Kendrick, Denise; Watson, Michael; Mulvaney, Caroline; Burton, Paul
Little work has examined the utility of home safety behaviours in predicting childhood injury. This study examines the relationship between safety behaviours and child injury using a cohort of 1717 families, with 2357 children aged 0-7 years. Safety behaviours, and sociodemographic and family characteristics were measured using a validated…
Chandran, Aruna; Khan, Uzma Rahim; Zia, Nukhba; Feroze, Asher; de Ramirez, Sarah Stewart; Huang, Cheng-Ming; Razzak, Junaid A.; Hyder, Adnan A.
Background: Most childhood unintentional injuries occur in the home; however, very little home injury prevention information is tailored to developing countries. Utilizing our previously developed information dissemination tools and a hazard assessment checklist tailored to a low-income neighborhood in Pakistan, we pilot tested and compared the effectiveness of two dissemination tools. Methods: Two low-income neighborhoods were mapped, identifying families with a child aged between 12 and 59 months. In June and July 2010, all enrolled households underwent a home hazard assessment at the same time hazard reduction education was being given using an in-home tutorial or a pamphlet. A follow up assessment was conducted 4–5 months later. Results: 503 households were enrolled; 256 received a tutorial and 247 a pamphlet. The two groups differed significantly (p < 0.01) in level of maternal education and relationship of the child to the primary caregiver. However, when controlling for these variables, those receiving an in-home tutorial had a higher odds of hazard reduction than the pamphlet group for uncovered vats of water (OR 2.14, 95% CI: 1.28, 3.58), an open fire within reach of the child (OR 3.55, 95% CI: 1.80, 7.00), and inappropriately labeled cooking fuel containers (OR 1.86, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.25). Conclusions: This pilot project demonstrates the potential utility of using home-visit tutorials to decrease home hazards in a low-income neighborhood in Pakistan. A longer-term randomized study is needed to assess actual effectiveness of the use of allied health workers for home-based injury education and whether this results in decreased home injuries. PMID:23502323
Odendaal, Willem; van Niekerk, Ashley; Jordaan, Esme; Seedat, Mohamed
The continued high mortality and morbidity rates for unintentional childhood injuries remain a public health concern. This article reports on the influence of a home visitation programme (HVP) on household hazards associated with unintentional childhood injuries in a South African low-income setting. A randomised controlled trial (n=211 households) was conducted in a South African informal settlement. Community members were recruited and trained as paraprofessional visitors. Four intervention visits were conducted over 3 months, focusing on child development, and the prevention of burn, poison, and fall injuries. The HVP, a multi-component intervention, included educational inputs, provision of safety devices, and an implicit enforcement strategy. The intervention effect (IE) was measured with a standardised risk assessment index that compared post-intervention scores for intervention and control households. A significant reduction was observed in the hazards associated with electrical and paraffin appliances, as well as in hazards related to poisoning. Non-significant changes were observed for burn safety household practices and fall injury hazards. This study confirmed that a multi-component HVP effectively reduced household hazards associated with electrical and paraffin appliances and poisoning among children in a low-income South African setting.
Duffee, James H; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Kuo, Alice A; Legano, Lori A; Earls, Marian F
High-quality home-visiting services for infants and young children can improve family relationships, advance school readiness, reduce child maltreatment, improve maternal-infant health outcomes, and increase family economic self-sufficiency. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports unwavering federal funding of state home-visiting initiatives, the expansion of evidence-based programs, and a robust, coordinated national evaluation designed to confirm best practices and cost-efficiency. Community home visiting is most effective as a component of a comprehensive early childhood system that actively includes and enhances a family-centered medical home. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
The October issue of The Journal of Pediatric Nursing carried the first of two parts on childhood injury. That article reviewed the importance of prevention, the short- and long-term effects of injury on the child and the family, and how to incorporate prevention strategies at home and at work. Also reviewed were three of the most common mechanisms of injury, motor vehicle crashes, bicycle crashes, and pool drowning, and prevention measures. In this second part, the remaining primary areas of concern for common pediatric injuries are addressed: poisoning, fires and burns, and firearms. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
Buowari, D Y
Injuries are important causes of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Children are vulnerable to injuries of any kind. This is a prospective study of children with injuries who presented at General Hospital Aliero. Records were kept of injuries in children age fifteen years and below that occurred from February to November 2006 at General Hospital, Aliero. We aim to study the pattern of childhood injuries presenting at General Hospital Aliero, Nigeria. Most of the injuries occurred at home 31 (48.4%) and on the road 28 (43.8%). Road traffic accidents occurred when a moving vehicle or motorcycle hit children or children falling from moving trucks. Boys 39 (60.9%) were more involved in injuries than girls 25 (39.1%). Mortality occurred in three injured children. Childhood injuries occur more in the boys and commonly Parents and guardians should not leave children unattended even for a moment. Children should always be in company of an adult when outside the home. Childhood injury can lead to serious work and financial problems for families. Health promoting and injury preventive interventions should be instituted to reduce the rate of injuries and their effects on children.
Langiano, E; Ferrara, M; Lanni, L; De Vito, E
The aim of the study was to assess the frequency and the kind of home injuries among the children and to have information on the sources of risk and hazardous behaviors in the home setting. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to parents. In order to evaluate the risk perception in relation to the home environment, drawings to color were administered to children in kindergarten and to those of the first cycle of elementary school. A questionnaire was administered to older pupils. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical program EPIINFO. The most risky behaviors showed by about half of parents were to cook lunch and doing other works in the house, cook with children in the kitchen. 28.0% said that sometimes left unattended appliances. Discordant opinions were found on the possibility of having injuries at home, in fact, 39.7% of parents affirmed that their son was victim of a home injury, compared with 64.0% of children. The number of children victims of home injuries was significantly higher among those aged between 6 and 10 years. Our search was in according with the national trend of the types and outcomes of home injuries, and confirms the existence of relationship between low educational level and higher frequency of injuries in childhood. Although prevention was considered an invaluable tool by parents to ensure the child's safety from the earliest years of life in this way, this study highlights the urgent need to take preventive action to develop an adequate safety culture.
Esin, Issa Abdul Razaq; Alabi, Sikiru; Lawal, Oluwagbemiga Abdul Razzaq
Injury has been recognised as a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The aim of this study was to determine the aetiology, pattern and location of childhood injuries in north east Nigeria. This is a 3-year retrospective hospital-based descriptive study. The study included 114 children (77 boys, 37 girls; mean age 6.4 ± 3.2 years; range 2 months to 15 years) who were admitted for various injuries in the female/paediatric surgical ward from January 2007 to December 2009. Information obtained from their case notes included demographic data, mechanism of injury, location of injury, anatomical site of injury and outcome of treatment. Records for 114 children (77 boys, 37 girls; mean age 6.2 years; range 2 months to 15 years) were available for analysis. The highest number of injuries occurred in the age group 6-10 years. Home was the most common location of injury among the age group 0-5 years while older children sustained most of their injuries outside the home on the street/highways. Burns from hot water was the most common injury among children aged 0-5 years while pedestrian accident accounted for the highest cause of injury among older children. Fall accounted for 20.2% of the injuries. The most common specific anatomic injury was head injury followed by limb fractures. Two mortalities were recorded (1.8%). This study provided useful information on the characteristics of childhood injuries in our environment. There is the need for parents and children education about the risks of injury and preventive measures in addition to legislation and policy on environmental modifications and enforcements to significantly reduce childhood injury.
Bablouzian, L.; Freedman, E. S.; Wolski, K. E.; Fried, L. E.
OBJECTIVES: This pilot study evaluates the effectiveness of a community based childhood injury prevention program on the reduction of home hazards. METHODS: High risk pregnant women, who were enrolled in a home visiting program that augments existing health and human services, received initial home safety assessments. Clients received education about injury prevention practices, in addition to receiving selected home safety supplies. Fourteen questions from the initial assessment tool were repeated upon discharge from the program. Matched analyses were conducted to evaluate differences from initial assessment to discharge. RESULTS: A significantly larger proportion of homes were assessed as safe at discharge, compared with the initial assessment, for the following hazards: children riding unbuckled in all auto travel, Massachusetts Poison Center sticker on the telephone, outlet plugs in all unused electrical outlets, safety latches on cabinets and drawers, and syrup of ipecac in the home. CONCLUSIONS: A community based childhood injury prevention program providing education and safety supplies to clients significantly reduced four home hazards for which safety supplies were provided. Education and promotion of the proper use of child restraint systems in automobiles significantly reduced a fifth hazard, children riding unbuckled in auto travel. This program appears to reduce the prevalence of home hazards and, therefore, to increase home safety. PMID:9113841
DiCara, Cheryl; And Others
Purposes of this report are to: (1) describe the extent of the childhood injury problem relative to diseases and other conditions affecting children in Maine who are 1 to 19 years of age; (2) give an overview of what is known about the incidence of childhood injuries in Maine; and (3) offer recommendations to improve the state's ability to control…
Mancino, Lisa; Todd, Jessica E; Guthrie, Joanne; Lin, Biing-Hwan
Childhood obesity is associated with a number of serious health risks that can persist into adulthood. While trends in food away from home and fast-food consumption have paralleled trends in childhood obesity, it is important to identify whether this is a causal relationship. This paper reviews recent literature in this area to summarize if there is a consensus in research findings. We group the literature into two areas - consumption of and access to food away from home (FAFH). While no consensus findings have been reached in either area, the evidence of an association between FAFH consumption and childhood obesity has gained strength. Further, there is evidence that FAFH meals add calories to children's diets. The literature on the role of FAFH access and childhood obesity has continued producing mixed results.
He, Siran; Lunnen, Jeffrey C.; Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Amar-Singh; Zia, Nukhba
Objectives. We aimed to analyze the epidemiology of childhood unintentional injuries presenting to hospitals in 5 select sites in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, Malaysia, and Pakistan). Methods. We collected standardized data from children ages 0 to 12 years at participating emergency departments (EDs) in 2007. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the characteristics of these injuries and to explore the determinants of injury outcomes. Results. Among 2686 injured children, falls (50.4%) and road traffic injuries (16.4%) were the most common, affecting boys more often (64.7%). Home injuries were more common among younger children (average 5.41 vs 7.06 years) and girls (38.2% vs 31.7%). Following an ED visit, 24% of injured children were admitted to the hospital, and 6 died. Injury outcomes were associated with risk factors, such as age and sex, to varying extents. Conclusions. Standardized ED surveillance revealed unintentional injuries are a threat to child health. The majority of events took place inside the home, challenging traditional concepts of children’s safety and underscoring the need for intensified context-appropriate injury prevention. PMID:24432924
... Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Updated:Dec 13, ... boost your odds in the battle against childhood obesity. Studies have shown that children whose families eat ...
Kanaizumi, Shiomi; Shibata, Mariko; Miyazaki, Yukiko; Nakashita, Tomiko; Sakou, Keiko; Hoshino, Yasue; Ichinohe, Shinko; Ohno, Ayako; Manabe, Shigeo
This study aimed to: 1) obtain data about occurrence of childhood domestic injuries in Gunma prefecture according to children's age; 2) ascertain parental awareness of injury prevention; and 3) develop ideas for creating concrete strategies of childhood injury prevention. The participants were 551 parents of children living in 14 cities/towns in Gunma prefecture that showed interest in cooperating with this survey. A self-reported questionnaire was handed to parents when they took their children to health check-ups provided by the cities/towns either during the child's first year, at 18 months, or at 3 years. Parents completed the questionnaire asking whether their child had been injured at home during the past year, and if so, they were asked about the type of injury, the cause of injury, and what action they took. We also asked whether the parents took specific injury prevention measures at home. Data were analyzed statistically. The injury experienced most frequently during the first year of life was "fall" (30.8%), followed by "ingestion of a foreign body" (22.7%), and then "choking" (11.5%). For children around the age of 18 months, the most frequently experienced injury was "fall" (41.0%), followed by "burn" (20.3%), and "ingestion of a foreign body" (19.3%). At 3 years, "burn" was reported most frequently (32.3%), followed by "fall" (31.0%), and "choking" (14.5%). Chi2-test revealed significant correlations among the three age groups concerning the rate of burn injury, foreign body ingestion, and drowning. The rate of burn injury was higher at 3 years than at 18 months, and also higher at 18 months as compared to under the age of one. In contrast, the rate of foreign body ingestion was higher under the age of one than at 18 months, and also higher at 18 months as compared to the age of 3 years. Drowning was more common at 18 months and 3 years than under the age of one. As for prevention of domestic injury, investigation of preventive means taken according
Trinkoff, Alison M.; Johantgen, Meg; Muntaner, Carles; Le, Rong
Objectives. We examined the relationship between nursing home staffing levels and worker injury rates in 445 nursing homes in 3 states. Methods. We obtained First Reports of Injury and workers’ compensation data from 3 states (Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland) for the year 2000. We then linked these data to Medicare’s Online Survey, Certification and Reporting system to obtain nursing home staffing details and organizational descriptors. We used ordinary least squares and log-transformed regression models to examine the association between worker injury rate and nursing home staffing and organizational characteristics. Results. Total nursing hours per resident day were significantly associated with worker injury rates in nursing homes after we adjusted for organizational characteristics and state dummy variables (P=.0004). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that nursing home staffing levels have an important impact on worker health. These findings were supported for multiple facilities across different states; therefore, policies and resources that increase staffing levels in nursing homes are warranted. PMID:15983274
Ong, Alvin Cong Wei; Low, Sher Guan; Vasanwala, Farhad Fakhrudin
Childhood injury is one of the leading causes of death globally. Singapore is no exception to this tragic fact, with childhood injuries accounting up to 37% of Emergency Department visits. Hence, it is important to understand the epidemiology and risk factors of childhood injuries locally. A search for relevant articles published from 1996-2016 was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar using keywords relating to childhood injury in Singapore. The epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, risk factors and recommended prevention strategies of unintentional childhood injuries were reviewed and described. Epidemiological studies have shown that childhood injury is a common, preventable and significant public health concern in Singapore. Home injuries and falls are responsible for majority of the injuries. Injuries related to childcare products, playground and road traffic accidents are also important causes. Healthcare professionals and legislators play an important role in raising awareness and reducing the incidence of childhood injuries in Singapore. For example, despite legislative requirements for many years, the low usage of child restraint seats in Singapore is worrisome. Thus, greater efforts in public health education in understanding childhood injuries, coupled with more research studies to evaluate the effectiveness and deficiencies of current prevention strategies will be necessary.
Ong, Alvin Cong Wei; Low, Sher Guan; Vasanwala, Farhad Fakhrudin
Childhood injury is one of the leading causes of death globally. Singapore is no exception to this tragic fact, with childhood injuries accounting up to 37% of Emergency Department visits. Hence, it is important to understand the epidemiology and risk factors of childhood injuries locally. A search for relevant articles published from 1996–2016 was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar using keywords relating to childhood injury in Singapore. The epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, risk factors and recommended prevention strategies of unintentional childhood injuries were reviewed and described. Epidemiological studies have shown that childhood injury is a common, preventable and significant public health concern in Singapore. Home injuries and falls are responsible for majority of the injuries. Injuries related to childcare products, playground and road traffic accidents are also important causes. Healthcare professionals and legislators play an important role in raising awareness and reducing the incidence of childhood injuries in Singapore. For example, despite legislative requirements for many years, the low usage of child restraint seats in Singapore is worrisome. Thus, greater efforts in public health education in understanding childhood injuries, coupled with more research studies to evaluate the effectiveness and deficiencies of current prevention strategies will be necessary. PMID:27438844
Espitia-Hardeman, Victoria; Borse, Nagesh N; Dellinger, Ann M; Betancourt, Carmen Elena; Villareal, Alba Nelly; Caicedo, Luz Diana; Portillo, Carlos
This article characterises the burden of childhood injuries and provides examples of evidence-based injury prevention strategies developed using a citywide injury surveillance system in Pasto, Colombia. Fatal (2003-2007) and non-fatal (2006-2007) childhood injury data were analysed by age, sex, cause, intent, place of occurrence, and disposition. Boys accounted for 71.5% of fatal and 64.9% of non-fatal injuries. The overall fatality rate for all injuries was 170.8 per 100,000 and the non-fatal injury rate was 4,053 per 100,000. Unintentional injuries were the leading causes of fatal injuries for all age groups, except for those 15-19 years whose top four leading causes were violence-related. Among non-fatal injuries, falls was the leading mechanism in the group 0-14 years. Interpersonal violence with a sharp object was the most important cause for boys aged 15-19 years. Home was the most frequent place of occurrence for both fatal and non-fatal injuries for young children 0-4 years old. Home, school and public places became an important place for injuries for boys in the age group 5-15 years. The highest case-fatality rate was for self-inflicted injuries (8.9%). Although some interventions have been implemented in Pasto to reduce injuries, it is necessary to further explore risk factors to better focus prevention strategies and their evaluation. We discuss three evidence-based strategies developed to prevent firework-related injuries during festival, self-inflicted injuries, and road traffic-related injuries, designed and implemented based on the injury surveillance data.
LeBailly, Susan A.; And Others
Preliminary data from a study documenting parental perceptions of injuries and steps taken by inner-city and suburban parents to make their homes safe are reported. Participants were 407 families with children under 5 years old. Families were provided one of the following interventions: (1) a well child visit; (2) safety equipment (3) physician…
Kasmire, Kathryn E; Rogers, Steven C; Sturm, Jesse J
Trampoline parks, indoor recreational facilities with wall-to-wall trampolines, are increasing in number and popularity. The objective was to identify trends in emergency department visits for trampoline park injuries (TPIs) and compare TPI characteristics with home trampoline injuries (HTIs). Data on trampoline injuries from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed. Sample weights were applied to estimate yearly national injury trends; unweighted cases were used for comparison of injury patterns. Estimated US emergency department visits for TPI increased significantly, from 581 in 2010 to 6932 in 2014 (P = .045), whereas HTIs did not increase (P = .13). Patients with TPI (n = 330) were older than patients with HTI (n = 7933) (mean 13.3 vs 9.5 years, respectively, P < .001) and predominantly male. Sprains and fractures were the most common injuries at trampoline parks and homes. Compared with HTIs, TPIs were less likely to involve head injury (odds ratio [OR] 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.89), more likely to involve lower extremity injury (OR 2.39; 95% CI, 1.91-2.98), more likely to be a dislocation (OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.10-4.09), and more likely to warrant admission (OR 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.61). TPIs necessitating hospital admission included open fractures and spinal cord injuries. TPI mechanisms included falls, contact with other jumpers, and flips. TPI patterns differed significantly from HTIs. TPIs are an emerging concern; additional investigation and strategies are needed to prevent injury at trampoline parks. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Bhogal, G; Tomlins, P J; Murray, P I
We studied the prevalence and aetiology of penetrating ocular injuries, in particular ones that were sustained whilst undertaking Do It Yourself (DIY) or gardening in the domestic environment. We also examined the extent of eye safety promotion in DIY stores and garden centres and on their websites. We conducted a case note review of patients who underwent surgery for penetrating ocular trauma between January 2000 and June 2004. Eight DIY stores and garden centres and 10 websites were visited and evaluated using standardized questions. Of the 85 patients identified, 35 (41.2%) patients had injuries that occurred in the home with 10 patients having visual acuities of <6/60 at final follow up. Accidents from DIY or gardening were the cause in 17 of 33 (51.5%) patients, with a failure to wear eye protection in all cases. Overall, DIY stores and garden centres were poor at promoting eye safety both in their stores and on their websites. The home is a frequent place for severe penetrating ocular injury, with highly popular pastimes such as DIY and gardening as common causes. As many of these injuries are preventable, additional safety information is essential to educate the public on the potential dangers of these pastimes.
Rieger, Gerulf; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Gygax, Lorenz; Bailey, J Michael
Homosexual adults tend to be more gender nonconforming than heterosexual adults in some of their behaviors, feelings, and interests. Retrospective studies have also shown large differences in childhood gender nonconformity, but these studies have been criticized for possible memory biases. The authors studied an indicator of childhood gender nonconformity not subject to such biases: childhood home videos. They recruited homosexual and heterosexual men and women (targets) with videos from their childhood and subsequently asked heterosexual and homosexual raters to judge the gender nonconformity of the targets from both the childhood videos and adult videos made for the study. Prehomosexual children were judged more gender nonconforming, on average, than preheterosexual children, and this pattern obtained for both men and women. This difference emerged early, carried into adulthood, and was consistent with self-report. In addition, targets who were more gender nonconforming tended to recall more childhood rejection. Copyright (c) 2008 APA.
Adegoke, S A; Ademola, A S; Dedeke, I O F; Oyelami, O A
In Sub-Saharan Africa, infections and undernutrition are the leading causes of childhood death; however injuries are now contributing significantly to childhood morbidity and mortality. To determine the aetiology, morbidity and mortality associated with injuries in children in South-Western Nigeria. This was an observational cross-sectional study of consecutive childhood injury attendances and admissions into the hospital's Children Emergency Room (CHER) over a one-year period. Socio-demographic data as well as the data on the cause, site, and possible risks of injury; parts of the body affected and eventual outcome of the patients were documented. Injury accounted for 382 (10.6%) of the 3,604 attendances, 142 (11.9%) of 1193 admissions and 11 (20.4%) of 54 deaths in CHER. Their ages ranged from six weeks to 15 years, with a mean (SD) of 6.7 (3.9) years, and a male:female ratio of 1.6:1. Road traffic accidents, 130 (34.0%), were the most common cause, followed by falls 119 (31.2%), cuts 44 (11.5%), bits 26 (6.8%), and burns 24 (6.3%). Injuries occurred mostly at home 154 (40.1%), on the road 142 (37.4%), and at school 59 (15.2%). Lack of supervision and/or poor anticipation of potential dangers were the leading risks associated with childhood injuries. Injuries contribute significantly to childhood deaths in South-Western Nigeria. A well-orchestrated public enlightenment programme to improve home, school, and road supervision of children as well as concerted efforts to make these places safer could help ameliorate the situation.
Sugerman, David E; Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Razzak, Junaid; El-Sayed, Hesham; Isaza, Andres; Rahman, Fazlur; Peden, Margie
Abstract Objective To determine the frequency and nature of childhood injuries and to explore the risk factors for such injuries in low-income countries by using emergency department (ED) surveillance data. Methods This pilot study represents the initial phase of a multi-country global childhood unintentional injury surveillance (GCUIS) project and was based on a sequential sample of children < 11 years of age of either gender who presented to selected EDs in Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt and Pakistan over a 3–4 month period, which varied for each site, in 2007. Findings Of 1559 injured children across all sites, 1010 (65%) were male; 941 (60%) were aged ≥ 5 years, 32 (2%) were < 1 year old. Injuries were especially frequent (34%) during the morning hours. They occurred in and around the home in 56% of the cases, outside while children played in 63% and during trips in 11%. Of all the injuries observed, 913 (56%) involved falls; 350 (22%), road traffic injuries; 210 (13%), burns; 66 (4%), poisoning; and 20 (1%), near drowning or drowning. Falls occurred most often from stairs or ladders; road traffic injuries most often involved pedestrians; the majority of burns were from hot liquids; poisonings typically involved medicines, and most drowning occurred in the home. The mean injury severity score was highest for near drowning or drowning (11), followed closely by road traffic injuries (10). There were 6 deaths, of which 2 resulted from drowning, 2 from falls and 2 from road traffic injuries. Conclusion Hospitals in low-income countries bear a substantial burden of childhood injuries, and systematic surveillance is required to identify the epidemiological distribution of such injuries and understand their risk factors. Methodological standardization for surveillance across countries makes it possible to draw international comparisons and identify common issues. PMID:19551252
Simpson, Jean; Fougere, Geoff; McGee, Rob
Young children being injured at home is a perennial problem. When parents of young children and family workers discussed what influenced parents’ perceptions and responses to child injury risk at home, both “upstream” and “downstream” causal factors were identified. Among the former, complex and interactive facets of society and contemporary living emerged as potentially critical features. The “wicked problems” model arose from the need to find resolutions for complex problems in multidimensional environments and it proved a useful analogy for child injury. Designing dynamic strategies to provide resolutions to childhood injury, may address our over-dependence on ‘tame solutions’ that only deal with physical cause-and-effect relationships and which cannot address the complex interactive contexts in which young children are often injured. PMID:23615453
Gage, Jack; And Others
The article describes the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act which provides for recovery awards for vaccine-related injuries caused by diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines. A Vaccine Injury Table lists types of disabilities covered and time periods for first symptoms. The claims process, legal assistance,…
Vassilia, Konte; Eleni, Petridou; Dimitrios, Trichopoulos
During a 5-year period, out of 110066 children with injuries recorded in the Greek Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System (EDISS), 91 had firework-related injuries. Descriptive analyses and the Barrell matrix were used to determine risk factors and extrapolated national firework childhood injury figures were calculated. The estimated annual incidence of childhood firework injuries treated in the emergency departments of hospitals countrywide, was 7 per 100000 children years. Seventy percent of injuries concerned older children (10-14 years), mostly boys with self-inflicted injuries, whereas girls suffered injuries as bystanders. A sharp peak in spring was noted, when the Greek Orthodox Easter is celebrated. Illicitly sold fireworks caused most injuries, but in eight instances homemade firecrackers were responsible.
... and Services Administration Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...: Name: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation..., DC 20005. (202) 289-7600. The Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...
... Administration for Children and Families Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation. Date and... and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation will meet for its first session on Wednesday...
... and Services Administration Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home... Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation (MIECHVE). Authority: Section 10(a)(2... meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program...
HOME ENVIRONMENT AND CHILDHOOD ASTHMA IN A RURAL IOWA COUNTY
Erik R. Svendsen*?, Stephen J. Reynolds*?, James A. Merchant*, Allison L. Naleway*?, Ann M. Stromquist*, Peter S. Thorne*.
*University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA ?Current: USEPA RTP, NC ?Curre...
Ingram, Jenny C.; Deave, Toity; Towner, Elizabeth; Errington, Gail; Kay, Bryony; Kendrick, Denise
Injuries are the leading cause of childhood death internationally; steep social gradients exist in mortality and morbidity. The majority of pre-school injuries occur in the home, but implementing research into practice for injury prevention has received little attention. This systematic review describes key facilitators and barriers when…
Matone, M; Kellom, K; Griffis, H; Quarshie, W; Faerber, J; Gierlach, P; Whittaker, J; Rubin, D M; Cronholm, P F
Objectives In this large scale, mixed methods evaluation, we determined the impact and context of early childhood home visiting on rates of child abuse-related injury. Methods Entropy-balanced and propensity score matched retrospective cohort analysis comparing children of Pennsylvania Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP), Parents As Teachers (PAT), and Early Head Start (EHS) enrollees and children of Pennsylvania Medicaid eligible women from 2008 to 2014. Abuse-related injury episodes were identified in medical assistance claims with ICD-9 codes. Weighted frequencies and logistic regression odds of injury within 24 months are presented. In-depth interviews with staff and clients (n = 150) from 11 programs were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Results The odds of a healthcare encounter for early childhood abuse among clients were significantly greater than comparison children (NFP: 1.32, 95% CI [1.08, 1.62]; PAT: 4.11, 95% CI [1.60, 10.55]; EHS: 3.15, 95% CI [1.41, 7.06]). Qualitative data illustrated the circumstances of and program response to client issues related to child maltreatment, highlighting the role of non-client caregivers. All stakeholders described curricular content aimed at prevention (e.g. positive parenting) with little time dedicated to addressing current or past abuse. Clients who reported a lack of abuse-related content supposed their home visitor's assumption of an absence of risk in their home, but were supportive of the introduction of abuse-related content. Approach, acceptance, and available resources were mediators of successfully addressing abuse. Conclusions for Practice Home visiting aims to prevent child abuse among high-risk families. Adequate home visitor capacity to proactively assess abuse risk, deliver effective preventive curriculum with fidelity to caregivers, and access appropriate resources is necessary.
Naisaki, Asilika; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Kool, Bridget; Taoi, Mabel; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi
Although childhood injury rates in low- and middle-income countries are known to be high, contemporary data on this topic from Pacific Island countries and territories are scant. We describe the epidemiology of childhood injuries resulting in death or hospital admission in Fiji using a population-based registry. A cross-sectional analysis of the Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals system investigated the characteristics associated with childhood injuries (<15 years) in Viti Levu, resulting in death or hospital admission (≥12 h) from October 2005 to September 2006. The 496 children meeting the study eligibility criteria corresponded to annual injury-related hospitalisation and death rates of 265.4 and 15.3 per 100,000, respectively. Most (82%) deaths occurred prior to hospitalisation. The death and hospitalisation rates were highest among the <5- and 5- to 9-year groups, respectively. Males and indigenous Fijian children were at increased risk of injury. The leading causes of injury death were road traffic injury (29%), choking (25%) and drowning (18%). Major causes of hospital admission were falls (48%), burns (13%), road traffic injury (11%) and being hit by a person or object (10%). Fractures and head injuries were the most common types of injury. The findings support the need for a national strategy that builds capacity and mobilises resources to prevent childhood injuries in Fiji. Priority actions should include investment in technical support and research to identify local contextual and social determinants that inform the development and implementation of effective injury prevention interventions as a child health survival strategy. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Quinlan, K P
To describe thermal burns from radiators in the homes of children in the inner city and an intervention to decrease the risk for this pediatric injury. Academic medical center in Chicago. Case series of 10 radiator-related burns. The burns described were found to be clustered in an area of a public housing project served by steam radiators. No burns were associated with hot water radiators. Just 14% of housing units with young children had adequate radiator covers and radiator pipe insulation. Radiator covers and insulation have now been replaced or repaired in all units of the 11 housing project buildings served by steam radiators. Steam radiators in the home represent a particular childhood burn hazard. Community-based clinicians are in a unique position to recognize local patterns of injury and work with other agencies in injury control efforts.
Calvert, Sophie; Miller, Helen E.; Curran, Andrew; Hameed, Biju; McCarter, Renee; Edwards, Richard J.; Hunt, Linda; Sharples, Peta Mary
The aim of this study was to relate discharge King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) category to injury severity and detailed outcome measures obtained in the first year post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used a prospective cohort study. Eighty-one children with TBI were studied: 29 had severe, 15 moderate, and 37 mild TBI. The…
Markkanen, Pia; Galligan, Catherine; Laramie, Angela; Fisher, June; Sama, Susan; Quinn, Margaret
Home healthcare is one of the fastest growing sectors in the United States. Percutaneous injuries from sharp medical devices (sharps) are a source of bloodborne pathogen infections among home healthcare workers and community members. Sharps use and disposal practices in the home are highly variable and there is no comprehensive analysis of the system of sharps procurement, use and disposal in home healthcare. This gap is a barrier to effective public health interventions. The objectives of this study were to i) identify the full range of pathways by which sharps enter and exit the home, stakeholders involved, and barriers for using sharps with injury prevention features; and ii) assess the leverage points for preventive interventions. This study employed qualitative research methods to develop two systems maps of the use of sharps and prevention of sharps injuries in home healthcare. Twenty-six in-depth interview sessions were conducted including home healthcare agency clinicians, public health practitioners, sharps device manufacturers, injury prevention advocates, pharmacists and others. Interview transcripts were audio-recorded and analyzed thematically using NVIVO qualitative research analysis software. Analysis of supporting archival material also was conducted. All findings guided development of the two maps. Sharps enter the home via multiple complex pathways involving home healthcare providers and home users. The providers reported using sharps with injury prevention features. However, home users' sharps seldom had injury prevention features and sharps were commonly re-used for convenience and cost-savings. Improperly discarded sharps present hazards to caregivers, waste handlers, and community members. The most effective intervention potential exists at the beginning of the sharps systems maps where interventions can eliminate or minimize sharps injuries, in particular with needleless treatment methods and sharps with injury prevention features
Eberl, Robert; Schalamon, Johannes; Singer, Georg; Huber, Sarah S; Spitzer, Peter; Höllwarth, Michael E
Recommendations to prevent trampoline injuries were given since the 1970s. However, despite these educational efforts, safety recommendations seem to be ignored and the number of trampoline injuries is increasing. All children referred to our department for injuries related to trampolines over a period of 3 years were included. The patients' records were reviewed and a questionnaire was sent out in order to gain additional information. Injuries were classified as severe and mild. A total of 265 children (46% m, 54% f) with a median age of 8.2 years (range 1 to 14) were included. The injury rate was continuously growing from the year 2005 (10.6%) to 2007 (58.1%). Most of the injuries were recorded between April and September with a peak of injuries in August. Seventy-five percent of all accidents happened in the afternoon; 40% of the injuries were classified as severe, 60% as mild. Nets or equal security devices were used in 56.6%. Trampolining is associated with a significant risk for bodily harm at any age and results in severe injuries in 40% of cases. Though there may be still room for improvement in safety recommendations, all attempts over a period of more than 30 years to reduce the number of trampoline-related backyard injuries failed and the incidence is still increasing. At present, trampolines cannot be made safe for recreational activities and are of an unacceptable risk even under supervision.
Home Visiting Campaign, 2015
The federally funded, locally administered Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program sponsors family support programs that are often called "home visiting" because they take place in the homes of at-risk families. These families often lack support, experience, and knowledge of basic parenting skills. Because children…
Lowenthal, Barbara; Lowenthal, Barbara
Describes the unique effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on development in early childhood and offers suggestions for interventions in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Urges more intensive, long-term studies on the immediate and long-term effects of TBI. (Author/DB)
Krabak, Brian J; Snitily, Brian; Milani, Carlo J E
The popularity of running among young athletes has significantly increased over the past few decades. As the number of children who participate in running increases, so do the potential number of injuries to this group. Proper care of these athletes includes a thorough understanding of the unique physiology of the skeletally immature athlete and common injuries in this age group. Treatment should focus on athlete education, modification of training schedule, and correction of biomechanical deficits contributing to injury. Early identification and correction of these factors will allow a safe return to running sports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leff, E W; Hagenbach, G L; Marn, K K
Franklin County Home Health Agency (St Albans, Vermont) undertook a performance improvement project in 1996 to reduce employee injuries. A review of recent injuries led to the prevention of licensed nursing assistants' (LNAs') back and shoulder injuries as the first priority. Root causes of injuries were agency communication, employee training, patient home environment, nursing assistant body mechanics, and failure to use safety measures. Given that injury causality is complex and multifactorial, a variety of improvement strategies were implemented over the following two to three years. IMPLEMENTATION OF POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS: Short-term (a few months), mid-term (six months), and long-term (one year) potential solutions to the LNA back and shoulder injury problem were charted. Safety and health training was the major focus of the team's short-term plan. Risk management forms were to be used to identify and follow up on hazardous situations. Project plans that were successfully implemented included revision of LNA plans of care, standardization of the return-to-work process after injury, development of guidelines for identifying unsafe patient lifts and transfers, improved follow-up of employee reports of injury-risk situations in patient homes, improved body mechanics screening of new employees, and a stronger injury-prevention training program for current employees. A less successful initiative was aimed at collecting more data about injuries and causal factors. Employee injuries were gradually reduced from 4-10 per quarter to 0-3 per quarter. Injury prevention requires commitment, persistence, and patience--but not expensive improvements. Multiple interventions increase the chances of success when there are many root causes and lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of various approaches.
Bailey, Helen D; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Metayer, Catherine; Clavel, Jacqueline; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kaatsch, Peter; Roman, Eve; Magnani, Corrado; Spector, Logan G; Petridou, Eleni; Milne, Elizabeth; Dockerty, John D; Miligi, Lucia; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Fritschi, Lin; Simpson, Jill; Zhang, Luoping; Rondelli, Roberto; Baka, Margarita; Orsi, Laurent; Moschovi, Maria; Kang, Alice Y; Schüz, Joachim
Some previous studies have suggested that home pesticide exposure before birth and during a child's early years may increase the risk of childhood leukemia. To further investigate this, we pooled individual level data from 12 case-control studies in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC). Exposure data were harmonized into compatible formats. Pooled analyses were undertaken using multivariable unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (ORs) for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) associated with any pesticide exposure shortly before conception, during pregnancy and after birth were 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25, 1.55) (using (2,785 cases, 3635 controls), 1.43 (95% CI 1.32, 1.54) (5,055 cases, 7,370 controls) and 1.36 (95% CI 1.23, 1.51) (4,162 cases 5,179 controls), respectively. Corresponding ORs for risk of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) were 1.49 (95% CI 1.02, 2.16) (173 cases, 1,789 controls), 1.55 (95% CI 1.21, 1.99) (344 cases, 4,666 controls) and 1.08 (95% CI 0.76, 1.53) (198 cases, 2,655 controls) respectively. There was little difference by type of pesticide used. The relative similarity in ORs between leukaemia types, time periods and pesticide types may be explained by similar exposure patterns and effects across the time periods in ALL and AML, participants’ exposure to multiple pesticides, or recall bias. Although some recall bias is likely, until a better study design can be found to investigate associations between home pesticide use and childhood leukaemia in an equally large sample, it would appear prudent to limit the use of home pesticides before and during pregnancy, and during childhood. PMID:26061779
Hyvärinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu
The purpose of this research was to dissect the connection between childhood homes and leadership. The study forms a part of a larger study on Finnish female leaders and their life paths. The following research question was set for this study: how did Finnish female leaders describe their childhood and home environment? It was studied through two…
... Administration for Children and Families Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home... for Children and Families (ACF), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice to announce the establishment of the Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...
Lévêque, B.; Baudier, F.; Janvrin, M. P.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine what injury control interventions are currently carried out by physicians and to examine how these interventions could be more effective. SETTING: Surveys were conducted among the three main groups of physicians who provide primary care to children in France--private practice pediatricians (PPPs), well-child clinic pediatricians (WCCPs), and general practitioners (GPs). METHOD: A representative sample of each of the three groups of physicians were interviewed by telephone, using a computer assisted telephone interview system, in December 1993 or February 1994. RESULTS: Responses demonstrated that most physicians felt they could play an important part in injury prevention but that many had inadequate knowledge of injury related mortality rates in children. Most PPPs and WCCPs usually provided counseling on safety in relation to developmental changes in children. Few physicians gave recommendations about appropriate first responses to emergencies. Printed material, designed for parent education, was provided by many PPPs and WCCPs, but was usually absent from the offices of GPs. Participation in group education sessions was common among WCCPs but rare among PPPs and GPs. Many physicians expressed skepticism regarding the efficacy of their interventions in injury control. CONCLUSION: A number of recommendations are made to those in government agencies or elsewhere who could help physicians to improve childhood injury prevention, for instance by regular publication of data on childhood injury mortality, counseling about parent education on this subject, and first aid in emergencies. PMID:9346017
Regional Educational Laboratories Early Childhood Collaboration Network.
This guide details a framework for supporting the efforts of home, school, and community partners to improve continuity and transition in early childhood. Following an introduction describing continuity in early childhood, the importance of a smooth transition, and the eight elements of early childhood continuity, the guide is presented in eight…
Cutright, Melitta J.
Suggestions to help parents keep their children safe from injury include learn first aid; child-proof the home; use carseats and safety belts; lock up medications, toxic materials, sharp instruments, and guns; block off stairways; install smoke alarms; insist on bike helmets; and put safety plugs in electric sockets. (SM)
Wang, Xueying; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yu; Zou, Zhijun; Shen, Li; Huang, Chen
The prevalence of children allergic rhinitis has been increasing in China and associated factors still are not clear. In the present paper, we selected 13,335 parent-reported questionnaires of 4-6 years-old children, in a cross-sectional study from April 2011 to April 2012 in Shanghai city, and investigated associations of various factors with parent-reported allergic rhinitis (doctor-diagnosed) and rhinitis symptoms in childhood. After adjusted by age, sex, family history of atopy, and respondent of questionnaire, we find that no siblings, mother in older age during pregnancy, shorter breastfeeding, using antibiotics in the first year, and home dampness-related exposures, had significant associations with increased prevalence of the studied diseases. Location, type, building area, decoration materials and construction period of the residence, also had significant associations with these diseases. Current parental smoking and pet-keeping had no significant associations with the studied diseases. Incense-burning and using mosquito coils had significant associations with reduced risk of allergic rhinitis and with increased risk of rhinitis symptoms. Using air cleaner and cleaning the residence in high frequency had associations with increased risk, but eating fast food and ice cream often had associations with the reduced risk, of the studied diseases. Families with children being diagnosed allergic rhinitis likely change their lifestyle behaviors. In conclusion, childhood rhinitis could be influenced by heredity and many "environmental exposures". Avoidance behaviors and reverse causation in parental smoking, pet-keeping, and dietary habits for childhood rhinitis should be carefully considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Linden, Mark A; Braiden, Hannah-Jane; Miller, Sarah
To determine the understanding of educational professionals around the topic of childhood brain injury and explore the factor structure of the Common Misconceptions about Traumatic Brain Injury Questionnaire (CM-TBI). Cross-sectional postal survey. The CM-TBI was posted to all educational establishments in one region of the UK. One representative from each school was asked to complete and return the questionnaire (n = 388). Differences were demonstrated between those participants who knew someone with a brain injury and those who did not, with a similar pattern being shown for those educators who had taught a child with brain injury. Participants who had taught a child with brain injury demonstrated greater knowledge in areas such as seatbelts/prevention, brain damage, brain injury sequelae, amnesia, recovery and rehabilitation. Principal components analysis suggested the existence of four factors and the discarding of half the original items of the questionnaire. In the first European study to explore this issue, it is highlighted that teachers are ill-prepared to cope with children who have sustained a brain injury. Given the importance of a supportive school environment in return to life following hospitalization, the lack of understanding demonstrated by teachers in this research may significantly impact on a successful return to school.
Merza, Katalin; Harmatta, János; Papp, Gábor; Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó
Childhood traumatization plays a significant role in the etiology of borderline personality disorder. Studies found a significant association between childhood traumatization, dissociation, and nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior. The aim of our study was to assess dissociation and nonsuicidal self-injury among borderline inpatients and to reveal the association between childhood traumatization, dissociation, and self-injurious behavior. The sample consisted of 80 borderline inpatients and 73 depressed control patients. Childhood traumatization, dissociation and self-injurious behavior were assessed by questionnaires. Borderline patients reported severe and multiplex childhood traumatization. Cumulative trauma score and sexual abuse were the strongest predictors of dissociation. Furthermore, we have found that cumulative trauma score and dissociation were highly predictive of self-injurious behavior. Our results suggest that self-injurious behavior and dissociation in borderline patients can be regarded as indicators of childhood traumatization. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(19): 740-747.
Falcone, Richard A; Edmunds, Patrick; Lee, Emily; Gardner, Dawne; Price, Kimberly; Gittelman, Michael; Pomerantz, Wendy; Besl, John; Madhavan, Gowri; Phelan, Kieran J
Home based injuries account for a significant number of injuries to children between 1 and 5years old. Evidence-based safety interventions delivered in the home with installation of safety equipment have been demonstrated to reduce injury rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a community based volunteer implemented home safety intervention. In partnership with a community with high injury rates for children between 1 and 5years old, a home safety bundle was developed and implemented by volunteers. The safety bundle included installing evidence based safety equipment. Monthly community emergency room attended injury rates as well as emergency room attended injuries occurring in intervention and nonintervention homes was tracked throughout the study. Between May 2012 and May 2014 a total of 207 homes with children 1-5years old received the home safety bundle. The baseline monthly emergency room attended injury rate for children aged 1-5years within our target community was 11.3/1000 and that within our county was 8.7/1000. Following the intervention current rates are now 10.3/1000 and 9.2/1000 respectively. Within intervention homes the injury rate decreased to 4.2/1000 while the rate in the homes not receiving the intervention experienced an increase in injury rate to 12/1000 (p<0.05). When observed vs. expected injuries were examined the intervention group demonstrated 59% fewer injuries while the nonintervention group demonstrated a 6% increase (p<0.05). Children in homes that received a volunteer-provided, free home safety bundle experienced 59% fewer injuries than would have been expected. By partnering with community leaders and organizing volunteers, proven home safety interventions were successfully provided to 207 homes during a two-year period, and a decline in community injury rates for children younger than 5years was observed compared to county wide injury rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mascarenhas, Márcio Denis Medeiros; Neves, Alice Cristina Medeiros das; Silva, Marta Alves da
This study aimed to analyze the profile of treatment for accidents and violence involving children under 10 years of age in Brazil in the year 2011. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in 71 emergency services in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), located in the national capital and 24 state capitals. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Health's system of sentinel surveillance services for Violence and Accidents (VIVA Survey). The highest proportion of injuries (67.4%) occurred inside the child's home. Among unintentional injuries, falls were the most frequent (52.4%), followed by running into objects or persons (21.8%) and traffic injuries (10.9%), especially as passengers (bicycles were an important means of transportation involved in the injuries). The vast majority of unintentional injuries are avoidable, and educational measures should be adopted, especially with parents, teachers, the community, and health workers, calling attention to the risks and the adoption of safe behaviors in the home, at school, and in leisure-time activities. Cases of violence are subject to mandatory reporting, and prompt measures should be taken to protect victims.
Ma, Zechen; Bayley, Mark T; Perrier, Laure; Dhir, Priya; Dépatie, Lana; Comper, Paul; Ruttan, Lesley; Lay, Christine; Munce, Sarah E P
Adverse childhood experiences are significant risk factors for physical and mental illnesses in adulthood. Traumatic brain injury/concussion is a challenging condition where pre-injury factors may affect recovery. The association between childhood adversity and traumatic brain injury/concussion has not been previously reviewed. The research question addressed is: What is known from the existing literature about the association between adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury/concussion in adults? All original studies of any type published in English since 2007 on adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury/concussion outcomes were included. The literature search was conducted in multiple electronic databases. Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al.'s scoping review frameworks were used. Two reviewers independently completed screening and data abstraction. The review yielded six observational studies. Included studies were limited to incarcerated or homeless samples, and individuals at high-risk of or with mental illnesses. Across studies, methods for childhood adversity and traumatic brain injury/concussion assessment were heterogeneous. A positive association between adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury occurrence was identified. The review highlights the importance of screening and treatment of adverse childhood experiences. Future research should extend to the general population and implications on injury recovery. Implications for rehabilitation Exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with increased risk of traumatic brain injury. Specific types of adverse childhood experiences associated with risk of traumatic brain injury include childhood physical abuse, psychological abuse, household member incarceration, and household member drug abuse. Clinicians and researchers should inquire about adverse childhood experiences in all people with traumatic brain injury as pre-injury health conditions can
NGA Center for Best Practices, 2011
Early childhood is a critical time for cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Many states have invested in comprehensive early childhood care and education systems that offer a wide range of supports and services to families from the prenatal period through school entry. Home visiting programs are an important component of state early…
Ammerman, Robert T.; Shenk, Chad E.; Teeters, Angelique R.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Van Ginkel, Judith B.
Research has documented the deleterious effects of maternal depression and childhood trauma on parenting and child development. There are high rates of both depression and childhood trauma in new mothers participating in home visitation programs, a prevention approach designed to optimize mother and child outcomes. Little is known about the…
Mahoney, Ashley Darcy; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Hanlon, Alexandra
There has been substantial research on low birthweight (LBW) as a predictor of adverse educational and cognitive outcomes. LBW infants perform worse on cognitive battery tests compared to children born at normal birthweight; however, children exposed to similar risks do not all share the same experiences. The complex, interrelated factors responsible for poor cognitive and achievement performance vary for different populations, but researchers hypothesize that the home environment may influence the infants' long-term health outcomes. Examine the home environment as a moderator in the causal pathway from neonatal brain injury to school performance in a secondary analysis of a prospectively studied, geographically defined cohort from the Neonatal Brain Hemorrhage Study. The secondary analysis sample included 543 infants with birthweights of 501 to 2,000 g who were born consecutively in three community hospitals in New Jersey between 1984 and 1986. School performance at age 9 was measured by the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement. The home environment variables were tested and analyzed using multistep hierarchical regression modeling. A moderating effect between the variable neighborhood observations and brain injury was demonstrated for the outcome math score. The moderating relationship was found in the category of children without brain injury (β = 1.76, p = .005). There were statistically significant and potentially clinical meaningful models when looking at the home environmental variables as they relate to reading and math scores. The findings suggest that at least one variable within a LBW child's socio-environmental milieu can moderate the effects of perinatal brain injury on school performance outcomes.
Smith, Anne B.
The nature of quality within home-based early childhood education (HBECE) services is important, since all children have the right to access high quality ECE whether it is centre or home-based. HBECE services are increasing more rapidly than other EC services in New Zealand, and their flexible hours, local contexts, and favourable ratios and group…
Schieber, R A; Gilchrist, J; Sleet, D A
Laws and regulations are among the most effective mechanisms for getting large segments of the population to adopt safety behaviors. These have been applied at both the state and federal levels for diverse injury issues. Certain legal actions are taken to prevent the occurrence of an otherwise injury-producing event, while other legal actions are designed to prevent injury once an event has occurred. At the federal level, effective laws and regulations have been directed at dangers posed by unsafe manufactured products or motor vehicle design. At the state level, effective safety laws and regulations have been directed at encouraging safety behaviors and regulating the use of motor vehicles or other forms of transportation. In this article, six legislative efforts are described to point out pros and cons of the legislative approach to promoting safety. Three such efforts are aimed at preventing injury-producing events from occurring: mandating child-resistant packaging for prescription drugs and other hazardous substances, regulating tap water temperature by presetting a safe hot-water heater temperature at the factory, and graduated licensing. Three other examples illustrate the value and complexities of laws designed to prevent injuries once an injury-producing event does occur: mandatory bicycle helmet use, sleep-wear standards, and child safety seat use. This article concludes with specific recommendations, which include assessing the value of laws and regulations, preventing the rescission of laws and regulations known to work, refining existing laws to eliminate gaps in coverage, developing regulations to adapt to changing technology, exploring new legal means to encourage safe behavior, and increasing funding for basic and applied research and community programs. Further reductions in childhood injury rates will require that leaders working in the field of injury prevention together provide the creativity to devise new safety devices and programs, incentives
Yumul, Joy Noelle; McKinlay, Audrey
To investigate the adult cognitive outcomes of one versus multiple childhood mTBI and to examine the potential predictors of the outcomes. Review of neurosurgical files and hospital records, as well as community recruitment, yielded 169 participants, who were injured between ages 0-17 years and assessed between ages 18-30 years with at least five years post-injury. Each participant underwent a three-hour assessment. For data analysis, participants were grouped by type and number of injury. The mTBI group exhibited some cognitive deficits but their performance fell between the control and moderate/severe TBI groups as expected. Those with one and multiple mTBI performed comparably across all cognitive domains. Cognitive outcomes were significantly predicted by estimated IQ but not by number of mTBI and age at injury. Despite the detected cognitive deficits, those who sustained multiple mTBI did not exhibit worse or cumulative deficits compared to those with one mTBI.
