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported…

  1. Predictive analytics and child protection: constraints and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jesse

    2015-08-01

    This paper considers how predictive analytics might inform, assist, and improve decision making in child protection. Predictive analytics represents recent increases in data quantity and data diversity, along with advances in computing technology. While the use of data and statistical modeling is not new to child protection decision making, its use in child protection is experiencing growth, and efforts to leverage predictive analytics for better decision-making in child protection are increasing. Past experiences, constraints and opportunities are reviewed. For predictive analytics to make the most impact on child protection practice and outcomes, it must embrace established criteria of validity, equity, reliability, and usefulness.

  2. Applying the Recovery Approach to the Interface between Mental Health and Child Protection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joe; Davidson, Gavin; Kavanagh, Damien

    2016-01-01

    There is a range of theoretical approaches which may inform the interface between child protection and adult mental health services. These theoretical perspectives tend to be focused on either child protection or mental health with no agreed integrating framework. The interface continues to be identified, in research, case management reviews and…

  3. Adjudication of Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John E. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues in the adjudication of child sexual abuse allegations and reviews research about the believability of child witnesses. It also examines accommodations for children that could assist the child witness and encourage accurate testimony, while continuing to protect the rights of the accused. Criminal, juvenile, and divorce court…

  4. Child protection: legal and ethical obligation regarding the report of child abuse in four different countries.

    PubMed

    Cukovic-Bagic, Ivana; Welbury, Richard R; Flander, Gordana Buljan; Hatibovic-Kofman, Sahza; Nuzzolese, Emilio

    2013-12-01

    Child protection is the duty of every single member of the society. Health professionals who work with children, such as members of dental team, are in the unique position to recognize signs of physical, sexual and emotional abuse as well as (dental) neglect. They should report any suspected case where a child is or may be in need of welfare. The professional responsibility is regulated by legal and ethical obligations. In this preliminary work the authors investigate the legal and ethical Acts, and the similarities vs. differences in obligations regarding reporting child abuse and neglect (CAN) cases in four countries: Croatia, United Kingdom, Italy and Canada. In all four countries all health professionals have a duty to report their suspicion if a child is in a harmful situation. All of them who fail to report, or even neglect or delay to report a suspicion, are liable on conviction to a pecuniary fine which varies from country to country. Depending on the country, if a professional has reasonable grounds to suspect that a child is or may be in need of protection, must report to: CAS (children's aid society), to CSS (center for social services), to police, to a Juvenile Court, or to the ombudsman. In all four countries, dentists are not asked to diagnose 'child maltreatment', but simply report the suspicion with supportive evidence. Ethical obligation comes from medical and dental ethical codes regulated by the Chamber or Council of Dentists. In all four countries legal and ethical obligations in reporting CAN are similar. Differences are related mostly to fines for nonreporting or a delay in reporting. Expanded investigation through other European countries and standard operational procedures is needed, in order to harmonize policies and guidelines for reporting CAN and maximize children protection.

  5. Defining reasonable force: Does it advance child protection?

    PubMed

    Durrant, Joan E; Fallon, Barbara; Lefebvre, Rachael; Allan, Kate

    2017-02-28

    Fifty-two countries have abolished all physical punishment of children, yet Canada has retained its criminal defense to 'reasonable' corrective force. In 2004, Canada's Supreme Court attempted to set limits on punitive acts that can be considered reasonable under the law. In the present study, we examined the validity of these limits. If the court's limits provide adequate protection to children, most substantiated child maltreatment cases should exceed those limits. We operationalized each limit and applied it to a provincially representative sample of substantiated child physical maltreatment cases. We found that the majority of substantiated physical abuse cases fell within each of the court's limits. In more than one in four substantiated physical abuse cases, not even one of the court's limits was exceeded. The best predictor of whether a report was substantiated was whether spanking was typical in the child's home. The findings suggest that abolition of physical punishment would provide greater protection to children than attempts to set limits on its use.

  6. Doing Harm While Doing Good: The Child Protection Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Frank; Hansen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Every Australian citizen expects state and territory governments to protect children from child abuse and neglect. Protecting children from harm is seen as good. This however is not a simple matter. The ultimate act in protecting children is to remove them from parental care. This causes trauma for the child and pain and distress for parents no…

  7. Who Gets Protection? A National Study of Multiple Victimization and Child Protection Among Taiwanese Children.

    PubMed

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Feng, Joyce Yen; Feng, Jui-Ying; Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Huang, Soar Ching-Yu; Hwa, Hsiao-Lin

    2016-10-05

    This study aims to examine the prevalence of multiple types of child victimization and the effects of multiple types of victimization on children's mental health and behavior in Taiwan. The study also examines the child-protection rate and its correlates among children experiencing various types of victimization. This study collected data with a self-report questionnaire from a national proportionately stratified sample of 6,233 fourth-grade students covering every city and county in Taiwan in 2014. After calculating the 1-year prevalence of child victimization, the study found that bullying was the most prevalent (71%), followed by physical neglect (66%), psychological violence (43%), inter-parental violence (28%), community violence (22%), physical abuse (21%), and sexual violence (9%). As the number of victimization types increased, children were more likely to report greater posttraumatic symptoms, psychiatric symptoms, suicide ideation, self-harm thoughts, and violent behaviors. Gender, neonatal status, parental marital status, and other family risks were significantly associated with elevated incidences of the victimization types. Only 20.6% of the children who had experienced all seven types of victimization had received child protective services. A child was more likely to receive child protective services if he or she had experienced sexual violence, community violence, inter-parental violence exposure, higher family risks, higher suicidal ideation, or living in a single-parent or separated family. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the cumulative effects and the harmful effects that children's experience of multiple types of victimization can have on the children's mental health and behavior. The present findings also raise alarms regarding the severity of under-serving in child-victimization cases. These results underscore the importance of assessing, identifying, and helping children with multiple victimization experiences.

  8. Developing a Template for National Child Protection Index Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Alastair; Stark, Lindsay; Chu, Erin; Dewan, Shweta; Boothby, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: What impact does the strengthening of child rights have on the experience and circumstances of children? CRC General Comment 13 emphasizes that defining measurable targets for improvements in child protection is a key element of efforts to strengthen child rights and well-being across the world. This paper describes an attempt to…

  9. Mothers, Men, and Child Protective Services Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This study used data on 2,297 families from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine whether Child Protective Services (CPS) involvement varies by maternal relationship status. Families were categorized according to whether the mother was living with a (male) partner or spouse, was involved in a dating relationship, or was not romantically involved. Families in which the mother was romantically involved were further delineated by whether her partner was the biological father of none, some, or all of the children in her household. Results indicated that families in which the mother was living with a man who was not the biological father of all children and those in which she was not romantically involved were significantly more likely to be contacted by CPS than those in which she was living with the biological father of all resident children. These findings withstood the inclusion of detailed controls for the mother’s characteristics and behaviors and (in two-parent families) her partner’s characteristics and behaviors, suggesting that they are not fully explained by observable social selection factors. PMID:19581431

  10. Child protection medical service demonstration centers in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Jing-Long; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lee, En-Pei; Chou, I-Jun; Hsin, Yi-Chen; Lo, Fu-Song; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Wu, Han-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan. We prospectively recorded children with reported child abuse and neglect in a CPMSDC in a tertiary medical center from 2014 to 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed and compared age, gender, scene, identifying settings, time of visits, injury type, injury severity, hospital admission, hospitalization duration, and outcomes based on the different types of abuse and the different settings in which the abuse or neglect were identified. Of 361 child abuse cases (mean age 4.8 ± 5.36 years), the incidence was highest in 1- to 6-year-old children (n = 198, 54.85%). Physical abuse and neglect were predominant in males, while sexual abuse was predominant in females (P < 0.001). Neglect was most common (n = 279, 75.85%), followed by physical (n = 56, 15.51%) and sexual abuse (n = 26, 7.2%). The most common identifying setting was the emergency department (n = 320, 88.64%), with neglect being most commonly reported. Head, neck, and facial injuries were more common in physically abused children than in neglected and sexual abused children (P < 0.005), leading to longer hospitalization (P = 0.042) and a higher Injury Severity Score (P = 0.043). There were more skin injuries in neglect (P < 0.001). The mortality rate was 2.49% (n = 9). The CPMSDC could enhance the ability, alertness, and inclination of professionals to identify suspected cases of child abuse, and to increase the rate of registry. Cases of physical abuse

  11. The Role of School Psychologists in Child Protection and Safeguarding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline; Tyldesley, Kath; Farrell, Peter; Humphrey, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Child protection and safeguarding are important aspects of work for all professionals working with children. The current article outlines the international context of school psychologists' work in relation to child protection and safeguarding and describes the United Kingdom context in more detail. Given the relatively recent broadening of the UK…

  12. Measuring the Impact of Child Protection through Activation States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackenridge, Celia H.; Pawlaczek, Zofia; Bringer, Joy D.; Cockburn, Claudi; Nutt, Gareth; Pitchford, Andy; Russell, Kate

    2005-01-01

    Child protection (CP) has risen to the top of the UK sports policy agenda in the past four years and the Football Association has invested in this major strategy as part of its commitment to "use the power of football to build a better future" (Football Association, 2000a). Evidencing the impact of child protection is, however, a complex…

  13. Pediatric Response to a Large-Scale Child Protection Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukefahr, James L.; Kellogg, Nancy D.; Anderst, James D.; Gavril, Amy R.; Wehner, Karl K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In a rural area of the US state of Texas, in April 2008, the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services (DFPS) responded to evidence of widespread child abuse in an isolated religious compound by removing 463 individuals into state custody. This mass child protection intervention is the largest such action that has ever occurred…

  14. Child advocacy center multidisciplinary team decision and its association to child protective services outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brink, Farah W; Thackeray, Jonathan D; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Letson, Megan M; Scribano, Philip V

    2015-08-01

    Limited studies exist evaluating the multidisciplinary team (MDT) decision-making process and its outcomes. This study evaluates the MDT determination of the likelihood of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association to the outcome of the child protective services (CPS) disposition. A retrospective cohort study of CSA patients was conducted. The MDT utilized an a priori Likert rating scale to determine the likelihood of abuse. Subjects were dichotomized into high versus low/intermediate likelihood of CSA as determined by the MDT. Clinical and demographic characteristics were compared based upon MDT and CPS decisions. Fourteen hundred twenty-two patients were identified. A high likelihood for abuse was determined in 997 cases (70%). CPS substantiated or indicated the allegation of CSA in 789 cases (79%, Kappa 0.54). Any CSA disclosure, particularly moderate risk disclosure (AOR 59.3, 95% CI 26.50-132.80) or increasing total number of CSA disclosures (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.11-1.57), was independently associated with a high likelihood for abuse determination. Specific clinical features associated with discordant cases in which MDT determined high likelihood for abuse and CPS did not substantiate or indicate CSA included being white or providing a low risk CSA disclosure or other non-CSA disclosure. MDT determination regarding likelihood of abuse demonstrated moderate agreement to CPS disposition outcome. CSA disclosure is predictive of the MDT determination for high likelihood of CSA. Agreement between MDT determination and CPS protection decisions appear to be driven by the type of disclosures, highlighting the importance of the forensic interview in ensuring appropriate child protection plans.

  15. Children's experiences of domestic violence: developing an integrated response from police and child protection services.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Nicky; Miller, Pam; Foster, Helen Richardson; Thomson, Gill

    2011-08-01

    Police notifications of incidents of domestic violence to child protection services constitute an acknowledgement of the harm that domestic violence inflicts on children. However, these notifications represent a substantial demand on child welfare services and the outcomes for children and victims of domestic violence have been questioned. This paper presents findings from the first UK study to examine these notifications in depth and examines the interface between the police and child protection services in responding to domestic violence incidents. The research reports on police interventions in 251 incidents of domestic violence involving children; the communication of information to child protection services and the subsequent filtering and service response. Social workers found that notifications conveyed little information on children's experiences of domestic violence. Forty per cent of families notified had had no previous contact with child protection services in that area, but those cases most likely to receive social work assessment or intervention were those where the case was already open. Notifications triggered a new social work intervention in only 5% of cases. The study also identified a range of innovative approaches for improving the co-ordination of police and child protective services in relation to children's exposure to domestic violence. Arrangements that maximized opportunities for police and social workers to share agency information appeared to offer the best option for achieving informed decisions about the appropriate level of service response to children and families experiencing domestic violence.

  16. The Significance of Animal Cruelty in Child Protection Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girardi, Alberta; Pozzulo, Joanna D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency with which child protection workers (CPWs) in Ontario, Canada, seek information about animal cruelty during investigations of child maltreatment and the extent to which they consider information about animal cruelty when making decisions about whether intervention is required. The CPWs (N…

  17. The "Good Enough" Parent: Implications for Child Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Peter W.; Engstrom, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Child protection workers must determine under what conditions a child should be sustained within the family system. A standard that is often referred to is "good enough" parenting or minimal parenting competence. Research and clinical literature fails to offer workers guidance on the practical application of this terminology. Such…

  18. The impact of child, family, and child protective services factors on reports of child sexual abuse recurrence.

    PubMed

    Sinanan, Allison N

    2011-11-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports of child sexual abuse recurrence by type of reporter. Survival analysis was conducted using the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System data set of 2002-2004. Child disability, being a prior victim, having a perpetrator as a caregiver, family financial problems, and receiving family supportive services increased the likelihood for reports of child sexual abuse by mandated reporters. Being Hispanic, having a disability, having a perpetrator as a caregiver, financial problems, and receiving family preservation services statistically decreased the likelihood for reports of child sexual abuse recurrence.

  19. Child slavery in Hong Kong: case report and historical review.

    PubMed

    Lee, A C W; So, K T

    2006-12-01

    An 11-year-old girl was admitted with multiple injuries sustained during a 1-year servitude of domestic labour. She was acquired from her parents in Mainland China by a relative in Hong Kong. The child's parents received a sum of money that the child had to repay with work. Her hardship was characterised by long hours of incessant labour and physical torture when she failed to meet the demands of her mistress or her mistress' children. This case resembles Mui Tsai, a form of child slavery and exploitative domestic labour that was rife in Hong Kong a century ago, and illustrates the new challenges to child rights and protection consequent to the increasing social and economic integration between the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Mainland China.

  20. Child Abuse, Child Protection, and Defensive "Touch" in PE Teaching and Sports Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Heather; Garratt, Dean; Taylor, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This text introduces recently completed research on "no touch" sports coaching, by placing it in a broader social context which problematises the way child abuse and child protection (or safeguarding) are conceived and discussed in terms of policy and practice. It also provides a brief indicative summary of the research findings and…

  1. Comparing Child Protective Investigation Performance between Law Enforcement Agencies and Child Welfare Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Neil; Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Gustafson, Mara; Armstrong, Mary; McNeish, Roxann; Vargo, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the comparative effectiveness of using law enforcement agencies for child protective investigation (CPI), in contrast with the traditional approach of CPI conducted by the public child welfare agency. The analysis uses 2006-2007 data from a natural experiment conducted in Florida to show modest differences in performance and…

  2. The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

  3. Protective factors in the development of early child conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.; Brennan, Lauretta M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study utilized a resilience model to investigate child, family, and community protective factors in toddlerhood as they relate to low levels of conduct problems at age 5 in a sample of low income children at risk for early disruptive problem behavior. Child, family, and community factors were associated with lower levels of conduct problems at age 5. Child, family, and community protective factors also distinguished between children who remained below and above a clinical threshold for aggressive problems between age 2 and 5. Finally, each domain of protective factors made small but significant unique contributions to lower aggression at age 5. These results emphasize the importance of multivariate analysis of the ecology of development predicting child outcome, and suggest potential areas for intervention with children at high risk for conduct problems. PMID:25774071

  4. Applying Complexity Theory to Risk in Child Protection Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Irene; Hassett, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at the application of complexity theory to risk assessment in child protection practice, and how it may help to give a better understanding of risk in relation to protecting vulnerable children. Within the last 20 years increasing use has been made of the term complexity within the natural sciences. In recent times, some of the…

  5. How to Protect Kids from Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    When one mother was asked how often she worried about her child's safety, she replied, "Every time she goes out the door." Many parents rely on school abuse prevention programs to teach kids how to stay safe. But what if these programs actually increase the risk of sex crimes that target kids? What happens if parental efforts to safeguard kids…

  6. An Exploratory Study of Drug-Exposed Infants: Case Substantiation and Subsequent Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, An-Pyng; Freese, Margaret P.; Fitzgerald, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This study explores factors related to drug-exposed infants' case substantiation and subsequent child maltreatment. Child protective services computerized administrative data (from January 1998 to October 2001) were obtained from an urban Nevada county. The data included 457 drug-exposed infant cases. Chi-square, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and…

  7. Nurses' Perceived Training Needs in Child Protection Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Beth R.; Lister, Pam Green

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore nurses' perceptions of their current skills and knowledge and training needs to identify cases of child abuse and their understanding of their roles and responsibilities in relation to child abuse. Nurses, including health visitors and midwives, have been recognised as having a key role in the…

  8. Why are suspected cases of child maltreatment referred by educators so often unsubstantiated?

    PubMed

    King, Colin B; Scott, Katreena L

    2014-01-01

    School professionals have a unique vantage point for identifying child maltreatment and they are a frequent source of referral to child protective services. Disturbingly, past studies have found that maltreatment concerns reported by educators go unsubstantiated by child protective services at much higher rates than suspected maltreatment reported by other professionals. This study explores whether there are systematic differences in the characteristics of cases reported by educators as compared to other professionals and examines whether such variation might account for differences in investigation outcome. Analyses were based on 7,725 cases of suspected maltreatment referred by professionals to child protective services from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect - 2003 a national database on the characteristics of children and families investigated by child protective services. School professionals were responsible for 35.8% of professional referrals. Reports by educators were much more likely to be unsubstantiated (45.3%) than those by other professionals (28.4%) in subsequent child protective investigation. Cases reported by educators were found to contain significantly more child risk factors (e.g., child emotional and behavioural problems) and fewer caregiver and family risk factors (e.g., caregiver mental health problem, single parent family) than cases reported by other professionals. Even controlling for these differences, educator-reported concerns were still 1.84, 95% CI [1.41, 2.40] times as likely to be unsubstantiated as reports from other professionals. Contrary to the notion that educators are mostly reporting non-severe cases, suspected/substantiated cases reported by school professionals were more likely to be judged as chronic and more likely to involve families with a previous child protection history. Results are concerning for the capacity of the education and child protection systems to work together to meet their

  9. Risk and Protective Factors of Child Delinquency. OJJDP Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Gail A.; Keenan, Kate; Tremblay, Richard E.; Coie, John D.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuck, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  10. Parental Cognitive Impairment, Mental Health, and Child Outcomes in a Child Protection Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Maurice; McConnell, David; Aunos, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Parents with cognitive impairments (CI) are overrepresented in child custody cases and their children are at risk for adverse outcomes. Ecological-transactional researchers propose that child outcomes are a function of the interaction of multiple distal, intermediate, and proximal risk and resilience factors. This study tested the fit of, and…

  11. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  12. Risk Assessment in Child Protective Services: Consensus and Actuarial Model Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Christopher; Wagner, Dennis; Healy, Theresa; Johnson, Kristen

    1999-01-01

    Compared reliability of three widely used child protective service risk-assessment models (one actuarial, two consensus based). Found that, although no system approached 100% interrater reliability, raters employing the actuarial model made consistent estimates of risk for a high percentage of cases they assessed. Interrater reliability for the…

  13. Legal Outcomes of Sexually Abused Children Evaluated at the Philippine General Hospital Child Protection Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugue-Castillo, Mariella

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the legal outcomes and factors associated with case reaching court and conviction for sexual abuse of children seen at the Philippine General Hospital Child Protection Unit (PGH-CPU) from 1997 to 2000. Methods: Mixed transdisciplinary research design combined longitudinal cohort with qualitative methods. Data were obtained…

  14. Doulas' Perceptions on Single Mothers' Risk and Protective Factors, and Aspirations Relative to Child-Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arat, Gizem

    2013-01-01

    This study the author aims to explore the perceptions of doulas on single mothers' risk and protective factors, and aspirations relative to child-birth in the postpartum care. The current study was conducted by semi-structured questions, case file reviews, field notes, and twelve home visits via utilizing Grounded Theory. These mothers receive…

  15. Criminal Prosecution of Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martone, Mary; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of police and hospital records for 451 intrafamilial/caretaker child sexual abuse allegations in Chicago, Illinois, found that few children had to appear as witnesses, as 95% of cases were resolved through plea bargaining. Trial resolution took 12 to 16 months. Of 77 felony complaints initiated, 48 ended in convictions, with 43 convicts…

  16. Polarity Analysis in Child Abuse Case Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Joe Brannan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The use of polarity analysis in child abuse case management provides a way to identify interdependent polar opposites, their positive and negative consequences, and actions to manage them over time, rather than compete for one right solution. An example of polarity analysis is presented with the two poles being parental autonomy and the agency as…

  17. Establishment of Interdisciplinary Child Protection Teams in Turkey 2002-2006: Identifying the Strongest Link Can Make a Difference!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agirtan, Canan A.; Akar, Taner; Akbas, Seher; Akdur, Recep; Aydin, Cahide; Aytar, Gulsen; Ayyildiz, Suat; Baskan, Sevgi; Belgemen, Tugba; Bezirci, Ozdecan; Beyazova, Ufuk; Beyaztas, Fatma Yucel; Buken, Bora; Buken, Erhan; Camurdan, Aysu D.; Can, Demet; Canbaz, Sevgi; Canturk, Gurol; Ceyhan, Meltem; Coskun, Abdulhakim; Celik, Ahmet; Cetin, Fusun C.; Coskun, Ayse Gul; Dagcinar, Adnan; Dallar, Yildiz; Demirel, Birol; Demirogullari, Billur; Derman, Orhan; Dilli, Dilek; Ersahin, Yusuf; Esiyok, Burcu; Evinc, Gulin; Gencer, Ozlem; Gokler, Bahar; Hanci, Hamit; Iseri, Elvan; Isir, Aysun Baransel; Isiten, Nukhet; Kale, Gulsev; Karadag, Ferda; Kanbur, Nuray; Kilic, Birim; Kultur, Ebru; Kurtay, Derya; Kuruoglu, Asli; Miral, Suha; Odabasi, Aysun B.; Oral, Resmiye; Orhon, Filiz Simsek; Ozbesler, Cengiz; Ozdemir, Dilsad Foto; Ozkok, M. Selim; Ozmert, Elif; Oztop, Didem B.; Ozyurek, Hamit; Pasli, Figen; Peksen, Yildiz; Polat, Onur; Sahin, Figen; Sahin, Ahmet Rifat; Salacin, Serpil; Suskan, Emine; Tander, Burak; Tekin, Deniz; Teksam, Ozlem; Tiras, Ulku; Tomak, Yilmaz; Tumer, Ali Riza; Turla, Ahmet; Ulukol, Betul; Uslu, Runa; Tas, Fatma V.; Vatandas, Nilgun; Velipasaoglu, Sevtap; Yagmur, Fatih; Yagmurlu, Aydin; Yalcin, Songul; Yavuz, Sukruye; Yurdakok, Kadriye

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The University of Iowa Child Protection Program collaborated with Turkish professionals to develop a training program on child abuse and neglect during 2002-2006 with the goals of increasing professional awareness and number of multidisciplinary teams (MDT), regional collaborations, and assessed cases. This paper summarizes the 5-year…

  18. Learning Organisations and Child Protection Agencies: Post-Fordist Techniques?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Ann

    2002-01-01

    A study of child protection agencies in New South Wales shows how reforms involving a neoliberal interpretation of the learning organization, rather than encouraging teamwork and employee participation, are used to govern and control. Such new "technologies of training" demand changes in the character and identity of workers. (SK)

  19. Child Protection and Family Empowerment: Competing Rights or Accordant Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentles-Gibbs, Natallie

    2016-01-01

    Since the advent of the Family Support movement in the 1970s, child welfare systems have been challenged to simultaneously protect children and empower the families they serve. Despite the passage of decades, however, the systems continue to struggle with adequately integrating the pursuit of family empowerment into the fabric of their work. While…

  20. Welfare recipients’ involvement with child protective services after welfare reform

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Yunju; Meezan, William; Danziger, Sandra K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996. Method Data come from the Women’s Employment Study, a longitudinal study of randomly selected welfare recipients living in a Michigan city in 1997 (N = 541). In order to identify risk factors for CPS involvement among current and former welfare recipients, multinomial logit analyses with 29 independent variables were employed on a trichotomous dependent variable: no CPS involvement, investigation only, and supervision by CPS after investigation. Results The relationship between work and involvement with CPS differs by work experience prior to welfare reform. As the percentage of months working after welfare reform increased, the risk of being investigated by CPS declined among those with prior work experience but the risk increased among those without prior work experience. However, work variables were not significant predictors of supervision by CPS after an initial investigation. Further, race, cohabitation, childhood welfare receipt, having a learning disability, having a large number of children, being newly divorced, living in a high problem neighborhood, and being convicted of a crime were associated with one’s probability of being either investigated or supervised by CPS. Conclusions These findings suggest that employment could have increased the stress levels of current or former welfare recipients without prior work experience to the point where they were prone to minor child rearing mistakes that resulted in a CPS investigation, but were not severe enough to warrant opening the case for supervision. Supports should be provided to welfare mothers who are prone to involvement with CPS; expansions in the childcare subsidy and a reduction or delay in work requirements might also help these families. PMID:17116329

  1. Child protection network and the intersector implementation of the circle of security as alternatives to medication☆

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Ana Laura Martins M.M.; de Souza, Paulo Haddad; de Oliveira, Mônica Martins; Paraguay, Nestor Luiz Bruzzi B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the clinical history of a child with aggressive behavior and recurring death-theme speech, and report the experience of the team of authors, who proposed an alternative to medication through the establishment of a protection network and the inter-sector implementation of the circle of security concept. Case description: A 5-year-old child has a violent and aggressive behavior at the daycare. The child was diagnosed by the healthcare center with depressive disorder and behavioral disorder, and was medicated with sertraline and risperidone. Side effects were observed, and the medications were discontinued. Despite several actions, such as talks, teamwork, psychological and psychiatric follow-up, the child's behavior remained unchanged. Remarks: A unique therapeutic project was developed by Universidade Estadual de Campinas' Medical School students in order to establish a connection between the entities responsible for the child's care (daycare center, healthcare center, and family). Thus, the team was able to develop a basic care protection network. The implementation of the inter-sector circle of security, as well as the communication and cooperation among the teams, produced very favorable results in this case. This initiative was shown to be a feasible and effective alternative to the use of medication for this child. PMID:25479857

  2. Social Security Child Protection Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Marchant, Kenny [R-TX-24

    2011-09-22

    09/28/2011 Referred for a period ending not later than September 28, 2011, (or for a later time if the Chairman so designates) to the Subcommittee on Social Security, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the subcommittee concerned. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. What criteria do child protective services investigators use to substantiate exposure to domestic violence?

    PubMed

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31 (7.1%) couples were investigated for exposing a child to domestic violence or failing to protect a child from domestic violence. All of the batterers investigated and in the caregiver role when their children were exposed to domestic violence were substantiated. The unsubstantiated victims of battering tended to use more protective behaviors (M=3.82) than the substantiated victims (M=2.00); yet, at the case level, using more than one protective behavior did not seem to be a criterion used to substantiate the victims. Instead, it appears that investigators were discriminating between those protective behaviors by the victims that ended contact between the batterers and the children--for a substantial amount of time--and those that did not in both the substantiation and removal decision. Key issues related to applying criteria in incidents involving domestic violence are discussed along with recommendations to further refine and document them.

  4. The Origins and Evolution of Child Protection in Terms of the History of Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hämäläinen, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with the methodological challenge of historical expounding, this paper discusses the historical formation of child protection with regard to the history of ideas. The aim is to identify the early intellectual grounds of the idea of child protection. Due to the fact that the genesis and evolution of child protection are shaped by many kinds…

  5. Child Protection, Public Services and the Chimera of Market Force Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    Describes child protection systems in England and ongoing changes in their services. Considers effects of a market force approach on the organization of child protection services in relation to coordination versus fragmentation and profit versus professionalism. Concludes that the idea that a market force approach to child protection will lead to…

  6. How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers’ child abuse detection and reporting behaviors. Methods Focus group interviews were held among 16 primary school teachers and 17 public health nurses and physicians. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed according to factors of the Integrated Change model, such as knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, skills, social influences and barriers influencing detection and reporting of child abuse. Results Findings showed that although both groups of professionals are aware of child abuse signs and risks, they are also lacking specific knowledge. The most salient differences between the two professional groups are related to attitude and (communication) skills. Conclusion The results suggest that frontline workers are in need of supportive tools in the child abuse detection and reporting process. On the basis of our findings, directions for improvement of child abuse detection and reporting are discussed. PMID:24007516

  7. Child protection reports: key issues arising for public health nurses.

    PubMed

    Hanafin, Sinead

    2013-10-01

    Similar to other countries, there have been a number of high-profile reports into past and recent cases of child abuse and neglect in Ireland. The most recent of these have been the Monageer Inquiry, the Ryan Report, the Roscommon Child Care Case and the Report of the Independent Child Death Review Group. An analysis of these reports highlights the critical role played by public health nurses with troubled families. It also makes explicit key issues that consistently emerge as problematic in terms of professional practice. This paper summarises the main findings of the reports as they relate to the public health nursing service and identifies key themes emerging along with recommendations arising. The emerging themes relate to assessment, early intervention, record keeping, communication and interdisciplinary working and the role of public health nursing management.

  8. Social support and child protection: Lessons learned and learning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ross A

    2015-03-01

    Social support has been a topic of research for nearly 50 years, and its applications to prevention and intervention have grown significantly, including programs advancing child protection. This article summarizes the central conclusions of the 1994 review of research on social support and the prevention of child maltreatment prepared for the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, and surveys advances in the field since its publication. Among the lessons learned twenty years ago are (a) the diversity of the social support needs of at-risk families and their association with child endangerment, (b) the need to supplement the emotionally affirmative aspects of social support with efforts to socialize parenting practices and monitor child well-being, (c) the desirability of integrating formal and informal sources of social support for recipients, and (d) the importance of considering the complex recipient reactions to receiving support from others. The lessons we are now learning derive from research exploring the potential of online communication to enhance social support, the neurobiology of stress and its buffering through social support, and the lessons of evaluation research that are identifying the effective ingredients of social support interventions.

  9. Client and worker satisfaction in a child protection agency.

    PubMed

    Winefield, H R; Barlow, J A

    1995-08-01

    Client and staff satisfaction with the workings of a multidisciplinary child protection agency were investigated using interviews and standard questionnaires. The goal was to discover the nature and strength of the helping relationship between service-recipients and providers. Current clients (N = 24) expressed a great deal of satisfaction with the staff and services. The agency staff (N = 21, with 11 employed at least half-time to work directly with families) were relatively satisfied with their jobs, and showed little evidence of the burnout which has been recognized as a risk for child protection workers. They were able to relate empathically to clients and felt enthusiasm for the work. Taking account of possible bias in both sets of answers, there is still evidence that the agency is succeeding in creating a necessary precondition for therapeutic change: the development of accepting and positive worker-client relationships.

  10. Trends in Child Protection and Out-of-Home Care

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Moira A.; Franke, Todd M.; Albertin, Christina S.; Blumkin, Aaron K.; Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, increased knowledge about childhood abuse and trauma have prompted changes in child welfare policy, and practice that may have affected the out-of-home (OOH) care population. However, little is known about recent national trends in child maltreatment, OOH placement, or characteristics of children in OOH care. The objective of this study was to examine trends in child maltreatment and characteristics of children in OOH care. METHODS: We analyzed 2 federal administrative databases to identify and characterize US children who were maltreated (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System) or in OOH care (Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System). We assessed trends between 2000 and 2010. RESULTS: The number of suspected maltreatment cases increased 17% from 2000 to 2010, yet the number of substantiated cases decreased 7% and the number of children in OOH care decreased 25%. Despite the decrease in OOH placements, we found a 19% increase in the number of children who entered OOH care because of maltreatment (vs other causes), a 36% increase in the number of children with multiple (vs single) types of maltreatment, and a 60% increase in the number of children in OOH care identified as emotionally disturbed. CONCLUSIONS: From 2000 to 2010, fewer suspected cases of maltreatment were substantiated, despite increased investigations, and fewer maltreated children were placed in OOH care. These changes may have led to a smaller but more complex OOH care population with substantial previous trauma and emotional problems. PMID:24062369

  11. Schools as Agencies of Protection in Namibia and Swaziland: Can They Prevent Dropout and Child Labor in the Context of HIV/AIDS and Poverty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses a particular area of research in the field of education and child protection: the protective role of schools in the contexts of HIV/AIDS and poverty. Such adverse situations may lead children not to enroll in school or to drop out of school and subsequently to be subjected to abusive child labor and, in some cases, the worst…

  12. Victim Resistance in Child Sexual Abuse: A Look into the Efficacy of Self-Protection Strategies Based on the Offender's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy, as experienced by offenders with their victim, of self-protection strategies used in child sexual abuse cases. It also investigates whether the efficacy of self-protection varies according to victim characteristics. The sample consists of 94 adult offenders who sexually abused a single child and who agreed to…

  13. Media coverage of the Child B case.

    PubMed Central

    Entwistle, V. A.; Watt, I. S.; Bradbury, R.; Pehl, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    The case of a girl with leukaemia, known as Child B, hit the headlines in March 1995 when her father refused to accept the advice of doctors who counselled against further treatment and took Cambridge and Huntingdon Health Authority to court for refusing to fund chemotherapy and a second bone transplant for her in the private sector. British national newspapers varied greatly in the way they covered the case. Some paid little attention to clinical considerations and presented the case as an example of rationing based on financial considerations. Their selective presentations meant that anyone reading just one newspaper would have received only limited and partial information. If members of the public are to participate in debates about treatment decisions and health care rationing, means other than the media will need to be found to inform and involve them. Images p1587-a PMID:8664671

  14. Exploring Demand and Provision in English Child Protection Services

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Rick; Goldacre, Allie; Grant, Robert; Jones, Ray

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory study linking the national data-sets for all children in need and child protection services in England. The study was informed by an emerging literature on systems thinking in public services, and aimed to examine variations and patterns of response in local authorities to demand for child welfare services in their area. One hundred and fifty-two local authority census returns and other statistical indicators covering up to a thirteen-year period were combined into a single data-set. Statistical analysis was undertaken to explore the characteristics of demand, workload and workforce, trends over time and variations between local authorities. The results showed that the overall system has become increasingly geared towards protective interventions, especially since the Baby P scandal of 2008. Deprivation levels continue to be the key driver of referrals and other categories of demand, and are strongly associated with variations in service response, particularly in the initial stages of referral and assessment. Implications are considered for the current organisation of child welfare services in light of recent reviews and reforms. PMID:27559206

  15. Exploring Demand and Provision in English Child Protection Services.

    PubMed

    Hood, Rick; Goldacre, Allie; Grant, Robert; Jones, Ray

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory study linking the national data-sets for all children in need and child protection services in England. The study was informed by an emerging literature on systems thinking in public services, and aimed to examine variations and patterns of response in local authorities to demand for child welfare services in their area. One hundred and fifty-two local authority census returns and other statistical indicators covering up to a thirteen-year period were combined into a single data-set. Statistical analysis was undertaken to explore the characteristics of demand, workload and workforce, trends over time and variations between local authorities. The results showed that the overall system has become increasingly geared towards protective interventions, especially since the Baby P scandal of 2008. Deprivation levels continue to be the key driver of referrals and other categories of demand, and are strongly associated with variations in service response, particularly in the initial stages of referral and assessment. Implications are considered for the current organisation of child welfare services in light of recent reviews and reforms.