Wade, Shari L.; Zhang, Nanhua; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry
IMPORTANCE Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to impairments in behavior and academic performance. However, the long-term effects of early childhood TBI on functioning across settings remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE To examine the long-term functional outcomes of early childhood TBI relative to early childhood orthopedic injuries (OIs). We also examine the moderating role of the social environment as defined by parent report and observational measures of family functioning, parenting practices, and home environment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study conducted at each child’s home, school, and hospital, including 3 children’s hospitals and 1 general hospital in the Midwest. Patients were enrolled in the initial study between January 2003 and October 2006. Follow-ups were completed between January 2010 and April 2015. Fifty-eight children who sustained a TBI (67%of original enrolled cohort) and 72 children who sustained an OI (61% of the original enrolled cohort) were prospectively followed up from shortly after injury (between the ages of 3 and 7 years at enrollment) to an average of 6.7 years after injury, with assessments occurring at multiple points. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Long-term functional outcomes in everyday settings, as assessed through the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS). RESULTS Of the 130 children included, the median age for those with OIs was 11.72 years and 11.97, 12.21, and 11.72 years for those with complicated mild, moderate, and severe TBIs, respectively. Children with moderate and severe TBI were rated as having more functional impairments in multiple domains than those with OIs (P < .05). Children with complicated mild TBI had greater impairments in school (odds ratio = 2.93; 95%CI = 1.10–7.82) and with thinking (odds ratio = 15.72; 95%CI = 3.31–74.73) than those with OIs. Functional impairments in children with TBI were more
Schwebel, David C; Brezausek, Carl M
Parental influences are among the strongest behavioral correlates to unintentional injury outcome in early childhood, but are less well understood as children develop. We implemented a prospective research design to study how parenting style, parent-child relationships, and parental mental health influence injury during middle childhood. We also considered the roles of parent and child gender. Parental influences were assessed from a sample of 584 first graders, plus their mothers and fathers. Injuries requiring medical treatment were assessed regularly over the subsequent 5 years. Logistic regression models examined how maternal and paternal parenting factors predicted injury among all children, just boys, and just girls. Fathers who reported more positive relationships with their children had children protected from injury. This was particularly true of father-son relationships. No maternal traits predicted injury. A positive father-child, and especially a positive father-son relationship, may protect children from injury during middle childhood.
Rieger, Gerulf; Linsenmeier, Joan A. W.; Gygax, Lorenz; Bailey, J. Michael
Homosexual adults tend to be more gender nonconforming than heterosexual adults in some of their behaviors, feelings, and interests. Retrospective studies have also shown large differences in childhood gender nonconformity, but these studies have been criticized for possible memory biases. The authors studied an indicator of childhood gender…
Cahill, Louise M; Murdoch, Bruce E; Theodoros, Deborah G
To investigate perceptually the speech dimensions, oromotor function, and speech intelligibility of a group of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) acquired in childhood. The speech of 24 children with TBI was analysed perceptually and compared with that of a group of non-neurologically impaired children matched for age and sex. The 16 dysarthric TBI subjects were significantly less intelligible than the control subjects, and demonstrated significant impairment in 12 of the 33 speech dimensions rated. In addition, the eight non-dysarthric TBI subjects were significantly impaired in many areas of oromotor function on the Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment, indicating some degree of pre-clinical speech impairment. The results of the perceptual analysis are discussed in terms of the possible underlying pathophysiological bases of the deviant speech features identified, and the need for a comprehensive instrumental assessment, to more accurately determine the level of breakdown in the speech production mechanism in children following TBI.
Durber, Chelsea M; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L
This study examined how the family environment predicts long-term academic and behavioral functioning in school following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood. Using a concurrent cohort, prospective design, 15 children with severe TBI, 39 with moderate TBI, and 70 with orthopedic injury (OI) who were injured when they were 3-7 years of age were compared on tests of academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of school performance and behavior on average 6.83 years postinjury. Soon after injury and at the longer term follow-up, families completed measures of parental psychological distress, family functioning, and quality of the home environment. Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined group differences in academic outcomes and their associations with measures of the early and later family environment. The severe TBI group, but not the moderate TBI group, performed worse than did the OI group on all achievement tests, parent ratings of academic performance, and teacher ratings of internalizing problems. Higher quality early and late home environments predicted stronger academic skills and better classroom behavior for children with both TBI and OI. The early family environment more consistently predicted academic achievement, whereas the later family environment more consistently predicted classroom functioning. The quality of the home environment predicted academic outcomes more strongly than did parental psychological distress or family functioning. TBI in early childhood has long-term consequences for academic achievement and school performance and behavior. Higher quality early and later home environments predict better school outcomes for both children with TBI and children with OI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ochoa, Alejandra; Berge, Jerica M
Latinos are the largest and fastest-growing ethnically diverse group in the United States. Latino children are also among the most overweight and obese ethnic groups of children in the United States. Research over the last decade has identified the home environment as a key influence on the diet and physical activity of children. To summarize cross-sectional and longitudinal research that has identified factors within the home environment of Latino families that are associated with childhood obesity and to provide recommendations for future research and intervention development with Latino families. A decade review from 2005 to 2015 was conducted. Studies identifying factors within the home environments of Latino families that were associated with childhood obesity were examined. Five main factors were identified across the literature as home environment factors that are associated with childhood obesity in Latino children. These factors included: parental influences (e.g., parent feeding practices, modeling), screen time, physical activity/sedentary behavior, socioeconomic status/food security and sleep duration. The current review identified several home environment factors that may contribute to the disparities in childhood obesity for Latino children. Results from this review such as, focusing on decreasing controlling parent feeding practices, and increasing parent modeling of healthy behaviors and child sleep duration, can be used in developing culturally-specific interventions for Latino children.
Virudachalam, Senbagam; Chung, Paul J; Faerber, Jennifer A; Pian, Timothy M; Thomas, Karen; Feudtner, Chris
Though preparing healthy food at home is a critical health promotion habit, few interventions have aimed to improve parental cooking skills and behaviors. We sought to understand parents' preferences and priorities regarding interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments during early childhood. We administered a discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling. Eighty English-speaking parents of healthy 1-4 year-old children rated the relative importance of potential attributes of interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments. We performed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of parents with similar preferences and tested for differences between the subgroups. Participants were mostly white or black 21-45 year-old women whose prevalence of overweight/obesity mirrored the general population. Latent class analysis revealed three distinct groups of parental preferences for intervention content: a healthy cooking group, focused on nutrition and cooking healthier food; a child persuasion group, focused on convincing toddlers to eat home-cooked food; and a creative cooking group, focused on cooking without recipes, meal planning, and time-saving strategies. Younger, lower income, 1-parent households comprised the healthy cooking group, while older, higher income, 2-parent households comprised the creative cooking group (p < 0.05). The child persuasion group was more varied with regard to age, income, and household structure but cooked dinner regularly, unlike the other two groups (p < 0.05). Discrete choice experiments using maximum difference scaling can be employed to design and tailor interventions to change health behaviors. Segmenting a diverse target population by needs and preferences enables the tailoring and optimization of future interventions to improve parental home food preparation practices. Such interventions are important for creating healthier home food
Terpstra, Linda; van Dijke, Anke
A crucial question for evaluating nationally or internationally implemented programs is whether local adaptations detract from program quality and effectiveness. An evaluation examined the program successes and challenges encountered in the first 5 years of Home-Start in the Netherlands, a home-based family support program for families with young…
Heaman, Maureen; Chalmers, Karen; Woodgate, Roberta; Brown, Judy
A significant component of the work of public health nurses and paraprofessional home visitors who provide home visits to families with young children involves establishing relationships to effectively deliver the visiting program. The purpose of this qualitative and descriptive study was to describe the relationships among participants in a home visiting program in one regional health authority in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Interviews were carried out with 24 public health nurses, 14 home visitors, and 20 parents. The findings related to establishing, maintaining, and terminating relationships as well as factors influencing relationship work are described. Public health nurses and home visitors put significant effort into the work of establishing relationships with each other and their clients and require adequate training, sufficient human resources, and support from the program's administration to sustain these relationships.
Paivio, Sandra C.; McCulloch, Chantal R.
Objective: The aim of this study was to test whether alexithymia mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-injurious behaviors (SIB) in college women. Method: The sample was comprised of 100 female undergraduate students. Measures were the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [D. Bernstein, L. Fink, Manual for the Childhood…
Alitz, Paige J; Geary, Shana; Birriel, Pamela C; Sayi, Takudzwa; Ramakrishnan, Rema; Balogun, Omotola; Salloum, Alison; Marshall, Jennifer T
Background The Florida Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) program delivers evidence-based home visiting services to over 1400 families each year. Home visitors are integral in providing resources for families to promote healthy pregnancy, child development, family wellness, and self-sufficiency. Due to the nature of this work, home visitors experience work-related pressures and stressors that can impact staff well-being and retention. Objectives The purpose of this study was to understand primary sources of work-related stress experienced by home visitors, subsequent effects on their engagement with program participants, and to learn of coping mechanisms used to manage stress. Methods In 2015, Florida MIECHV program evaluators conducted ten focus groups with 49 home visitors during which they ranked and discussed their top sources of work-related stress. Qualitative analysis was conducted to identify emergent themes in work-related stressors and coping/supports. Results Across all sites, the burden of paperwork and data entry were the highest ranked work-related stressors perceived as interfering with home visitors' engagement with participants. The second-highest ranked stressors included caseload management, followed by a lack of resources for families, and dangerous environments. Home visitors reported gratification in their helping relationships families, and relied on coworkers or supervisors as primary sources of workplace support along with self-care (e.g. mini-vacations, recreation, and counseling). Conclusions for practice Florida MIECHV home visitors across all ten focus groups shared similar work-related stressors that they felt diminished engagement with program participants and could impact participant and staff retention. In response, Florida MIECHV increased resources to support home visitor compensation and reduce caseloads, and obtained a competitive award from HRSA to implement a mindfulness-based stress reduction
Plowman, Lydia; McPake, Joanna; Stephen, Christine
We describe an 18-month empirical investigation of three- and four-year-old children's uses of technology at home, based on a survey of 346 families and 24 case studies. The findings are reported in the context of social commentators' anxieties about the ways in which childhood is being transformed by technology. Although we report evidence of…
Palomo, Ruben; Thompson, Meagan; Colombi, Costanza; Cook, Ian; Goldring, Stacy; Young, Gregory S.; Ozonoff, Sally
Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a rare pervasive developmental disorder that involves regression after a period of at least 2 years of typical development. This case study presents data from family home movies, coded by reliable raters using an objective coding system, to examine the trajectory of development in one child with a…
Crichton, Alison J; Babl, Franz; Oakley, Ed; Greenham, Mardee; Hearps, Stephen; Delzoppo, Carmel; Hutchison, Jamie; Beauchamp, Miriam; Anderson, Vicki A
To determine (1) the presence of fatigue symptoms and predictors of fatigue after childhood brain injury and examine (2) the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a multidimensional fatigue measure (PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale [MFS]) obtained from parent and child perspectives. Emergency and intensive care units of a hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Thirty-five families (34 parent-proxies and 32 children) aged 8 to 18 years (mean child age = 13.29 years) with traumatic brain injury (TBI) of all severities (27 mild, 5 moderate, and 3 severe) admitted to the Royal Children's Hospital. Longitudinal prospective study. Fatigue data collected at 6-week follow-up (mean = 6.9 weeks). Postinjury child- and parent-rated fatigue (PedsQL MFS), mood, sleep, and pain based on questionnaire report: TBI severity (mild vs moderate/severe TBI). A score greater than 2 standard deviations below healthy control data indicated the presence of abnormal fatigue, rates of which were higher compared with normative data for both parent and child reports (47% and 29%). Fatigue was predicted by postinjury depression and sleep disturbance for parent, but not child ratings. Fatigue, as rated by children, was not significantly predicted by TBI severity or other symptoms. The PedsQL MFS demonstrated acceptable measurement properties in child TBI participants, evidenced by good feasibility and reliability (Cronbach α values >0.90). Interrater reliability between parent and child reports was poor to moderate. Results underscore the need to assess fatigue and associated sleep-wake disturbance and depression after child TBI from both parent and child perspectives.
Madaris, Linda L; Onyebueke, Mirian; Liebman, Janet; Martin, Allyson
The complex nature of spinal cord injury (SCI) and the level of care required for health maintenance frequently result in repeated hospital admissions for recurrent medical complications. Prolonged hospitalizations of persons with SCI have been linked to the increased risk of hospital-acquired infections and development or worsening pressure ulcers. An evidence-based alternative for providing hospital-level care to patients with specific diagnoses who are willing to receive that level of care in the comfort of their home is being implemented in a Department of Veterans Affairs SCI Home Care Program. The SCI Hospital in Home (HiH) model is similar to a patient-centered interdisciplinary care model that was first introduced in Europe and later tested as part of a National Demonstration and Evaluation Study through Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and School of Public Health. This was funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation and the Department of Veterans Affairs. The objectives of the program are to support veterans' choice and access to patient-centered care, reduce the reliance on inpatient medical care, allow for early discharge, and decrease medical costs. Veterans with SCI who are admitted to the HiH program receive daily oversight by a physician, daily visits by a registered nurse, access to laboratory services, oxygen, intravenous medications, and nursing care in the home setting. In this model, patients may typically access HiH services either as an "early discharge" from the hospital or as a direct admit to the program from the emergency department or SCI clinic. Similar programs providing acute hospital-equivalent care in the home have been previously implemented and are successfully demonstrating decreased length of stay, improved patient access, and increased patient satisfaction.
Lueckel, Stephanie N; Kosar, Cyrus M; Teno, Joan M; Monaghan, Sean F; Heffernan, Daithi S; Cioffi, William G; Thomas, Kali S
Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. In survivors, traumatic brain injury remains a leading contributor to long-term disability and results in many patients being admitted to skilled nursing facilities for postacute care. Despite this very large population of traumatic brain injury patients, very little is known about the long-term outcomes of traumatic brain injury survivors, including rates of discharge to home or risk of death in long-term nursing facilities. We hypothesized that patient demographics and functional status influence outcomes of patients with traumatic brain injury admitted to skilled nursing facilities. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 and older discharged alive and directly from hospital to a skilled nursing facility between 2011 and 2014 using the prospectively maintained Federal Minimum Data Set combined with Medicare claims data and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Vital Status files. Records were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics at admission to the skilled nursing facility, including age, sex, cognitive function, ability to communicate, and motor function. Activities of daily living were reassessed at discharge to calculate functional improvement. We used robust Poisson regression with skilled nursing facility fixed effects to calculate relative risks and 99% confidence intervals for mortality and functional improvement associated with the demographic and clinical characteristics present at admission. Linear regression was used to calculate adjusted mean duration of stay. Overall, 87,292 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries with traumatic brain injury were admitted to skilled nursing facilities. The mean age was 84 years, with 74% of patients older than age 80. Generally, older age, male sex, and poor cognitive or functional status at admission to a skilled nursing facility were associated with
Knierim, Shanna Doucette; Moore, Susan L; Raghunath, Silvia Gutiérrez; Yun, Lourdes; Boles, Richard E; Davidson, Arthur J
Objective This qualitative study explored parent and patient navigator perspectives of home visitation as part of a childhood obesity program in a low-income, largely Latino population. Methods Three patient navigators and 25 parents who participated in a home-based, childhood obesity program participated in focus groups or interviews. Emergent themes were identified through content analysis of qualitative data. Results Three overall themes were identified. Patient navigators and parents perceived: (1) enabling characteristics of home-based program delivery which facilitated family participation and/or behavior change (i.e., convenience, increased accountability, inclusion of household members, delivery in a familiar, intimate setting, and individualized pace and content); (2) logistic and cultural challenges to home-based delivery which reduced family participation and program reach (i.e., difficulties scheduling visits, discomfort with visitors in the home, and confusion about the patient navigator's role); and (3) remediable home-based delivery challenges which could be ameliorated by additional study staff (e.g., supervision of children, safety concerns) or through organized group sessions. Both patient navigators and participating parents discussed an interest in group classes with separate, supervised child-targeted programming and opportunities to engage with other families for social support. Conclusions for Practice A home visitation program delivering a pediatric obesity prevention curriculum in Denver was convenient and held families accountable, but posed scheduling difficulties and raised safety concerns. Conducting home visits in pairs, adding obesity prevention curriculum to existing home visiting programs, or pairing the convenience of home visits with group classes may be future strategies to explore.
Nurata, Hakan; Yilmaz, Muhammet Bahadır; Borcek, Alp Ozgun; Oner, Ali Yusuf; Baykaner, M Kemali
Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) has been reported as an adult phenomenon. Whiplash injury has classically been described as a cervical soft tissue hyperextension- flexion injury after a trauma such as a rear end impact car crash, contact sport injuries, blows to the head from a falling object or a punch and shaken baby syndrome and is mostly seen in adults . It is important as it may cause severe disability due to spinal cord injury, decrease work productivity and even retropharyngeal hematoma resulting airway obstruction and mortality due to bleeding amongst deep cervical fascias. We describe a case of retropharyngeal hematoma after whiplash injury in a childhood.
Smith, Dianna; Kirkwood, Graham; Pott, Jason; Kourita, Lida; Jessop, Vanessa; Pollock, Allyson M
Childhood injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide with the most socio-economically deprived children at greatest risk. Current routine NHS hospital data collection in England is inadequate to inform or evaluate prevention strategies. A pilot study of enhanced data collection was conducted to assess the feasibility of collecting accident and emergency data for national injury surveillance. To evaluate the reliability and feasibility of supplementary data collection using a paper-based questionnaire and to assess the potential relationship between income deprivation and incidence of paediatric injury. Clinical staff conducted an audit of injuries in all patients under 16 years between June and December 2012 through completion of a questionnaire while taking the medical history. Descriptive statistics were produced for age, sex, time of arrival, activity at time of injury, mechanism and location of injuries. The association between known injury incidence and area level income deprivation (2010 English Index of Multiple Deprivation [IMD] Income Deprivation Domain from home postcode) was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation. Representativeness of the audit was measured using z-test statistics for time of arrival, age, sex and ethnicity. The paper audit captured 414 (6.5%) of the 6358 under-16 injury-related attendances recorded on the NHS Care Record Service Dataset. Comparison of the audit dataset with NHS records showed that the audit was not representative of the larger dataset except for sex of the patient. There was a positive correlation between injury incidence and income deprivation measured using IMD score where data were available (n = 384, p < 0.001). Nearly half of the attendances were due to falls, slips or trips (49.8%) and more than half were due to either leisure (32.9%) or sport (18.1%) activities. There is evidence of area level income inequalities in injury incidence among children attending the Royal London Hospital. The
Bunker, Naomi; Woods, Cindy; Conway, Jane; Barker, Ruth; Usher, Kim
This study aimed to establish the scale of alcohol-related injuries originating in the home. Despite recent media and public attention on alcohol-related injuries occurring at licensed venues, many occur in other locations including the home. A retrospective observational study. Emergency department surveillance data sourced from the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit were interrogated for alcohol-related emergency department presentations from 2003-2012 (n = 12,296). Descriptive analysis was undertaken to assess alcohol involvement in injury, and analysis of variance was used to determine the differences among group means and their associated presentations. The relationship between demographic variables and injury location was assessed using p value of <0·05 as statistically significant. Of all injuries that were positively identified as being alcohol related, 41·07% occurred at the 'other' location, 36·14% 'at home', 13·00% on the street and 9·78% at licensed premises. Of these, males (n = 2635; 59%) represented a higher proportion than females (n = 1807; 41%). Of injuries identified as domestic violence by spouse or partner (n = 510), 59·5% occurred 'at home'. This is the first study to investigate alcohol-related injuries occurring at home. The home accounts for a greater proportion of injuries than the frequently assessed licensed premises location. Further research is required to validate these findings in a wider setting. A public health campaign is required to minimise harm associated with alcohol-related injuries in the home, and nurses are positioned to inform health policy makers around this issue. Furthermore, emergency department nurses are in a unique position to provide brief interventions around safe alcohol consumption and injury prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lowengart, R A; Peters, J M; Cicioni, C; Buckley, J; Bernstein, L; Preston-Martin, S; Rappaport, E
A case-control study of children of ages 10 years and under in Los Angeles County was conducted to investigate the causes of leukemia. The mothers and fathers of acute leukemia cases and their individually matched controls were interviewed regarding specific occupational and home exposures as well as other potential risk factors associated with leukemia. Analysis of the information from the 123 matched pairs showed an increased risk of leukemia for children whose fathers had occupational exposure after the birth of the child to chlorinated solvents [odds ratio (OR) = 3.5, P = .01], spray paint (OR = 2.0, P = .02), dyes or pigments (OR = 4.5, P = .03), methyl ethyl ketone (CAS: 78-93-3; OR = 3.0, P = .05), and cutting oil (OR = 1.7, P = .05) or whose fathers were exposed during the mother's pregnancy with the child to spray paint (OR = 2.2, P = .03). For all of these, the risk associated with frequent use was greater than for infrequent use. There was an increased risk of leukemia for the child if the father worked in industries manufacturing transportation equipment (mostly aircraft) (OR = 2.5, P = .03) or machinery (OR = 3.0, P = .02). An increased risk was found for children whose parents used pesticides in the home (OR = 3.8, P = .004) or garden (OR = 6.5, P = .007) or who burned incense in the home (OR = 2.7, P = .007). The risk was greater for frequent use. Risk of leukemia was related to mothers' employment in personal service industries (OR = 2.7, P = .04) but not to specified occupational exposures. Risk related to fathers' exposure to chlorinated solvents, employment in the transportation equipment-manufacturing industry, and parents' exposure to household or garden pesticides and incense remains statistically significant after adjusting for the other significant findings.
Lascombes, Pierre; Mainard, Laurence; Haumont, Thierry; Journeau, Pierre
Sports injuries are common in children and adolescents. Typical musculoskeletal disorders include overuse injuries such as stress fractures and apophyseal avulsions. Gymnastics has one of the highest injury rates of all girls' sports. Intensive gymnastics can cause chronic spine and wrist trauma. Prevention of sport injuries should be a priority for parents, coaches and children themselves. Protection (helmet, padding) is mandatory for some activities. Proper education and preparation are necessary for all sports activities.
Birch & Davis Associates, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.
Based primarily on the experience of three childhood injury prevention demonstration projects, this manual provides state Title V program directors with an action guide for developing targeted childhood injury prevention programs. The manual is divided into four sections: background; program planning; program design; and program implementation and…
Mutto, Milton; Lawoko, Stephen; Ovuga, Emilio; Svanstrom, Leif
Childhood injuries remain understudied in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the extent, nature and determinants of school-related childhood injury risk in north-western Uganda. A cohort of 1000 grade fives from 13 elementary schools was followed-up for one term. Survival and multi-level modelling techniques compared the risk rates across gender, schools and locations. Childhood injuries are common in north-western Uganda. Most of them occur during travel, breaks, practical classes and gardening, while walking, playing, learning and digging. Most injuries result from collisions with objects, sports and falls. Two-thirds of children receive first aid and hospital care. Times to injury were 72.1 and 192.9 person days (p = 0.0000). Gender differences in time to event were significant (p = 0.0091). Girls had better survival rates: cumulative prevalence of childhood injury was 36.1%; with significant gender differences (p = 0.007). Injury rate was 12.3/1000 person days, with a hazard ratio of 1.4. Compared to girls, boys had a 37% higher injury rate (p = 0.004). Rates varied among schools. Associated factors include sex and school. Rural-urban location and school differences do influence childhood injury risk. Childhood injuries are common: the risk is high, gender- and school-specific. Determinants include gender and school. Location and school contexts influence injury risk.
Balistreri, Kelly Stamper
To examine the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE), access to a medical home and a global measure of well-being among children ages 6-17 using the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Multivariate linear regressions assessed the associations between each adverse experience and an index of child well-being with and without the impact of other events. The number of ACE was summed for each respondent and the analyses were repeated with the cumulative score as a continuous variable. The cumulative model was repeated with the addition of an interaction term between ACE score and medical home access. All analyses were conducted separately for children ages 6-11 and adolescents 12-17. Over half (53 %) of US children ages 6-17 have experienced some adverse experience during childhood. Over a quarter (28 %) has experienced at least two adverse experiences, while 15 % have experienced three or more hardships. Results suggest that the accumulation of ACE reduces well-being in children. The associations remained significant after controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, age, parental education, special health condition, and medical home access. Medical home access was consistently associated with higher levels of child well-being and was a significant moderator of the relationship between the total ACE and child well-being among children ages 6-11. Children with ACE exposure and access to a medical home have higher levels of well-being than comparable children without access to a medical home. Children exposed to adverse experiences have measurably lower levels of well-being, although younger children with access to a medical home are protected at increasing exposure.
Mickalide, Angela; Carr, Kate
Unintentional injuries are predictable and preventable. Yet every hour, a child in the United States dies from an unintentional injury. Globally, the number is even more staggering, with nearly 1 million children dying from unintentional injuries each year. Motor vehicle-related injuries, burns, drowning, falls, suffocation or choking, and poisoning are just a few of the unintentional injury risks threatening children. Patient safety requires a three-pronged strategy of behavior change, use of safety devices, and improvement of laws and regulations to ensure that all children lead healthy and productive lives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suglia, Shakira Franco; Franco Suglia, Shakira; Duarte, Cristiane S; Sandel, Megan T; Wright, Rosalind J
Both physical environmental factors and chronic stress may independently increase susceptibility to asthma; however, little is known on how these different risks may interact. The authors examined the relationship between maternal intimate partner violence (IPV), housing quality and asthma among children in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2013). Maternal reports of IPV were obtained after the child's birth and at 12 and 36 months. At the 36-month assessment, interviewers rated indoor housing conditions, regarding housing deterioration (ie, peeling paint, holes in floor, broken windows) and housing disarray (ie, dark, cluttered, crowded or noisy house). At the same time, mothers reported on housing hardships (ie, moving repeatedly, and hardships in keeping house warm). Maternal-report of physician-diagnosed asthma by age 36 months which was active in the past year was the outcome. Asthma was diagnosed in 10% of the children. In an adjusted analysis, an increased odds of asthma was observed in children of mothers experiencing IPV chronically (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.5) and in children experiencing housing disarray (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) compared with those not exposed to these risks. In stratified analyses, a greater effect of IPV on asthma was noted among children living in disarrayed or deteriorated housing or among children whose mothers were experiencing housing hardship. IPV and housing disarray are associated with increased early childhood asthma. Exposure to cumulative or multiple stressors (ie, IPV and poor housing quality) may increase children's risk of developing asthma more than a single stressor.
Suglia, Shakira Franco; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Sandel, Megan T; Wright, Rosalind J
BACKGROUND Both physical environmental factors and chronic stress may independently increase susceptibility to asthma; however, little is known on how these different risks may interact. We examined the relationship between maternal intimate partner violence (IPV), housing quality and asthma among children in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2013). METHODS Maternal reports of IPV were obtained after the child’s birth and at 12 and 36 months. At the 36 month assessment, interviewers rated indoor housing conditions, regarding housing deterioration (i.e., peeling paint, holes in floor, broken windows) and housing disarray (i.e., dark, cluttered, crowded or noisy house). At the same time, mothers reported on housing hardships (i.e., moving repeatedly, and hardships in keeping house warm). Maternal-report of physician-diagnosed asthma by age 36 months which was active in the past year was the outcome. RESULTS Asthma was diagnosed in 10% of the children. In adjusted analysis, an increased odds of asthma was observed in children of mothers experiencing IPV chronically (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0, 3.5) and in children experiencing housing disarray (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0) compared to those not exposed to these risks. In stratified analyses, a greater effect of IPV on asthma was noted among children living in disarrayed or deteriorated housing or among children whose mothers were experiencing housing hardship. CONCLUSIONS IPV and housing disarray are associated with increased early childhood asthma. Exposure to cumulative or multiple stressors (i.e. IPV and poor housing quality) may increase children’s risk of developing asthma more than a single stressor. PMID:19828512
van Doorn, Carol; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Hebel, J Richard; Port, Cynthia L; Baumgarten, Mona; Quinn, Charlene C; Taler, George; May, Conrad; Magaziner, Jay
To compare rates of falling between nursing home residents with and without dementia and to examine dementia as an independent risk factor for falls and fall injuries. Prospective cohort study with 2 years of follow-up. Fifty-nine randomly selected nursing homes in Maryland, stratified by geographic region and facility size. Two thousand fifteen newly admitted residents aged 65 and older. During 2 years after nursing home admission, fall data were collected from nursing home charts and hospital discharge summaries. The unadjusted fall rate for residents in the nursing home with dementia was 4.05 per year, compared with 2.33 falls per year for residents without dementia (P<.0001). The effect of dementia on the rate of falling persisted when known risk factors were taken into account. Among fall events, those occurring to residents with dementia were no more likely to result in injury than falls of residents without dementia, but, given the markedly higher rates of falling by residents with dementia, their rate of injurious falls was higher than for residents without dementia. Dementia is an independent risk factor for falling. Although most falls do not result in injury, the fact that residents with dementia fall more often than their counterparts without dementia leaves them with a higher overall risk of sustaining injurious falls over time. Nursing home residents with dementia should be considered important candidates for fall-prevention and fall-injury-prevention strategies.
Fawole, Oluwakemi; Segal, Jodi; Wilson, Renee F.; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Bleich, Sara N.; Wu, Yang; Lau, Brandyn; Wang, Youfa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home on obesity risk behaviors, the evidence base for the effectiveness of home-based interventions on obesity prevention remains uncertain. The objective was to systematically review the effectiveness of home-based interventions on weight, intermediate (eg, diet and physical activity [PA]), and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library from inception through August 11, 2012. We included experimental and natural experimental studies with ≥1-year follow-up reporting weight-related outcomes and targeting children at home. Two independent reviewers screened studies and extracted data. We graded the strength of the evidence supporting interventions targeting diet, PA, or both for obesity prevention. RESULTS: We identified 6 studies; 3 tested combined interventions (diet and PA), 1 used diet intervention, 1 combined intervention with primary care and consumer health informatics components, and 1 combined intervention with school and community components. Select combined interventions had beneficial effects on fruit/vegetable intake and sedentary behaviors. However, none of the 6 studies reported a significant effect on weight outcomes. Overall, the strength of evidence is low that combined home-based interventions effectively prevent obesity. The evidence is insufficient for conclusions about home-based diet interventions or interventions implemented at home in association with other settings. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is low to support the effectiveness of home-based child obesity prevention programs. Additional research is needed to test interventions in the home setting, particularly those incorporating parenting strategies and addressing environmental influences. PMID:23753095
Barlow, Allison; McDaniel, Judy A; Marfani, Farha; Lowe, Anne; Keplinger, Cassie; Beltangady, Moushumi; Goklish, Novalene
Early childhood home-visiting has been shown to yield the greatest impact for the lowest income, highest disparity families. Yet, poor communities generally experience fractured systems of care, a paucity of providers, and limited resources to deliver intensive home-visiting models to families who stand to benefit most. This article explores lessons emerging from the recent Tribal Maternal and Infant Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) legislation supporting delivery of home-visiting interventions in low-income, hard-to-reach American Indian and Alaska Native communities. We draw experience from four diverse tribal communities that participated in the Tribal MIECHV Program and overcame socioeconomic, geographic, and structural challenges that called for both early childhood home-visiting services and increased the difficulty of delivery. Key innovations are described, including unique community engagement, recruitment and retention strategies, expanded case management roles of home visitors to overcome fragmented care systems, contextual demands for employing paraprofessional home visitors, and practical advances toward streamlined evaluation approaches. We draw on the concept of "frugal innovation" to explain how the experience of Tribal MIECHV participation has led to more efficient, effective, and culturally informed early childhood home-visiting service delivery, with lessons for future dissemination to underserved communities in the United States and abroad. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L; Hart, Michael H; Serrano, Elena L; McFerren, Mary M; Estabrooks, Paul A
Due to a proliferation of measures for different components of the home environment related to childhood obesity, the purpose of the present systematic review was to examine these tools and the degree to which they can validly and reliably assess the home environment. Relevant manuscripts published between 1998 and 2010 were obtained through electronic database searches and manual searches of reference lists. Manuscripts were included if the researchers reported on a measure of the home environment related to child eating and physical activity (PA) and childhood obesity and reported on at least one psychometric property. Of the forty papers reviewed, 48 % discussed some aspect of parenting specific to food. Fifty-per cent of the manuscripts measured food availability/accessibility, 18 % measured PA availability/accessibility, 20 % measured media availability/accessibility, 30 % focused on feeding style, 23 % focused on parenting related to PA and 20 % focused on parenting related to screen time. Many researchers chose to design new measures for their studies but often the items employed were brief and there was a lack of transparency in the psychometric properties. Many of the current measures of the home food and PA environment focus on one or two constructs; more comprehensive measures as well as short screeners guided by theoretical models are necessary to capture influences in the home on food and PA behaviours of children. Finally, the current measures of the home environment do not necessarily translate to specific sub-populations. Recommendations were made for future validation of measures in terms of appropriate psychometric testing.
Baca, Christine B.; Vickrey, Barbara G.; Vassar, Stefanie D.; Cook, Aaron; Berg, Anne T.
Objective To compare the occurrence of injuries in adolescents with childhood-onset epilepsy and matched sibling controls. Study design Retrospective case-control lifetime injury assessments were obtained from a community-based cohort of adolescents with childhood-onset epilepsy diagnosed 9-years earlier, and their siblings. Children with epilepsy (n=501; mean age 15.3 years) included children with complicated (abnormal neurological exam or IQ<80; n=133) and uncomplicated (normal neurological exam and IQ≥80; n=368) epilepsy. Children with uncomplicated epilepsy were matched to sibling controls (n=210 pairs). Children reported whether they had ever (before and after epilepsy diagnosis) experienced injuries, “serious enough to require medical attention” and the type of treatment required. Results 49.1% of children with epilepsy experienced any injury, of whom 8.9% required surgery/hospitalization and 17.1% had an injury due to a seizure; fewer children with uncomplicated epilepsy had seizure-related injuries versus those with complicated epilepsy (13.6% vs. 27.4%; p≤0.01). The proportion of children with epilepsy with any injury by types (not mutually exclusive) were: 25.2% (n=126) fractures, 24.4% (n=122) head, 10.2% (n=51) other, 8.4% (n=42) dental and 8% (n=40) burns/scalds. A similar proportion of children with uncomplicated epilepsy experienced any injury (overall and by type) compared with matched sibling controls, with the exception that more children with uncomplicated epilepsy had head injuries (30.0% vs. 19.5%; p<0.02). Conclusion With the exception of head injuries, in a representative cohort of children with epilepsy compared with siblings there was no evidence of an increased risk of injury. This may reflect that the sample was not biased to more severe cases or that safety precautions to prevent injury were widely employed. PMID:24054432
Roudsari, Bahman S.; Utter, Garth H.; Kernic, Mary A.; Mueller, Beth A.
The incidence of twin births in the United States (US) has increased more than 65 per cent since 1980. However, the risk of injury to multiple-birth children is unknown. We sought to compare the risk of injury-related hospitalization and death between multiples and singletons. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked birth…
Nsagha, Dickson S; Elat, Jean-Bosco N; Ndong, Proper AB; Tata, Peter N; Tayong, Maureen-Nill N; Pokem, Francois F; Wankah, Christian C
Background Over 90% of malaria cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a child under the age of 5 years dies from this illness every 30 seconds. The majority of families in Sub- Saharan Africa treat malaria at home, but therapy is often incomplete, hence the World Health Organization has adopted the strategy of home management of malaria to solve the problem. The purpose of this study was to determine community perception and the treatment response to episodes of childhood malaria in an urban setting prior to implementation of home management using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Methods This qualitative exploratory study on the home management of malaria in urban children under 5 years of age used 15 focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews in various categories of caregivers of children under 5 years. One hundred and eighteen people participated in the focus group discussions and 20 in the in-depth interviews. The study explored beliefs and knowledge about malaria, mothers’ perception of home management of the disease, health-seeking behavior, prepackaged treatment of malaria using ACT and a rapid diagnostic test, preferred channels for home management of uncomplicated malaria, communication, the role of the community in home management of malaria, and the motivation of drug distributors in the community. Results The mothers’ perception of malaria was the outcome of events other than mosquito bites. Home treatment is very common and is guided by the way mothers perceive signs and symptoms of malaria. Frequent change of malarial drugs by the national health policy and financial difficulties were the main problems mothers faced in treating febrile children. Rapid diagnostic testing and prepackaged ACT for simple malaria in children under 5 years would be accepted if it was offered at an affordable price. Tribalism and religious beliefs might hinder the delivery of home management of malaria. The availability of rapid diagnostic testing
Background Childhood injury is the second leading cause of death for infants aged 1–5 years in the United Kingdom (UK) and most unintentional injuries occur in the home. We explored mothers’ knowledge and awareness of child injury prevention and sought to discover mothers’ views about the best method of designing interventions to deliver appropriate child safety messages to prevent injury in the home. Methods Qualitative study based on 21 semi-structured interviews with prospective mothers and mothers of young children. Mothers were selected according to neighbourhood deprivation status. Results There was no difference in awareness of safety devices according to mothers’ deprivation status. Social networks were important in raising awareness and adherence to child safety advice. Mothers who were recent migrants had not always encountered safety messages or safety equipment commonly used in the UK. Mothers’ recommended that safety information should be basic and concise, and include both written and pictorial information and case studies focus on proactive preventive messages. Messages should be delivered both by mass media and suitably trained individuals and be timed to coincide with pregnancy and repeated at age appropriate stages of child development. Conclusions The findings suggest that timely childhood injury-related risk messages should be delivered during pregnancy and in line with developmental milestones of the child, through a range of sources including social networks, mass media, face-to-face advice from health professionals and other suitably trained mothers. In addition information on the safe use of home appliances around children and use of child safety equipment should be targeted specifically at those who have recently migrated to the United Kingdom. PMID:24007442
Preskitt, Julie; Fifolt, Matthew; Ginter, Peter M; Rucks, Andrew; Wingate, Martha S
The purpose of this article was to describe a methodology to identify continuous quality improvement (CQI) priorities for one state's Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting program from among the 40 required constructs associated with 6 program benchmarks. The authors discuss how the methodology provided consensus on system CQI quality measure priorities and describe variation among the 3 service delivery models used within the state. Q-sort methodology was used by home visiting (HV) service delivery providers (home visitors) to prioritize HV quality measures for the overall state HV system as well as their service delivery model. There was general consensus overall and among the service delivery models on CQI quality measure priorities, although some variation was observed. Measures associated with Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting benchmark 1, Improved Maternal and Newborn Health, and benchmark 3, Improvement in School Readiness and Achievement, were the highest ranked. The Q-sort exercise allowed home visitors an opportunity to examine priorities within their service delivery model as well as for the overall First Teacher HV system. Participants engaged in meaningful discussions regarding how and why they selected specific quality measures and developed a greater awareness and understanding of a systems approach to HV within the state. The Q-sort methodology presented in this article can easily be replicated by other states to identify CQI priorities at the local and state levels and can be used effectively in states that use a single HV service delivery model or those that implement multiple evidence-based models for HV service delivery.
Graves, Janessa M; Iyer, Krithika R; Willis, Margaret M; Ebel, Beth E; Rivara, Frederick P; Vavilala, Monica S
The goal of this study was to generate national estimates of injuries associated with mechanical home exercise equipment, and to describe these injuries across all ages. Emergency department (ED)-treated injuries associated with mechanical home exercise equipment were identified from 2007 to 2011 from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Text narratives provided exercise equipment type (treadmill, elliptical, stationary bicycle, unspecified/other exercise machine). Approximately 70 302 (95% CI 59 086 to 81 519) mechanical exercise equipment-related injuries presented to US EDs nationally during 2007-2011, of which 66% were attributed to treadmills. Most injuries among children (≤4 years) were lacerations (34%) or soft tissue injuries (48%); among adults (≥25 years) injuries were often sprains/strains (30%). Injured older adults (≥65 years) had greater odds of being admitted, held for observation, or transferred to another hospital, compared with younger ages (OR: 2.58; 95% CI 1.45 to 4.60). Mechanical exercise equipment is a common cause of injury across ages. Injury awareness and prevention are important complements to active lifestyles. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Haas, Barbara; Doumouras, Aristithes G; Gomez, David; de Mestral, Charles; Boyes, Donald M; Morrison, Laurie; Nathens, Avery B
Injury surveillance is critical in identifying the need for targeted prevention initiatives. Understanding the geographic distribution of injuries facilitates matching prevention programs with the population most likely to benefit. At the population level, however, the geographic site of injury is rarely known, leading to the use of location of residence as a surrogate. To determine the accuracy of this approach, we evaluated the relationship between the site of injury and of residence over a large geographic area. Data were derived from a population-based, prehospital registry of persons meeting triage criteria for major trauma. Patients dying at the scene or transported to the hospital were included. Distance between locations of residence and of injury was calculated using geographic information system network analysis. Among 3,280 patients (2005-2010), 88% were injured within 10 miles of home (median, 0.2 miles). There were significant differences in distance between residence and location of injury based on mechanism of injury, age, and hospital disposition. The large majority of injuries involving children, the elderly, pedestrians, cyclists, falls, and assaults occurred less than 10 miles from the patient's residence. Only 77% of motor vehicle collision occurred within 10 miles of the patient's residence. Although the majority of patients are injured less than 10 miles from their residence, the probability of injury occurring "close to home" depends on patient and injury characteristics. Epidemiologic study, level III.
Graves, Janessa M; Iyer, Krithika R; Willis, Margaret M; Ebel, Beth E; Rivara, Frederick P; Vavilala, Monica S
The goal of this study was to generate national estimates of injuries associated with mechanical home exercise equipment, and to describe these injuries across all ages. Emergency department (ED)-treated injuries associated with mechanical home exercise equipment were identified from 2007 to 2011 from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Text narratives provided exercise equipment type (treadmill, elliptical, stationary bicycle, unspecified/other exercise machine). Approximately 70 302 (95% CI 59 086 to 81 519) mechanical exercise equipment-related injuries presented to US EDs nationally during 2007–2011, of which 66% were attributed to treadmills. Most injuries among children (≤4 years) were lacerations (34%) or soft tissue injuries (48%); among adults (≥25 years) injuries were often sprains/strains (30%). Injured older adults (≥65 years) had greater odds of being admitted, held for observation, or transferred to another hospital, compared with younger ages (OR: 2.58; 95% CI 1.45 to 4.60). Mechanical exercise equipment is a common cause of injury across ages. Injury awareness and prevention are important complements to active lifestyles. PMID:24061163
Accidents on home and public playgrounds account for more than 150,000 injuries per year. The Division of Hazard Identification and Analysis in the Bureau of Epidemiology has studied playground injuries. Swings, climbing apparatus, gliders, slides, and seesaws were listed as apparatuses associated with the highest percentages of injuries. Falls to the surface also accounted for a large percentage of injuries. Absorbent surfaces other than concrete or asphalt were recommended to reduce the severity of injuries. In addition to making recommendations on playground surfaces, the Consumer Product Safety Commission has developed voluntary product safety standards for home and public playgrounds. Guidelines for safe playgrounds are discussed as well as suggestions concerning people to contact at local, state, and national levels for advice on playground design and safety.
Provides a priori historical experiences and illustrations of several roles played by health practitioners in applied injury prevention. Reviews various models and assesses their strengths and weaknesses. Suggests guidelines for program management. (Author/CW)
Apel, Peter J; Howard, Andrew
Evaluation and treatment of acute musculoskeletal injuries can be rewarding for primary care providers. They are common presenting complaints, and with appropriate management, many patients make a full recovery in a short period of time. This article reviews basic principles of evaluation of acutely injured children, treatment strategies, and common injuries, and gives an overview of similar but more dangerous conditions that require referral. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Riedl, Dennis; Strauss, Bernd; Heuer, Andreas; Rubner, Oliver
The role of referees has become a central issue in the investigation of home advantage. The main aim of this study was a thorough examination of the referee bias concerning injury time in football, which is currently seen as an important example for the assertion that referees contribute to home advantage. First, we use archival data from the German Bundesliga (seasons 2000/2001-2010/2011) to confirm the existence of an asymmetry in the allocation of injury time. We show this asymmetry to be a bias by ruling out hitherto remaining alternative explanations (effect = 18 s, P < 0.001, R2(adj) = 0.05). Second, we identify a further referee bias, stating that referees systematically accord more injury time when one team leads in the game compared to a draw (effect = 21 s, P = 0.004, R2(adj) = 0.06). Third, the quantitative benefit of home or away teams in goals and points due to these biases is assessed. Overall, referee decisions on injury time indeed reveal biases, but they do not contribute to the home advantage, that is, there is no significant effect on goals scored by the teams. The qualitative findings (a new bias on injury time) as well as the quantitative findings (no overall effect) shed new light on the role of referees for home advantage.
Markkanen, Pia K.; Galligan, Catherine J.; Kriebel, David; Chalupka, Stephanie M.; Kim, Hyun; Gore, Rebecca J.; Sama, Susan R.; Laramie, Angela K.; Davis, Letitia
Objectives. We quantified risks of sharp medical device (sharps) injuries and other blood and body fluid exposures among home health care nurses and aides, identified risk factors, assessed the use of sharps with safety features, and evaluated underreporting in workplace-based surveillance. Methods. We conducted a questionnaire survey and workplace-based surveillance, collaborating with 9 home health care agencies and 2 labor unions from 2006 to 2007. Results. Approximately 35% of nurses and 6.4% of aides had experienced at least 1 sharps injury during their home health care career; corresponding figures for other blood and body fluid exposures were 15.1% and 6.7%, respectively. Annual sharps injuries incidence rates were 5.1 per 100 full-time equivalent (FTE) nurses and 1.0 per 100 FTE aides. Medical procedures contributing to sharps injuries were injecting medications, administering fingersticks and heelsticks, and drawing blood. Other contributing factors were sharps disposal, contact with waste, and patient handling. Sharps with safety features frequently were not used. Underreporting of sharps injuries to the workplace-based surveillance system was estimated to be about 50%. Conclusions. Sharps injuries and other blood and body fluid exposures are serious hazards for home health care nurses and aides. Improvements in hazard intervention are needed. PMID:19890177
Maloney, Erin A; Converse, Benjamin A; Gibbs, Chloe R; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
By the time children begin formal schooling, their experiences at home have already contributed to large variations in their math and language development, and once school begins, academic achievement continues to depend strongly on influences outside of school. It is thus essential that educational reform strategies involve primary caregivers. Specifically, programs and policies should promote and support aspects of caregiver-child interaction that have been empirically demonstrated to boost early learning and should seek to impede "motivational sinkholes" that threaten to undermine caregivers' desires to engage their children effectively. This article draws on cognitive and behavioral science to detail simple, low-cost, and effective tools caregivers can employ to prepare their children for educational success and then describes conditions that can protect and facilitate caregivers' motivation to use those tools. Policy recommendations throughout focus on using existing infrastructure to more deeply engage caregivers in effective early childhood education at home. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gimeniz-Paschoal, Sandra Regina; Pereira, Débora Morais; Nascimento, Edinalva Neves
This article aimed to evaluate the effect of an educative action on the knowledge of children's relatives about burns at home. Participants were 40 relatives of children under four years of age, equally divided between an intervention and control group. An initial interview was held, the educative action involved a folder about burns and, after one week, another interview took place. The answers were compared using Fisher's statistical test. In the first interview, 60 answers on risk situations were registered in the control group and 62 in the intervention group; in the second, the results increased to 61 and 80, respectively. In the first interview, 90% of the control group and 80% of the intervention group expressed the belief that childhood burns can be avoided; in the second, this indication decreased to 84% and increased to 100%, respectively. This study showed the importance of the advisory folder on burns at home.
Hagos, Fanuel T; Empey, Philip E; Wang, Pengcheng; Ma, Xiaochao; Poloyac, Samuel M; Bayır, Hülya; Kochanek, Patrick M; Bell, Michael J; Clark, Robert S B
To employ metabolomics-based pathway and network analyses to evaluate the cerebrospinal fluid metabolome after severe traumatic brain injury in children and the capacity of combination therapy with probenecid and N-acetylcysteine to impact glutathione-related and other pathways and networks, relative to placebo treatment. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from children enrolled in an Institutional Review Board-approved, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a combination of probenecid and N-acetylcysteine after severe traumatic brain injury (Trial Registration NCT01322009). Thirty-six-bed PICU in a university-affiliated children's hospital. Twelve children 2-18 years old after severe traumatic brain injury and five age-matched control subjects. Probenecid (25 mg/kg) and N-acetylcysteine (140 mg/kg) or placebo administered via naso/orogastric tube. The cerebrospinal fluid metabolome was analyzed in samples from traumatic brain injury patients 24 hours after the first dose of drugs or placebo and control subjects. Feature detection, retention time, alignment, annotation, and principal component analysis and statistical analysis were conducted using XCMS-online. The software "mummichog" was used for pathway and network analyses. A two-component principal component analysis revealed clustering of each of the groups, with distinct metabolomics signatures. Several novel pathways with plausible mechanistic involvement in traumatic brain injury were identified. A combination of metabolomics and pathway/network analyses showed that seven glutathione-centered pathways and two networks were enriched in the cerebrospinal fluid of traumatic brain injury patients treated with probenecid and N-acetylcysteine versus placebo-treated patients. Several additional pathways/networks consisting of components that are known substrates of probenecid-inhibitable transporters were also identified, providing additional mechanistic validation. This proof
Spano, Giuseppina; O Caffò, Alessandro; Bosco, Andrea
Home accidents are one of the major causes of death, particularly in older people, young children and women. The first aim of this study was to explore the role of subjective memory complaints, cognitive functioning and risky behaviour as predictors of home injuries occurred in a year in a sample of healthy Italian older adults. The second aim was to investigate the role of risky behaviour as a mediator in the relationship between subjective and objective cognitive functioning and home injuries. One hundred thirty-three community-dwelling older people from southern Italy were administered a battery of tests to evaluate cognitive functioning, subjective memory complaints, and risky behaviour during home activities. Risky behaviour was evaluated using the Domestic Behaviour Questionnaire, created specifically for this purpose. The number of home injuries was recorded for a year throughout monthly telephone interviews. A path analysis was performed to test the following model: cognitive functioning and subjective memory complaints directly influence risky behaviour and number of accidents over a year; risky behaviour mediates the impact of cognitive functioning and subjective memory on number of accidents over a year. Path analysis confirmed the model tested except the role of risky behaviour as a mediator between cognitive functioning and home accidents. Risky behaviour could represent a further risk factor in cognitively intact older adults with subjective memory complaints. The assessment of both cognition and behaviour in elderly can make a valuable contribution in preventing home accidents in elderly.
Warren, D; Kissoon, N
We prospectively studied a group of patients with mild head injury discharged for home observation to determine whether written instructions assisted in recall of signs and symptoms, increased patient satisfaction, or resulted in any additional benefit over verbal explanations alone. We also evaluated the level of comprehension required to understand the written instructions in their present form. Over a three-month period, 72 patients (43 male, 29 female) with a mean age of 4.4 (SD +/- 3.9) years were studied. In addition to verbal explanations for all parents, 38 parents received written instructions. Each group remembered 4/7 (57%) of signs and symptoms and was equally satisfied with verbal explanations. The majority (84%) of parents who received instruction sheets intended to keep these for further reference. Low recall of two instructions may be due to poor comprehension of the language used. We conclude that written instructions (1) did not add significantly to recall, (2) may provide reassurance to parents, and (3) need to be written in simple lay terms in order to be understood by the parents/patients served.
Hamadi, Hanadi; Probst, Janice C; Khan, Mahmud M; Bellinger, Jessica; Porter, Candace
Home health aides (HHAs) work in a high-risk industry and experience high rates of work-related injury that have been significantly associated with reduction in workers and organisational productivity, quality and performance. The main objective of the study was to examine how worker environment and ergonomic factors affect HHA risk for reporting occupational injuries. We used cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2007 National Home Health and Hospice Aide Survey (NHHAS). The study sample consisted of a nationally represented sample of home health aides (n=3.377) with a 76.6% response rate. We used two scales 1 : a Work Environment Scale and 2 an Ergonomic Scale. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to describe HHA work-related injury across individual, job and organisational factors. To measure scale reliability, Cronbach's alphas were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of reported occupational injury. In terms of Work Environment Scale, the injury risk was decreased in HHAs who did not consistently care for the same patients (OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.53 to 1.73). In terms of Ergonomic Scale, the injury risk was decreased only in HHAs who reported not needing any other devices for job safety (OR=0.30, 95% (CI): 0.15 to 0.61). No other Work Environment or Ergonomic Scale factors were associated with HHAs' risk of injury. This study has great implications on a subcategory of the workforce that has a limited amount of published work and studies, as of today, as well as an anticipated large demand for them. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Galama, Titus; Goran, Michael I.
Background Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: 1) short duration and low intensity; 2) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; 3) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and 4) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. Objective This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. Conclusion The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (1) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health due to socio-economic and structural conditions; (2) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (3) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. PMID:27911984
Salvy, S-J; de la Haye, K; Galama, T; Goran, M I
Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: (i) short duration and low intensity; (ii) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; (iii) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and (iv) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (i) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health because of socio-economic and structural conditions; (ii) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (iii) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Xie, Xiaoxu; Wu, Hongjiao; Lee, Thomas; Wang, Christina M B; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yuanan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Maddock, Jay E
Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing in China, with rates doubling between 2000 and 2010. Several large, epidemiological studies have shown boys to be consistently more likely to be obese than girls. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the home environment and parenting practices related to childhood obesity. A cross-sectional survey using a convenience sampling of 522 (86.1% response rate) primary caregivers of children ages 2-10 years was conducted in four locations in Nanchang, China, in the spring of 2013 using face-to-face, anonymous questionnaires. Boys were significantly (p<0.05) more likely than girls to watch more television (TV) per week, be allowed to have snacks/sweets or soft drinks without permission, and to have sugary drinks at snacks and meals. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to have parental encouragement and support for physical activity, participate in organized sports/group activities, and have fresh fruits accessible. Parents also believed that boys eat too much junk foods or their favorite foods if not controlled. Few differences were noted in the actual physical environment in the home, including access to sports equipment, junk food availability, and access to media. RESULTS indicate that parents tend to be more permissive with boys than girls, allowing them access to unhealthy foods and more TV time. These differences may contribute to the higher prevalence of obesity in boys in China.
Neill, Sarah J; Jones, Caroline H D; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian T; Thompson, Matthew J
Uncertainty and anxiety surround parents' decisions to seek medical help for an acutely ill child. Consultation rates for children are rising, yet little is known about factors that influence parents' help-seeking behaviours. We used focus groups and interviews to examine how 27 parents of children under five years, from a range of socioeconomic groups in the East Midlands of England, use information to make decisions during acute childhood illness at home. This article reports findings elucidating factors that influence help-seeking behaviours. Parents reported that decision-making during acute childhood illness was influenced by a range of personal, social and health service factors. Principal among these was parents' concern to do the right thing for their child. Their ability to assess the severity of the illness was influenced by knowledge and experience of childhood illness. When parents were unable to access their general practitioner (GP), feared criticism from or had lost trust in their GP, some parents reported using services elsewhere such as Accident and Emergency. These findings contribute to explanatory theory concerning parents' help-seeking behaviours. Professional and political solutions have not reduced demand; therefore, collaborative approaches involving the public and professionals are now needed to improve parents' access to information. © The Author(s) 2014.
Yun, Lourdes; Boles, Richard E; Haemer, Matthew A; Knierim, Shanna; Dickinson, L Miriam; Mancinas, Heather; Hambidge, Simon J; Davidson, Arthur J
Although Colorado is perceived as a healthy state, in 2010, 14.1 % of children aged 2-5 were overweight and 9.1 % were obese. Despite the high prevalence of obesity in this population, evidence to support particular strategies to treat obese preschoolers is lacking. The efficacy of home-based, childhood obesity interventions to reduce a child's body mass index is inconclusive. However, this model uniquely provides an opportunity to observe and intervene with the home food and activity environment and engage the entire family in promoting changes that fit each family's unique dynamics. Eligible participants are children aged 2-5 years who attended a well-child care visit at a Denver Health Community Health Service clinic within 12 months prior to recruitment and on that visit had a body mass index (BMI) >85th percentile-for-age. Participants are randomly recruited at study inception and allocated to the intervention in one of five defined 6-month stepped wedge engagements; the delayed intervention groups serves as control groups until the start of the intervention. The program is delivered by a patient navigator at the family' home and consists of a 16-session curriculum focused on 1) parenting styles, 2) nutrition, and 3) physical activity. At each visit, a portion of curriculum is delivered to guide parents and children in selecting one goal for behavior change in each of three work areas to work on during the following week. The primary study outcome measure is change in BMI z-score from baseline to post-intervention period. This childhood obesity study, innovative for its home-based intervention venue, provides rich data characterizing barriers and facilitators to healthy behavior change within the home. The study population is innovative as it is focused on preschool-aged, Latino children from low-income families; this population has not typically been targeted in obesity management assessments. The home-based intervention is linked to clinical care through
Morgan, Angela T.; Masterton, Richard; Pigdon, Lauren; Connelly, Alan; Liegeois, Frederique J.
Severe and persistent speech disorder, dysarthria, may be present for life after brain injury in childhood, yet the neural correlates of this chronic disorder remain elusive. Although abundant literature is available on language reorganization after lesions in childhood, little is known about the capacity of motor speech networks to reorganize…
Martin, Jodi; Raby, K Lee; Labella, Madelyn H; Roisman, Glenn I
This investigation examined preoccupied attachment states of mind as both a risk factor for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and as a mechanism by which prospectively assessed childhood experiences of abuse and neglect predicted the frequency/severity of NSSI behavior up to age 26 years in 164 individuals (83 females) who were followed from birth in the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation. Preoccupied (but not dismissing) states of mind regarding both childhood caregivers and adult romantic partners were correlated with more frequent/severe NSSI. Furthermore, preoccupied states of mind regarding caregivers partially accounted for the association between childhood abuse/neglect and NSSI. This work represents a rare prospective test of a developmental psychopathology framework for understanding NSSI behavior, in which atypical caregiving experiences are carried forward through attachment representations of caregivers that reflect behavioral risk.
Haas, Barbara; Doumouras, Aristithes G.; Gomez, David; de Mestral, Charles; Boyes, Donald M.; Morrison, Laurie; Nathens, Avery B.
BACKGROUND Injury surveillance is critical in identifying the need for targeted prevention initiatives. Understanding the geographic distribution of injuries facilitates matching prevention programs with the population most likely to benefit. At the population level, however, the geographic site of injury is rarely known, leading to the use of location of residence as a surrogate. To determine the accuracy of this approach, we evaluated the relationship between site of injury and of residence over a large geographic area. METHODS Data were derived from a population-based, pre-hospital registry of persons meeting triage criteria for major trauma. Patients dying at the scene or transported to hospital were included. Distance between locations of residence and of injury was calculated using geographic information system network analysis. RESULTS Among 3,280 patients (2005-2010), 88% were injured within 10 miles of home (median 0.2 miles). There were significant differences in distance between residence and location of injury based on mechanism of injury, age and hospital disposition. The large majority of injuries involving children, the elderly, pedestrians, cyclists, falls, and assaults occurred less than 10 miles from the patient's residence. Only 77% of MVC occurred within 10 miles of the patient's residence. CONCLUSION Though the majority of patients are injured less than 10 miles from their residence, the probability of injury occurring “close to home” depends on patient and injury characteristics. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Epidemiological retrospective study. Level III. PMID:25807410
Mouling, Virginie; Lambert, Marie; Charlier, Nathalie; Fonseca, Dolores
The rehabilitation of people having suffered a head injury requires an inter-disciplinary perspective. Understanding the family dynamics as well as assessing the patient's resources and limits help professionals organise the necessary support to guide the patient and their family towards social reintegration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Chou, Kang-Ju; Lee, Po-Tsang; Chen, Chien-Liang; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Huang, Wei-Chieh; Huang, Chien-Wei; Fang, Hua-Chang
The lack of homing ability possibly reduces the healing potential of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Therefore, transforming native CD44 on MSCs into a hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand (HCELL) that possesses potent E-selectin affinity might enhance the homing and regenerative abilities of MSCs. Through fucosyltransferase VI (FTVI) transfection, MSCs were fucosylated on N-glycans of CD44 to become HCELL positive, thus interacting with E-selectin on injured endothelial cells. HCELL expression facilitated MSC homing in kidneys within 24h after injury and reduced lung stasis. An in vitro adhesion assay revealed that transfection enhanced the association between MSCs and hypoxic endothelial cells. In mice treated with HCELL-positive MSCs, the injured kidneys exhibited clusters of homing MSCs, whereas MSCs were rarely observed in mouse kidneys treated with HCELL-negative MSCs. Most MSCs were initially localized at the renal capsule, and some MSCs later migrated inward between tubules. Most homing MSCs were in close contact with inflammatory cells without tubular transdifferentiation. Furthermore, HCELL-positive MSCs substantially alleviated renal injury, partly by enhancing the polarization of infiltrating macrophages. In conclusion, engineering the glycan of CD44 on MSCs through FTVI transfection might enhance renotropism and the regenerating ability of MSCs in ischemic kidney injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lindgren, Helena E; Brink, Åsa; Klinberg-Allvin, Marie
Perineal injury is a serious complication of vaginal delivery that has a severe impact on the quality of life of healthy women. The prevalence of perineal injuries among women who give birth in hospital has increased over the last decade, while it is lower among women who give birth at home. The aim of this study was to describe the practice of midwives in home birth settings with the focus on the occurrence of perineal injuries. Twenty midwives who had assisted home births for between one and 29 years were interviewed using an interview guide. The midwives also had experience of working in a hospital delivery ward. All the interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed. Content analysis was used. The overall theme was "No rushing and tearing about", describing the midwives' focus on the natural process taking its time. The subcategories 1) preparing for the birth; 2) going along with the physiological process; 3) creating a sense of security; 4) the critical moment and 5) midwifery skills illuminate the management of labor as experienced by the midwives when assisting births at home. Midwives who assist women who give birth at home take many things into account in order to minimize the risk of complications during birth. Protection of the woman's perineum is an act of awareness that is not limited to the actual moment of the pushing phase but starts earlier, along with the communication between the midwife and the woman.
Bener, Abdulbari; Hyder, Adnan A; Schenk, Ellen
To describe the epidemiology of a leading cause of childhood mortality in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE)--injury. To examine trends across types of injury, as well as the mechanisms of injury leading to death, by age groups, gender, citizenship, and explore mortality rates and make global comparisons. This is a retrospective, descriptive, statistical analysis of unlinked hospital data. Al-Ain and Tawam Hospitals, and Preventive Medicine Department, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. All cases that met the conditions established for the study: fell within the age group of 0 to 14 years, suffered from injuries, and were admitted to either Al-Ain or Tawam hospitals and subsequently died within the studied time period of 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2004. A total of 7204 deaths were reported in children below 15 years during the studied time period. Of these cases, 2150 children died due to injury, comprising 29.8% of total deaths. Further analysis showed that road traffic injuries were the most frequent cause of injury leading to death (68.3%). Overall injury death rates were higher in non-citizens (54.5%) than in citizens (45.5%); and males had a higher incidence, specifically a 2.1:1 ratio, than females. Children 5 to 14 years had the highest frequency of injury deaths. Overall, injury mortality rates exhibited a decreasing, though fluctuating, trend during the studied period at a rate that is comparable to those in other developed nations such as New Zealand and USA. The present study reveals that the burden of injury deaths among children below 15 years is significant; and injuries exist in every form and affect every age group, and gender. The high burden of injuries on children in the UAE demands the attention of the health community, including policy makers. An understanding of the trends such as those presented in this study, for instance that injuries from road traffic are prominent, will assist in the development of interventions to address this growing
Fisher, Jacqueline Horan; Brown, Joshua L
Much of the existing research examining etiological contributors to psychopathic characteristics considers only biological and physiological deficits, with little consideration given to contextual factors that may play a role in their development. This prospective, longitudinal study examined the influence of childhood home and school environments on adolescent psychopathic characteristics among 390 youth (50.5% female; 46.2% Black/African American, 44.9% Hispanic/Latino, 6.9% Asian or Native American/Alaska Native, and 2.1% Non-Hispanic White). Specifically, this study examined (1) the effect of home chaos and poor parental monitoring on adolescent primary and secondary psychopathy and callous-unemotional traits through the lens of multiple reporters, and (2) whether classroom climate quality across three years of childhood moderated these relationships. The results indicated that delinquency and home chaos in childhood were related to primary psychopathy in adolescence and that exposure to higher quality classroom climates across childhood acted as a buffer by mitigating the negative relationship between parental monitoring in childhood and secondary psychopathy in adolescence. These findings have implications for designing interventions to mitigate the manifestation of youth psychopathy.
The purpose of this research project was to understand, primarily from the sibling perspective, the effect of a child's major burn injury on his or her sibling. A mixed method qualitative dominant design was implemented using the life story method for the qualitative portion. Additionally, the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire -Revised (SRQ-R) was used as a structured interview guide and for calculating scoring data to explore sibling relationship factors of warmth/closeness, rivalry, conflict, and relative status/power. Participants from 22 family cases (one or multiple family members) and 40 individuals were interviewed. To capture impact on the family over time, interviews began a minimum of two years post-burn. The central thematic pattern for the sibling relationship in families having a child with a major burn injury was that of normalization. Two components of normalization were described: areas of normalization and the process of adjustment. Areas of normalization were found in play and other activities, in school and work, and in family relations with siblings. The process of adjustment was varied and often gradual, involved school and work re-entry, and in some instances, seemed to change life perspective. Clinical implications in providing family-centered care can focus on promoting normalization by assessing and supporting siblings who may only be occasionally seen in the hospital or clinic.
Powell-Cope, Gail; Thomason, Susan; Bulat, Tatjana; Pippins, Karla M; Young, Heather M
: This article is part of a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups, conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project, supported evidence that family caregivers aren't given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's health care at home.The articles in this new installment of the series explain principles for promoting safe mobility that nurses should reinforce with family caregivers. Each article also includes an informational tear sheet-Information for Family Caregivers-that contains links to instructional videos. To use this series, nurses should read the article first, so they understand how best to help family caregivers, and then encourage the caregivers to watch the videos and ask questions. For additional information, see Resources for Nurses.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Health Resources... Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation to provide advice to the Secretary of Health and Human... Representatives, and the Library of Congress to establish the Advisory Board as a non-discretionary federal...
Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline
This study examined and compared the extent to which early childhood educators' (ECEs) and home childcare providers' (HCPs) practices supported children's play. The sample included 50 ECEs and 20 HCPs in settings that care for 70 children at 18, 24, and 36 months old. At each time point, the childcare process quality was observed using the…
Zlotnick, Cheryl; Robertson, Marjorie J.; Wright, Marguerite A.
A study of 179 homeless women found that the variables associated with their children living in foster care or other out-of-home placements were: school-aged children, mother was age 35 or older, mother had a current alcohol or drug use disorder, mother experienced childhood sexual abuse, and mother had been a runaway. (Author/CR)
Perzanowski, Matthew S; Miller, Rachel L; Thorne, Peter S; Barr, R Graham; Divjan, Adnan; Sheares, Beverley J; Garfinkel, Robin S; Perera, Frederica P; Goldstein, Inge F; Chew, Ginger L
An inverse association between domestic exposure to endotoxin and atopy in childhood has been observed. The relevance of this aspect of the hygiene hypothesis to US inner-city communities that have disproportionately high asthma prevalence has not been determined. To measure endotoxin in the dust from inner-city homes, evaluate associations between endotoxin and housing/lifestyle characteristics, and determine whether endotoxin exposure predicted wheeze, allergic rhinitis, and eczema over the first 3 years of life. As part of an ongoing prospective birth cohort study, children of Dominican and African-American mothers living in New York City underwent repeated questionnaire measures. Dust samples collected from bedroom floors at age 12 or 36 months were assayed for endotoxin. Among the samples collected from 301 participants' homes, the geometric mean endotoxin concentration (95% CI) was 75.9 EU/mg (66-87), and load was 3892 EU/m2 (3351-4522). Lower endotoxin concentrations were associated with wet mop cleaning and certain neighborhoods. Endotoxin concentration correlated weakly with cockroach (Bla g 2: r = 0.22, P < .001) and mouse (mouse urinary protein: r = 0.28; P < .001) allergens in the dust. Children in homes with higher endotoxin concentration were less likely to have eczema at age 1 year (odds ratio, 0.70 [0.53-0.93]) and more likely to wheeze at age 2 years (odds ratio, 1.34 [1.01-1.78]). These associations were stronger among children with a maternal history of asthma. Endotoxin levels in this inner-city community are similar to those in nonfarm homes elsewhere. In this community, domestic endotoxin exposure was inversely associated with eczema at age 1 year, but positively associated with wheeze at age 2 years. Endotoxin exposure in the inner-city community may be related to wheeze in the early life; however, given the inverse association seen with eczema, the long-term development of allergic disease is still in question.
Halbower, Ann C; Degaonkar, Mahaveer; Barker, Peter B; Earley, Christopher J; Marcus, Carole L; Smith, Philip L; Prahme, M. Cristine; Mahone, E. Mark
Background Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with neuropsychological deficits of memory, learning, and executive function. There is no evidence of neuronal brain injury in children with OSA. We hypothesized that childhood OSA is associated with neuropsychological performance dysfunction, and with neuronal metabolite alterations in the brain, indicative of neuronal injury in areas corresponding to neuropsychological function. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study of 31 children (19 with OSA and 12 healthy controls, aged 6–16 y) group-matched by age, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Participants underwent polysomnography and neuropsychological assessments. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was performed on a subset of children with OSA and on matched controls. Neuropsychological test scores and mean neuronal metabolite ratios of target brain areas were compared. Relative to controls, children with severe OSA had significant deficits in IQ and executive functions (verbal working memory and verbal fluency). Children with OSA demonstrated decreases of the mean neuronal metabolite ratio N-acetyl aspartate/choline in the left hippocampus (controls: 1.29, standard deviation [SD] 0.21; OSA: 0.91, SD 0.05; p = 0.001) and right frontal cortex (controls: 2.2, SD 0.4; OSA: 1.6, SD 0.4; p = 0.03). Conclusions Childhood OSA is associated with deficits of IQ and executive function and also with possible neuronal injury in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. We speculate that untreated childhood OSA could permanently alter a developing child's cognitive potential. PMID:16933960
Ehrhardt, Jennifer; Xu, Yingying; Khoury, Jane; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce; Phelan, Kieran
Residential injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in US children. Rates and types of injury vary by child age but little is known about injury risk based on child cognitive and motor abilities. The objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive or motor development in young children is associated with residential injury. We employed data from Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study. Parent report of medically attended injury was obtained at regular intervals from 0 to 42 months. Child development was assessed at 12, 24 and 36 months using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 2nd edition, which generates both mental developmental index (MDI) and a psychomotor developmental index (PDI). Injury risk was modelled using multivariable logistic regression as function of child's MDI or PDI. Effects of MDI and PDI on injury risk were examined separately and jointly, adjusting for important covariates. Children with cognitive delay (MDI <77) were at significantly higher risk of injury than children without cognitive delay (OR=3.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 10.5, p=0.012). There was no significant association of PDI with injury. There was, however, significant interaction of MDI and PDI (p=0.02); children with cognitive delay but normal motor development were at significantly higher risk of injury than children with normal cognitive and motor development (OR=9.6, 95% CI 2.6 to 35.8, p=0.001). Children with cognitive delays, especially those with normal motor development, are at elevated risk for residential injuries. Injury prevention efforts should target children with developmental delays. NCT00129324; post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Kennedy, P; Gorsuch, N; Marsh, N
The effects of spinal cord injury in childhood upon later psychological adjustment were investigated by comparing a group of 86 people injured as children with a control group (matched for time since injury and level of injury) of people injured as adults. It was hypothesized that adolescence is a crucial period in psychological development and that the effect of spinal cord injury on body image, self-concept and social relationships during adolescence will have a long-term negative effect on psychological well-being. However, on overall measures of depression, self-esteem and self-perception, there were no significant differences between the experimental and control groups. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between paraplegics and tetraplegics, between men women, or between those who were involved in a significant intimate relationship and those who were not. These findings support previous research which has suggested that organic variables, such as age at injury and level of injury, are not predictive of long-term psychological adjustment.
Michalopoulos, Charles; Lee, Helen; Duggan, Anne; Lundquist, Erika; Tso, Ada; Crowne, Sarah Shea; Burrell, Lori; Somers, Jennifer; Filene, Jill H.; Knox, Virginia
"The Mother and Infant Home Visiting Program Evaluation: Early Findings on the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program--A Report to Congress" presents the first findings from the Mother and Infant Home Visiting Program Evaluation (MIHOPE), the legislatively mandated national evaluation of the Maternal, Infant, and…
Mogensen, Jesper; Wulf-Andersen, Camilla
The focus of the present article is the home and family environment of patients suffering acquired brain injury. In order to obtain the optimal outcome of posttraumatic cognitive rehabilitation it is important (a) to obtain a sufficient intensity of rehabilitative training, (b) to achieve the maximum degree of generalization from formalized training to the daily environment of the patient, and (c) to obtain the best possible utilization of "cognitive reserves" in the form of cognitive abilities and "strategies" acquired pretraumatically. Supplementing the institution-based cognitive training with (potentially computer-based) home-based training these three goals may more easily be met. Home-based training supports a higher intensity of training. Training in the home environment also allows better utilization of cognitive strategies acquired pretraumatically and more direct transfer of training results from formalized training to activities of daily living of the patient.
Xiang, Hui-yun; Yu, Chuan-hua; Du, Yu-kai
Objectives We compared the patterns of medically attended injuries between children with and without disabilities and explored the residential environment risks in five counties of Hubei Province in the People's Republic of China by a 1∶1 matched case-control study based on the biopsychosocial model of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health – ICF. Methods 1201 children aged 1–14 with disabilities and 1201 their healthy counterparts matched as having the same gender, same age, and lived in the same neighborhood were recruited in our study. Characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months were compared between children with and without disabilities. The associations among disability status, home environment factors and injuries were examined in logistic regression analysis taking into account sociodemographic factors. Results Children with disabilities had a significantly higher prevalence of injury than children without disabilities (10.2% vs. 4.4%; P<.001). The two groups differed significantly in terms of number of injury episodes, injury place and activity at time of injury. Falls were the leading mechanism of injury regardless of disability status. Most of the injury events happened inside the home and leisure activities were the most reported activity when injured for both groups. The univariate OR for injury was 4.46 (2.57–7.74) for the disabled children compared with the non-disabled children. Disabled children whose family raised cat/dog(s) were 76% more likely to be injured during the last 12 months (OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.02, 3.02),comparing with those whose family did not have any cat/dog. And for children without disabilities, those whose family had cat/dog(s) were over 3 times more likely to having injuries comparing with those whose family did not have any cat/dog. Conclusions Children with disabilities had a significantly increased risk for injury. Interventions to prevent residential injury are an
Gärling, A; Gärling, T
Investigated whether control exerted through supervision is believed by mothers to reduce risk of unintentional injury to their children. 150 mothers of 1-, 2-, and 3-year-old children rated the risk of their child having an injury and indicated what injuries they anticipated in different rooms of the home under four conditions of supervision. A clear effect of supervision was observed in that rated risk and the number of anticipated injuries decreased depending on whether the mother was in the same room or not. Furthermore, a decrease was found when the mother was in the same room engaged in the same activity as the child (either playing with or being assisted by the child). The observed effects of supervision were less strong for older children and for rooms perceived as less dangerous.
McCaughey, Deirdre; McGhan, Gwen; Kim, Jungyoon; Brannon, Diane; Leroy, Hannes; Jablonski, Rita
Purpose of study: The direct care workforce continues to rank as one of the most frequently injured employee groups in North America. Occupational health and safety studies have shown that workplace injuries translate into negative outcomes for workers and their employers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)…
Liégeois, Frédérique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Pigdon, Lauren; Connelly, Alan; Morgan, Angela T
To identify corticobulbar tract changes that may predict chronic dysarthria in young people who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in childhood using diffusion MRI tractography. We collected diffusion-weighted MRI data from 49 participants. We compared 17 young people (mean age 17 years, 10 months; on average 8 years postinjury) with chronic dysarthria who sustained a TBI in childhood (range 3-16 years) with 2 control groups matched for age and sex: 1 group of young people who sustained a traumatic injury but had no subsequent dysarthria (n = 15), and 1 group of typically developing individuals (n = 17). We performed tractography from spherical seed regions within the precentral gyrus white matter to track: 1) the hand-related corticospinal tract; 2) the dorsal corticobulbar tract, thought to correspond to the lips/larynx motor representation; and 3) the ventral corticobulbar tract, corresponding to the tongue representation. Despite widespread white matter damage, radial (perpendicular) diffusivity within the left dorsal corticobulbar tract was the best predictor of the presence of dysarthria after TBI. Diffusion metrics in this tract also predicted speech and oromotor performance across the whole group of TBI participants, with additional significant contributions from ventral speech tract volume in the right hemisphere. An intact left dorsal corticobulbar tract seems crucial to the normal execution of speech long term after acquired injury. Examining the speech-related motor pathways using diffusion-weighted MRI tractography offers a promising prognostic tool for people with acquired, developmental, or degenerative neurologic conditions likely to affect speech.
Lee, Ahyoung Anna; Jang, Yuri
Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study explored the role of physical injury and organizational support in predicting home health workers' turnover intention. In a sample of home health workers in Central Texas (n = 150), about 37% reported turnover intention. The logistic regression model showed that turnover intention was 3.23 times more likely among those who had experienced work-related injury. On the other hand, organizational support was found to reduce the likelihood of turnover intention. Findings suggest that injury and organizational support should be prioritized in prevention and intervention efforts to promote home health workers' safety and retention.
Kramer, Megan E.; Chiu, C.-Y. Peter; Shear, Paula K.; Wade, Shari L.
Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often experience memory deficits, although the nature, functional implication, and recovery trajectory of such difficulties are poorly understood. The present fMRI study examined the neural activation patterns in a group of young children who sustained moderate TBI in early childhood (n = 7), and a group of healthy control children (n = 13) during a verbal paired associate learning (PAL) task that promoted the use of two mnemonic strategies differing in efficacy. The children with TBI demonstrated intact memory performance and were able to successfully utilize the mnemonic strategies. However, the TBI group also demonstrated altered brain activation patterns during the task compared to the control children. These findings suggest early childhood TBI may alter activation within the network of brain regions supporting associative memory even in children who show good behavioral performance. PMID:21188286
Keall, Michael D; Pierse, Nevil; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Guria, Jagadish; Cunningham, Chris W; Baker, Michael G
Injuries due to falls in the home impose a huge social and economic cost on society. We have previously found important safety benefits of home modifications such as handrails for steps and stairs, grab rails for bathrooms, outside lighting, edging for outside steps and slip-resistant surfacing for outside areas such as decks. Here we assess the economic benefits of these modifications. Using a single-blinded cluster randomised controlled trial, we analysed insurance payments for medically treated home fall injuries as recorded by the national injury insurer. The benefits in terms of the value of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) averted and social costs of injuries saved were extrapolated to a national level and compared with the costs of the intervention. An intention-to-treat analysis was carried out. Injury costs per time exposed to the modified homes compared with the unmodified homes showed a reduction in the costs of home fall injuries of 33% (95% CI 5% to 49%). The social benefits of injuries prevented were estimated to be at least six times the costs of the intervention. The benefit-cost ratio can be at least doubled for older people and increased by 60% for those with a prior history of fall injuries. This is the first randomised controlled trial to examine the benefits of home modification for reducing fall injury costs in the general population. The results show a convincing economic justification for undertaking relatively low-cost home repairs and installing safety features to prevent falls. ACTRN12609000779279. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Verrier, Agnès; Chevalier, A
To characterize home and leisure injuries and their immediate consequences among adults aged 20-60 years and to look for homogeneous profiles of injury circumstances to assess the possibility of setting up prevention programs. Cross-sectional survey by questionnaire completed on the occasion of a medical visit after a first episode of absence for home or leisure injury between 1 January and 31 December 1997 among Electricité de France Gaz de France (EDF GDF) workforce of three geographical areas (47,681 employees). Incidence and relative risks according to sex, age and work grade and a multidimensional classification of injury circumstances. Eight hundred and fifty four injuries were studied. Risk was estimated at 18.4 injury victims per 1000 employees, of which 13.4 per 1000 employees were home injury victims and 3.7 leisure injury victims. The risk of all injuries was higher among men than women (RR=1.3) and decreased as work grade rose: for men, it was five times higher among operating employees than managers. Multidimensional analysis of injury circumstances ended by distributing into four main classes which may be useful for prevention: gardening and do-it-yourself injuries outdoors (19.9%), coming and going on the streets (6.9%), falling while coming and going in the home on the stairs (13.4%), and do-it-yourself inside the home (13.0%). Injuries induced essentially four types of lesions: sprains (34%), fractures (31.8%), contusions (24.5%) and wounds. The mean sick-leave lasted 32.1 days but half the subjects returned to work in less than 17 days. Hospitalization was necessary in 19.2% of cases. This study completed by an analysis of the behavioural factors of injuries led us to propose programs aimed at changing the risk behaviours related to do-it-yourself, stairs falls and gardening.
LeBlanc, John C.; Pless, I. Barry; King, W. James; Bawden, Harry; Bernard-Bonnin, Anne-Claude; Klassen, Terry; Tenenbein, Milton
Background Young children may sustain injuries when exposed to certain hazards in the home. To better understand the relation between several childproofing strategies and the risk of injuries to children in the home, we undertook a multicentre case–control study in which we compared hazards in the homes of children with and without injuries. Methods We conducted this case-control study using records from 5 pediatric hospital emergency departments for the 2-year period 1995–1996. The 351 case subjects were children aged 7 years and less who presented with injuries from falls, burns or scalds, ingestions or choking. The matched control subjects were children who presented during the same period with acute non-injury-related conditions. A home visitor, blinded to case-control status, assessed 19 injury hazards at the children's homes. Results Hazards found in the homes included baby walkers (21% of homes with infants), no functioning smoke alarm (17% of homes) and no fire extinguisher (51% of homes). Cases did not differ from controls in the mean proportion of home hazards. After controlling for siblings, maternal education and employment, we found that cases differed from controls for 5 hazards: the presence of a baby walker (odds ratio [OR] 9.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–71.0), the presence of choking hazards within a child's reach (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0–3.7), no child-resistant lids in bathroom (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0–2.5), no smoke alarm (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4–7.7) and no functioning smoke alarm (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.8). Interpretation Homes of children with injuries differed from those of children without injuries in the proportions of specific hazards for falls, choking, poisoning and burns, with a striking difference noted for the presence of a baby walker. In addition to counselling parents about specific hazards, clinicians should consider that the presence of some hazards may indicate an increased risk for home injuries beyond those directly
Evans, S. A.; Kohli, H. S.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of socioeconomic status on the attitudes parents of preschool children towards child home safety issues and practice of home safety measures. SETTING: A community based study in the Lanarkshire Health Board area, a mixed urban-rural setting in central Scotland. METHODS: A postal survey of two random samples of parents of preschool children (aged 3 years). One sample (A) involved parents living in more affluent areas and the other (B) parents living in less affluent areas. RESULTS: In general, parents in both groups showed similar attitudes towards home safety. The only significant differences to emerge were over parental perceptions of the safety of the neighbourhood in which they lived and over the availability of money to keep their child safe (group B > group A, p < 0.0042). Parents from group B also tended to report similar or safer levels of home safety behaviour to parents from group A. CONCLUSIONS: The findings do not suggest that differences in the injury experience of children from more and less affluent backgrounds are due to differences in parental attitude, knowledge, or practice of home safety measures. Thus, the study does not support the selective targeting of families from less affluent areas with educational interventions. Instead, the findings do support the use of a multi-method approach to home safety, where educational approaches are complemented by environmental modification. PMID:9113844
Heather, Natasha L; Jefferies, Craig; Hofman, Paul L; Derraik, José G B; Brennan, Christine; Kelly, Patrick; Hamill, James K M; Jones, Rhys G; Rowe, Deborah L; Cutfield, Wayne S
We sought to determine the incidence of permanent hypopituitarism in a potentially high-risk group: young children after structural traumatic brain injury (TBI). We conducted a cross-sectional study with longitudinal follow-up. Dynamic tests of pituitary function (GH and ACTH) were performed in all subjects and potential abnormalities critically evaluated. Puberty was clinically staged; baseline thyroid function, prolactin, IGF-I, serum sodium, and osmolality were compared with age-matched data. Diagnosis of GH deficiency was based on an integrated assessment of stimulated GH peak (<5 μg/liter suggestive of deficiency), IGF-I, and growth pattern. ACTH deficiency was diagnosed based on a subnormal response to two serial Synacthen tests (peak cortisol <500 nmol/liter) and a metyrapone test. We studied 198 survivors of structural TBI sustained in early childhood (112 male, age at injury 1.7 ± 1.5 yr) 6.5 ± 3.2 yr after injury. Sixty-four of the injuries (33%) were inflicted and 134 (68%) accidental. Two participants had developed precocious puberty, which is within the expected background population rate. Peak stimulated GH was subnormal in 16 participants (8%), in the context of normal IGF-I and normal growth. Stimulated peak cortisol was low in 17 (8%), but all had normal ACTH function on follow-up. One participant had a transient low serum T(4). Therefore, no cases of hypopituitarism were recorded. Permanent hypopituitarism is rare after both inflicted and accidental structural TBI in early childhood. Precocious puberty was the only pituitary hormone abnormality found, but the prevalence did not exceed that of the normal population.
Wulf-Andersen, Camilla; Mogensen, Jesper
Acquired brain injury (ABI) severely affects both the injured patient and her/his family. This fact alone calls for a therapeutic approach addressing not only the individual victim of ABI but also her/his family. Additionally, the optimal outcome of posttraumatic cognitive rehabilitation may be best obtained by supplementing the institution-based cognitive training with home-based training. Moving cognitive training and other therapeutic interventions into the home environment does, however, constitute an additional challenge to the family structure and psychological wellbeing of all family members. We presently argue in favour of an increased utilization of family-based intervention programs for the families of brain injured patients - in general and especially in case of utilization of home-based rehabilitative training.
Mack, Karin A.; Liller, Karen D.; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David
Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire, scald, and poisoning-related injuries, this article illustrates the utility of an approach that incorporates a social–environmental perspective in identifying and selecting interventions to improve the health and safety of individuals. Injury prevention efforts to prevent home injuries benefit from multilevel modifications of behavior, public policy, laws and enforcement, the environment, consumer products and engineering standards, as demonstrated with Frieden’s Health Impact Pyramid. A greater understanding, however, is needed to explain the associations between tiers. While interventions that include modifications of the social environment are being field-tested, much more work needs to be done in measuring social–environmental change and in evaluating these programs to disentangle what works best. PMID:25829110
Mack, Karin A; Liller, Karen D; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David
Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire, scald, and poisoning-related injuries, this article illustrates the utility of an approach that incorporates a social-environmental perspective in identifying and selecting interventions to improve the health and safety of individuals. Injury prevention efforts to prevent home injuries benefit from multilevel modifications of behavior, public policy, laws and enforcement, the environment, consumer products and engineering standards, as demonstrated with Frieden's Health Impact Pyramid. A greater understanding, however, is needed to explain the associations between tiers. While interventions that include modiﬁcations of the social environment are being ﬁeld-tested, much more work needs to be done in measuring social-environmental change and in evaluating these programs to disentangle what works best. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Cheung, Lorraine L T; Wakefield, Claire E; Ellis, Sarah J; Mandalis, Anna; Frow, Eleanor; Cohn, Richard J
As pediatric brain tumor survivors may experience cognitive decline post-treatment, a neuropsychology assessment is often conducted. The assessment evaluates the child's cognitive functioning and highlights potential challenges. Whilst neuropsychology reports provide recommendations for the home and school, how this translates in practice is under researched. This study explored parent and teacher understanding of neuropsychology reports, implementation rates for recommendations and their perceived effectiveness. Barriers to implementation were also investigated. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 parents and 8 teachers of childhood brain tumor survivors from 15 Australian families who had received a neuropsychology report within 2 years of the interview. Twenty-four neuropsychology reports encompassing 131 recommendations were reviewed. The qualitative methodological framework of Miles and Huberman [Miles M, Huberman A. Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. London: Sage; 1994] was used to analyze interview transcripts with QSR NVivo 9.0. The majority of parents and teachers had a sound understanding of the report. Implementation of recommendations at home and school was 47% and 41%, respectively. Recommendations that did not require extra effort and organization appeared more likely to be implemented, however, those perceived to be more effective or helpful did not necessarily have higher implementation rates. Key reported barriers to implementation barrier were patient reluctance, and a lack of parents' willingness to adopt the recommendation. Patient understanding and willingness play a significant role in the implementation of neuropsychology recommendations. Collaboration and clear communication between the patient, teacher, parent, and neuropsychologist is vital for effective management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vereecken, Carine; Haerens, Leen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea
To identify the correlates of the home food environment (parents' intake, availability and food-related parenting practices) at the age of 10 years with dietary patterns during childhood and in adolescence. Primary-school children of fifty-nine Flemish elementary schools completed a questionnaire at school in 2002. Four years later they completed a questionnaire by e-mail or mail at home. Their parents completed a questionnaire on food-related parenting practices at baseline. Longitudinal study. The analyses included 609 matched questionnaires. Multi-level regression analyses were used to identify baseline parenting practices (pressure, reward, negotiation, catering on demand, permissiveness, verbal praise, avoiding negative modelling, availability of healthy/unhealthy food items and mothers' fruit and vegetable (F&V) and excess scores) associated with children's dietary patterns (F&V and excess scores). Mother's F&V score was a significant positive independent predictor for children's F&V score at baseline and follow-up, whereas availability of unhealthy foods was significantly negatively associated with both scores. Negotiation was positively associated with children's follow-up score of F&V, while permissiveness was positively associated with children's follow-up excess score. Availability of unhealthy foods and mother's excess score were positively related to children's excess score at baseline and follow-up. Parental intake and restricting the availability of unhealthy foods not only appeared to have a consistent impact on children's and adolescents' diets, but also negotiating and less permissive food-related parenting practices may improve adolescents' diets.
Gabbe, Belinda J; Brooks, Caroline; Demmler, Joanne C; Macey, Steven; Hyatt, Melanie A; Lyons, Ronan A
Childhood head injury has the potential for lifelong disability and burden. This study aimed to establish the association between admission to hospital for childhood head injury and early academic performance. The Wales Electronic Cohort for Children (WECC) study is comprised of record-linked routinely collected data, on all children born or residing in Wales. Anonymous linking fields are used to link child and maternal health, environment and education records. Data from WECC were extracted for children born between September 1998 and August 2001. A Generalised Estimating Equation model, adjusted for clustering based on the maternal identifier as well as other key confounders, was used to establish the association between childhood head injury and performance on the Key Stage 1 (KS1) National Curriculum assessment administered to children aged 5-7 years. Head injury was defined as an emergency admission for >24 h for concussion, skull fracture or intracranial injury prior to KS1 assessment. Of the 101 892 eligible children, KS1 results were available for 90 661 (89%), and 290 had sustained a head injury. Children who sustained an intracranial injury demonstrated significantly lower adjusted odds of achieving a satisfactory KS1 result than children who had not been admitted to hospital for head injury (adjusted OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.72). The findings of this population e-cohort study quantify the impact of head injury on academic performance, highlighting the need for enhanced head injury prevention strategies. The results have implications for the care and rehabilitation of children admitted to hospital with head injury.
Chapman, Leah A.; Wade, Shari L.; Walz, Nicolay C.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith O.
The present study looked at the emergence of clinically significant problems in behavior, executive function skills (EF), and social competence during the initial 18 months following TBI in young children relative to a cohort of children with orthopedic injuries (OI) and the environmental factors that predict difficulties postinjury. Children, ages 3-7 years, hospitalized for severe TBI moderate TBI, or OI were seen shortly after their injury (M = 40 days) and again 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months postinjury. Behavioral parent self-reports, demographic data, family functioning reports, and home environment reports were collected at injury baseline and each time point post injury. Results suggest that, compared to the OI group, the severe TBI developed significantly more externalizing behavior problems and EF problems following injury that persisted through the 18-month follow-up. Minimal social competence difficulties appeared at the 18-month follow-up, suggesting a possible pattern of emerging deficits rather than a recovery over time. Predictors of the emergence of clinically significant problems included permissive parenting, family dysfunction, and low SES. The findings are similar to those found in school-aged children. PMID:20175634
Johnston, B; Britt, J; D'Ambrosio, L; Mueller, B; Rivara, F
Objective—To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of an injury prevention program delivered by school based home visitors to the families of low income children attending preschool enrichment programs in Washington State. Study sample—The families of children attending preschool Head Start programs in two regions were eligible. A total of 213 families (77.8% of those eligible) from intervention sites, and 149 families (71.9% of those eligible) from concurrent comparison sites, agreed to participate and completed the trial. Intervention—Trained school personnel conducted home safety inspections as part of a planned home visit. Intervention families were offered educational materials as well as smoke detectors, batteries, ipecac, and age appropriate car safety restraints based on results of the home inspection. Evaluation methods—At a repeat home visit three months later, the proportion of families with a positive change in injury prevention knowledge or behavior among those in the intervention group was compared with the proportion in the comparison group. Smoke detector presence and function were observed. Results—Among families without a working smoke detector at baseline, the intervention was associated with an increased probability of having a working detector at follow up (relative risk (RR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 8.6). Intervention families were also more likely to report the presence of ipecac in the home (RR 4.7, 95% CI 3.0 to 7.3) at follow up and to have obtained an age appropriate booster seat (RR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 8.8). The program was acceptable to client families and to the home visitors who conducted the intervention. Conclusions—Among the families of low income children enrolled in preschool enrichment programs, home safety inspections and the distribution of safety supplies by school based home visitors appears to improve knowledge and behavior related to poisoning, smoke detector installation
Patient and Community-Level Socio-Demographic Characteristics Associated with Emergency Department Visits for Childhood Injury; A Retrospective Analysis of Data from the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) Core Data Project 2004–2008
Macy, Michelle L.; Zonfrillo, Mark R.; Cook, Lawrence J.; Funai, Tomohiko; Goldstick, Jason; Stanley, Rachel M.; Chamberlain, James M.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Lipton, Robert; Alpern, Elizabeth R.
Objective To examine pediatric emergency department (ED) visits over 5 years, trends in injury severity, and associations between injury-related ED visit outcome and patient and community-level socio-demographic characteristics. Study design Retrospective analysis of administrative data provided to the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network Core Data Project, 2004–2008. Home addresses were geocoded to determine census block group and associated socio-demographic characteristics. Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale severity and Severity Classification System scores were calculated. Generalized estimating equations were used to test for associations between socio-demographic characteristics and admission or transfer among injury-related ED visits. Results Overall ED visits and injury-related visits increased from 2004 to 2008 at study sites. Of 2,833,676 successfully geocoded visits, 700,821 (24.7%) were injury-related. The proportion of higher severity injury-related visits remained consistent. Nearly 10% of injury-related visits resulted in admission or transfer each year. After adjusting for age, sex, payer, and injury severity, odds of admission or transfer were lower among minority children and children from areas with moderate and high prevalence of poverty. Conclusions Pediatric injury-related ED visits to included sites increased over the study period while injury severity, anticipated resource utilization, and visit outcomes remained stable, with low rates of admission or transfer. Socio-demographic differences in injury-related visits and ED disposition were apparent. ED-based injury surveillance is essential to understand disparities, inform targets for prevention programs, and reduce the overall burden of childhood injuries. PMID:26141551
Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Corbett, Michael; Lasenby, Jennifer; Johnston, Natalie; McCourt, Meghan
This study examined mothers' teaching about home-safety issues to 24-30 month and 36-42 month old children, explored the relationship of teaching strategies to parenting styles, and assessed how these factors are related to children's risk of unintentional injury. A structured interview assessed home-safety issues relevant to falls, burns, cuts,…
Schwebel, David C.; Brezausek, Carl M.
Unintentional injury is the leading cause of pediatric mortality among American children, but the role of environmental context remains poorly understood as a risk for child injury. Couched in Bronfenbrenner's (1977) ecological theory, this study analyzed data from a sample of almost 900 children to identify relations between the home and…
Heather, Natasha L.; Derraik, José G. B.; Beca, John; Hofman, Paul L.; Dansey, Rangi; Hamill, James; Cutfield, Wayne S.
Objective To assess the association of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) with radiological evidence of head injury (the Abbreviated Injury Scale for the head region, AIS-HR) in young children hospitalized with traumatic head injury (THI), and the predictive value of GCS and AIS-HR scores for long-term impairment. Methods Our study involved a 10-year retrospective review of a database encompassing all patients admitted to Starship Children’s Hospital (Auckland, New Zealand, 2000–2010) with THI. Results We studied 619 children aged <5 years at the time of THI, with long-term outcome data available for 161 subjects. Both GCS and AIS-HR scores were predictive of length of intensive care unit and hospital stay (all p<0.001). GCS was correlated with AIS-HR (ρ=-0.46; p<0.001), although mild GCS scores (13–15) commonly under-estimated the severity of radiological injury: 42% of children with mild GCS scores had serious–critical THI (AIS-HR 3–5). Increasingly severe GCS or AIS-HR scores were both associated with a greater likelihood of long-term impairment (neurological disability, residual problems, and educational support). However, long-term impairment was also relatively common in children with mild GCS scores paired with structural THI more severe than a simple linear skull fracture. Conclusion Severe GCS scores will identify most cases of severe radiological injury in early childhood, and are good predictors of poor long-term outcome. However, young children admitted to hospital with structural THI and mild GCS scores have an appreciable risk of long-term disability, and also warrant long-term follow-up. PMID:24312648
Petridou, E.; Zervos, I.; Christopoulos, G.; Revinthi, K.; Papoutsakis, G.; Trichopoulos, D.