  16. Developing Pathways to Assist Parents to Exit the Child Protection System in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnett, Paul; Day, Crispin

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of child abuse and neglect is an international concern that justifies the existence of child protection systems. An important first principle for all such statutory child protection systems is to ensure that the system itself does no further harm. It can be argued that there are specific circumstances within which well-meaning…

  17. Child Protection in Sport: Implications of an Athlete-Centered Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Gretchen A.; Stirling, Ashley E.

    2008-01-01

    As sport is a highly child-populated domain, the establishment of child-protection measures to reduce the potential for child maltreatment in sport is critical. Concern for the protection of children in sport has a history that is as old as modern sport itself; however, it is only recently that concern has been established about children's…

  18. Effectiveness of Child Protection Training for Pre-Service Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Bronagh E.; Dillenburger, Karola

    2012-01-01

    International evidence confirms that early childhood educators can enter professional practice unprepared for child protection due to inadequate pre-service preparation. This paper makes an original contribution by using the Child Protection Questionnaire for Educators (CPQE) to examine the pre- and post-intervention child maltreatment and…

  19. Decision making in child protective services: a risky business?

    PubMed

    Camasso, Michael J; Jagannathan, Radha

    2013-09-01

    Child Protective Services (CPS) in the United States has received a torrent of criticism from politicians, the media, child advocate groups, and the general public for a perceived propensity to make decisions that are detrimental to children and families. This perception has resulted in numerous lawsuits and court takeovers of CPS in 35 states, and calls for profound restructuring in other states. A widely prescribed remedy for decision errors and faulty judgments is an improvement of risk assessment strategies that enhance hazard evaluation through an improved understanding of threat potentials and exposure likelihoods. We examine the reliability and validity problems that continue to plague current CPS risk assessment and discuss actions that can be taken in the field, including the use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve technology to improve the predictive validity of risk assessment strategies.

  20. Decision making in child protection: An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals' child welfare attitudes.

    PubMed

    Benbenishty, Rami; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; López, Mónica; Devaney, John; Spratt, Trevor; Koopmans, Carien; Knorth, Erik J; Witteman, Cilia L M; Del Valle, Jorge F; Hayes, David

    2015-11-01

    Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study presents the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) and uses it to examine the relationships between three independent domains: case characteristic (mother's wish with regard to removal), practitioner characteristic (child welfare attitudes), and protective system context (four countries: Israel, the Netherlands, Northern Ireland and Spain); and three dependent factors: substantiation of maltreatment, risk assessment, and intervention recommendation. The sample consisted of 828 practitioners from four countries. Participants were presented with a vignette of a case of alleged child maltreatment and were asked to determine whether maltreatment was substantiated, assess risk and recommend an intervention using structured instruments. Participants' child welfare attitudes were assessed. The case characteristic of mother's wish with regard to removal had no impact on judgments and decisions. In contrast, practitioners' child welfare attitudes were associated with substantiation, risk assessments and recommendations. There were significant country differences on most measures. The findings support most of the predictions derived from the JUDPIC model. The significant differences between practitioners from different countries underscore the importance of context in child protection decision making. Training should enhance practitioners' awareness of the impact that their attitudes and the context in which they are embedded have on their judgments and decisions.

  1. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  2. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  3. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  4. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  5. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  6. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  7. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  8. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  9. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  10. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  11. Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

  12. The effect of material hardship on child protective service involvement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mi-Youn

    2015-03-01

    This study employs four waves of survey data on 1,135 families from the Illinois Families Study, a longitudinal panel study of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families in Illinois. This study explores the following issues within this low-income population: (1) whether material hardships are associated with child protective services (CPS) investigations, (2) whether the effect of material hardship on CPS differs by the type of child maltreatment investigated, and (3) whether psychological distress mediates the association between material hardship and CPS involvement. Results from pooled and fixed effects logistic regressions suggest that caregivers who experience material hardship are more likely to become involved in CPS. In general, investigated neglect reports are responsive to particular types of hardship such as housing and food, while investigated physical abuse reports are responsive to levels of hardship regardless of specific types. The association between material hardship and CPS involvement is not fully explained by depressive symptoms or parenting stress. The study results suggest that in order to prevent child maltreatment, it may be necessary to address a family's unmet material needs through economic support interventions.

  13. Innovations in child protective services inservice training: commitment to excellence.

    PubMed

    Miller, J; Dore, M M

    1991-01-01

    The overwhelming obstacles to effective CPS intervention created by increasing reports of abuse and neglect, funding shortfalls, and the lack of qualified workers have prompted national efforts to reform the public child welfare system in the United States. Organizations such as the American Public Welfare Association, the Children's Defense Fund, the Child Welfare League of America, and the National Association of Social Workers are currently working closely with other national organizations to develop legislative proposals that will enable child welfare agencies to be more responsive to the needs of children and families. A critical component of this reform is the need to recruit, train, and retain qualified and competent CPS workers. The four training programs described in this article are examples of innovative programs seeking to enhance service delivery by enhancing the knowledge and skills of their staff members. Although the four programs were developed in very different political and social climates and within diverse organizational structures, they all provide useful lessons in how to develop efficient and effective training for workers delivering protective services for children. Any national, state, or local efforts to design and develop new CPS training programs should take into account the significant strides made by these agencies.

  14. Reported Contact with Child Protection Services among Those Reporting Child Physical and Sexual Abuse: Results from a Community Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Harriet L.; Jamieson, Ellen; Walsh, Christine A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study uses results from a large community survey to examine the relationship between a history of child maltreatment and self-reports of contact with Child Protection Services (CPS). Methods: The Ontario Health Supplement was a province-wide, probability-based survey of household dwellings in the province of Ontario, Canada. A…

  15. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: a case report.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, E M G; Subhagya, B; Muthu, M S; Sivakumar, N

    2005-06-01

    Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child's physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  16. Work-Integrated Learning Courses: An Essential Component for Preparing Students to Work in Statutory Child Protection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Annerly; Bates, Lyndel

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate programs can play an important role in the development of individuals wanting professional employment within statutory child protection agencies: both the coursework and the work-integrated learning (WIL) components of degrees have a role in this process. This paper uses a collective case study methodology to examine the perceptions…

  17. Female Sexual Abuse and Criminal Justice Intervention: A Comparison of Child Protective Service and Criminal Justice Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Shannon M.; Scalora, Mario J.; Casady, Thomas K.; Black, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study compared a sample of female perpetrators reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) to a sample of women from the criminal justice system. Instead of examining a clinical or criminal justice sample in isolation, this comparison allows a more accurate description of female sexual offending. Methods: Cases were drawn…

  18. Adolescent fathers involved with child protection: social workers speak.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Derrick M; Watkins, Natasha D; Walling, Sherry M; Wilhelm, Sara; Rayford, Brett S

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent paternity through structured interviews with their social workers. It adds to the literature by exploring if there were young men involved with the child protection services (CPS) system who are fathers, identifying their unique needs, and beginning discussions on working with these young men. CPS social workers from six area offices and one juvenile detention facility completed surveys for each father on their caseload. A 3.5% rate of adolescent paternity was observed across these offices. Information about the nature of the young men's involvement with CPS, their involvement with their children, and their unique needs as fathers are provided. This paper also identifies some practice and policy implications for adolescent fathers and CPS charged with their care.

  19. Protecting the interests of the child bone marrow donor.

    PubMed

    Terry, Louise M; Campbell, Anne

    2004-01-01

    At a time when designer babies have been created to act as cord blood donors to sick siblings, ethical debate has focused predominantly on the extent to which it is acceptable to create one human being to assist another. However, children are frequently used this way, by their families and doctors who extract their bone marrow, to try to save the life of another, usually a sibling. With any life-threatening illness, there is the possibility that the urgency of the sick sibling's need means that the short-term welfare of the donor child receives less attention than it should by parents and doctors. This article suggests ways to protect the interests of such children and empower them within the decision-making process and concludes that the drive to save life must be tempered by recognition of the intrinsic worth of donor children and their rights not to be exploited.

  20. Outcomes of referrals to Child Protective Services for medical neglect in patients with phenylketonuria: Experiences at a single treatment center.

    PubMed

    Bannick, Allison A; Laufman, Jason D; Edwards, Heidi L; Ventimiglia, June; Feldman, Gerald L

    2015-08-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) results in an accumulation of phenylalanine (phe) in the blood which can lead to multiple health consequences in affected individuals. Treatment for PKU is available; however adherence to medical management recommendations can be difficult. When recommendations are not followed and the health of a child is at risk, one intervention that may be necessary is a referral for medical neglect to the local child protective services (CPS) agency. This study summarizes the cases that were referred from our metabolic clinic at the Children's Hospital of Michigan to CPS, and the outcomes of that intervention. CPS referrals helped to improve adherence to medical management recommendations in the majority of cases, including a lower blood phe level for the child; however, at times that improvement did not occur until after a second referral and/or the child's temporary removal from the home.

  1. Prenatal reporting to child protection: Characteristics and service responses in one Australian jurisdiction.

    PubMed

    Taplin, Stephanie

    2017-03-01

    Prenatal reporting to child protection services has been enacted into most jurisdictions across Australia and in other countries, its aims being to intervene early and provide supports which will either identify or prevent the need for a baby to be taken into care and protection once born. Despite indications that there are increasing numbers of prenatal reports, little is known about the characteristics of those reported, the timing and reasons for reports, service responses, and the impacts of being reported. This study is one of the first to use administrative data to examine the characteristics of two samples from one Australian jurisdiction: (i) data from casefiles of 38 cases reported in 2012-13, and (ii) administrative data from 117 cases reported prenatally in 2013. These data showed that women who were reported to child protection services in relation to their pregnancy were predominantly disadvantaged, and were likely to be reported relatively late in their pregnancy due to 'future risk concerns'. Approximately two-thirds of those reported were provided with some prenatal support, as recorded by the child protection system, generally of limited duration. Twelve percent of the babies born to the larger cohort of women were removed within 100days of their birth. It is likely that longer term supportive interventions are needed, to reduce the risk factors evident in women reported during pregnancy, and to improve their ability to safely care for their children. Information on the short and long-term impacts from rigorous evaluations and longer-term intervention trials are also vital to ensure that prenatal reporting and interventions are, in fact, improving outcomes for infants and families.

  2. [Child maltreatment prevention: the pediatrician's function. Part 1: Overview, evidence, risk factors, protective factors and triggers].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan P

    2015-12-01

    Child maltreatment is a common and serious problem. It harms children in the short and long term, affecting their future health and their offspring. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary preventing interventions target on child abuse are described. Evidence-based recommendations on child abuse prevention and examples of researches with proven efficacy are detailed. Risk factors, protective factors and triggers of child abuse and their relationships are described.

  3. Commission on Child Online Protection (COPA) Report to Congress [and] Personal Statements of COPA Commissioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In October, 1998, Congress enacted the Child Online Protection Act and established the Commission on Online Child Protection (COPA) to study methods to help reduce access by minors to certain sexually explicit material, defined in the statute as harmful to minors. Congress directed the Commission to evaluate the accessibility, cost, and…

  4. Child Protection in Primary Schools: A Contradiction in Terms or a Potential Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Helen; McGarry, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the topic of child protection in Irish primary schools, and reports on a recently completed survey of newly qualified teachers' knowledge of and familiarity with their school's child protection policies and procedures. The study was undertaken by means of a questionnaire survey, and conducted with 103 teachers from different…

  5. Criminal prosecution of child sexual abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Martone, M; Jaudes, P K; Cavins, M K

    1996-05-01

    To describe the outcome of prosecuting alleged intrafamilial/caretaker child sexual abuse, the authors evaluated charts for 1986-1988 at La Rabida Children's Hospital and Research Center in Chicago, plus police records for Area V, Chicago for 1986-1987. The state's attorney's office provided data on outcome of legal proceedings. Of 451 allegations, 324 (72%) were formally designated as probable sexual abuse cases, and 269 (83%) alleged perpetrators were identified. Complaints (77 felonies, 29 misdemeanors, and 30 juvenile charges) were initiated by the police for preliminary hearings against 136 (51%) persons. Of the felony charges, 66 (85.7%) resulted in indictments, and 11 (14.3%) in dismissal of charges by judge or grand jury. Thirty-two (48.5%) of those indicted pleaded guilty, 24 (36%) went to trial; 16 (67%) were found guilty, and 8 (12%) had charges dismissed. Therefore, of the 77 felony complaints initiated, 48 (62%) ended in convictions and 29 (38%) in dismissals or not-guilty verdicts. Only 24 (5%) of the original allegations resulted in trials. Although 30% of allegations and 51% of alleged perpetrators ended up in court, only 17% of the original 451 allegations were prosecuted for a felony. For felony indictments, 36% of victims appeared in court. Forty-three of 48 persons found guilty served time (mean sentencing time, 6.8 years). The mean time from initial hearing to final disposition was 321 days and was significantly longer if the accused either went to trial (501 vs. 236 days) or was found guilty or pleaded guilty (353 vs. 254 days for not-guilty verdicts). The authors conclude that very few children (5%) have to appear as witnesses in court, as most cases are resolved by plea bargaining, and that resolution by trial can take 12 to 16 months.

  6. Adult-Child Incest: A Sample of Substantiated Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Mey, Brenda J.; Neff, Ronald L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes adult-child incest involving 16 victims. Cases were analyzed and discussed in relationship to previous studies. Emphasis is placed on replicated and newly identified risk factors including alcohol dependency, spouse abuse, other (nonsexual) child abuse or neglect, inadequate housing, social isolation, birth order, and other family…

  7. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008

    PubMed Central

    Tonmyr, L.; Gonzalez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%), and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations. PMID:26605560

  8. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  9. [False allegations of child sexual abuse and paranoid disorder: a report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Karanfil, Ramazan; Akçan, Ramazan; Orhan, F Özlem

    2011-01-01

    Allegations of child sexual abuse have considerable consequences for individuals and society. Herein, we report 2 cases of false allegations of child sexual abuse by mothers diagnosed as paranoid disorder. Case 1, a 31-year-old mother accused her husband of sexually abusing her 3 daughters, aged 2, 4, and 6 years. Case 2 is a 30-year-old mother that went to the public prosecutor with allegations of sexual abuse of her 6-year-old daughter by a nursery teacher and a stranger. Examination of both alleged victims did not reveal objective findings of sexual abuse. Based on psychiatric examinations, both mothers were diagnosed with paranoid disorder. Consequently, the public prosecutor decided not to prosecute. Considering the possibility of false allegations in such cases, psychiatric examination of the complainant should be performed in order to provide accurate information necessary for legal proceedings and to protect the child.

  10. A new age for child protection--General Comment 13: why it is important, how it was constructed, and what it intends?

    PubMed

    Hart, Stuart N; Lee, Yanghee; Wernham, Marie

    2011-12-01

    Children continue to be subjected to high levels of violence (i.e., physical, psychological and sexual maltreatment) throughout the world. International concern about violence against children has increased significantly during the last decade. A Study on Violence Against Children, encouraged by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, conducted under the auspices of the United Nations Secretary General and reported in 2006, has become a rallying call to improve child protection. Child protection practices and systems have been judged to be generally inadequate and, in some cases, destructive. It is widely recognized that business as usual-more of the same-will not do. A General Comment (guide to fulfilling obligations) for Article 19, the central conceptualization of child protection of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, has the potential to promote a worldwide reformulation of child protection priorities, policies, and practices by virtue of the infusion of a child rights approach. It can be a mechanism for framing and promoting the transformational change needed - for a genuine paradigm shift. Here, explication is given for the historical context, rationale, centrality of child rights, process of development, holistic nature, and primary elements of General Comment 13 (GC13): The child's right to freedom from all forms of violence. GC13 embodies and champions a child rights approach to child protection entailing strong support for proactive primary prevention, promotion of good child care, and a commitment to secure the rights and well-being of all children. A child rights-based, comprehensive coordinating framework is recommended for the implementation of GC13.

  11. Should child obesity be an issue for child protective services? A call for more research on this critical public health issue.

    PubMed

    Jones, Deborah J; Gonzalez, Michelle; Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber; Emunah, Josie; Miller, Lindsey; Anton, Margaret

    2014-04-01

    Given the lasting effects on adolescent and adult health, childhood obesity is a major public health issue. The relatively slow progress toward the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity, however, has prompted leaders in both academic and practice sectors to advocate for what may be considered a radical intervention approach, to conceptualize extreme child obesity as an issue of child maltreatment. Advocates of this approach suggest that this conceptualization affords a new angle for intervention-the involvement of child protective services (CPS) in mandating family-focused lifestyle changes aimed at reducing child overweight and, in the most extreme cases, the removal of the obese child from the home. However, surprisingly little research has been conducted to inform policies or practices consistent with this recommendation, which is already being implemented in some states. This article aims to provide an overview of the challenges to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity that have motivated the call for CPS involvement in extreme cases and to review the existing research related to this approach. Given that relatively little data are currently available to support or refute the merits of CPS involvement, recommendations for future research that would better inform public policy and decision making regarding this and other intervention strategies are also highlighted.

  12. 25 CFR 63.31 - Can both the Bureau of Indian Affairs and tribes operate Indian child protection and family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Indian child protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.31 Section 63.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.31 Can both the Bureau...

  13. 25 CFR 63.31 - Can both the Bureau of Indian Affairs and tribes operate Indian child protection and family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Indian child protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.31 Section 63.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.31 Can both the Bureau...

  14. 25 CFR 63.31 - Can both the Bureau of Indian Affairs and tribes operate Indian child protection and family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Indian child protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.31 Section 63.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.31 Can both the Bureau...

  15. 25 CFR 63.31 - Can both the Bureau of Indian Affairs and tribes operate Indian child protection and family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Indian child protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.31 Section 63.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.31 Can both the Bureau...

  16. 25 CFR 63.31 - Can both the Bureau of Indian Affairs and tribes operate Indian child protection and family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Indian child protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.31 Section 63.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.31 Can both the Bureau...

  17. Child maltreatment syndrome: demographics and developmental issues of inpatient cases

    PubMed Central

    Ngiam, Xin Ying; Kang, Ying Qi; Aishworiya, Ramkumar; Kiing, Jennifer; Law, Evelyn Chung Ning

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to describe the demographic, social, developmental and behavioural profile of children hospitalised for alleged child maltreatment syndrome (CMS). METHODS This study was a retrospective review of the consecutive inpatient records of children (0–16 years) admitted to the National University Hospital, Singapore, for alleged CMS over a three-year period. Descriptive data on the demographic characteristics, alleged maltreatment, medical and developmental histories, and family background of these children were collected and analysed. Chi-square statistics were used to test whether family factors were associated with the type of maltreatment and the presence of developmental disorders. RESULTS A total of 89 children, who accounted for 90 admission cases, were studied. Physical abuse (70.0%) was the most common, followed by neglect (11.1%) and sexual abuse (7.8%). Child protection services had already been involved in 29.2% of the cases prior to the child’s admission. Children who were victims of abuse were more likely to come from homes with a prior history of domestic violence (p = 0.028). Financial difficulty was found to be a risk factor for neglect (p = 0.005). Among the 89 children, 15.7% were found to have developmental disorders and 10.1% had mental health diagnoses. Children who had developmental disorders were more likely to have a parent with a mental health disorder (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION A sizeable proportion of the children admitted for alleged CMS had developmental or behavioural disorders. Clinicians have a role in ensuring that these children have appropriate follow-up plans. Children from high-risk families should be screened for maltreatment. PMID:26668405

  18. Animal-human relationships in child protective services: getting a baseline.

    PubMed

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Zilney, Lisa Anne; Hornung, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion of certain aspects of animal-human relationships (AHR), such as animal abuse and animal-assisted interventions, can enhance child welfare practice and there are resources available to promote such inclusion. However, there is little knowledge of whether this is being accomplished. This study sought to fill this gap by conducting a national survey of state public child welfare agencies to examine AHR in child protective services practice, their assessment tools, and cross-reporting policies.

  19. Effectiveness of a Parent Training Program "Incredible Years" in a Child Protection Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letarte, Marie-Josee; Normandeau, Sylvie; Allard, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a parent training program in improving parenting practices, parents' feeling of self-efficacy and parents' perception of their child's behavior, implemented in a child protection service, with trained professionals from the agency acting as facilitators. Method: Thirty-five parents…

  20. Timely and Needed Perspectives on Differential Response in Child Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Alberta J.

    2013-01-01

    This article is an invited commentary and analysis of the authors' completed systematic evaluation of Child Protective Services (CPS) differential response (DR) models. I write this commentary based on 25 years of public child welfare experience followed by 13 years as a social work professor and researcher. In their review of DR, the…

  1. What Criteria Do Child Protective Services Investigators Use to Substantiate Exposure to Domestic Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31…

  2. Children and Parent Participation in Child Protection Conferences: A Study in One English Local Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, Kerry; Diaz, Clive; Wright, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The overall purpose of a child protection conference is to safeguard children. The conferences are multi-agency meetings that aim to ensure children's safety, promote children's health and development, and identify when a child is at continuing risk of significant harm. Law and policies in the United Kingdom highlight that parents and children…

  3. Describing Maltreatment: Do Child Protective Service Reports and Research Definitions Agree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyan, Desmond K.; Cox, Christine E.; Dubowitz, Howard; Newton, Rae R.; Upadhyaya, Mukund; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Everson, Mark D.; Knight, Elizabeth D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The National Research Council identified inadequate research definitions for abuse and neglect as barriers to research in child maltreatment. We examine the concordance between child protective services (CPS) classifications of maltreatment type with the determinations of type from two research coding systems. We contrast the two coding…

  4. Children's Experiences of Domestic Violence: Developing an Integrated Response from Police and Child Protection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Nicky; Miller, Pam; Richardson Foster, Helen; Thomson, Gill

    2011-01-01

    Police notifications of incidents of domestic violence to child protection services constitute an acknowledgement of the harm that domestic violence inflicts on children. However, these notifications represent a substantial demand on child welfare services and the outcomes for children and victims of domestic violence have been questioned. This…

  5. A Randomized Trial of Wraparound Facilitation versus Usual Child Protection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Dillon T.; Puente-Duran, Sofia; Shlonsky, Aron; Thabane, Lehana; Verticchio, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the addition of a wraparound facilitator to regular child protection services improved child and family functioning over 20 months. Method: A single blind randomized controlled trial with concealment and stratification across three sites (N = 135 eligible families with substantiated maltreatment). Results: Based on 2…

  6. Children at Risk of Neglect: Challenges Faced by Child Protection Practitioners in Guatemala City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coope, Caroline M.; Theobald, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were to (1) delineate the definition, common forms, and perceived risk factors contributing to child neglect in Guatemala from the perspective of different stakeholders and (2) identify the challenges faced by child protection practitioners in identifying children at risk of neglect within the context of Guatemala.…

  7. The relevance of the Goudge inquiry to the practice of child protection/forensic paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Skellern, Catherine; Donald, Terence

    2014-10-01

    In 2008 Ontario, Canada the Goudge Inquiry arose following increasing concerns about practices surrounding forensic pathology and the investigation of paediatric deaths. Some of the considerations and recommendations have relevance to child protection/forensic paediatricians, particularly in relation to their responsibilities in opinion formulation and as expert witnesses. By examining the Inquiry recommendations, this paper applies them in relation to child protection/forensic paediatrics by discussing forensic medicine and its legal context, how interpretation of published reports and data should be used in opinion formulation; issues of 'diagnosis' versus 'opinion'; issues specific to child protection paediatrics; quality control; aspects of report writing and terminological considerations. It concludes with an adaptation of key recommendations directly from those of Goudge, applied to the context of paediatric forensic medicine undertaken in child protection assessments.

  8. Child Sexual Abuse: A Case Study in Community Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Henry, James

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of a collaborative approach to the case management of child sexual abuse. Data from 323 criminal court files found a sex offense confession rate of 64 percent and plea rate of 70 percent. Fifteen cases went to trial and in six the offender was convicted. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  9. Responding to abuse: Children's experiences of child protection in a central district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Child, Jennifer Christine; Naker, Dipak; Horton, Jennifer; Walakira, Eddy Joshua; Devries, Karen M

    2014-10-01

    Part of a comprehensive response to violence against children involves child protection systems, but there are few data available on such systems in low-income countries. This study describes the characteristics and help seeking behavior of children referred to local child protection services and the quality of the first-line response in one district in Uganda. Participants included 3,706 children from 42 primary schools who participated in a baseline survey on violence as part of the Good Schools Study (NCT01678846, clinicaltrial.gov). Children who disclosed violence were referred according to predefined criteria based on the type, severity, and timeframe of their experiences. Children were followed up to 4 months after the study ended. First-line responses by receiving agencies were classified into 3 categories: plan for action only, some action taken, and no plan and no action taken. Appropriateness of responses was based on which agency responded, timeliness of the response, quality of the documentation, and final status of the case. From the baseline survey, 529 children (14%) were referred. Girls were more likely to be referred and to meet the criteria for a serious case (9% girls, 4% boys). In total, 104 referrals (20%) had some kind of concrete action taken, but only 20 (3.8%) cases met all criteria for having received an adequate response. Nearly half (43%) of referred children had ever sought help by disclosing their experiences of violence prior to the baseline survey. In our study areas, the first-line response to children's reports of abuse was poor even though some referral structures are in place.

  10. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  11. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  12. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  13. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  14. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  15. Child abuse: A classic case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Kemoli, Arthur M; Mavindu, Mildred

    2014-04-01

    Child abuse and neglect are serious global problems and can be in the form of physical, sexual, emotional or just neglect in providing for the child's needs. These factors can leave the child with serious, long-lasting psychological damage. In the present case report, a 12-year-old orphaned boy was physically abused by a close relative who caused actual bodily and emotional trauma to the boy. After satisfactorily managing the trauma and emotional effects to the patient, in addition to the counseling services provided to the caregiver, the patient made a steady recovery. He was also referred to a child support group for social support, and prepare him together with his siblings for placement in a children's home in view of the hostile environment in which they were living.

  16. Child, Caregiver, and Family Characteristics Associated with Emergency Department Use by Children Who Remain at Home after a Child Protective Services Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine emergency department (ED) use among children involved with child protective services (CPS) in the US but who remain at home, and to determine if ED use is related to child, caregiver and family characteristics as well as receipt of CPS services. Method: We analyzed data on 4,001 children in the National Survey of Child and…

  17. Predictors of re-entry into the child protection system in Singapore: a cumulative ecological-transactional risk model.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongdong; Chu, Chi Meng; Ng, Wei Chern; Leong, Wai

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the risk factors of re-entry for 1,750 child protection cases in Singapore using a cumulative ecological-transactional risk model. Using administrative data, the present study found that the overall percentage of Child Protection Service (CPS) re-entry in Singapore is 10.5% based on 1,750 cases, with a range from 3.9% (within 1 year) to 16.5% (within 8 years after case closure). One quarter of the re-entry cases were observed to occur within 9 months from case closure. Seventeen risk factors, as identified from the extant literature, were tested for their utility to predict CPS re-entry in this study using a series of Cox regression analyses. A final list of seven risk factors (i.e., children's age at entry, case type, case closure result, duration of case, household income, family size, and mother's employment status) was used to create a cumulative risk score. The results supported the cumulative risk model in that higher risk score is related to higher risk of CPS re-entry. Understanding the prevalence of CPS re-entry and the risk factors associated with re-entry is the key to informing practice and policy in a culturally relevant way. The results from this study could then be used to facilitate critical case management decisions in order to enhance positive outcomes of families and children in Singapore's care system.

  18. Child Welfare League of America Standards for Child Protective Service. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    The Child Welfare League of America has revised an earlier series of standards for child welfare services in the light of current knowledge of the developmental needs of children and effective ways of serving them. These standards are intended to be goals for continuous improvement of services to children. They represent practices considered to be…

  19. A Call for Field-Relevant Research about Child Forensic Interviewing for Child Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olafson, Erna

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews some sensitivity versus specificity imbalances in forensic investigations of child sexual abuse. It then proposes the development or further testing of additional approaches for those children who do not respond to the current, single-interview National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) protocol. Although…

  20. The Measurement of Within-Child Protective Factors in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBuffe, Paul A.

    This paper offers a method for evaluating protective factors in young children at risk for emotional and/or behavioral disorders. It reviews the development, standardization, validation, and use of a new, nationally standardized measure of within child protective factors, the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA). The DECA evaluates the…

  1. Creating Community Responsibility for Child Protection: Possibilities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Deborah Daro and Kenneth Dodge observe that efforts to prevent child abuse have historically focused on directly improving the skills of parents who are at risk for or engaged in maltreatment. But, as experts increasingly recognize that negative forces within a community can overwhelm even well-intentioned parents, attention is shifting toward…

  2. Protecting Our Own. Community Child Passenger Safety Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This manual provides information on implementing a local child passenger safety program. It covers understanding the problems and solutions; deciding what can be done; planning and carrying out a project; providing adequate, accurate, and current technical information; and reaching additional sources of information. Chapter 1 provides community…

  3. Creating community responsibility for child protection: possibilities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Daro, Deborah; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    Deborah Daro and Kenneth Dodge observe that efforts to prevent child abuse have historically focused on directly improving the skills of parents who are at risk for or engaged in maltreatment. But, as experts increasingly recognize that negative forces within a community can overwhelm even well-intentioned parents, attention is shifting toward creating environments that facilitate a parent's ability to do the right thing. The most sophisticated and widely used community prevention programs, say Daro and Dodge, emphasize the reciprocal interplay between individual-family behavior and broader neighborhood, community, and cultural contexts. The authors examine five different community prevention efforts, summarizing for each both the theory of change and the empirical evidence concerning its efficacy. Each program aims to enhance community capacity by expanding formal and informal resources and establishing a normative cultural context capable of fostering collective responsibility for positive child development. Over the past ten years, researchers have explored how neighborhoods influence child development and support parenting. Scholars are still searching for agreement on the most salient contextual factors and on how to manipulate these factors to increase the likelihood parents will seek out, find, and effectively use necessary and appropriate support. The current evidence base for community child abuse prevention, observe Daro and Dodge, offers both encouragement and reason for caution. Although theory and empirical research suggest that intervention at the neighborhood level is likely to prevent child maltreatment, designing and implementing a high-quality, multifaceted community prevention initiative is expensive. Policy makers must consider the trade-offs in investing in strategies to alter community context and those that expand services for known high-risk individuals. The authors conclude that if the concept of community prevention is to move beyond the

  4. Creating Community Responsibility for Child Protection: Possibilities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Daro, Deborah; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Deborah Daro and Kenneth Dodge observe that efforts to prevent child abuse have historically focused on directly improving the skills of parents who are at risk for or engaged in maltreatment. But, as experts increasingly recognize that negative forces within a community can overwhelm even well-intentioned parents, attention is shifting toward creating environments that facilitate a parent’s ability to do the right thing. The most sophisticated and widely used community prevention programs, say Daro and Dodge, emphasize the reciprocal interplay between individual-family behavior and broader neighborhood, community, and cultural contexts. The authors examine five different community prevention efforts, summarizing for each both the theory of change and the empirical evidence concerning its efficacy. Each program aims to enhance community capacity by expanding formal and informal resources and establishing a normative cultural context capable of fostering collective responsibility for positive child development. Over the past ten years, researchers have explored how neighborhoods influence child development and support parenting. Scholars are still searching for agreement on the most salient contextual factors and on how to manipulate these factors to increase the likelihood parents will seek out, find, and effectively use necessary and appropriate support. The current evidence base for community child abuse prevention, observe Daro and Dodge, offers both encouragement and reason for caution. Although theory and empirical research suggest that intervention at the neighborhood level is likely to prevent child maltreatment, designing and implementing a high-quality, multifaceted community prevention initiative is expensive. Policy makers must consider the trade-offs in investing in strategies to alter community context and those that expand services for known high-risk individuals. The authors conclude that if the concept of community prevention is to move

  5. The White Mountain Apache Child Protection Service Training Curriculum. Nohwii Chaghashe Baa da gontzaa (Protect Our Apache Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Santin, Edwin, Comp.

    This curriculum manual provides 8 days of training for child protective services (CPS) personnel (social workers and administrators) working in the White Mountain Apache tribal community. Each of the first seven units in the manual contains a brief description of contents, course objectives, time required, key concepts, possible discussion topics,…

  6. Mothers' Strategies for Protecting Children from Batterers: The Perspectives of Battered Women Involved in Child Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haight, Wendy L.; Shim, Woochan S.; Linn, Linda M.; Swinford, Laura

    2007-01-01

    During in-depth, individual interviews, seventeen battered women involved in the public child welfare system discussed the effects of domestic violence on their children, and their strategies for protecting and supporting them. Most mothers articulated the detrimental effects of domestic violence on their children and coherent strategies to…

  7. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  8. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  9. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  10. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  11. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  12. [Child abuse in Tlaxcala: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children.

  13. Differentiating between child protection and family support in the Canadian child welfare system's response to intimate partner violence, corporal punishment, and child neglect.

    PubMed

    Trocmé, Nico; Fallon, Barbara; Sinha, Vandna; Van Wert, Melissa; Kozlowski, Anna; Maclaurin, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Rates of reported child maltreatment nearly doubled in Canada over the period 1998-2003, an increase that reflects growing awareness of the harmful effects of an expanding array of parental behaviors, including corporal punishment, lack of supervision, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). Some of these situations may benefit from voluntary family support programs outside of the child welfare system. Analyzing a sample of 11,807 investigations, this paper compares cases where the sole concern is exposure to IPV, or hitting a child, or neglect, or other forms of investigated maltreatment. Situations where exposure to IPV or potentially abusive hitting were the sole reason for investigation presented with fewer risk factors and were less likely to lead to ongoing child welfare interventions compared to other maltreatment investigations. While situations involving alleged neglect presented a higher risk profile and elicited a more intensive child welfare response than did exposure to IPV or hitting, opportunities for alternative services were nevertheless identified. The study also found that visible minority families were overrepresented in cases involving hitting and that Aboriginal families were overrepresented in cases involving neglect. Overall the findings support the development of alternative response programs in Canada.

  14. Practices Changes in the Child Protection System to Address the Needs of Parents With Cognitive Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Sandra T.; Maggi, Mirella C.; Proctor, Stephon Nathanial

    2016-01-01

    Parents with cognitive disabilities (PCD) are over-represented in the child protection system. However, the current state of the child protection system is not well prepared for working with them. Biases that exist against their parenting, the need for accommodations in assessment and intervention practices, and specific training in staff and cross systems barriers need to be addressed. This paper argues for changes that will ensure such parents are more effectively served and that child protection staff and contract providers are better equipped to work with them. Specific changes are discussed in assessment and intervention practices. These changes will require human capacity building and organizational restructuring. Although empirically based behavioral approaches with PCD will be emphasized, recent empirical work suggests that social information processing and neurocognitive problems occur in PCD. Approaches to working with such problems are emerging and must also be considered and integrated into a blueprint for change. PMID:27610050

  15. Engaging fathers in child protection services: A review of factors and strategies across ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Derrick M; Oliveros, Arazais; Hawes, Samuel W; Iwamoto, Derek K; Rayford, Brett S

    2012-08-01

    Current policy regarding child protection services places increasing demands for providers to engage fathers whose children are involved in the child protection process. This requisite brings to the fore the ongoing challenges that fathers have historically faced in working within these systems. Despite this need, there is little empirical evidence regarding the factors and strategies that impact the engagement of fathers in interventions relevant to child protection services. This comprehensive and systemic review synthesizes the available literature regarding factors and strategies that may foster paternal involvement in the child protection system and their services. We organize the literature concerning paternal engagement in child and family services around an ecological model that examines paternal engagement from individual, family, service provider, program, community, and policy levels. We consider factors and strategies along a continuum of engagement through intent to enroll, enrollment, and retention. This review advances theory by elucidating key factors that foster father engagement. The review also highlights the gaps in the literature and provides strategies for how researchers can address these areas. Future directions in the arenas of practice and policy are discussed.