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether biosocial variables and auditory acuity are risk factors for injuries among children. SETTING: Children with injuries who presented at the emergency clinics of one of the two university hospitals for children in Athens, Greece between December 1993 and April 1994. METHODS: 144 children aged 5-14 years, residents of Athens, were brought to the emergency clinics for a moderate to severe injury. For each of these children one hospital control, matched for age and sex, and one classmate control similarly matched were identified. A standard interview form was completed for all 432 children and acouometric and tympanometric examinations were performed in each of them. Analysis was done through conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The likelihood of an accident was higher in children of younger fathers (odds ratio (OR) = 0.7, p = 0.04), children of mothers with non-professional jobs (OR = 1.9, p = 0.03) as well as in children of higher birth order (OR = 1.7, p = 0.01), in those with predominantly other than parental daily supervision (OR = 2.6, p = 0.001), and those with a history of previous accident (OR = 1.3, p = 0.002). Somatometric factors, school performance, use of corrective eyeglasses and subnormal auditory acuity were not found to be risk factors, but auditory imbalance and abnormal tympanograms were positively related to the risk of childhood injury (OR = 2.6, p = 0.02; and OR = 2.3, p = 0.08 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: the findings of this study underline the importance of attentive supervision and safety training of children living in modern cities; they also suggest that children with auditory imbalance and history of an accident are at higher injury risk and they should be targeted with specific intervention programs. PMID:9346003
Treble-Barna, Amery; Wade, Shari L; Martin, Lisa J; Pilipenko, Valentina; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Kurowski, Brad G
The present study examined the association of dopamine-related genes with short- and long-term neurobehavioral recovery, as well as neurobehavioral recovery trajectories over time, in children who had sustained early childhood traumatic brain injuries (TBI) relative to children who had sustained orthopedic injuries (OI). Participants were recruited from a prospective, longitudinal study evaluating outcomes of children who sustained a TBI (n = 68) or OI (n = 72) between the ages of 3 and 7 years. Parents completed ratings of child executive function and behavior at the immediate post-acute period (0-3 months after injury); 6, 12, and 18 months after injury; and an average of 3.5 and 7 years after injury. Thirty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dopamine-related genes (dopamine receptor D2 [DRD2], solute carrier family 6 member 3 [SLC6A3], solute carrier family 18 member A2 [SLC18A2], catechol-o-methyltransferase [COMT], and ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 [ANKK1]) were examined in association with short- and long-term executive function and behavioral adjustment, as well as their trajectories over time. After controlling for premorbid child functioning, genetic variation within the SLC6A3 (rs464049 and rs460000) gene was differentially associated with neurobehavioral recovery trajectories over time following TBI relative to OI, with rs464049 surviving multiple testing corrections. In addition, genetic variation within the ANKK1 (rs1800497 and rs2734849) and SLC6A3 (rs464049, rs460000, and rs1042098) genes was differentially associated with short- and long-term neurobehavioral recovery following TBI, with rs460000 and rs464049 surviving multiple testing corrections. The findings provide preliminary evidence that genetic variation in genes involved in DRD2 expression and density (ANKK1) and dopamine transport (SLC6A3) plays a role in neurobehavioral recovery following pediatric TBI.
Baranzini, Federico; Diurni, Marcello; Ceccon, Francesca; Poloni, Nicola; Cazzamalli, Sara; Costantini, Chiara; Colli, Cristiano; Greco, Laura; Callegari, Camilla
Polypharmacy is regarded as an important risk factor for fallingand several studies and meta-analyses have shown an increased fall risk in users of diuretics, type 1a antiarrhythmics, digoxin and psychotropic agents. In particular, recent evidence has shown that fall risk is associated with the use of polypharmacy regimens that include at least one established fall risk-increasing drug, rather than with polypharmacy per se. We studied the role of polypharmacy and the role of well-known fall risk-increasing drugs on the incidence of injurious falls. A retrospective observational study was carried out in a population of elderly nursing home residents. An unmatched, post-stratification design for age class, gender and length of stay was adopted. In all, 695 falls were recorded in 293 residents. 221 residents (75.4%) were female and 72 (24.6%) male, and 133 (45.4%) were recurrent fallers. 152 residents sustained no injuries when they fell, whereas injuries were sustained by 141: minor in 95 (67.4%) and major in 46 (32.6%). Only fall dynamics (p = 0.013) and drugs interaction between antiarrhythmic or antiparkinson class and polypharmacy regimen (> or =7 medications) seem to represent a risk association for injuries (p = 0.024; OR = 4.4; CI 95% 1.21 - 15.36). This work reinforces the importance of routine medication reviews, especially in residents exposed to polypharmacy regimens that include antiarrhythmics or antiparkinson drugs, in order to reduce the risk of fall-related injuries during nursing home stays.
Nalder, Emily; Fleming, Jennifer; Foster, Michele; Cornwell, Petrea; Shields, Cassandra; Khan, Asad
: To identify the factors associated with perceived success of the transition from hospital to home after traumatic brain injury (TBI). : Prospective longitudinal cohort design with data collection at discharge and 1, 3, and 6 months postdischarge. : A total of 127 individuals with TBI discharged to the community and 83 significant others. : An analog scale (0-100) of perceived success of the transition from hospital to home rated by individuals and significant others; Sentinel Events Questionnaire; EuroQol Group Quality-of-Life measure visual analog scale; Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale; Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory-4; short form of the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales; Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors; and Caregiver Strain Index. : Greater perceived success of transition for individuals with a TBI was associated with higher levels of health-related quality of life, level of community integration, and more severe injury. Among survivors, sentinel events such as returning to work and independent community access and changing living situation were associated with greater perceived success; financial strain and difficulty accessing therapy services were associated with less success. Among significant others, lower ratings of transition success were associated with higher significant other stress levels as well as lower levels of community integration and changes in the living situation of the individual with TBI. : A combination of sentinel events and personal and environmental factors influences the perceptions of individuals and their families regarding the success of the transition from hospital to home.
Marsh, V M; Mutemi, W M; Muturi, J; Haaland, A; Watkins, W M; Otieno, G; Marsh, K
Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a
Edwards, Susan; Henderson, Michael; Gronn, Donna; Scott, Anne; Mirkhil, Moska
A digital disconnect perspective is founded on an assumption that technology use in the home is frequent, creative and generative, and that technology use in the early childhood centre should be the same as that found in the home. However, such arguments divert our attention from understanding the nature of the setting and thereby from an…
This telephone survey examined the early childhood education (ECE) experiences, home experiences, and home resources of near-5-year-olds in New Zealand, as identified by their parents. Participating were 767 New Zealand families in Wellington and Porirua, a sample selected to be comparable to those selected in other longitudinal studies. The main…
Bolen, Rebecca M.; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Hodges, Liz
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant problem in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Affect and state dysregulation are frequently observed in survivors of childhood sexual abuse and in those who engage in NSSI. Both have been found to predict NSSI, and affect regulation has also been modeled as a mediator of NSSI. This study…
Case, Rosalind Jane Leamy; Starkey, Nicola J.; Jones, Kelly; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Feigin, Valery
This two-phase study investigated New Zealand primary school teachers' knowledge and perceptions of childhood mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI), and evaluated the effectiveness of a professional development workshop for enhancing teacher knowledge regarding mTBI. In phase one, 19 teachers from schools in the Waikato and Bay of Plenty engaged in…
Kurowski, Alicia; Pransky, Glenn; Punnett, Laura
Purpose This study examined the impact of a Safe Resident Handling Program (SRHP) on length of disability and re-injury, following work-related injuries of nursing home workers. Resident handling-related injuries and back injuries were of particular interest. Methods A large national nursing home corporation introduced a SRHP followed by three years of training for 136 centers. Lost-time workers' compensation claims (3 years pre-SRHP and 6 years post-SRHP) were evaluated. For each claim, length of first episode of disability and recurrence of disabling injury were evaluated over time. Differences were assessed using Chi square analyses and a generalized linear model, and "avoided" costs were projected. Results The SRHP had no impact on length of disability, but did appear to significantly reduce the rate of recurrence among resident handling-related injuries. As indemnity and medical costs were three times higher for claimants with recurrent disabling injuries, the SRHP resulted in significant "avoided" costs due to "avoided" recurrence. Conclusions In addition to reducing overall injury rates, SRHPs appear to improve long-term return-to-work success by reducing the rate of recurrent disabling injuries resulting in work disability. In this study, the impact was sustained over years, even after a formal training and implementation program ended. Since back pain is inherently a recurrent condition, results suggest that SRHPs help workers remain at work and return-to-work.
Leslie, Laurel K.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
The study objectives were to examine serious injuries requiring medical attention among children who remain at home after a child welfare/child protective services (CPS) maltreatment investigation in the US and to determine whether child/caregiver characteristics and ongoing CPS involvement are related to injuries requiring medical attention. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being, we analyzed data on the subsample of children who remained at home (N = 3,440). A multivariate logistic regression model included child characteristics, chronic illness and disability in the child, level of CPS involvement, subsequent foster care placement, caregiver characteristics, and caregiver/family psychological variables. Injuries requiring medical attention were identified in 10.6% of the in-home population over a15-month period, with no differences in rates by age. Children with a chronic medical condition (OR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.20–3.58) and children with depressed caregivers (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 1.45–3.58) were more likely to have an injury that required medical care. Older caregivers (>54 years) were less likely (OR = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03–0.69) to have a child with an injury requiring care. Injuries were not related to further involvement with CPS after the initial maltreatment investigation. Children with chronic medical conditions who remained in their biological homes or whose caregivers were depressed were likely to experience an injury requiring medical attention. Older caregivers were less likely to report a child injury. Extending existing health policies for foster children to children who remain at home following referral to CPS may encourage more comprehensive injury prevention for this population. PMID:21086154
Irwin, Carol C; Irwin, Richard L; Miller, Maureen E; Somes, Grant W; Richey, Phyllis A
Professional sport organizations in the United States have notable celebrity status, and several teams have used this "star power" to collaborate with local school districts toward the goal of affecting children's health. Program effectiveness is unknown due to the absence of comprehensive evaluations for these initiatives. The Memphis Grizzlies, the city's National Basketball Association franchise, launched "Get Fit with the Grizzlies," a 6-week, curricular addition focusing on nutrition and physical activity for the fourth and fifth grades in Memphis City Schools (MCS). The health-infused mini-unit was delivered by physical education teachers during their classes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the "Get Fit" program effectiveness. Survey research was employed which measured health knowledge acquisition and health behavior change using a matched pre/posttest design in randomly chosen schools (n = 11) from all elementary schools in the MCS system (N = 110). The total number of matched pre/posttests (n = 888) equaled approximately 5% of the total fourth-/fifth-grade population. McNemar's test for significance (p < .05) was applied. Odds ratios were calculated for each question. Analyses confirmed that there was significant health knowledge acquisition (7 of 8 questions) with odds ratios confirming moderate to strong associations. Seven out of 10 health behavior change questions significantly improved after intervention, whereas odds ratios indicated a low level of association after intervention. This community-school-home initiative using a professional team's celebrity platform within a certain locale is largely overlooked by school districts and should be considered as a positive strategy to confront childhood obesity.
Eriksson, Henrik; Timpka, Toomas
Smart homes promise to make the lives of elderly people more comfortable and safe. Today, there is a significant interest from industry and policy makers in developing these technologies. In theory, the emerging technologies make it possible to provide a new range of services. So far, however, the goal has often been to develop new services for young people rather than assisting old people to improve their quality of life. Especially important is the potential for using these technologies to promote safety and prevent injury among old people because this group is at home more than the other age groups. Networked devices can collect data from sensors and aid decision-making on intervention and other measures. Furthermore, these devices can instruct and remind individuals about safety-related issues.
Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jean H; Griffiths, Sian M; Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Ignatius
Injury is a major global disease burden for the twenty-first century. There are, however, few studies of unintentional household injury in Asian urban settings where living environments are characterized by extremely compact, high-living-density, multistory apartments. This study investigated the association between nonfatal unintentional household injuries with the resident's sociodemographic attributes and household characteristics in Hong Kong, the city with the world's highest population density. A cross-sectional retrospective recall study was conducted in May 2007 using a random telephone survey with a modified Chinese version of the World Health Organization Injury and Violence instrument. The study sample included 1,001 noninstitutionalized Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong residents of all ages, including foreign live-in domestic helpers. Multivariate regression was conducted to identify risk factors for nonfatal unintentional injuries in Hong Kong. Among a predominantly adult sample, household size and time spent at home were not associated with nonfatal unintentional household injuries in the general population in Hong Kong. The multivariate analyses indicated that female gender, owners of private homes, lower square footage of living space per person, and those with slip prevention devices in the bathroom were significantly associated with household injuries. Injured and noninjured groups were found to have adopted different injury prevention strategies toward household injuries. The results identified potential target groups for household injury prevention programs.
Wan, Yuhui; Chen, Jing; Sun, Ying; Tao, Fangbiao
Background Childhood abuse has been associated with significant increases in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviors in adolescents; however, only general definitions of this risk indicator have been examined. This study identified relationships between specific forms of childhood abuse and NSSI in mainland Chinese adolescents. Method A total of 14,221 cases were retained from an epidemiological study involving adolescents from junior and senior middle schools. Information relating to the perpetrator, perceived harm, timing of exposure to different types of childhood abuse, and NSSI were obtained. Logistic regression was used to analyze relationships between each form of childhood abuse and NSSI. Results Approximately 51.0% of the students reported at least one abusive childhood experience. Nearly one in four students (24.9%) reported that they had engaged in NSSI in the past 12 months. Each type of childhood abuse, occurring at any time within the first 16 years of life, especially in situations of continuous exposure, was significantly associated with NSSI. A significant graded relationship was found between number of abusive childhood experiences and NSSI. Students maltreated by parents or others were at high risk of engaging in NSSI, the risk was greater in students maltreated by both; students who had been exposed to childhood abuse with no perceived harm still demonstrated an elevated risk for NSSI. The pattern of associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions These findings suggest that experiencing any of various forms of childhood abuse should be considered a risk factor for NSSI during adolescence. Further research should focus upon psychosocial, neural, and genetic factors that might moderate or mediate the onset of NSSI in adolescents who have experienced childhood abuse. PMID:26114574
Woolford, Marta H; Weller, Carolina; Ibrahim, Joseph E
Unexplained absence of nursing home (NH) residents is one of the most challenging issues related to the care of older people. The aim of this review was to examine the death and injury outcomes of unexplained absence of NH residents. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, AgeLine, and Cochrane Library to identify qualitative and quantitative studies published in the English language. Data on death and injury were collated, and aggregate proportions were calculated where possible. Nine studies were identified; most (n = 6) were conducted in the United States. Persons with dementia formed the study population in all studies. There were 1440 individual unexplained absences reported across the 9 studies. We calculated a rate of 82 deaths and 61 injuries per 1000 incidents of unexplained absence. Extreme temperatures were the most common cause of death. Most individuals left by foot, and were found within a 1-mile radius of place last seen in green vegetation and waterways. This review provides valuable insight into death and injury outcomes. Further studies are recommended to improve understanding and prevent adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Serraes, Brecht; Beeckman, Dimitri
The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for developing pressure injuries (PIs) in patients placed on a static air support surfaces: mattress overlay, heel wedge, and seat cushion. Multicenter cohort study. The sample comprised 176 residents; their mean age was 87 (SD = 6.76) years; their mean Braden Scale score was 14 (SD = 2.54). The study was performed on a convenience sample of 6 nursing homes in Belgium. Data were collected on 23 care units. The primary outcome measure, cumulative PI incidence (category [stage] II-IV) over a 30-day observation period, was calculated. Pressure injury occurrence was defined according to the 2014 European and US National Pressure Injury Advisory panels, Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance classification system. The PI incidence for category (stage) II-IV was 5.1%. Six residents (3.4%) developed a category II PI, and 3 (1.7%) developed a category III PI; no category IV ulcers occurred. No significant risk factors for category II-IV PIs were identified using multivariate logistic regression. Time of sitting in a chair was found to be a risk factor for development of nonblanchable erythema (category I PI) (odds ratio = 21.608; 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.510-22.812; P = .013). The median time to develop a category II-IV PI was 16 days (interquartile range = 2-26). The interrater reliability between the observations of the researcher and nurses on-site was almost perfect (0.86; 95% CI, 0.81-0.91). We found a low incidence of PIs when using a static air overlay mattress for patients at risk in a nursing home population. Static air support surfaces, alongside patient-tailored patient repositioning protocols, should be considered to prevent PIs in this patient population.
Keita, Akilah Dulin; Risica, Patricia M; Drenner, Kelli L; Adams, Ingrid; Gorham, Gemma; Gans, Kim M
This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention designed to empower low-income racially/ethnically diverse parents to modify their children's health behaviors. We used a prospective design with pre-/posttest evaluation of 50 parent-child pairs (children aged 2 to 5 years) to examine potential changes in dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors among children at baseline and four-month follow-up. 39 (78%) parent-child pairs completed evaluation data at 4-month follow-up. Vegetable intake among children significantly increased at follow-up (0.54 cups at 4 months compared to 0.28 cups at baseline, P = 0.001) and ounces of fruit juice decreased at follow-up (11.9 ounces at 4 months compared to 16.0 ounces at baseline, P = 0.036). Sedentary behaviors also improved. Children significantly decreased time spent watching TV on weekdays (P < 0.01) and also reduced weekend TV time. In addition, the number of homes with TV sets in the child's bedroom also decreased (P < 0.0013). The findings indicate that a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention is feasible, acceptable and demonstrates short-term effects on dietary and sedentary behaviors of low-income racially/ethnically diverse children.
Darragh, Amy Rowntree; Stallones, Lorann; Bigelow, Phillip L; Keefe, Thomas J
The construction industry typically has one of the highest fatal and non-fatal injury rates compared with other industries. Residential construction workers are at particular risk of injury (work is in remote sites with small crews, there are often many subcontractors, and they have limited access to safety programs). Difficulty accessing information specific to this group has made research more challenging, therefore, there are few studies. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the HomeSafe Pilot Program, a safety education and training program designed to reduce injuries among residential construction workers. Researchers evaluated whether overall and severe injury incidence rates declined during the intervention period. Data were analyzed using incidence rates and Poisson regression to control for the effect of antecedent secular trend. Injury incidence rates declined significantly following HomeSafe; however, this effect was not statistically significant once temporal variation was controlled. The decline in injury rates following HomeSafe cannot be attributed solely to HomeSafe, however, programmatic and methodologic limitations contributed to the inconclusive results. Further research into the hazards faced by residential construction workers is needed. Am. J. Ind. Med. 45:210-217, 2004. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Thurber, Katherine; Burgess, Leonie; Falster, Kathleen; Banks, Emily; Möller, Holger; Ivers, Rebecca; Cowell, Chris; Isaac, Vivian; Kalucy, Deanna; Fernando, Peter; Woodall, Cheryl; Clapham, Kathleen
Despite being disproportionately affected by injury, little is known about factors associated with injury in Aboriginal children. We investigated factors associated with injury among urban Aboriginal children attending four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in New South Wales, Australia. We examined characteristics of caregiver-reported child injury, and calculated prevalence ratios of 'ever-injury' by child, family, and environmental factors. Among children in the cohort, 29% (n=373/1,303) had ever broken a bone, been knocked out, required stitches or been hospitalised for a burn or poisoning; 40-78% of first injuries occurred at home and 60-91% were treated in hospital. Reported ever-injury was significantly lower (prevalence ratio ≤0.80) among children who were female, younger, whose caregiver had low psychological distress and had not been imprisoned, whose family experienced few major life events, and who hadn't experienced alcohol misuse in the household or theft in the community, compared to other cohort members. In this urban Aboriginal child cohort, injury was common and associated with measures of family and community vulnerability. Implications for public health: Prevention efforts targeting upstream injury determinants and Aboriginal children living in vulnerable families may reduce child injury. Existing broad-based intervention programs for vulnerable families may present opportunities to deliver targeted injury prevention. © 2017 The Authors.
Power, Jenelle; Gobeil, Renee; Beaudette, Janelle N; Ritchie, Mary B; Brown, Shelley L; Smith, Hayden P
The relationship between types of childhood abuse, suicide attempts, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) was examined in a sample of 415 incarcerated adults (268 men, 147 women). Men and women were equally likely to experience childhood abuse, although women were more likely to report sexual abuse and men were more likely to report emotional neglect. Sexual abuse was the only type of abuse found to predict NSSI and suicide attempts in women. For men, physical abuse and physical neglect were significant predictors of NSSI and suicide attempts, respectively. Gender differences exist and should be examined in future research in this area. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.
Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Holmes, Bjarne; Easterbrooks, Ann; Brooks, Nancy Hall
The primary objective was to assess whether prospectively observed quality of parent-child interaction in infancy and middle childhood contributed to the prediction of borderline symptoms and recurrent suicidality/self-injury in late adolescence. Adolescents (mean 19.9 years) from 56 families participating in a longitudinal study since infancy (retention rate 74%) were assessed on the SCID-II for symptoms of borderline personality disorder, including suicidality/self-injury. Early clinical risk was indexed by clinical referral to parent-infant services. Attachment security and parent-child interaction were assessed from videotape at 18 months and 8 years. Severity of childhood abuse was rated from interview and self-report measures. Maternal withdrawal in infancy was a significant predictor of both borderline symptoms and suicidality/self-injury in late adolescence. Disorganizedcontrolling child behavior at age 8 contributed independently to the prediction of borderline symptoms. The effect of maternal withdrawal was independent of, and additive to, variability explained by severity of childhood abuse. Borderline symptoms and suicidality/self-injury may be preceded developmentally by disturbed interactions as early as 18 months of age. A parent-child transactional model is proposed to account for the findings. PMID:23123044
Kennedy, Eleanor; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus
Recent research suggests a link between traumatic brain injury (TBI) in youth and later risk behaviour. We explored the association between mild TBI and psychiatric symptoms, substance use and criminal behaviour using data from a longitudinal birth cohort. Participants with mild TBI (n = 800), orthopaedic injuries (n = 2305) and no injuries (n = 8307) were identified from self and parent reports up to age 16 years. Self-report measures of substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) and criminal behaviours, and parent-reported psychiatric symptoms were collected at age 17 years. Analyses were adjusted for pre-birth and early childhood confounders. Participants with a TBI showed increased odds of hazardous alcohol use compared to those with no injury and those with an orthopaedic injury. Relative to those with no injury, participants with a TBI showed increased odds of problematic use of tobacco and cannabis, being in trouble with the police and having more parent-reported conduct problems. Sustaining either a TBI or an orthopaedic injury increased the odds of offending behaviour compared to having no injuries. There was no clear evidence of association between orthopaedic injury and the other risk outcomes. The increased odds of risk behaviour associated with TBI relative to no injury replicated previous research. However, the inclusion of a non-brain-related injury group adds evidence for a possible causal pathway between mild TBI in youth and later hazardous alcohol use only. This highlights the importance of including an additional negative control injury group in mild TBI research.
Newman, Nick; Jones, Camille; Page, Elena; Ceballos, Diana; Oza, Aalok
Lead affects the developing nervous system of children, and no safe blood lead level (BLL) in children has been identified. Elevated BLLs in childhood are associated with hyperactivity, attention problems, conduct problems, and impairment in cognition. Young children are at higher risk for environmental lead exposure from putting their hands or contaminated objects in their mouth. Although deteriorating lead paint in pre-1979 housing is the most common source of lead exposure in children, data indicate that ≥30% of children with elevated BLLs were exposed through a source other than paint. Take-home contamination occurs when lead dust is transferred from the workplace on employees' skin, clothing, shoes, and other personal items to their car and home. Recycling of used electronics (e-scrap) is a relatively recent source of exposure to developmental neurotoxicants, including lead. In 2010, the Cincinnati Health Department and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (PEHSU) investigated two cases of childhood lead poisoning in a single family. In 2012, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) learned about the lead poisonings during an evaluation of the e-scrap recycling facility where the father of the two children with lead poisoning worked. This report summarizes the case investigation. Pediatricians should ask about parents' occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating elevated BLLs in children, in routine lead screening questionnaires, and in evaluating children with signs or symptoms of lead exposure.
Anvar, Bardia; Okonkwo, Henry
This study examined the efficacy of bedside surgical debridement in a nursing home population. A retrospective chart review was performed of sacrum, sacrococcyx, coccyx, ischium, and trochanter (SSCIT) region pressure injuries in the Skilled Wound Care practice (Los Angeles, CA). The patient population was refined from 2128 to 227 patients visited 8 or more times during nursing home stays found to have 1 or more SSCIT pressure injuries. Of the 227 patients, there were approximately 319 individual SSCIT wounds, with an average of 1.4 SSCIT wounds per patient. Bedside surgical debridement was performed using a sharp excisional technique on 190 of 319 (59.5%) SSCIT wounds. An analysis of the square surface area of the 190 debrided wound sites revealed a mean ulcer surface area of 20.76 cm2. Of those 190 wound sites, 138 (73%) had a reduction in square surface area, and 52 (27%) had no change or an increase in square surface area and were categorized as nonresponders. Of the wounds that did improve by a reduction in wound surface area, the average wound surface area reduction was 6.81 cm2 at 4 weeks (25%), 8.91 cm2 reduction at 8 weeks (33%), and 10.87 cm2 reduction at 12 weeks (40%). From the 190 wound sites, there were a total of 43 (23%) wounds that had a square surface area of 0 (reepithelialized), which has a healing rate of 23%. Traditional bedside debridement provides excellent results in reducing the square surface area for a majority of wounds. Whether used alone or as an adjunct to any treatment plan, the use of surgical sharp equipment aids in achieving good wound healing and advancing the rate of wound closure. Although wound healing requires many components, sharp debridement can effectively remove devitalized tissue and is a proven significant component to advancing wound closure.
Weaver, Nancy L.; Williams, Janice; Jacobsen, Heather A.; Botello-Harbaum, Maria; Glasheen, Cristie; Noelcke, Elizabeth; Nansel, Tonja R.
This article describes the process of translating Safe n’ Sound, a computer-based program for parents of young children, for a general clinic environment. Safe n’ Sound is designed to reduce the risk of unintentional childhood injuries, the leading cause of death among children older than 1 year in the United States. The evidence-based program produces tailored information for parents and their healthcare provider about burns, falls, poisoning, drowning, suffocations, choking prevention, and car safety. To offer Safe n’ Sound to a broader audience, we translated the program from the form used for efficacy testing to a stand-alone application. Notable steps in this translation included (1) conducting an organizational assessment to determine the needs of the clinic staff and feasibility of implementation, (2) modifying the program to reduce length, prioritize risk areas, and update content, (3) repackaging the program to minimize cost and space requirements, and (4) developing promotional and instructional materials. Factors contributing to the success of this effort include strong collaborative partnerships, the relative advantage of Safe n’ Sound over traditional materials, the modifiable design of the program, and the support of the clinic staff and providers. Challenges and areas for future work are discussed. PMID:18287925
Background Home hazards are associated with toddlers receiving unintentional home injuries (UHI). These result in not only physical and psychological difficulties for children, but also economic losses and additional stress for their families. Few researchers pay attention to predictors of home hazards among toddlers in a systematic way. The purpose of this study is firstly to describe the characteristics of homes with hazards and secondly to explore the predicted relationship of children, parents and family factors to home hazards among toddlers aged 24–47 months in Wenzhou, China. Methods A random cluster sampling was employed to select 366 parents having children aged 24 – 47 months from 13 kindergartens between March and April of 2012. Four instruments assessed home hazards, demographics, parent’s awareness of UHI, as well as family functioning. Results Descriptive statistics showed that the mean of home hazards was 12.29 (SD = 6.39). The nine kinds of home hazards that were identified in over 50% of households were: plastic bags (74.3%), coin buttons (69.1%), and toys with small components (66.7%) etc. Multivariate linear regression revealed that the predictors of home hazards were the child’s age, the child’s residential status and family functioning (b = .19, 2.02, - .07, p < .01, < .05 and < .01, respectively). Conclusions The results showed that a higher number of home hazards were significantly attributed to older toddlers, migrant toddlers and poorer family functioning. This result suggested that heath care providers should focus on the vulnerable family and help the parents assess home hazards. Further study is needed to find interventions on how to manage home hazards for toddlers in China. PMID:24953678
Breit-Smith, Allison; Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M
The present article illustrates how the National Household Education Surveys (NHES; U.S. Department of Education, 2009) database might be used to address questions of relevance to researchers who are concerned with literacy development among young children. Following a general description of the NHES database, a study is provided that examines the extent to which parent-reported home literacy activities and child emergent literacy skills differ for children with (a) developmental disabilities versus those who are developing typically, (b) single disability versus multiple disabilities, and (c) speech-language disability only versus other types of disabilities. Four hundred and seventy-eight preschool-age children with disabilities and a typically developing matched sample (based on parent report) were identified in the 2005 administration of the Early Childhood Program Participation (ECPP) Survey in the NHES database. Parent responses to survey items were then compared between groups. After controlling for age and socioeconomic status, no significant differences were found in the frequency of home literacy activities for children with and without disabilities. Parents reported higher levels of emergent literacy skills for typically developing children relative to children with disabilities. These findings suggest the importance of considering the home literacy experiences and emergent literacy skills of young children with disabilities when making clinical recommendations.
Schmidt, Michael A.
This book describes current controversy in medical journals over existing treatments for chronic childhood earaches. It suggests that the causes of otitis media are a series of events which flourish when poor nutrition occurs, noting that careful attention to diet and nutrition to prevent food allergies, and the use of acupressure, homeopathic…
Whitebook, Marcy; Sakai, Laura; Kipnis, Fran
In 2009, the authors surveyed a population of 1,588 persons who work in three types of early childhood infrastructure organizations in California--child care resource and referral programs, local First 5 commissions and as child care coordinators. All of these infrastructure organizations receive public dollars and at least one of each type is…
Treble-Barna, Amery; Schultz, Hanna; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L
The present study utilized ecobehavioral assessment to examine classroom functioning several years following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) or orthopedic injury (OI) and its association with injury factors, neuropsychological abilities, and academic performance. Participants included 39 children with moderate to severe TBI and 51 children with OI sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. At 7.2 (± 1.3) years post injury, ecobehavioral assessment was used to examine classroom functioning. Additional outcomes included neuropsychological tests, parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior, and teacher ratings of academic performance. Groups were compared on measures controlling for demographic characteristics, and associations among outcomes were examined using linear regression. Children with TBI showed lower academic engagement relative to children with OI, as well as more frequent individual teacher attention for children with more severe injuries. For children with TBI, difficulties in classroom functioning were associated with lower cognitive flexibility and higher parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior. Lower scores on a test of fluid reasoning and a greater frequency of individual teacher attention were also associated with lower academic performance in children with TBI. Difficulties in classroom functioning are evident several years after early childhood TBI and were associated with greater injury severity, neuropsychological weaknesses, and poorer academic performance. Children with impaired cognitive flexibility and fluid reasoning skills were at greatest risk for these difficulties and associated weaknesses in academic performance. Instructional interactions may be a potential target for intervention to promote academic progress in at-risk children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Catroppa, Cathy; Hearps, Stephen; Crossley, Louise; Yeates, Keith; Beauchamp, Miriam; Fusella, Jessica; Anderson, Vicki
This study sought to investigate social and behavioral outcomes 12 months following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to identify predictors of these outcomes. The study also compared rates of impairment in social and behavioral outcomes at 12 months post-injury between children with TBI and a typically developing (TD) control group. The study comprised 114 children ages 5.5 to 16.0 years, 79 with mild, moderate, or severe TBI and 35 TD children, group-matched for age, sex and socio-economic status. Children with TBI were recruited via consecutive hospital admissions and TD children from the community. Social and behavioral outcomes were measured via parent-rated questionnaires. Analysis of covariance models identified a significant mean difference between the mild and moderate groups for social problems only, but the moderate and severe TBI groups showed a higher rate of impairment, particularly in externalizing problems. Pre-injury function, injury severity, parent mental health, and child self-esteem all contributed significantly to predicting social and behavioral outcomes. Both injury and non-injury factors should be considered when identifying children at risk for long-term difficulties in social and behavioral domains.
Anderson, Vicki; Brown, Sandra; Newitt, Heidi; Hoile, Hannah
To examine long-term outcomes from child traumatic brain injury (TBI) and relevance of injury severity. A retrospective cross-sectional design. One hundred and twenty-four young adult survivors of childhood TBI (81 men), aged 18 to 30 years at evaluation (mean = 23.5, SD = 2.9), with injury on average 13.7 years prior to evaluation divided according to injury severity: mild (n = 60), moderate (n = 27), and severe (n = 37). Questionnaires assessed educational and employment status, psychosocial function, and quality-of-life issues. Functional difficulties persisted into adulthood. Injury severity was a particularly strong predictor of long-term outcomes, with environmental factors playing a less consistent role. Survivors of severe TBI were particularly vulnerable, demonstrating global impairment: poorer school performance, employment difficulties, poor quality of life, and increased risk of mental health problems. Mild and moderate TBI were more benign, although lower educational attainment and employment status were identified, and moderate TBI was associated with late developing mental health issues. Traumatic brain injury is a lifelong problem, compromising the individual's capacity to meet developmental expectations across a wide range of functional domains.
Walsh, Kathleen E; Biggins, Colleen; Blasko, Deb; Christiansen, Steven M; Fischer, Shira H; Keuker, Christopher; Klugman, Robert; Mazor, Kathleen M
Errors in the use of medications at home by children with cancer are common, and interventions to support correct use are needed. We sought to (1) engage stakeholders in the design and development of an intervention to prevent errors in home medication use, and (2) evaluate the acceptability and usefulness of the intervention. We convened a multidisciplinary team of parents, clinicians, technology experts, and researchers to develop an intervention using a two-step user-centered design process. First, parents and oncologists provided input on the design. Second, a parent panel and two oncology nurses refined draft materials. In a feasibility study, we used questionnaires to assess usefulness and acceptability. Medication error rates were assessed via monthly telephone interviews with parents. We successfully partnered with parents, clinicians, and IT experts to develop Home Medication Support (HoMeS), a family-centered Web-based intervention. HoMeS includes a medication calendar with decision support, a communication tool, adverse effect information, a metric conversion chart, and other information. The 15 families in the feasibility study gave HoMeS high ratings for acceptability and usefulness. Half recorded information on the calendar to indicate to other caregivers that doses were given; 34% brought it to the clinic to communicate with their clinician about home medication use. There was no change in the rate of medication errors in this feasibility study. We created and tested a stakeholder-designed, Web-based intervention to support home chemotherapy use, which parents rated highly. This tool may prevent serious medication errors in a larger study. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Fisher, Abigail; Fildes, Alison; Wardle, Jane
The home environment is likely to influence children's diet and activity patterns and ultimately, their weight trajectories. Identifying family characteristics associated with a more 'obesogenic' home can provide insight into the determinants, and has implications for targeting and tailoring strategies to promote healthier lifestyles. The present study examined maternal characteristics associated with a more obesogenic home environment in 1113 families with preschool children. Primary caregivers (99% mothers) from the Gemini cohort completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI) when their children were 4 years old. Maternal demographics and BMI were assessed in the Gemini baseline questionnaire when the children were on average 8 months old. Maternal eating style was assessed when the children were on average 2 years old, using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). Responses to the HEI were standardised and summed to create a composite score of the obesogenic quality of the home; this was categorised into tertiles. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression showed that mothers who were younger (adjusted OR; 95% CI = 0.96; 0.94-0.98), less educated (1.97; 1.40-2.77), and had lower incomes (1.89; 1.43-2.49) at baseline were more likely to live in an obesogenic home environment at 4 years, as were mothers who scored higher on the DEBQ External Eating scale (1.40; 1.16-1.70) at 2 years, and had a higher baseline BMI (1.05; 1.02-1.08). Using a novel, composite measure of the home environment, this study finds that families who are more socio-economically deprived, and where the mothers are themselves heavier and have a more food responsive eating style, tend to provide a home environment with the hallmarks of a higher risk of weight gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gustavsson, Johanna; Bonander, Carl; Andersson, Ragnar; Nilson, Finn
Fall-related injuries affect the lives of elderly to a substantial degree. This quasi-experimental study investigates the fall-injury reducing effect of impact absorbing flooring among female nursing home residents. The intervention site is a nursing home in Sweden where impact absorbing flooring was installed in parts of one of six wards (six out of 10 apartments (excluding bathrooms), the communal dining-room and parts of the corridor). The impact absorbing flooring is a 12 mm thick closed cell flexible polyurethane/polyurea composite tile (500×500 mm) with an exterior surface of polyurethane/polyurea. A generalised linear model (log-binomial) was used to calculate the RR of injury from falls on impact absorbing flooring compared to falls on regular flooring, adjusted for age, body mass index, visual and cognitive impairments. During the study period (1 October 2011 to 31 March 2014), 254 falls occurred on regular flooring and 77 falls on impact absorbing flooring. The injury/fall rate was 30.3% for falls on regular flooring and 16.9% for falls on impact absorbing flooring. Adjusted for covariates, the impact absorbing flooring significantly reduced the RR of injury in the event of a fall by 59% (RR 0.41 (95% Cl 0.20 to 0.80)). This is, to our knowledge, the first study evaluating the injury-reducing effect of impact absorbing flooring in a nursing home showing statistically significant effect. The results from this study are promising, indicating the considerable potential of impact absorbing flooring as a fall-related injury intervention among frail elderly. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Mann, Courtney M; Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Long Vidal, Lenita J; Omar, Sakinah; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J; Østbye, Truls
Many families rely on child care outside the home, making these settings important influences on child development. Nearly 1.5 million children in the U.S. spend time in family child care homes (FCCHs), where providers care for children in their own residences. There is some evidence that children in FCCHs are heavier than those cared for in centers. However, few interventions have targeted FCCHs for obesity prevention. This paper will describe the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) framework to the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention for FCCHs Following the IM protocol, six steps were completed in the planning and development of an intervention targeting FCCHs: needs assessment, formulation of change objectives matrices, selection of theory-based methods and strategies, creation of intervention components and materials, adoption and implementation planning, and evaluation planning Application of the IM process resulted in the creation of the Keys to Healthy Family Child Care Homes program (Keys), which includes three modules: Healthy You, Healthy Home, and Healthy Business. Delivery of each module includes a workshop, educational binder and tool-kit resources, and four coaching contacts. Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory helped guide development of change objective matrices, selection of behavior change strategies, and identification of outcome measures. The Keys program is currently being evaluated through a cluster-randomized controlled trial The IM process, while time-consuming, enabled rigorous and systematic development of intervention components that are directly tied to behavior change theory and may increase the potential for behavior change within the FCCHs.
Blasczyk-Schiep, Sybilla; Jaworska-Andryszewska, Paulina
In the bordeline personality disorder (BPD) a large role ascribe to psychological and psychosocial factors. Studies have shown that more than 70% patients BPD reported experiencing traumatic events in childhood. These people compare with patients with other psychiatric disorders often report history of sexual abuse and experience of violence or neglect. Making self-harming can be a reaction to negative experiences in childhood. The findings are confirming that making self-harming is a frequent symptom of BPD and 70-75% patients show at least one act self-harming. Moreover a lowered tolerance level is characteristic of them to the stress and determined course learning dysfunctional patterns of behavior. The aim of this study is to determine the childhood trauma such as sexual, psychological and physical abuse, emotional and physical neglect and to investigate their relation to stress, self-harming and suicidal behavior. In study participated 41 persons with emotionally unstable borderline personality diagnosis. In the group was 32 women and 9 men in age 19-43. The Polish adaptation of standardized questionnaires was used to measure childhood trauma (CTQ), stress (SSI-K), self-injurious behavior (SHI) and suicidal tendencies (RFL-I). In patients with BPD the level of childhood trauma and stress are predictors of self-harming behavior and suicidal tendencies. The mediation analyze showed, that self-harming was an important mediator between sexual abuse and suicidal tendencies. The high stress is the next mediator between sexual abuse and the level of self-harming behavior. A high level of childhood trauma correlates positively with stress, self-harming and suicidal behavior in patients with BPD.
Morgan, Angela T; Masterton, Richard; Pigdon, Lauren; Connelly, Alan; Liégeois, Frédérique J
Severe and persistent speech disorder, dysarthria, may be present for life after brain injury in childhood, yet the neural correlates of this chronic disorder remain elusive. Although abundant literature is available on language reorganization after lesions in childhood, little is known about the capacity of motor speech networks to reorganize after injury. Here, we examine the structural and functional neural correlates associated with chronic dysarthria after childhood-onset traumatic brain injury. Forty-nine participants aged 12 years 3 months to 24 years 11 months were recruited to the study: (i) a group with chronic dysarthria (n = 17); matched for age and sex with two control groups of (ii) healthy control subjects (n = 17); and (iii) individuals without dysarthria after traumatic brain injury (n = 15). A high-resolution 3D T(1)-weighted whole-brain data set was acquired for voxel-based morphometry analyses of group differences in grey matter. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to localize activation associated with speaking single words (baseline: listening to words). Group differences on voxel-based morphometry revealed widespread grey matter reductions in the dysarthric group compared with healthy control subjects, including in numerous speech motor regions bilaterally, such as the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and primary motor cortex representation of the articulators. Relative to the non-dysarthric traumatic brain injury group, individuals with dysarthria showed reduced grey matter bilaterally in the ventral sensorimotor cortex, but this reduction was concomitant with increased functional activation only in the left-hemisphere cluster during speech. Finally, increased recruitment of Broca's area (Brodmann area 45, pars triangularis) but not its right homologue, correlated with better speech outcome, suggesting that this 'higher-level' area may be more critically involved with production when associated motor speech regions are damaged. We
Soliman, A T; Adel, A; Soliman, N A; Elalaily, R; De Sanctis, V
AIMS OF REVIEW: the intent of the current manuscript is to critically review the studies on pituitary gland dysfunction in early childhood following traumatic brain injury (TBI), in comparison with those in adults. Search of the literature: The MEDLINE database was accessed through PubMed in April 2015. Results were restricted to the past 15 years and English language of articles. Both transient and permanent hypopituitarisms are not uncommon after TBI. Early after the TBI, pituitary dysfunction/s differ than those occurring after few weeks and months. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and alterations in puberty are the most common. After the one to more years of TBI, pituitary dysfunction tends to improve in some patients but may deteriorate in others. GH deficiency as well as Hypogonadism and thyroid dysfunction are the most common permanent lesions. Many of the symptoms of these endocrine defects can pass unnoticed because of the psychomotor defects associated with the TBI like depression and apathy. Unfortunately pituitary dysfunction appear to negatively affect psycho-neuro-motor recovery as well as growth and pubertal development of children and adolescents after TBI. Therefore, the current review highlights the importance of closely following patients, especially children and adolescents for growth and other symptoms and signs suggestive of endocrine dysfunction. In addition, all should be screened serially for possible endocrine disturbances early after the TBI as well as few months to a year after the injury. Risk factors for pituitary dysfunction after TBI include relatively serious TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score < 10 and MRI showing damage to the hypothalamic pituitary area), diffuse brain swelling and the occurrence of hypotensive and/or hypoxic episodes. There is a considerable risk of developing pituitary dysfunction after TBI in children and adolescents. These patients should be clinically followed and screened for these abnormalities according to an
Bacic, Janine; Velasquez, Esther; Hammer, Leslie B
Objectives Qualitative studies have highlighted the possibility of job loss following occupational injuries for some workers, but prospective investigations are scant. We used a sample of nursing home workers from the Work, Family, and Health Network to prospectively investigate association between occupational injuries and job loss. Methods We merged data on 1331 workers assessed four times over an 18-month period with administrative data that include job loss from employers and publicly-available data on their workplaces. Workers self-reported occupational injuries in surveys. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated risk ratios for the impact of occupational injuries on overall job loss, whereas multinomial models were used to estimate odds ratio of voluntary and involuntary job loss. Use of marginal structural models allowed for adjustments of multilevel list of confounders that may be time-varying and/or on the causal pathway. Results By 12 months, 30.3% of workers experienced occupational injury, whereas 24.2% experienced job loss by 18 months. Comparing workers who reported occupational injuries to those reporting no injuries, risk ratio of overall job loss within subsequent 6 months was 1.31 (95% CI=0.93–1.86). Comparing the same groups, injured workers had higher odds of experiencing involuntary job loss (OR:2.19; 95% CI:1.27–3.77). Also, compared to uninjured workers, those injured more than once had higher odds of voluntary job loss (OR:1.95; 95% CI:1.03–3.67), while those injured once had higher odds of involuntary job loss (OR:2.19; 95% CI:1.18–4.05). Conclusions Despite regulatory protections, occupational injuries were associated with increased risk of voluntary and involuntary job loss for nursing home workers. PMID:26786757
Pauliah, Shreela S.; Bainbridge, Alan; Kurien, Justin; Sivasamy, Neeraja; Cowan, Frances M.; Balraj, Guhan; Ayer, Manjula; Satheesan, Kariyapilly; Ceebi, Sreejith; Wade, Angie; Swamy, Ravi; Padinjattel, Shaji; Hutchon, Betty; Vijayakumar, Madhava; Nair, Mohandas; Padinharath, Krishnakumar; Zhang, Hui; Cady, Ernest B.; Shankaran, Seetha; Thayyil, Sudhin
Although brain injury after neonatal encephalopathy has been characterised well in high-income countries, little is known about such injury in low- and middle-income countries. Such injury accounts for an estimated 1 million neonatal deaths per year. We used magnetic resonance (MR) biomarkers to characterise perinatal brain injury, and examined early childhood outcomes in South India. Methods We recruited consecutive term or near term infants with evidence of perinatal asphyxia and a Thompson encephalopathy score ≥6 within 6 h of birth, over 6 months. We performed conventional MR imaging, diffusion tensor MR imaging and thalamic proton MR spectroscopy within 3 weeks of birth. We computed group-wise differences in white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) using tract based spatial statistics. We allocated Sarnat encephalopathy stage aged 3 days, and evaluated neurodevelopmental outcomes aged 3½ years using Bayley III. Results Of the 54 neonates recruited, Sarnat staging was mild in 30 (56%); moderate in 15 (28%) and severe in 6 (11%), with no encephalopathy in 3 (6%). Six infants died. Of the 48 survivors, 44 had images available for analysis. In these infants, imaging indicated perinatal rather than established antenatal origins to injury. Abnormalities were frequently observed in white matter (n = 40, 91%) and cortex (n = 31, 70%) while only 12 (27%) had abnormal basal ganglia/thalami. Reduced white matter FA was associated with Sarnat stage, deep grey nuclear injury, and MR spectroscopy N-acetylaspartate/choline, but not early Thompson scores. Outcome data were obtained in 44 infants (81%) with 38 (79%) survivors examined aged 3½ years; of these, 16 (42%) had adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Conclusions No infants had evidence for established brain lesions, suggesting potentially treatable perinatal origins. White matter injury was more common than deep brain nuclei injury. Our results support the need for rigorous evaluation of the efficacy of
Lally, Peter J; Price, David L; Pauliah, Shreela S; Bainbridge, Alan; Kurien, Justin; Sivasamy, Neeraja; Cowan, Frances M; Balraj, Guhan; Ayer, Manjula; Satheesan, Kariyapilly; Ceebi, Sreejith; Wade, Angie; Swamy, Ravi; Padinjattel, Shaji; Hutchon, Betty; Vijayakumar, Madhava; Nair, Mohandas; Padinharath, Krishnakumar; Zhang, Hui; Cady, Ernest B; Shankaran, Seetha; Thayyil, Sudhin
Although brain injury after neonatal encephalopathy has been characterised well in high-income countries, little is known about such injury in low- and middle-income countries. Such injury accounts for an estimated 1 million neonatal deaths per year. We used magnetic resonance (MR) biomarkers to characterise perinatal brain injury, and examined early childhood outcomes in South India. We recruited consecutive term or near term infants with evidence of perinatal asphyxia and a Thompson encephalopathy score ≥6 within 6 h of birth, over 6 months. We performed conventional MR imaging, diffusion tensor MR imaging and thalamic proton MR spectroscopy within 3 weeks of birth. We computed group-wise differences in white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) using tract based spatial statistics. We allocated Sarnat encephalopathy stage aged 3 days, and evaluated neurodevelopmental outcomes aged 3½ years using Bayley III. Of the 54 neonates recruited, Sarnat staging was mild in 30 (56%); moderate in 15 (28%) and severe in 6 (11%), with no encephalopathy in 3 (6%). Six infants died. Of the 48 survivors, 44 had images available for analysis. In these infants, imaging indicated perinatal rather than established antenatal origins to injury. Abnormalities were frequently observed in white matter (n = 40, 91%) and cortex (n = 31, 70%) while only 12 (27%) had abnormal basal ganglia/thalami. Reduced white matter FA was associated with Sarnat stage, deep grey nuclear injury, and MR spectroscopy N-acetylaspartate/choline, but not early Thompson scores. Outcome data were obtained in 44 infants (81%) with 38 (79%) survivors examined aged 3½ years; of these, 16 (42%) had adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. No infants had evidence for established brain lesions, suggesting potentially treatable perinatal origins. White matter injury was more common than deep brain nuclei injury. Our results support the need for rigorous evaluation of the efficacy of rescue hypothermic
Ono, Y; Lagerström, M; Hagberg, M; Lindén, A; Malker, B
OBJECTIVES--To describe the nationwide occurrence of work related musculoskeletal injuries among all home care service workers in Sweden, and to identify relative risks and risk factors of the injuries. METHODS--The study was based on work related injuries reported to the Swedish occupational injury information system in 1990-1. The work related musculoskeletal injuries were divided into overexertion accidents and musculoskeletal diseases. The incidence of the injuries in female home care service workers was compared with those in nursery school workers and all other employed women in Sweden. RESULTS--In home care service workers, the annual incidence of injury from overexertion accidents and musculoskeletal diseases were 19.2 and 15.1 per 1000 workers, respectively, which was higher than those in nursery school workers and all employed women in Sweden. For five injury locations including the back, all the age standardised relative risks (SRR) of overexertion accidents exceeded 4.0, and most of those for musculoskeletal diseases were 1.5 or more in home care service workers compared with all other employed women in Sweden. Total duration of sick leave due to overexertion accidents was 7.7 times, and musculoskeletal diseases 3.5 times, longer than in nursery school workers. National loss due to sick leave resulting from only musculoskeletal injuries in home care service workers was about 8.2% of the total work related sick leave in all employed women in Sweden, although the number of home care service workers represented only some 5% of this population. Lifting other people was most frequently reported as the main risk cause of overexertion accidents in both kinds of workers. CONCLUSIONS--The results support the hypothesis that home care service workers have higher annual injury incidence of musculoskeletal injuries than nursery school workers due to physically stressful tasks that are far less common in nursery school workers. PMID:7489060
Al Himdani, Sarah; Javed, Muhammad Umair; Hughes, Juliana; Falconer, Olivia; Bidder, Christopher; Hemington-Gorse, Sarah; Nguyen, Dai
Steam inhalation has long been considered a beneficial home remedy to treat children with viral respiratory tract infections, but there is no evidence to suggest a benefit and children are at risk of serious burn injuries. To determine the demographics, mechanism, management, and costs of steam inhalation therapy scalds to a regional burns centre in the UK, and to ascertain whether this practice is recommended by primary care providers. A retrospective study of all patients admitted to a regional burns centre in Swansea, Wales, with steam inhalation therapy scalds. Patients who attended the burns centre for steam inhalation therapy scalds between January 2010 and February 2015 were identified using the burns database and data on patient demographics, treatment, and costs incurred were recorded. In addition, an electronic survey was e-mailed to 150 local GPs to determine whether they recommended steam inhalation therapy to patients. Sixteen children attended the burns centre with steam inhalation scalds. The average age attending was 7.4 years (range 1-15 years) and, on average, three children per year were admitted. The most common indication was for the common cold (n = 9). The average size of the burns was 3.1% (range: 0.25-17.0%) of total body area. One child was managed surgically; the remainder were treated with dressings, although one patient required a stay in a high-dependency unit. The total cost of treatment for all patients was £37,133. All in all, 17 out of 21 GPs surveyed recommended steam inhalation to their patients; eight out of 19 GPs recommended it for children aged <5 years. Steam inhalation incurs a significant cost to patients and the healthcare system. Its practice continues to be recommended by GPs but children, due to their limited motor skills, curiosity, and poor awareness of danger, are at significant risk of burn injuries and this dangerous practice should no longer be recommended. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Himdani, Sarah Al; Javed, Muhammad Umair; Hughes, Juliana; Falconer, Olivia; Bidder, Christopher; Hemington-Gorse, Sarah; Nguyen, Dai
Background Steam inhalation has long been considered a beneficial home remedy to treat children with viral respiratory tract infections, but there is no evidence to suggest a benefit and children are at risk of serious burn injuries. Aim To determine the demographics, mechanism, management, and costs of steam inhalation therapy scalds to a regional burns centre in the UK, and to ascertain whether this practice is recommended by primary care providers. Design and setting A retrospective study of all patients admitted to a regional burns centre in Swansea, Wales, with steam inhalation therapy scalds. Method Patients who attended the burns centre for steam inhalation therapy scalds between January 2010 and February 2015 were identified using the burns database and data on patient demographics, treatment, and costs incurred were recorded. In addition, an electronic survey was e-mailed to 150 local GPs to determine whether they recommended steam inhalation therapy to patients. Results Sixteen children attended the burns centre with steam inhalation scalds. The average age attending was 7.4 years (range 1–15 years) and, on average, three children per year were admitted. The most common indication was for the common cold (n = 9). The average size of the burns was 3.1% (range: 0.25–17.0%) of total body area. One child was managed surgically; the remainder were treated with dressings, although one patient required a stay in a high-dependency unit. The total cost of treatment for all patients was £37 133. All in all, 17 out of 21 GPs surveyed recommended steam inhalation to their patients; eight out of 19 GPs recommended it for children aged <5 years. Conclusion Steam inhalation incurs a significant cost to patients and the healthcare system. Its practice continues to be recommended by GPs but children, due to their limited motor skills, curiosity, and poor awareness of danger, are at significant risk of burn injuries and this dangerous practice should no longer be
The practice of maternal kissing of minor injuries of childhood (boo-boos), though widely endorsed and practised, has never been demonstrated to be of benefit to children. To determine the efficacy, if any, of maternal kissing of boo-boos in toddlers. Randomized, controlled and double-blinded study of children with experimentally induced minor injuries. Control arms included both no intervention group and 'sham' (non-maternal) kissing. Children were blinded to the identity of the kisser in both the maternal and sham control groups. Outpatient research clinics in Ottawa, Canada. 943 maternal-toddler pairs recruited from the community. Toddler Discomfort Index (TDI) pre-injury, 1 and 5 minutes post-injury. One-minute and 5-minute TDI scores did not differ significantly between the maternal and sham kiss groups. Both of these groups had significantly higher TDI scores at 5 minutes compared to the no intervention group. Maternal kissing of boo-boos confers no benefit on children with minor traumatic injuries compared to both no intervention and sham kissing. In fact, children in the maternal kissing group were significantly more distressed at 5 minutes than were children in the no intervention group. The practice of maternal kissing of boo-boos is not supported by the evidence and we recommend a moratorium on the practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Whitmore, Corrie B; Sarche, Michelle; Ferron, Cathy; Moritsugu, John; Sanchez, Jenae G
Authors in this Special Issue of the Infant Mental Health Journal shared the work of the first three cohorts of Tribal Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) grantees funded by the Administration for Children and Families. Since 2010, Tribal MIECHV grantees have served families and children prenatally to kindergarten entry in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities across the lower 48 United States and Alaska. Articles highlighted challenges and opportunities that arose as grantees adapted, enhanced, implemented, and evaluated their home-visiting models. This article summarizes nine lessons learned across the articles in this Special Issue. Lessons learned address the importance of strengths-based approaches, relationship-building, tribal community stakeholder involvement, capacity-building, alignment of resources and expectations, tribal values, adaptation to increase cultural and contextual attunement, indigenous ways of knowing, community voice, and sustainability. Next steps in Tribal MIECHV are discussed in light of these lessons learned. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Sabuncuoglu, Osman; Berkem, Meral
This study aimed to determine the exact pattern of obsessive--compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms in children displayed across school and home settings. Twenty-six school children (aged 7 through 17) with OCD were tested using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI)--severity subscale and…
Shuper Engelhard, Einat; Klein, Pnina S.; Yablon, Yaacov B.
An attempt was made in the present study to identify mothers' and caregivers' teaching (mediation) behaviour in relation to toddlers' social behaviour. Participants were 103 toddlers, two- to four-year olds, their mothers, and 28 caregivers at 16 public daycare centres in Israel. Two observations were carried out, one in toddlers' homes and the…
Zajicek-Farber, Michaela L.
Objective: A multidisciplinary preventive parent mentoring intervention was applied through home visiting with high-risk families receiving well-baby health care. Two implementations were examined for effectiveness. Method: The first implementation employed a quasiexperimental nonequivalent group design, whereas the second used a randomized…
Dickinson, Denise M.; Hayes, Kim A.; Jackson, Christine; Ennett, Susan T.; Lawson, Caroline
Few alcohol prevention programs focus on elementary school-aged youth, yet children develop expectancies and norms about alcohol use during the elementary school years, and many elementary school children are allowed to have sips or tastes of alcohol at home. Research on consequences of early alcohol use indicates that it can put children at…
McConnell, Rob; Islam, Talat; Shankardass, Ketan; Jerrett, Michael; Lurmann, Fred; Gilliland, Frank; Gauderman, Jim; Avol, Ed; Künzli, Nino; Yao, Ling; Peters, John; Berhane, Kiros
Traffic-related air pollution has been associated with adverse cardiorespiratory effects, including increased asthma prevalence. However, there has been little study of effects of traffic exposure at school on new-onset asthma. We evaluated the relationship of new-onset asthma with traffic-related pollution near homes and schools. Parent-reported physician diagnosis of new-onset asthma (n = 120) was identified during 3 years of follow-up of a cohort of 2,497 kindergarten and first-grade children who were asthma- and wheezing-free at study entry into the Southern California Children's Health Study. We assessed traffic-related pollution exposure based on a line source dispersion model of traffic volume, distance from home and school, and local meteorology. Regional ambient ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and particulate matter were measured continuously at one central site monitor in each of 13 study communities. Hazard ratios (HRs) for new-onset asthma were scaled to the range of ambient central site pollutants and to the residential interquartile range for each traffic exposure metric. Asthma risk increased with modeled traffic-related pollution exposure from roadways near homes [HR 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.82] and near schools (HR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06-1.98). Ambient NO(2) measured at a central site in each community was also associated with increased risk (HR 2.18; 95% CI, 1.18-4.01). In models with both NO(2) and modeled traffic exposures, there were independent associations of asthma with traffic-related pollution at school and home, whereas the estimate for NO(2) was attenuated (HR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.69-2.71). Traffic-related pollution exposure at school and homes may both contribute to the development of asthma.
Berge, Jerica M; Trofholz, Amanda; Tate, Allan D; Beebe, Maureen; Fertig, Angela; Miner, Michael H; Crow, Scott; Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A; Pergament, Shannon; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
There are disparities in the prevalence of childhood obesity for children from low-income and minority households. Mixed-methods studies that examine home environments in an in-depth manner are needed to identify potential mechanisms driving childhood obesity disparities that have not been examined in prior research. The Family Matters study aims to identify risk and protective factors for childhood obesity in low-income and minority households through a two-phased incremental, mixed-methods, and longitudinal approach. Individual, dyadic (i.e., parent/child; siblings), and familial factors that are associated with, or moderate associations with childhood obesity will be examined. Phase I includes in-home observations of diverse families (n=150; 25 each of African American, American Indian, Hispanic/Latino, Hmong, Somali, and White families). In-home observations include: (1) an interactive observational family task; (2) ecological momentary assessment of parent stress, mood, and parenting practices; (3) child and parent accelerometry; (4) three 24-hour child dietary recalls; (5) home food inventory; (6) built environment audit; (7) anthropometry on all family members; (8) an online survey; and (9) a parent interview. Phase I data will be used for analyses and to inform development of a culturally appropriate survey for Phase II. The survey will be administered at two time points to diverse parents (n=1200) of children ages 5-9. The main aim of the current paper is to describe the Family Matters complex study design and protocol and to report Phase I feasibility data for participant recruitment and study completion. Results from this comprehensive study will inform the development of culturally-tailored interventions to reduce childhood obesity disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gielen, Andrea C; Frattaroli, Shannon; Pollack, Keshia M; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen G
In the decades since the landmark report-America Burning-was published in 1973, the number of home fire deaths has shrunk from >5500 per year to 2650 in 2015. This paper: (1) describes how science and practice in injury prevention and fire and life safety contributed to successful interventions, and (2) identifies emerging strategies and future opportunities to prevent home fire-related deaths. The aims are addressed through the lens of population health research, with a focus on the work of selected Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded Injury Control Research Centers. Results are organised using the Haddon Matrix and an ecological model. We found evidence to support interventions that address all components of both the matrix and the model, including: reduced ignition propensity cigarettes, stop smoking campaigns, housing codes, residential sprinkler systems, smoke alarms, community risk reduction, school-based educational programmes, and fire and burn response systems. Future reductions are likely to come from enhancing residential sprinkler and smoke alarm technology, and increasing their utilisation; expanding the use of community risk reduction methods; and implementing new technological solutions. Despite the successes, substantial disparities in home fire death rates remain, reflecting underlying social determinants of health. Most of the evidence-supported interventions were focused on changing the policy and community environments to prevent home fires and reduce injury when a fire occurs. Future prevention efforts should give high priority to addressing the continued disparities in home fire deaths. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Albert, Mark V; Azeze, Yohannes; Courtois, Michael; Jayaraman, Arun
Although commercially available activity trackers can aid in tracking therapy and recovery of patients, most devices perform poorly for patients with irregular movement patterns. Standard machine learning techniques can be applied on recorded accelerometer signals in order to classify the activities of ambulatory subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury in a way that is specific to this population and the location of the recording-at home or in the clinic. Subjects were instructed to perform a standardized set of movements while wearing a waist-worn accelerometer in the clinic and at-home. Activities included lying, sitting, standing, walking, wheeling, and stair climbing. Multiple classifiers and validation methods were used to quantify the ability of the machine learning techniques to distinguish the activities recorded in-lab or at-home. In the lab, classifiers trained and tested using within-subject cross-validation provided an accuracy of 91.6%. When the classifier was trained on data collected in the lab but tested on at home data, the accuracy fell to 54.6% indicating distinct movement patterns between locations. However, the accuracy of the at-home classifications, when training the classifier with at-home data, improved to 85.9%. Individuals with unique movement patterns can benefit from using tailored activity recognition algorithms easily implemented using modern machine learning methods on collected movement data.
Noonan, Curtis W; Semmens, Erin O; Smith, Paul; Harrar, Solomon W; Montrose, Luke; Weiler, Emily; McNamara, Marcy; Ward, Tony J
Household air pollution due to biomass combustion for residential heating adversely affects vulnerable populations. Randomized controlled trials to improve indoor air quality in homes of children with asthma are limited, and no such studies have been conducted in homes using wood for heating. Our aims were to test the hypothesis that household-level interventions, specifically improved-technology wood-burning appliances or air-filtration devices, would improve health measures, in particular Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) scores, relative to placebo, among children living with asthma in homes with wood-burning stoves. A three-arm placebo-controlled randomized trial was conducted in homes with wood-burning stoves among children with asthma. Multiple preintervention and postintervention data included PAQLQ (primary outcome), peak expiratory flow (PEF) monitoring, diurnal peak flow variability (dPFV, an indicator of airway hyperreactivity) and indoor particulate matter (PM) PM2.5. Relative to placebo, neither the air filter nor the woodstove intervention showed improvement in quality-of-life measures. Among the secondary outcomes, dPFV showed a 4.1 percentage point decrease in variability [95% confidence interval (CI)=-7.8 to -0.4] for air-filtration use in comparison with placebo. The air-filter intervention showed a 67% (95% CI: 50% to 77%) reduction in indoor PM2.5, but no change was observed with the improved-technology woodstove intervention. Among children with asthma and chronic exposure to woodsmoke, an air-filter intervention that improved indoor air quality did not affect quality-of-life measures. Intent-to-treat analysis did show an improvement in the secondary measure of dPFV. ClincialTrials.gov NCT00807183. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP849.
Semmens, Erin O.; Smith, Paul; Harrar, Solomon W.; Montrose, Luke; Weiler, Emily; McNamara, Marcy; Ward, Tony J.
Background: Household air pollution due to biomass combustion for residential heating adversely affects vulnerable populations. Randomized controlled trials to improve indoor air quality in homes of children with asthma are limited, and no such studies have been conducted in homes using wood for heating. Objectives: Our aims were to test the hypothesis that household-level interventions, specifically improved-technology wood-burning appliances or air-filtration devices, would improve health measures, in particular Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) scores, relative to placebo, among children living with asthma in homes with wood-burning stoves. Methods: A three-arm placebo-controlled randomized trial was conducted in homes with wood-burning stoves among children with asthma. Multiple preintervention and postintervention data included PAQLQ (primary outcome), peak expiratory flow (PEF) monitoring, diurnal peak flow variability (dPFV, an indicator of airway hyperreactivity) and indoor particulate matter (PM) PM2.5. Results: Relative to placebo, neither the air filter nor the woodstove intervention showed improvement in quality-of-life measures. Among the secondary outcomes, dPFV showed a 4.1 percentage point decrease in variability [95% confidence interval (CI)=−7.8 to −0.4] for air-filtration use in comparison with placebo. The air-filter intervention showed a 67% (95% CI: 50% to 77%) reduction in indoor PM2.5, but no change was observed with the improved-technology woodstove intervention. Conclusions: Among children with asthma and chronic exposure to woodsmoke, an air-filter intervention that improved indoor air quality did not affect quality-of-life measures. Intent-to-treat analysis did show an improvement in the secondary measure of dPFV. Trial registration: ClincialTrials.gov NCT00807183. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP849 PMID:28935614
Lucas, Steven; Jernbro, Carolina; Tindberg, Ylva; Janson, Staffan
The aim was to examine experiences of bullying among Swedish adolescents and whether victims and perpetrators were also exposed to violence in the home, with particular focus on how abuse severity affected the risk of exposure to bullying. A nationally representative sample of pupils aged 14-15 responded to a questionnaire exploring exposure to corporal punishment and other types of violence. Results were analysed using Pearson's chi-square and multiple logistic regression, adjusting for factors regarding the child, the parents and the families' socioeconomic status. Among the 3197 respondents, a significant proportion reported at least one incident of either bullying victimisation (girls 36%, boys 26%) or bullying perpetration (girls 24%, boys 36%). Physical and emotional violence in the home, including witnessed intimate partner violence, were significantly associated with both bullying victimisation and bullying perpetration. Odds ratios for exposure to bullying rose with increasing frequency and severity of abuse. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 for any event of abuse vs. single episodes of bullying to 20.3 for multiple types of abuse vs. many episodes of bullying. The child's gender and the presence of a chronic health condition were consistently associated with nearly all levels of abuse and bullying. Bullying experiences are common among youth and are clearly associated with abuse. Frequent bullying, whether as victim or perpetrator, warrants particular vigilance, as it appears to be an indicator of severe violence in the home. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Houston, Allison; Young, Yuchi; Fitzgerald, Edward F
To examine whether certain personal and workplace factors increase risk for work-related injuries among home health aides. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the 2007 National Survey of Home Health Aides among workers who provided formal caregiving to older adults or people with disabilities (N = 3,377, weighted sample = 160,720). Multivariate logistic regression identified six factors associated with injury: White race (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.18, 3.63); inappropriate workload (OR = 3.27, 95% CI 1.55, 6.93); having multiple jobs (OR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.30, 5.71); job dissatisfaction (OR = 2.71, 95% CI 1.23, 5.96); higher hourly pay rate (OR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.31, 4.33); and working in two locations (inpatient facility and patient's home) compared with working in patient's home only (OR = 2.57, 95% CI 1.51, 4.40). Interventions should be developed to address preventable risk factors. Evaluations of candidate interventions should control for other related factors that are not modifiable.
Lonini, Luca; Reissman, Timothy; Ochoa, Jose M; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya K; Kording, Konrad; Jayaraman, Arun
The objective of rehabilitation after spinal cord injury is to enable successful function in everyday life and independence at home. Clinical tests can assess whether patients are able to execute functional movements but are limited in assessing such information at home. A prototype system is developed that detects stand-to-reach activities, a movement with important functional implications, at multiple locations within a mock kitchen. Ten individuals with incomplete spinal cord injuries performed a sequence of standing and reaching tasks. The system monitored their movements by combining two sources of information: a triaxial accelerometer, placed on the subject's thigh, detected sitting or standing, and a network of radio frequency tags, wirelessly connected to a wrist-worn device, detected reaching at three locations. A threshold-based algorithm detected execution of the combined tasks and accuracy was measured by the number of correctly identified events. The system was shown to have an average accuracy of 98% for inferring when individuals performed stand-to-reach activities at each tag location within the same room. The combination of accelerometry and tags yielded accurate assessments of functional stand-to-reach activities within a home environment. Optimization of this technology could simplify patient compliance and allow clinicians to assess functional home activities.
Atay, Christina; Ryan, Sarah J; Lewis, Fiona M
(1) To investigate outcomes in language competence and self-reported satisfaction with social relationships in long-term survivors of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI); and (2) to establish whether language competence contributes to self-reported satisfaction with social relationships decades after sustaining childhood TBI. Twelve females and 8 males aged 30 to 55 (mean = 39.80, standard deviation = 7.54) years who sustained a TBI during childhood and were on average 31 years postinjury (standard deviation = 9.69). An additional 20 participants matched for age, sex, handedness, years of education, and socioeconomic status constituted a control group. Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition and the Quality of Life in Brain Injury questionnaire. Individuals with a history of childhood TBI performed significantly poorer than their non-injured peers on 2 (Ambiguous Sentences and Oral Expression: Recreating Sentences) out of the 4 Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition subtests used and on the Quality of Life in Brain Injury subscale assessing satisfaction with social relationships. In the TBI group, scores obtained on the Ambiguous Sentences subtest were found to be a significant predictor of satisfaction with social relationships, explaining 25% of the variance observed. The implication of high-level language skills to self-reported satisfaction with social relationships many decades post-childhood TBI suggests that ongoing monitoring of emerging language skills and support throughout the school years and into adulthood may be warranted if adult survivors of childhood TBI are to experience satisfying social relationships.
Malec, James F; Parrot, Devan; Altman, Irwin M; Swick, Shannon
The objective of the study was to develop statistical formulas to predict levels of community participation on discharge from post-hospital brain injury rehabilitation using retrospective data analysis. Data were collected from seven geographically distinct programmes in a home- and community-based brain injury rehabilitation provider network. Participants were 642 individuals with post-traumatic brain injury. Interventions consisted of home- and community-based brain injury rehabilitation. The main outcome measure was the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) Participation Index. Linear discriminant models using admission MPAI-4 Participation Index score and log chronicity correctly predicted excellent (no to minimal participation limitations), very good (very mild participation limitations), good (mild participation limitations), and limited (significant participation limitations) outcome levels at discharge. Predicting broad outcome categories for post-hospital rehabilitation programmes based on admission assessment data appears feasible and valid. Equations to provide patients and families with probability statements on admission about expected levels of outcome are provided. It is unknown to what degree these prediction equations can be reliably applied and valid in other settings.
Kennedy, Raelene D; Potter, D Dean; Osborn, John B; Zietlow, Scott; Zarroug, Abdalla E; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B; McIntosh, Amy
Objectives To review the need for operative intervention and critical care services for motocross truncal injuries in children. Design cohort Retrospective review of patients identified via the hospital trauma registry. Setting Our Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center serves five motocross tracks. These patients require frequent medical care for injuries. Participants All patients ≤17 years of age with truncal injuries sustained during motocross activities, between 2000 and 2011, were identified through the trauma registry. Primary and secondary outcome measures Operative intervention, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, length of stay, morbidity and demographics were reviewed. Results Motocross injured 162 children. Thirty (18.5%) were thoracic or abdominal injuries. Operative intervention was required in eight (27%) patients. Mean injury severity score (ISS) was 11.8. ICU admission was required in 50% and average hospital length of stay was 4.1 days. The most common injuries include pulmonary contusion, pneumothorax, spleen and liver lacerations. 13% of subjects suffered truncal injury from motocross on more than one occasion. Conclusions Paediatric motocross-related truncal injuries are significant. Surgical intervention is required in 27% of patients. The lower ISS incurred from motocross combined with high surgical and ICU admission rates suggests focal high-impact injuries to the chest and abdomen. Despite significant injury, 13% of motocross patients suffer recurrent injuries. Parents and children need injury prevention education. PMID:23166134
Baiden, Philip; Stewart, Shannon L; Fallon, Barbara
The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of, and determine the effect of adverse childhood experiences on non-suicidal self-injury among children and adolescents referred to community and inpatient mental health settings. Data for this study were obtained from the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health dataset. A total of 2038 children and adolescents aged 8-18 years (M=12.49; SD=2.88, 61.1% males) were analyzed. Binary logistic regression was fitted to identify predictors of non-suicidal self-injury as a function of adverse childhood experiences, depression, and social support while simultaneously controlling for age, gender, type of patient, legal guardianship, marital status of parents/caregivers, history of foster family placement, and mental health diagnoses. Of the 2038 children and adolescents examined, 592 (29%) of this clinical sample engaged in non-suicidal self-injury. In the multivariate logistic regression model, children and adolescents who were physically abused had 49% higher odds of engaging in non-suicidal self-injury and children and adolescents who were sexually abused had 60% higher odds of engaging in non-suicidal self-injury, when compared to their non-abused counterparts. Other predictors of non-suicidal self-injury include: older age, female gender, inpatient status, depression, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, disruptive behavior disorder, and mood disorders. Children and adolescents who had some form of social support had a 26% decrease in the odds of engaging in non-suicidal self-injury. Assessment procedures for indicators of mental health, particularly among children and adolescents with a history of adverse childhood experiences, should also take into account non-suicidal self-injury. In addition to bolstering social support networks, addressing depression and related emotion regulation skills in childhood may help prevent future non-suicidal self-injury behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
... will use ergonomics to look at how to design nursing home work to fit nursing home workers. ... the sling? __ Yes __ No __ __ 14. Does the sling design avoid pushing the residents legs apart (concern for ...
Gyedu, Adam; Stewart, Barclay; Mock, Charles; Otupiri, Easmon; Nakua, Emmanuel; Donkor, Peter; Ebel, Beth E
Childhood burns are a leading cause of injury in low- and middle-income countries; most of which are preventable. We aimed to describe the prevalence of household risk factors for childhood burn injury (CBI) in semi-urban Ghana to inform prevention strategies for this growing population. We conducted a population-based survey of 200 households in a semi-urban community in Ghana. Households were randomly selected from a list of 6520 households with children aged <18 years. Caregivers were interviewed about CBI within the past 6 months and potentially modifiable household risk factors. Of 6520 households, 3856 used charcoal for cooking (59%) and 3267 cooked indoors (50%). In 4544 households (70%), the stove/cooking surface was within reach of children under-five (i.e., <1m). Higher household wealth quintiles (OR 0.95; 95%CI 0.61-1.49) and increasing age (OR 0.82; 95%CI 0.68-0.99) were associated with lower odds of CBI. Living in uncompleted accommodation (OR 11.29; 95%CI 1.48-86.18 vs rented room) and cooking outside the house (OR 1.13; 95%CI 0.60-2.14 vs cooking indoors) were also predictive of CBI. This study identified a high prevalence of CBI risk factors in semi-urban households that may benefit from targeted community-based prevention initiatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Butland, B. K.; Strachan, D. P.; Anderson, H. R.
BACKGROUND: Prevalence surveys of asthma and/or wheezing among all children aged between 7 1/2 and 8 1/2 attending state and private schools in the London Borough of Croydon were conducted in February 1978 and February 1991. Two population based case-control studies drawn from the survey responders were used to investigate the association between childhood wheeze and characteristics of the home environment and to assess whether changes in these characteristics between 1978 and 1991 may have contributed to an increase in the population prevalence of wheeze among school children. METHODS: Information on exposure to potential indoor environmental risk factors was obtained from parents by home interview and compared between cases-that is, children with frequent (> or = 5) or in-frequent (1-4) attacks of asthma or wheezing in the past 12 months- and controls, with adjustment for study. Changes in exposure over time were assessed by comparing control groups. RESULTS: Between 1978 and 1991 the population prevalence odds of wheeze increased by 20% (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.39). Change in parental smoking, gas cooking, pet ownership, and central heating did not appear to explain the rise. Use of non-feather pillows was positively associated with childhood wheeze even after adjusting for other risk factors and after re-coding from non-feather to feather cases thought to have changed pillow in response to symptoms (OR 1.54; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.10). The proportion of control children reportedly using non-feather pillows was 44% in 1978 and 67% in 1991. CONCLUSIONS: Increased use of non-feather pillows was the only domestic indoor exposure studied which appeared to explain a modest rise in prevalence of wheeze from 1978 to 1991. Our analysis attempts to address behavioural change in response to the child's symptoms but an artifact arising from lifelong avoidance of feather bedding in atopic families cannot be entirely discounted. PMID:9246133
Deave, Toity; Goodenough, Trudy; Stewart, Jane; Towner, Elizabeth; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Hawkins, Adrian; Coupland, Carol; Kendrick, Denise
To explore the knowledge and reported thermal injury prevention practices among parents of children aged 0-4 years in disadvantaged areas. Parents of pre-school children in Children's Centres in four study areas in England (Nottingham, Newcastle, Norwich and Bristol) were interviewed using a structured schedule. Interviews covered smoke alarms, bedtime routines, fire escape plans, other thermal prevention practices and parental knowledge of first aid. Of the 200 respondents, most reported ownership of at least one smoke alarm (n=191, 96%), of which 95% were working. Half reported a fire prevention bedtime routine (n=105, 53%) or fire escape plan (n=81, 42%). Most parents had matches or lighters in the home (n=159, 80%), some stored where children under 5 years of age could reach them (n=30, 19%). There was a high prevalence of irons (n=188, 94%) and hair straighteners (n=140, 70%). A third of both devices were used daily. Just 17 (12%) parents reported leaving hair straighteners, when hot but not in use, in a heatproof bag. Knowledge of correct initial first aid for a small burn was good (n=165, 83%), but parents reported other potentially harmful actions, for example, applying ointment (n=44, 22%). Most families report at least one working smoke alarm, but many do not have fire escape plans or fire prevention bedtime routines. A number of reported practices could compromise child safety, such as storage of matches or lighters and leaving hair straighteners to cool unprotected. Reappraisal of health promotion messages, in light of new household consumables, is necessary.
Mack, Karin A.; Liller, Karen D.; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David
Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire,…
Svanström, L; Ekman, R; Schelp, L; Lindström, A
In Sweden about 100 children 0-14 years die from accidental injuries every year, roughly 40 girls and 60 boys. To reduce this burden the Safe Community concept was developed in Falköping, Sweden in 1975. Several years later a second programme was initiated in Lidköping. The objectives of this paper are to describe the programme in Lidköping and to relate it to changes in injury occurrence. The Lidköping Accident Prevention Programme (LAPP) was compared with four bordering municipalities and to the whole of Skaraborg County. The programme included five elements: surveillance, provision of information, training, supervision, and environmental improvements. Process evaluation was based mainly on notes and reports made by the health planners, combined with newspaper clippings and interviews with key people. Outcome evaluation was based on information from the hospital discharge registry. In Lidköping there was an on average annual decrease in injuries leading to hospital admissions from 1983 to 1991 of 2.4% for boys and 2.1% for girls compared with a smaller decline in one comparison area and an increase in the other. Because the yearly injury numbers are small there is a great variation from year to year. However, comparisons over the nine year study period with the four border municipalities and the whole of Skaraborg County strengthen the impression that the programme has had a positive effect. The findings support the proposition that the decrease in the incidence of childhood injuries after 1984 could be attributed to the intervention of the LAPP. Nevertheless, several difficulties in drawing firm conclusions from community based studies are acknowledged and discussed.
Sznajder, M; Leduc, S; Janvrin, M; Bonnin, M; Aegerter, P; Baudier, F; Chevallier, B; Macarthur, C
Objectives: Home delivery of counselling and safety devices to prevent child injuries could help parents to adopt safe behaviour. The aim of this study was to test a safety kit designed and used in Quebec (Canada). Design and subjects: One hundred families from four towns in the Paris suburbs were visited at home by nurses or doctors when their child reached 6–9 months. Selection criteria were: primipara, medical problem, psychological, and/or socioeconomic difficulties. Interventions: During the first visit, 50 families (group 1) received counselling and a kit including preventive devices and pamphlets about indoor injuries and ways to avoid them. The other 50 families (group 2) received counselling but not the kit. A second home visit was made 6–8 weeks later. Main outcome measures: The number of safety improvements was calculated 6–8 weeks after a first home visit. Perceived usefulness of the kit was collected from families and from interviewers. Results: Between the first and the second visits, safety improvement was significantly higher in the group with the kit. This was mainly related to the risk of fall (p<0.02), fire and burns (p<0.001), poisoning (p<0.01), and suffocation (p<0.001). For improvement related to devices provided in the kit, the difference between the groups was significant: 64.4% improvement in group 1 versus 41.2% in group 2 (p<0.01). The relative risk (RR) of safety improvement between groups was 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 1.80). Even for improvements not related to the kit the difference remained significant: 31.2% in group 1 versus 20.2% in group 2 (p<0.05); RR = 1.54 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.93). Conclusion: Routine home visits by social services offer a good opportunity to tackle child injury prevention. Free delivery of prevention kits and counselling allow families to modify their behaviour and homes so as to reduce risks. PMID:12966017
Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin
Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…
Tonks, James; Slater, Alan; Frampton, Ian; Wall, Sarah E.; Yates, Phil; Williams, W. Huw
Lasting socio-emotional behaviour difficulties are common among children who have suffered brain injuries. A proportion of difficulties may be attributed to impaired cognitive and/or executive skills after injury. A recent and rapidly accruing body of literature indicates that deficits in recognizing and responding to the emotions of others are…
Willis, David W.
President Obama announced his Early Learning Agenda during his Second Inaugural Address. This announcement has galvanized a special focus on early childhood policy and practices, for the prenatal to 5-year-old period, to improve educational outcomes for America's youth. The emergent science of early childhood development places an emphasis on…
Esbenshade, Adam J.; Friedman, Debra L.; Smith, Webb A.; Jeha, Sima; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.
Purpose Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk of obesity and deconditioning from cancer therapy. This pilot study assessed feasibility/initial efficacy of an exercise intervention for ALL patients undergoing maintenance therapy. Methods Participants were children with ALL, age 5-10 years, receiving maintenance therapy, in first remission. A 6-month home-based intervention, with written and video instruction, was supervised with weekly calls from an exercise coach. Pre- and post-study testing evaluated strength, flexibility, fitness and motor function. Results Seventeen patients enrolled (participation 63%). Twelve (71%) finished the intervention, completing 81.7±7.2% of prescribed sessions. Improvements ≥5% occurred in 67% for knee and 75% for grip strength, 58% for hamstring/low-back and 83% for ankle flexibility, 75% for the 6-minute-walk-test, and 33% for performance on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency Version 2. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrated that exercise intervention during ALL therapy is feasible and has promise for efficacy. PMID:24979081
Levasseur, Mélanie; Pigot, Hélène; Couture, Mélanie; Bier, Nathalie; Swaine, Bonnie; Therriault, Pierre-Yves; Giroux, Sylvain
This study explored the personalized and collective participation needs of people with acquired brain injury (ABI) living in a future shared community smart home. An action research study was conducted with 16 persons, seven with ABI, four caregivers and five rehabilitation or smart home healthcare providers. Twelve interviews and two focus groups were conducted, audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed for content. Seventy personalized and 18 collective participation needs were reported related to daily and social activities. Personalized needs concerned interpersonal relationships, general organization of activities, leisure, housing, fitness and nutrition. Collective needs related mainly to housing, general organization of activities and nutrition. Personalized and collective participation needs of people with ABI planning to live in a community smart home are diverse and concern daily as well as social activities. Implications for Rehabilitation To meet participation needs of people with ABI, the design of smart homes must consider all categories of daily and social activities. Considering personalized and collective needs allowed identifying exclusive examples of each. As some persons with ABI had difficulty identifying their needs as well as accepting their limitations and the assistance required, rehabilitation professionals must be involved in needs identification.
Ghanem, Ali M; Mansour, Abdulrab; Exton, Rebecca; Powell, Jonathan; Mashhadi, Syed; Bulstrode, Neil; Smith, Gillian
Extravasation is an iatrogenic injury that may produce soft tissue necrosis requiring surgical reconstruction (Rose et al., 2008) and (Goon et al., 2006). Previous review of extravasation injuries within our hospital showed that early referral to plastic surgeons and washout of high-risk cases lead to favourable outcome in 86% of patients (Gault, 1993). Hospital-wide guidelines were introduced in 2005. This paper closes the audit loop by evaluating extravasation injuries outcome following the introduction of these guidelines. All patients referred to the plastic surgery department for extravasation injuries between October 2008 and October 2009 were reviewed. A favourable outcome was defined as resolution without tissue loss requiring surgical reconstruction. Patients were excluded if they sustained the extravasation in other institution. A total of 82 extravasation injuries in 78 patients were reviewed during the audit period. Mean age was 3.2 years (Median 0.2 years, Minimum 0 day, and maximum 16.7 years). The injuries were more frequent on the left half of the body (52%) and involving the upper limbs (59%). Mean time to referral was 8 h, with 60% of patients referred within 6 h of the injury, 30% in 6-12 h, and 10% referred after more than 12 h 26% of the injuries required washout treatment - the rest was treated conservatively. Tissue necrosis occurred in 3 cases (4%) but required no surgical intervention due to the small area affected. Our audit showed an improved outcome of extravasation injury following introduction of hospital-wide guidelines of early referral to specialist team and washout of high-risk cases. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Artico, Marco; D'Angelo, Daniela; Piredda, Michela; Petitti, Tommasangelo; Lamarca, Luciano; De Marinis, Maria Grazia; Dante, Angelo; Lusignani, Maura; Matarese, Maria
Patients with advanced illnesses show the highest prevalence for pressure injuries. In the palliative care setting, the ultimate goal is injury healing, but equally important is wound maintenance, wound palliation (wound-related pain and symptom management), and primary and secondary wound prevention. To describe the course of healing for pressure injuries in a home palliative care setting according to different end-points, and to explore patient and caregiver characteristics and specific care activities associated with their achievement. Four-year retrospective chart review of 669 patients cared for in a home palliative care service, of those 124 patients (18.5%) had at least one pressure injury with a survival rate less than or equal to six months. The proportion of healed pressure injuries was 24.4%. Of the injuries not healed, 34.0% were in a maintenance phase, whereas 63.6% were in a process of deterioration. Body mass index (P = 0.0014), artificial nutrition (P = 0.002), and age <70 years (P = 0.022) emerged as predictive factors of pressure injury complete healing. Artificial nutrition, age, male caregiver (P = 0.034), and spouse (P = 0.036) were factors significantly associated with a more rapid pressure injury healing. Continuous deep sedation was a predictive factor for pressure injury deterioration and significantly associated with a more rapid worsening. Pressure injury healing is a realistic aim in home palliative care, particularly for injuries not exceeding Stage II occurring at least two weeks before death. When assessing pressure injuries, our results highlight the need to also pay attention to artificial nutrition, continuous deep sedation, and the caregiver's role and gender. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khokhar, Sudarshan; Gupta, Shikha; Yogi, Rohit; Gogia, Varun; Agarwal, Tushar
To study epidemiology and intermediate-term outcomes of open- and closed-globe injuries (CGI) in traumatic childhood cataract. In this retrospective interventional case series, demographic parameters and history including type of injury of 57 children younger than 16 years with traumatic cataract were recorded; ocular examination included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and posterior segment evaluation. Patients underwent cataract surgery with or without intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Main surgical outcomes at 6 months comprised BCVA, residual refractive spherical error (SE), and postoperative complications, namely visual axis opacification (VAO) and amblyopia. Bow and arrow was the most common causal agent. Open-globe injury (OGI) was 3 times more frequent than CGI. There was a significant visual gain from baseline in both groups after cataract surgery (p<0.001); residual SE was greater in OGI (1.6 ± 0.95 SD) compared to blunt trauma (0.8 ± 0.55 SD; p = 0.001). Incidence of corneal scarring, iris distortion, posterior synechiae, and intraoperative posterior capsular tear was greater with OGI (p<0.05). A total of 86% of patients were rehabilitated with a primary/secondary IOL. Single-piece IOL implantation rate (p = 0.004) was significantly greater in CGI, with no statistical difference for in-the-bag IOL (p = 0.053) and IOL implantation rate (p = 0.16). Final BCVA was significantly better for in-the-bag IOL implantation compared to sulcus fixation. Postoperative complications included amblyopia (51%) and VAO (12%). Bow and arrow injury caused the maximum cases of traumatic cataract; cataract extraction resulted in significant visual improvement; and CGI tended to have better prognosis in pediatric traumatic cataracts.
Yang, Ling-Yu; Huang, Chao-Ching; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Huang, Li-Tung; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Jia-Yi
We evaluated the risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we included 10,416 newly diagnosed TBI children (aged ≤12 y) between 2001 and 2002 and 41,664 children without TBI, who were frequency matched by sex, age, and year of the index medical service with each TBI child, as controls. Children who had been diagnosed with ADHD prior to their medical service index were excluded. Each individual was followed for 9 y to identify ADHD diagnosis. We also compared the ADHD risk in children who were treated for fractures but not TBI as sensitivity analysis. During the 9-y follow-up period, children with TBI had a higher ADHD risk (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19, 1.45) than did those without TBI. Furthermore, children with mild and severe TBI had higher AHRs for ADHD than did those without TBI (AHR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.53; and AHR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.22, 1.55). However, no significant association was observed between fractures and ADHD. TBI in childhood is associated with a greater likelihood of developing ADHD.
Smith-Paine, Julia; Wade, Shari L; Treble-Barna, Amery; Zhang, Nanhua; Zang, Huaiyu; Martin, Lisa J; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Kurowski, Brad G
This study examined whether the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 gene (ANKK1) C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800497 moderated the association of family environment with long-term executive function (EF) following traumatic injury in early childhood. Caregivers of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and children with orthopedic injury (OI) completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) at post injury visits. DNA was collected to identify the rs1800497 genotype in the ANKK1 gene. General linear models examined gene-environment interactions as moderators of the effects of TBI on EF at two times post injury (12 months and 7 years). At 12 months post injury, analyses revealed a significant 3-way interaction of genotype with level of permissive parenting and injury type. Post-hoc analyses showed genetic effects were more pronounced for children with TBI from more positive family environments, such that children with TBI who were carriers of the risk allele (T-allele) had significantly poorer EF compared to non-carriers only when they were from more advantaged environments. At 7 years post injury, analyses revealed a significant 2-way interaction of genotype with level of authoritarian parenting. Post-hoc analyses found that carriers of the risk allele had significantly poorer EF compared to non-carriers only when they were from more advantaged environments. These results suggest a gene-environment interaction involving the ANKK1 gene as a predictor of EF in a pediatric injury population. The findings highlight the importance of considering environmental influences in future genetic studies on recovery following TBI and other traumatic injuries in childhood.
Yuan, Nicole P.; Duran, Bonnie M.; Walters, Karina L.; Pearson, Cynthia R.; Evans-Campbell, Tessa A.
This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7%) and emotional abuse (71.8%) among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively). Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals. PMID:25317980
Gerritsen, Sarah; Anderson, Sarah E; Morton, Susan Mb; Wall, Clare R
Pre-school nutrition-related behaviours influence diet and development of lifelong eating habits. We examined the prevalence and congruence of recommended nutrition-related behaviours (RNB) in home and early childhood education (ECE) services, exploring differences by child and ECE characteristics. Telephone interviews with mothers. Online survey of ECE managers/head teachers. New Zealand. Children (n 1181) aged 45 months in the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal study. A mean 5·3 of 8 RNB were followed at home, with statistical differences by gender and ethnic group, but not socio-economic position. ECE services followed a mean 4·8 of 8 RNB, with differences by type of service and health-promotion programme participation. No congruence between adherence at home and in ECE services was found; half of children with high adherence at home attended a service with low adherence. A greater proportion of children in deprived communities attended a service with high adherence, compared with children living in the least deprived communities (20 and 12 %, respectively). Children, across all socio-economic positions, may not experience RNB at home. ECE settings provide an opportunity to improve or support behaviours learned at home. Targeting of health-promotion programmes in high-deprivation areas has resulted in higher adherence to RNB at these ECE services. The lack of congruence between home and ECE behaviours suggests health-promotion messages may not be effectively communicated to parents/family. Greater support is required across the ECE sector to adhere to RNB and promote wider change that can reach into homes.
Krawczuk-Rybak, M; Grabowska, A; Protas, P T; Muszynska-Roslan, K; Holownia, A; Braszko, J
Chemo- and radiotherapy used in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) can influence on brain functioning in the future. In a prospective study we analysed the cognitive functions of ALL survivors in relation to Tau protein as a marker of white matter injury. Thirty-one survivors of childhood ALL (6.3 years after diagnosis); without the signs of CNS involvement, treated with chemotherapy alone, rested in first remission; underwent Intelligence tests- Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WISC-R, WAIS-R). Their results were analyzed in relation to the levels of Tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained during the treatment. The analysis showed that all survivors attained the average scores in intelligence tests. A negative correlation was found between methotrexate (MTX) doses and Freedom from Distractibility (FFD). Females had higher values of Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ) than males. A negative correlation was noted of Tau protein levels obtained from the last CSF with: Total and Verbal Intelligence Quotient, PIQ, Perceptual Organisation Index and FFD but not with Verbal Comprehension Index. Our results suggest the possibility of white matter injury during the treatment for ALL with chemotherapy alone. Elevated Tau protein level in CSF at the end of treatment might indicate future difficulties in neurocognitive functioning.
Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara
Previous research has neglected the distinction between childhood physical maltreatment (CPM) behaviors and the physical sequelae resulting from CPM. Prior empirical work has combined CPM behaviors (e.g., beat, hit with a belt) and CPM physical sequelae (e.g., bruises, fractures) into a single conceptual category to predict adverse psychological consequences in adults. This is preventing the examination whether specific subgroups of CPM exposure may report a higher risk of psychopathology symptoms in adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine whether distinct experiences of CPM histories (no physical maltreatment, physical maltreatment only, and physical maltreatment with physical sequelae) would be differentially associated with specific psychopathology dimensions in adulthood. symptoms METHOD: Data were drawn from the Portuguese National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect (N = 941). Participants completed the Childhood History Questionnaire and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Three groups were created based on participants' experience of CPM assessed by the Childhood History Questionnaire. Participants who reported that suffered physical sequelae of the CPM exhibited significantly higher symptoms in all psychopathology dimensions than participants with no history of CPM and participants that were exposed to physical maltreatment without sequelae. These findings suggest that clinicians should discriminate CPM behavior from CPM physical sequelae in order to increase effectiveness of mental health treatment with adults with history of CPM. Our findings are discussed in light of the evolutionary-developmental frameworks of adaptative development and cumulative risk hypothesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Oh, S; Schmid, U D
During the last three skiing seasons we have treated a total of 105 children in our clinical wards for skull-brain injuries caused by skiing accidents. 25 of these cases (25.2%) were operated on, mostly because of a depressed fracture (92%) with or without brain lesion/bleeding, which the children incurred by colliding with various obstacles. Uncontrolled excessive speed and careless skiing methods are the main reasons for these injuries. However, the responsibility for the increasing number of skisport-connected skull-brain injuries does not lie with the children alone, but more so with us grown-ups, i.e. the parents, teachers and physicians, as long as we do not preach and emphatically insist on the implementation of indirect and direct specific measures of accident prevention. Based on an analysis of typical injuries and their many causes we come to the conclusion that, aside from the usual precautions, only one simple, sensible and effective prevention of skull-brain injuries is feasible, namely the "protection helmet". Similar to the existing crash-helmet law for motorcylists and just like for the professional skiracers, whom the children try to imitate more and more with regard to style and speed, we earnestly urge legislation to make the wearing of a protective helmet compulsory for all skiers up to 17 years of age.
To understand the stigma perspective of siblings of children with major burn injury. A mixed method, qualitative-dominant study was conducted. The life story method was used for the qualitative portion. Only narratives from those family members describing the sibling's appearance change were used (N = 18 participants). Stigma experienced by siblings was first described by parents or noninjured siblings; they described how the sibling with changed appearance was stared at, ridiculed, or teased when they entered a new social situation. Only when specifically asked did the children with burn injury talk about their problems, saying, "This always happens when I go somewhere new." Children with changed appearance focused on normalizing their lives in a positive way. Oftentimes, it was a parent or noninjured sibling who would describe manifestations of stigma and ways they tried to protect the child with burn injury. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Josie, Katherine Leigh; Peterson, Catherine Cant; Burant, Christopher; Drotar, Dennis; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.; Yeates, Keith; Taylor, H. Gerry
Objective To examine the utility of a cumulative risk index (CRI) in predicting the family burden of injury (FBI) over time in families of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants One hundred eight children with severe or moderate TBI and their families participated in the study. Measures The measures used in the study include the Socioeconomic Composite Index, Life Stressors and Social Resources Inventory—Adult Form, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Child Behavior Checklist, Children’s Depression Inventory, McMaster Family Assessment Device, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Family Burden of Injury Interview. In addition, information on injury-related risk was obtained via medical charts. Methods Participants were assessed immediately, 6, and 12 months postinjury and at a 4-year extended follow-up. Results Risk variables were dichotomized (ie, high- or low-risk) and summed to create a CRI for each child. The CRI predicted the FBI at all assessments, even after accounting for autocorrelations across repeated assessments. Path coefficients between the outcome measures at each time point were significant, as were all path coefficients from the CRI to family burden at each time point. In addition, all fit indices were above the recommended guidelines, and the χ2 statistic indicated a good fit to the data. Conclusions The current study provides initial support for the utility of a CRI (ie, an index of accumulated risk factors) in predicting family outcomes over time for children with TBI. The time period immediately after injury best predicts the future levels of FBI; however, cumulative risk continues to influence the change across successive postinjury assessments. These results suggest that clinical interventions could be proactive or preventive by intervening with identified “at-risk” subgroups immediately following injury. PMID:19033828
Vesely, Colleen K.; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Mehta, Swati
Research calls for teacher education to prepare early childhood educators for the needs of diverse and marginalized young children and their families in the U.S. With an increasing cultural divide between teachers and students, some early childhood educators may demonstrate limited understanding for how diverse cultural, linguistic, racial, and…
Franzke, Iris; Wabnitz, Pascal; Catani, Claudia
New theoretical models of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) postulate that symptoms subsequent to childhood maltreatment rather than childhood maltreatment itself may lead to engagement in NSSI. However, little is known concerning which specific syndromes serve as underlying mechanisms. In this study we sought to examine the mediating effects of dissociative, posttraumatic, and depressive symptoms, 3 often comorbid syndromes following childhood trauma. In addition, we aimed to assess differences between women with and without NSSI. A sample of 87 female inpatients with a history of childhood abuse and neglect was divided into 2 subgroups (NSSI: n = 42, no NSSI: n = 45). The assessment included measures of NSSI characteristics; adverse childhood experiences; and posttraumatic, dissociative, and depressive symptoms. The NSSI group reported significantly more cases of childhood maltreatment and higher levels of current dissociative, posttraumatic, and depressive symptoms than patients without NSSI. The results of a path analysis showed that only dissociation mediated the relationship between a history of child maltreatment and NSSI when all 3 psychopathological variables were included in the model. The findings point toward a strong and rather specific association between dissociative experiences and NSSI and therefore have important implications for clinical practice.