  16. What Can We Do to Bring the Sparkle Back into This Child's Eyes? Child Rights/Community Development Principles: Key Elements for a Strengths-Based Child Protection Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; McKenzie, Margaret; Schjelderup, Liv; Omre, Cecilie; Walker, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    Working from practice experiences, Social Work educators from Aotearoa/New Zealand, Norway and Western Australia have developed a framework for child welfare work . The framework brings together the Rights of the Child, Community Development and Child Protection. This article describes the principles and theoretical underpinnings of this…

  17. Bilateral Femoral Neck Stress Fracture in Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun-Woo; Yoon, Taek-Rim; Eshnazarovich, Eshnazarov Kamolhuja

    2016-01-01

    A femoral neck stress fracture in child is rare, particularly in bilateral case. It is easy to miss initially or may be misdiagnosed. The authors experienced a case of bilateral femoral neck stress fracture in a 10-year-old boy with bilateral hip. The patient was successfully healed by conservative treatment. We report this rare case with a review of the literature. A femoral neck stress fracture should be included in the differential diagnosis in children who present with sustained hip or groin pain. PMID:27777920

  18. A Global Investigation of Child Labor: Case Studies from India, Uganda, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Selena

    This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…

  19. Influence of Child and Family Factors on Judicial Decisions in Contested Custody Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Sara R.; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2003-01-01

    Explores how child and family factors influence judicial decision making in contested custody cases through interviews with 18 family court judges. Judges cited a variety of factors as being influential, including the child's age and developmental status, the child's wishes regarding the custody arrangement, the child's stability, parental…

  20. Risk, harm and intervention: the case of child obesity.

    PubMed

    Merry, Michael S; Voigt, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we aim to demonstrate the enormous ethical complexity that is prevalent in child obesity cases. This complexity, we argue, favors a cautious approach. Against those perhaps inclined to blame neglectful parents, we argue that laying the blame for child obesity at the feet of parents is simplistic once the broader context is taken into account. We also show that parents not only enjoy important relational prerogatives worth defending, but that children, too, are beneficiaries of that relationship in ways difficult to match elsewhere. Finally, against the backdrop of growing public concern and pressure to intervene earlier in the life cycle, we examine the perhaps unintended stigmatizing effects that labeling and intervention can have and consider a number of risks and potential harms occasioned by state interventions in these cases.

  1. Testicular Schistosomiasis Mimicking Malignancy in a Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ekenze, Sebastian O; Modekwe, Victor O; Nzegwu, Martin A; Ekpemo, Samuel C; Ezomike, Uchechukwu O

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important communicable disease in the developing world. However, testicular schistosomiasis is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of testicular schistosomiasis mimicking testicular tumour in a 13 year old who presented with huge unilateral testicular mass. The dilemma encountered in the diagnosis and treatment of this child is presented to highlight the need for high index of suspicion of this pathology in children with testicular mass presenting from schistosomiasis-endemic areas.

  2. Neighborhood-Level Social Processes and Substantiated Cases of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Beth E.; Goerge, Robert M.; Gilsanz, Paola; Hill, Andrea; Subramanian, SV; Holton, John K.; Duncan, Dustin T.; Beatriz, Elizabeth D.; Beardslee, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a preventable public health problem. Research has demonstrated that neighborhood structural factors (e.g. poverty, crime) can influence the proportion of a neighborhood’s children who are victims of maltreatment. A newer strategy is the identification of potentially modifiable social processes at the neighborhood level that can also influence maltreatment. Toward this end, this study examines neighborhood-level data (maltreatment cases substantiated by Illinois’ child protection agency, 1995–2005, social processes measured by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, U.S. Census data, proportions of neighborhoods on public assistance, and crime data) that were linked across clusters of contiguous, relatively homogenous Chicago, IL census tracts with respect to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Our analysis—an ecological-level, repeated cross-sectional design utilizing random-intercept logit models— with a sensitivity analysis using spatial models to control for spatial autocorrelation – revealed consistent associations between neighborhood social processes and maltreatment. Neighborhoods higher in collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social networks, and lower in disorder had lower proportions of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse substantiated cases, controlling for differences in structural factors. Higher collective efficacy and social network size also predicted a lower proportion of substance-exposed infants. This research indicates that strategies to mobilize neighborhood-level protective factors may decrease child maltreatment more effectively than individual and family-focused efforts alone. PMID:26684963

  3. Neighborhood-level social processes and substantiated cases of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Beth E; Goerge, Robert M; Gilsanz, Paola; Hill, Andrea; Subramanian, S V; Holton, John K; Duncan, Dustin T; Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Beardslee, William R

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a preventable public health problem. Research has demonstrated that neighborhood structural factors (e.g. poverty, crime) can influence the proportion of a neighborhood's children who are victims of maltreatment. A newer strategy is the identification of potentially modifiable social processes at the neighborhood level that can also influence maltreatment. Toward this end, this study examines neighborhood-level data (maltreatment cases substantiated by Illinois' child protection agency, 1995-2005, social processes measured by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, U.S. Census data, proportions of neighborhoods on public assistance, and crime data) that were linked across clusters of contiguous, relatively homogenous Chicago, IL census tracts with respect to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Our analysis-an ecological-level, repeated cross-sectional design utilizing random-intercept logit models-with a sensitivity analysis using spatial models to control for spatial autocorrelation-revealed consistent associations between neighborhood social processes and maltreatment. Neighborhoods higher in collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social networks, and lower in disorder had lower proportions of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse substantiated cases, controlling for differences in structural factors. Higher collective efficacy and social network size also predicted a lower proportion of substance-exposed infants. This research indicates that strategies to mobilize neighborhood-level protective factors may decrease child maltreatment more effectively than individual and family-focused efforts alone.

  4. What Happens to Parents with Intellectual Disability following Removal of Their Child in Child Protection Proceedings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Rachel; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2009-01-01

    It is unlikely that every parent with intellectual disability comes under the scrutiny of the care and protection system. That many do is evident in the figures from a number of countries that report between 30 and 40% of the children of parents with intellectual disability are removed from their parents' care and placed in protective custody, in…

  5. Differentiating single and multiple victim child sexual abuse cases: a research note considering social disorganization theory.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characteristics and elements of social disorganization as potential predictors of child sexual abuse cases involving single and multiple victims. We found that social disorganization theory does not successfully predict the locations of multiple victim child sexual abuse incidents and is not useful for distinguishing between child sexual abuse incidents with single or multiple victims.

  6. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  7. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  8. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  9. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  10. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  11. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  12. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  13. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  14. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  15. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  16. The Impact of Solution-Focused Training on Professionals' Beliefs, Practices and Burnout of Child Protection Workers in Tenerife Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Antonio; Beyebach, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of a large-scale research project on the child protection services in Tenerife, Spain. In Study 1, the professional beliefs and practices of 152 child protection workers, as measured by a Professional Beliefs and Practices Questionnaire, were correlated with their scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory.…

  17. Client Violence and Its Negative Impacts on Work Attitudes of Child Protection Workers Compared to Community Service Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Junseob

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers…

  18. Violence Exposure and Adjustment in Inner-City Youth: Child and Caregiver Emotion Regulation Skill, Caregiver?Child Relationship Quality, and Neighborhood Cohesion as Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Cunningham, Jera Nelson; Diehl, Robyn; Parrish, Katie Adams; Walker, Jean M.; Atiyeh, Cynthia; Neace, Brooke; Duncan, Larissa; Taylor, Kelli; Mejia, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    This short-term, longitudinal interview study used an ecological framework to explore protective factors within the child, the caregiver, the caregiver?child relationship, and the community that might moderate relations between community violence exposure and subsequent internalizing and externalizing adjustment problems and the different patterns…

  19. Quality Education through Child-Friendly Schools: Resource Allocation for the Protection of Children's Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the idea and purpose of Child-Friendly Schools (CFSs) initiated by the UNICEF. It analyses the implications of CFSs in terms of improving children's health and nutrition, promoting gender equality, protecting children's rights, re-defining education quality and creating positive psycho-emotional environment at schools.…

  20. Innovations in the Management of Child Protection Workers: Building Worker Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    Taking children away from their parents is risky business. Child protective services (CPS) workers are charged with monumental tasks and ever-increasing caseloads. As a countywide CPS supervisor in New Mexico, the author shared the pain of one caseworker who experienced daily stress, knowing that her sibling set of three young children had been…

  1. The Impact of Serial Transitions on Behavioral and Psychological Problems among Children in Child Protection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Jacques, Marie-Christine; Cloutier, Richard; Pauze, Robert; Simard, Marie; Gagne, Marie-Helene; Poulin, Amelie

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the impacts of serial transitions on externalized and internalized behavior disorders, anxiety, and depression among children in child protection services. The research was carried out with a sample of 741 children. The findings demonstrate that the number of times a family is blended is a stronger predictive factor for…

  2. Cultural Protective and Risk Factors: Professional Perspectives about Child Sexual Abuse in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Carol A.; Njuguna, Wambui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore perspectives on cultural risks and protective factors among professionals in Kenya. Method: An exploratory/descriptive survey of Kenyan professionals working to prevent or intervene with child sexual abuse was undertaken to determine their perspectives on how tribal culture impacts vulnerability to…

  3. Stress Responses and Decision Making in Child Protection Workers Faced with High Conflict Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Vicki R.; Regehr, Cheryl; Shlonsky, Aron; Bogo, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The assessment of children at risk of abuse and neglect is a critical societal function performed by child protection workers in situations of acute stress and conflict. Despite efforts to improve the reliability of risk assessments through standardized measures, available tools continue to rely on subjective judgment. The goal of…

  4. Use Positive Strategies to Protect Your Child with a Disability from Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmquist, Julie

    2011-01-01

    While any child can be a target of bullying, children with disabilities can be especially vulnerable. Research concerning children with disabilities and bullying indicates an increased risk for children with special needs. This article discusses how parents can help protect their children with disabilities from bullying and its devastating effects…

  5. Enacting Firm, Fair and Friendly Practice: A Model for Strengths-Based Child Protection Relationships?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Carolyn; Charles, Grant

    2016-06-01

    Strengths-based solution-focused approaches are gaining ground in statutory child protection work, but few studies have asked front line practitioners how they navigate the complex worker-client relationships such approaches require. This paper describes one component of a mixed-methods study in a large Canadian statutory child protection agency in which 225 workers described how they applied the ideas of strengths-based practice in their daily work. Interviews with twenty-four practitioners were analysed using an interpretive description approach. Only four interviewees appeared to successfully enact a version of strengths-based practice that closely mirrored those described by key strengths-based child protection theorists and was fully congruent with their mandated role. They described navigating a shifting balance of collaboration and authority in worker-client relationships based on transparency, impartial judgement, attentiveness to the worker-client interaction and the value that clients were fellow human beings. Their accounts extend current conceptualisations of the worker-client relationship in strengths-based child protection work and are congruent with current understandings of effective mandated relationships. They provide what may be a useful model to help workers understand and navigate relationships in which they must reconcile their own authority and expertise with genuine support for the authority and expertise of their clients.

  6. Renata Adler Memorial Research Center for Child Welfare and Protection, Tel-Aviv University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronen, Tammie

    2011-01-01

    The Renata Adler Memorial Research Center for Child Welfare and Protection operates within the Bob Shapell School of Social Work at Tel-Aviv University in Israel. The main aims of this research center are to facilitate study and knowledge about the welfare of children experiencing abuse or neglect or children at risk and to link such knowledge to…

  7. Processes of Discernment when Considering Issues of Neglect in Child Protection Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Marie L.; White, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The researchers describe a study conducted to explore how child protection practitioners negotiate their way through ambiguous and contradictory evidence when working with families under a "suspicion" of neglect. In depth interviews were conducted in order to understand the processes of discernment that practitioners used to determine how to…

  8. Confirmation of childhood abuse in child and adolescent cases of multiple personality disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    Coons, P M

    1994-08-01

    The diagnostic validity of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and its association to trauma have been questioned because corroboration of child abuse in studies of patients with MPD is scant. The purpose of this study was to determine on a retrospective basis whether external corroboration of child abuse could be found in a group of patients with MPD and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. A group of child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients and outpatients was chosen because of the extensive number of collateral records collected on them in a tertiary care setting. This group was also chosen because of the intense interest paid by child protective services and courts to child abuse during the past 15 years. This retrospective chart review confirmed child abuse in eight of nine patients with MPD and in all 12 cases of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. This study provides further evidence of the association of severe dissociative disorders with trauma, particularly child abuse. Future studies should be prospective and blinded to avoid the possibility of investigator bias, and should include a control group for comparison of base rate of child abuse.

  9. Acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy in a 5-week-old boy referred to the Child Protection Unit.

    PubMed

    Hawkrigg, Sharon; Johnson, Alice; Flynn, James; Thom, Graham; Wright, Helen

    2014-06-01

    We describe the case of a 5-week-old infant boy presenting with purpura and oedema to both hands and torso. He was otherwise well, with no antecedent history of illness or trauma. Laboratory investigations were within normal limits. A review by the Child Protection Unit was organised during his admission for consideration of inflicted trauma as a cause of the lesions; this was felt most unlikely. A clinical diagnosis, following a dermatology consultation, of acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy (AHO) was made.

  10. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent-child

  11. Maternal and family factors and child eating pathology: risk and protective relationships

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found associations between maternal and family factors and child eating disorder symptoms. However, it is not clear whether family factors predict eating disorder symptoms specifically, or relate to more general child psychopathology, of which eating disorder symptoms may be one component. This study aimed to identify maternal and family factors that may predict increases or decreases in child eating disorder symptoms over time, accounting for children’s body mass index z-scores and levels of general psychological distress. Methods Participants were 221 mother-child dyads from the Childhood Growth and Development Study, a prospective cohort study in Western Australia. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up and 2-year follow-up using interview and self-report measures. Children had a mean age of 10 years at baseline and 46% were male. Linear mixed models and generalised estimating equations were used to identify predictors of children’s eating disorder symptoms, with outcome variables including a global index of eating disorder psychopathology, levels of dietary restraint, levels of emotional eating, and the presence of loss of control (‘binge’) eating. Results Children of mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly higher levels of global eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than other children, and mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly more concern about their children’s weight than other mothers. Maternal concern about child weight, rather than maternal eating disorder symptoms, was significant in predicting child eating disorder symptoms over time. Family exposure to stress and low maternal education were additional risk factors for eating disorder symptoms, whilst child-reported family satisfaction was a protective factor. Conclusions After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, maternal concern about child weight, children

  12. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors.

    PubMed

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent-child

  13. Radiation Protection of the Child from Diagnostic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Leung, Rebecca S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years due to the technological advances in imaging techniques, which have undoubtedly improved diagnostic accuracy and resulted in improved patient care, the utilization of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging has significantly increased. Computed tomography is the major contributor to the radiation burden, but fluoroscopy continues to be a mainstay in paediatric radiology. The rise in the use of ionizing radiation is of particular concern with regard to the paediatric population, as they are up to 10 times more sensitive to the effects of radiation than adults, due to their increased tissue radiosensitivity, increased cumulative lifetime radiation dose and longer lifetime in which to manifest the effects. This article will review the estimated radiation risk to the child from diagnostic imaging and summarise the various methods through which both the paediatrician and radiologist can practice the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, which underpins the safe practice of radiology. Emphasis is on the justification for an examination, i.e. weighing of benefits versus radiation risk, on the appropriate utilization of other, non-ionizing imaging modalities such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, and on optimisation of a clinically indicated examination. It is essential that the paediatrician and radiologist work together in this decision making process for the mutual benefit of the patient. The appropriate practical application of ALARA in the workplace is crucial to the radiation safety of our paediatric patients.

  14. Peter Heller's a Child Analysis with Anna Freud: the significance of the case for the history of child psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Nick

    2012-02-01

    A Child Analysis with Anna Freud, a collection of Anna Freud's detailed case notes of her treatment of the young Peter Heller between 1929 and 1932, was first published in English in 1990. Not only does this work give us direct access to Anna Freud's ways of thinking and working at a crucial period in the early history of child analysis; it is also one of the few records of an adult reflecting in depth on the experience of being in analysis as a child. Yet to date this work has received little attention in the psychoanalytic literature. In an attempt to redress this neglect, the Heller case study is placed in the context of Anna Freud's emerging ideas about child analysis. In particular, its significance in the development of her psychoanalytic thinking is investigated in the light of her 1927 book, The Technique of Child Analysis.

  15. The minor child's degree of autonomy and the measures taken to protect him or her within the health care sector in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Schamps, Geneviève

    2011-09-01

    The necessity of taking into account the interest and opinion of the child was recently emphasized in the Belgian Constitution. The Belgian Act of August 22nd, 2002 on Patients' Rights introduced an important innovation concerning the minor child, in that the latter has since been authorized to exercise his or her patients' rights autonomously, as far as he or she is considered able to reasonably appreciate his or her interests. In some areas, the Belgian legislature has made certain reservations. For example, the minor child has no right to ask for euthanasia; several bills have been proposed in order to recognize it in some circumstances, but they have not been passed. Similarly, activities relating to medically assisted reproduction are not available to the minor, except in cases where there are medical indications. Finally, it might be relevant for the Belgian legislature to enact more specific protective provisions for the child participant in clinical trials.

  16. Conservative treatment of ameloblastoma in child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Scariot, Rafaela; da Silva, Rafael Vilson; da Silva Felix, Wanderley; da Costa, Delson Joao; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is the common form of aggressive benign tumor of the jaws, but it is rare in childhood. The treatment of ameloblastoma is controversial. Surgical treatment of ameloblastoma in children follows the principles of the clinical and pathological aspects of the tumor and poses a special problem due to the incomplete growth of the jaws. With a unicystic ameloblastoma, the procedure of choice is a conservative approach. This paper describes the conservative treatment of a plexiform unicystic ameloblastoma in a child involving curettage of the tumor and the extraction of two teeth under local anesthesia, with a good prognosis of the case.

  17. Jaguar Attack on a Child: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Iserson, Kenneth V.; Francis, Adama M.

    2015-01-01

    Jaguar attacks on humans rarely occur in the wild. When they do, they are often fatal. We describe a jaguar attack on a three-year-old girl near her home deep in a remote area of the Guyanese jungle. The patient had a complex but, relatively, rapid transport to a medical treatment facility for her life-threatening injuries. The child, who suffered typical jaguar-inflicted injury patterns and survived, is highlighted. We review jaguar anatomy, environmental status, hunting and killing behaviors, and discuss optimal medical management, given the resource-limited treatment environment of this international emergency medicine case. PMID:25834674

  18. Jaguar attack on a child: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V; Francis, Adama M

    2015-03-01

    Jaguar attacks on humans rarely occur in the wild. When they do, they are often fatal. We describe a jaguar attack on a three-year-old girl near her home deep in a remote area of the Guyanese jungle. The patient had a complex but, relatively, rapid transport to a medical treatment facility for her life-threatening injuries. The child, who suffered typical jaguar-inflicted injury patterns and survived, is highlighted. We review jaguar anatomy, environmental status, hunting and killing behaviors, and discuss optimal medical management, given the resource-limited treatment environment of this international emergency medicine case.

  19. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention...

  20. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention...

  1. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention...

  2. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention...

  3. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention...

  4. Caseworker-Perceived Caregiver Substance Abuse and Child Protective Services Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Slack, Kristen S.; Waldfogel, Jane; Bruch, Sarah K.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to examine associations of child protective services (CPS) caseworkers’ perceptions of caregiver substance abuse with their perceptions of the severity of risk and harm a child experienced as a result of alleged maltreatment, as well as with whether a family experienced a range of CPS outcomes. The outcomes included whether the family received services from CPS, was substantiated for maltreatment, experienced child removal, and was subject to a termination of parental rights (TPR) petition. We also compared the magnitude of the association between caseworker-perceived caregiver substance abuse and each outcome to that of the association between other maltreatment-related risk factors and each outcome. Findings suggest that, all else equal, caseworker-perceived caregiver substance abuse is associated with increased caseworker perceptions that children have experienced severe risk and harm, and also with an increased probability of each of the CPS outcomes except TPR. Moreover, these associations are equal in magnitude or larger than those between the other risk factors and the outcomes. Thus, our findings imply that CPS decisions are heavily influenced by caseworker perceptions of caregiver substance abuse, regardless of the presence of other risk factors for child maltreatment. PMID:20460304

  5. Child-Invented Health Education Games: A Case Study for Dengue Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Jeffrey L.; Coombs, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The study's goal was to demonstrate the ability of an 8-year-old child to create educational games for the topic of dengue fever control. A naturalistic descriptive case study method was employed. The child had two dengue fever educational game creation activities. The study demonstrated that a child could develop functional games related to…

  6. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? 20.516 Section 20.516 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...

  7. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? 20.516 Section 20.516 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...

  8. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? 20.516 Section 20.516 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...

  9. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? 20.516 Section 20.516 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...

  10. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? 20.516 Section 20.516 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...

  11. Recognizing Child Maltreatment in Bangladesh. Brief Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Naila Z.; Lynch, Margaret A.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the range of cases of child abuse and neglect already being identified by professionals in Bangladesh. Also discusses the larger paradoxes revolving around child protection related to sociocultural practices and economic factors, including early marriage of girls, domestic child workers, and child labor in export factories. (CR)

  12. Compound Odontomas In Saudi Child – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ikram, Rashad; Rehman, Abdul Aziz Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Odontomas are odontogenic lesions with occurrence rate of 22% in the oral Cavity. They generally appear as small, solitary or multiple radio-opaque lesions on routine radiographic examinations and are subdivided into complex or compound odontomas morphologicaly. Compound odontomas occur commonly in the incisor-canine region of the maxilla and complex odontomas are located frequently in the premolar and molar region of both jaws. This paper describes a case of compound odontoma in anterior maxilla blocking the eruption of upper incisors and canine in a eight years old child. The surgical excision of the lesion was performed to allow the eruption of permanent teeth. In present case three years follow up indicate no sign of recurrence. Early detection of odontomas allows the adoption of a less complex expensive treatment, eruption of permanent teeth and ensures better prognosis. PMID:24421751

  13. Self-socialization: a case study of a parachute child.

    PubMed

    Newman, Philip R; Newman, Barbara M

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical concept of self-socialization suggests that an individual is able to reflect on the self, formulate a vision of a future self, set goals, and take actions that create or alter the developmental trajectory. This case study of a parachute child illustrates how a person constructs her life from a very young age, drawing on a profound capacity for personal agency to overcome obstacles, identify resources, and internalize values to build a life structure. A model of the psychosocial process of self-socialization emerges from this case. Following the disruption of a well-defined trajectory, self-socialization is observed as a sequence of actions, reflection, correction, and new actions. Self-socialization is possible when a strong sense of self-efficacy is applied to attaining internalized values and goals.

  14. Child Protection, Public Health and Nursing V Appleton Jane and Peckover Sue Child Protection, Public Health and Nursing 110pp £19.95 Dunedin Academic Press 9781780460451 1780460457 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2017-04-11

    The remit of public health is undergoing major transformation in the UK, and specialist community public health nurses are at the forefront of the changes. Much of their work will include child protection, which is the subject of this book.

  15. Compulsory participation in a child protection and family enhancement program: mothers' experiences.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Larni; Cleary, Michelle; Jackson, Debra

    2012-04-01

    A wide range of statutory and non-statutory child protection and family support services exist to prevent the occurrence or re-occurrence of maltreatment. They may be oriented towards primary, secondary or tertiary levels of prevention, employ various types of professional and/or paraprofessional workers, and target a diverse range of groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of parents who were directed by child protection authorities to attend a tertiary level child protection and family enhancement program. In depth unstructured interviews were used to gather data about these parents' experience. Thematic content analysis of these transcripts identified four major themes as follows: 1) It's a good place to be: Participation as an affordable social outlet; 2) Learning about kids: Participation as a source of learning; 3) They are there for me: Participation as a source of practical help and support; and, 4) I am a good mother: Participation as a source of tension and conflict. Participants' perceptions of friendship with workers emerged as the most significant and valued aspect of their experience. These feelings of friendship were tested when staff undertook their mandatory reporting role. Feelings of betrayal arose that challenged the women's previous unconditional feelings of trust, and jeopardized the therapeutic relationships that had been established.

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Consensus-Based Child Abuse Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbeck, L.; Laib-Koehnemund, A.; Fegert, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates the effects of expert-assisted child abuse and neglect case management in the German child welfare and healthcare system as perceived by the case workers themselves. Methods: Case workers with different professions (social workers, counselors, clinic-based and office-based psychotherapists, and physicians)…

  17. 22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... United States (outgoing Cases) § 96.53 Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases. (a... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases. 96.53 Section 96.53 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED...

  18. 22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... United States (outgoing Cases) § 96.53 Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases. (a... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases. 96.53 Section 96.53 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED...

  19. 22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... United States (outgoing Cases) § 96.53 Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases. (a... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases. 96.53 Section 96.53 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED...

  20. 22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... United States (outgoing Cases) § 96.53 Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases. (a... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases. 96.53 Section 96.53 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED...

  1. 22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... United States (outgoing Cases) § 96.53 Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases. (a... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases. 96.53 Section 96.53 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED...

  2. Child Fatalities in Scottish House Fires 1980-1990: A Case of Child Neglect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Tim; Busuttil, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers 168 child fatalities due to house fires in Scotland. It concludes that the fires were largely a direct result of adult activities, including behavior patterns involving alcohol and inadequate child supervision. (DB)

  3. How to Provide for Their Future: Suggestions for Parents Concerned with Providing Lifetime Protection for a Child with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The booklet offers suggestions for parents concerned with providing lifetime protection for a child with mental retardation. Emphasis is placed on the interrelationship between the child's prospective needs of social and/or economic supports and the formal mechanisms which can be brought to bear on them. Four major topics are addressed: (1)…

  4. Financing Medically-Oriented Child Protection Teams in the Age of Managed Health Care: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giardino, Angelo P.; Montoya, Louise A.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The direct and indirect costs to society from child maltreatment are estimated to be quite high. The costs related to medical care are of interest to professionals serving on medically-oriented child protection teams that conduct medical evaluations of alleged abuse. This study was designed to explore a number of financially related…

  5. Social, Emotional, and Academic Competence among Children Who Have Had Contact with Child Protective Services: Prevalence and Stability Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Gallop, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence and stability of social, emotional, and academic competence in a nationally representative sample of children involved with child protective services. Method: Children were assessed as part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Children (N = 2,065) ranged in age from 8 to 16 years and were…

  6. Comparing the Effects of Judicial versus Child Protective Service Relationships on Parental Attitudes in the Juvenile Dependency Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Jose B.

    2006-01-01

    This pilot study examined the attitudes of parents in the child dependency process to determine whether their perceptions of fairness, trustworthiness, and satisfaction with the juvenile dependency system differed across types of relationships: relationships with judges or child protective service (CPS) workers. Method: The study relied on a…

  7. Child pornography possessors: trends in offender and case characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly

    2011-03-01

    This article describes trends in child pornography (CP) possession cases that ended in arrest in 2000 and in 2006, using data from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study, a two-wave longitudinal survey of a national sample of more than 2,500 U.S. law enforcement agencies. In 2006, there were an estimated 3,672 arrests for CP possession, compared with 1,713 arrests in 2000. Many characteristics of the offenders and the offense remained stable. In both 2006 and 2000, most offenders were White, non-Hispanic males and socioeconomically diverse. Few were known to have committed previous sex crimes. Most had CP that depicted preteen children and serious sexual abuse. In 2006, however, a higher proportion of offenders were aged 18 to 25 years, used peer-to-peer (p2p) networks, had images of children younger than 3 years, and had CP videos. P2p users had more extreme images (e.g., younger victims, sexual violence) and larger numbers of images than those who did not use p2p networks. Findings reflect heightened efforts in the criminal justice system to combat CP crimes. More cases originated with investigations of CP possession and involved proactive investigations aimed at detecting CP. The great majority of cases were successfully prosecuted, with more offenders sentenced to incarceration and serving longer sentences than in 2000. As in 2000, one in six cases that began with investigations of CP possession detected offenders who had molested children.

  8. Neighborhood informal social control and child maltreatment: A comparison of protective and punitive approaches.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Trung, Hai Nguyen; Wu, Shali

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a new measure of informal social control of child maltreatment (henceforth ISC_CM) by neighbors. Research literature typically uses collective efficacy (Sampson, Raudenbush, & Earls, 1997) to examine neighborhood informal social control. We argue that double standards about the application of informal social control to family versus street crime requires a measure of informal social control specific to child maltreatment. We also argue that how neighbors intervene may matter as much as whether they intervene. Neighbors may engage in ISC_CM aimed at protecting the child and calming the parent, or more punitive ISC_CM aimed at deterring future abuse. We tested the relationship of both with very severe physical abuse and with abuse related child behavior problems. We used a random, 2-stage cluster design of Hanoi to collect the sample. Thirty Hanoi wards were randomly selected using probability proportional to size sampling. A simple random sample of families in each ward was then drawn using local government lists of ward residents. Based on power analysis, the target sample size was 300. Of 315 residents contacted, 293 participated, yielding a response rate of 93%. Random effects regression models (which estimate a random effect for each ward) were run in Stata11. We found that protective ISC_CM is associated with lower odds of very severe physical abuse and lower reported externalizing problems when abuse is present. Perceived collective efficacy and punitive ISC_CM is not associated with lower odds of very severe physical abuse. Implications for research, policy and practice are discussed. We conclude that further investigation of neighbor ISC_CM is needed to replicate the findings in other cultural contexts, ultimately followed by experimental manipulation of ISC_CM in a neighborhood context to examine the effects on child maltreatment. If further research corroborates the current findings, the development of neighborhood intervention

  9. A Lipskian analysis of child protection failures from Victoria Climbié to "Baby P": a street-level re-evaluation of joined-up governance.

    PubMed

    Marinetto, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of joined-up governance by considering child protection failures, firstly, the case of Victoria Climbié who was killed by her guardians despite being known as an at risk child by various public agencies. The seeming inability of the child protection system to prevent Victoria Climbié's death resulted in a public inquiry under the chairmanship of Lord Laming. The Laming report of 2003 looked, in part, to the lack of joined-up working between agencies to explain this failure to intervene and made a number of recommendations to improve joined-up governance. Using evidence from detailed testimonies given by key personnel during the Laming Inquiry, the argument of this paper is that we cannot focus exclusively on formal structures or decision-making processes but must also consider the normal, daily and informal routines of professional workers. These very same routines may inadvertently culminate in the sort of systemic failures that lead to child protection tragedies. Analysis of the micro-world inhabited by professional workers would benefit most, it is argued here, from the policy-based concept of street-level bureaucracy developed by Michael Lipsky some 30 years ago. The latter half of the paper considers child protection failures that emerged after the Laming-inspired reforms. In particular, the case of ‘Baby P’ highlights, once again, how the working practices of street-level professionals, rather than a lack of joined-up systems, may possibly complement an analysis of, and help us to explain, failures in the child protection system. A Lipskian analysis generally offers, although there are some caveats, only pessimistic conclusions about the prospects of governing authorities being able to avoid future child protection disasters. These conclusions are not wholeheartedly accepted. There exists a glimmer of optimism because street-level bureaucrats still remain accountable, but not necessarily in terms of top-down relations of

  10. The protective effect of neighborhood social cohesion in child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Showalter, Kathryn

    2016-02-01

    Relations between parents within a neighborhood have the potential to provide a supportive environment for healthy and positive parenting. Neighborhood social cohesion, or the mutual trust and support among neighbors, is one process through which parenting may be improved. The current study investigates the association between neighborhood social cohesion and abuse and neglect, as well as specific types of abuse and neglect. The sample for the study is comprised of 896 parents in one urban Midwestern County in the United States. Participants were recruited from Women, Infants, and Children clinics. Negative binomial regression is used to examine the association between neighborhood social cohesion and child maltreatment behaviors, as measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale, Parent-to-Child Version (Straus et al., 1998). In this sample of families, neighborhood social cohesion is associated with child neglect, but not abuse. In examining the relationship with specific types of abuse and neglect, it was found that neighborhood social cohesion may have a protective role in some acts of neglect, such as meeting a child's basic needs, but not potentially more complex needs like parental substance abuse.

  11. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part I. Parental overprotection and the development of the Parent Protection Scale.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C; Shonkoff, J P

    1995-08-01

    There is a spectrum of parental protective behaviors promoting child safety and security, ranging from neglect to overprotection. This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure of parental protective behaviors toward children age 2 to 10 years, the Parent Protection Scale (PPS). Items were selected to represent key dimensions of protective behaviors. Factor analyses suggested four subscales: Supervision, Separation Problems, Dependence, and Control. The PPS has acceptable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and clinical validity. Norms by child age in the form of cutoff points corresponding to +1 SD were determined. Clinical and research uses for the PPS are noted.

  12. Girl-Child Education Outcomes: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to…

  13. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.

  14. Crimes and misdemeanours: the case of child abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a child was abandoned in a Burger King restaurant in Amsterdam by a Chinese woman, who hoped that the baby would be picked up by someone able to give the child a better life. She was convicted for child abandonment and imprisoned. Whereas some forms of child abandonment are criminalised, others are socially accepted and not even on the ethics agenda. This paper is an invitation to reflect on the inconsistency in the ways in which we prosecute, punish or try to correct some forms of child abandonment and yet make allowances for others. PMID:17209107

  15. Jefferson fracture in a child--illustrative case report.

    PubMed

    Korinth, Marcus C; Kapser, Alexandra; Weinzierl, Martin R

    2007-01-01

    In adults, atlas burst fractures (Jefferson fractures) are not uncommon. In the pediatric population, they are extremely rare, and only few cases have been reported so far. They all showed a highly consistent clinical presentation with rare neurological deficits as well as recovery with full function without any surgical intervention. We describe a case of a Jefferson fracture in a 7.5-year-old-boy after falling onto the top of his head, presenting solely with slight neck pain. The initial radiological characteristics are presented on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer tomography (CT); the bony bridging and fusion of the fracture sites are demonstrated on CT during the course of the healing. The patient was placed in a rigid cervical collar, and his physical examination results remained normal according to age. Complete fusion of both fracture sites was seen on the third follow-up 6.5 months after presentation. In this rare case of a Jefferson fracture in a child monitored by radiological imaging techniques, important aspects of conservatively treated atlas burst fractures are illustrated. It underlines their benign character and favorable outcome with full functional recovery without any surgical intervention.

  16. Domestic violence in women with serious mental illness involved with child protective services.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Linda C; Abdrbo, Amany; Burant, Christopher J

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe mothers with serious mental illness who have experienced domestic violence and are involved with child protective services. One hundred twenty-two files from the Department of Child and Family Services were reviewed. According to this retrospective review, the majority of the mothers and children had been exposed to domestic violence (62.6%). Mothers with the diagnoses of major depression-single episode and major depression-recurrent were most likely to have disclosed domestic violence exposure, compared to mothers with other serious mental illnesses. Our findings, and that of other cited studies, support the practice of routine assessment of domestic violence in women with serious mental illnesses, identification of safe havens for mothers and children, and access to continuing parenting support for these vulnerable family groups.

  17. Caring for Children: Case Studies of Local Government Child Care Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Fern

    This book of case studies highlights 26 municipalities involved in activities related to child care. Cities selected were of different sizes; were located in different parts of the country; and used diverse approaches for developing ways to improve access to affordable, high-quality child care. Each case study was developed through a telephone…

  18. The School Counselors' Ideas on Features, Determinant and Intervention on Child Negligence and Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usakli, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    It is sad to know that many of the child negligence and child abuse cases, which are being frequently encountered in the society today, still remains unknown. This perhaps is due to lack of information on the part of the administrators, school counselors and other related bodies in the management of such cases. In this study, 50 school counselors…

  19. True and False Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse: Assessment and Case Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Tara, Ed.