Chadwick, Oliver; And Others
Ninety-seven school-age children who had previously sustained a unilateral compound depressed fracture of the skull were studied using tests of intelligence and reading attainment. Intellectual impairment was significantly associated with overall severity of brain trauma. Neither the child's age at injury nor the brain hemisphere damaged had…
Robinson, Kristen E; Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry; Bigler, Erin D; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen
This study examined whether executive function and theory of mind mediate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social adjustment, relative to children with orthopedic injury (OI). Participants included 19 children with severe TBI, 41 children with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 57 children with OI. They completed measures of executive function, as well as cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind. Parents provided ratings of children's social adjustment. Children with severe TBI performed more poorly than children with OI on executive function and theory of mind tasks and were rated by parents as having more behavioral symptoms and worse communication and social skills. Executive function and theory of mind were positively correlated with social skills and communication skills, and negatively correlated with behavioral symptoms. In multiple mediator models, theory of mind and executive function were not significant direct predictors of any measure of social adjustment, but mediated the association between injury and adjustment for children with severe TBI. Theory of mind was a significant independent mediator when predicting social skills, but executive function was not. TBI in children, particularly severe injury, is associated with poor social adjustment. The impact of TBI on children's social adjustment is likely mediated by its effects on executive function and theory of mind.
Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Bigler, Erin D.; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen
Abstract This study examined whether executive function and theory of mind mediate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social adjustment, relative to children with orthopedic injury (OI). Participants included 19 children with severe TBI, 41 children with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 57 children with OI. They completed measures of executive function, as well as cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind. Parents provided ratings of children's social adjustment. Children with severe TBI performed more poorly than children with OI on executive function and theory of mind tasks and were rated by parents as having more behavioral symptoms and worse communication and social skills. Executive function and theory of mind were positively correlated with social skills and communication skills, and negatively correlated with behavioral symptoms. In multiple mediator models, theory of mind and executive function were not significant direct predictors of any measure of social adjustment, but mediated the association between injury and adjustment for children with severe TBI. Theory of mind was a significant independent mediator when predicting social skills, but executive function was not. TBI in children, particularly severe injury, is associated with poor social adjustment. The impact of TBI on children's social adjustment is likely mediated by its effects on executive function and theory of mind. PMID:25003478
Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R; Kramer, Larry; Cox, Charles S; Baumgartner, James; Fletcher, Stephen; Mendez, Donna; Barnes, Marcia; Zhang, Xiaoling; Swank, Paul
Although long-term neurological outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained early in life are generally unfavorable, the effect of TBI on the development of academic competencies is unknown. The present study characterizes intelligence quotient (IQ) and academic outcomes an average of 5.7 years after injury in children who sustained moderate to severe TBI prior to 6 years of age. Twenty-three children who suffered inflicted or noninflicted TBI between the ages of 4 and 71 months were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Their mean age at injury was 21 months; their mean age at assessment was 89 months. The authors used general linear modeling approaches to compare IQ and standardized academic achievement test scores from the TBI group and a community comparison group (21 children). Children who sustained early TBI scored significantly lower than children in the comparison group on intelligence tests and in the reading, mathematical, and language domains of achievement tests. Forty-eight percent of the TBI group had IQs below the 10th percentile. During the approximately 5-year follow-up period, longitudinal IQ testing revealed continuing deficits and no recovery of function. Both IQ and academic achievement test scores were significantly related to the number of intracranial lesions and the lowest postresuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale score but not to age at the time of injury. Nearly 50% of the TBI group failed a school grade and/or required placement in self-contained special education classrooms; the odds of unfavorable academic performance were 18 times higher for the TBI group than the comparison group. Traumatic brain injury sustained early in life has significant and persistent consequences for the development of intellectual and academic functions and deleterious effects on academic performance.
Garg, Nitin; Silverberg, Jonathan I
Children with allergic disease have multiple risk factors for accidental injuries. To determine the prevalence of injuries requiring medical treatment in US children with allergic disease. The authors analyzed data from the 2007 to 2008 National Survey of Children's Health, including a nationally representative sample of 27,556 children 0 to 5 years old. The prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of at least 1 allergic disease was 29.4% (28.0-30.8); 6.6% (5.8-7.4) were diagnosed with asthma, 15.0% (14.0-16.0) with eczema, 11.6% (10.6-12.6) with hay fever, and 6.1% (5.4-6.9) with food allergy. Children with allergic disorders had higher odds of at least 1 comorbid psychiatric and behavioral disorder (PBD; survey logistic regression; odds ratio 2.93, 95% CI 2.13-4.03), including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (4.75, 2.89-7.80), depression (6.03, 1.29-28.27), anxiety (5.54, 2.70-11.37), conduct/oppositional defiant disorder (2.97, 1.88-4.70), and learning delay (2.49, 1.70-3.66), but not autism/Asperger disorder (1.89, 0.98-3.64). The prevalence of injury in the past year requiring medical attention was 10.5% (95% CI 9.5-11.4). The association between allergic disease and injury requiring medical attention was mediated in part by a PBD (Sobel test 0.0021, 95% CI 0.0014-0.0029, P < .0001; bootstrapping approach, indirect effects, odds ratio 1.005, 95% CI 1.003-1.007; Baron-Kenny β(yx,m) = 0.04, P < .0001, R(2) = 0.002). However, children with at least 1 allergic disorder (1.74, 1.23-2.46), including eczema (1.59, 1.01-2.50), asthma (1.91, 1.10-3.31), hay fever (2.05, 1.24-3.39), and food allergies (2.00, 1.10-3.67), had higher odds of sustaining injuries even after controlling for comorbid PBDs and medical disorders. The results suggest that the association between allergic disease and injury is multifactorial, including being secondary to PBD. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Armiento, Jenna; Hamza, Chloe A; Stewart, Shannon L; Leschied, Alan
Although exposure to direct forms of childhood maltreatment is among the most widely studied risk factors for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), research on NSSI has largely overlooked the role of exposure to indirect forms of child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing domestic violence). To address this gap in the literature, the present study examined associations among both direct and indirect forms of child maltreatment and NSSI among clinically-referred children and youth. Data was collected using the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health Assessment (ChYMH) at ten mental health agencies. The ChYMH is a comprehensive standardized clinical assessment tool completed by trained assessors using multiple sources. The study included a convenience sample of 747 children and youth (68% male) between ages 8-18 with complex mental health histories referred for inpatient or outpatient care in Ontario, Canada. Univariate chi-square analyses indicated positive associations with NSSI and both direct (i.e., physical, sexual) and indirect child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing domestic violence). In a binary multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for participant age and sex, only exposure to indirect child maltreatment emerged as multivariate predictor of NSSI. The sample was limited to only 10 mental health agencies and only consenting parents/guardians referred to mental health services suggesting the study may not be generalizable to all clinical samples. The present study provides evidence that witnessing domestic violence in childhood is an important risk factor for NSSI. Clinical relevance includes implications for clinicians to develop targeted intervention and prevention strategies for NSSI for children who have witnessed domestic violence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Veisten, Knut; Nossum, Ase; Akhtar, Juned
Injury accidents occurring in the home, during educational, sports or leisure activities were estimated from samples of hospital data, combined with fatality data from vital statistics. Uncertainty of estimated figures was assessed in simulation-based analysis. Total economic costs to society from injuries and fatalities due to such accidents were estimated at approximately NOK 150 billion per year. The estimated costs reveal the scale of the public health problem and lead to arguments for the establishment of a proper injury register for the identification of preventive measures to reduce the costs to society.
Medic-Stojanoska, Milica; Pekic, Sandra; Curic, Nikola; Djilas-Ivanovic, Dragana; Popovic, Vera
Hypopituitarism is a common complication of TBI in long-term survivors, more frequent than previously realized. It may be partial or complete, sometimes very subtle without visible lesions in hypothalamo-pituitary region and is diagnosed only by biochemical means. Neuroendocrine abnormalities caused by TBI may have significant implications for the recovery and rehabilitation of these patients. The subjects at risk are those who have suffered moderate to severe trauma, although mild intensity trauma may precede hypopituitarism also. Particular attention should be paid to this problem in children and adolescents. We describe a patient with hypopituitarism thought to be idiopathic due to mild head trauma which caused diabetes insipidus in childhood, gradual failure of pituitary hormones during the period of growth and development, and metabolic (dyslipidemia), physical (obesity), and cognitive impairments in the adult period.
McIntosh, C J; James, A I W
This article considers the complexities of neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation in brain injury when the client is illiterate, is from a foreign culture with English as a second language, and reports highly atypical childhood feral experiences prior to injury. MC was a 63-year-old woman referred for neuropsychological rehabilitation with a diagnosis of suspected St Louis encephalitis and global cognitive impairment. In formulating her clinical presentation, consideration was given to a reported history of feral childhood living with monkeys in the Colombian jungle and subsequent physical and emotional abuse. MC participated in comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and then targeted rehabilitation. Neuroimaging documented relatively focal damage in the right temporal lobe. MC's family described her as "the same but worse"; assessment and formulation indicated an exacerbation of attentional, pragmatic, arousal and executive weaknesses but with new memory and emotion recognition impairments. Rehabilitation techniques for communication and executive difficulties were successful despite the complexities of the case. The importance of carefully considered assessment and formulation in understanding MC's presentation is discussed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the only case of neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation in brain injury involving a history of feral childhood.
Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Kohno, Kanehisa
Although minor head injury in childhood is a common occurrence and usually no complications, posttraumatic cerebral infarction has rarely been reported. Such infarction is characterized by occlusion of the lateral lenticulostriate artery. The authors report an atypical case of posttraumatic occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) after minor head injury in childhood. A healthy 16-year-old boy was hit on the head by a pitch while playing baseball. He developed a transient ischemic attack involving the left extremities 15 min after the accident. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed neither hemorrhage nor infarction, and MR angiography demonstrated mild stenosis of the right carotid fork. Conservative therapy was started. However, 24 h after the accident, he suddenly developed left hemiparesis. Emergent neuroimaging demonstrated progressive occlusion of the supraclinoid portion of the right ICA and cerebral infarction of the deep white matter in the right frontal lobe. The hemiparesis deteriorated and the infarction area continued to expand on a daily. The patient underwent emergent superficial temporally artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass. Intraoperative observation demonstrated that the supraclinoid portion of the right ICA was not thrombosed but pale with low tension and did not appear dissected. He fully recovered by 2 weeks after the operation. Postoperative investigations showed gradual improvement of the ICA occlusion. Minor head injury can cause cerebral infarction in childhood, although this is rare. If conservative therapy cannot prevent progressive cerebral infarction, STA-MCA bypass should be considered in case of the ICA occlusion.
Ashby, K; Ozanne‐Smith, J; Fox, B
Objective To examine why older persons undertake high‐risk do‐it‐yourself (DIY) home maintenance and under what circumstances, what constitutes acceptable low‐risk alternatives to DIY, and to assess if alternatives are feasible in the current context. Design Exploratory qualitative study using focus‐group methodology. Setting and subjects Fifteen focus groups were conducted, involving 118 persons aged 60 years and older, in two Melbourne communities. Participants resided locally, participated in local seniors groups, or received treatment for a DIY injury at one of two public hospitals serving these communities. Results Older persons' involvement in DIY ranged from necessity to choice. A number chose DIY for general fitness enhancement, satisfaction and pride in a job well done, and giving meaning and enjoyment to daily tasks. However, some older, frailer seniors were forced into DIY because of difficulties in choosing appropriate alternatives; lack of knowledge of some available resources and services; the challenge of accessing cost‐effective and reliable private service providers; and fear of vulnerability to overcharging, overservicing or their personal security. Preferred DIY alternatives were local government providers, local paper advertised services, recommendations to private service providers and family, friends or neighbors. Lack of knowledge of other existing alternatives was an impediment to preventing DIY injury, or accessing DIY alternatives. A number of potentially feasible alternatives to DIY were identified from our review. Conclusions This research is an important first step in understanding issues facing community‐dwelling seniors remaining at home, and provides a basis on which government agencies and other providers can develop services to meet increasing needs. PMID:17916890
Ashby, K; Ozanne-Smith, J; Fox, B
To examine why older persons undertake high-risk do-it-yourself (DIY) home maintenance and under what circumstances, what constitutes acceptable low-risk alternatives to DIY, and to assess if alternatives are feasible in the current context. Exploratory qualitative study using focus-group methodology. Fifteen focus groups were conducted, involving 118 persons aged 60 years and older, in two Melbourne communities. Participants resided locally, participated in local seniors groups, or received treatment for a DIY injury at one of two public hospitals serving these communities. Older persons' involvement in DIY ranged from necessity to choice. A number chose DIY for general fitness enhancement, satisfaction and pride in a job well done, and giving meaning and enjoyment to daily tasks. However, some older, frailer seniors were forced into DIY because of difficulties in choosing appropriate alternatives; lack of knowledge of some available resources and services; the challenge of accessing cost-effective and reliable private service providers; and fear of vulnerability to overcharging, overservicing or their personal security. Preferred DIY alternatives were local government providers, local paper advertised services, recommendations to private service providers and family, friends or neighbors. Lack of knowledge of other existing alternatives was an impediment to preventing DIY injury, or accessing DIY alternatives. A number of potentially feasible alternatives to DIY were identified from our review. This research is an important first step in understanding issues facing community-dwelling seniors remaining at home, and provides a basis on which government agencies and other providers can develop services to meet increasing needs.
van Loo, M A; Post, M W M; Bloemen, J H A; van Asbeck, F W A
Cross-sectional survey. To describe the care received, care needs and preventability of secondary conditions according to persons with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) living at home. The Netherlands. A questionnaire was sent to all members of the Dutch SCI Patient Organisation. From a list of 26 SCI secondary conditions, participants chose the five conditions they perceived as most important. For each of these conditions, they described the type of care they received, their need for (extra) care and its preventability. Response rate was 45% (n=453) and mean time after injury was 13.3 years. In case of secondary conditions, participants were more likely to visit their general practitioner (58%) than another medical specialist (29%) or rehabilitation specialist (25%). For all most-important secondary conditions, care was received in 47% and care, or extra care, was needed in 41.3%. Treatment was the type of care most often received (29.5%) and needed (17.2%). However, for information and psychosocial care, the care needed (12.2 and 9.9%, respectively) was higher than the care received (7.6 and 5.9%, respectively). Thirty-four percent of all most-important secondary conditions were perceived as preventable, the rate increasing to 52.8% for pressure sores, of which 29.9% were considered to be preventable by the participants themselves. This study showed substantial unmet care needs in persons with long-term SCI living at home and underlines the further improvement of long-term care for this group. Information, psychosocial care and self-efficacy seem to be the areas to be enhanced.
Lee, Chuan Mei; Mangurian, Christina; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Guzman, David; Kushel, Margot
To examine whether childhood adversity is associated with depressive symptoms, suicide attempts, or psychiatric hospitalization. History of seven childhood adversities (physical neglect, verbal abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental death, parental incarceration, and child welfare system placement) was gathered through in-person interviews. Multivariate models examined associations between history of childhood adversities and moderate to severe depressive symptoms, lifetime history of suicide attempt, or lifetime history of psychiatric hospitalization. The study enrolled 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, in Oakland, California, using population-based sampling methods. Moderate to severe depressive symptoms were measured on a Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (≥22), self-reported lifetime history of suicide attempt, and self-reported lifetime history of psychiatric hospitalization. Participants with exposure to one childhood adversity had elevated odds of reporting moderate to severe depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-3.7) and lifetime history of suicide attempt (AOR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.0-21.6) when compared with those who had none; the odds of these two outcomes increased with exposure to additional childhood adversities. Participants with four or more childhood adversities had higher odds of having a lifetime history of psychiatric hospitalization (AOR: 7.1; 95% CI: 2.8-18.0); no increase with fewer adversities was found. Childhood adversities are associated with poor mental health outcomes among older homeless adults. Clinicians should collect information about childhood adversities among this high-risk population to inform risk assessment and treatment recommendations. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu, J C-L; Bradley, R H; Chiang, T-L
Taiwan has experienced a large influx of cross-border marriage migrants in recent years. The majority have been women in their childbearing ages and have come from countries with lower average standards of living than Taiwan. This trend has changed the ethnic composition of children who live in Taiwan, and it has generated considerable social concern over the future health status of Taiwan's citizens. This study aimed to examine: (1) whether there are disparities in development between children reared in families characterized by cross-border marriages and children reared in families with two Taiwanese-born parents; and (2) whether the quality of home environment explains the group differences in early childhood development. Data came from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study. A total of 19,499 participants who completed 6-month, 18-month and 3-year surveys were included for analysis. Cross-border marriage status was defined by mother's original nationality and categorized into three broad groups: Taiwanese-born, Chinese cross-border and South-East Asian (SEA) cross-border. Early childhood development was measured at age 3 years, and covered the domains of gross motor, fine motor, language and socio-emotional competence. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the mediation effects of the home environment. Children of Chinese and SEA cross-border groups scored lower in fine motor, language and socio-emotional competence than those of their Taiwanese-born counterpart at age 3 years. Chinese-Taiwanese group differences in all three developmental domains became insignificant after the addition of home environment, while SEA-Taiwanese group differences in fine motor and language development remained, yet were noticeably reduced. The mediation of home environment was further confirmed using the Sobel test. Home environment plays a central role in reducing the disparities in developmental outcomes among children of different marriage groups. Interventions should be
Ferrah, Noha; Murphy, Briony J; Ibrahim, Joseph E; Bugeja, Lyndal C; Winbolt, Margaret; LoGiudice, Dina; Flicker, Leon; Ranson, David L
resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) is an understudied form of elder abuse in nursing homes. the purpose of this systematic review was to examine the published research on the frequency, nature, contributing factors and outcomes of RRA in nursing homes. in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement, this review examined all original, peer-reviewed research published in English, French, German, Italian or Spanish between 1st January 1949 and 31st December 2013 describing incidents of RRA in nursing homes. The following information was extracted for analysis: study and population characteristics; main findings (including prevalence, predisposing factors, triggers, nature of incidents, outcomes and interventions). eighteen studies were identified, 12 quantitative and 6 qualitative. The frequency of RRA ranged from 1 to 122 incidents, with insufficient information across the studies to calculate prevalence. RRA commonly occurred between exhibitors with higher levels of cognitive awareness and physical functionality and a history of aggressive behaviours, and female targets who were cognitively impaired with a history of behavioural issues including wandering. RRA most commonly took place in the afternoon in communal settings, was often triggered by communication issues and invasion of space, or was unprovoked. Limited information exists on organisational factors contributing to RRA and the outcomes for targets of aggression. we must continue to grow our knowledge base on the nature and circumstances of RRA to prevent harm to an increasing vulnerable population of nursing home residents and ensure a safe working environment for staff. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Wright, Bradley James; Galtieri, Nicholas Justin; Fell, Michelle
To identify which factors best explain non-adherence to home rehabilitation exercises (HRE) for patients with musculoskeletal injuries. Cross-sectional study. Participants (n = 87) aged 17-91 years completed questionnaires measuring demographic and injury-related information, self-efficacy, personality, health locus of control, patient-practitioner relationship, optimism, health value and adherence to HRE. In addition, each participant's attending physiotherapist assessed the participant's adherence and effort during the appointment. A hierarchical regression with 3 steps (step 1: disposition; step 2: cognitive factors; step 3: patient-practitioner relationship) and adherence to HRE as the dependent variable was conducted. The factors in step 3 were the most significant and explained 16% (p < 0.001) of the variance in adherence to HRE. In addition, a high score for patient neuroticism was found to correlate with poor adherence to HRE. These preliminary results suggest that the patient-practitioner relationship is the best predictor of adherence to HRE, and that improving patient perception of the clinician's productivity, communication of information and trust during consultations may improve adherence to HRE.
Gershon, Robyn R M; Pearson, Julie M; Sherman, Martin F; Samar, Stephanie M; Canton, Allison N; Stone, Patricia W
Patients continue to enter home health care (HHC) "sicker and quicker," often with complex health problems that require extensive intervention. This higher level of acuity may increase the risk of percutaneous injury (PI), yet information on the risk and risk factors for PI and other types of exposures in this setting is exceptionally sparse. To address this gap, a large cross-sectional study of self-reported exposures in HHC registered nurses (RNs) was conducted. A convenience sample of HHC RNs (N=738) completed a survey addressing 5 major constructs: (1) worker-centered characteristics, (2) patient-related characteristics, (3) household characteristics, (4) organizational factors, and (5) prevalence of PIs and other blood and body fluid exposures. Analyses were directed at determining significant risk factors for exposure. Fourteen percent of RNs reported one or more PIs in the past 3 years (7.6 per 100 person-years). Nearly half (45.8%) of all PIs were not formally reported. PIs were significantly correlated with a number of factors, including lack of compliance with Standard Precautions (odds ratio [OR], 1.72; P=.019; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-2.71); recapping of needles (OR, 1.78; P=.016; 95% CI: 1.11-2.86); exposure to household stressors (OR, 1.99; P=.005; 95% CI: 1.22-3.25); exposure to violence (OR, 3.47; P=.001; 95% CI: 1.67-7.20); mandatory overtime (OR, 2.44; P=.006; 95% CI: 1.27-4.67); and safety climate (OR, 1.88; P=.004; 95% CI: 1.21-2.91) among others. The prevalence of PI was substantial. Underreporting rates and risk factors for exposure were similar to those identified in other RN work populations, although factors uniquely associated with home care were also identified. Risk mitigation strategies tailored to home care are needed to reduce risk of exposure in this setting.
Related Breathing Disorders in Spinal Cord Injury 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert G. Sitrin, M.D. Betty Diamond ...instability, and 3D. features of the “metabolic syndrome ” (obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia). At the completion of year 1, we have 1. obtained all...failure, and the “metabolic syndrome ” (increased visceral fat, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and hyperlipidemia). We know very little about the
Cai, Jiao; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yu; Zou, Zhijun; Shen, Li; Huang, Chen
From April 2011 to April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China. A total of 13,335 modified ISAAC questionnaires (response rate: 85.3%) were returned by parents or guardians for 4-6 year-old children. Six dampness-related indicators (visible mold spots, visible damp stains, damp bed clothing, water damage, window pane condensation, and moldy odor) were used to evaluate home dampness-related exposures. In the present study, we applied logistic regression model to reveal associations, dose-response relationships, and statistical interaction effects of these dampness-related exposures, with childhood eczema, during lifetime since birth (ever) and in the last 12 months before the questionnaire. The dampness-related indicators were frequently reported in the perinatal and current residences. Prevalences of eczema ever and in the last 12 months were 22.9% and 13.2%, respectively. The dampness-related indicators were robustly associated and dose-response related with increased risk of eczema ever and in the last 12 months in the logistic regression analyses, with adjusted for potential confounders. Specifically, in the perinatal residence, visible mold spots or damp stains could increase 46% (OR, 95% CI: 1.46, 1.29-1.66) odds of childhood eczema (ever); in the current residence, visible mold spots and visible damp stains could increase 34% (1.34, 1.14-1.58) and 38% (1.38, 1.22-1.56) odds of childhood eczema (ever), respectively. Associations were not appreciably different between boys and girls, nor were they different between children with and without parental history of atopy. In conclusion, perinatal and current dampness-related exposures in the residence perhaps are risk factors for childhood eczema. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferguson, Jonnisa M.; Vanderpool, Robin C.
As public health organizations continue to implement maternal and child health home-visitation programs, more evaluation of these efforts is needed, particularly as it relates to improving parental behaviors. The purpose of our study was to assess the impact of families' participation in a home-visitation program offered by a central Kentucky…
2011;105:143-50. 11. Miller MR, Hankinson J, Brusasco V, et al. Standardisation of spirometry. Eur Respir J 2005;26:319-38. 12. Crapo RO, Morris AH, Gardner...profile in persons with chronic motor complete spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2010;33:6-15. 22. Crapo RO, Morris AH, Gardner RM. Reference...blood pressure was checked and found to be over 140 or less than 80 systolic SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY FRIDAY THURSDAY SATURDAY LUNG LUNG LUNG
Lisón, Juan Francisco; Bruñó-Soler, Alejandro; Torró, Isabel; Segura-Ortí, Eva; Alvarez-Pitti, Julio
Few studies have evaluated the changes in physical fitness (PF) of obese children and adolescents of a physical activity program for the treatment of obesity, and even fewer have explored the modality of home-based physical exercise. The objective of this study is to evaluate the changes in PF and body composition (BC) of a home-based physical exercise for treating childhood obesity. Thirty-three overweight/obese children and adolescents participated for six months in a home-based intervention that combined aerobics and muscular strength exercises. The results were compared, before and after the intervention, for the different PF components (VO2 max , abdominal muscle resistance strength, and lower body explosive strength) and BC (body mass index Z-score (BMI-Z), percentage of body fat, and fat-free mass) variables. A significant reduction was observed in the percentage of body fat (4.7%) and the BMI- Z score (.23), and there was an increase in the fat-free mass of 2.9 kg ( p < .001). In addition, the VO2 max showed a significant increase ( p < .05). The results of the different strength tests also showed significant improvements ( p < .05). Our findings support the effectiveness of this program improving not only BC but also PF. However, our results should be interpreted with caution due to lack of control group.
Kurowski, Brad G; Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Martin, Lisa J; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Wade, Shari L
To examine catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 genotypes as moderators of the effects of parenting style on postinjury changes in parent behavior ratings of executive dysfunction following moderate to severe early childhood traumatic brain injury. Research was conducted in an outpatient setting. Participants included children admitted to hospital with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (n = 55) or orthopedic injuries (n = 70) between ages 3 and 7 years. Prospective cohort followed over 7 years postinjury. Parenting Practices Questionnaire and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning obtained at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months, and 3.5 and 6.8 years postinjury. DNA was collected from saliva samples, purified using the Oragene (DNA Genotek, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) OG-500 self-collection tubes, and analyzed using TaqMan (Applied Biosystems, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Massachusetts) assay protocols to identify the COMT rs4680 polymorphism. Linear mixed models revealed a significant genotype × parenting style × time interaction (F = 5.72, P = .02), which suggested that the adverse effects of authoritarian parenting on postinjury development of executive functioning were buffered by the presence of the COMT AA genotype (lower enzyme activity, higher dopamine levels). There were no significant associations of executive functioning with the interaction between genotype and authoritative or permissive parenting ratings. The lower activity COMT rs4680 genotype may buffer the negative effect of authoritarian parenting on long-term executive functioning following injury in early childhood. The findings provide preliminary evidence for associations of parenting style with executive dysfunction in children and for a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as contributors to decreases in these problems after traumatic injuries in children. Further investigation is warranted to understand the interplay among genetic and
Casey, Jessica T.; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Cheng, Earl Y.
Objective To describe the characteristics of pediatric genital injuries presenting to United States emergency departments (EDs). Methods A retrospective cohort study utilizing the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) from 1991-2010 to evaluate pediatric genital injuries was performed. Results Pediatric genital injuries represented 0.6% of all pediatric injuries with the incidence of injuries rising through the period studied, 1991-2010. The mean age at injury was 7.1 years old and was distributed 56.6% girls and 43.4% boys. A total of 43.3% had lacerations and 42.2% had contusions/abrasions. The majority of injuries occurred at home (65.9%), and the majority of patients (94.7%) were treated and released from the hospital. The most common consumer products associated with pediatric genital trauma were: bicycles (14.7% of all pediatric genital injuries), bathtubs (5.8%), daywear (5.6%), monkey bars (5.4%), and toilets (4.0%). Conclusion Although pediatric genital injuries represent a small proportion of overall injuries presenting to the ED, genital injuries continue to rise despite public health measures targeted to decrease childhood injury. Our results can be used to guide further prevention strategies for pediatric genital injury. PMID:23953603
Kurowski, Brad G.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay C.; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.
Objective To evaluate the relationship of family and parenting factors to long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that the magnitude of executive dysfunction and attention problems would be moderated by family and parenting factors. Design A multicenter, prospective cohort study that included an orthopedic injury (OI) reference group. Setting Three tertiary academic children’s hospital medical centers and one general medical center. Participants Children, ages 3–7 years, hospitalized for OI, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. Methods and Outcome Measurements Parental ratings of family functioning and parenting styles were obtained 18 months after the injury occurred. The main outcome measurements, which were parental ratings of children’s executive function and attention, were performed at least 24 months after the injury occurred (mean, 39 months; range, 25–63 months). Analysis Group comparisons were conducted with use of t-tests, χ2 analysis, analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlations. Regression analysis was used to examine associations of the outcomes with family functioning and parenting styles and to test moderating effects of these factors on group differences. Results Participants with severe TBI demonstrated increased executive dysfunction and attention problems compared with those who sustained moderate TBI or OI. Lower levels of family dysfunction were associated with better executive function and attention across groups but did not moderate group differences. However, attention deficits after severe TBI were exacerbated under conditions of more permissive parenting relative to attention deficits after OIs. Conclusions Executive function and attention problems persisted on a long-term basis (>24 months) after early childhood TBI, and positive global family functioning and nonpermissive parenting were associated with better outcomes. Better
Kurowski, Brad G; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay C; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L
To evaluate the relationship of family and parenting factors to long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that the magnitude of executive dysfunction and attention problems would be moderated by family and parenting factors. A multicenter, prospective cohort study that included an orthopedic injury (OI) reference group. Three tertiary academic children's hospital medical centers and one general medical center. Children, ages 3-7 years, hospitalized for OI, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. METHODS AND OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Parental ratings of family functioning and parenting styles were obtained 18 months after the injury occurred. The main outcome measurements, which were parental ratings of children's executive function and attention, were performed at least 24 months after the injury occurred (mean, 39 months; range, 25-63 months). Group comparisons were conducted with use of t-tests, χ(2) analysis, analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlations. Regression analysis was used to examine associations of the outcomes with family functioning and parenting styles and to test moderating effects of these factors on group differences. Participants with severe TBI demonstrated increased executive dysfunction and attention problems compared with those who sustained moderate TBI or OI. Lower levels of family dysfunction were associated with better executive function and attention across groups but did not moderate group differences. However, attention deficits after severe TBI were exacerbated under conditions of more permissive parenting relative to attention deficits after OIs. Executive function and attention problems persisted on a long-term basis (>24 months) after early childhood TBI, and positive global family functioning and nonpermissive parenting were associated with better outcomes. Better characterization of the optimal family environment for recovery from early childhood
Soo, Cheryl; Tate, Robyn L; Anderson, Vicki; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Brookes, Naomi; Catroppa, Cathy; Galvin, Jane; Muscara, Frank
The Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale for Children (SPRS-C) assesses psychosocial functioning in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). This article aims to: (1) describe normative data for the parent-rated SPRS-C and, (2) evaluate the discriminant validity of the SPRS-C. For Aim 1, participants were parents of typically developing children (TDC) aged 5-14 years (N = 200). For Aim 2, participants with ABI were aged 5-14 years (n = 26). A matched group of TDC was sampled from the larger normative sample to serve as a control group (n = 26). For Aim 1, SPRS-C scores across the 10 age-bands were in the higher ranges. Correlation coefficients of SPRS-C total score with child's age and parent occupational skill level were not statistically significant. For Aim 2, SPRS-C scores for the ABI group were significantly lower than the control group. These data provide a guide for clinical interpretation of the SPRS-C for measuring psychosocial functioning in children with ABI.
Albicini, Michelle S; Lee, James; McKinlay, Audrey
Sleep is often disrupted in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may be related to persistent behaviour problems; however, little is known about this relationship in young adults. This study explored associations between TBI, behavioural problems and sleep disturbances in 247 university students (197 non-TBI, 47 mild TBI, two moderate TBI, one severe TBI) aged 18-25 years, who completed validated measures for behaviour, sleep quality and history of TBI. Because of small group numbers, participants reporting moderate to severe TBI were excluded from the analyses. Results indicated that students with mild TBI reported higher levels of daytime dysfunction, somatic complaints, withdrawal, other behavioural complaints and internalizing behaviours compared with students with no TBI history. A correlational analysis indicated a moderate relationship between the above significant variables. Our results suggest that university students with a history of mild TBI are more likely to experience certain ongoing daytime behavioural problems, which are likely to negatively influence their academic functioning in tertiary education. This study highlights the importance of research on long-term problems following mild TBI in young adults aged 18-25 years--an age group often overlooked within the literature.
Sural, Sumit; Verma, Anu
Background Children are vulnerable to musculoskeletal injuries both at home and on the street for various reasons. Morbidity and disabilities resulting from these, mostly preventable, injuries, make them a burden to their families and society. The role of various factors associated with injuries is often not documented. Methods This prospective study, done on 100 children aged up to 12 years with musculoskeletal trauma, analysed in details, the various modes of injuries. Results One in every five patient was a child below 12 years of age. Boys were injured more than girls. Injuries, especially fractures, were most common in the extremities, the upper limb more commonly injured than the lower limb. Most of the injuries occurred at home. The most common mode of injuries was falls that happened while playing both within and outside the home, followed by road traffic accidents. Most injuries occurred during daytime. Conclusions Injuries in children were found to be preventable. Small interventions while constructing homes can contribute tremendously to injury prevention and control in children. Parental awareness about the various modes of injury, role of supervised playing and their responsibility towards injury prevention can play a key role in reducing the morbidity associated with childhood fractures. PMID:26549946
Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Maude, Susan P.; Palmer, Susan B.; Summers, Jean Ann; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Haines, Shana J.; Stroup-Rentier, Vera; Zheng, Yuzhu; Peck, Nancy F.
Early childhood practitioners can play a vital role in the development of early self-determination in partnership with families. Self-determination has been generally considered to be about personal agency or control that can also relate to the quality of one's life. Young children with disabilities start to develop a range of critical skills such…
Lah, Suncica; Black, Carly; Gascoigne, Michael B; Gott, Chloe; Epps, Adrienne; Parry, Louise
Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is characterized by adequate recall after short, but not long delays. ALF is not detected by standardized neuropsychological memory tests. Currently, the prevailing conceptualization of ALF is of a temporal lobe seizure-related phenomenon. Nevertheless, Mayes and colleagues (2003) proposed that ALF may occur when any of the components of the brain network involved in long-term memory formation, or their interaction, is disrupted. This disruption does not have to be caused by temporal lobe seizures for ALF to occur. Here, we investigate this possibility in a group of school-age children who have sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI) (n = 28), as TBI typically disrupts the brain network that is important for long-term memory formation and recall. Healthy control children (n = 62) also participated. Contrary to the dominant conceptualization of ALF being a seizure-related phenomenon, children with TBI showed ALF. Sustaining a severe TBI and diffuse subcortical damage was related to ALF. Individually, 8 of the 13 children with severe TBI presented with ALF. ALF would remain undetected on standardized testing in six of these eight children. One child had the opposite pattern of dissociation, an impaired score on standardized testing, but an average long-term memory score. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to show ALF in patients with TBI, which has remained undiagnosed and untreated in this patient population. Our study also challenges the dominant hypothesis of ALF being a temporal lobe seizure-related phenomenon, and raises a possibility that short-term and long-term memory systems may be independent.
Irwin, Carol; Irwin, Richard; Richey, Phyllis; Miller, Maureen; Boddie, Justin; Dickerson, Teresa
Professional sports organizations in the United States have notable celebrity status, and several teams have used this "star power" to collaborate with local schools toward the goal of affecting childhood obesity (e.g., NFL Play 60). Program effectiveness is unknown owing to the absence of comprehensive evaluations for any of these initiatives. In 2006, the Memphis Grizzlies, the city's National Basketball Association (NBA) franchise, launched "Get Fit with the Grizzlies," a 6-week, curricular addition focusing on nutrition and physical activity for the 4th and 5th grades in Memphis City Schools. The health-infused mini-unit was delivered by the physical education teachers during their classes. National and local sponsors whose business objectives matched the "Get Fit" objectives were solicited to fund the program. Here we highlight the program evaluation results from the first year of "Get Fit" and the Journal of School Health article. However, the "Get Fit" program has now taken place in Memphis area schools for 5 years. During the 2010-11 school-year, "Get Fit" evolved into a new program called "Healthy Home Court" with Kellogg's as the primary sponsor. "Healthy Home Court" included the original fitness part of the program and added a breakfast component at high schools where data indicated great need. Kellogg's sponsored special "carts" with healthy breakfast options (i.e., fruit, protein bars) for students to grab and eat. This program matched their existing program "Food Away from Home." Research supports the objectives of these programs and has shown that breakfast consumption can have a positive impact on academic achievement, behavior in school, and overall health status. Survey research employed over the first 4 years measured health knowledge acquisition and health behavior change using a matched pre/post test design (n=2210) in randomly chosen schools (n=18) from all elementary schools in the Memphis area. McNemar's test for significance (<05) was
Mytton, Julie; Ingram, Jenny; Manns, Sarah; Stevens, Tony; Mulvaney, Caroline; Blair, Peter; Powell, Jane; Potter, Barbara; Towner, Elizabeth; Emond, Alan; Deave, Toity; Thomas, James; Kendrick, Denise; Stewart-Brown, Sarah
Unintentional injury is the leading cause of preventable death of children over the age of 1 year in the UK and a major cause of attendance at emergency departments. Children having one injury are at increased risk of further injuries. Parenting programmes can reduce injuries in preschool children if delivered in the home and on a one-to-one basis. It is not known if group-based programmes delivered outside the home are effective. To develop (1) a parenting programme to prevent recurrent unintentional home injuries in preschool children and (2) a tool for parents to report unintentional home injuries occurring to their preschool children. To assess the feasibility of delivering and evaluating the parenting programme through a cluster randomised controlled trial, specifically to (1) assess methods for the recruitment and retention of parents; (2) determine the training, equipment and facilities needed for the delivery of the programme; (3) establish appropriate primary and secondary outcome measures and methods for their collection; (4) determine how 'normal care' in a comparison arm should be defined; and (5) determine the resource utilisation and costing data that would need to be collected for the cost-effectiveness component of a future trial; and (6) produce estimates of effect sizes to inform sample size estimation for a main trial. Feasibility multicentre, cluster, randomised, unblinded trial. Eight children's centres in Bristol and Nottingham, UK. Ninety-six parents of preschool children who had sustained an unintentional injury requiring medical attention in the previous 12 months. The First-aid Advice and Safety Training (FAST) parent programme, comprising parenting support and skills combined with first aid and home safety advice. Parent-reported medically attended injuries in the index child and any preschool siblings sustained during a 6-month period of observation. An 8-week parenting programme was produced, designed with participant
Feikin, Daniel R; Bigogo, Godfrey; Audi, Allan; Pals, Sherri L; Aol, George; Mbakaya, Charles; Williamson, John; Breiman, Robert F; Larson, Charles P
Zinc treatment shortens diarrhea episodes and can prevent future episodes. In rural Africa, most children with diarrhea are not brought to health facilities. In a village-randomized trial in rural Kenya, we assessed if zinc treatment might have a community-level preventive effect on diarrhea incidence if available at home versus only at health facilities. We randomized 16 Kenyan villages (1,903 eligible children) to receive a 10-day course of zinc and two oral rehydration solution (ORS) sachets every two months at home and 17 villages (2,241 eligible children) to receive ORS at home, but zinc at the health-facility only. Children's caretakers were educated in zinc/ORS use by village workers, both unblinded to intervention arm. We evaluated whether incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI) reported at biweekly home visits and presenting to clinic were lower in zinc villages, using poisson regression adjusting for baseline disease rates, distance to clinic, and children's age. There were no differences between village groups in diarrhea incidence either reported at the home or presenting to clinic. In zinc villages (1,440 children analyzed), 61.2% of diarrheal episodes were treated with zinc, compared to 5.4% in comparison villages (1,584 children analyzed, p<0.0001). There were no differences in ORS use between zinc (59.6%) and comparison villages (58.8%). Among children with fever or cough without diarrhea, zinc use was low (<0.5%). There was a lower incidence of reported ALRI in zinc villages (adjusted RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), but not presenting at clinic. In this study, home zinc use to treat diarrhea did not decrease disease rates in the community. However, with proper training, availability of zinc at home could lead to more episodes of pediatric diarrhea being treated with zinc in parts of rural Africa where healthcare utilization is low. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00530829.
Russell, William; Robert, Rhonda S; Thomas, Christopher R; Holzer, Charles E; Blakeney, Patricia; Meyer, Walter J
significantly lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 physical scale are consistent with the physical disfigurement and handicaps common with major burn injuries, and a strong indication of this group's perception of the first impression made when interacting with others. The survivors seem to feel worthwhile within the contexts of family and friends. Although the major limitation of this study using the TSCS2 is the lack of a matched reference population to compare the burn survivors, the TSCS2 does help in gaining insight into the self-esteem issues of the burn survivor population.
Cloutier, Michelle M; Wiley, James; Wang, Zhu; Grant, Autherene; Gorin, Amy A
Obesity is a major problem in the United States, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged Latino and Black children. Effective interventions that can be disseminated to large numbers of at-risk children and their families are needed. The goals of the Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program (ECHO) are to examine the 12-month efficacy of a primary obesity prevention program targeting the first year of life that is delivered by home visitors and that engages mothers as agents of change to modify their own behavior and their infant's behavior through education and skill-building around nutrition, physical activity, and wellness, and then "echoes" her training with linkages to neighborhood programs and resources. Six family centers located in low-income neighborhoods in Hartford, CT were randomized into control and intervention neighborhoods. Fifty-seven mothers were recruited either prenatally or shortly after delivery into the Nurturing Families Network home visitation program; 27 lived in a control neighborhood and received the standard home visitation program and 30 lived in an intervention neighborhood and received both the standard home visitation program and the ECHO intervention. The intervention increases maternal skills in goal-setting, stimulus control and problem-solving, engages family members to support changes, links mothers to neighborhood resources and is embedded in the standard home visitation program. ECHO targets include breastfeeding, solids, juice and sugar-sweetened beverages, routines for sleep and responding to infant cues, television/screen time, and maternal diet and physical activity. We hypothesize that infants in ECHO will have been breastfed longer and exclusively, will have delayed introduction of solids and juice, have longer sleep duration, decreased television/screen time and a lower weight for length z-score at 12 months, and their mothers will have greater fruit and vegetable consumption and higher levels of physical
Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Karoly, Lynn
This paper presents a naturalistic investigation of the patterns of formal education, early childhood education training, and mentoring of a diverse group of urban early childhood educators participating in the Los Angeles: Exploring Children's Early Learning Settings (LA ExCELS) study. A total of 103 preschool teachers and family child care providers serving primarily low-income 3- and 4-year-old children in Los Angeles County provided data on their education, training, and beliefs about teaching. This sample worked in public center based preschool programs including Head Start classrooms and State preschool classrooms (N=42), private non-profit preschools including community based organizations and faith-based preschools (N=42), and licensed family child care homes (N=19). This study uses a person-centered approach to explore patterns of teacher preparation, sources of support, supervision, and mentoring across these 3 types of education settings, and how these patterns are associated with early childhood educators' beliefs and practices. Findings suggest a set of linkages between type of early education setting, professional development, and supervision of teaching. Public preschools have the strongest mandates for formal professional development and typically less variation in levels of monitoring, whereas family child care providers on average have less formal education and more variability in their access to and use of other forms of training and mentorship. Four distinct patterns of formal education, child development training, and ongoing mentoring or support were identified among the educators in this study. Associations between professional development experiences and teachers' beliefs and practices suggested the importance of higher levels of formal training for enhancing the quality of teacher-child interactions. Implications of the findings for changing teacher behaviors are discussed with respect to considering the setting context. PMID:20072719
Carryer, Jenny; Weststrate, Jan; Yeung, Polly; Rodgers, Vivien; Towers, Andy; Jones, Mark
Pressure injuries, incontinence, malnutrition, and falls are important indicators of the quality of care in healthcare settings, particularly among older people, but there is limited information on their prevalence in New Zealand (NZ). The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of these four problems among older people in nursing home facilities. The cross-sectional study was an analysis of data collected on a single day for the 2016 National Care Indicators Programme-New Zealand (NCIP-NZ). The sample included 276 people ages 65 and older who were residents in 13 nursing home facilities in a geographically diverse area of central NZ. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Prevalence rates in these nursing home settings was pressure injuries 8%; urinary incontinence 57%; fecal incontinence 26%; malnutrition 20%, and falls 13%, of which half resulted in injuries. As people age, complex health issues can lead to increasing care dependency and more debilitating and costly health problems. Measuring the prevalence of basic care problems in NZ healthcare organizations and contributing to a NZ database can enable monitoring of the effectiveness of national and international guidelines. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lopez, Marianne Exum
This critical ethnographic study examines the discourse systems experienced by three migrant fifth-grade boys during an apple harvest season in south-central Pennsylvania. Numerous examples reveal the discourse collisions facing these boys, whose home language and culture did not reflect the mainstream, and how dominant mainstream discourses…
Gallagher, S S; Finison, K; Guyer, B; Goodenough, S
This study describes the incidence of fatal and nonfatal injuries occurring in 87,022 Massachusetts children and adolescents during a one-year period. A surveillance system for injuries at 23 hospitals captured 93 per cent of all discharges for ages 0-19 in the 14 communities under study. Sample data were collected on emergency room visits, hospital admissions, and deaths for all but a few causes of unintentional injuries. The overall incidence was 2,239 per 10,000. The true incidence rates are probably higher than those reported. The ratio of emergency room visits to admissions to deaths was 1,300 to 45 to 1. Injury rates varied considerably by age, sex, cause, and level of severity. Age-specific injury rates were lowest for infants and elementary school age children and highest for toddlers and adolescents. The overall ratio of male to female injury rates was 1.66 to 1. Injuries from falls, sports, and cutting and piercing instruments had a high incidence and low severity. Injuries from motor vehicles, burns, and drownings had lower incidence, but greater severity. Results provide evidence that both morbidity and mortality must be considered when determining priorities for injury prevention. Current prevention efforts must be expanded to target injuries of higher incidence and within the adolescent population. PMID:6507685
Smithson, Janet; Garside, Ruth; Pearson, Mark
This review considers barriers to, and facilitators of, success for interventions to reduce unintentional injury to children in the home through supply and/or installation of home safety equipment, and looks at risk assessments. A systematic review of qualitative research. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies on interventions to reduce unintentional child injury in the home, or on related attitudes and behaviours. Studies were quality appraised, findings extracted, and a conceptual framework was developed to assess factors affecting the success of interventions. Nine peer-reviewed journal articles were included. Barriers and facilitators were highlighted at organisational, environmental and personal levels. Effective provision of safety equipment involves ongoing support with installation and maintenance. Take up and success of interventions depends on adjusting interventions according to practical limitations and parents' cultural expectations. A particular barrier was parents' inability to modify rented or shared accommodation. The review highlights ways in which health inequalities affect the take up and success of home safety interventions, and how health workers can use this knowledge to facilitate future interventions.
Nakahachi, Takayuki; Ishii, Ryouhei; Canuet, Leonides; Iwase, Masao
Crossed cerebello-cerebral diaschisis (CCCD) conventionally refers to decreased resting cerebral activity caused by injury to the contralateral cerebellum. We investigated whether functional activation of a contralesional cerebral cortical region controlling a specific task is reduced during task performance in a patient with a unilateral cerebellar lesion. We also examined functional compensation by the corresponding ipsilesional cerebral cortex. It was hypothesized that dysfunction of the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) contralateral to the cerebellar lesion would be detected together with a compensatory increase in neural activity of the ipsilesional SM1. To test these possibilities, we conducted non-invasive functional neuroimaging techniques for bilateral SM1 during hand grasping, a task known to activate predominantly the SM1 contralateral to the grasping hand. Activity in SM1 during hand grasping was measured electrophysiologically by magnetoencephalography and hemodynamically by near-infrared spectroscopy in an adult with mild right hemiataxia associated with a large injury of the right cerebellum due to resection of a tumor in early childhood. During left hand grasping, increased neural activity was detected predominantly in the right SM1, the typical developmental pattern. In contrast, neural activity increased in the bilateral SM1 with slight right-side dominance during right (ataxic) hand grasping. This study reported a case that implied functional CCCD and compensatory neural activity in the SM1 during performance of a simple hand motor task in an adult with unilateral cerebellar injury and mild hemiataxia 24 years prior to the study without rehabilitative interventions. This suggests that unilateral cerebellar injuries in early childhood may result in persistent functional abnormalities in the cerebrum into adulthood. Therapeutic treatments that target functional CCCD and interhemispheric compensation might be effective for treating ataxia due to
... the home and from other things that can burn. f fEleven percent of home grill structure fires ... 200 or 49%) of the injuries were thermal burns, including burns both from fire and from contact ...