    This book addresses the clinical, legal, and ethical issues arising in child sexual abuse cases; the assessment and case management of allegations; research issues; and practice recommendations. Chapter titles are as follows: "Assessing Allegations in Child Sexual Abuse: An Overview" (Tara Ney); "The Nature of Allegations of Child…

  20. Religion-Related Child Maltreatment: A Profile of Cases Encountered by Legal and Social Service Agencies.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Bette L; Goodman, Gail S; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Diviak, Kathleen R; Shaver, Phillip R

    2015-08-01

    Religion can foster, facilitate, and be used to justify child maltreatment. Yet religion-related child abuse and neglect have received little attention from social scientists. We examined 249 cases of religion-related child maltreatment reported to social service agencies, police departments, and prosecutors' offices nationwide. We focused on cases involving maltreatment perpetrated by persons with religious authority, such as ministers and priests; the withholding of medical care for religious reasons; and abusive attempts to rid a child of supposed evil. By providing a descriptive statistical profile of the major features of these cases, we illustrate how these varieties of religion-related child maltreatment occur, who the victims and perpetrators are, and how religion-related child abuse and neglect are reported and processed by the social service and criminal justice systems. We end with a call for greater research attention to these important offenses against children.

  1. HIV and Child Mental Health: A Case-Control Study in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Pamela; Kanyanganzi, Frederick; Fawzi, Mary C. Smith; Sezibera, Vincent; Cyamatare, Felix; Beardslee, William; Stulac, Sara; Bizimana, Justin I.; Stevenson, Anne; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The global HIV/AIDS response has advanced in addressing the health and well-being of HIV-positive children. Although attention has been paid to children orphaned by parental AIDS, children who live with HIV-positive caregivers have received less attention. This study compares mental health problems and risk and protective factors in HIV-positive, HIV-affected (due to caregiver HIV), and HIV-unaffected children in Rwanda. METHODS: A case-control design assessed mental health, risk, and protective factors among 683 children aged 10 to 17 years at different levels of HIV exposure. A stratified random sampling strategy based on electronic medical records identified all known HIV-positive children in this age range in 2 districts in Rwanda. Lists of all same-age children in villages with an HIV-positive child were then collected and split by HIV status (HIV-positive, HIV-affected, and HIV-unaffected). One child was randomly sampled from the latter 2 groups to compare with each HIV-positive child per village. RESULTS: HIV-affected and HIV-positive children demonstrated higher levels of depression, anxiety, conduct problems, and functional impairment compared with HIV-unaffected children. HIV-affected children had significantly higher odds of depression (1.68: 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–2.44), anxiety (1.77: 95% CI 1.14–2.75), and conduct problems (1.59: 95% CI 1.04–2.45) compared with HIV-unaffected children, and rates of these mental health conditions were similar to HIV-positive children. These results remained significant after controlling for contextual variables. CONCLUSIONS: The mental health of HIV-affected children requires policy and programmatic responses comparable to HIV-positive children. PMID:25049342

  2. Edentulous child with Allgrove syndrome: a rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Vahedi, Mohammad; Allahbakhshi, Hanif

    2016-01-01

    Triple-A syndrome, also known as Allgrove syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. The 3 features of this syndrome are achalasia, adrenal insufficiency, and alacrima. Achalasia could be the first manifestation of the triple-A syndrome; however, its etiology is unclear. Alacrima is generally asymptomatic but can be detected by obtaining patient history. Although adrenal insufficiency could have manifestations such as asthenia, it might be wrongly diagnosed as muscle fatigue. Vitamin D and calcium supplements are usually prescribed for the prevention of osteoporosis. Neurologic manifestations could be present in adults. In some individuals with this disorder, genetic examination indicates mutations in both alleles of the AAAS gene, which encodes a special 546-amino-acid protein designated ALADIN, and in chromosome 12q13. The genetic cause of the triple A syndrome in some patients who do not have an identified mutation is unknown. While very few such cases have been reported till date, one such case was presented to us as an edentulous child. PMID:27895694

  3. Outcomes of short course interprofessional training in domestic violence and child protection.

    PubMed

    Szilassy, Eszter; Carpenter, John; Patsios, Demi; Hackett, Simon

    2013-11-01

    The interrelationship between domestic violence and child protection is well established, yet deficiencies in interprofessional collaboration have been reported and training is advocated as a solution. This study evaluates the outcomes of short interagency and interprofessional training in domestic abuse. Participants' attitudes and knowledge were assessed using a self-report scale and compared in a double-baseline time-series design. Participants (N = 177) were recruited from a range of agencies in England. There were consistent, statistically significant improvements in participants' attitudes, knowledge, and self-confidence between the start and end of course (p < .001). The long-term outcomes of training and the implementation of learning, however, remain uncertain.

  4. Making the Case for Public-Private Child Care Partnerships: Child Care Partnership Project. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finance Project, Washington, DC.

    The quality of child care in the United States has important implications for school preparedness, welfare reform, economic vitality, and the quality of family life. In this 8-minute videotape, business leaders describe why child care makes good business sense. Visuals explain the importance of early childhood for school and life success, and the…

  5. Child Protective Services: Complex Challenges Require New Strategies. Report to the to the Honorable Nydia Velazquez, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    At the request of the U.S. House of Representatives, this study identified problems confronting child protective service (CPS) units, which affect the system's capacity to protect children from abuse and neglect. State and local responses to these problems, and opportunities for the federal government to assist in improving the system's capacity…

  6. The New UN CRC General Comment 13: "The Right of the Child to Freedom from All Forms of Violence"--Changing How the World Conceptualizes Child Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svevo-Cianci, Kimberly A.; Herczog, Maria; Krappmann, Lothar; Cook, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child established CRC General Comment 13 (April 2011) to address today's unabating high rates of violence against children globally despite CRC advances. GC13 provides clear interpretations and stronger detail to supplement the legal language of CRC Article 19, intended to establish protection of children from…

  7. [Child abuse].

    PubMed

    V Essen, H; Schlickewei, W; Dietz, H-G

    2005-02-01

    Child abuse is most often diagnosed by an emergency doctor on call who sometimes "feels" more than knows what he is confronted with. He should nevertheless always take a medical history and make a physical and radiological examination. X-ray imaging and an ophthalmologic retinal examination are the most important diagnostic steps. Typical findings are multiple and/or dorsal rib fractures, complex skull fractures, physeal fractures, all fractures within the first 12 months, multiple fractures in different localisations and stages of healing, all injuries with uncommon distributions, all patterned bruises, immersion burns, intramural hematoma and every unexplained loss of consciousness. The first step towards victim protection is always the removal of the abused child from its caregivers by admitting it to hospital, as 95% of all cases of reported child abuse take place within the child's family.

  8. Case report: Forensic anthropological assessment in a suspected case of child abuse from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Steyn, M

    2011-05-20

    Not many case reports of suspected child abuse as assessed solely on skeletal remains are available. Forensic anthropologists have intimate knowledge of normal skeletal anatomy, bone trauma and processes of healing of bone and may therefore be of help in suspected cases of child abuse. Patterns of trauma in juvenile skeletal remains which are suggestive of abuse include fractures in different phases of healing, multiple fractures, typical fractures on ribs and long bones and severe, complicated cranial fractures. The aim of this paper is to report on the findings of the analysis of the skeletal remains of a 3.5 years old boy. Forensic pathological examination indicated that the boy had died from a massive cranial fracture, with multiple injuries present to the rest of the body. After the body had been buried for some time, it was exhumed and we were requested to look for signs of chronic, long-term abuse. Findings included a massive cranial fracture, another fracture in the roof of the orbit, two areas of non-specific subperiosteal bone growth and several untreated carious teeth. No clear healed fracture could be found, except for a possible healed cranial base fracture which stretched transversely across the petrosal bone. This area showed signs of recent bone activity. The court decided that this was not enough evidence of chronic abuse and found the accused guilty of murder but not of chronic child abuse. This case illustrates the difficulty to obtain clear signs of chronic injury on juvenile remains.

  9. Case Study: Investigating the Impact of the Child Development Associate Credentialing Process on Child Care Provider Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate what impact the child development associate (CDA) credential has on the performance of childcare providers in the 6 CDA competency areas. Each participant was interviewed using 9 open-ended questions regarding their experience. Over the past few years, a number of studies have examined the effects…

  10. Firearm injury in a child: An uncommon case of penile trauma

    PubMed Central

    Dorterler, Mustafa Erman; Boleken, Mehmet Emin

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary system injuries generally occur due to blunt and penetrating trauma. Approximately 10% of all injuries encountered in the emergency department are related to the genitourinary system. Male genital trauma is a urological emergency because of the high risk of infection and the priority of protecting the sexual, endocrine, and reproductive functions. Blunt injuries to the penis are more often seen due to the mobility and localization of the penis than due to penetrating injuries caused by firearms or cutting instruments. We aimed to present and discuss a case involving shrapnel that became lodged in the penis of a child in a war zone. After 2 weeks of medical treatment, the patient underwent surgery. Surgery includes primary repair to the penis and urethra. PMID:28149826

  11. Child restraint misuse: a case example and strategies for injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Beringer-Brown, Carol; Pearce, Jeanette; Rush, Carole

    2005-04-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death and serious injury for children. Emergency nurses can play a key role in encouraging parents and caregivers to use child restraints consistently and correctly. This article will discuss a case scenario where a young child is seriously injured in a motor vehicle crash where his child car seat was not used correctly. Injury prevention strategies for emergency nurses will be reviewed.

  12. Sleep in the modern family: protective family routines for child and adolescent sleep

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Orfeu M.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Spilsbury, James C.; Bos, Taylor; Emsellem, Helene; Knutson, Kristen L.

    2015-01-01

    Study objectives The overall objective of the 2014 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll “Sleep in the Modern Family” was to obtain a current picture of sleep in families with at least 1 school-aged child. Design Cross-sectional poll. Setting Internet-based interview. Participants Nationally representative Internet panel of US households with a child 6–17 years. Measurements and results Primary measures included parental perception of the importance of sleep, parental and child sleep quality, child sleep duration and habits, technology in bedroom, and family rules. Parents/guardians (n= 1103; mean age, 42; 54% female) completed the survey. Although the majority of parents endorsed the importance of sleep, 90% of children obtain less sleep than recommended. Significant predictors of age-adjusted sufficient sleep duration (estimated conservatively as ≥9 hours for ages 6–11 years and ≥8 hours for ages 12–17 years) included parent education, regular enforcement of rules about caffeine, and whether children left technology on in their bedroom overnight. Significant predictors of excellent sleep quality included whether a bedtime was always enforced and whether children left technology on overnight. Conclusions Children generally have better age-appropriate sleep in the presence of household rules and regular sleep-wake routines. Sufficient sleep quantity and adequate sleep quality were protected by well-established rules of sleep hygiene (limited caffeine and regular bedtime). In contrast, sleep deficiency was more likely to be present when parents and children had electronic devices on in the bedroom after bedtime. Public health intervention goals for sleep health might focus on reducing the encroachment of technology and media into time for sleep and supporting well-known sleep hygiene principles. PMID:26779564

  13. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  14. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  15. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  16. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  17. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  18. Genetic differentials of child abuse: Is your case rare or real?

    PubMed

    Shur, Natasha; Carey, John C

    2015-12-01

    The clinical geneticist can be called upon to play a role in the medical evaluation of children with clinical findings concerning for child abuse. This Introduction describes a case of suspected child abuse in an 8-month-old baby referred to clinical genetics to exclude osteogenesis imperfecta. The experience from this case raised medical and ethical considerations and prompted consideration of the role of the clinical geneticist in distinguishing rare mimics of child abuse from real cases. From this single case, and a discussion regarding similar cases, arose the idea of this issue in Seminars in Medical Genetics, Genetic Differentials of Child Abuse: Is Your Case Rare or Real? In thinking about child abuse from a clinical genetics perspective, we categorize clinical presentations into fractures, skin lesions, hemorrhage, growth disturbances, and concern for caregiver-fabricated illness (previously known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy). In this Introduction, we also discuss recent questions regarding Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and infantile fractures and concerns about caregiver-fabricated illness in the context of mitochondrial or other rare diseases. The goal is that this issue on child abuse and genetics will serve as a resource to help distinguish the rare causes from the real cases of child abuse, and those critical distinctions and correct diagnoses may be life-saving for some infants and children.

  19. The influence of differential response on decision-making in child protective service agencies.

    PubMed

    Janczewski, Colleen E

    2015-01-01

    Differential response (DR) profoundly changes the decision pathways of public child welfare systems, yet little is known about how DR shapes the experiences of children whose reports receive an investigation rather than an alternate response. Using data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), this study examined the relationship between DR implementation and decision outcomes in neglect cases, as measured by investigation, substantiation, and removal rates in 297 U.S. counties. Multivariate regression models included county-level measures of child poverty and proportions of African American children. Path analyses were also conducted to identify mediating effects of prior decision points and moderating effects of DR on poverty and race's influence on decision outcomes. Results indicate that compared to non-DR counties, those implementing DR have significantly lower investigation and substantiation rates within county populations but higher substantiation rates among investigated cases. Regression models showed significant reductions in removal rates associated with DR implementation, but these effects became insignificant in path models that accounted for mediation effects of previous decision points. Findings also suggest that DR implementation may reduce the positive association between child poverty rates and investigation rates, but additional studies with larger samples are needed to confirm this moderation effect. Two methods of calculating decision outcomes, population- and decision-based enumeration, were used, and policy and research implications of each are discussed. This study demonstrates that despite their inherit complexity, large administrative datasets such as NCANDS can be used to assess the impact of wide-scale system change across jurisdictions.

  20. Legal Aspects of Child Abuse and Neglect Cases in Texas: A Compendium of Cases and Statutory Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foerster, Frank; Spearly, James L.

    Designed to assist attorneys, social workers, and other interested parties, this manual describes work with child abuse and neglect cases in Texas. After a brief overview of the child abuse and neglect issue in that state, as well as an examination of the role of the Texas Department of Human Resources, the manual discusses suits affecting the…

  1. Traumatic Injury in a Child with Scurvy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Angsanuntsukh, Chanika; Chulsomlee, Kulapat; Taracheewin, Anan; Jaovisidha, Suphaneewan; Woratanarat, Thira; Woratanarat, Patarawan

    2015-09-01

    This case report aimed to describe the clinical presentation, treatments and prognosis of a child who had scurvy and traumatic injury of the left thigh. A 30-month-old boy had presented with left hip pain two weeks after falling down on the floor while walking. He developed pain, warmness of the left hip and thigh, and finally was unable to bear weight. He also had a high fever gingival hemorrhage, dental caries, petechiae, positive rolling test and limited range of motion of the left hip. The radiographs revealed Wimberger's ring and Frenkel line as scurvy. Vitamin C supplement had been prescribed for one week. However, there was no clinical response and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) suggested subperiosteal abscess as well as osteomyelitis of bilateral femurs and tibias. Debridement and biopsy of the left femur were performed and found only subperiosteal blood. A clinical improvement was noted on the second day after surgery. Vitamin C level was reported at 0.03 mg/dl which was very low. Bacterial culture was negative and the pathological findings were callus formation with hemorrhage. The patient continued the treatment for two months and all conditions were healed eventually. In severe scurvy with trauma, prolonged subperiosteal hematoma was susceptible to infection, and may need debridement simultaneously with vitamin C supplement to shorten the clinical course.

  2. Child abuse. An update on surgical management in 256 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Caniano, D A; Beaver, B L; Boles, E T

    1986-01-01

    In the period January 1982-July 1984, 1512 cases of suspected child abuse were evaluated in the emergency department of a major children's hospital, of which 256 (17%) required hospitalization. Failure-to-thrive with caloric malnutrition was present in 66 (26%), burns in 56 (22%), central nervous system injury in 53 (22%), soft tissue trauma in 21 (8%), ingestions in 20 (8%), skeletal injury in 15 (6%), neglect of an underlying disease in 10 (4%), sexual abuse in nine (3%), near-drowning in four (1%), and abdominal trauma in two (1%). Two-thirds of the children required surgical care and one-third of the surgical group needed operations. The majority of the patients were toddlers between 18 and 36 months of age. A long hospitalization occurred with a mean stay of 9.3 days. Mortality was 7% for the entire group, but children with central nervous system injury had a much higher mortality (26%) and morbidity (21%). PMID:3947158

  3. Introducing Technology in Child Welfare Referrals: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Lovato-Hermann, Kristina; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Curry, Susanna R.; Freisthler, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Access to social services is important for the safety of children and ultimately for reunification of families involved in the child welfare system. The process of linking families to services however, varies by caseworker and can be cumbersome and time-consuming. The DCFS Needs Portal is an internet-based intervention to improve the timing and quality of social service referrals in Los Angeles County We used a case study approach including in-depth interviews, direct observations and user feedback obtained from the Needs Portal to 1) determine perceived benefits and barriers to adopting the Needs Portal and 2) report how the flow of information between users and developers was used to adapt to user needs. Our analyses revealed four major barriers: 1) caseworker apprehension regarding new technology, 2) variation in communication styles by user type, 3) lack of technological infrastructure and 4) competing workplace demands. Information sharing between developers and users has the potential to better meet the needs of users and ultimately maximize utilization of new technology. Although internet-based interventions are designed to inexpensively and effectively coordinate services, emerging interventions may require in-person assistance and modifications in order to succeed. PMID:27799852

  4. Arc Jet Testing of Thermal Protection Materials: 3 Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Conley, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Arc jet testing is used to simulate entry to test thermal protection materials. This paper discusses the usefulness of arc jet testing for 3 cases. Case 1 is MSL and PICA, Case 2 is Advanced TUFROC, and Case 3 is conformable ablators.

  5. Does Type of Harm Matter? a Factorial Survey Examining the Influence of Child Neglect on Child Protection Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Jackie; Taylor, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a serious social problem, with neglect arguably the most pernicious manifestation. Neglect is characterised by a chronic failure to provide for a child's basic needs and often co-exists with other forms of maltreatment. It usually occurs in a complex social environment where socio-economic disadvantage is rife and the…

  6. Interviewing Children: A Guide for Child Care and Forensic Practitioners. Wiley Series in Child Care and Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Michelle; Wood, Joanne

    Because a child witness' account is often the only source of information about an alleged incidence of sexual abuse, it becomes imperative to obtain an accurate account from the child so that justice may be achieved. This book provides information on children's linguistic ability in relation to videotaped interviews conducted since the…

  7. Examination of Life Satisfaction, Child Maltreatment Potential and Substance Use in Mothers Referred for Treatment by Child Protective Services for Child Neglect and Substance Abuse: Implications for Intervention Planning.

    PubMed

    Plant, Christopher P; Donohue, Brad; Holland, Jason M

    2016-09-01

    There is evidence to suggest mothers who are served by child protective service agencies are relatively dissatisfied in their lives, leading some investigators to conclude life dissatisfaction may be associated with child maltreatment. To assist in better understanding this relationship the Life Satisfaction Scale for Caregivers (LSSC) was psychometrically developed in a sample of 72 mothers who were referred for behavioral treatment for child neglect and substance abuse by caseworkers from a local child protective service agency. The LSSC was developed to assess mothers' happiness in nine domains (family, friendships, employment/work, spirituality/religion, safety, sex life/dating, ability to avoid drugs, ability to avoid alcohol, control over one's own life). Results indicated two factors that appeared to be relevant to Social Satisfaction and Safety and Control Satisfaction. Higher satisfaction scores on both of these scales were negatively associated with child maltreatment potential and substance use at baseline (i.e., positive urinalysis test). Mothers who exposed their children to substances in utero or in infancy (a distinct type of child neglect) were found to report higher satisfaction scores on the LSSC than other types of child neglect. Hispanic-American, African-American, and Caucasian women reported similar levels of life satisfaction. Application of the LSSC as a non-stigmatizing, wellness-focused instrument is discussed within the context of intervention planning.

  8. Two cases of sublingual hematoma as a manifestation of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Muneesh; Chiesa, Antonia E; Sirotnak, Andrew P

    2015-12-01

    Common intraoral manifestations of child abuse include tears of the frenula, burns, and pharyngeal perforations. Sublingual hematomas can also occur as a result of trauma, but to the best of our knowledge, only 1 case has been previously described in the context of child abuse. We report 2 new cases of sublingual hematoma in infants that were the result of physical abuse. Cases of sublingual hematoma in infants and children without a clear and legitimate explanation of the cause should prompt consideration of child abuse.

  9. Treadmill Training in a Child with Cerebral Palsy: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Julie P.; Arnold, Sandra H.; McEwen, Irene R.; James, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    This case report describes the use of treadmill training without body weight support to improve walking speed in a child with diplegic cerebral palsy. The child was a six-year-old girl with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. She walked short distances independently using a posterior support walker but was unable to keep up with her peers walking…

  10. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  11. "Irreconcilable Differences" between Parent and Child: A Case Report of Interactional Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, Kay M.

    1978-01-01

    The article presents two illustrative case reports of an unusual type of child abuse: parents who use their child as a representative of their own unacceptable impulses, thereby perceiving the youngster as evil and seeking experts to confirm their mistaken opinions. (Author/DLS)

  12. [Fatal poisoning caused by puffer fish (Tetrodontidae): report of a case involving a child].

    PubMed

    Santana Neto, Pedro de Lima; Aquino, Elisabeth Cristina Moreira de; Silva, José Afrânio da; Amorim, Maria Lucineide Porto; Oliveira Júnior, Américo Ernesto de; Haddad Júnior, Vidal

    2010-01-01

    A case of poisoning resulting from ingestion of viscera from a spotted puffer fish (Sphoeroides testudineus) by a two-year-old child is described. The child presented cold sweating, progressive muscle weakness, cardiorespiratory arrest and death. The risks of consuming the meat and viscera of puffer fish, which is a common occurrence in certain regions of Brazil, are discussed.

  13. Biliteracy and Bilingual Development in a Second-Generation Korean Child: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ro, Yeonsun Ellie; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Through case study methodology, this study examined how a second-generation bilingual child developed his two languages and associated literacies, the role of the parents' and child's goals as well as the family's daily effort to attain those goals, and the influences of environmental, social, and cultural factors. Based on sociocultural…

  14. Status Search in Middle Childhood: A Case Study of a Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blowers, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a case study to illustrate intervention programs for children with multiple maladaptive behaviors. Suggests that counsellors should consider the general development of the child in the physical, social and intellectual domains when planning, implementing and evaluating child development programs. (Author/BL)

  15. Why have all the boys gone? Gender differences in prosecution acceptance of child sexual abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg

    2013-10-01

    Cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) referred to the District Attorney (DA) are not necessarily accepted for prosecution. Two pilot studies sought to investigate whether there were gender differences in whether cases of CSA referred to the DA's office were accepted by the DA and, if they existed, what might account for gender differences in decisions to accept cases and file charges. The results of the first study indicated that cases involving male victims were significantly less likely to be accepted for prosecution than cases involving female victims. Comparisons of acceptance rates were based on expected frequencies given CSA prevalence rates by gender in the literature and on the proportion of males and females seen at a Child Abuse Assessment Center (CAAC) from where the DA referrals were obtained. The second study assessed both disclosure-related variables (assessed by content analyses of disclosures made at a CAAC) and abuse-related variables (that occurred at or near the time of the abuse) that might explain these differences. Few variables were found to significantly differentiate males' and females' cases; these were the relationship of the child to the perpetrator, whether the child was offended by a juvenile, whether the child told someone of the abuse, pornography exposure, whether the child displayed concerning behaviors, and whether the child was questioned about possible abuse. Implications of these results are discussed.

  16. A Guide for Designing and Implementing a Case Processing System for Child Support Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Support Enforcement (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This document was written to provide state and local child support offices with help in refining their case processing systems. The guide is divided into five chapters. Chapter I, Case Processing Overview, defines case processing and the case processing functions and provides a narrative description and graphic illustration of the processes…

  17. A national study of risk and protective factors for substance use among youth in the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Traube, Dorian E; James, Sigrid; Zhang, Jinjin; Landsverk, John

    2012-05-01

    While child welfare services are intended, in part, to diminish maltreatment's negative impact on adolescents' development, there is evidence that receiving child welfare services affects adolescents' substance use adversely. The literature on the extent and correlates of this problem is still emerging. The present study aims to fill part of this gap by examining the association between baseline psychosocial risk and protective factors on engagement in substance use behavior over a period of 36 months for child welfare involved youth. It further compares substance use behavior between youth placed in out-of-home care and those who remained with their biological families. Data come from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), a national probability study of children and adolescents undergoing investigation for abuse or neglect. The sample for this analysis was restricted to 827 youth who were 11 years or older at baseline data collection. Key findings include a high rate of social substance use (47.7%) and illicit substance use (17.4%). There was a limited role of protective factors in mitigating risk behavior for social substance use (caregiver connectedness; OR=0.51, p<0.05). Avoiding foster care placement was a protective factor for illicit substance use (OR=0.43, p<0.05). Delinquency was a risk factor associated with both social substance use (OR=1.06, p<0.01) and hard substance use (OR=1.10, p<0.001). Given the high prevalence of substance use among child welfare involved youth, prevention efforts for this population require a better understanding of biological, psychological, and social protective factors. The child welfare system is an untapped resource that has the potential to be a gateway to and a platform for substance abuse prevention services that should be incorporated into child welfare safety and permanency interventions.

  18. Analyses of Child Sex Abuse Cases in Turkey: A Provincial Case.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Sibel

    2016-04-01

    Sexual abuse is a significant problem, especially for children, but only a limited number of sexual abuse cases involving children are reported to the relevant authorities. One hundred and fifty files recorded in the National Judiciary Information System between 2006-2012 relating to cases of child sexual abuse and considered to be within the scope of Offences Against Sexual Integrity pertaining to Turkish Penal Code were analyzed for this research. Statements of the victims, defendants, and witnesses, together with the minutes issued by law enforcement officers, hospital or forensic reports, and arrest warrants were used to collect data. The average values and percentage test analysis were used to assess data. A large portion of the sexually abused children were determined to be between 14 and 17 years of age, female, and had been abused before, while a majority of the abusers were between 19 and 25 years of age, and all of the abusers identified as male. Most of the cases of abuse were planned and carried out under threat, and a certain number of such crimes resulted in pregnancy, were repeated systematically, and became evident when the mothers of the abused children found out or when a pregnant child was referred to a hospital for childbirth. The sexual abuse of children is a significant problem for Turkish society, just as it is for other societies, and it is recommended that further research be conducted with a broader scope in order to present this issue more clearly and to develop solutions.

  19. The influence of differential response and other factors on parent perceptions of child protection involvement.

    PubMed

    Merkel-Holguin, Lisa; Hollinshead, Dana M; Hahn, Amy E; Casillas, Katherine L; Fluke, John D

    2015-01-01

    As Child Protective Services (CPS) agencies examine how to produce better outcomes with the families they serve, child welfare literature has increasingly focused on the perspectives, emotional responses, and engagement of CPS-involved parents or other primary caregivers. Despite this encouraging trend, the construct of engagement is ill-defined and our understanding of precursors to and factors affecting parent engagement is limited. This article extends the literature by presenting a conceptual framework for examining engagement and associating the identified constructs with parent outcomes. Using data from a survey of parents who were randomly assigned to receive either an assessment response (AR) or investigation response (IR) in two states' Differential Response CPS systems, a factor analysis on 12 commonly assessed emotional responses reported by parents indicated that parents responded with three primary emotions: positive affect, worry, or anger and that these responses varied by their receipt of AR or IR. Further, the results of multivariate analyses indicate that pathway assignment (AR or IR), parents' assessments of the quality of the casework they received, and other parent or household factors contribute to differences observed on the three emotional response factors identified.

  20. Services and recurrence after psychological maltreatment confirmed by child protective services.

    PubMed

    Palusci, Vincent J; Ondersma, Steven J

    2012-05-01

    Recurrence rates of psychological maltreatment (PM) and the services that may reduce those rates have not been systematically evaluated. The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System was used for 2003-2007 to study a cohort of children in 18 states with PM reports first confirmed by child protective services (CPS) during 2003. PM recurrence rates after counseling and other referrals were assessed while controlling for factors associated with service referral and other maltreatment. A total of 11,646 children had a first CPS-confirmed report with PM, and 9.2% of them had a second-confirmed PM report within 5 years. Fewer than one fourth of families were referred for services after PM, with service referrals being more likely for families with poverty, drug or alcohol problems, or other violence. Controlling for these factors, counseling referral was associated with a 54% reduction in PM recurrence, but other services were not associated with statistically significant reductions. Few families in which PM was confirmed receive any services, and most services provided were not associated with reductions in PM recurrence. Clarification of key services associated with efficacious prevention of PM is needed.

  1. Malaysian child infected with Plasmodium vivax via blood transfusion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Malaria may be a serious complication of blood transfusion due to the asymptomatic persistence of parasites in some donors. This case report highlights the transfusion-transmitted malaria of Plasmodium vivax in a child diagnosed with germ cell tumour. This child had received blood transfusion from three donors and a week later started developing malaria like symptoms. Nested PCR and sequencing confirmed that one of the three donors was infected with P. vivax and this was transmitted to the 12-year-old child. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported transfusion-transmitted malaria case in Malaysia. PMID:24007496

  2. Higher Maternal Protectiveness Is Associated with Higher Odds of Child Overweight and Obesity: A Longitudinal Australian Study

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Kirsten J.; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4–5 year old children was followed up at 6–7, 8–9 and 10–11 years of age (n  =  2596). Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6–7 and 8–9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI), family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4–5, 6–7 or 8–9 years. However at age 10–11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s) that links the two concepts. PMID:24955586

  3. Higher maternal protectiveness is associated with higher odds of child overweight and obesity: a longitudinal Australian study.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kirsten J; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4-5 year old children was followed up at 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years of age (n  =  2596). Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6-7 and 8-9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI), family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9 years. However at age 10-11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s) that links the two concepts.

  4. A Case Against First Amendment Protections for Commercial Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Kent R.

    Although extending constitutional protection to commercial expression might benefit the consumer, the First Amendment is the wrong instrument for carrying out what are basically economic policies. While in most First Amendment cases the nature of the content determines whether it is constitutionally protected, advertising is distinct in that it…

  5. The Question of Best Interest of the Child in Failed Adoptions: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Stacey; Weinberg, Anita

    2001-01-01

    This case study details a problematic adoption. The study briefly describes the requirements of constitutional and Illinois law that set the framework for the ChildLaw Center's internal debate on the case, presents the competing considerations confronted in the case, and the decision made and the implications of the appellate court ruling in the…

  6. Criminal Justice Outcomes of Prosecution of Child Sexual Abuse: A Case Flow Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Theodore P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the progress and disposition of child sexual abuse cases referred for prosecution in four urban jurisdictions. Most cases were accepted for prosecution. Most cases carried forward for prosecution resulted in guilty pleas. Only nine percent of the total sample went to trial. A majority of those were convicted. Over three-fourths…

  7. Targeted social protection in a pastoralist economy: case study from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Janzen, S A; Jensen, N D; Mude, A G

    2016-11-01

    Social protection programmes are designed to help vulnerable populations - including pastoralists - maintain a basic level of well-being, manage risk, and cope with negative shocks. Theory suggests that differential targeting according to poverty status can increase the reach and effectiveness of budgeted social protection programmes. Chronically poor households benefit most from social protection designed to help them meet their basic needs and make vital investments necessary to graduate from poverty. Vulnerable non-destitute households benefit from protection against costly temporary shocks, but do not necessarily need regular assistance. Welfare gains occur when a comprehensive social protection programme considers the needs of both types of households. The authors use evidence-based understanding of poverty dynamics in the pastoralist-based economy of northern Kenya's arid and semi-arid lands as a case study to discuss and compare the observed impacts of two different social protection schemes on heterogeneous pastoralist households: a targeted, unconditional, cash-transfer programme designed to support the poorest, and an index-based livestock insurance programme, which acts as a productive 'safety net' to help stem a descent into poverty and increase resilience. Both types of social protection scheme have been shown to decrease poverty, improve food security and protect child health. However, the behavioural response for asset accumulation varies with the type of protection and the household's unique situation. Poor households that receive cash transfers retain and accumulate assets quickly. Insured households, who are typically vulnerable yet not destitute, protect existing herds and invest more in the livestock they already own. The authors argue that differential targeting increases programme efficiency, and discuss Kenya's current approach to implementing differentially targeted social protection.

  8. Using a Strengths Approach to Early Childhood Teacher Preparation in Child Protection Using Work-Integrated Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a collaborative strengths-based approach to investing in pre-service early childhood teacher education in the area of child protection. The doctoral research of the author, which evaluated a Strengths Approach as a cross-sector tool for implementing change in early-childhood education and in doing so researched a potential…

  9. Evaluating the Risks of School Dropout amongst Children in the Care of the French Child Protection System: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derivois, Daniel; Guillier-Pasut, Nathalie; Karray, Amira; Cénat, Jude-Mary; Brolles, Lisbeth; Matsuhara, Hanae

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to identify the best way of preventing and assessing the livelihood and risk of school dropout amongst children entrusted to the care of the French child protection system in the Département of Rhone. The sample comprised 91 children and adolescents aged 4- to 17-years-old, of whom 45 were girls. The data were…

  10. Prior Victimization and Sexual and Contraceptive Self-Efficacy among Adolescent Females under Child Protective Services Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovsepian, S. Lory; Blais, Martin; Manseau, Helene; Otis, Joanne; Girard, Marie-Eve

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent females under Child Protective Services care in Quebec, Canada (n = 328) completed a questionnaire designed to explore associations between prior victimization (childhood sexual abuse and four forms of dating violence) and four dimensions of sexual and contraceptive self-efficacy. Five MANCOVAs were performed. In each model, a…

  11. The Contribution of Childhood Emotional Abuse to Teen Dating Violence among Child Protective Services-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Wall, Anne-Marie; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael; Trocme, Nico; Waechter, Randall

    2009-01-01

    Objective: For child protective services (CPS) youth who may have experienced more than one form of maltreatment, the unique contribution of emotional abuse may be over-looked when other forms are more salient and more clearly outside of accepted social norms for parenting. This study considers the unique predictive value of childhood emotional…

  12. Victim resistance in child sexual abuse: a look into the efficacy of self-protection strategies based on the offender's experience.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    This study examines the efficacy, as experienced by offenders with their victim, of self-protection strategies used in child sexual abuse cases. It also investigates whether the efficacy of self-protection varies according to victim characteristics. The sample consists of 94 adult offenders who sexually abused a single child and who agreed to provide confidential self-report data on the efficacy of self-protection strategies used by their victim. Strategies taken into account are: (1) yelling or screaming, (2) fighting back, (3) saying no, (4) saying they didn't want to, (5) crying, (6) telling someone else about the abuse, (7) saying they were scared, (8) demanding to be left alone, (9) saying they would tell someone, (10) saying that people are not supposed to touch their private parts, (11) trying to get away, and (12) yelling for help. Saying that they do not want to have sexual contact and saying "no" to the offender are the most effective strategies. Because they are more likely to use self-protection initially, younger girls are also more likely to prevent episodes of abuse than older girls.

  13. Developmental Outcome in a Tracheostomized Child: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports developmental outcomes of a child who experienced a tracheostomy and had prolonged hospitalization and psychomotor therapy in an intensive care unit. Found a pattern of delay in speech and language production with no hearing loss, no cognitive impairment, an average level of fine motor disorders, no behavioral disorders, and normal…

  14. The new UN CRC General Comment 13: "The right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence"--changing how the world conceptualizes child protection.

    PubMed

    Svevo-Cianci, Kimberly A; Herczog, Maria; Krappmann, Lothar; Cook, Philip

    2011-12-01

    The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child established CRC General Comment 13 (April 2011) to address today's unabating high rates of violence against children globally despite CRC advances. GC13 provides clear interpretations and stronger detail to supplement the legal language of CRC Article 19, intended to establish protection of children from all forms of violence. Through GC13, the Committee seeks to strengthen policy and practice implementation for all children, including every nation's most vulnerable, by clearly establishing measurable indicators: structure, process and outcomes to children-through improved technical information, expertise and assistance. Based on knowledge and experience gained over the 22 years since the CRC was adopted, GC13 advances best practice approaches and technical resources for States Parties and professionals on preventing violence against children, and on strengthening protection programs, systems, services, research, monitoring, evaluation and reporting. This article addresses child rights and protection issues which have been raised during this period, as well as during the consultation and resulting dialogues, such as the rights of children in early/forced marriage, and the role of the State Party as responsible caregiver when parents or families are not capable of providing protection.