Scholtes, Beatrice; Schröder-Bäck, Peter
Public health ethics is a growing field of academic interest but ethical discussion of injury prevention seems to have received limited attention. Interventions that promise to be effective are not necessarily-without explicit justification-'good' and 'right' interventions in every sense. This paper explores public health ethics in the context of child injury prevention with the objective to initiate interdisciplinary dialogue on the ethics of child safety interventions. A framework of seven public health ethics principles (non-maleficence, health maximisation, beneficence, respect for autonomy, justice, efficiency and proportionality) were applied to an intervention to promote child safety in the home. Preventing child injury in the home is ethically challenging due to the requirement for the state to intervene in the private sphere. Non-maleficence and beneficence are difficult to judge within this intervention as these are likely to be highly dependent on the nature of intervention delivery, in particular, the quality of communication. Respect for autonomy is challenged by an intervention occurring in the home. The socioeconomic gradient in child injury risk is an important factor but a nuanced approach could help to avoid exacerbating inequalities or stigmatisation. Equally, a nuanced approach may be necessary to accommodate the principles of proportionality and efficiency within the local context. We conclude that this intervention is justifiable from an ethical perspective but that this type of reflection loop is helpful to identify the impact of interventions beyond effectiveness. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Colantonio, Angela; Hsueh, Jayden; Petgrave, Josian; Hirdes, John P; Berg, Katherine
To describe the sociodemographic and clinical profile of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in home care, nursing homes, and complex continuing care settings in a national sample. Cross-sectional study using available Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI 2.0 and RAI Home Care [HC]) national databases in Canada from 1996 to 2011. The profile of people with TBI was compared with patients with and without prespecified neurological conditions within each setting. Adults 18 years and older identified with TBI (n = 10 878) and adult patients with other neurological (n = 422 300) and non-neurological (n = 571 567) conditions. Demographic and clinical characteristics, functional characteristics, mood and behavior, and treatment and medication variables. Data from Canadian home care (RAI-HC), mental health (RAI-MH), nursing home, and complex continuing care facilities (RAI Minimum Data Set 2.0). Patients with TBI were significantly different on almost all items. They were among the youngest in care settings, and psychotropic drug use by this population was among the highest in at least 2 settings. These data can inform the planning for appropriate care and resources for patients with TBI in a range of settings.
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...
Barlow, Karen Maria
In childhood, traumatic brain injury (TBI) poses the unique challenges of an injury to a developing brain and the dynamic pattern of recovery over time, inflicted TBI and its medicolegal ramifications. The mechanisms of injury vary with age, as do the mechanisms that lead to the primary brain injury. As it is common, and is the leading cause of death and disability in the USA and Canada, prevention is the key, and we may need increased legislation to facilitate this. Despite its prevalence, there is an almost urgent need for research to help guide the optimal management and improve outcomes. Indeed, contrary to common belief, children with severe TBI have a worse outcome and many of the consequences present in teenage years or later. The treatment needs, therefore, to be multifaceted and starts at the scene of the injury and extends into the home and school. In order to do this, the care needs to be multidisciplinary from specialists with a specific interest in TBI and to involve the family, and will often span many decades. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Kook, Myung Geun; Kim, Sungchul; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Soh, Kwang-Sup
Homing of stem cells (SCs) to desired targets such as injured tissues remains a lingering problem in cell-based therapeutics. Studies on the biodistribution of intravenously administered SCs have shown the inefficacy of blood vessels as the homing path because most of the injected SCs are captured in the capillary beds of the lungs. We considered an alternative administration method utilizing the acupuncture meridians or the primo vascular system (PVS). We injected SCs at the acupoint Zusanli (ST-36) below the knee of a nude mouse with a spinal cord injured at the thoracic T9-10 vertebrae. The SCs migrated from the ST-36, along the sciatic nerve, the lumbar 4-5, and then the spinal cord to the injury point T9-10. The SCs were not randomly scattered but were rather well aligned like marathon race runners, along the PVS route toward the injury point. We observed the SCs at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 hours after injection. The fast runners among the injected SCs took about 6 hours to reach the sciatic nerve, about 9 hours to reach the lumbar 4-5 and about 15 hours to reach the injury point T9-10. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Dadwal, Parvati; Mahmud, Neemat; Sinai, Laleh; Azimi, Ashkan; Fatt, Michael; Wondisford, Fredric E; Miller, Freda D; Morshead, Cindi M
The development of cell replacement strategies to repair the injured brain has gained considerable attention, with a particular interest in mobilizing endogenous neural stem and progenitor cells (known as neural precursor cells [NPCs]) to promote brain repair. Recent work demonstrated metformin, a drug used to manage type II diabetes, promotes neurogenesis. We sought to determine its role in neural repair following brain injury. We find that metformin administration activates endogenous NPCs, expanding the size of the NPC pool and promoting NPC migration and differentiation in the injured neonatal brain in a hypoxia-ischemia (H/I) injury model. Importantly, metformin treatment following H/I restores sensory-motor function. Lineage tracking reveals that metformin treatment following H/I causes an increase in the absolute number of subependyma-derived NPCs relative to untreated H/I controls in areas associated with sensory-motor function. Hence, activation of endogenous NPCs is a promising target for therapeutic intervention in childhood brain injury models. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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... safety is a concern for some people with myasthenia gravis (MG). Those who have difficulty walking, double vision ... diagnosis and optimal care of individuals affected by myasthenia gravis and closely related disorders and to improve their ...
Swallow, Veronica M; Hall, Andrew G; Carolan, Ian; Santacroce, Sheila; Webb, Nicholas J A; Smith, Trish; Hanif, Noreen
There is a lack of online, evidence-based information and resources to support home-based care of childhood CKD stages 3-5. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with parents, patients and professionals to explore their views on content of the proposed online parent information and support (OPIS) web-application. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, guided by the concept of Self-efficacy. 32 parents, 26 patients and 12 professionals were interviewed. All groups wanted an application that explains, demonstrates, and enables parental clinical care-giving, with condition-specific, continously available, reliable, accessible material and a closed communication system to enable contact between families living with CKD. Professionals advocated a regularly updated application to empower parents to make informed health-care decisions. To address these requirements, key web-application components were defined as: (i) Clinical care-giving support (information on treatment regimens, video-learning tools, condition-specific cartoons/puzzles, and a question and answer area) and (ii) Psychosocial support for care-giving (social-networking, case studies, managing stress, and enhancing families' health-care experiences). Developing a web-application that meets parents' information and support needs will maximise its utility, thereby augmenting parents' self-efficacy for CKD caregiving, and optimising outcomes. Self-efficacy theory provides a schema for how parents' self-efficacy beliefs about management of their child's CKD could potentially be promoted by OPIS.
Peirone, Eliana; Goria, Paolo Filiberto; Anselmino, Arianna
To evaluate the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of a dual-task home-based rehabilitation programme on balance impairments among adult patients with acquired brain injury. Single-blind, randomized controlled pilot study. Single rehabilitation centre. Sixteen participants between 12 and 18 months post-acquired brain injury with balance impairments and a score <10 seconds on the One-Leg Stance Test (eyes open). All participants received 50-minutes individualised traditional physiotherapy sessions three times a week for seven weeks. In addition, the intervention group (N = 8) performed an individualised dual-task home-based programme six days a week for seven weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Balance Evaluation System Test; secondary measures were the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale and Goal Attainment Scaling. At the end of the pilot study, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvement in Balance Evaluation System Test scores (17.87, SD 6.05) vs. the control group (5.5, SD 3.53; P = 0.008, r = 0.63). There was no significant difference in improvement in Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale scores between the intervention group (25.25, SD 25.51) and the control group (7.00, SD 14.73; P = 0.11, r = 0.63). There was no significant improvement in Goal Attainment Scaling scores in the intervention (19.37, SD 9.03) vs. the control group (16.28, SD 6.58; P = 0.093, r = 0.63). This pilot study shows the safety, feasibility and short-term benefit of a dual-task home-based rehabilitation programme to improve balance control in patients with acquired brain injury. A sample size of 26 participants is required for a definitive study.
Pierini, Davide; Hoerold, Doreen
Individuals with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) could benefit from further cognitive rehabilitation, after they have returned home. However, a lack of specialist services to provide such rehabilitation often prevents this. This leads to reduced reintegration of patients, increased social disadvantages and ultimately, higher economic costs. 10 months post-stroke, a 69 year-old woman was discharged from an inpatient rehabilitation program and returned home with severe cognitive impairments. We describe a pilot project which provided an individualised, low cost rehabilitation program, supervised and trained by a neuropsychologist. Progress was monitored every 3 months in order to decide on continuation of the program, based on the achieved results and predicted costs. Post intervention, despite severe initial impairment, cognitive and most notably daily functioning had improved. Although the financial investment was moderately high for the family, the intervention was still considered cost-effective when compared with the required costs of care in a local non-specialist care home. Moreover, the pilot experience was used to build a "local expert team" available for other individuals requiring rehabilitation. These results encourage the development of similar local "low cost" teams in the community, to provide scientifically-grounded cognitive rehabilitation for ABI patients returning home.
Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Lin, En-Yuan; Chiu, Hsiao-Ting; Chen, Pin-Yuan
Sleep disturbance is a common complaint after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a home-based warm footbath intervention on sleep in patients with TBI. This was a randomized controlled crossover study, and 23 adults with TBI were recruited and randomized to receive first a 30-minute, 41°C warm footbath and then a usual care, or vice versa, with each lasting 3 days and separated by a 3-day washout. Sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency (SOL), total sleep time, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) were assessed by actigraphy. We found that home-based warm footbath significantly had a reduced SOL (difference, -5.11 minutes) and a suppressed WASO (difference, -2.57 minutes) compared with those of usual care, but not in sleep efficiency and total sleep time. No adverse effect was reported. This study suggested that home-based warm footbath is practical and effective in relieving post-TBI sleep disturbances, particular in SOL and WASO. Nurses can use home-based warm footbath as an effective intervention for management of sleep disturbances after TBI.
Elder, J P; Crespo, N C; Corder, K; Ayala, G X; Slymen, D J; Lopez, N V; Moody, J S; McKenzie, T L
Interventions to prevent and control childhood obesity have shown mixed results in terms of short- and long-term changes. 'MOVE/me Muevo' was a 2-year family- and recreation centre-based randomized controlled trial to promote healthy eating and physical activity among 5- to 8-year-old children. It was hypothesized that children in the intervention group would demonstrate lower post-intervention body mass index (BMI) values and improved obesity-related behaviours compared with the control group children. Thirty recreation centres in San Diego County, California, were randomized to an intervention or control condition. Five hundred forty-one families were enrolled and children's BMI, diet, physical activity and other health indicators were tracked from baseline to 2 years post-baseline. Analyses followed an intent-to-treat approach using mixed-effects models. No significant intervention effects were observed for the primary outcomes of child's or parent's BMI and child's waist circumference. Moderator analyses, however, showed that girls (but not boys) in the intervention condition reduced their BMI. At the 2-year follow-up, intervention condition parents reported that their children were consuming fewer high-fat foods and sugary beverages. Favourable implementation fidelity and high retention rates support the feasibility of this intervention in a large metropolitan area; however, interventions of greater intensity may be needed to achieve effects on child's BMI. Also, further research is needed to develop gender-specific intervention strategies so that both genders may benefit from such efforts. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Elder, John P.; Crespo, Noe C.; Corder, Kirsten; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Slymen, Donald J.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Moody, Jamie S.; McKenzie, Thomas L.
Background Interventions to prevent and control childhood obesity have shown mixed results in terms of short- and long-term changes. Objectives “MOVE/me Muevo” was a two-year family- and recreation center-based randomized controlled trial to promote healthy eating and physical activity among 5-8 year old children. It was hypothesized that children in the intervention group would demonstrate lower post-intervention BMI values and improve obesity-related behaviors compared to control group children. Methods Thirty recreation centers in San Diego County, California were randomized to an intervention or control condition. Five hundred and forty-one families were enrolled and children’s body mass index (BMI), diet, physical activity and other health indicators were tracked from baseline to two years post-baseline. Analyses followed an intent-to-treat approach using mixed effects models. Results No significant intervention effects were observed for the primary outcomes of child or parent BMI and child waist circumference. Moderator analyses however showed girls (but not boys) in the intervention condition reduced their BMI. At the two-year follow-up, intervention condition parents reported that their children were consuming fewer high-fat foods and sugary beverages. Conclusions Favorable implementation fidelity and high retention rates support the feasibility of this intervention in a large metropolitan area; however, interventions of greater intensity may be needed to achieve effects on child’s BMI. Also, further research is needed to develop gender-specific intervention strategies so that both genders may benefit from such efforts. PMID:23754782
Arch, B N; Thurston, M N
Deaths and injuries related to fires are largely preventable events. In the UK, a plethora of community-based fire safety initiatives have been introduced over the last 25 years, often led by fire and rescue services, to address this issue. This paper focuses on one such initiative--home safety assessments (HSAs). Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service (in England) implemented a uniquely large-scale HSA intervention. This paper assesses its effectiveness. The impact of HSAs was assessed in relation to three outcomes: accidental dwelling fires (ADFs), ADFs contained and injuries arising from ADFs. A two-period comparison in fire-related rates of incidences in Cheshire between 2002 and 2011 was implemented, using Poisson regression and adjusting for the national temporal trend using a control group comprising the 37 other English non-metropolitan fire-services. Significant reductions were observed in rates of ADFs [incidence rate ratios (IRR): 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.83, P < 0.001, 2002/03-2007/08 versus 2008/09-2010/11] and associated injuries (IRR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.39-0.60, P < 0.001, 2002/03-2006/07 versus 2007/08-2010/11), but not in the proportion of fires contained to room of origin. There is strong evidence to suggest that the intervention was successful in reducing domestic fires and related injuries.
Mulvaney, C. A.; Watson, M. C.; Smith, S.; Coupland, C.; Kendrick, D.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of home safety practices and use of safety equipment by disadvantaged families participating in a national home safety equipment scheme in England. Design: Cross-sectional postal survey sent to a random sample of 1,000 families. Setting: England, United Kingdom. Results: Half the families (51%) returned a…
Patil, R; Kolu, P; Raitanen, J; Valvanne, J; Kannus, P; Karinkanta, S; Sievänen, H; Uusi-Rasi, K
This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation and exercise, separately and combined, in preventing medically attended injurious falls among older home-dwelling Finnish women. Given a willingness to pay of €3,000 per injurious fall prevented, the exercise intervention had an 86 % probability of being cost-effective in this population. The costs of falling in older persons are high, both to the individual and to society. Both vitamin D and exercise have been suggested to reduce the risk of falls. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation and exercise, separately and combined, in preventing medically attended injurious falls among older Finnish women. Economic evaluation was based on the results of a previously published 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) where 409 community-dwelling women aged 70 to 80 years were recruited into four groups: (1) no exercise + placebo (D-Ex-), (2) no exercise + vitamin D 800 IU/day (D+Ex-), (3) exercise + placebo (D-Ex+), and (4) exercise + vitamin D 800 IU/day (D+Ex+). The outcomes were medically attended injurious falls and fall-related health care utilization costs over the intervention period, the latter evaluated from a societal perspective based on 2011 unit costs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated for the number of injurious falls per person-year prevented and uncertainty estimated using bootstrapping. Incidence rate ratios (95 % CI) for medically attended injurious falls were lower in both Ex+ groups compared with D-Ex-: 0.46 (0.22 to 0.95) for D-Ex+, 0.38 (0.17 to 0.81) for D+Ex+. Step-wise calculation of ICERs resulted in exclusion of D+Ex- as more expensive and less effective. Recalculated ICERs were €221 for D-Ex-, €708 for D-Ex+, and €3,820 for D+Ex+; bootstrapping indicated 93 % probability that each injurious fall avoided by D-Ex+ per person year costs €708. At a willingness to pay €3,000 per injurious fall prevented
Axelson, Olav; Fredrikson, Mats; Akerblom, Gustav; Hardell, Lennart
Concerns in Sweden about indoor radon around 1980 prompted measurements of gamma-radiation from the facades of houses to identify those constructed of uranium-containing alum shale concrete, with potentially high radon concentrations. To evaluate any possible risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia from exposure to elevated gamma-radiation in these homes, we identified the acute lymphocytic leukemia cases less than 20 years of age in Sweden during 1980-1989 as well as eight controls per case from the population registry, matching on age, gender, and county. Using the existing measurements, exposure was assessable for 312 cases and 1,418 controls from 151 properly measured municipalities. A conditional logistic odds ratio of 1.4 (95% confidence interval = 1.0-1.9) was obtained for those ever having lived in alum shale concrete houses, with the average exposure exceeding 0.10 microsieverts per hour. Comparing those who ever lived in alum shale concrete houses (divided by higher and lower annual average exposure) with those who never lived in such houses, we found a weak dose-response relation. The results suggest some risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia from indoor ionizing radiation among children and young adults.
... your child's chance of injury in the home: Use safety latches and locks on cabinets and drawers. Buy all medicines with childproof caps and always keep them closed. Keep lightweight plastic bags, such as dry cleaning bags, grocery bags, and ...
Woo, Christine; Seton, Jacinta M; Washington, Monique; Tomlinson, Suk C; Phrasavath, Douangmala; Farrell, Karen R; Goldstein, Barry
A spinal cord injury disease management protocol (SCI DMP) was developed to address the unique medical, physical, functional, and psychosocial needs of those living with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). The SCI DMP was piloted to evaluate DMP clinical content and to identify issues for broader implementation across the Veterans Affairs (VA) SCI System of Care. Thirty-three patients with SCI/D from four VA SCI centers participated in a 6-month pilot. Patients received customized SCI DMP questions through a data messaging device (DMD). Nurse home telehealth care coordinators (HTCC) monitored responses and addressed clinical alerts daily. One site administered the Duke Severity of Illness (DUSOI) Checklist and Short Form-8 (SF-8™) to evaluate the changes in comorbidity severity and health-related quality of life while on the SCI DMP. Patients remained enrolled an average of 116 days, with a mean response rate of 56%. The average distance between patient's home and their VA SCI center was 59 miles. Feedback on SCI DMP content and the DMD included requests for additional clinical topics, changes in administration frequency, and adapting the DMD for functional impairments. Improvement in clinical outcomes was seen in a subset of patients enrolled on the SCI DMP. SCI HTCCs and patients reported that the program was most beneficial for newly injured patients recently discharged from acute rehabilitation that live far from specialty SCI care facilities. SCI DMP content changes and broader implementation strategies are currently being evaluated based on lessons learned from the pilot.
Lombard, Avima D.
Israel's Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters, a nationally administered home-based program of early childhood education, is discussed in this book. In addition to presenting information regarding the social conditions that necessitated development of the program, this book describes the theory and planning behind the program, its…
Calderón, Tirza Areli; Martin, Holly; Volpicelli, Kathryn; Frasso, Rosemary; Díaz Arroyo, Elsa Cecilia; Gozzer, Ernesto; Buttenheim, Alison M
Extensive uptake of mobile phones offers an unprecedented opportunity to improve global healthcare delivery, especially among underserved populations. Mobile health (mHealth) has been increasingly recognized as a promising approach to addressing challenges in global maternal-child health and may play an important role in accelerating progress towards improved outcomes. However, more evidence guiding development of mHealth interventions is needed. The current study explores factors that may support or hinder adoption and use of a proposed mHealth intervention to improve caregiver home management of common childhood illnesses in order to shape program development. Elicitation interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 25 mothers recruited from a larger cluster-randomized survey sample in the Cono Norte region of Arequipa, Peru. Interview data were analyzed in Spanish to preserve important cultural nuances. Thematic analysis revealed potential facilitators of and barriers to uptake of the proposed mHealth program. Potential facilitators of caregiver participation include opportunity to engage in two-way communication with healthcare providers, development of instrumental and support knowledge to care for sick children, and healthcare challenges faced in a resource-poor community. Potential barriers include preference for in-person healthcare visits, program cost, text messaging abilities, and concern around program legitimacy. This study underscores the potential for mHealth to improve global healthcare delivery in the area of maternal-child health. It demonstrates that mHealth interventions can meet the needs of vulnerable populations by offering novel approaches to promoting evidence-based care. This in-depth understanding of factors that may influence participation and use of this proposed mHealth program will help shape development of the intervention in this community.
Calderón, Tirza Areli; Martin, Holly; Volpicelli, Kathryn; Frasso, Rosemary; Díaz Arroyo, Elsa Cecilia; Gozzer, Ernesto
Background Extensive uptake of mobile phones offers an unprecedented opportunity to improve global healthcare delivery, especially among underserved populations. Mobile health (mHealth) has been increasingly recognized as a promising approach to addressing challenges in global maternal-child health and may play an important role in accelerating progress towards improved outcomes. However, more evidence guiding development of mHealth interventions is needed. The current study explores factors that may support or hinder adoption and use of a proposed mHealth intervention to improve caregiver home management of common childhood illnesses in order to shape program development. Methods Elicitation interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 25 mothers recruited from a larger cluster-randomized survey sample in the Cono Norte region of Arequipa, Peru. Interview data were analyzed in Spanish to preserve important cultural nuances. Results Thematic analysis revealed potential facilitators of and barriers to uptake of the proposed mHealth program. Potential facilitators of caregiver participation include opportunity to engage in two-way communication with healthcare providers, development of instrumental and support knowledge to care for sick children, and healthcare challenges faced in a resource-poor community. Potential barriers include preference for in-person healthcare visits, program cost, text messaging abilities, and concern around program legitimacy. Conclusions This study underscores the potential for mHealth to improve global healthcare delivery in the area of maternal-child health. It demonstrates that mHealth interventions can meet the needs of vulnerable populations by offering novel approaches to promoting evidence-based care. This in-depth understanding of factors that may influence participation and use of this proposed mHealth program will help shape development of the intervention in this community. PMID:28607905
Mishra, Sushanta Kumar; Khushu, Subash; Singh, Ajay K; Gangenahalli, Gurudutta
Stem cells transplantation has emerged as a promising alternative therapeutic due to its potency at injury site. The need to monitor and non-invasively track the infused stem cells is a significant challenge in the development of regenerative medicine. Thus, in vivo tracking to monitor infused stem cells is especially vital. In this manuscript, we have described an effective in vitro labelling method of MSCs, a serial in vivo tracking of implanted stem cells at traumatic brain injury (TBI) site through 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Proper homing of infused MSCs was carried out at different time points using histological analysis and Prussian blue staining. Longitudinal in vivo tracking of infused MSCs were performed up to 21 days in different groups through MRI using relaxometry technique. Results demonstrated that MSCs incubated with iron oxide-poly-L-lysine complex (IO-PLL) at a ratio of 50:1.5 μg/ml and a time period of 6 h was optimised to increase labelling efficiency. T2*-weighted images and relaxation study demonstrated a significant signal loss and effective decrease in transverse relaxation time on day-3 at injury site after systemic transplantation, revealed maximum number of stem cells homing to the lesion area. MRI results further correlate with histological and Prussian blue staining in different time periods. Decrease in negative signal and increase in relaxation times were observed after day-14, may indicate damage tissue replacement with healthy tissue. MSCs tracking with synthesized negative contrast agent represent a great advantage during both in vitro and in vivo analysis. The proposed absolute bias correction based relaxometry analysis could be extrapolated for stem cell tracking and therapies in various neurodegenerative diseases.
Shankaran, Seetha; McDonald, Scott A; Laptook, Abbot R; Hintz, Susan R; Barnes, Patrick D; Das, Abhik; Pappas, Athina; Higgins, Rosemary D
To examine the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of neonatal brain injury defined by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network to predict death or IQ at 6-7 years of age following hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. Out of 208 participants, 124 had MRI and primary outcome (death or IQ <70) data. The relationship between injury pattern and outcome was assessed. Death or IQ <70 occurred in 4 of 50 (8%) of children with pattern 0 (normal MRI), 1 of 6 (17%) with 1A (minimal cerebral lesions), 1 of 4 (25%) with 1B (extensive cerebral lesions), 3 of 8 (38%) with 2A (basal ganglia thalamic, anterior or posterior limb of internal capsule, or watershed infarction), 32 of 49 (65%) with 2B (2A with cerebral lesions), and 7 of 7 (100%) with pattern 3 (hemispheric devastation), P < .001; this association was also seen within hypothermia and control subgroups. IQ was 90 ± 13 among the 46 children with a normal MRI and 69 ± 25 among the 50 children with an abnormal MRI. In childhood, for a normal outcome, a normal neonatal MRI had a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 92%, and a negative predictive value of 59%; for death or IQ <70, the 2B and 3 pattern combined had a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 78%, positive predictive value of 70%, and a negative predictive value of 87%. The Neonatal Research Network MRI pattern of neonatal brain injury is a biomarker of neurodevelopmental outcome at 6-7 years of age. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00005772. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The organizers of the Decade for Childhood have formulated Ten Pillars of a Good Childhood as basic requirements for an optimal childhood. The pillars can be used to analyze the quality of childhood in homes and nations, and to guide policies and practices related to the experience of childhood. In this article, the author shall illustrate, pillar…
Tak, SangWoo; Alterman, Toni; Baron, Sherry; Calvert, Geoffrey M
We aimed to estimate the proportion of nursing assistants (NAs) in the US with work-related injuries and insufficient socio-economic resources by race/ethnicity. Data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey (NNAS), a nationally representative sample survey of NAs employed in United States nursing homes, were analyzed accounting for the complex survey design. Among 2,880 participants, 44% reported "scratch, open wounds, or cuts" followed by "back injuries" (17%), "black eyes or other types of bruising" (16%), and "human bites" (12%). When compared to non-Hispanic white NAs, the adjusted rate ratio (RR) for wound/cut was 0.74 for non-Hispanic black NAs (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.85). RRs for black eyes/bruises were 0.18 for non-Hispanic black NAs (95% CI: 0.12-0.26), and 0.55 for Hispanic NAs (95% CI: 0.37-0.82). Minority racial and ethnic groups were less likely to report having experienced injuries compared with non-Hispanic white NAs. Future research should focus on identifying preventable risk factors, such as differences by race and ethnicity in the nature of NA jobs and the extent of their engagement in assisting patients with activities of daily living. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Shenk, Chad E; Noll, Jennie G; Cassarly, Jennifer A
Post-traumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and psychological dysregulation have been shown to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and non-suicidal self-injury. However, these proposed mediators often co-occur and previous research has not tested mediation when all variables are assessed simultaneously. The current study sought to advance the literature on maltreatment and self-injury by estimating the mediational effects of post-traumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and psychological dysregulation in the same multiple mediator model. Both maltreated (n = 129) and non-maltreated (n = 82) adolescent females, consisting of Caucasian (55%), African-American (37%), and Bi-racial (8%) backgrounds, participated in the study. Results indicated that only post-traumatic stress symptoms mediated the relationship between maltreatment and self-injury when all variables were included in the model. Overall, post-traumatic symptoms represented a unique pathway from maltreatment to self-injury and warrant special attention when assessing and treating such behavior with adolescent females.
Shenk, Chad E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Cassarly, Jennifer A.
Post-traumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and psychological dysregulation have been shown to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and non-suicidal self-injury. However, these proposed mediators often co-occur and previous research has not tested mediation when all variables are assessed simultaneously. The current study…
The home visiting component of early childhood education programs provides an important portal through which to observe family interactions as well as gain insights about the ethnotheories of the home visitor. Home visits were videotaped in the United States and in Turkey to analyze training and program effectiveness. One striking feature of this…
Villiger, Michael; Liviero, Jasmin; Awai, Lea; Stoop, Rahel; Pyk, Pawel; Clijsen, Ron; Curt, Armin; Eng, Kynan; Bolliger, Marc
Key factors positively influencing rehabilitation and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) include training variety, intensive movement repetition, and motivating training tasks. Systems supporting these aspects may provide profound gains in rehabilitation, independent of the subject's treatment location. In the present study, we test the hypotheses that virtual reality (VR)-augmented training at home (i.e., unsupervised) is feasible with subjects with an incomplete SCI (iSCI) and that it improves motor functions such as lower limb muscle strength, balance, and functional mobility. In the study, 12 chronic iSCI subjects used a home-based, mobile version of a lower limb VR training system. The system included motivating training scenarios and combined action observation and execution. Virtual representations of the legs and feet were controlled via movement sensors. The subjects performed home-based training over 4 weeks, with 16-20 sessions of 30-45 min each. The outcome measures assessed were the Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), Spinal Cord Independence Measure mobility, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II, and 10 m and 6 min walking tests. Two pre-treatment assessment time points were chosen for outcome stability: 4 weeks before treatment and immediately before treatment. At post-assessment (i.e., immediately after treatment), high motivation and positive changes were reported by the subjects (adapted Patients' Global Impression of Change). Significant improvements were shown in lower limb muscle strength (LEMS, P = 0.008), balance (BBS, P = 0.008), and functional mobility (TUG, P = 0.007). At follow-up assessment (i.e., 2-3 months after treatment), functional mobility (TUG) remained significantly improved ( P = 0.005) in contrast to the other outcome measures. In summary, unsupervised exercises at home with the VR training system led to beneficial functional
Chang, Li-Tung; Huang, Tsai-Jeon
Rubber tiles are commonly used in playgrounds as protective surfacing to reduce the incidence of head injuries in children caused by falling from equipment. This study developed a rubber tile model consisting of a surface layer of solid and a base layer of plate-cell and used it to investigate head injury protective performance. An explicit finite element method based on the experimental data was used to simulate head impact on the rubber tile. The peak acceleration and head injury criterion (HIC) were employed to assess the shock-absorbing capability of the tile. The results showed that compared to the peak acceleration, use of the HIC index provided a more conservative assessment of the shock absorption ability, and ultimately the protection against head injuries. This study supports the feasibility of using rubber tile with plate-cell construction to improve shock-absorbing capability. The plate-cell structure provided an excellent cushioning effect via a lower axial shear stiffness of the surface layer and lower transverse shearing stiffness of the core. The core's dimensions were an important parameter in determining the shearing stiffness. The analysis suggested that the cushioning effect would significantly reduce the peak force on the head from a fall and delay the occurrence of the peak value during impact, resulting in a marked reduction in the peak acceleration and HIC values of the head. Two plate-cell constructions with honeycomb and box-like cores were proposed and validated in this study. The better protective ability of the honeycomb core was attributed to its lower transverse shearing stiffness.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...
Seton, Jacinta M.; Washington, Monique; Tomlinson, Suk C.; Phrasavath, Douangmala; Farrell, Karen R.; Goldstein, Barry
Background A spinal cord injury disease management protocol (SCI DMP) was developed to address the unique medical, physical, functional, and psychosocial needs of those living with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). The SCI DMP was piloted to evaluate DMP clinical content and to identify issues for broader implementation across the Veterans Affairs (VA) SCI System of Care. Methods Thirty-three patients with SCI/D from four VA SCI centers participated in a 6-month pilot. Patients received customized SCI DMP questions through a data messaging device (DMD). Nurse home telehealth care coordinators (HTCC) monitored responses and addressed clinical alerts daily. One site administered the Duke Severity of Illness (DUSOI) Checklist and Short Form-8 (SF-8™) to evaluate the changes in comorbidity severity and health-related quality of life while on the SCI DMP. Results Patients remained enrolled an average of 116 days, with a mean response rate of 56%. The average distance between patient's home and their VA SCI center was 59 miles. Feedback on SCI DMP content and the DMD included requests for additional clinical topics, changes in administration frequency, and adapting the DMD for functional impairments. Improvement in clinical outcomes was seen in a subset of patients enrolled on the SCI DMP. Conclusion SCI HTCCs and patients reported that the program was most beneficial for newly injured patients recently discharged from acute rehabilitation that live far from specialty SCI care facilities. SCI DMP content changes and broader implementation strategies are currently being evaluated based on lessons learned from the pilot. PMID:24617497
Preventing Fire Death and Injury, Conducting a Fire Drill in a Group Home [and] When You Need a Fire Safety Expert. National Fire Safety Certification System. Continuing Education Program. Volume 1, Numbers 1-3.
Three booklets provide fire safety information for staff of residential facilities serving people with developmental disabilities. Booklets focus on: (1) preventing fire death and injury, (2) conducting a fire drill in a group home, and (3) the role of fire safety experts. The first booklet stresses the elimination of the following dangers:…
... terrain vehicle; Playing a contact sport, such as football, ice hockey, or boxing; Using in-line skates ... Brain Injury Awareness Additional Pevention Resources Childhood Injuries Concussion in Children and Teens Injuries from Violence Injuries ...
Lavoie, M; Burigusa, G; Maurice, P; Hamel, D; Turmel, E
Elementary school active transportation programs aim to address physical inactivity in children by prompting a modal shift from travel by car to walking or cycling among children living a distance from school conducive to walking or cycling. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the risk of injury related to walking, cycling and travelling by car between home and school among elementary-school students in the Montréal area and to evaluate the impact on number of injuries of a modal shift from travel by car to walking or cycling. The risk of injury was estimated for the 2003-2007 period by calculating the average annual rate of injury in children aged 5 to 12 years walking, cycling or being driven in a car, per 100 million kms travelled during the normal hours of travel between home and school. The impact of a modal shift from travel by car was evaluated for children living a distance from school conducive to walking and cycling (under 1.6 km), that is, the targets of active transportation programs. This evaluation was done using the regional rate of injury calculated for each travel mode. Between 2003 and 2007, an average of 168 children aged 5 to 12 years were injured each year while walking (n = 64), cycling (n = 28) and being driven in a car (n = 76) during the normal hours of travel between home and school in the Montréal area. The rate of injury was 69 children injured per 100 million kms for travel by car (reference group), 314 pedestrians (relative risk [RR] = 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3-5.1) and 1519 cyclists (RR = 22.2; 95% CI: 14.3-30.0). A shift of 20% in the distance travelled by car to walking by children living less than 1.6 km from their school is estimated to result in an increase of 2.2% (n = 3.7) in the number of children injured each year in the area. In the case of a shift to cycling, the number of resulting injuries is estimated to be 24.4, an increase of 14.5%. The risk of injury among elementary-school students during the
Lüdtke, Janine; In-Albon, Tina; Schmeck, Klaus; Plener, Paul L; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmid, Marc
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a frequent phenomenon in adolescents, however there is a lack of studies on the prevalence of NSSI in adolescents placed in youth welfare and juvenile justice group homes. The goal of the present study is to investigate the prevalence rates of NSSI and mental disorders in adolescents living in the youth welfare system, as well as how occasional and repetitive NSSI differ with respect to mental disorders, suicidality, and gender. The sample consisted of 397 adolescents aged 12 to19 years (mean age = 15.98, SD = 1.77, 65.7% male) placed in youth welfare and juvenile justice group homes. NSSI, suicidality, and mental disorders were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-PL). Lifetime prevalence rates of occasional and repetitive NSSI were 21.9% and 18.4%, respectively and 85.6% of the sample endorsed a lifetime mental disorder. Occasional and repetitive NSSI were significantly associated with depressive, conduct, and substance use disorders (d = 0.50-0.67) among both genders. Prevalence rates of repetitive NSSI in youth welfare and juvenile justice institutions are higher than in the general population and males who engage in NSSI are at particularly high risk of suicidality. Due to the high prevalence of NSSI and its related problems, NSSI should be routinely assessed in this vulnerable population and staff should be trained in recognizing and handling NSSI as well as supporting adolescents in improving their emotion regulation skills.
Catroppa, Cathy; Stone, Kate; Hearps, Stephen J C; Soo, Cheryl; Anderson, Vicki; Rosema, Stefanie
Impairments in attention and memory are common sequelae following paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI). While it has been established that such impairments are long-term and, therefore, affect quality-of-life, there is a scarcity of evidence-based interventions to treat these difficulties. The current study aimed to pilot the efficacy of the Amsterdam Memory and Attention Training for Children (Amat-c: English version) using both neuropsychological and ecologically sensitive measures. It was expected that children with attention and memory difficulties post-ABI would show improved performance post-intervention on cognitive and ecological measures, with maintenance at 6 months post-intervention. Ten children with an ABI, between the ages of 8-13 years at the time of recruitment were identified through audits of presentations to a metropolitan paediatric hospital. Each child underwent screening, the 18 week intervention programme, pre-intervention, immediate and 6 month post-intervention assessments. Findings supported the hypothesis that children would show post-intervention (immediate and 6 month) improvement in areas of attention and memory, with generalization to everyday life. Preliminary results provide support for the efficacy of the Amat-c post-childhood ABI. A larger study is needed to confirm these findings, as a reduction in attention and memory difficulties will enhance everyday functioning.
Ahn, Hyochol; Cowan, Linda; Garvan, Cynthia; Lyon, Debra; Stechmiller, Joyce
To provide information on risk factors associated with pressure ulcers (PrUs), including suspected deep tissue injury (sDTI), in nursing home residents in the United States. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Examine the literature related to risk factors for the development of PrUs.2. Compare risk factors associated with the prevalence of PrUs and sDTI from the revised Minimum Data Set 3.0 2012 using a modified Defloor's conceptual model of PrUs as a theoretical framework. This study aims to characterize and compare risk factors associated with pressure ulcers (PrUs), including suspected deep tissue injury (sDTI), in nursing home (NH) residents in the United States. Secondary analysis of the 2012 Minimum Data Set (MDS 3.0). Medicare- or Medicaid-certified NHs in the United States. Nursing home residents (n = 2,936,146) 18 years or older with complete PrU data, who received comprehensive assessments from January to December 2012. Pressure ulcer by stage was the outcome variable. Explanatory variables (age, gender, race and ethnicity, body mass index, skin integrity, system failure, disease, infection, mobility, and cognition) from the MDS 3.0 were aligned with the 4 elements of Defloor's conceptual model: compressive forces, shearing forces, tissue tolerance for pressure, and tissue tolerance for oxygen. Of 2,936,146 NH residents who had complete data for PrU, 89.9% had no PrU; 8.4% had a Stage 2, 3, or 4 or unstagable PrU; and 1.7% had an sDTI. The MDS variables corresponding to the 4 elements of Defloor's model were significantly predictive of both PrU and sDTI. Black residents had the highest risk of any-stage PrU, and Hispanic residents had the highest risk of sDTI. Skin integrity, system failure, infection, and disease risk factors had larger effect sizes for sDTI than for other PrU stages
Wyoming State Dept. of Education, Cheyenne.
Because children entering kindergarten come with a variety of preschool and home experiences, and accordingly, with varying levels of school readiness, the Wyoming Early Childhood Readiness Standards have been developed to provide a more consistent definition of school readiness. The goal for the Standards is to provide early childhood educators…
Christoffel, K K; Donovan, M; Schofer, J; Wills, K; Lavigne, J V
Psychosocial factors--such as hyperactivity and low family cohesion--contribute to the risk for child pedestrian injury (PI), even after controlling for known demographic risk factors. Urban PI victims aged 5 to 12 years were recruited from one large, urban pediatric trauma center in a large city. One hundred twenty-eight cases were matched to uninjured children on age, sex, race, location of residence, and parental education. Among matched cases: 70% were male, 41% were black, 33% were Hispanic, and 66% of the mothers had a high school education or less. RESEARCH DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Case-control comparisons on 19 psychosocial variables drawn from interviews and standardized tests, using one-tailed matched-pairs t tests and conditional logistic regression analyses. Cases had higher reported physical quotient [PQ] (P = .01), self-help quotient (P = .04), and family stress (P = .02), and lower family supportiveness (P = .03). Multivariate analyses confirmed that PQ was higher in cases (10-point increase: odds ratio (OR) = 1.32 [90% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.76], that stress was higher in cases (1 log increase: OR 2.13, [1.26-3.61]), and that cases had lower family supportiveness (25-point decrease: OR 1.43 [1.25-1.63]). It also identified household crowding as a factor for non-black cases (OR for increase of 0.25 people per room: 2.18, [1.31-3.62]). Even when controlling for demographic risk, several family factors and one child factor place children at risk for PI. Clinicians may choose to use these as indicators for injury prevention counseling. Research on family effects may help clarify means to protect children who are demographically at risk for PI.
Dörks, Michael; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Hoffmann, Falk; Jobski, Kathrin
In 2012, the European Medicines Agency reviewed the safety of dual renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade because of potentially increased risks for inter alia acute kidney injury (AKI). Since residents of nursing homes are particularly vulnerable to adverse drug outcomes, the aims of our study were to describe RAS-inhibiting drug use in German nursing home residents and examine the risk of AKI associated with dual RAS blockade. Based on claims data, a nested case-control study within a cohort of RAS-inhibiting drug users was conducted. Using conditional logistic regression, confounder-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained for the risk of AKI associated with dual RAS blockade. Subgroup analyses were performed in patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease and both comorbidities. Of all 127,227 nursing home residents, the study cohort included 64,567 (50.7%) who were treated with at least one RAS-inhibiting drug. More than three quarters of the study population were female (77.1%). Mean age was 86.0 ± 6.8 years. Most residents were treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (77.8%), followed by angiotensin II receptor blockers (21.6%) and aliskiren (0.2%). Annual prevalence of dual RAS blockade declined from 9.6 (95% CI 7.8-11.8) in 2010 to 4.7 (95% CI 4.0-5.4) per 1,000 users in 2014. In the overall cohort, AKI was not significantly associated with dual RAS blockade (aOR 1.99; 0.77-5.17). However, significantly increased aORs were observed when considering patients with diabetes (3.47; 1.27-9.47), chronic kidney disease (4.74; 1.24-18.13) or both (11.17; 2.65-47.15). Prescribing of drugs inhibiting the RAS is common in German nursing homes. Though the prevalence of dual RAS blockade declined, our study showed an increased risk of AKI in patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease. Therefore, cautious use is warranted in these vulnerable patients.
Tuchfarber, Barbara S.; Zins, Joseph E.; Jason, Leonard A.
Childhood injury continues to be a major public health crisis in the United States, with a large percentage of injuries being preventable and controllable. This chapter provides information related to understanding child and youth injury. Studies have shown that injuries affect identifiable high-risk groups. Such host factors that put children at…
Background The home environment is where young children spend most of their time, and is critically important to supporting behaviors that promote health and prevent obesity. However, the home environment and lifestyle patterns remain understudied, and few interventions have investigated parent-led makeovers designed to create home environments that are supportive of optimal child health and healthy child weights. Objective The aim of the HomeStyles randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine whether the Web-based HomeStyles intervention enables and motivates parents to shape the weight-related aspects of their home environments and lifestyle behavioral practices (diet, exercise, and sleep) to be more supportive of their preschool children’s optimal health and weight. Methods A rigorous RCT utilizing an experimental group and an attention control group, receiving a bona fide contemporaneous treatment equal in nonspecific treatment effects and differing only in subject matter content, will test the effect of HomeStyles on a diverse sample of families with preschool children. This intervention is based on social cognitive theory and uses a social ecological framework, and will assess: intrapersonal characteristics (dietary intake, physical activity level, and sleep) of parents and children; family interpersonal or social characteristics related to diet, physical activity, media use, and parental values and self-efficacy for obesity-preventive practices; and home environment food availability, physical activity space and supports in and near the home, and media availability and controls in the home. Results Enrollment for this study has been completed and statistical data analyses are currently underway. Conclusions This paper describes the HomeStyles intervention with regards to: rationale, the intervention’s logic model, sample eligibility criteria and recruitment, experimental group and attention control intervention content, study design, instruments
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Koenings, Mallory; Quick, Virginia; Hongu, Nobuko; Worobey, John
The home environment is where young children spend most of their time, and is critically important to supporting behaviors that promote health and prevent obesity. However, the home environment and lifestyle patterns remain understudied, and few interventions have investigated parent-led makeovers designed to create home environments that are supportive of optimal child health and healthy child weights. The aim of the HomeStyles randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine whether the Web-based HomeStyles intervention enables and motivates parents to shape the weight-related aspects of their home environments and lifestyle behavioral practices (diet, exercise, and sleep) to be more supportive of their preschool children's optimal health and weight. A rigorous RCT utilizing an experimental group and an attention control group, receiving a bona fide contemporaneous treatment equal in nonspecific treatment effects and differing only in subject matter content, will test the effect of HomeStyles on a diverse sample of families with preschool children. This intervention is based on social cognitive theory and uses a social ecological framework, and will assess: intrapersonal characteristics (dietary intake, physical activity level, and sleep) of parents and children; family interpersonal or social characteristics related to diet, physical activity, media use, and parental values and self-efficacy for obesity-preventive practices; and home environment food availability, physical activity space and supports in and near the home, and media availability and controls in the home. Enrollment for this study has been completed and statistical data analyses are currently underway. This paper describes the HomeStyles intervention with regards to: rationale, the intervention's logic model, sample eligibility criteria and recruitment, experimental group and attention control intervention content, study design, instruments, data management, and planned analyses. ©Carol Byrd
Barros, Nirmalla; Langley, Ricky; Buhler, Wayne; Brantham, Kelly
Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States). Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9). Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42%) of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25%) and inhalation (18%) exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%). Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53%) and insect repellants (31%) were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%), while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied. PMID:29051410
Marret, Stéphane; Marchand-Martin, Laetitia; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Hascoët, Jean-Michel; Arnaud, Catherine; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Truffert, Patrick; Larroque, Béatrice; Kaminski, Monique; Ancel, Pierre-Yves
To investigate the association of motor and cognitive/learning deficiencies and overall disabilities in very preterm (VPT) children and their relations to gestational age (GA) and brain lesions. EPIPAGE is a longitudinal population-based cohort study of children born before 33 weeks' gestation (WG) in 9 French regions in 1997-1998. Cumulating data from all follow up stages, neurodevelopmental outcomes were available for 90% of the 2480 VPT survivors at 8 years. Main outcomes were association of motor and cognitive deficiencies and existence of at least one deficiency (motor, cognitive, behavioral/psychiatric, epileptic, visual, and/or hearing deficiencies) in three GA groups (24-26, 27-28, and 29-32WG) and four groups of brain lesions (none, minor, moderate, or severe). VPT had high rates of motor (14%) and cognitive (31%) deficiencies. Only 6% had an isolated motor deficiency, 23% an isolated cognitive one and 8% both types. This rate reached 20% among extremely preterm. Psychiatric disorders and epilepsy were observed in 6% and 2% of children, respectively. The risks of at least one severe or moderate deficiency were 11 and 29%. These risks increased as GA decreased; only 36% of children born extremely preterm had no reported deficiency. Among children with major white matter injury (WMI), deficiency rates reached 71% at 24-26WG, 88% at 27-28WG, and 80% at 29-32WG; more than 40% had associated motor and cognitive deficiencies. By contrast, isolated cognitive deficiency was the most frequent problem among children without major lesions. In VPT, the lower the GA, the higher the neurodisability rate. Cerebral palsy is common. Impaired cognitive development is more frequent. Its occurrence in case without WMI or early motor disorders makes long-term follow up necessary. The strong association between motor impairments, when they exist, and later cognitive dysfunction supports the hypothesis of a common origin of these difficulties.
American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL.
This book begins with a progress report on preventing childhood injuries. Settings for pediatric care are discussed as well as The Injury Prevention Program (TIPP). Child abuse is also addressed in the first section. In section two, specific childhood injuries and interventions are discussed. Each chapter begins with an overview of the problem,…
Van Straaten, Meegan G; Cloud, Beth A; Morrow, Melissa M; Ludewig, Paula M; Zhao, Kristin D
To test the effectiveness of a high-dose home exercise/telerehabilitation program for manual wheelchair users who have a spinal cord injury (SCI) by determining whether the intervention would reduce pain and increase function, as we hypothesized. A pre-post trial with outcomes measured at 3 time points: baseline, postintervention (12wk), and follow-up (>24 wk). Subjects performed an exercise program at their homes using telerehabilitation for therapist monitoring of technique and exercise advancement. Baseline and postintervention data were collected at a motion analysis laboratory in a tertiary medical center. A convenience sample of manual wheelchair users (N=16, 3 women; average age, 41y; average time in a wheelchair, 16y) with shoulder pain (average pain duration, 9y) and mechanical impingement signs on physical examination. A 12-week home exercise program of rotator cuff and scapular stabilization exercises was given to each participant. The program included a high dose of 3 sets of 30 repetitions, 3 times weekly, and regular physical therapist supervision via videoconferencing. Primary outcomes of pain and function were measured with the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI), Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Index, and Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ). Secondary outcomes of strength were measured with isometric strength tests of scapulothoracic and glenohumeral muscles, and a static fatigue test of the lower trapezius. Pain was reduced and function improved after the intervention. There was a significant main effect for pain and function between the 3 time points based on the Friedman signed-ranked test, WUSPI (χ(2)2=5.10, P=.014), DASH Index (χ(2)2=5.41, P=.012), and SRQ (χ(2)2=23.71, P≤.001). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests demonstrated that isometric strength measurements of the serratus anterior and scapular retractors increased after the exercise intervention ([t=2.42, P=.04] and [t=4.67, P=.003], respectively). Muscle impulse
Moresi, L.; Farrington, R.; Moradi, H.; Kiel, P.