  15. [Sensitization to pollen in the asthmatic child. A study of 86 cases].

    PubMed

    Zouari, Samia; Khaldi, Faouzia

    2006-08-01

    This retrospective study was designed to determine the place of pollen sensibilization in asthmatic child and to assess its epidemiological and clinical characteristics. 86 from 638 asthmatic child were allergic to pollen and included in the study. The mean age was 4 years (extremes : 1-12 years). The mean age of first respiratory manifestations was 1 and half years. The male/female ratio was 1.46. Asthmatic attacks was noted in 77% of cases, chronic cough was the only allergic manifestation in 16% of cases. Associated rhinitis or conjunctivitis were found in 55% of cases, atopic dermatitis was found in 4 patients (4.6% of cases). Atopic asthma was per annual in 78% of cases. Pollinic asthma was diagnosed in 51 child. Other sensibilization were found in 60% of cases. 26 child (32%) were allergic to pollen only and 18 child to sample pollen. The gramineae pollen sensibilization is the most common allergy, followed by olive tree and cypress tree and herbaceous pollens.

  16. [Capabilities from the very beginning. Analysis of early interventions for child protection within the 13th Children and Youth Report].

    PubMed

    Keupp, H

    2010-10-01

    The 13th Children and Youth Report of the Federal Government was tasked with assessing the achievements attained in health-related prevention and health promotion by the Child and Youth Services and evaluating the goals still to be accomplished. Health-relevant development issues in the first phase of life are attachment and autonomy. The concept of early intervention is defined by the threefold responsibility entrusted to the Child and Youth Services: encouraging opportunities for development, providing assistance where resources are inadequate, and protecting children who are endangered or neglected. The greatest need for support is seen to involve children of impoverished or migrant families. The three specified goals require regional networks, which connect the existing support systems, in addition to the Child and Youth Services including pediatrics and child psychiatry, midwives, and early childhood intervention, to form integrated activity systems. Based on this foundation, the aim is then to strengthen parent competence through measures for family enrichment, to offer support related to the social sphere and family structure (e.g., early excellence programs, multigenerational homes, family centers, or family midwives) and to ensure effective child protective services.

  17. Attitudinal and individual differences influence perceptions of mock child sexual assault cases involving gay defendants.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Tisha R A; Bottoms, Bette L

    2013-01-01

    Many people hold negative attitudes and stereotypes about gay men, including the stereotype that gay men are likely to be child molesters. This article explored the implications of this stereotype for judgments made in a hypothetical legal case involving child sexual abuse accusations against a male teacher by either a male or female victim. Mock jurors who held the most anti-gay attitudes and those who endorsed the stereotype of gay men as child molesters made the most pro-prosecution judgments in scenarios involving gay defendants. A new scale (the Stereotypes about Gays and Child Abuse scale) was developed to assess the extent to which participants endorsed the stereotype of gay men as being likely to sexually abuse children. This scale was a stronger predictor of case judgments than existing, more general scales measuring biases against homosexuality.

  18. Gingival Recession in a Child-Patient; Easily Missed Etiologies: Case Report with Video

    PubMed Central

    Nwhator, SO

    2014-01-01

    Gingival recession is commonly associated with plaque-induced inflammation and calculus. A high frenal attachment is more important in gingival recession in the child-patient. A healthy child-patient with impeccable oral hygiene presented with localized gingival recession without plaque-induced inflammation which led to the exploration of other possible etiologies. Multiple factors appeared to be acting in consonance (Concomitant multiple etiologies [CME]). The factors were a high frenal attachment, traumatic overbite and bruxism induced by premature tooth contacts. Pedodontists and periodontists should rule out CME in cases of gingival recession in the child-patient. PMID:25031899

  19. Child Maltreatment and the Justice System: Predictors of Court Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlak, Andrea J.; Doueck, Howard J.; Lyons, Peter; Wells, Susan J.; Schultz, Dana; Gragg, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Characteristics of the child victim, perpetrator, and maltreatment incident were used to examine predictors of court involvement in cases of serious child maltreatment. Method: Cases were drawn from those reported to: child protective services (n = 225), "sheriff's office" ( n = 225), "prosecutor's office" ( n = 60), "and dependency…

  20. How Safe? The Status of State Efforts To Protect Children in Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gina

    Based on the view that strong state child care licensing policies can influence the quality of child care and thereby enhance children's health and development, this report examines the status of state efforts to improve the quality of child care programs. Almost all data were collected for a 1993 Parenting Magazine survey, and were verified by…

  1. Children in Africa: Key Statistics on Child Survival, Protection and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report presents key statistics relating to: (1) child malnutrition in Africa; (2) HIV/AIDS and Malaria in Africa; (3) child marriage, birth registration and Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C); (4) education in Africa; (5) child mortality in Africa; (6) Drinking water and sanitation in Africa; and (7) maternal health in Africa.…

  2. Child Protection, Care and Education in Vietnam from Now up to the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Ngo Quang

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of child welfare and early childhood education programs in Vietnam, including statistics on infant mortality, child survival, vaccination ratios, birth weight trends, and rates of disease and disability. Describes government programs to promote child welfare; early childhood (creche) education; kindergarten; programs for…

  3. Neglected Thorn Injury Mimicking Soft Tissue Mass in a Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mayank; Kumar, Dharmendra; Naik, Ananta Kumar; Arya, Rajendera Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Thorn injuries are common especially in rural areas. The diagnosis of such in children is always missed. An untreated retained thorn may cause late soft tissue and osseous complications. Herein, we report a case of neglected thorn injury mimicking soft tissue mass in an 11-year-old male child. The presence of the thorn was confirmed with ultrasound scan and computerized tomography. The child was successfully managed with removal of thorn with excision of foreign body granuloma. PMID:26155524

  4. Understanding Fatal Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Ralph A.; Gaughan, Daniel C.

    1995-01-01

    Medical, social service, and coroner reports were reviewed for 14 cases of fatal child abuse and neglect identified at a children's hospital from 1988 to 1992. Median age was 6.5 months. Six families had prior protective service involvement (though four of these had involved a sibling). The cause of death in all cases was blunt impact head injury.…

  5. Mass flea outbreak at a child care facility: case report.

    PubMed

    Corpus, L D; Corpus, K M

    1991-04-01

    Cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis Bouchet, were collected at a Mississippi child care facility after reports of large numbers of adult fleas occurring on children and personnel. One building yielded 161 (99 percent) of the fleas collected. Urticarial lesions due to flea bites occurred on the legs of six children. Flea presence was due to cats occupying the crawl space. Fleas were eradicated by eliminating entry of cats and using residual insecticides throughout the facility.

  6. Bottom-up approaches to strengthening child protection systems: Placing children, families, and communities at the center.

    PubMed

    Wessells, Michael G

    2015-05-01

    Efforts to strengthen national child protection systems have frequently taken a top-down approach of imposing formal, government-managed services. Such expert-driven approaches are often characterized by low use of formal services and the misalignment of the nonformal and formal aspects of the child protection system. This article examines an alternative approach of community-driven, bottom-up work that enables nonformal-formal collaboration and alignment, greater use of formal services, internally driven social change, and high levels of community ownership. The dominant approach of reliance on expert-driven Child Welfare Committees produces low levels of community ownership. Using an approach developed and tested in rural Sierra Leone, community-driven action, including collaboration and linkages with the formal system, promoted the use of formal services and achieved increased ownership, effectiveness, and sustainability of the system. The field needs less reliance on expert-driven approaches and much wider use of slower, community-driven, bottom-up approaches to child protection.

  7. The management of child abuse and neglect cases in schools: the Toronto model.

    PubMed

    McClare, G

    1983-01-01

    School staffs have a major role in the prevention, identification and referral of cases of child abuse and neglect. School administrators, teachers and school support staffs require knowledge about abuse and neglect, as well as a clear set of guidelines and procedures for dealing with it if they are to carry out these responsibilities effectively. The Toronto Board of Education has developed a program that has involved superintendents, principals, teachers, pupil personnel staff, caretakers, secretaries and community resources in an educational program oriented to the management of child abuse cases in their schools. The Board's Child Abuse Committee has developed a document which outlines employees' responsibilities under the legislation, provides assistance in the identification of child abuse and neglect cases, and outlines procedures for referral both internally and to the community. The document was used as the base for an extensive staff development program during the school year 1979-80, in which all of the system's 6,000 school based employees participated. The Toronto Board's Child Abuse Program incorporated the establishment of the position "Resource Person, Child Abuse" for the purpose of consultation with school staffs, as well as the ongoing provision of resource material and staff training. The paper outlines the development of the program, includes guidelines and procedures for school staffs, the legislation under which it operates, the content of the training program, and an evaluation of the program with suggestions for replication.

  8. Caregiver reports of serious injuries in children who remain at home after a child protective services investigation.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Leslie, Laurel K; Hurlburt, Michael S; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2012-02-01

    The study objectives were to examine serious injuries requiring medical attention among children who remain at home after a child welfare/child protective services (CPS) maltreatment investigation in the US and to determine whether child/caregiver characteristics and ongoing CPS involvement are related to injuries requiring medical attention. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being, we analyzed data on the subsample of children who remained at home (N = 3,440). A multivariate logistic regression model included child characteristics, chronic illness and disability in the child, level of CPS involvement, subsequent foster care placement, caregiver characteristics, and caregiver/family psychological variables. Injuries requiring medical attention were identified in 10.6% of the in-home population over a 15-month period, with no differences in rates by age. Children with a chronic medical condition (OR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.20-3.58) and children with depressed caregivers (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 1.45-3.58) were more likely to have an injury that required medical care. Older caregivers (>54 years) were less likely (OR = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.69) to have a child with an injury requiring care. Injuries were not related to further involvement with CPS after the initial maltreatment investigation. Children with chronic medical conditions who remained in their biological homes or whose caregivers were depressed were likely to experience an injury requiring medical attention. Older caregivers were less likely to report a child injury. Extending existing health policies for foster children to children who remain at home following referral to CPS may encourage more comprehensive injury prevention for this population.

  9. Forensic, Cultural, and Systems Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Cases--Part 2: Research and Practitioner Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…

  10. The Role of Oral Language Interactions in English Literacy Learning: A Case Study of a First Grade Korean Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwangok

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative case study of a Korean first grade child. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of a first grade Korean child's oral language interactions with teachers, parents, peers, and community members and to examine how a child's oral language impacts his literacy learning in English. The data were…

  11. Parental Protectiveness Mediates the Association between Parent-Perceived Child Self-Efficacy and Health Outcomes in Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorder

    PubMed Central

    DuPen, Melissa M.; van Tilburg, Miranda A. L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Murphy, Tasha B.; Romano, Joan M.; Levy, Rona L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that parental protectiveness is associated with increased pain and disability in Functional Abdominal Pain Disorder (FAPD) but the role that perceived child self-efficacy may play remains unclear. One reason why parents may react protectively towards their child’s pain is that they perceive their child to be unable to cope or function normally while in pain (perceived low self-efficacy). This study sought to examine (a) the association between parent-perceived child pain self-efficacy and child health outcomes (symptom severity and disability); and (b) the role of parental protectiveness as a mediator of this association. Participants were 316 parents of children aged 7–12 years with FAPD. Parents completed measures of perceived child self-efficacy when in pain, their own protective responses to their child’s pain, child gastrointestinal (GI) symptom severity, and child functional disability. Parent-perceived child self-efficacy was inversely associated with parent-reported child GI symptom severity and disability, and parental protectiveness mediated these associations. These results suggest that parents who perceive their child to have low self-efficacy to cope with pain respond more protectively when they believe he/she is in pain, and this, in turn, is associated with higher levels of GI symptoms and disability in their child. This finding suggests that directly addressing parent beliefs about their child’s ability to manage pain should be included as a component of FAPD, and potentially other child treatment interventions. PMID:27657151

  12. Clusters of abusive parenting: a latent class analysis of families referred to Child Protective Services in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ana Luísa; Moleiro, Carla; Dias, José G

    2014-12-01

    From the perspective of ecological models, it is suggested that a thorough behavior analysis of parental mistreatment and neglect is undertaken from a general approach to a more comprehensive and multi-dimensional perspective. Hence, the main goal of the present study was to determine if meaningful groups or clusters of abusive parenting in Portugal could be identified based on the characterization of the children and adolescents, their parents and context variables. An instrument was developed to assess variables of the children or adolescents, the family and the social context, all of which have been shown to be important in the literature. Child and Youth Protection Commissions from the whole of Portugal participated in the study, a total of 504 cases. Latent class analysis was applied in order to identify distinct parenting abusing behavior. The results showed four distinct clusters of families which are clearly defined in light of the types of risk and associated variables. The four groups are probabilistic and propose the composition of clusters with socio-demographic variables related to the types of risk. The significant interrelationships of different profiling characteristics are directly related to parenting abusing behavior. The results of this study confirmed our hypothesis of heterogeneous abusive parenting in Portugal. The findings yield useful policy-oriented results. Meaningfully organizing abusive parenting may be an important step not only in understanding the origins of abuse and neglect, but also in integrating this information into intervention models with children, young people and their families.

  13. Early identification of mental health needs for children in care: a therapeutic assessment programme for statutory clients of child protection.

    PubMed

    Milburn, Nicole L; Lynch, Marell; Jackson, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Infants, children and young people enter out of home care in distressing circumstances. They have often suffered traumatic experiences and have had their primary relationships disrupted. They and their families and carers have specific mental health needs at this time but few have attended a mental health service. A systematic comprehensive therapeutic assessment approach is described for all child protection clients who entered out-of-home care for the first time in one calendar year. The work of the programme is described using both case study and assessment findings. More than 60 per cent of participants met criteria for a major psychiatric diagnosis, with Post Traumatic Stress and Adjustment Disorders being the most common diagnostic categories. Nearly three-quarters of participants over the age of 5 years scored in the borderline or abnormal range on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman, 1997). There was an over-representation of infants less than 1 year of age and adolescents in the cohort, representing particular developmental challenges. The findings are discussed within the context of specific mental health service delivery to this vulnerable population of maltreated infants, children and young people.

  14. Outcomes related to burn-related child abuse: a case series.

    PubMed

    Ruth, G D; Smith, S; Bronson, M; Davis, A T; Wilcox, R M

    2003-01-01

    Nationally, approximately 10% of child abuse cases involve burning, and up to 20% of pediatric burn admissions involve abuse or neglect. Historically, these cases have been more difficult to prosecute than nonburn cases for multiple reasons. Between 1995 and 1999, there were 285 pediatric (under 18) patients admitted to the Spectrum Health Regional Burn Center. Of these cases, 18 of the alleged perpetrators were legally investigated for suspicion of child abuse, and 7 received punitive sentences. We found that men tended to be prosecuted and convicted more often than women and that cases involving multiple instances of injury tended to be prosecuted more frequently. Similarly, we found that cases involving more severe injuries tended to be prosecuted more successfully. There are many psychological and social factors involved in handling burn abuse cases. However, by successful prosecution of these crimes, victims tend to fare better both socially and psychologically.

  15. Borderline personality disorder features and history of childhood maltreatment in mothers involved with child protective services.

    PubMed

    Perepletchikova, Francheska; Ansell, Emily; Axelrod, Seth

    2012-05-01

    This study examines the history of childhood maltreatment and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) symptoms in mothers whose children were removed from the home by Child Protective Services (CPS) to identify potential targets for future intervention efforts. Forty-one mothers of children removed from the home due to abuse and/or neglect and 58 community-control mothers without CPS involvement were assessed for history of childhood maltreatment, alcohol and drug use, and BPD features. CPS-involved mothers scored significantly higher on measures of childhood maltreatment history and BPD features than did control mothers. The highest BPD scores were associated with the most severe histories of mothers' childhood maltreatment. In total, 50% of CPS-involved mothers reported elevated BPD features, compared with 15% of control mothers. Further, 19% of CPS-involved mothers had self-reported scores consistent with a BPD diagnosis, compared with 4% of control mothers. BPD features rather than maltreatment history per se predicted maternal involvement with CPS, controlling for alcohol and drug use predictors. The present data suggest that evidence-based treatments to address BPD symptoms may be indicated for some CPS-involved parents.

  16. [Evaluation of a training program for child welfare case workers on trauma sequelae in foster children].

    PubMed

    Oswald, Sylvia H; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Foster children are exposed to multiple psychosocial and biological risk factors and have an elevated risk for developmental delays and the development of mental disorders. Many children experienced compromising situations such as neglect, physical abuse, or sexual abuse before out-of-home placement. Consequently, they show a higher need for mental health services than other children. However, out-of-home placement is often considered as the sufficient measure to help these children. Hence this project had the aim to sensitize child welfare agencies and foster parent organisations for the special needs and history of foster children, to provide them with instruments for the assessment of emotional and behaviour problems and to promote the cooperation at the interface between child welfare system and mental health system. Twenty-four child welfare agencies and four foster parent organisations participated. The control group consisted of 16 non-participating child welfare agencies. After one year, participants recorded more often children's social history (p = .023), conducted more often standardized psychosocial assessments (p = .001), assessed more often the medical needs of foster children (p = .029), and informed foster parents more often about behaviour problems of their foster child (p = .034). In summary, child welfare agencies were very interested, could be sensitized for mental disorders following traumata and implemented the offered instruments in their work. Limits of resources could be observed due to the case workers' high case load.

  17. Risk factors for fatal and non-fatal child maltreatment in families previously investigated by CPS: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Sheridan; Romano, Patrick S; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Thurston, Holly; Dharmar, Madan; Joseph, Jill G

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify individual, family and caregiver risk factors for serious child maltreatment, resulting in hospitalization or death, among children and families investigated by Child Protective Services (CPS). We conducted a matched case-control study of 234 children who sustained fatal or serious nonfatal maltreatment due to physical abuse or neglect and whose mother was named in a CPS investigation between 1999 and 2013. A total of 702 children and their caregivers were included in the study with 234 cases matched 2:1,resulting in 468 controls. Data on potential risk factors were abstracted from three county administrative databases. Differences between cases and controls were calculated and multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate risk models. Variables associated with increased risk for serious maltreatment included male child gender,younger caregivers, three or more children under the age of 5 living in the home, families in which a biologic child was not living with either parent, and scoring moderate or high on the Structured Decision Making Risk Tool(®). Caregiver involvement in intimate partner violence (IPV) and child enrollment in public health insurance appears to mitigate the risk of serious maltreatment.

  18. Does economic inequality affect child malnutrition? The case of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Larrea, Carlos; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Economic inequality has been hypothesized to be a determinant of population health, independent of poverty and household income. We examined the association between economic inequality and child malnutrition in Ecuador. Economic inequality was measured by the Gini coefficient of household per capita consumption, estimated from the 1990 Census. Childhood stunting, assessed from height-for-age z scores, was obtained from the 1998 Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS). We controlled for a range of individual and household covariates, including per capita food consumption, education, housing, ethnicity, fertility, access to health services, diarrhea morbidity, child care, mother's age and diet composition. Stunting still affects 26% of children under five in Ecuador, with higher prevalence in the rural Highlands and among indigenous peoples. Maternal education, basic housing conditions, access to health services, ethnicity, fertility, maternal age and diet composition were independently associated with stunting. However, after controlling for relevant covariates, economic inequality at the provincial scale had a statistically significant deleterious effect on stunting. At municipal or local levels, inequality was not associated with stunting.

  19. A rare case of unilateral postaxial duplicated foot in a developmentally normal child.

    PubMed

    Sahdi, Haniza; Hoong, Chan Wai; Rasit, Ahmad Hata; Arianto, Fredy; Siong, Lau Kiew; Abdullah, Nur Alyana Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Diplopodia, being a rare congenital disorder, is infrequently discussed in published texts. Most reported cases have accounted the involvement of duplicated preaxial digits with other associated organ system and physical deformities. Here, we present an unusual case of isolated diplopodia involving postaxial toes in a child with no other organ and physical abnormalities. Radiological studies revealed a set of 10-digit-duplicated foot over the lateral aspect of the native foot, complete with phalanges and its corresponding metatarsals as well as tarsals, supplied by an anomalous posterior branch of the popliteal artery. Definitive surgery was performed just before the child was learning to walk.

  20. Medical nonadherence in pediatric HIV: psychosocial risks and intersection with the child protection system for medical neglect.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, Corry; Wade, Mark; Salter, Robyn; Macdougall, Georgina; Shouldice, Michelle; Read, Stanley; Bitnun, Ari

    2014-11-01

    Nonadherence to antiretroviral treatment has serious health implications for HIV-infected children, at times warranting referral to child protective services (CPS). The current study of 134 children with perinatally acquired HIV infection aimed to investigate rates of treatment adherence and CPS involvement, multilevel variables associated with nonadherence, and the manner in which these risks operated together in the prediction of adherence outcomes. Risk factors for nonadherence were grouped on the basis of confirmatory factor models, and factor score regression was carried out to determine which factors were uniquely predictive of adherence. A series of indirect effects models were then tested in order to examine how these factors operated together in the prediction of adherence. Results showed that almost half of the sample demonstrated suboptimal adherence to treatment, and in one-fifth, CPS was involved for medical neglect. Caregiver Health, Caregiver Involvement, Caregiver Acceptance, and Child Adaptation were predictive of nonadherence, and together explained 54% of the variance in treatment adherence. There were significant indirect effects of Caregiver Health on adherence that operated through Caregiver Involvement and Child Adaptation and an indirect effect of Caregiver Involvement on adherence through Child Adaptation. Findings extend current literature that has independently linked various factors predictive of medical adherence in pediatric HIV by showing separate but simultaneous associations with nonadherence and unique pathways to adherence involving multilevel risks. Healthcare and child welfare implications are discussed.

  1. The child protection and juvenile justice nexus in Australia: A longitudinal examination of the relationship between maltreatment and offending.

    PubMed

    Malvaso, Catia G; Delfabbro, Paul H; Day, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    There is convincing evidence that many young people who are in the justice system have had contact with child protection services and that victims of childhood maltreatment are at increased risk of subsequent youth justice involvement. In Australia, however, there have been few longitudinal studies that have examined these associations and relatively less is known in this area. This study examines the overlap between the child protection and youth justice involvement in South Australia, and determines how substantiated maltreatment and variations in these experiences (e.g., the type, timing and recurrence of maltreatment) relate to criminal convictions as a youth. The results show that although the majority of child-protection involved youth do not become convicted offenders, the odds of subsequent convictions are significantly greater both for those with notifications and substantiated maltreatment and for those who had been placed in out-of-home care. Multivariate analyses revealed that the strongest predictors for receiving a conviction among maltreated youth were: male gender, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander ethnicity, experiences of physical abuse and emotional abuse, a greater number of substantiations (recurrence), experiencing maltreatment that commenced in childhood and continued into adolescence, and placement in out-of-home care. The mechanisms through which maltreatment might be linked with behavior are then considered, along with directions for future research in this area.

  2. Prosthetic Oral Rehabilitation of a Child With S-ECC: A Case Report with Histopathologic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tannure, P N; Moraes, G G; Borba, McU; Abrahão, A; Andrade, Mtrc; Fidalgo, Tks

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment planning of a young child with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) as well as the prosthetic rehabilitation technique. A 3-year-old female child was referred to the pediatric dentistry clinic with the chief complaint of tooth pain, difficulty in eating and recurrent hospitalizations caused by dental infections. The mother reported intermittent episodes of fever and recurrent swelling of child's face. The girl presented angular cheilitis and was referred to a dietitian. The treatment plain consisted on a behavior changes in oral hygiene habits, exodontias of all primary teeth and oral rehabilitation with a prosthesis. The extracted teeth with periapical lesions were submitted to histopathologic analysis (hematoxilin and eosin staining) and revealed an inflammatory infiltrate. The aesthetic requirement of children with S-ECC has been a challenge to pediatric dentists. In the present case, the oral rehabilitation provided for the children better aesthetic, nutrition, phonation, and functional conditions.

  3. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  4. Understanding Risk and Protective Factors for Child Maltreatment: The Value of Integrated, Population-Based Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Needell, Barbara; Rhodes, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we argue for expanded efforts to integrate administrative data systems as a "practical strategy" for developing a richer understanding of child abuse and neglect. Although the study of child maltreatment is often critiqued for being atheoretical, we believe that a more pressing concern is the absence of population-based and…

  5. Cultural Pride Reinforcement as a Dimension of Racial Socialization Protective of Urban African American Child Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bannon, William M; McKay, Mary M; Chacko, Anil; Rodriguez, James A; Cavaleri, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The study objective was to examine how parental endorsement of cultural pride reinforcement messages may explain African American child anxiety. Data were gathered from 72 African American parents and their elementary school-aged children. Results indicated stronger parental endorsement of cultural pride reinforcement messages predicted less child anxiety. Additionally parental endorsement of these messages moderated the relationship between child mental health risk factor exposure and child anxiety. Specifically in the presence of high exposure, children of parents who endorsed high levels of cultural pride reinforcement messages had significantly lower anxiety scores relative to children of parents who endorsed low levels of these messages. Findings indicated parental endorsement of these messages may be an important factor in explaining African American child anxiety.

  6. Innocence, Protection and Failure: Bringing the Child Subject to the Centre of the Politics of the Family. A Response to Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    In response to Davies and Robinson's article looking at how queer families are positioned and position themselves in relation to neoliberalism, this article brings the child to the centre of the debate to examine how reading the child subject in terms of discourses of innocence and protection might work to maintain the hegemony of the…

  7. Children and Young People at Risk of Social Exclusion: Links between Homelessness, Child Protection and Juvenile Justice. Data Linkage Series. Number 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalders, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Current research demonstrates relationships between child abuse and neglect, homelessness and criminal activity. This report presents key findings from analysis of a data set linking three community-sector data collections: Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP), juvenile justice supervision, and child protection notifications and…

  8. Pre-existing adversity, level of child protection involvement, and school attendance predict educational outcomes in a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Miriam J; Taylor, Catherine L; O'Donnell, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Maltreatment largely occurs in a multiple-risk context. The few large studies adjusting for confounding factors have raised doubts about whether low educational achievement results from maltreatment or co-occurring risk factors. This study examined prevalence, risk and protective factors for low educational achievement among children involved with the child protection system compared to other children. We conducted a population-based record-linkage study of children born in Western Australia who sat national Year 3 reading achievement tests between 2008 and 2010 (N=46,838). The longitudinal study linked data from the Western Australian Department of Education, Department of Child Protection and Family Support, Department of Health, and the Disability Services Commission. Children with histories of child protection involvement (unsubstantiated maltreatment reports, substantiations or out-of-home care placement) were at three-fold increased risk of low reading scores. Adjusting for socio-demographic adversity partially attenuated the increased risk, however risk remained elevated overall and for substantiated (OR=1.68) and unsubstantiated maltreatment (OR=1.55). Risk of low reading scores in the out-of-home care group was fully attenuated after adjusting for socio-demographic adversity (OR=1.16). Attendance was significantly higher in the out-of-home care group and served a protective role. Neglect, sexual abuse, and physical abuse were associated with low reading scores. Pre-existing adversity was also significantly associated with achievement. Results support policies and practices to engage children and families in regular school attendance, and highlight a need for further strategies to prevent maltreatment and disadvantage from restricting children's opportunities for success.

  9. Does Psychotherapy Recover or Invent Child Sexual Abuse Memories? A Case History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milchman, Madelyn Simring

    2008-01-01

    This case describes bodily experiences that appeared to cue child sexual abuse memories during psychotherapy by a woman who was amnesic for her childhood and suffered from chronic dissociative states. Though corroboration was unavailable, she became increasingly confident about her returning memories. Special efforts were made to avoid making…

  10. Echolalia versus Inclusion: A Case Study of a Child Who Is Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoniou-Sideri, Athina; Karayianni, Panagiota

    2000-01-01

    A case study of a Greek child (age 5) with visual impairment and echolalia is presented to illustrate the symptoms of echolalia in inclusive settings, the forms that echolalia can take, and how echolalia is differentiated from the kinds of speech repetitions observed in conditions of normal language acquisition. (Contains references.) (CR)

  11. A Multidisciplinary, Hospital-Based Team for Child Abuse Cases: A "Hands-on" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitworth, Jay M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a hospital-based program for providing consultation to persons who provide direct services in child abuse/neglect cases. Conceptual issues in multidisciplinary team formation and involvement are discussed. Some topics mentioned are types of service, follow-up, educational components, and long-term involvement with families. (DB)

  12. Policy Research and Child Passenger Safety Legislation: A Case Study and Experimental Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Stephen B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Research findings have been used by states to formulate legislation to increase child passenger safety. Case studies from Kansas and Illinois are presented. The process is most successful when researchers are sensitive to the policy making process. The implications for the use of psychological research findings are discussed. (VM)

  13. A Case Study Using Child-Centered Play Therapy Approach to Treat Enuresis and Encopresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuddy-Casey, Maria

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates an alternative method (nondirective child-centered therapy) in treating enuresis and encopresis resulting from emotional disturbances. Examines various etiologies and approaches to treating these conditions. Provides a case study example. Claims that professionals must differentiate between primary and secondary occurrences of these…

  14. Assessing Outcome in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Child Depression: An Illustrative Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Recent meta-analytic data suggest a need for ongoing evaluation of treatments for youth depression. The present article calls attention to a number of issues relevant to the empirical evaluation of if and how cognitive behavior therapy for child depression works. A case series of 6 children and a primary caregiver received treatment--individual…

  15. THE BIRTH OF LANGUAGE, THE CASE HISTORY OF A NON-VERBAL CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KASTEIN, SHULAMITH; TRACE, BARBARA

    THE HISTORY OF A CHILD WITH BEHAVIOR AND LANGUAGE DISORDERS IS WRITTEN BY THE MOTHER IN CONJUNCTION WITH A SPEECH PATHOLOGIST. WRITTEN FROM A PROFESSIONAL VIEWPOINT, THE CASE HISTORY PRESENTS MEDICAL, EDUCATIONAL, PHYSICAL, AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTS AS THEY OCCURRED FROM BIRTH TO 11 YEARS OF AGE. TESTING PROCEDURES AND RESULTS, DIAGNOSIS, AND…

  16. Brief Cognitive Behavioral Family Therapy Following a Child's Coming Out: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian L. B.; Doty, Nathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Few interventions have been proposed for the treatment of families following a child's disclosure of nonheterosexuality. To address this gap in the literature, the current paper outlines a brief cognitive behavioral family treatment (CBFT) for families negotiating the coming-out process and illustrates this approach with a case example. Parents'…

  17. Social Service Professionals' Perceptions of Nonoffending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfteich, Paula M.; Cline, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less…

  18. Teacher Perspectives on No Child Left Behind and Arts Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spohn, Cydney

    2008-01-01

    The author investigates the condition of a public school's arts education program under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and obtains teachers' perspectives on their experiences under the federal policy. The author used qualitative and quantitative approaches to conduct a case study of an Ohio public school district. The data collected revealed…

  19. Aspiration pneumonia in the child with DiGeorge syndrome -A case report-.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Young; Han, Yun-Joung

    2011-06-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is associated with a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and manifests with variable clinical findings. Aspiration pneumonia can be a perioperative complication of great concern in this syndrome. In this report, we present a case of a 16-month old child with DiGeorge syndrome undergoing cranioplasty. He developed perioperative aspiration pneumonia but was managed successfully.

  20. Wandering spleen torsion causing acute abdominal pain in a child: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Llorens Marina, Carlos I; Cedeño, Alex; Lugo-Vicente, Humberto; Chapel, Cristel; Rivera, Glorimar; Diaz, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare occurrence where the spleen normal fixation to the abdominal wall is lost and thus allowed to change in position. We report a case of a child who presented with acute abdominal pain secondary to a wandering spleen complicated by torsion of its vascular pedicle. The diagnosis was promptly made using computed tomography and managed with splenectomy.

  1. Gasoline Abuse in a 10-Year-Old Child with Mental Retardation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mohit; Vankar, GK

    2015-01-01

    Inahalant abuse is of increasing interest in India. The age of onset is typically during adolescence. Gasoline inhalant use is rarely reported in adolescents with intellectual deficit. We report a case of petrol dependence in a 10-year-old child with mental retardation. Possible effect of petrol huffing on behavior and cognition is discussed. PMID:25733844

  2. Relevance of medical reports in criminal investigations of cases of suspected child abuse.

    PubMed

    Janßen, Katharina; Greif, Dominik; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2017-01-20

    If a case of physical child abuse is suspected in Germany, the general feeling is often that "it does not matter whether you make a report or not" because, generally, no conviction is made anyway. This study investigates the juridical analysis of complaint cases of physical child abuse [criminal complaint parag. 225 StGB (German penal code) with filial victim]. It focuses on the doctor's role and the impact of their practice in relation to a later conviction. It is based on the analysis of 302 files of the enquiry from 2004-2009 from the department of public prosecution in Cologne, Germany. Besides general epidemiological data on the reporting person, the affected child and the presumed offender, the documents were reassessed for the relevance of medical reports for successful convictions. Only 7% (n = 21) of 302 complaints led to a conviction. In 38.1% (n = 8) of those cases, a medical report was mentioned as a piece of evidence, and just in two cases a (legal) medical report was quoted and mentioned as relevant for the conviction. 50% of the complaint cases with legal medical expertise led to a trial. In contrast, only 30.2% with a common medical report and 7.3% without a report led to a trial. The results show how a medical report existed in only a few cases. In those cases, the rate of performed trials was higher than for those without a medical report, but the report played a minor part when reasoning a verdict.

  3. Attorney work product privilege trumps mandated child abuse reporting law: The case of Elijah W. v. Superior Court.

    PubMed

    Lareau, Craig R

    2015-01-01

    Forensic psychologists and psychiatrists are licensed in their respective professions, but they perform most of their work with attorneys in the legal arena. Both attorneys and mental health professionals place high value on confidentiality of information, reflected in the ethics of their professions and codified into laws governing their work. In psychology and psychiatry, there are some well-known exceptions to confidentiality; two primary exceptions include the mandated reporting of suspected child abuse and various "Tarasoff" duty to warn or protect laws. Generally, however, the corresponding duty for attorneys to report suspected child abuse or to warn or protect intended victims of threatened harm is not as extensive. This difference in mandated reporting responsibilities can create significant difficulties when attorneys need to retain forensic psychologists and psychiatrists to evaluate their clients, especially in criminal contexts. If the retained psychologist or psychiatrist is required to report suspected abuse or threatened harm, the attorney may be harming his or her client's legal interests by using the forensic psychologist or psychiatrist to evaluate his or her client. This article will briefly review the development of mandated reporting laws for psychologists and psychiatrists and juxtapose those with the legal and ethical requirements of confidentiality for attorneys embodied in the attorney-client privilege and attorney work product privilege. The article will then discuss the California Court of Appeals case in Elijah W. v. Superior Court, where the court addressed the issue of whether retained mental health professionals must report suspected child abuse and threatened harm to others as required by law or if they do not need to report because they come under the umbrella of the attorney work product privilege. This California court ultimately concluded that retained psychologists and psychiatrists work under the attorney work product

  4. A case of respiratory depression in a child with ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolism after tramadol.

    PubMed

    Orliaguet, Gilles; Hamza, Jamil; Couloigner, Vincent; Denoyelle, Françoise; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Broly, Franck; Garabedian, Erea Noel

    2015-03-01

    We discuss a case of severe respiratory depression in a child, with ultrarapid CYP2D6 genotype and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, after taking tramadol for pain relief related to a day-case tonsillectomy.

  5. Datura stramonium L. poisoning in a geophagous child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bouziri, Asma; Hamdi, Asma; Borgi, Aida; Hadj, Sarra Bel; Fitouri, Zohra; Menif, Khaled; Ben Jaballah, Nejla

    2011-06-15

    Datura stramonium L. (DS) is a wild-growing plant widely distributed and easily accessible. It contains a variety of toxic anticholinergic alkaloids such as atropine, hyoscamine, and scopolamine. Voluntary or accidental ingestion can produce severe anticholinergic poisoning. We report an unusual case of DS intoxication occurring in a geophagous young child after accidental ingestion of the plant. Our case is original because of the young age of the victim and the underlying geophagia facilitating the occurrence of poisoning.

  6. Cerebral venous thrombosis in a child with nephrotic syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Bhoobun, Shalinee; Jalloh, Alhaji Alusaine; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), a rare and life threatening complication of nephrotic syndrome, has a variable and non-specific presentation, posing diagnostic challenges. We describe a case of CVT in a Sierra Leonean child with nephrotic syndrome who was successfully treated for the condition despite the resource limitations of the hospital. This case highlights the importance of considering cerebral venous thrombosis as a complication of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children presenting with neurological symptoms.

  7. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  8. Identifying best practices for "Safe Harbor" legislation to protect child sex trafficking victims: Decriminalization alone is not sufficient.

    PubMed

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Abrams, Susan; Azzi, Veronica F; Ryan, Gery; Brook, Robert; Chung, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted "Safe Harbor" laws to redirect child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and child sex trafficking from the criminal justice system and into the child welfare system. No comprehensive studies of Safe Harbor law implementation exist. The nine state Safe Harbor laws enacted by 2012 were analyzed to guide state legislators, health professionals, law enforcement agents, child welfare providers, and other responders to the commercial sexual exploitation of children on the development and implementation of state Safe Harbor laws. The authors conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with Safe Harbor experts in these states. Participants conveyed that Safe Harbor legislation signified a critical paradigm shift, treating commercially sexually exploited youth not as criminals but as vulnerable children in need of services. However, Safe Harbor legislation varied widely and significant gaps in laws exist. Such laws alone were considered insufficient without adequate funding for necessary services. As a result, many well-meaning providers were going around the Safe Harbor laws by continuing to incarcerate commercially sexually exploited youth in the juvenile justice system regardless of Safe Harbor laws in place. This was done, to act, in their view, in what was the best interest of the victimized children. With imperfect laws and implementation, these findings suggest an important role for local and state responders to act together to protect victims from unnecessary criminalization and potential further traumatization.

  9. Case Report: Traumatic anterior cerebral artery aneurysm in a 4-year old child

    PubMed Central

    Munakomi, Sunil; Tamrakar, Karuna; Chaudhary, Pramod; Bhattarai, Binod; Cherian, Iype

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysm in the proximal part of the anterior cerebral artery in the pediatric population has not been documented so far. Here we report the case of a 4 year-old child who developed a pseudo-aneurysm after minor head trauma and was managed successfully with trapping of the aneurysm. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed as the child became dependent on extraventricular drain during the post-operative period. The patient made excellent recovery in neurological status within 1 month of post-operative clinical follow up. PMID:27635218

  10. Unusual presentations of child abuse: A report of two cases and the role of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Omidiji, Olubukola Titilayo Abeni; Atalabi, Omolola Mojisola; Evbuomwan, Ogbeide Ejeordamen; Okwuegbuna, Francis Ikechukwu; Oluseyi, Olugbenga

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient attention has been paid to child abuse in Nigeria, where corporal punishment is still acceptable both at home and in the wider public including schools. This is not limited to the parents; these punitive measures can also be undertaken by the extended family, caregivers, and neighbors. Mild to extreme force is allowed particularly when the crime involves tarnishing the family image. We hereby report two cases of extreme discipline that can be termed as a form of child abuse to draw the attention of clinicians and radiologists to other possible findings aside from those already reported in literature. PMID:28051056

  11. Peters plus anomaly in a Cameroonian child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kagmeni, Giles; Bilong, Yannick; Mbogos, Cedric; Bella Assumpta, Lucienne

    2016-01-01

    Background Peters’ anomaly (PA) is a rare form of anterior segment dysgenesis characterized by corneal opacity with varied degree of anterior chamber affection with associated defects in the posterior layers of the cornea. Case presentation We report the case of a 3-month-old male infant with bilateral corneal opacity since birth who was transferred from the pediatric unit for further ophthalmic care. He was diagnosed with PA with subsequent systemic-associated malformations including craniofacial defects and skeletal defects. He was managed minimally with topical mydriatics and antiglaucomatous drugs. Conclusion PA is an inevitable cause of blindness in developing countries due to poor infrastructure and limited resources. PMID:27789975

  12. Women convicted of a sexual offence, including child pornography production: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Prat, S; Bertsch, I; Chudzik, L; Réveillère, Ch

    2014-03-01

    All available studies addressing the clinical and legal aspects of child pornography have systematically concerned male abusers. The social lens through which women are viewed tends to play down their responsibility in the sexual abuse of children. Unlike men, women rarely abuse children outside the close or family circle. Furthermore, they have frequently been abused themselves in their childhood. To our knowledge, no cases of women charged with sex-related offences, including child pornography, have been described in the literature. The psychopathological characteristics of female sexual abusers and of the two women in our cases tend to suggest that the deliberate downloading of child pornography images by women is unusual, as their deviant behaviour is not related to paedophile sexual arousal It is hypothesized that the act enables women perpetrators to satisfy the sexual urges of their spouse. Sexual abuse by women exists, but the nature of the abuse appears to be specific to the gender of the perpetrator. We present two cases of women charged with sexual offences concerning minors, including the production of child pornography material.

  13. [A case of a child with bad odor].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo; Busso, Raúl; Barcudi, Silvina; Tapia, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    The odor emitted by a patient may be one of the first major clues leading to an early diagnosis. Certain conditions produce a characteristic smell and several diseases are associated with a specific odor. We report an illustrative case and review olfactory physiology, the value of smell in physical examination, and finally discuss several illnesses associated with unusual odors.

  14. [A case report on mobbing in a school child].

    PubMed

    Holtz, S

    2012-08-01

    Forty percent of the work of a paediatrician in private practice consists of counselling parents and children. There is a danger that behavioural symptoms are not taken seriously and brushed away with simple advices. This case vignette demonstrates that difficult and complex symptoms can be solved by using a concept-oriented approach.

  15. [Breast feeding and child care: a case study of 2 rural areas of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil-Romo, S E; Rueda-Arróniz, F; Díez-Urdanivia-Coria, S

    1993-01-01

    The present research is included in the fields of public health, social sciences and gender studies. Its objective is to provide insight into the nursing behaviour of two groups of mothers, their domestic and extra-domestic child care arrangements and their attitudes towards breast-feeding. Thirty-five mothers were selected in Malinalco, Mexico, and 35 in the Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca. Each mother had at least two children and one of them under three years of age. The study was exploratory in its initial phase, subsequently cross-sectional, comparative and prospective. It constitutes a foundation for longitudinal case studies. A pre-coded questionnaire, including the following issues, was administered: family composition; maternal schooling; maternal employment; nursing behaviour with the last child; child care and attitudes towards breast-feeding. The main information regarding 33 mothers in Malinalco and 31 in Oaxaca revealed that in both areas mothers decided how to feed their children during the first days; during the first month, 55 per cent of mothers in Malinalco breast-fed their child, while approximately 90 per cent did so in Oaxaca. The majority of women worked outside home and resorted to extra-domestic arrangements for child care. No relation was found between the feeding method chosen with the last child and maternal employment. About 90 per cent of women in both areas were "happy" to have been born females and breast-feeding was considered a "must". Seventy five per cent of mothers would not allow other women to breast feed their child, even though they were aware that maternal milk is the best.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Prenatal substance exposure and child self-regulation: Pathways to risk and protection.

    PubMed

    Eiden, Rina D; Godleski, Stephanie; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig R

    2015-09-01

    A conceptual model of the association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and child self-regulation via maternal harshness and language development was examined. Specifically, the model tested whether PCE was associated with self-regulation either directly or indirectly via high maternal harshness and poor language development. The role of child sex, autonomic reactivity, and cumulative environmental risk as potential moderators was also explored. The sample was 216 mother-child dyads recruited at birth and assessed at 2, 7, 13, 24, 36, and 48 months of child ages. Participating mothers were primarily African American (72%). Results indicated a significant indirect association between PCE and child effortful control at 36 months via higher maternal harshness. Autonomic reactivity moderated the association between maternal harshness and self-regulation such that among children with poor autonomic reactivity, high maternal harshness was associated with lower conscience at 3 years. Child sex and environmental risk did not moderate the association between PCE and self-regulation. Thus, the quality of caregiving experience played a significant role in the development of self-regulation among PCE children, especially those at higher autonomic risk. In particular, PCE children who also exhibit poor autonomic reactivity may be particularly susceptible to environmental influences such as parenting.

  17. Prenatal Substance Exposure and Child Self-Regulation: Pathways to Risk and Protection

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Godleski, Stephanie; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    A conceptual model of the association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and child self-regulation via maternal harshness and language development was examined. Specifically, the model tested whether PCE was associated with self-regulation either directly or indirectly via high maternal harshness and poor language development. The role of child sex, autonomic reactivity, and cumulative environmental risk as potential moderators was also explored. The sample was 216 mother-child dyads recruited at birth and assessed at 2, 7, 13, 24, 36, and 48 months of child ages. Participating mothers were primarily African American (72%). Results indicated a significant indirect association between PCE and child effortful control at 36 months via higher maternal harshness. Autonomic reactivity moderated the association between maternal harshness and self-regulation, such that among children with poor autonomic reactivity, high maternal harshness was associated with lower conscience at 3 years. Child sex and environmental risk did not moderate the association between PCE and self-regulation. Thus, the quality of caregiving experience played a significant role in the development of self-regulation among PCE children, especially those at higher autonomic risk. In particular, PCE children who also exhibit poor autonomic reactivity may be particularly susceptible to environmental influences such as parenting. PMID:25913650

  18. A comparison of two forms of hearsay in child sexual abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Redlich, Allison D; Myers, John E B; Goodman, Gail S; Qin, Jianjian

    2002-11-01

    The present study was designed to compare two forms of hearsay: videotaped hearsay and hearsay supplied by an adult witness. In elaborately staged, mock child sexual abuse trials, jurors were presented with (a) videotaped forensic interviews of children who, in actual legal cases, disclosed abuse or (b) a police officer who repeated the children's videotaped statements. In addition, a subset of jurors who viewed the videotape during trial were allowed access to the videotape during deliberations. Findings indicated that manner of presentation of children's testimony had an indirect effect on verdicts. Jurors in the videotape conditions were more likely to believe that the child fully disclosed during the forensic interview, which in turn influenced ratings of child believability. The latter ratings were the strongest predictor of defendant-guilt judgments.

  19. The impact of parental homosexuality in child custody cases: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kleber, D J; Howell, R J; Tibbits-Kleber, A L

    1986-01-01

    As a result of the relatively high rate of divorce in this country and the increasing awareness that many parents (an estimated 1.5 million) are homosexual, the courts, as well as divorce mediators, have become actively involved in child custody placement decisions involving homosexual parents. While custody decisions have tended to reflect stereotyped beliefs or fears concerning the detrimental effects of homosexual parenting practices on child development, a review of the research consistently fails to document any evidence substantiating these fears. A number of specific custody issues are discussed as well as social factors relevant to lesbian motherhood. In conclusion, several authors call for increased awareness of the facts of homosexual parenting by lawyers, judges, and other professionals involved in homosexual parent-child custody cases.

  20. Case studies in wellhead protection area delineation and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, B.A.

    1993-04-01

    Ground-water monitoring is one of many management options for Wellhead Protection Program implementation. Ground-water parameters are monitored (1) to assess source-control measures, (2) to monitor compliance with drinking water standards at sites other than the wellhead, and (3) to provide advance warning of contaminants in ground water. Five case studies are included in the document to exemplify the monitoring methodology for different hydrogeologic and contaminant source settings. The five case study research sites include Stevens Point, Wisconsin; Littleton, MA; Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Dover, New Hampshire; and Springfield, Missouri. The document emphasizes a multi-disciplinary approach for hydrogeologic characterization, wellhead protection area delineation, and flowpath assessment. Hydrogeologic characterization techniques include: well installation, water quality sampling and assessment, geologic and structural-control mapping, aquifer testing, dye tracing, borehole geophysics, analytical solutions, and ground-water flow modeling.

  1. Child sexual abuse: report of 311 cases with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Essabar, Laila; Khalqallah, Abdenbi; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2015-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global problem that has significant consequences for public health; it has been a prominent topic of public concern for more than a decade, but many basic facts about the problem remain unclear or in dispute. We conducted a study of 311 cases of CSA in order to highlight the epidemiological features and negative impact on victims’ well-being and to emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the primary prevention and management of CSA. We noted an increase in cases number with male predominance. Most of our patients came from lower socioeconomic classes. The perpetrators were male in 100% of cases; acquaintances in 70% of cases and family members in 22 cases. Physical examination were normal in 61% of cases, however, a range of psychological and physical effects were identified with dramatic health consequences: three cases of attempted suicide, five pregnancies and one case of HIV virus infection. PMID:26090005

  2. Child abuse and osteogenesis imperfecta: how can they be still misdiagnosed? A case report

    PubMed Central

    D’Eufemia, Patrizia; Palombaro, Marta; Lodato, Valentina; Zambrano, Anna; Celli, Mauro; Persiani, Pietro; De Bari, Maria Pia; Sangiorgi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Summary Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease caused by mutations in genes coding for type I collagen, resulting in bone fragility. In literature are described forms lethal in perinatal period, forms which are moderate and slight forms where the only sign of disease is osteopenia. Child abuse is an important social and medical problem. Fractures are the second most common presentation after skin lesions and may present specific patterns. The differential diagnosis between slight-moderate forms of OI and child abuse could be very challenging especially when other signs typical of abuse are absent, since both could present with multiple fractures without reasonable explanations. We report a 20 months-old female with a history of 4 fractures occurred between the age of three and eighteen months, brought to authorities’ attention as a suspected child abuse. However when she came to our department physical examination, biochemical tests, total body X-ray and a molecular analysis of DNA led the diagnosis of OI. Thus, a treatment with bisphosphonate and a physical rehabilitation process, according to Vojta method, were started with improvement in bony mineralization, gross motor skills and absence of new fracture. In conclusion our case demonstrates how in any child presenting fractures efforts should be made to consider, besides child abuse, all the other hypothesis even the rarest as OI. PMID:23289038

  3. How Egg Case Proteins Can Protect Cuttlefish Offspring?

    PubMed

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Goux, Didier; Duval, Emilie; Bernay, Benoit; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Corre, Erwan; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. Our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. De novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. A proteomic approach in SDS-PAGE coupled with MS unveiled a new egg case protein family: SepECPs, for Sepia officinalis Egg Case Proteins. N-glycosylation was demonstrated by PAS staining SDS-PAGE gels. These glycoproteins are mainly produced in the main nidamental glands. SepECPs share high sequence homology, especially in the signal peptide and the three cysteine-rich domains. SepECPs have a high number of cysteines, with conserved motifs involved in 3D-structure. SDS-PAGE showed that SepECPs could form dimers; this result was confirmed by TEM observations, which also revealed a protein network. This network is similar to the capsule network, and it associates these structural proteins with polysaccharides, melanin and bacteria to form a tight mesh. Its hardness and elasticity provide physical protection to the embryo. In addition, SepECPs also have bacteriostatic antimicrobial activity on GRAM- bacteria. By observing the SepECP / Vibrio aestuarianus complex in SEM, we demonstrated the ability of these proteins to agglomerate bacteria and thus inhibit their growth. These original proteins identified from the outer egg case ensure the survival of the species by providing physical and chemical protection to the embryos released in the environment without any maternal protection.

  4. How Egg Case Proteins Can Protect Cuttlefish Offspring?

    PubMed Central

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Goux, Didier; Duval, Emilie; Bernay, Benoit; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Corre, Erwan; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. Our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. De novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. A proteomic approach in SDS-PAGE coupled with MS unveiled a new egg case protein family: SepECPs, for Sepia officinalis Egg Case Proteins. N-glycosylation was demonstrated by PAS staining SDS-PAGE gels. These glycoproteins are mainly produced in the main nidamental glands. SepECPs share high sequence homology, especially in the signal peptide and the three cysteine-rich domains. SepECPs have a high number of cysteines, with conserved motifs involved in 3D-structure. SDS-PAGE showed that SepECPs could form dimers; this result was confirmed by TEM observations, which also revealed a protein network. This network is similar to the capsule network, and it associates these structural proteins with polysaccharides, melanin and bacteria to form a tight mesh. Its hardness and elasticity provide physical protection to the embryo. In addition, SepECPs also have bacteriostatic antimicrobial activity on GRAM- bacteria. By observing the SepECP / Vibrio aestuarianus complex in SEM, we demonstrated the ability of these proteins to agglomerate bacteria and thus inhibit their growth. These original proteins identified from the outer egg case ensure the survival of the species by providing physical and chemical protection to the embryos released in the environment without any maternal protection. PMID:26168161

  5. Spontaneous regression of lipomyelomeningocele associated with terminal syringomyelia in a child. Case report.

    PubMed

    Klein, Olivier; Thompson, Dominic

    2007-09-01

    The authors present the case of a 3-month-old girl who presented with lipomyelomeningocele (LMM) associated with a low-lying conus and a terminal syrinx. At the time of presentation, the girl had a mild neurological, but congenital, deficit: weakness of the right foot and calf as well as absence of the right ankle reflex. Bladder assessment was normal, and it was decided to monitor this child closely, without performing surgery. Results of further magnetic resonance imaging performed 1 year after diagnosis and when the girl was 28 months old, showed a significant regression of LMM and associated syrinx. Interestingly, the child remained neurologically unchanged. Although described in the literature, spontaneous regression of LMM is a very unusual situation, and very few cases have been reported. This case represents the first report of concomitant regression of an associated syrinx. Close follow-up of nonsurgically treated children is mandatory, as the risk of late deterioration remains.

  6. Lumbar disc herniation in a child with cystic fibrosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, George A; Stefanaki, Kalliopi; Sfakianos, George; Prodromou, Neofytos

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of child with cystic fibrosis and lumbar disc herniation. An 8-year-old boy presented with low back pain that exacerbated on coughing, sitting, walking, or bending and diminished when lying down. The straight leg raising test was positive when the right leg was lifted at 60 degrees. Crossed leg raising test was negative. Lumbar MRI revealed a L5-S1central disc protrusion. Conservative treatment was not effective and the patient underwent surgery. Postoperatively the patient experienced regression of the pain. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of lumbar disc herniation in a child with cystic fibrosis. Although this case might be coincidental, thorough investigation of back pain, which is frequent in patients with cystic fibrosis, should be performed.

  7. MR imaging in a child with scurvy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Woo; Park, Sun-Won; Kwon, Young Se; Oh, In Suk; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Won Hong; Suh, Chang Hae

    2007-01-01

    Scurvy is very rare disease in industrialized societies. Nevertheless, it still exists in higher risk groups including economically disadvantaged populations with poor nutrition, such as the elderly and chronic alcoholics. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is very low. This study reports a case of scurvy in a 5-year-old girl with cerebral palsy and developmental delay based on MRI findings.

  8. A rare case of cardiac tumor in a child

    PubMed Central

    Mukharjee, Mallar; Bathia, Jigna N; Ghosh, Apurba; Singhi, Anil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric cardiac tumors are rare and usually benign. An infectious etiology like tuberculosis invading myocardium and presenting as infiltrative mass is extremely rare. We present a case of a 15 month old girl with clinical feature of cardiac failure who had infiltrative multiple myocardial masses in echocardiogram. Advanced cardiac imaging by Cardiac Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helped in tissue delineation. Therapeutic trial of anti-tubercular drugs in view clinical suspicion of Tuberculosis resulted in complete remission of symptom and disappearance of the cardiac mass. PMID:28163438

  9. Dentist attitudes and responsibilities concerning child sexual abuse. A review and a case report.

    PubMed

    Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Márquez-Preciado, Raúl; Olguín-Vivar, Ana-Isabel; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury

    2015-07-01

    According to the World Health Organization, child abuse and neglect is "every kind of physical, sexual, emotional abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, commercial or other exploitation resulting in actual or potential harm to the child's health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power". The aim of the present report is to inform about the most relevant aspects of child abuse and the characteristics of injuries to the head, neck, and orofacial regions, in addition to the suggested role of, and management by, the dentist for the evaluation of this condition, and also for reporting a case of a physically and sexually abused girl aged 5 years 8 months. Throughout the appointments, some type of abuse in this patient was suspected by the treating dentists at the clinic, mainly due to the initial behavior exhibited by the patient in the dental chair. Based on the clinical diagnostic an intensive preventive plan and restorative treatment was realized. The timely detection of the signs and symptoms of sexual abuse, often present in the orofacial region, place the pediatric dentist in a strategic situation, with the capacity to recognize, register, and later report those cases considered as suspect, including the dental treatment delivered and the intensive behavioral-psychological management, in order to achieve acceptation by the otherwise very anxious patient of the indicated restorative and preventive dental procedures. Key words:Child abuse, dentistry, behavior management.

  10. Temporomandibular joint ankylosis surgery in a child: case report.

    PubMed

    Lima, Paulo Valério Presser; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Ioppi, Letícia; Hoffmann, Renata da Rocha

    2011-07-01

    Temporomandibular joint ankylosis is one of the most significant disorders of the stomatognathic system because it causes pain associated with severe functional limitations, such as difficulty in chewing and psychological and clinical problems due to poor oral hygiene. These disorders are quite significant in children, since the treatment is even more complex due to the fact that the condylar region is a site of active growth. The earlier the diagnosis is established, the better the treatment prognosis. Ankylosis can be treated by interposition arthroplasty of the temporalis muscle fascia in conjunction with ipsilateral coronoidectomy. The purpose of the present study was to report a clinical case of temporomandibular joint ankylosis in a pediatric patient treated by interposition arthroplasty of the temporalis muscle fascia associated with coronoidectomy.

  11. Child participation in disaster risk reduction: the case of flood-affected children in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Martin, Mary-Laure

    2010-01-01

    Children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters. This article aims to gain a deeper understanding of the specific effects of natural disasters on children and how they could better be involved in the disaster risk reduction (DRR) process. The article begins with a review of the literature published on the Child-led Disaster Risk Reduction (CLDRR) approach and describes the key issues. Then it identifies the effects of floods on children in Bangladesh and analyses the traditional coping mechanisms developed by communities, highlighting where they could be improved. Finally, it analyses how DRR stakeholders involve children in the DRR process and identifies the opportunities and gaps for the mainstreaming of a CLDRR approach in Bangladesh. This should contribute to a better understanding of how key DRR stakeholders can protect children during natural disasters. Encouraging the building of long-term, child-sensitive DRR strategies is an essential part of this process.

  12. Fatal Child Abuse: A Study of 13 Cases of Continuous Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Vanamo, Tuija; Karkola, Kari; Merikanto, Juhani

    2012-01-01

    A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were caused by child battering and 13 (7%) by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot) and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse) were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent) and often substance dependence (31%). None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child’s behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent’s life, the child may be in danger. PMID:25478105

  13. Hickman to central venous catheter: A case of difficult venous access in a child suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arunangshu; Agrawal, Sanjit; Datta, Taniya; Mitra, Suparna; Khemka, Rakhi

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy in children suffering from cancer usually requires placement of an indwelling central venous catheter (CVC). A child may need to undergo repeated procedures because of infection and occlusion of previous access devices. We present a case of CVC insertion in a child suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia where an innovative technique was employed. PMID:27695218

  14. Profile of the Linguistic and Metalinguistic Abilities of a Gifted Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melogno, Sergio; Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Levi, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the case of a gifted child (9;6 year) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had a particularly high verbal IQ (146) and a specific cognitive, linguistic, and metalinguistic profile. A description of some salient behavioral characteristics of the child is provided. A metalinguistic ability test assessing metagrammatical,…

  15. Rehabilitation Treatment of a Child Diagnosed With Duplication of 1q42-q44: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Trisomy 1 is a rare chromosomal anomaly and has never been reported in Korea. Clinical features of trisomy 1 include macrocephaly, prominent forehead, flat nasal bridge, low set ears, and micrognathia, all of which result in a very distinguishable facial structure. A child with trisomy 1 also suffers from mental retardation and/or developmental delays. In this case report, the child was diagnosed with de novo trisomy 1 without receiving any treatment until visiting our hospital. The child suffered from foot and ankle deformities, leading her unable to stand independently. Here we report the surgical treatment and rehabilitation treatment that enabled the child to walk independently. PMID:27847725

  16. Incorporating a Healthy Living Curriculum within Family Behavior Therapy: A Clinical Case Example in a Woman with a History of Domestic Violence, Child Neglect, Drug Abuse, and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Lapota, Holly B; Donohue, Brad; Warren, Cortney S; Allen, Daniel N

    2011-04-01

    Women reported to child protective service agencies frequently report problems that significantly interfere with the health and well-being of their children and themselves. Behavioral treatment programs appear to be effective in managing these co-existing problems, such as domestic violence and substance abuse. However, evidence-supported interventions are rarely exemplified in complicated clinical cases, especially within child welfare settings. Therefore, in this case example, we describe the process of adapting an evidence-supported treatment to assist in managing significant co-existing health-related problems in a mother who was referred due to child neglect and drug abuse. At the conclusion of therapy, the participant reported improvements in perceived family relationships, illicit drug use, child maltreatment potential, whereas other health-related outcomes were mixed. Most improvements were maintained at 4-month follow-up. Issues relevant to implementing evidence-based treatments within community contexts are discussed, including methods of increasing the likelihood of valid outcome assessment, managing treatment integrity, and adjusting standardized treatments to accommodate co-occurring problems.

  17. Development of an instrument to understand the child protective services decision-making process, with a focus on placement decisions.

    PubMed

    Dettlaff, Alan J; Christopher Graham, J; Holzman, Jesse; Baumann, Donald J; Fluke, John D

    2015-11-01

    When children come to the attention of the child welfare system, they become involved in a decision-making process in which decisions are made that have a significant effect on their future and well-being. The decision to remove children from their families is particularly complex; yet surprisingly little is understood about this decision-making process. This paper presents the results of a study to develop an instrument to explore, at the caseworker level, the context of the removal decision, with the objective of understanding the influence of the individual and organizational factors on this decision, drawing from the Decision Making Ecology as the underlying rationale for obtaining the measures. The instrument was based on the development of decision-making scales used in prior decision-making studies and administered to child protection caseworkers in several states. Analyses included reliability analyses, principal components analyses, and inter-correlations among the resulting scales. For one scale regarding removal decisions, a principal components analysis resulted in the extraction of two components, jointly identified as caseworkers' decision-making orientation, described as (1) an internal reference to decision-making and (2) an external reference to decision-making. Reliability analyses demonstrated acceptable to high internal consistency for 9 of the 11 scales. Full details of the reliability analyses, principal components analyses, and inter-correlations among the seven scales are discussed, along with implications for practice and the utility of this instrument to support the understanding of decision-making in child welfare.

  18. Development of the SAFE Checklist Tool for Assessing Site-Level Threats to Child Protection: Use of Delphi Methods and Application to Two Sites in India

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Ravichandran, Arathi; Einhorn, Honora; Arora, Nikita; Bhattacharya Chakravarty, Aruna; Brennan, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The child protection community is increasingly focused on developing tools to assess threats to child protection and the basic security needs and rights of children and families living in adverse circumstances. Although tremendous advances have been made to improve measurement of individual child health status or household functioning for use in low-resource settings, little attention has been paid to a more diverse array of settings in which many children in adversity spend time and how context contributes to threats to child protection. The SAFE model posits that insecurity in any of the following fundamental domains threatens security in the others: Safety/freedom from harm; Access to basic physiological needs and healthcare; Family and connection to others; Education and economic security. Site-level tools are needed in order to monitor the conditions that can dramatically undermine or support healthy child growth, development and emotional and behavioral health. From refugee camps and orphanages to schools and housing complexes, site-level threats exist that are not well captured by commonly used measures of child health and well-being or assessments of single households (e.g., SDQ, HOME). Methods The present study presents a methodology and the development of a scale for assessing site-level child protection threats in various settings of adversity. A modified Delphi panel process was enhanced with two stages of expert review in core content areas as well as review by experts in instrument development, and field pilot testing. Results Field testing in two diverse sites in India—a construction site and a railway station—revealed that the resulting SAFE instrument was sensitive to the differences between the sites from the standpoint of core child protection issues. PMID:26540159

  19. Aspiration pneumonia in the child with DiGeorge syndrome -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yun-Joung

    2011-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is associated with a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and manifests with variable clinical findings. Aspiration pneumonia can be a perioperative complication of great concern in this syndrome. In this report, we present a case of a 16-month old child with DiGeorge syndrome undergoing cranioplasty. He developed perioperative aspiration pneumonia but was managed successfully. PMID:21738851

  20. Children's Participation in Child-Protection Processes as Experienced by Foster Children and Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polkki, Pirjo; Vornanen, Riitta; Pursiainen, Merja; Riikonen, Marjo

    2012-01-01

    Children in foster care often have no means of influencing matters that concern them, and can easily become outsiders in their own lives. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child enshrines the rights of capable children to express their views freely in matters affecting them and to be heard in any judicial or administrative…

  1. Child Rights in Latin America: From "Irregular Situation" to Full Protection. Innocenti Essays No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez, Emilio Garcia

    Since the ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child by all Latin American countries, many substantial national legislative reforms have been made that reflect the spirit and the letter of the new Convention. This series of essays documents the challenges faced by countries beginning the process of legislative reform,…

  2. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching was associated…

  3. Human Rights and Decision-Making in Child Protection through Explicit Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joe; Taylor, Brian; Mc Call, Susannah

    2006-01-01

    A recent judgement in February 2005 by the Lord Chief Justice in Northern Ireland that a Health and Social Services Trust had breached a parent's Article 8 Right to Family Life in the process used to take a young child into care has stimulated major debate about the interface between the Human Rights Act (1998) and professional decision-making in…

  4. Child Protection and Self-Regulation in the Internet Industry: The UK Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, John; Hilton, Zoe

    2009-01-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), the number of convictions for offences related to child abuse images fell back following the police investigation dubbed "Operation Ore", but have still continued at levels unimaginable only 10 years ago. However, while government and the internet industry deserve credit for the steps they have taken to reduce…

  5. ANXIETY AND ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER IN PRESCHOOLERS RECEIVING PSYCHIATRIC CARE: THE FATHER-CHILD ACTIVATION RELATIONSHIP AS A PROTECTIVE FACTOR.

    PubMed

    Gaumon, Sébastien; Paquette, Daniel; Cyr, Chantal; Émond-Nakamura, Mutsuko; St-André, Martin

    2016-07-01

    This 49-family study is the first to explore the father-child relationship in a clinical population of preschoolers (at a tertiary care child psychiatry clinic) and to examine its relation to child anxiety and attachment to the mother. A moderation model of the father-child activation relationship on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety was tested and discussed. Analyses confirmed the expected independence between mother-child attachment and father-child activation as well as the association between mother-child attachment and anxiety. The highest levels of anxiety were found in insecure children, and more specifically, in insecure-ambivalent children and insecure disorganized-controlling children of the caregiving subtype. Hypotheses regarding the relation between anxiety and activation were only partially confirmed. Finally, the activation relationship with the father was shown to have a moderating effect on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety; activation by the father may be considered either a protective or a risk factor. Results for this clinical population of young children are discussed in the light of attachment theory and activation relationship theory. The study's findings have the potential to contribute to the development of preventative, diagnostic, and intervention programs that take both parental figures into account.

  6. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    PubMed

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects.

  7. Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis. For Law-Enforcement Officers Investigating Cases of Child Sexual Exploitation. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Kenneth V.

    This booklet provides a behavioral analysis of child molesters. The terms child molesters and pedophiles are defined and distinctions are drawn between the two. The second section develops a law enforcement typology differing from those of mental health professionals, focusing on pre-arrest behavior or pre-identification behavior of child…

  8. Associations between Child and Teacher Characteristics and Quality of Teacher-Child Relationships: The Case of Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koles, Bernadett; O'Connor, Erin E.; Collins, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate variations in teacher-child relationships in childcare classrooms in Budapest, Hungary (N = 172 children in 43 classrooms), and to examine whether variations were associated with child and/or teacher characteristics. In addition, cultural variation was examined with reference to an American…

  9. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in child victims of sexual abuse: perceived social support as a protection factor.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad

    2016-08-01

    Background Social support has been shown to play a protective role against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals exposed to trauma. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived social support on depression and PTSD in child victims of sexual abuse and to determine the relationship between them. Method In total 182 victims of sexual abuse aged 6-18 at time of interview were assessed. Clinical interviews, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) were used to assess children's psychological status, while the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R) was used to measure social support. Results Girls had significantly higher median CDI and CPTS-RI scores than boys, while no significant difference was determined between boys and girls in terms of PSSS-R scores. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between CDI and PSSS-R scores, CPTS-RI scores and PSSS-R scores in girls, while no significant correlation was identified in male victims. Conclusions In conclusion, we think that social support networks for victims of sexual abuse need to be broadened and increased, and that importance should be attached to protective approaches in that context.

  10. A rare case of penetrating brain injury by crossbow in a 22-month-old child.

    PubMed

    Hengzhu, Zhang; Enxi, Xu; Lei, She; Xiaodong, Wang; Lun, Dong

    2014-06-01

    Nonmissile penetrating brain injuries are exceedingly uncommon among civilian population and are most often associated with inflicted injury. They show specific characteristics different from that of missile wounds. In this article, we describe a rare case of a 22-month-old child who experienced accidental penetrating head trauma caused by a crossbow. We document neuroimaging studies and review the management concerning this pathology. To our knowledge, this is the youngest survived case of penetrating brain injury by a crossbow with such radiological findings reported in the literature.

  11. Acute dapsone poisoning in a 3-year-old child: Case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, Menon Narayanankutty; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Parvathy, Vadakut Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone (DDS-diamino diphenyl sulphone) is a sulfone antibiotic being used for a variety of clinical conditions. Poisoning in children by DDS is rarely reported. Poisoning in acute cases will be frequently unrecognized due to relative lack of severe signs and symptoms. Methemoglobinemia is the major life-threatening situation associated with poisoning of DDS. Hence, any delay for medical attention can lead to increased rate of mortality. In this case, we describe acute DDS poisoning in a 3-year-old child and the successful management using intravenous methylene blue. PMID:26488029

  12. Accidental Peno-Scrotal Degloving Injuries in a Child. A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Oseni, O G; Olaitan, P B; Badmus, T O; Olajide, A O

    2013-01-01

    Injury to male external genitalia is very rare because of some intrinsic factors like location, strong investing tunica albuginea and cremasteric muscles. However, when it occurs it is considered a urological emergency. Child labour with poor understanding of risks and safety precautions, especially under harsh supervision, surely poses major challenges. This case illustrates degloving injury of the penis and avulsion of the scrotum in a young boy while operating a roller type machine used in palm trees plantation. The penis was primarily regloved and avulsed skin primarily repaired. A good cosmetic outcome was observed from this treatment. This case also illustrates the importance of early presentation and emergency intervention in this condition.

  13. Occupational therapy using sensory integration to improve participation of a child with autism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Roseann C; Hunt, Joanne; Benevides, Teal

    2012-01-01

    In this case report, we describe the changes in adaptive behaviors and participation of 1 child with autism during a 10-wk program of intensive occupational therapy using a sensory integrative approach (OT-SI) following a manualized protocol. This case is part of a larger study examining the efficacy of the OT-SI approach. We found improvement in sensory processing, as measured by the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests, as well as enhanced participation in home, school, and family activities, as indicated on parent-rated goal attainment scales.

  14. Protective Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Ganime

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: As a result of wars, starvation, traffic accidents, homicide, infectious diseases, insufficient adult protection, migration, and inadequate legal reforms the mortality rate of children has become a serious problem in the world. Protective health education contributes to a child's physical and social health. In this case, the…

  15. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement✩

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shawna J.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], p<.01). When compared to non-spanked children, there was a 33% greater probability of subsequent CPS involvement for children who were spanked at age 1. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life. PMID:24602690

  16. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M

    2014-05-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], p<.01). When compared to non-spanked children, there was a 33% greater probability of subsequent CPS involvement for children who were spanked at age 1. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life.

  17. [Selected legal aspects of the protection of the unborn child in the light of the draft amendment to the Polish Penal Code].

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Moniak; Spaczyński, Robert Z

    2015-10-01

    Criminal Law Codification Commission, acting at the Ministry of Justice prepared proposals for amendments in the Polish Penal Code, related to offenses against life and health that were presented to the public in 2013. The draft provides for the protection of the child in the prenatal stage, introducing a new category of the entity to be protected, which is "unborn child" and "unborn child able to live outside the mother's body". These regulations provide for mothers criminal liability and responsibility of the medical staff (a doctor), as well as the child's father to the extent in which he is obliged to take steps aimed at rescuing the fetus. It is doctor's responsibility to show particular care for human health and life since a doctor has special medical knowledge and that is regulated by art. 30 of the act on professions of doctor and dentist. The proposed rule changes were not brought before the legislature in the current term of the Sejm (2011-2015), but due to the development of medicine, including obstetrical ultrasound, which enables visualization of a child that moves in the womb and is treated as a separate entity with distinct personal features the grounds are given for the opinion that the issue of the legal status of the unborn child, particularly in the context of causing death of a child in the last phase before birth as a result of medical malpractice or other external factors will be back in the public discussion.

  18. Dentist attitudes and responsibilities concerning child sexual abuse. A review and a case report

    PubMed Central

    Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Márquez-Preciado, Raúl; Olguín-Vivar, Ana-Isabel; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, child abuse and neglect is “every kind of physical, sexual, emotional abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, commercial or other exploitation resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power”. The aim of the present report is to inform about the most relevant aspects of child abuse and the characteristics of injuries to the head, neck, and orofacial regions, in addition to the suggested role of, and management by, the dentist for the evaluation of this condition, and also for reporting a case of a physically and sexually abused girl aged 5 years 8 months. Throughout the appointments, some type of abuse in this patient was suspected by the treating dentists at the clinic, mainly due to the initial behavior exhibited by the patient in the dental chair. Based on the clinical diagnostic an intensive preventive plan and restorative treatment was realized. The timely detection of the signs and symptoms of sexual abuse, often present in the orofacial region, place the pediatric dentist in a strategic situation, with the capacity to recognize, register, and later report those cases considered as suspect, including the dental treatment delivered and the intensive behavioral-psychological management, in order to achieve acceptation by the otherwise very anxious patient of the indicated restorative and preventive dental procedures. Key words:Child abuse, dentistry, behavior management. PMID:26330943

  19. Aquatic therapy for a child with type III spinal muscular atrophy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Salem, Yasser; Gropack, Stacy Jaffee

    2010-11-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons. This case report describes an aquatic therapy program and the outcomes for a 3-year-old girl with type III SMA. Motor skills were examined using the 88-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS-2), and the GAITRite system. The child received aquatic therapy twice per week for 45-min sessions, for 14 weeks. The intervention included aquatic activities designed to improve gross motor skills and age-appropriate functional mobility. The GMFM total score improved by 11% following the intervention. The Standing Dimension score improved by 28% and the Walking, Running, and Jumping Dimension score improved by 18%. The gross motor quotient for the PDMS-2 improved from 66 to 74. The child's gait showed improvement in walking velocity, stride length, and single-limb support time as a percentage of the gait cycle. The outcomes of this case report demonstrate the successful improvement of gross motor function and gait in a 3-year-old child with SMA. This study provides clinical information for therapists utilizing aquatic therapy as a modality for children with neuromuscular disorders.

  20. Fingers to the Bone: United States Failure To Protect Child Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Lee

    Agricultural work is the most hazardous and grueling area of employment open to U.S. children and is also the least protected. Adolescent farmworkers labor under more dangerous conditions than their peers working in nonagricultural settings and also face persistent wage exploitation and fraud. These adolescent workers are protected less under U.S.…

  1. Protective Factors for Children of Alcoholics: Parenting, Family Environment, Child Personality, and Contextual Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lisa C.; Chassin, Laurie

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors that would ameliorate the risk for substance abuse problems among children of alcoholics (COA), and to explore mechanisms of protection, particularly the Stress-Buffering model. Protective factors for children of alcoholics were examined in a controlled study (N=386). Three possible models are…

  2. Child abuse: multiple foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wadhera, Raman; Kalra, Vijay; Gulati, Sat Paul; Ghai, Anju

    2013-02-01

    The incidents of foreign body ingestion in infants and children are usually viewed as accidents, but these events may be a form of child abuse. We are reporting a case of child abuse who presented with multiple foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. Physicians are required to report abuse when they have reason to believe or to suspect that it occurred. The purpose of reporting is not punishment of the perpetrator - it is the protection of the child. It is certainly in the best interest of the child, because child abuse is a recurrent and usually escalating problem that exposes the child to substantial risk.

  3. Congenital visual agnosia and prosopagnosia in a child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ariel, R; Sadeh, M

    1996-06-01

    We present an eight years old child, L.G. with congenital agnosia and prosopagnosia. This is a special case of perceptual deficits in a child which are discrete and exist in the context of a very high verbal intelligence. L.G. was administered an extensive battery of tests of cognitive functioning. He has intact basic visual skills, although his visual analysis is sometimes slow. L.G. can read, write and do math at age level or above. Four normal eight years old boys were used as controls on a selection of the perceptual tests, administered to L.G., which did not have normative data. L.G.'s object recognition skills bear the hallmarks of adult apperceptive agnosia. His visual memory and imagery are normal. Tests of face processing skills reveal, unlike adult prosopagnosics, severe deficits in addition to the familiar face recognition problem. L.G.'s agnosia and prosopagnosia are compared to the relevant literature.

  4. A rare case of scurvy in an otherwise healthy child: diagnosis through oral signs.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Christian; Sivolella, Stefano; Pellegrini, Jacopo; Favero, Lorenzo; Berengo, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report the case of a 2-year-old Caucasian female who was referred with a presumed diagnosis of pediatric rheumatoid arthritis. The patient presented widespread gingival swelling with bleeding, sharp pain, and halitosis. The patient also presented pain and swelling of the right knee joint, and psychomotor restlessness associated with muscular frailty. Little compliance on the part of both the patient and parents was also noted. Oral manifestations, together with an accurate medical history, led to the diagnosis of infantile scurvy, caused by an inadequate dietary supply of vitamin C. Administering 250 mg of ascorbic acid orally twice a day led to the remission of gingival swelling and of the other symptoms. The parents were advised to feed the child appropriate foods. Nutritional problems are traditionally linked to an insufficient availability of food, but can also be associated with child- or family-related psychological problems.

  5. Is Child Sexual Abuse Declining in Canada? An Analysis of Child Welfare Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin-Vezina, Delphine; Helie, Sonia; Trocme, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Canadian victimization surveys and police databases suggest that, overall, no decline in sexual crimes in Canada had occurred lately. We aimed at reviewing the existing data from Canadian child protection services to further explore whether a decline in the number of substantiated child sexual abuse (CSA) cases has occurred during the…

  6. Occult posterolateral rotatory dislocation of the elbow with olecranon fracture in a child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute posterolateral rotator elbow dislocation in a child is rare and can be easily misdiagnosed due to immaturity of the epiphysis. This is the first case of occult posterolateral rotator elbow dislocation in combination with an olecranon fracture. We report our experience with this case, which was not diagnosed correctly by plain radiographs. Case presentation An 11-year-old Asian boy suffered severe pain and swelling of his right elbow after his outstretched arm hit a car dashboard in a motor vehicle accident. Plain radiographs showed only a minimally displaced olecranon fracture and a tiny lateral epicondylar avulsion fracture. However, stress radiographs under general anesthesia revealed severe posterolateral rotatory instability. During surgery, we found that the cartilaginous lateral epicondylar apophysis was much larger than the epicondylar fragment on the radiographs. After the lateral epicondylar osteochondral fragment and lateral collateral ligament complex were fixed, the instability disappeared. Conclusion Our experience with this case shows that it is important to check for instability with pediatric elbow fractures, because a tiny avulsion fracture was able to cause severe posterolateral rotatory instability in a child. PMID:22943424

  7. A Welcome for Every Child: How France Protects Maternal and Child Health--A New Frame of Reference for the United States. A Report of the French-American Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Gail

    This report presents findings of a study tour organized by the French-American Foundation, for 13 United States' health care professionals to examine and interpret the nearly 50-year-old French maternal and child health care system, Protection maternelle et infantile (PMI). Chapter 1 describes the operation of PMI and the possibility of similar…

  8. Protective factors for child development at age 2 in the presence of poor maternal mental health: results from the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kehler, Heather L; Tough, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the combination of factors most protective of developmental delay at age 2 among children exposed to poor maternal mental health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Pregnant women were recruited from primary healthcare offices, the public health laboratory service and community posters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Participants 1596 mother–child dyads who participated in the All Our Babies study and who completed a follow-up questionnaire when their child was 2 years old. Among participants who completed the 2-year questionnaire and had complete mental health data (n=1146), 305 women (27%) were classified as high maternal mental health risk. Primary measures Child development at age 2 was described and a resilience analysis was performed among a subgroup of families at maternal mental health risk. The primary outcome was child development problems. Protective factors were identified among families at risk, defined as maternal mental health risk, a composite measure created from participants’ responses to mental health life course questions and standardised mental health measures. Results At age 2, 18% of children were classified as having development problems, 15% with behavioural problems and 13% with delayed social–emotional competencies. Among children living in a family with maternal mental health risk, protective factors against development problems included higher social support, higher optimism, more relationship happiness, less difficulty balancing work and family responsibilities, limiting the child's screen time to <1 hour per day and the child being able to fall asleep in <30 min and sleeping through the night by age 2. Conclusions Among families where the mother has poor mental health, public health and early intervention strategies that support interpersonal relationships, social support, optimism, work–life balance, limiting children's screen time and establishing good sleep habits in the child's first 2

  9. Child Health Advice and Parental Obligation: The Case of Safe Sleep Recommendations and Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Monique

    2016-02-01

    This article considers whether there is a parental obligation to comply with child health advice which is aimed at the general population and grounded in population-based research. Drawing upon the concept of role obligations, I argue that there is a temptation to use child health advice as a set of rules to which parents are morally obligated to comply, but that this temptation should be resisted. Using the case of Safe Sleep recommendations, designed to reduce the risk of sleep-related infant deaths, I present three reasons for doubting that parents are obligated, as a matter of course, to comply with child health advice. I suggest that, rather than compliance, deliberation about child health advice is obligatory, and that parents should have reasons for not following credible child health advice.

  10. A Fatal Case of Coin Battery Ingestion in an 18-Month-Old Child: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Francesco; Candosin, Sara; Barranco, Rosario; Bonsignore, Alessandro; Andrello, Luisa; Tajana, Luca; Osculati, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    The ingestion of extraneous substances is quite common in clinical practice; it usually befalls in the pediatric age, mostly between 6 months and 6 years. In most cases, complications do not emerge, and the prognosis is considered favorable. However, when a case of battery ingestion occurs, serious adverse events may develop. The ingestion of these components is a potential life-threatening event for children.In this article, we report the case of an 18-month-old child who died from hemorrhagic shock due to an aortoesophageal fistula caused by a 20 mm lithium button battery lodged in the esophagus.The child presented vomiting blood, and laboratory results revealed a severe anemization, which later led to death.The autopsy showed a coin battery located in the middle third of the esophagus as well as a transmural erosion of the esophageal wall with fistulization into the aortic wall. The histological examination revealed a severe necrosis of the esophageal and aortic walls in line with the junction between the aortic arch and the descending part.

  11. Child maltreatment and neglect, or poverty and ignorance: An old case from the museum.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Živković, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    We present an old case, from the year 1928, of a girl who, as an 18-month-old, had ingested a small amount of lye, and over time oesophageal stenosis had developed. However, her parents had not taken her to hospital until 4 months after the event, after an episode of bloody vomiting. She spent the remaining time of her life in the hospital, where she died as a 3-year-old. Her parents did not visit once during that time. After the autopsy, the opinion about the cause and mechanism of death had five steps: the immediate cause of death was purulent pneumonia, which was a complication of small pox and severe undernourishment; the severe undernourishment was the consequence of a narrowed part of the oesophagus; this developed due to the ingestion of the corrosive agent; and it remained uncertain whether the ingestion of the corrosive agent was accidental or homicidal in manner. The presented case could be an example of possible child maltreatment and neglect in rural parts of society, from almost 90 year ago; at the time these cases were not recognized and treated as they would be today. This is also an example of how the forensic pathologist, via the conclusion about the cause of death, highlighted the parents' carelessness and neglect of the child.

  12. A Rare Case of Foreign Body Causing Recurrent Vaginal Discharge in Prepubertal Child

    PubMed Central

    Gobbur, Raghavendra.H.; Patil, Ashwini.G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -ray pelvis, a radioopaque foreign body hair clip was seen. Under sedation foreign body was removed by forceps following which child became asymptomatic. PMID:25738041

  13. Brain abscess secondary to a dental infection in an 11-year-old child: case report.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Christine E; Nguyen, Trang D

    2012-01-01

    A primary molar dental abscess was implicated as the cause of a brain abscess in an 11-year-old boy. This case report describes the neurological signs and symptoms, and acute management of a brain abscess in a child. A brain abscess is provisionally diagnosed from the patient's medical history, as well as the presence of signs and symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, focal neurological deficit, altered mentation, speech alterations, papillary edema, and neck stiffness or seizures. A definitive diagnosis of brain abscess is confirmed through imaging. The dental source of infection is identified by the exclusion of more probable foci such as the ears, heart, lungs, eyes or sinuses.

  14. Isolated omental panniculitis in a child with abdominal pain: case report.

    PubMed

    Oztan, Mustafa O; Ozdemir, Tunc; Uncel, Melek; Diniz, Gulden; Koyluoglu, Gokhan

    2016-12-01

    Isolated omental panniculitis is a rare entity mostly seen in adults. It presents with the inflammation of the fatty tissue of the omentum. The symptoms may vary from local (e.g. abdominal tenderness or palpable mass) to systemic manifestations including abdominal pain, back pain, fever, weight loss and bowel disturbances. We presented this case as a first awareness of omental panniculitis in a child which must be kept in mind at the differential diagnosis of ileus so that unnecessary surgeries might be avoided.

  15. Fournier’s Gangrene in a Two Year Old Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Satinder Pal Singh; Singh, Vikram; Jain, Amit; Arry, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and external genitalia is a life-threatening infective gangrene, primarily seen in adults. It may be seen at any age but it is relatively uncommon in children. Here, we report a case of Fournier’s gangrene in a two year old male child who was treated aggressively with broad spectrum antibiotics and early surgical debridement with hemodynamic stabilization. Even though no obvious precipitating cause was identified, hygiene was thought to be the inciting factor. Early surgical debridement with appropriate antibiotics and aggressive supportive care gave good results. PMID:25302233

  16. Culture proven Salmonella typhi co-infection in a child with Dengue fever: a case report.

    PubMed

    Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Narayanan, Parameswaran; Kanimozhi, Thandapani

    2015-09-27

    Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Sometimes concurrent infections with multiple infectious agents may occur in one patient, which make the diagnosis and management a challenging task. The authors here present a case of co-infection of typhoid fever with dengue fever in a ten-year-old child and discuss the pertinent issues. The authors emphasize that the risk factors predicting the presence of such co-infections, if developed, will be immensely useful in areas where dengue outbreak occurs in the background of high transmission of endemic infections.

  17. [Oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a human immunodeficiency virus positive child: a case report].

    PubMed

    Astolfo, María Florencia; D'Antonio, Federico; Dartiguelongue, Juan B; Arabolaza, María N; Cheistwer, Ariel; De Matteo, Elena; Torrado, Lidia; Martínez Iriart, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, originally described in the oral cavity of male adults with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is composed of neoplastic ceils which resemble immunoblasts but present immunophenotype distinctive of plasma cell and Epstein-Barr virus latent infection. In children, it is an even rarer disease. We present a case of oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-positive five-year-old child.

  18. A swollen hand with blisters: a case of compartment syndrome in a child.

    PubMed

    Rios-Alba, Tonatiuh; Ahn, James

    2015-06-01

    The accurate identification of compartment syndrome in the emergency department is essential to timely treatment and prevention of long-term sequela. Recognizing compartment syndrome is not straightforward, especially in the pediatric population. In addition to communication barriers that exist with children, the classic signs of pain, pallor, paresthesia, paralysis, and pulselessness are not always present, making its diagnosis a challenge. We report a case of a child with compartment syndrome to the left hand due to compression from an ACE wrap. The existing literature on compartment syndrome in children is reviewed.

  19. Above-the-knee replantation in a child: a case report with a 24-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Durban, Claire Marie C; Lee, Seung-Yup; Lim, Hong-Chul

    2015-11-01

    Replantation of an amputated limb is generally contraindicated in crushing and traction injuries. Injury to muscle tissue and skin also creates difficulties in coverage, and bony fractures may shorten limb length which can impede lower extremity function. Numerous cases have been reported on the successful replantation of the lower limb in children; however, review of previous English literature has documented only very few replantation at the thigh level, and those with severe crushing injury resulted in subsequent amputation. We report a case of successful thigh-level replantation in a 3-year-old child who sustained a crushing-traction type of injury with a follow-up of 24 years. After the replantation, early and late complications developed but these were successfully managed. On her last visit, the patient had pain-free ambulation without assistance, had intact protective sensation distal to the injury, and was very satisfied with the outcome. Replantation of the lower limb in children with crushing or avulsion type of injuries is still a worthwhile procedure. However, both the patient and the family should be aware that multiple surgeries may be needed to accommodate to long-term complications such as joint stiffness, scar contractures, and limb length discrepancies.

  20. Trade-secret protection in utility rate cases

    SciTech Connect

    Massella, I.M.

    1982-07-08

    A closed hearing of the Ohio Public Utility Commission put a statute protecting private trade secrets in conflict with protecting the public's right to know. A first step in resolving the controversy over constitutional protections against a forced disclosure of proprietary secrets and the legal problems of balancing public and private interests is identifying those trade secrets that are protectible business information, developing a protective order, and enforcing that order. (DCK)

  1. Genetic influences can protect against unresponsive parenting in the prediction of child social competence.

    PubMed

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    Although social competence in children has been linked to the quality of parenting, prior research has typically not accounted for genetic similarities between parents and children, or for interactions between environmental (i.e., parental) and genetic influences. In this article, the possibility of a Gene x Environment (G × E) interaction in the prediction of social competence in school-age children is evaluated. Using a longitudinal, multimethod data set from a sample of children adopted at birth (N = 361), a significant interaction was found between birth parent sociability and sensitive, responsive adoptive parenting when predicting child social competence at school entry (age 6), even when controlling for potential confounds. An analysis of the interaction revealed that genetic strengths can buffer the effects of unresponsive parenting.

  2. Balancing Autonomy Rights and Protection: Children's Involvement in a Child Safety Online Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ost, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Researchers who involve children in their research are faced with the challenge of choosing between differing theoretical approaches which can prioritise children's autonomy rights or their "vulnerability" and their need to be protected. Somewhat confusingly, ethical guidelines seem to reflect a combination of these approaches. Even when…

  3. Eye Safety At-A-Glance: Protecting Your Child's Vision in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related eye injuries are quite common, yet the number of children who use protective eyewear (safety glasses or goggles) is extremely low. More than 600,000 eye injuries related to sports occur each year, and approximately one-third of these injuries occur in children. When children participate in sports they not only increase their…

  4. Children at Risk: A Review of Sexual Abuse Incidents and Child Protection Issues in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The right of children to be protected from abuse is grounded in international law. Children should be free to enjoy their childhoods and to engage with their physical environment without fear for their safety. In recent years, girls and women in Jamaica have been targeted by men who rape and/or otherwise sexually assault them. This is without…

  5. Keeping Your Child Safe Online. How To Protect Your Children from the Dangers of Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Three major ways parents can restrict the material their children experience online include using commercial online services with parental control features, installing other parental control software, and using the Platform for Internet Content Selection. Parents must protect their children's privacy, be aware of commercialism online, and take…

  6. International Law as Remedy: When the State Breaches Child Protection Statutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Judith

    2011-01-01

    While legislative frameworks prescribe the legal obligations of the parents to protect and nurture their children, there is no equivalent legal framework requiring and sanctioning the conduct of agents of the state who act in loco parentis. In consequence some children continue to be "at risk" and may even be in greater danger once the…

  7. Serious Illness, Injury, and Death in Child Protection and Preparation for End-of-Life Situations among Child Welfare Services Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikai, Ellen L.; Herrin, Charlotte; Tang, Maggie; Church, Wesley T., II

    2008-01-01

    A mailed survey of child welfare workers in one southern state assessed various aspects of encounters with end-of-life situations in practice. Findings revealed that child deaths, children with life-threatening or life-limiting illnesses, and parental deaths were most commonly encountered and that coworkers were relied on for support. Many had no…

  8. From Feeble-Minded to Mentally Retarded: Child Protection and the Changing Place of Disabled Children in the Mid-Twentieth Century United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossberg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    American attitudes and policies toward children with disabilities changed significantly between the 1920s and the 1950s. Drawn from a larger study of the history of child protection in the United States, I argue that a redefinition of disabled children occurred in this era. Earlier fears that feeble-minded children posed a menace to American…

  9. Psychological Maltreatment--Maltreatment of the Mind: A Catalyst for Advancing Child Protection toward Proactive Primary Prevention and Promotion of Personal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stuart N.; Glaser, Danya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child protection, as primarily applied toward narrow corrective intervention, has been judged to be inadequate in dealing with the wide variety of forms and levels of physical, psychological and sexual violence to which children are subjected throughout the world. Concern about this state of affairs has grown as a part of a global…

  10. Evaluation of the Sustainability and Clinical Outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) in a Child Protection Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; Gully, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the sustainability and outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) as delivered by practitioners in a community-based child protection program who had received training in the model several years earlier. Formerly described as Abuse-Focused CBT, AF-CBT is an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for…

  11. A Case Study Evaluation of a Transfer-of-Stimulus Control Toilet Training Procedure for a Child with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.

    1996-01-01

    This case study describes the use of transfer-of-stimulus prompting procedures to develop toilet skills with a seven-year-old child with pervasive developmental disorder. By first having the child sit on the toilet with her diaper on for two weeks and then taking the diaper off, the child learned to urinate in the toilet. (CR)

  12. Improving Child Maltreatment Detection Systems: A Large-Scale Case Study Involving Health, Social Services, and School Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo, M.A.; Pons-Salvador, G.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives:: The purpose of this 5-year study was to improve detection in two consecutive phases: (a) To close the gap between the number of identified cases and the actual number of cases of child abuse by increasing detection; and (b) To increase the possibility of a broader spectrum of detection. Method:: The Balearic Islands (one of the…

  13. The "Geography" of Child Maltreatment in Israel: Findings from a National Data Set of Cases Reported to the Social Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Arieh, Asher; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines the "geography" of reported cases of child maltreatment in Israel by determining its frequency and rates according to nationality, area of residence, and size and type of locality. Method: The study collected data at the local level in Israel based on reports to social services of cases of child…

  14. Equine-Assisted Intervention in a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cerino, Stefania; Borgi, Marta; Fiorentini, Ilaria; Correale, Cinzia; Lori, Alessia; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have shown the beneficial effects of both recreational and therapeutic interventions assisted by animals for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The observed effects are believed to be mainly due to the ability of some animals to positively engage people, thus potentially counteracting the social withdrawal characterizing these subjects. Here we report the case of a child with high-functioning autism who has been included in an Equine-Assisted Intervention (EAI) program for 2 years. In particular, the relationship with the animal was used to encourage child’s narrative abilities as a primary means of improving cognition and communication. This case represents a first attempt to theorize the role of human-animal interaction as an adjunct to classic therapeutic strategies in ASD. During the intervention, the child appeared to gradually abandon his attitude to avoid the contact with the present and to hide in imaginative past and future. We propose animal-assisted interventions as complementary approaches capable to facilitate the verbalization of the patient’s internal states and to promote psychological well-being through the development of a bond with the animal.

  15. [Congenital toxoplasmosis. 5 cases of mother-to-child transmission of pre-pregnancy infection].

    PubMed

    Desmonts, G; Couvreur, J; Thulliez, P

    1990-09-29

    Five cases of congenital toxoplasmosis consecutive to a maternal toxoplasma infection that had preceded pregnancy were observed. One woman with normal immune system had developed a well-documented lymph node toxoplasmosis 2 months before conceiving. Four women had chronic toxoplasmosis diagnosed in the course of an immunosuppressive disease: Hodgkin's disease in 1 case, systemic lupus erythematosus in 2 cases and pancytopenia in 1 case. Toxoplasmosis had been recognized 3, 5 and 10 years respectively before conception in 3 women, and at an uncertain date in 1 woman. Three women had received corticosteroids during pregnancy, and 2 had undergone splenectomy. Among the 6 children (2 were twins), 1 presented with severe foetal disease at birth, 1 developed lethal systemic toxoplasmosis after birth, 1 showed hydrocephalus with therapeutically well-controlled chorioretinitis, 1 had isolated eye lesion and 2 had asymptomatic infection. The parasite seems to have been transmitted after the 20th week of pregnancy in all cases. The physiopathology of mother-to child toxoplasma transmission, the role played by maternal immunodeficiency and the practical implications of these exceptional cases are discussed.

  16. [The Paris cell for collecting preoccupying information (la CRIP 75): an organization at the heart of child protection].

    PubMed

    Magny, J; Reveillère, C

    2011-09-01

    Within the objective of coordinating actions of the different partners whose mission involves childhood protection measures, and to allow convergence of preoccupying information toward a centralized unit, law n(o) 2007-293 of 5 March 2007 reforming child protection requires the creation of a departmental cell for the collection, processing, and assessment of preoccupying information (cellule départementale, de recueil, de traitement, et d'évaluation des informations préoccupantes, CRIP) on the circumstances of a minor in danger or at risk of being so. The CRIP 75 is a multidisciplinary cell comprising an administrative pole, a socio-educational pole, and a medical health officer. Its mission is to participate in assessing preoccupying information and directing it appropriately, with a preference toward treating situations within an administrative framework and in accordance with the parents. The public prosecutor is only called in when the recommended measures have not provided an adequate response to the danger. Situations that are a matter for prosecution as a criminal offence are transmitted directly to the public prosecutor's office, as are situations for which the social or medico social services are unable to make an assessment.

  17. Improper use of child restraint seats as a sleeping environment: Two cases of childhood death.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Ash; Adams, Elysia; Desapriya, Ediriweera

    2012-11-01

    A child restraint seat (CRS) is designed to keep infants safe inside motor vehicles while in motion. However, there have been a growing number of reports of injuries sustained as a result of CRS use outside the vehicle. These injuries commonly result from a fall from an elevated surface or an overturning of the CRS. The incidence of death from these events, however, is not well documented. The present report retrospectively analyzed the British Columbia Coroner Service Database to identify deaths involving CRS use outside the vehicle. Two such fatalities were identified. In both instances, infants had been placed in a CRS overnight and, in both cases, the CRS was found overturned, resulting in asphyxiation. The history and pathological findings of both cases are summarized.

  18. Evidence-Informed, Individual Treatment of a Child with Sexual Behavior Problems: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Brian; Berliner, Lucy

    2015-11-01

    Children with sexual behavior problems pose a significant challenge for community-based mental health clinicians. Very few clinical trials are available to guide intervention and those interventions that are available are based in a group format. The current case study demonstrates the application of evidence-informed treatment techniques during the individual treatment of a 10-year-old boy displaying interpersonal sexual behavior problems. Specifically, the clinician adapts and implements a group-based model developed and tested by Bonner et al. (1999) for use with an individual child and his caregivers. Key points of the case study are discussed within the context of implementing evidence-informed treatments for children with sexual behavior problems.

  19. Venous sinus thrombosis in a child with nephrotic syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ronaldo Afonso; Torres, Bruna Ribeiro; de Castilho, Alessandra Soares Rocha; Honorato, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome is associated with a hypercoagulable state and an increased risk of thromboembolic complications. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare complication of nephrotic syndrome, with few cases described in the literature, although the disease may be under-diagnosis. The true incidence of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis may be underestimated because many events are asymptomatic or are not diagnosed in time. Here, we describe the case of a male child, 2 years and 10 months old, with nephrotic syndrome presenting with headache, epileptic seizures and sensory inhibition who was diagnosed with superior sagittal and transverse sinuses thrombosis. An international literature review was performed with a defined search strategy in the PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases using the terms 'nephrotic syndrome' and 'cerebral sinovenous thrombosis'. The diagnosis of venous thrombosis should be considered in any patient with nephrotic syndrome who presents with neurological signs and symptoms, as early clinical diagnosis promotes favorable outcomes.

  20. Central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bentur, HN; Dalzell, AM; Riordan, FAI

    2007-01-01

    Background Bacillus organisms are common laboratory contaminants. The majority of Bacillus bacteraemias are transient and not clinically significant. Clinically significant infection due to Bacillus species is rare and mostly due to Bacillus cereus infections in immuno-compromised hosts. Case presentation We report a case of central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child with tufting enteropathy on long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). There were three episodes of central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in three months. Despite adequate and appropriate use of intravenous antibiotics, the infection failed to clear resulting in the need for removal of the catheter for complete cure. Conclusion Bacillus species can cause clinically significant central venous catheter infection, even in an immunocompetent host. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, the central venous catheter may need removal for complete cure. PMID:17967173

  1. Characteristics of auditory agnosia in a child with severe traumatic brain injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hattiangadi, Nina; Pillion, Joseph P; Slomine, Beth; Christensen, James; Trovato, Melissa K; Speedie, Lynn J

    2005-01-01

    We present a case that is unusual in many respects from other documented incidences of auditory agnosia, including the mechanism of injury, age of the individual, and location of neurological insult. The clinical presentation is one of disturbance in the perception of spoken language, music, pitch, emotional prosody, and temporal auditory processing in the absence of significant deficits in the comprehension of written language, expressive language production, or peripheral auditory function. Furthermore, the patient demonstrates relatively preserved function in other aspects of audition such as sound localization, voice recognition, and perception of animal noises and environmental sounds. This case study demonstrates that auditory agnosia is possible following traumatic brain injury in a child, and illustrates the necessity of assessment with a wide variety of auditory stimuli to fully characterize auditory agnosia in a single individual.

  2. The usefulness of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain typing by Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and DNA detection as the forensic evidence in child sexual abuse cases: a case series.

    PubMed

    Sathirareuangchai, Sakda; Phuangphung, Peerayuht; Leelaporn, Amornrut; Boon-yasidhi, Vitharon

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of alleged child sexual abuse can be made from history in conjunction with physical examination, psychosocial evaluation, and laboratory investigations. Sexually transmitted infection associated with sexual abuse is found in 5 % of the victims, with Neisseria gonorrhoeae being the most common organism. Identification of sexually transmitted disease, particularly N. gonorrhoeae infection, can be useful for the diagnosis of sexual abuse and thus, the initiation of the child protection process. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a newer diagnostic assay with a higher sensitivity compared with conventional culture method. In addition, N. gonorrhoeae strain typing can also be used to identify the abuser. In this case series, we present the application of N. gonorrhoeae strain typing (PFGE technique) to identify the abuser, and the confirmation of gonococcal vaginitis by PCR technique.

  3. A case report of biotin–thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease in a Saudi child

    PubMed Central

    Aljabri, Mohammad F.; Kamal, Naglaa M.; Arif, Moinuddin; AlQaedi, Asrar M.; Santali, Enas Y.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Biotin–thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTRBGD) is a neurometabolic autosomal recessive (AR) disorder characterized by subacute encephalopathy with confusion, convulsions, dysarthria, and dystonia. The disease is completely reversible if treated early with biotin and thiamine, and can be fatal if left untreated. We herein present our experience with in an extended family study of an index case of BTRBGD aiming to support its AR mode of inheritance, diagnose asymptomatic and missed symptomatic cases, and provide family screening with proper genetic counseling. Methods: An index case of BTRBGD and his family underwent thorough clinical and radiological assessment along with genetic molecular testing. Results: Two-and-half years old Saudi male child whose parents are consanguineous fulfilled the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria of BTRBGD. He was proved by molecular genetic testing to have homozygous mutation of c.1264A>G (p.Thr422Ala) in the SLC19A3 gene of BTRBGD. Extended clinical, radiological, and genetic family study revealed 2 affected members: a neglected symptomatic cousin with subtle neurological affection and an asymptomatic brother carrying the disease mutation in homozygous status. Heterozygous pattern was detected in his parents, his grandma and grandpa, his aunt and her husband, 2 siblings, and 1 cousin while 1 sibling and 2 cousins were negative to this mutation. Treatment of the patient and his diseased cousin with biotin and thiamine was initiated with gradual improvement of symptoms within few days. Treatment of his asymptomatic brother was also initiated. Conclusion: BTRBGD requires high index of suspicion in any child presenting with unexplained subacute encephalopathy, abnormal movement, and characteristic MRI findings. Extended family study is crucial to diagnose asymptomatic diseased cases and those with subtle neurological symptoms. PMID:27749535

  4. Header: Do adult DTC programs prevent child maltreatment? Parental criminal justice involvement and children’s involvement with child protective services: Do adult drug treatment courts prevent child maltreatment?

    PubMed Central

    Eldred, Lindsey M.; Sloan, Frank A.; Evans, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    Background In light of evidence showing reduced criminal recidivism and cost savings, adult drug treatment courts have grown in popularity. However, the potential spillover benefits to family members are understudied. Objectives To examine: 1) the overlap between parents who were convicted of a substance-related offense and their children’s involvement with child protective services (CPS); and 2) whether parental participation in an adult drug treatment court program reduces children’s risk for CPS involvement. Methods Administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and social services were linked at the child level. First, children of parents convicted of a substance-related offense were matched to (a) children of parents convicted of a non-substance-related offense and (b) those not convicted of any offense. Second, we compared children of parents who completed a DTC program with children of parents who were referred but did not enroll, who enrolled for <90 days but did not complete, and who enrolled for 90+ days but did not complete. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model group differences in the odds of being reported to CPS in the one to three years following parental criminal conviction or, alternatively, being referred to a DTC program. Results Children of parents convicted of a substance-related offense were at greater risk of CPS involvement than children whose parents were not convicted of any charge, but DTC participation did not mitigate this risk. Conclusion/Importance The role of specialty courts as a strategy for reducing children’s risk of maltreatment should be further explored. PMID:26789656

  5. Length of Time to Resolve Criminal Charges of Child Sexual Abuse: A Three-County Case Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Wendy A; Lippert, Tonya; Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg; Jones, Lisa M

    2015-08-01

    The present study sought to examine the court culture of three Oregon counties and their timelines for resolving felony child sexual abuse cases. Specifically, we examined (a) case outcomes, churning (i.e., the extent to which four court events were rescheduled), the length of time to reach a criminal case resolution, and how this length of time compared to that for felonies generally; (b) whether mandatory minimum sentences affected resolution timeliness; and (c) key stakeholders' perceptions about their local court culture. Data included retrospective case-file abstraction (N = 532) on all felony child sex crimes for a 2-year period and interviews with legal professionals (N = 23). Across all three counties, a minority of child sexual abuse cases (18% to 47%) were resolved within the target timeframe of 4 months. In contrast, most felonies (65% to 77%) were resolved within this timeframe. The rescheduling of trials and the requirement of mandatory minimum sentences for some felony child sexual abuse crimes increased the time until case resolution. Results suggest that court cultures that are hierarchical and cooperative may lead to longer case resolution times than court cultures that are self-managing or autonomous. Implications of these results and other results are discussed.

  6. Shared pleasure in early mother-infant interaction: predicting lower levels of emotional and behavioral problems in the child and protecting against the influence of parental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Mäntymaa, Mirjami; Puura, Kaija; Luoma, Ilona; Latva, Reija; Salmelin, Raili K; Tamminen, Tuula

    2015-01-01

    Shared pleasure (SP) was analyzed in fifty-eight 2-month-old infants and their mothers in face-to-face interaction (T1, at 2 months). The association of SP with child's emotional and behavioral outcome at 2 years (T2) was examined. SP as a possible protecting factor in the presence of parental psychopathology also was studied. Mean duration of SP moments (SP-MD) was related to subsequent socioemotional outcome of the child: Infants of dyads with longer SP-MD showed fewer internalizing and externalizing problems 2 years later. In hierarchical linear regressions, SP-MD uniquely and significantly contributed to internalizing problems after adjusting for infant and maternal factors and mother's interactive behavior. SP protected the child against the influence of parental psychopathology. Father's mental health problems during the follow-up increased the child's risk for higher externalizing and internalizing problems, but only among children with short SP-MD at T1. Internalizing symptoms at T2 increased when moving from the category "no mental health problems" to "mental health problems in one parent" and further to "mental health problems in both parents," but this increase was found only among those with short SP-MD at T1. SP in parent-child interaction is an important feature that fosters positive psychological development and moderates the health effects of other risks such as parental psychopathology.

  7. Low-Velocity Nail-Gun Injuries to the Interventricular Septum: Report of Two Cases, One in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Michalsen, Kara L.; Iguidbashian, John P.; Kyser, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Nail-gun injury to the heart is rare. Nail-gun injury to the interventricular septum is rarer: we could find only 5 reported cases, and none involving a child. We report 2 additional cases, in which nails penetrated the interventricular septum without causing acute pericardial tamponade, heart block, or shunt across the septum. Transesophageal echocardiography provides a dynamic way to evaluate the patient preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively. In the cases reported here, both the adult with multiple interventricular nails and the child with a single nail underwent foreign-object removal via median sternotomy. The child needed cardiopulmonary bypass for removal of the nail. There were no short-term or long-term sequelae from these interventricular septal injuries. PMID:26413027

  8. 1. The myth of child rape as a cure for HIV/AIDS in Transkei: a case report.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2003-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest cases of HIV/AIDS infection in Africa, and Transkei, a former black homeland, now a part of the Eastern Cape Province, is one locality with a large number of HIV/AIDS sufferers. The unemployment level is very high and crime, including child rape, is very common. This report presents the case of a victim of rape, a nine-year old female child who was brought to the Umtata General Hospital, a victim of the mistaken belief that sex with a virgin will cure an HIV-infected person or AIDS sufferer of his illness. The alleged rapist was an HIV-positive uncle of the child. The myth of the 'HIV/AIDS virgin cure' is prevalent in the community. The history, physical examination and laboratory investigations of this case are given. A conclusion is drawn and preventive methods are suggested.

  9. Abusive head trauma and accidental head injury: a 20-year comparative study of referrals to a hospital child protection team

    PubMed Central

    John, Simon; Vincent, Andrea L; Reed, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe children referred for suspected abusive head trauma (AHT) to a hospital child protection team in Auckland, New Zealand. Methods Comparative review of demographics, histories, injuries, investigations and diagnostic outcomes for referrals under 15 years old from 1991 to 2010. Results Records were available for 345 children. Referrals increased markedly (88 in the first decade, 257 in the second), but the diagnostic ratio was stable: AHT 60%, accidental or natural 29% and uncertain cause 11%. The probability of AHT was similar regardless of socio-economic status or ethnicity. In children under 2 years old with accidental head injuries (75/255, 29%) or AHT (180/255, 71%), characteristics of particular interest for AHT included no history of trauma (88/98, 90%), no evidence of impact to the head (84/93, 90%), complex skull fractures with intracranial injury (22/28, 79%), subdural haemorrhage (160/179, 89%) and hypoxic ischaemic injury (38/39, 97%). In children over 2 years old, these characteristics did not differ significantly between children with accidental head injuries (21/47, 45%) and AHT (26/47, 55%). The mortality of AHT was higher in children over 2 years old (10/26, 38%) than under 2 years (19/180, 11%). Conclusions The striking increase in referrals for AHT probably represents increasing incidence. The decision to refer a hospitalised child with a head injury for assessment for possible AHT should not be influenced by socio-economic status or ethnicity. Children over 2 years old hospitalised for AHT are usually injured by mechanisms involving impact and should be considered at high risk of death. PMID:26130384

  10. Does Universally Accessible Child Care Protect Children from Late Talking? Results from a Norwegian Population-Based Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekhal, Ratib; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Wang, Mari Vaage; Schjolberg, Synnve; von Soest, Tilmann

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between type of child care arrangement at age 1, 1.5 and 3 years and late talking (LT). The data were from 19,919 children in the population-based prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and included information about child care arrangement, LT and a variety of covariates. Attendance at…

  11. Pyogenic Sacroiliitis in a 13-Month-Old Child: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Julien; Julien, Leroux; Bernardini, Isabelle; Isabelle, Bernardini; Grynberg, Lucie; Lucie, Grynberg; Grandguillaume, Claire; Claire, Grandguillaume; Michelin, Paul; Paul, Michelin; Ould Slimane, Mourad; Slimane, Ould Slimane; Nectoux, Eric; Eric, Nectoux; Deroussen, François; François, Deroussen; Gouron, Richard; Richard, Gouron; Angelliaume, Audrey; Audrey, Angelliaume; Ilharreborde, Brice; Brice, Ilharreborde; Renaux-Petel, Mariette; Mariette, Renaux-Petel

    2015-10-01

    Pyogenic sacroiliitis is exceptional in very young children. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical examination is misleading. FABER test is rarely helpful in very young children. Inflammatory syndrome is frequent. Bone scintigraphy and MRI are very sensitive for the diagnosis. Joint fluid aspiration and blood cultures are useful to identify the pathogen. Appropriate antibiotic therapy provides rapid regression of symptoms and healing. We report the case of pyogenic sacroiliitis in a 13-month-old child.Clinical, biological, and imaging data of this case were reviewed and reported retrospectively.A 13-month-old girl consulted for decreased weight bearing without fever or trauma. Clinical examination was not helpful. There was an inflammatory syndrome. Bone scintigraphy found a sacroiliitis, confirmed on MRI. Aspiration of the sacroiliac joint was performed. Empiric intravenous biantibiotic therapy was started. Patient rapidly recovered full weight bearing. On the 5th day, clinical examination and biological analysis returned to normal. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was switched for oral. One month later, clinical examination and biological analysis were normal and antibiotic therapy was stopped.Hematogenous osteoarticular infections are common in children but pyogenic sacroiliitis is rare and mainly affects older children. Diagnosis can be difficult because clinical examination is poor. Moreover, limping and decreased weight bearing are very common reasons for consultation. This may delay the diagnosis or refer misdiagnosis. Bone scintigraphy is useful to locate a bone or joint disease responsible for limping. In this observation, bone scintigraphy located the infection at the sacroiliac joint. Given the young age, MRI was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Despite the very young age of the patient, symptoms rapidly disappeared with appropriate antibiotic therapy.We report the case of pyogenic sacroiliitis in a 13-month-old child. It reminds the risk of

  12. Climatic conditions and child height: Sex-specific vulnerability and the protective effects of sanitation and food markets in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mulmi, Prajula; Block, Steven A; Shively, Gerald E; Masters, William A

    2016-12-01

    Environmental conditions in early life are known to have impacts on later health outcomes, but causal mechanisms and potential remedies have been difficult to discern. This paper uses the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys of 2006 and 2011, combined with earlier NASA satellite observations of variation in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at each child's location and time of birth to identify the trimesters of gestation and periods of infancy when climate variation is linked to attained height later in life. We find significant differences by sex: males are most affected by conditions in their second trimester of gestation, and females in the first three months after birth. Each 100-point difference in NDVI at those times is associated with a difference in height-for-age z-score (HAZ) measured at age 12-59 months of 0.088 for boys and 0.054 for girls, an effect size similar to that of moving within the distribution of household wealth by close to one quintile for boys and one decile for girls. The entire seasonal change in NDVI from peak to trough is approximately 200-300 points during the 2000-2011 study period, implying a seasonal effect on HAZ similar to one to three quintiles of household wealth. This effect is observed only in households without toilets; in households with toilets, there is no seasonal fluctuation, implying protection against climatic conditions that facilitate disease transmission. We also use data from the Nepal Living Standards Surveys on district-level agricultural production and marketing, and find a climate effect on child growth only in districts where households' food consumption derives primarily from their own production. Robustness tests find no evidence of selection effects, and placebo regression results reveal no significant artefactual correlations. The timing and sex-specificity of climatic effects are consistent with previous studies, while the protective effects of household sanitation and food markets are

  13. Hymenolepis diminuta Infection in a School Going Child: First Case Report from Uttarakhand

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priyanka; Bhakri, Bhanu Kiran; Kaistha, Neelam; Omar, Balram Ji

    2016-01-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta (H.diminuta) is prevalent worldwide, and a few hundred human cases have been reported till date. It is primarily a rodent parasite and humans (usually children) can act as accidental hosts. Infections are usually asymptomatic but abdominal pain, irritability, pruritis, mild diarrhoea and eosinophilia are among the existing symptoms in a few of the reported cases. Here, we report a case of an 11-year-old female child from Bijnor, who presented to us with complaints of abdominal pain, fatigue and irregular episodes of fever. Routine stool examination showed characteristic eggs of H.diminuta. Patient was given a single oral dose of praziquantel (25 mg/kg) and she improved. This case is presented to emphasize that till date there are very few reports on H.diminuta and there is limited data regarding its treatment protocols (dose and duration). Furthermore, albendazole which is commonly used drug for deworming helminthic infections is less effective in these infections. PMID:27790438

  14. Expert testimony in a child sex abuse case: Translating memory development research.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Maggie; Ceci, Stephen J

    2013-02-26

    In this paper we describe a custody case that centred on allegations of child sexual abuse. A pair of preschool-aged sisters accused their biological father of various sexual acts, though their allegations were made under problematic conditions and were contradicted by other statements they made. In an affidavit written by one of us (MB), we describe the relevant memory development research in the course of presenting the court with a scientific analysis. We find compelling evidence of multiple risk factors in the way the daughters' recollections were elicited. Although the "ultimate question" of guilt is beyond our purview, our identification of risks was instrumental in the legal system's decision that the children's allegations were not valid. We put this analysis forward as an example of evidence-based testimony in which scientific findings from the memory literature can be used to frame an expert's analysis.

  15. Neuropsychological Function in a Child with 18p Deletion Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Brian L.; Favero, Marcus; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H.; Braaten, Ellen B.

    2014-01-01

    We report the neuropsychological profile of a 4-year-old boy with the rare 18p deletion syndrome. We used a battery of standardized tests to assess his development in intellect, language, visuomotor integration, academic readiness, socialization, and emotional and behavioral health. The results showed borderline intellectual function except for low average nonverbal reasoning skills. He had stronger receptive than expressive language skills, although both were well below his age group. He had impaired visuomotor integration and pre-academic skills such as letter identification. Emotional and behavioral findings indicated mild aggressiveness, anxiety, low frustration tolerance, and executive function weaknesses, especially at home. Interestingly, he showed social strengths, responding to attention and sharing enjoyment with his examiner. With its assessment of development in many domains, this case report is among the first to characterize the neuropsychological and psychiatric function of a young child with 18p deletion syndrome. We discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice. PMID:25237747

  16. An unusual case of Sweet syndrome in a child: overlapping presentation with erythema elevatum diutinum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Liu, Hongjie; Wang, Lin; Guo, Zaipei; Li, Li

    2014-06-01

    In 1964, Sweet described an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis. It is now widely accepted that Sweet syndrome is one of the associated neutrophilic dermatoses. Herein, we describe an unusual case of Sweet syndrome in a 5-year-old child who suffered from recurrent papules, plaques, and blisters on his face and trunk after the initial onset of fever without an obvious cause. Two skin biopsies were performed. The histopathological findings of the left arm biopsy showed a subepidermal blister with dense infiltrating neutrophils within the blister that were superficial to the middle layer of the dermis. The biopsy from a plaque on the left leg showed a dense infiltrate of neutrophils and a large number of infiltrating histiocytes superficial to the middle layer of the dermis. Direct immunofluorescence of a skin biopsy from the left arm confirmed that immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, IgA, and C3 expression were negative.

  17. Dilemmas in Tackling Child Labour: The Case of Scavenger Children in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Susan E.; Ostos, Zenaida

    1992-01-01

    Describes child labor in the Philippines and two responses to the needs of child scavengers: the Drop In Center, which provided health, social, and employment services to children and their families, and SABANA, a sheltered learning place for child workers. (JOW)

  18. Child Rearing and Neuroticization of Parenting: The Case of The Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenendijk, Leendert F.; Bakker, Nelleke

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the history and outcomes of psychoanalysis and child rearing practices in the 1950s Netherlands to present. Depicts the 20th century as a century of child rearing experts with parents blamed for all that was wrong with their child. States the dynamics of psychology has undermined society's self-supporting and self-healing capacity. (KDR)

  19. Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment in Father-Child Dyads: The Case of Single Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Miljkovitch, Raphaele

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have repeatedly found that intergenerational transmission of attachment is more robust in mother-child dyads than it is in father-child dyads. They have proposed several explanations for the inconsistent father-child findings, including the use of the strange situation procedure, the young age of the children, and the fact that fathers…

  20. [Individual versus collective protection: bioethical analysis of the national program of mass child vaccination].

    PubMed

    Lessa, Sérgio de Castro; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is considered one of the most efficient and cost-effective public health policies most used in the control and prevention of disease. However, it is also one of the most polemic and controversial biomedical techniques, making it difficult to avoid an ethical dilemma, especially when vaccination is compulsory for the entire population. Indeed, since vaccines are not totally effective and safe, there is an ethical conflict between the individual and the collective interest, because children effectively carry the burden of vaccination for the benefit of public health when they are affected with serious adverse reactions and do not benefit from the care that should be offered by the government. The objective of this article was to demonstrate that the tools of bioethics are relevant in this discussion to understand and analyze these dilemmas critically by providing convincing arguments to underpin the development of biopolitics that consider prevention not only rigorously, but also the joint responsibility of all as fundamental for individual and collective protection.

  1. Characteristics, needs, and help seeking of partner violence victims mandated to community services by courts and child protective services.

    PubMed

    Macy, Rebecca J; Rizo, Cynthia F; Ermentrout, Dania M

    2013-10-01

    The rapid growth of a subpopulation of women victimized by intimate partner violence (IPV) garnered the attention of 2 human service agencies in 1 Southeastern United States city. These agencies noted a shift in their clientele from female IPV victims who voluntarily sought agency services to victims who were mandated to agency services by child protective services (CPS), the court system, or both. Court-referred victims had been arrested for perpetrating IPV against their male partners. CPS-referred victims were experiencing concerning levels of IPV in their families, whether or not the victim had ever perpetrated IPV. Moreover, this subpopulation of women tended to be primary caregivers of children. In response to the growth of this subpopulation, the agencies collaborated to design and implement a program targeting female IPV victims who were primary caregivers for their children and who had been mandated to the agencies' services. The research team partnered with the agencies to conduct an investigation of this community-developed program and its participants. This article presents an exploratory, descriptive study that investigates (a) the characteristics of service-mandated, parenting IPV victims; (b) the needs of service-mandated, parenting IPV victims; and (c) the types of help-seeking behavior these women had engaged in before their service referral. Study findings indicate that, although the participants showed parenting strengths and active help-seeking efforts, this sample of women was characterized by severe IPV experiences and serious mental health needs.

  2. [Child labour].

    PubMed

    Marsella, L T; Savastano, L; Saracino, V; Del Vecchio, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors emphasize the violation of children's and adolescents' rights as a result of the exploitation of child labour. Besides the legal aspect, they pointed out the medical features related to the delicate growing process of the child in the phases of development and adaptation of the main organs to hard work. Currently the problem is being supervised by those states that recognize the right for minors to be protected against any kind of physical, mental, spiritual and moral risk.

  3. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome: A Rare Case Report of a 11-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Sandeep; Chauhan, Yashwant; Jain, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an autosomal dominant trait caused due to mutations in the patched tumor suppressor gene (PTCH) gene found on the long arm of chromosome 9. The syndrome is characterized by the presence of odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), basal cell carcinomas, and skeletal malformations. Early diagnosis of the syndrome can be done by pedodontist as OKC is one of the early manifestations of the syndrome. Early diagnosis and treatment is important for long-term prognosis of the syndrome by reducing the severity of cutaneous carcinomas and deformities due to jaw cyst. The present case describes an 11-year-old patient with some typical features of NBCCS, which were diagnosed through its oral and maxillofacial manifestations. This case emphasizes the importance of pedodontist in early recognition of the syndrome. How to cite this article Tandon S, Chauhan Y, Sharma M, Jain M. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome: A Rare Case Report of a 11-Year-Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):264-268. PMID:27843260

  4. Toward Creating Synergy Among Policy, Procedures, and Implementation of Evidence-Based Models in Child Welfare Systems: Two Case Examples.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Patricia

    2017-03-01

    Over the past four to five decades, multiple randomized controlled trials have verified that preventive interventions targeting key parenting skills can have far-reaching effects on improving a diverse array of child outcomes. Further, these studies have shown that parenting skills can be taught, and they are malleable. Given these advances, prevention scientists are in a position to make solid empirically based recommendations to public child service systems on using parent-mediated interventions to optimize positive outcomes for the children and families that they serve. Child welfare systems serve some of this country's most vulnerable children and families, yet they have been slow (compared to juvenile justice and mental health systems) to adopt empirically based interventions. This paper describes two child-welfare-initiated, policy-based case studies that have sought to scale-up research-based parenting skills into the routine services that caseworkers deliver to the families that they serve. In both case studies, the child welfare system leaders worked with evaluators and model developers to tailor policy, administrative, and fiscal system practices to institutionalize and sustain evidence-based practices into usual foster care services. Descriptions of the implementations, intervention models, and preliminary results are described.

  5. Serial-Episodic Brief Treatment for Borderline Spectrum Families: Employing the Matrix of Projections in a Child Abuse Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The author addresses the fact that many families with a borderline structure receive treatment throughout the life cycle. Serial episodic brief treatment is recommended, utilizing projective identification as an organizing principle to promote incremental change during each treatment episode. The author selects a child abuse case to review, that…

  6. Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse in a Hypothetical Cybersexploitation Case: The Importance of Perpetrator Honesty, Outcome Type, and Respondent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michelle; Rogers, Paul; Hood, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated perceptions of child sexual abuse in a hypothetical cybersexploitation case. Men were predicted to be more negative toward the victim than were women. Victims were predicted to be more negatively judged when they consented to sex than when they did not and when they were lied to than when they were not. Two hundred and…

  7. A Discussion of "Nadia": A Case Study of Extraordinary Drawing Ability in an Autistic Child. Technical Report No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pariser, David A.

    The case study of Nadia, an autistic child, documents the phenomenally accurate drawings she made. Nadia's precocious drawing capacity raises questions about the drawing hypothesis adhered to by F. Goodenough and D. B. Harris and Gestalt theories of perception and representation. The argument is made that Nadia drew realistically because she…

  8. Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines acceptable for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Klein, B; Damiani-Taraba, G; Koster, A; Campbell, J; Scholz, C

    2015-03-01

    Children involved with child protection services (CPS) are diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at higher rates than the general population. Children with maltreatment histories are much more likely to have other factors contributing to behavioural and attentional regulation difficulties that may overlap with or mimic ADHD-like symptoms, including language and learning problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment difficulties, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. A higher number of children in the child welfare system are diagnosed with ADHD and provided with psychotropic medications under a group care setting compared with family-based, foster care and kinship care settings. However, children's behavioural trajectories change over time while in care. A reassessment in the approach to ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to confirmed (or suspected) maltreatment (e.g. neglect, abuse) is required. Diagnosis should be conducted within a multidisciplinary team and practice guidelines regarding ADHD diagnostic and management practices for children in CPS care are warranted both in the USA and in Canada. Increased education for caregivers, teachers and child welfare staff on the effects of maltreatment and often perplexing relationship with ADHD-like symptoms and co-morbid disorders is also necessary. Increased partnerships are needed to ensure the mental well-being of children with child protection involvement.

  9. Evaluation of the sustainability and clinical outcome of alternatives for families: A cognitive-behavioral therapy (AF-CBT) in a child protection center

    PubMed Central

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; Gully, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the sustainability and outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) as delivered by practitioners in a community-based child protection program who had received training in the model several years earlier. Formerly described as Abuse-Focused CBT, AF-CBT is an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for child physical abuse and family aggression/conflict that was included in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network’s initial EBT dissemination efforts in 2002. Seven practitioners participated in a year-long Learning Collaborative in AF-CBT and in similar training programs for 4 other EBTs. The agency’s routine data collection system was used to document the clinical and adjustment outcomes of 52 families presenting with a physically abused child who received their services between 2 and 5 years after the AF-CBT training had ended. Measures of the use of all 5 EBTs documented their frequency, internal consistency, and intercorrelations. Controlling for the unique content of the other four EBTs, the amount of AF-CBT Abuse-specific content delivered was related to improvements on standardized parent rating scales (i.e., child externalizing behavior, anger, anxiety, social competence) and both parent and clinician ratings of the child’s adjustment at discharge (i.e., child more safe, less scared/sad, more appropriate with peers). The amount of AF-CBT General content was related to a few discharge ratings (better child prognosis, helpfulness to parents). These novel data provide suggestive evidence for the sustainability and clinical benefits of AF-CBT in an existing community clinic serving physically abused children and their families, and are discussed in the context of key developments in the treatment model and dissemination literature. PMID:21354619

  10. An evaluation of 'confirmatory' medical opinion given to English courts in 14 cases of alleged child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Fourteen cases of alleged child sexual abuse, where the medical opinion rated a high degree of concordance with the history or suspicion of abuse given to the doctor, were reviewed to evaluate the objectivity and reliability of the medical evidence. It was common practice for physicians conducting the medical examination to form conclusions that the child had been sexually abused on the basis of the examiner's willingness to accept statements by the child, the adolescent, the caregiver or the investigator without determining if this information was accurate and obtained through the use of appropriate interviewing techniques. In the prepubertal children, evaluation of the examination findings revealed anatomical descriptions that were normal or non-specific, rather than supportive of abuse. In the teenagers, inadequate consideration was made of the behavioural and physical differences that occur with adolescence. The physical findings were not interpreted using research derived knowledge concerning the variations of "normal" and the particular conditions that may be mistaken as abuse. The medical reports of these examinations suggest to this author a possibility of the significance and relevance of physical findings being unduly and unwittingly over-emphasised, despite the cases all having occurred post the Cleveland Inquiry [Butler Sloss E. Report into the Child Abuse Enquiry in Cleveland, 1987. London, HMSO] and some as recently as 2005. This may reflect emotional involvement in the case and the doctor taking on a role of advocacy for the child. It is sometimes difficult for physicians to step out of the medical role where they do have the responsibility to diagnose and into a role where their information is only a piece of the puzzle and it is the work of the court to determine if sexual abuse has occurred. The role confusion between medicine and forensics must be sorted out in order for physicians to provide an objective assessment. The main conclusion of this

  11. A fatal case of streptococcal and meningococcal meningitis in a 2-years-old child occurring as Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Francesco; Bonsignore, Alessandro; Portunato, Federica; Orcioni, Giulio Fraternali; Varnier, Oliviero E; De Stefano, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    We report a fatal case of streptococcal and meningococcal meningitis in a previously healthy 2-year-old child, a simultaneous co-infection of both pathogens that is poorly reported in the reviewed literature. The lack of a clinical diagnosis in addition to the medico-legal aspects arising from possible professional liability for the emergency service doctor who had failed to recognize the child's symptoms led to a forensic autopsy within 48 h after the death. After external and internal examination, Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome (WFS) was suspected. Consequently, cerebrospinal fluid, whole blood, nasal and pharyngeal swab and pleural liquid samples were selected and collected for microbiological studies. All tested samples resulted Neisseria meningitidis DNA and Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA positive. The NM genotyping Real-Time PCR resulted positive for NM serotype C. Microscopic histological study confirmed these findings. We underline that when a patient presents fever and petechiae (50-60% of patients), WFS must be considered, even when the patient has a non-toxic appearance. Due to its rapid progression and often devastating consequences, therapy should be started as soon as WFS is suspected. Emphasis should also be placed on the importance of public education programs and on broadening protection against meningitis through new vaccines. In such cases, from a forensic point of view, there is a strong need for a robust, multidisciplinary approach in order to reach the correct post-mortem diagnosis.

  12. Condyloma acuminata in the tongue and palate of a sexually abused child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Condyloma acuminata caused by human papilloma viruses, (HPV) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) appearing most frequently as soft, pink cauliflower like growths in moist areas, such as the genitalia, mouth and other places. The disease is highly contagious, can appear singly or in groups, small or large. In children, the isolation of a sexually transmitted organism may be the first indication that an abuse has occurred. Although the presence of a sexually transmissible agent from a child beyond the neonatal period is suggestive of sexual abuse, exceptions do exist. Case presentation The authors report the clinical case of a five-year-old Caucasian male with lesions located in the dorsal surfaces of the posterior tongue and palate. Both lesions had a firm consistency, reddish appearance and presence of whitish areas and regions of ulceration. During the interview, the mother reported that the boy had been sexually abused. Conclusion Sexually transmitted disease may occur during sexual abuse. Dentists as well as pediatricians have a role to play in identifying and treating these children. The diagnosis is essentially clinical (anamnesis and physical examination), but also the use of cytology eventually resorts to biopsy of the suspicious lesions for histological examination. The therapeutic option was the excision of the lesions. PMID:25053204

  13. Fibromyxoma of the Lateral Skull Base in a Child: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Klimo, Paul; Jha, Tushar; Choudhri, Asim F.; Joyner, Royce; Michael, L. Madison

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Fibromyxomas and myxomas are benign tumors of mesenchymal origin usually found outside the nervous system, most commonly in the atrium of the heart. They can also arise in the mandible or maxilla, but it is exceedingly rare to find them within the skull base. The history, histologic features, and the literature, with emphasis on other pediatric cases, are reviewed for this uncommon skull base neoplasm. Methods We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with a 1-year history of facial weakness, numbness, and hearing loss. A large locally destructive tumor centered in the petrous bone was found on magnetic resonance imaging. Results A mastoidectomy combined with a middle fossa craniotomy was performed for gross total resection. The child is disease free 12 months after surgery. Conclusion Diagnosis could not be made solely on radiographic studies because of the lack of pathognomonic imaging features. Radical resection provided the patient the best chance of cure. Long-term surveillance is necessary to monitor for tumor recurrence. PMID:24303345

  14. Death of a seven-month-old child in a washing machine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Osculati, Antonio; Visonà, Silvia Damiana; Re, Laura; Sozzi, Marta; Castelli, Francesca; Andrello, Luisa; Vignali, Claudia

    2016-12-24

    The authors present a case which brings out a unique modality of child homicide by placing the baby in a washing machine and turning it on. The murder was perpetrated by the baby's mother, who suffered from a serious depressive disorder. A postmortem RX and then a forensic autopsy were performed, followed by histologic examinations and toxicology. On the basis of the results of the autopsy, as well as the histology and the negative toxicological data, the cause of death was identified as acute asphyxia. This diagnosis was rendered in light of the absence of other causes of death, as well as the presence of typical signs of asphyxia, such as epicardial and pleural petechiae and, above all, the microscopic examinations, which pointed out a massive acute pulmonary emphysema. Regarding the cause of the asphyxia, at least two mechanisms can be identified: drowning and smothering. In addition, the histology of the brain revealed some findings that can be regarded as a consequence of the barotrauma due to the centrifugal force applied by the rotating drum of the washing machine. Another remarkable aspect is that we are dealing with a mentally-ill assailant. In fact, the baby's mother, after a psychiatric examination, was confirmed to be suffering from a mental illness-a severe depressive disorder-and so she was adjudicated not-guilty-by-reason-of-insanity. This case warrants attention because of its uniqueness and complexity and, above all, its usefulness in the understanding of the pathophysiology of this particular manner of death.

  15. Atresia of the Aortic Arch in 4-Year-Old Child: A Clinical Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Nigro Stimato, Vittoria; Didier, Dominique; Beghetti, Maurice; Tissot, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Atresia of the aortic arch is a rare congenital heart defect with a high mortality when associated with other intracardiac defects. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) provides the exact anatomy of the aortic arch and collateral circulation and is useful to diagnose-associated aortic arch anomalies. This report describes the case of a 4-year-old child with atresia of the aortic arch, referred to our institution with the diagnosis of aortic coarctation and bicuspid aortic valve. On clinical exam, the femoral pulses were not palpable and there was a significant differential blood pressure between the upper and lower limbs. The echocardiography showed a severely stenotic bicuspid aortic valve but was limited for the exact description of the aortic arch. CMR showed absence of lumen continuity between the ascending and descending aorta distal to the left subclavian artery, extending over 5 mm, with the presence of a bend in the arch and diverticulum on either side of the zone of discontinuity, suggesting the diagnosis atresia of the aortic arch rather than coarctation or interruption. The patient benefited from a successful surgical commissurotomy of the aortic valve and reconstruction of the aortic arch with a homograft. The post-operative CMR confirmed the good surgical result. This case emphasizes the utility of CMR to provide good anatomical information to establish the exact diagnosis and the operative strategy. PMID:25853109

  16. Venous sinus thrombosis in a child with nephrotic syndrome: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Afonso; Torres, Bruna Ribeiro; de Castilho, Alessandra Soares Rocha; Honorato, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome is associated with a hypercoagulable state and an increased risk of thromboembolic complications. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare complication of nephrotic syndrome, with few cases described in the literature, although the disease may be under-diagnosis. The true incidence of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis may be underestimated because many events are asymptomatic or are not diagnosed in time. Here, we describe the case of a male child, 2 years and 10 months old, with nephrotic syndrome presenting with headache, epileptic seizures and sensory inhibition who was diagnosed with superior sagittal and transverse sinuses thrombosis. An international literature review was performed with a defined search strategy in the PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases using the terms ‘nephrotic syndrome’ and ‘cerebral sinovenous thrombosis’. The diagnosis of venous thrombosis should be considered in any patient with nephrotic syndrome who presents with neurological signs and symptoms, as early clinical diagnosis promotes favorable outcomes. PMID:25607275

  17. [Pyelonephritis with massive renal tissue necrosis in child with urinary tract malformation--a case report].

    PubMed

    Pawlak-Bratkowska, Monika; Finke, Daria; Olejniczak, Dariusz; Midel, Anna; Tkaczyk, Marcin

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the case report is presentation of unusual and heavy clinical course of pyelonephritis with renal tissue necrosis in a child with urinary tract malformation. Nine month old girl was admitted to hospital in heavy clinical status due to pyelonephritis--urosepsis. It was complicated by acute renal insufficiency. Patient was treated by broad-spectrum antibiotics and parenteral nutrition. She was feverish for 14 days. Computed tomography done in order to exclude abdominal abscess showed massive renal tissue necrosis of on both sides. Antibiotic treatment was successful after 6 weeks. Urological evaluation revealed bilateral vesico-ureteral refluxes grade IV. Scintigraphy showed multiple scars. Patient was treated Deflux injections (twice). We noted 5 urinary tract recurrences despite antibiotic profilaxis. GFR of 75 ml/min/1.73 m2 was estimated at age of 16 m. Immunodeficiency or malignancy as background of clinical course were excluded. The case we describe presents severe clinical course of pyelonephritis due to complex urinary tract malformation that is to be considered despite based on modern publications "sparing" strategies of diagnosis and profilaxis in urinary tract malformations.

  18. Case study: auditory brain responses in a minimally verbal child with autism and cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Shu H.; McArthur, Genevieve; Badcock, Nicholas A.; Brock, Jon

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 30% of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remain minimally verbal into late childhood, but research on cognition and brain function in ASD focuses almost exclusively on those with good or only moderately impaired language. Here we present a case study investigating auditory processing of GM, a nonverbal child with ASD and cerebral palsy. At the age of 8 years, GM was tested using magnetoencephalography (MEG) whilst passively listening to speech sounds and complex tones. Where typically developing children and verbal autistic children all demonstrated similar brain responses to speech and nonspeech sounds, GM produced much stronger responses to nonspeech than speech, particularly in the 65–165 ms (M50/M100) time window post-stimulus onset. GM was retested aged 10 years using electroencephalography (EEG) whilst passively listening to pure tone stimuli. Consistent with her MEG response to complex tones, GM showed an unusually early and strong response to pure tones in her EEG responses. The consistency of the MEG and EEG data in this single case study demonstrate both the potential and the feasibility of these methods in the study of minimally verbal children with ASD. Further research is required to determine whether GM's atypical auditory responses are characteristic of other minimally verbal children with ASD or of other individuals with cerebral palsy. PMID:26150768

  19. Traumatic globe luxation associated with orbital fracture in a child: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Márcio Bruno Figueiredo; Carvalho, Matheus Furtado; Ferreira, André Baptista; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

    2015-03-01

    Orbital fracture associated with traumatic globe luxation is rare, as it generally requires trauma with high energy for this to occur. The present case report focused on a child who had been hit by a motorcycle, leading to a globe luxation of the left eye and fractures of the superolateral orbital walls. The patient presented initial cosmetic and psychological benefits from the repositioning of the intact globe and the reduction of the orbital fractures. However, a subsequent evisceration of the globe was required due to persistent proptosis and pain. An ocular prosthesis was also implanted, thus recovering the patient's aesthetics. Thirty-four well-documented cases of traumatic globe luxation could be found in the English literature since 1970. The mean age of patients presenting traumatic globe luxation was 29.5 years. The male gender proved to be more prevalent, with traffic collisions representing the most common accident etiology. Direct orbital trauma with fractures of medial and floor walls displacing the globe into the maxillary sinus represented the most common injury mechanism (38.2 %), followed by an elongated object entering the orbit (26.5 %). Optical nerve avulsion is the most serious complication seen in association with traumatic globe luxation, with the repositioning of the initial globe, with no enucleation or evisceration, representing the main form of management.

  20. Effects of using the GlobalFiler™ multiplex system on parent-child analyses of cases with single locus inconsistency.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Eriko; Osawa, Motoki; Tamura, Tomonori; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Miyashita, Keiko; Matsushima, Yutaka; Kakimoto, Yu; Satoh, Fumiko

    2016-01-01

    Parent-child analyses sometimes reveal inconsistency of shared alleles at only one locus. This is conventionally called "single locus exclusion", which results from mutational events and the presence of null alleles. Here, in parent-child analyses of the Japanese population, we detected exclusions by using the GlobalFiler™ system comprising 21 short tandem repeat loci. One- or two-step mutations resulting from strand slippage causing gain or loss were observed in seven of 221 parent-child transmissions. The incidences of single locus inconsistency of alleles were 5.88×10(-2) and 8.40×10(-3) for paternal and maternal relationships, respectively. With calculation using a set of 15 loci in the Identifiler® multiplex system, the combined likelihood ratio (CLR) values were limited to less than 100 in all five cases accompanied by single inconsistency. The addition of six loci recovered the CLR values to over 10,000 in three cases. Application of this advanced system may increase the detected occurrence of mutational events, but it should be beneficial for inference in parent-child analyses, particularly in cases accompanied by genetic inconsistency.