It can be quite difficult to instill an intuitive sense of the scaling relationships for mantle convection to a class of geology students, but the use of various props can help. One favorite demonstration tool is the good old lava lamp which, coincidentally, first went on sale at the very time plate tectonic theory was gaining acceptance. Armed with one or more lava lamps, a lecturer can quickly impress upon students how scaling effects such as viscosity, heat input, gravitional acceleration influence the vigour of convection - a first step to understanding basic concepts such as Rayleigh number from a non-mathematical perspective. For more advanced students it is instructive to build a lava lamp for themselves because then it is necessary to understand the trade-off between chemical and thermal buoyancy, and how the equivalent scaling relationships to the purely thermal convection case play out. However, most of the recipes for lava lamps which you can find on the web involve the use of highly toxic substances, often flammable, and suggest the use of mains electricity to provide the light and heat. Needless to say, university safety officers and concerned parents are nervous about permitting such activities in student offices, dorms or at home. We share their concerns, of course, and here suggest a number of relatively safe alternatives which can be constructed from supermarket foodstuffs and cosmetic products together with heat sources such as a cappucino machine, a laptop running finite element simulations, as well as sealed chemical handwarmers.
González, Rafael A; Kallis, Constantinos; Ullrich, Simone; Barnicot, Kirsten; Keers, Robert; Coid, Jeremy W
Childhood maltreatment is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in adulthood including poor mental health and violence. We investigated direct and indirect pathways from childhood maltreatment to adult violence perpetration and the explanatory role of psychiatric morbidity. Analyses were based on a population survey of 2,928 young men 21-34 years in Great Britain in 2011, with boost surveys of black and minority ethnic groups and lower social grades. Respondents completed questionnaires measuring psychiatric diagnoses using standardized screening instruments, including antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), drug and alcohol dependence and psychosis. Maltreatment exposures included childhood physical abuse, neglect, witnessing domestic violence and being bullied. Adult violence outcomes included: any violence, violence toward strangers and intimate partners (IPV), victim injury and minor violence. Witnessing domestic violence showed the strongest risk for adult violence (AOR 2.70, 95% CI 2.00, 3.65) through a direct pathway, with psychotic symptoms and ASPD as partial mediators. Childhood physical abuse was associated with IPV (AOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.25, 4.35), mediated by ASPD and alcohol dependence. Neglect was associated with violence toward strangers (AOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.03, 2.91), mediated by ASPD. Prevention of violence in adulthood following childhood physical abuse and neglect requires treatment interventions for associated alcohol dependence, psychosis, and ASPD. However, witnessing family violence in childhood had strongest and direct effects on the pathway to adult violence, with important implications for primary prevention. In this context, prevention strategies should prioritize and focus on early childhood exposure to violence in the family home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caretakers Updated:Aug 27, ... gradually. Healthier Kids • Healthier Kids Home • Our Programs • Childhood Obesity Introduction Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is ...
Pega, Frank; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Blakely, Tony; Atkinson, June; Wilson, Nick
This study aimed to improve on previous modelling work to determine the health gain, cost-utility and health equity impacts from home safety assessment and modification (HSAM) for reducing injurious falls in older people. The model was a Markov macrosimulation one that estimated quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. The setting was a country with detailed epidemiological and cost data (New Zealand (NZ)) for 2011. A health system perspective was taken and a discount rate of 3% was used (for both health gain and costs). Intervention effectiveness estimates came from a Cochrane systematic review and NZ-specific intervention costs were from a randomised controlled trial. In the 65 years and above age group, the HSAM programme cost a total of US$98 million (95% uncertainty interval (UI) US$65 to US$139 million) to implement nationally and the accrued net health system costs were US$74 million (95% UI: cost saving to US$132 million). Health gains were 34 000 QALYs (95% UI: 5000 to 65 000). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was US$6000 (95% UI: cost saving to US$13 000), suggesting that HSAM is highly cost-effective. Targeting HSAM only to older people with previous injurious falls and to older people aged 75 years and above were also cost-effective (ICERs=US$1000 and US$11 000, respectively). There was no evidence for differential cost-effectiveness by gender or by ethnicity (Indigenous New Zealanders: Māori vs non-Māori). As per other studies, this modelling study indicates that the provision of an HSAM intervention produces considerable health gain and is highly cost-effective among older people. Targeting this intervention to older people with previous injurious falls is a promising initial approach before any scale up. ACTRN12609000779279. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Linakis, James G; Mello, Michael J; Machan, Jason; Amanullah, Siraj; Palmisciano, Lynne M
To describe the epidemiology of emergency department (ED) visits for trampoline-related injuries among U.S. children from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2005, using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) and to compare recent trampoline injury demographics and injury characteristics with those previously published for 1990-1995 using the same data source. A stratified probability sample of U.S. hospitals providing emergency services in NEISS was utilized for 2000-2005. Nonfatal trampoline-related injury visits to the ED were analyzed for patients from 0 to 18 years of age. In 2000-2005, there was a mean of 88,563 ED visits per year for trampoline-related injuries among 0-18-year-olds, 95% of which occurred at home. This represents a significantly increased number of visits compared with 1990-1995, when there was an average of 41,600 visits per year. Primary diagnosis and principal body part affected remained similar between the two study periods. ED visits for trampoline-related injuries in 2000-2005 increased in frequency by 113% over the number of visits for 1990-1995. Trampoline use at home continues to be a significant source of childhood injury morbidity.
Gold, Diane R; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Arshad, Syed Hasan; Celedón, Juan C; Chapman, Martin D; Chew, Ginger L; Cook, Donald N; Custovic, Adnan; Gehring, Ulrike; Gern, James E; Johnson, Christine C; Kennedy, Suzanne; Koutrakis, Petros; Leaderer, Brian; Mitchell, Herman; Litonjua, Augusto A; Mueller, Geoffrey A; O'Connor, George T; Ownby, Dennis; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Persky, Victoria; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Ramsey, Clare D; Salo, Päivi M; Schwaninger, Julie M; Sordillo, Joanne E; Spira, Avrum; Suglia, Shakira F; Togias, Alkis; Zeldin, Darryl C; Matsui, Elizabeth C
Environmental exposures have been recognized as critical in the initiation and exacerbation of asthma, one of the most common chronic childhood diseases. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; and Merck Childhood Asthma Network sponsored a joint workshop to discuss the current state of science with respect to the indoor environment and its effects on the development and morbidity of childhood asthma. The workshop included US and international experts with backgrounds in allergy/allergens, immunology, asthma, environmental health, environmental exposures and pollutants, epidemiology, public health, and bioinformatics. Workshop participants provided new insights into the biologic properties of indoor exposures, indoor exposure assessment, and exposure reduction techniques. This informed a primary focus of the workshop: to critically review trials and research relevant to the prevention or control of asthma through environmental intervention. The participants identified important limitations and gaps in scientific methodologies and knowledge and proposed and prioritized areas for future research. The group reviewed socioeconomic and structural challenges to changing environmental exposure and offered recommendations for creative study design to overcome these challenges in trials to improve asthma management. The recommendations of this workshop can serve as guidance for future research in the study of the indoor environment and on environmental interventions as they pertain to the prevention and management of asthma and airway allergies. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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Sixteen adults with physical disabilities participated in this emancipatory research study to document their recollection of institutionalization in Toronto's Bloorview Hospital, Home and School between 1960 and 1989. This study suggests that: there were two distinct cohorts of residents, with the latter group having a relatively more positive…
Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are the most common medical complication following spinal cord injury (SCI), as well as costly and potentially life-threatening. Every individual with SCI is at life-long risk for developing PrUs, yet many lack access to readily available, understandable, and effective PrU prevention strategies and practices. To address barriers to adequate PrU prevention education, an interactive e-learning program to educate adults with SCI about PrU prevention and management was developed and previously pilot-tested among inpatients. This recent pilot study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the learning portion of the program by adults with SCI following discharge to home among 15 outpatients with SCI. Fourteen patients (nine men, five women, median age 37 years) completed the program intervention and pre- and follow-up questionnaires. The median score for pre-program knowledge and skin care management practice was 96 (possible score: 0 to 120; range 70-100). Post-program use median score was 107 (range 97-114). The greatest improvement was in the responses to knowledge and practice questions about skin checks and preventing skin problems (P <0.005). In terms of their experiences and perceptions, the program was well received by the study participants. Further evaluation involving large samples is necessary to confirm these findings and ascertain the effect of this e-learning program on PrU incidence. Internet interventions that are proven effective hold tremendous potential for bringing prevention education to groups who would otherwise not receive it.
Morrongiello, Barbara A; Zdzieborski, Daniel; Sandomierski, Megan; Lasenby-Lessard, Jennifer
Recent research reveals that supervision can be a protective factor for childhood injury. Parents who closely supervise young children at home have children who experience fewer injuries. What is not known, however, is what messaging approaches (e.g., injury statistics, graphic images of injured children, personal testimonials by parents) are best to persuade parents to supervise more closely. Using video as the medium, the present focus group study of urban Canadian mothers explored their reactions to different formats and messages in order to: identify best practices to convince mothers that childhood injury prevention is important; determine how best to communicate messages about supervision to mothers; and identify what the nature and scope of these messages should be for motivating and empowering mothers to supervise closely. Results suggest that those who become aware of the scope of childhood injuries are motivated to pay attention to messaging about supervision, that such messages must be delivered with care so that parents do not feel guilty or blamed for acknowledging they could more closely supervise than they already are, that certain messages are not useful for encouraging closer supervision, and that both the content and presentation characteristics (images, accompanying sound) of messages are important determinants of effectiveness for motivating mothers to supervise more closely. Implications for developing interventions that effectively communicate information about child-injury risk and supervision to mothers are discussed.
Gheisari, Yousof; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Ahmadbeigi, Naser; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Golestaneh, Azadeh Fahim; Naderi, Mahmood; Vasei, Mohammad; Arefian, Ehsan; Mirab-Samiee, Siamak; Shafiee, Abbas; Soleimani, Masoud; Zeinali, Sirous
The therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in kidney failure has been examined in some studies. However, recent findings indicate that after transplantation, these cells home to kidneys at very low levels. Interaction of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) with its receptor, CXCR4, is of pivotal importance in migration and homing. Recently, CXCR7 has also been recognized as another SDF-1 receptor that interacts with CXCR4 and modulates its functions. In this study, CXCR4 and CXCR7 were separately and simultaneously overexpressed in BALB/c bone marrow MSCs by using a lentiviral vector system and the homing and renoprotective potentials of these cells were evaluated in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and real-time PCR methods for detection of GFP-labeled MSCs, we found that although considerably entrapped in lungs, native MSCs home very rarely to kidneys and bone marrow and this rate cannot be significantly affected by CXCR4 and/or CXCR7 upregulation. Transplantation of neither native nor genetically engineered MSCs ameliorated kidney failure. We concluded that overexpression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 receptors in murine MSCs cannot improve the homing and therapeutic potentials of these cells and it can be due to severe chromosomal abnormalities that these cells bear during ex vivo expansion.
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Ammerman, Robert T; Mallow, Peter J; Rizzo, John A; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B
To determine the cost-effectiveness of In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) for low-income mothers enrolled in a home visiting program. A cost-utility analysis was conducted using results from a clinical trial of IH-CBT and standard of care for depression derived from the literature. A probabilistic, patient-level Markov model was developed to determine Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Costs were determined using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. A three-year time horizon and payer perspective were used. Sensitivity analyses were employed to determine robustness of the model. IH-CBT was cost-effective relative to standard of care. IH-CBT was expected to be cost-effective at a three-year time horizon 99.5%, 99.7%, and 99.9% of the time for willingness-to-pay thresholds of US$25,000, US$50,000, and US$100,000, respectively. Patterns were upheld at one-year and five-year time horizons. Over the three-year time horizon, mothers receiving IH-CBT were expected to have 345.6 fewer days of depression relative to those receiving standard home visiting and treatment in the community. IH-CBT is a more cost-effective treatment for low-income, depressed mothers than current standards of practice. These findings add to the growing literature demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of CBT for depression, and expand it to cover new mothers. From a payer perspective, IH-CBT is a sound option for treatment of depressed, low-income mothers. Limitations include a restricted time horizon and estimating of standard of care costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bergen, Doris; Fromberg, Doris Pronin
This article discusses traditional and contemporary definitions of middle childhood play, the value of such play for children's development and learning, the implications of home, school, and societal practices that have resulted in changing the play scenario of middle childhood, and suggestions for assuring that play's value will be maintained…
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GERRARD-MORRIS, AIMEE; TAYLOR, H. GERRY; YEATES, KEITH OWEN; WALZ, NICOLAY CHERTKOFF; STANCIN, TERRY; MINICH, NORI; WADE, SHARI L.
The primary aims of this study were to examine post-injury cognitive development in young children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to investigate the role of the proximal family environment in predicting cognitive outcomes. Age at injury was 3–6 years, and TBI was classified as severe (n = 23), moderate (n = 21), and complicated mild (n = 43). A comparison group of children who sustained orthopedic injuries (OI, n = 117) was also recruited. Child cognitive assessments were administered at a post-acute baseline evaluation and repeated at 6, 12, and 18 months post-injury. Assessment of the family environment consisted of baseline measures of learning support and stimulation in the home and of parenting characteristics observed during videotaped parent–child interactions. Relative to the OI group, children with severe TBI group had generalized cognitive deficiencies and those with less severe TBI had weaknesses in visual memory and executive function. Although deficits persisted or emerged across follow-up, more optimal family environments were associated with higher scores for all injury groups. The findings confirm other reports of poor recovery of cognitive skills following early childhood TBI and suggest environmental influences on outcomes. PMID:19849883
Swallow, Veronica; Knafl, Kathleen; Sanatacroce, Sheila; Hall, Andrew; Smith, Trish; Campbell, Malcolm; Webb, Nicholas J A
This article is a report of a protocol for studying the development and evaluation of an online parent information and support package for home-based care of children with chronic kidney disease stages 3-5. The study is funded by a National Institute of Health Research, Research for Patient Benefit Grant awarded (December 2010). Approval to undetake the study was obtained from the Department of Health National Research Ethics Service (June 2011). Children with chronic kidney disease require skilled, home-based care by parents, supported by professionals. Parents have identified a need for continuously available online resources to supplement professional support, and structured resources tailored to parents' needs are highlighted by policy makers as key to optimizing care; yet, online resource provision is patchy with little evidence base. Using mixed methods, we will (i) conduct parent/child/young person/professional/patient and parent volunteer focus groups to explore views on existing resources, (ii) collaboratively define gaps in provision, identify desirable components, develop/test resources and conduct a feasibility randomized controlled trial, and (iii) of usual professional support versus usual support supplemented by the package. Eighty parents of children with chronic kidney disease will be randomized. Primary outcomes will assess parents' self-efficacy and views of resources, using standardized measures at entry and 24 weeks, and semi-structured interviews at 24 weeks. We will finalize trial components for a later definitive trial. By working collaboratively, we will derive a detailed insight into parents' information and support needs and experiences of using the package, and should see improved parental self-efficacy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Strader, Kathleen; Counts, Jacqueline; Filene, Jill
The Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program is part of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and provides $1.5 billion over 5 years to states, territories, and tribes with the goal of delivering evidence-based home visiting services as part of a high-quality, comprehensive early childhood system that promotes…
Hansen, Laurel D.; And Others
Describes the construction of a variety of inexpensive, escape-proof, and safe insect homes--each complete with window, ventilation screen, and cover--so students can observe firsthand the intriguing world of insects. (PR)
Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy
Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.
Othman, Nasih; Kendrick, Denise; Al-Windi, Ahmad
While it is globally observed that young children are at a higher risk of burn injuries, little is known about childhood burns in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to describe the epidemiology of burns amongst pre-school children in this region. A prospective study was undertaken from November 2007 to November 2008 involving all children aged 0-5 years attending the burns centre in Sulaimaniyah province for a new burn injury whether treated as an outpatient or admitted to hospital. 1,122 children attended the burns centre of whom 944 (84%) were interviewed (male 53%, female 47%). Mean age was 1.9 years with children aged 1 year comprising 32% and those aged 2 years comprising 21% of the sample. The incidence of burns was 1044/100,000 person-years (1030 in females and 1057 in males). Mechanisms of injury included scalds (80%), contact burns (12%) flames (6%) and other mechanisms (2%). Almost 97% of burns occurred at home including 43% in the kitchen. Winter was the commonest season (36%) followed by autumn (24%). There were 3 peak times of injury during the day corresponding to meal times. The majority of burns were caused by hot water (44%) and tea (20%) and the most common equipment/products responsible were tea utensils (41%). There were 237 admissions with an admission rate of 95 per 100,000 person-years. Scald injuries accounted for most admissions (84%). Median total body surface area affected by the burn or scald (TBSA) was 11% and median hospital stay was 7 days. In-hospital mortality was 8%. Mortality rate was 4% when TBSA was ≤25%, and 100% when TBSA was over 50%. Burn incidence is high in young children especially those aged 1-2 years. Preventive interventions targeted at families with young children & focusing on home safety measures could be effective in reducing childhood burns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Rupp, Rüdiger; Schließmann, Daniel; Plewa, Harry; Schuld, Christian; Gerner, Hans Jürgen; Weidner, Norbert; Hofer, Eberhard P; Knestel, Markus
The compact Motorized orthosis for home rehabilitation of Gait (MoreGait) was developed for continuation of locomotion training at home. MoreGait generates afferent stimuli of walking with the user in a semi-supine position and provides feedback about deviations from the reference walking pattern. Prospective, pre-post intervention, proof-of-concept study to test the feasibility of an unsupervised home-based application of five MoreGait prototypes in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Twenty-five (5 tetraplegia, 20 paraplegia) participants with chronic (mean time since injury: 5.8 ± 5.4 (standard deviation, SD) years) sensorimotor iSCI (7 ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) C, 18 AIS D; Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II): Interquartile range 9 to 16) completed the training (45 minutes / day, at least 4 days / week, 8 weeks). Baseline status was documented 4 and 2 weeks before and at training onset. Training effects were assessed after 4 and 8 weeks of therapy. After therapy, 9 of 25 study participants improved with respect to the dependency on walking aids assessed by the WISCI II. For all individuals, the short-distance walking velocity measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test showed significant improvements compared to baseline (100%) for both self-selected (Mean 139.4% ± 35.5% (SD)) and maximum (Mean 143.1% ± 40.6% (SD)) speed conditions as well as the endurance estimated with the six-minute walk test (Mean 166.6% ± 72.1% (SD)). One device-related adverse event (pressure sore on the big toe) occurred in over 800 training sessions. Home-based robotic locomotion training with MoreGait is feasible and safe. The magnitude of functional improvements achieved by MoreGait in individuals with iSCI is well within the range of complex locomotion robots used in hospitals. Thus, unsupervised MoreGait training potentially represents an option to prolong effective training aiming at recovery of locomotor function beyond in-patient rehabilitation. German
Nadon, Susan M.; Koverola, Catherine; Schludermann, Eduard H.
Adolescent prostitutes (n=45) and adolescent nonprostitutes (n=37) were interviewed regarding their experiences related to childhood physical and sexual abuse, leaving home, family functioning, parental alcohol and drug use, and level of self-esteem. Although results replicated previous findings, when a comparison group was considered the same…
Rush, Dathan D.; Shelden, M'Lisa L.
Evidence-based and highly effective, "coaching" helps early childhood practitioners support other professionals and families as they enhance existing knowledge, develop new skills, and promote healthy development of young children. This hands-on guide shows professionals how to conduct skillful coaching in any setting--home, school, or community.…
Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Runyan, Carol W.; Baccaglini, Lorena; Perkis, David; Johnson, Renee M.
Background Most unintentional childhood poisonings and firearm injuries occur in residential environments. Therefore, a preventive strategy includes limiting children’s access to poisons and firearms through safe storage. This study examines storage of poisons and firearms among households with older adults, and households where young children reside compared to those where they visit only. Methods Sample is from a 2002 national random-digit-dial survey of 1003 households. Analyses were weighted to reflect the national population. Results There were 637 households with children residents or visitors aged <6 years. Seventy-five percent of the households (n =480) had children aged <6 as visitors only, and 15% had older adult residents (aged ≥70 years). Poisons and firearms were stored less securely in homes with young children as visitors as compared to those homes with resident young children. In 55% of homes where young children lived, and 74% of homes where young children were only visitors, household chemicals were reportedly stored unlocked. Although firearm ownership was comparable between the two categories of households (33% vs 34%), homes in which children were only visitors were more likely to store firearms unlocked (56%), than homes in which children resided (33%). Homes with older adult residents had more firearms present. Conclusions Children are at risk from improperly stored poisonous substances and firearms in their own homes and homes they visit. Strategies are needed to improve the storage practices of both poisons and firearms to minimize in-home hazards to young children, particularly raising awareness of these hazards to young visitors. PMID:15626565
Ablewhite, Joanne; McDaid, Lisa; Hawkins, Adrian; Peel, Isabel; Goodenough, Trudy; Deave, Toity; Stewart, Jane; Watson, Michael; Kendrick, Denise
Childhood unintentional injury represents an important global health problem. Many unintentional injuries experienced by children aged under 5 years occur within the home and are preventable. The aim of this study was to explore the approaches used by parents of children under five in order to help prevent unintentional injuries in the home and the factors which influence their use. Understanding how parents approach risk-management in the home has important implications for injury practitioners. A multi-centre qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. A thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Sixty five parents of children aged under 5 years, from four study areas were interviewed: Bristol, Newcastle, Norwich and Nottingham. Three main injury prevention strategies used by parents were: a) Environmental such as removal of hazards, and use of safety equipment; b) parental supervision; and c) teaching, for example, teaching children about safety and use of rules and routine. Strategies were often used in combination due to their individual limitations. Parental assessment of injury risk, use of strategy and perceived effectiveness were fluid processes dependent on a child's character, developmental age and the prior experiences of both parent and child. Some parents were more proactive in their approach to home safety while others only reacted if their child demonstrated an interest in a particular object or activity perceived as being an injury risk. Parents' injury prevention practices encompass a range of strategies that are fluid in line with the child's age and stage of development; however, parents report that they still find it challenging to decide which strategy to use and when.
Kluczniok, Katharina; Lehrl, Simone; Kuger, Susanne; Rossbach, Hans-Guenther
The quality of the home learning environment has been proven to be of major importance for child development, but little is known about the role of domain specificity in promoting early childhood learning at home and its dependence on family background. This article presents a framework of the home learning environment in early childhood that…
Chaitanya, Krishna; Addanki, Archana; Karambelkar, Rajendra; Ranjan, Rakesh
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents is a community-based medical and educational challenge world-over due to increasing urbanization and motorization. In India, children between 1 to 15 years constitute significant proportion of the total population, who are vulnerable for TBI. In developed countries, pediatric trauma mortality still represents more than half of all childhood fatalities, which is 18 times more common than brain tumors. In this study, we attempted to analyze epidemiological factors, management, and outcome of TBI in children at a tertiary care center in Pune, Maharashtra. To study the clinical spectrum of pediatric traumatic brain injury cases received at a Tertiary Care Hospital. This prospective study (August 2015-July 2017), conducted at our institution, includes all children < 16 years with TBI reporting to the neurosurgical emergency department. All the case records were reviewed and the pertinent data (clinical history, age, sex, mode of injury, computed tomography (CT) scan findings, interventions, morbidity, and mortality) analyzed. Any residual neurological deficits at the time discharge were assessed as the outcome of TBI. A total 76 pediatric cases of TBI were admitted during the period of August 2015-July 2017, with 51 males (67%) and 25 females (33%) with male to female ratio 2:1. Mean age of incidence in our study is 5.5 years. Out of 76 children with TBI, 60.5% were of mild, 14.5% moderate, and 25% severe TBI. Overall, RTA (40.8%) is the most common mode of injury followed by fall from height (30.2%) and slippage in and around home (26.4%). Clinical evaluation revealed, loss of consciousness(LOC) in 36 (47.3%) patients, vomiting in 42 (55%) patients, headache in 10 (13%) patients, ENT bleeding in 18 (23.6%), and seizure in 16 (21%) patients, no external injuries in 25 (33%) patients, normal sensorium was found in 41 (54%) patients, 18 (23.6%) children were drowsy at presentation, and 17 (22.3%) children were
Tasian, Gregory E.; Bagga, Herman S.; Fisher, Patrick B.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Cinman, Nadya M.; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.
Purpose We describe the epidemiological features of pediatric genitourinary injuries, and determine the products and events that may predict an increased risk of genitourinary injury during childhood. Materials and Methods The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried to identify children 18 years or younger who sustained genitourinary injuries and presented to emergency departments in the United States between 2002 and 2010. Demographics and injury characteristics of these children were analyzed. Analyses were performed with adjustments for sample weighting and the stratified survey design. All data are reported as national estimates along with 95% confidence intervals. Results Based on 10,286 actual cases, an estimated 252,392 children (95% CI 205,579–299,194) sustained genitourinary injuries during the 9-year study period. Children 4 to 7 years old were most frequently injured (36.8% of all injuries), followed by those 8 to 11 years old (20.6%). Girls comprised 55% of the injured children. The yearly incidence of genitourinary injuries was stable across the period studied. The most commonly injured organs were female external genitalia (37.7%), penises (21.6%) and testicles (12%). Genitourinary injuries were most commonly associated with sporting and exercise equipment (35.7%), furniture (15.5%) and clothing items (11.9%). Of the patients 91% were treated at the emergency department and discharged home. Conclusions Genitourinary injuries in children result in approximately 28,000 emergency department visits yearly. Efforts should be made to decrease the risk of genitourinary injuries in children by promoting the use of protective gear and safer product selection for those at greatest risk for injury. PMID:23174237
Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Carvalho, Mércia Gomes Oliveira de; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Avanci, Jovina Quintes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata
To describe emergency care for external causes in childhood, age group 0-9 years, in Brazilian capitals, collected from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA) Survey in 2014. To review data from the VIVA survey conducted in public emergency services in 24 Brazilian capitals. Variables analyzed were gender, age group (0-1 years, 2-5 years and 6-9 years), race/skin color, type of events and injuries, aggressors and other. Eight thousand five hundred eighty-eight children received care, of which 8,164 (95%) were victims of accidents and 424 (5%) of violence. Boys suffered more accidents, most events occurred at home (65%) and discharge was the most frequent outcome. Falls were the most frequent accidents, followed by other accidents, road injury and burns. Neglect prevailed among the types of violence, followed by physical violence. The perpetrator was a child's relative in 72% of the cases, and women were the most frequent aggressors for children under 1 year, and men for children aged 6 to 9 years. Childhood accidents occurred mainly at home, and falls were the most frequent events. Family members and acquaintances perpetrated violence against children. Data point to the implementation of public prevention and child protection policies.
Clapham, Kathleen; Bennett-Brook, Keziah; Hunter, Kate
Aboriginal Australian children experience higher rates of injury than other Australian children. However few culturally acceptable programs have been developed or evaluated. The Illawarra Aboriginal Medical Service (IAMS) developed the Safe Homes Safe Kids program as an injury prevention program targeting disadvantaged Aboriginal families with children aged 0-5 in an urban region of NSW. Delivered by Aboriginal Family Workers the program aims to reduce childhood injury by raising awareness of safety in the home. A program evaluation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the home visiting model as an injury prevention program. This paper reports on the qualitative interviews which explored the ways in which clients, IAMS staff, and external service providers experienced the program and assessed its delivery by the Aboriginal Family Workers. A qualitative program evaluation was conducted between January 2014 and June 2015. We report here on the semi-structured interviews undertaken with 34 individuals. The results show increased client engagement in the program; improved child safety knowledge and skills; increased access to services; improved attitudes to home and community safety; and changes in the home safety environment. Safe Homes Safe Kids provides a culturally appropriate child safety program delivered by Aboriginal Family Workers to vulnerable families. Clients, IAMS staff, and external service were satisfied with the family workers' delivery of the program and the holistic model of service provision. SO WHAT?: This promising program could be replicated in other Aboriginal health services to address unintentional injury to vulnerable Aboriginal children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Mudiappa, Michael; Kluczniok, Katharina
Studies show the important role of the home learning environment in early childhood for later school success. This article focuses on a particular aspect of the home learning environment: visits to cultural learning places (e.g. museums) as a component of the quality of the home learning environment. Therefore the educational concept of…
Mitchell, Rebecca; Testa, Luke
Injury is one of the most common reasons why a child is hospitalised. Information gained from injury surveillance activities provides an estimate of the injury burden, describes injury event circumstances, can be used to monitor injury trends over time, and is used to design and evaluate injury prevention activities. This perspective article provides an overview of child injury surveillance capabilities within New South Wales (NSW), Australia, following a stocktake of population-based injury-related data collections using the Evaluation Framework for Injury Surveillance Systems. Information about childhood injury in NSW is obtained from multiple administrative data collections that were not specifically designed to conduct injury surveillance. Obtaining good information for child injury surveillance in NSW will involve better coordination of information from agencies that record information about childhood injury. Regular reporting about childhood injury to provide a comprehensive profile of injuries of children and young people in the state should be considered, along with the provision and/or linkage of child injury information from multiple data collections. This could support the development of a suite of injury performance indicators to monitor childhood injury reduction strategies across NSW.
Thong, Y H
Childhood autism may be caused by damage to three phylogenetically distinct regions of the brain, or their major pathways and connections. Injury to the neocortex results in loss of language and cognitive function, while injury to the limbic cortex results in autistic withdrawal and abolition of play behaviour. Injury to the more primitive striatal complex, mammalian counterpart of the brain of reptiles, results in a bizarre and truncated form of stereotyped and ritualistic behaviour. The causes of brain injury in childhood autism could be those common in the perinatal period including cerebral anoxia, haemorrhage, phenylketonuria, neurolipidoses , meningitis, toxoplasmosis, and congenital rubella. All these conditions have previously been shown to be associated with childhood autism.
Kendrick, Denise; Stewart, Jane; Clacy, Rose; Coffey, Frank; Cooper, Nicola; Coupland, Carol; Hayes, Mike; McColl, Elaine; Reading, Richard; Sutton, Alex; M L Towner, Elizabeth; Craig Watson, Michael
Background Childhood falls result in considerable morbidity, mortality and health service use. Despite this, little evidence exists on protective factors or effective falls prevention interventions in young children. Objectives To estimate ORs for three types of medically attended fall injuries in young children in relation to safety equipment, safety behaviours and hazard reduction and explore differential effects by child and family factors and injury severity. Design Three multicentre case–control studies in UK hospitals with validation of parental reported exposures using home observations. Cases are aged 0–4 years with a medically attended fall injury occurring at home, matched on age and sex with community controls. Children attending hospital for other types of injury will serve as unmatched hospital controls. Matched analyses will use conditional logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding variables. Unmatched analyses will use unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, deprivation and distance from hospital in addition to other confounders. Each study requires 496 cases and 1984 controls to detect an OR of 0.7, with 80% power, 5% significance level, a correlation between cases and controls of 0.1 and a range of exposure prevalences. Main outcome measures Falls on stairs, on one level and from furniture. Discussion As the largest in the field to date, these case control studies will adjust for potential confounders, validate measures of exposure and investigate modifiable risk factors for specific falls injury mechanisms. Findings should enhance the evidence base for falls prevention for young children. PMID:22628151
Bull, M J; Agran, P; Gardner, H G; Laraque, D; Pollack, S H; Smith, G A; Spivak, H R; Tenebein, M; Brenner, R A; Bryn, S; Neverman, C; Schieber, R A; Stanwick, R; Tinsworth, D; Garcia, V; Tanz, R; Katcher, M L; Newland, H
Lawn mower-related injuries to children are relatively common and can result in severe injury or death. Many amputations during childhood are caused by power mowers. Pediatricians have an important role as advocates and educators to promote the prevention of these injuries.
Can the provision of a home help service for the elderly population reduce the incidence of fall-related injuries? A quasi-experimental study of the community-level effects on hospital admissions in Swedish municipalities.
Bonander, Carl; Gustavsson, Johanna; Nilson, Finn
Fall-related injuries are a global public health problem, especially in elderly populations. The effect of an intervention aimed at reducing the risk of falls in the homes of community-dwelling elderly persons was evaluated. The intervention mainly involves the performance of complicated tasks and hazards assessment by a trained assessor, and has been adopted gradually over the last decade by 191 of 290 Swedish municipalities. A quasi-experimental design was used where intention-to-treat effect estimates were derived using panel regression analysis and a regression discontinuity (RD) design. The outcome measure was the incidence of fall-related hospitalisations in the treatment population, the age of which varied by municipality (≥65 years, ≥67 years, ≥70 years or ≥75 years). We found no statistically significant reductions in injury incidence in the panel regression (IRR 1.01 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.05)) or RD (IRR 1.00 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.03)) analyses. The results are robust to several different model specifications, including segmented panel regression analysis with linear trend change and community fixed effects parameters. It is unclear whether the absence of an effect is due to a low efficacy of the services provided, or a result of low adherence. Additional studies of the effects on other quality-of-life measures are recommended before conclusions are drawn regarding the cost-effectiveness of the provision of home help service programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Gyedu, A.; Nakua, E. K; Otupiri, E.; Mock, C.; Donkor, P.; Ebel, B.
Background There are few population-based studies on household child injury in African countries. Objectives To determine the incidence, characteristics and risk factors of household and neighborhood injury among children in semi-urban communities in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional population–weighted survey of 200 randomly selected caregivers of children under-18, representing 6801 households. Caregivers were interviewed about moderate to severe childhood injuries occurring within the past 6 months, for which the child staying home from school or activity, and/or required medical care. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with injury risk. Results Annual injury incidence was 593.5 injuries per 1000 children. Common causes of injury were falls (315.7 injuries per 1000 children), followed by cuts/lacerations and burns. Most injuries (93.8%) were of moderate severity. Children whose caregivers were hourly workers (AOR=1.97;95% CI:1.06,3.68) had increased odds of sustaining an injury compared to those of unemployed caregivers. Girls had decreased odds of injury (AOR=0.59;95% CI:0.39,0.91). Cooking outdoors (AOR=0.45;95% CI:0.27,0.76) and presence of cabinet/cupboards (AOR=0.41;95% CI:0.24,0.70) in the house were protective. Among children under 5 years of age, living in uncompleted accommodation was associated with higher odds of injury compared to living in a rented single room (AOR=3.67;95% CI 1.17,11.48). Conclusions The incidence of household and neighborhood child injury is high in semi-urban Kumasi. We identified several novel injury risk factors (hourly work, younger children) and protective factors (cooking outdoors, presence of cabinet/cupboards). These data may identify priorities for household injury prevention. PMID:24914101
Julé, Laure; Chevallier, Bertrand
Injuries resulting from accidents are a major public heath problem. Accidents account for 700 deaths among French children up to 15 years and near 300 concern home accidents. Accidental injuries represent the first cause of children mortality, hospitalisations and sequelae. The lack of data registration supports the need of epidemiological tools to appreciate the burden of the public heath problem and the basis of a surveillance system to evaluate strategy prevention.
Istre, G R; McCoy, M; Carlin, D K; McClain, J
The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology of residential fire related deaths and injuries among children, and identify risk factors for these injuries through a linked dataset for the city of Dallas, Texas. Data for all residential fires were linked with fire related injury data, using fire department records, ambulance transports, hospital admissions, and medical examiner records, for children 0-19 years of age. Causes of fires, including fireplay (children playing with fire or combustibles), arson and other causes, were determined by fire department investigation. From 1991-98, 76 children were injured in residential fires (39 deaths, 37 non-fatal). The highest rates occurred in the youngest children (<5 years) and in census tracts with lowest income. Fireplay accounted for 42% (32/76) of all injuries, 62% (15/24) of deaths in children 0-4 years, and 94% (13/14) of deaths from apartment and mobile home fires. Most of the fireplay related injuries (27/32, 84%) were from children playing with matches or lighters. Most started in a bedroom. Smoke alarms showed no protective efficacy in preventing deaths or injuries in fires started by fireplay or arson, but there was significant protective efficacy for a functional smoke alarm in fires started from all other causes (p<0.01). Residential fire related injuries among children in Dallas occurred predominantly in the youngest ages (<5 years) and in poor neighborhoods. Most of the deaths, especially those in apartments and mobile homes, resulted from fireplay. Smoke alarms appeared to offer no protection against death or injury in fireplay associated fires, possibly from the nature of the child's behavior in these fires, or from the placement of the smoke alarm. Prevention of childhood residential fire related deaths may require interventions to prevent fireplay in order to be successful.
Istre, G; McCoy, M; Carlin, D; McClain, J
Background: The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology of residential fire related deaths and injuries among children, and identify risk factors for these injuries through a linked dataset for the city of Dallas, Texas. Methods: Data for all residential fires were linked with fire related injury data, using fire department records, ambulance transports, hospital admissions, and medical examiner records, for children 0–19 years of age. Causes of fires, including fireplay (children playing with fire or combustibles), arson and other causes, were determined by fire department investigation. Results: From 1991–98, 76 children were injured in residential fires (39 deaths, 37 non-fatal). The highest rates occurred in the youngest children (<5 years) and in census tracts with lowest income. Fireplay accounted for 42% (32/76) of all injuries, 62% (15/24) of deaths in children 0–4 years, and 94% (13/14) of deaths from apartment and mobile home fires. Most of the fireplay related injuries (27/32, 84%) were from children playing with matches or lighters. Most started in a bedroom. Smoke alarms showed no protective efficacy in preventing deaths or injuries in fires started by fireplay or arson, but there was significant protective efficacy for a functional smoke alarm in fires started from all other causes (p<0.01). Conclusions: Residential fire related injuries among children in Dallas occurred predominantly in the youngest ages (<5 years) and in poor neighborhoods. Most of the deaths, especially those in apartments and mobile homes, resulted from fireplay. Smoke alarms appeared to offer no protection against death or injury in fireplay associated fires, possibly from the nature of the child's behavior in these fires, or from the placement of the smoke alarm. Prevention of childhood residential fire related deaths may require interventions to prevent fireplay in order to be successful. PMID:12120831
McDermott, C; Quinlan, J F; Kelly, I P
We reviewed the records of children referred to our hospital between April and September 2005 who had been injured whilst trampolining. Of 88 such children there were 33 boys and 55 girls with a mean age of 8 years 6 months (2 years 4 months to 15 years 9 months). Most of the injuries (53; 60%) occurred when bouncing and 34 (39%) were secondary to falls from the trampoline. The cause of injury was unknown in one child. The injured child was supervised in only 35 cases (40%). In 31 (35%) cases, the injury was related to the presence of others on the trampoline. A total of 36 (40%) children required surgery. Fractures of the upper limbs occurred in 62 cases (70%). Injuries related to the recreational use of trampolines are a significant cause of childhood injury. Our results suggest strongly that there is a need for clear guidelines on safe and responsible use of domestic trampolines.
Faber, J; Wilde, E A; Hanten, G; Ewing-Cobbs, L; Aitken, M E; Yallampalli, R; MacLeod, M C; Mullins, S H; Chu, Z D; Li, X; Hunter, J V; Noble-Haeusslein, L; Levin, H S
The long-term effects of TBI on verbal fluency and related structures, as well as the relation between cognition and structural integrity, were evaluated. It was hypothesized that the group with TBI would evidence poorer performance on cognitive measures and a decrease in structural integrity. Between a paediatric group with TBI and a group of typically-developing children, the long-term effects of traumatic brain injury were investigated in relation to both structural integrity and cognition. Common metrics for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were used as indicators of white matter integrity. Using DTI, this study examined ventral striatum (VS) integrity in 21 patients aged 10-18 years sustaining moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) 5-15 years earlier and 16 demographically comparable subjects. All participants completed Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (D-KEFS) sub-tests. The group with TBI exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and executive functioning performance and higher apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI metrics correlated with D-KEFS performance (right VS FA with Inhibition errors, right VS ADC with Letter Fluency, left VS FA and ADC with Category Switching). TBI affects VS integrity, even in a chronic phase, and may contribute to executive functioning deficits.
Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...
... away if this happens. Alternative Names Childhood ... In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 330. ...
... In A Medical Emergency Childhood Emergencies Careers in Emergency Medicine Seconds Save Lives Be Prepared Safe Citizen Day ... case report was reported online in Annals of Emergency Medicine. More Than 200,000 Kids Treated in ERs ...
... FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Traumatic Brain Injury URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ...
Grossman, David C.
Presents a historical overview of injury control and prevention in the United States and offers a summary of current knowledge about the importance of different causes of childhood injury, looking at risk and protective factors that have a bearing on preventive efforts. Injury remains the most important cause of death and disability for children…
... Chinnery PF, Copeland WC. POLG-Related Disorders. 2010 Mar 16 [updated 2014 Dec 18]. In: Pagon RA, ... Polymerase gamma 1 mutations: clinical correlations. Neurologist. 2010 Mar;16(2):84-91. doi: 10.1097/NRL. ...
... EL, Swoboda KJ, Hitomi Y, Gurrieri F, Nicole S, de Vries B, Tiziano FD, Fontaine B, Walley NM, ... Maagdenberg AM, Sisodiya SM, Mikati MA, Goldstein DB. De novo mutations in ATP1A3 cause alternating hemiplegia of ...
Daro, Deborah, Howard, Eboni; Tobin, Jennifer; Harden, Allen
Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago, in collaboration with Westat Associates, designed and implemented a comprehensive evaluation of the Early Childhood Initiative's (ECI) two home visitation programs: Welcome Home, a universal home visitation program that provides a single home visit to all first-time and teen parents,…
Varness, Todd; Allen, David B.; Carrel, Aaron L.; Fost, Norman
The incidence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically, including severe childhood obesity and obesity-related comorbid conditions. Cases of severe childhood obesity have prompted the following question: does childhood obesity ever constitute medical neglect? In our opinion, removal of a child from the home is justified when all 3 of the following conditions are present: (1) a high likelihood that serious imminent harm will occur; (2) a reasonable likelihood that coercive state intervention will result in effective treatment; and (3) the absence of alternative options for addressing the problem. It is not the mere presence or degree of obesity but rather the presence of comorbid conditions that is critical for the determination of serious imminent harm. All 3 criteria are met in very limited cases, that is, the subset of obese children who have serious comorbid conditions and for whom all alternative options have been exhausted. In these limited cases, a trial of enforced treatment outside the home may be indicated, to protect the child from irreversible harm. PMID:19117907
Podmore, Valerie N.; Sauvao, Le'Autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia
Summarizes research investigating children's transition to primary school from Pacific early childhood centers in New Zealand. Key issues emerging from the review include continuity of Pacific Islands languages and culture between home, early childhood center, and school; home-school partnership; teachers' and parents' expectations regarding…
Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…
Blankertz, Laura E.; And Others
Examined prevalence of five childhood risk factors (sexual abuse, physical abuse, parental mental illness, substance abuse, out-of-home placement) among dually diagnosed (mentally ill and substance abusing) homeless adults (n=156) in rehabilitation programs. Findings suggest that childhood risk factors, whether single or multiple, are very…
Early childhood education has always been considered important in Korea, with the education of the child valued highly, regardless of the parent's educational background or socioeconomic status. The main social facility for early childhood education outside home in Korea is called "Yoo Chee Won," which means kindergarten. This paper…
Preyde, Michèle; Watkins, Hanna; Csuzdi, Nicklaus; Carter, Jeff; Lazure, Kelly; White, Sara; Penney, Randy; Ashbourne, Graham; Cameron, Gary; Frensch, Karen
There is a dearth of Canadian research with clinical samples of youth who self-harm, and no studies could be located on self-harm in children and youth accessing residential or intensive home-based treatment. The purposes of this report were to explore the proportion and characteristics of children and youth identified as self-harming at admission by clinicians compared to youth not identified as self-harming, compare self-harming children to adolescents, and to compare caregiver ratings of self-harm at intake to clinician ratings at admission. This report was developed from a larger longitudinal, observational study involving 210 children and youth accessing residential and home-based treatment and their caregivers in partnership with five mental health treatment centres in southwestern Ontario. Agency data were gleaned from files, and caregivers reported on symptom severity at 12 to 18 months and 36 to 40 months post-discharge. Fifty-seven (34%) children and youth were identified as self-harming at admission. The mean age was 11.57 (SD 2.75). There were statistically significant differences on symptom severity at intake between those identified as self-harming and those not so identified; most of these differences were no longer present at follow up. Children were reported to have higher severity of conduct disorder symptoms than adolescents at intake, and there was some consistency between caregiver-rated and clinician-rated self-harm. Children were reported to engage in a wide range of self-harming behaviours. These findings suggest that youth who were identified as self-harming at admission have elevated scores of symptom severity, self-harm can occur in young children and while many improve, there remains a concern for several children and youth who did not improve by the end of service. Children engage in some of the same types of self-harm behaviours as adolescents, and they also engage in behaviours unique to children.
Esselman, P C; Ptacek, J T; Kowalske, K; Cromes, G F; deLateur, B J; Engrav, L H
Evaluation of community integration is a meaningful outcome criterion after major burn injury. The Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) was administered to 463 individuals with major burn injuries. The CIQ results in Total, Home Integration, Social Integration, and Productivity scores. The purposes of this study were to determine change in CIQ scores over time and what burn injury and demographic factors predict CIQ scores. The CIQ scores did not change significantly from 6 to 12 to 24 months postburn injury. Home integration scores were best predicted by sex and living situation; Social Integration scores by marital status; and Productivity scores by functional outcome, burn severity, age, and preburn work factors. The data demonstrate that individuals with burn injuries have significant difficulties with community integration due to burn and nonburn related factors. CIQ scores did not improve over time but improvement may have occurred before the initial 6-month postburn injury follow-up in this study.
Murdoch, B E; Pitt, G; Theodoros, D G; Ward, E C
The efficacy of traditional and physiological biofeedback methods for modifying abnormal speech breathing patterns was investigated in a child with persistent dysarthria following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). An A-B-A-B single-subject experimental research design was utilized to provide the subject with two exclusive periods of therapy for speech breathing, based on traditional therapy techniques and physiological biofeedback methods, respectively. Traditional therapy techniques included establishing optimal posture for speech breathing, explanation of the movement of the respiratory muscles, and a hierarchy of non-speech and speech tasks focusing on establishing an appropriate level of sub-glottal air pressure, and improving the subject's control of inhalation and exhalation. The biofeedback phase of therapy utilized variable inductance plethysmography (or Respitrace) to provide real-time, continuous visual biofeedback of ribcage circumference during breathing. As in traditional therapy, a hierarchy of non-speech and speech tasks were devised to improve the subject's control of his respiratory pattern. Throughout the project, the subject's respiratory support for speech was assessed both instrumentally and perceptually. Instrumental assessment included kinematic and spirometric measures, and perceptual assessment included the Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment, Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech, and analysis of a speech sample. The results of the study demonstrated that real-time continuous visual biofeedback techniques for modifying speech breathing patterns were not only effective, but superior to the traditional therapy techniques for modifying abnormal speech breathing patterns in a child with persistent dysarthria following severe TBI. These results show that physiological biofeedback techniques are potentially useful clinical tools for the remediation of speech breathing impairment in the paediatric dysarthric population.
Preyde, Michèle; Watkins, Hanna; Csuzdi, Nicklaus; Carter, Jeff; Lazure, Kelly; White, Sara; Penney, Randy; Ashbourne, Graham; Cameron, Gary; Frensch, Karen
Objective: There is a dearth of Canadian research with clinical samples of youth who self-harm, and no studies could be located on self-harm in children and youth accessing residential or intensive home-based treatment. The purposes of this report were to explore the proportion and characteristics of children and youth identified as self-harming at admission by clinicians compared to youth not identified as self-harming, compare self-harming children to adolescents, and to compare caregiver ratings of self-harm at intake to clinician ratings at admission. Method: This report was developed from a larger longitudinal, observational study involving 210 children and youth accessing residential and home-based treatment and their caregivers in partnership with five mental health treatment centres in southwestern Ontario. Agency data were gleaned from files, and caregivers reported on symptom severity at 12 to 18 months and 36 to 40 months post-discharge. Results: Fifty-seven (34%) children and youth were identified as self-harming at admission. The mean age was 11.57 (SD 2.75). There were statistically significant differences on symptom severity at intake between those identified as self-harming and those not so identified; most of these differences were no longer present at follow up. Children were reported to have higher severity of conduct disorder symptoms than adolescents at intake, and there was some consistency between caregiver-rated and clinician-rated self-harm. Children were reported to engage in a wide range of self-harming behaviours. Conclusion: These findings suggest that youth who were identified as self-harming at admission have elevated scores of symptom severity, self-harm can occur in young children and while many improve, there remains a concern for several children and youth who did not improve by the end of service. Children engage in some of the same types of self-harm behaviours as adolescents, and they also engage in behaviours unique to
Manganello, Jennifer A.; McKenzie, Lara B.
Injuries, many of which occur at home, are the leading cause of death for children. With such an extensive problem, it is natural to look for outlets such as mass media to reach large numbers of families with educational messages about safety and injury prevention. Mass media has been widely used to educate people about health issues. While…
Yuen, Lai Ha
There is a growing concern within the early childhood education sector to empower parents to support the education of young children. Research has shown the importance of home support in early childhood learning and development. Working within the context of a school improvement project, the researcher responded to parents' concerns towards…
Nightingale, Tom E; Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Turner, James E; Thompson, Dylan; Bilzon, James L J
Spinal cord injury (SCI) creates a complex pathology that can lead to an increase in sedentary behaviours and deleterious changes in body composition. Consequently, individuals with SCI are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes mellitus. While the role of physical activity on the reduction of chronic disease risk is well documented in non-disabled individuals the evidence is less conclusive for persons with SCI. The aim of this methodological paper is to outline the design of a study that will assess the role of a home-based exercise intervention on biomarkers of metabolic and cardiovascular health in persons with SCI: the HOMEX-SCI study. Eligible participants will be inactive (physical activity level ≤1.60) individuals, with a chronic (more than 1 year) spinal cord lesion between the second thoracic and the fifth lumbar vertebrae, and aged between 18 and 65 years. Following baseline laboratory testing and lifestyle monitoring, participants will be randomly allocated to a control (CON) group or a 6-week home-based exercise intervention (INT) group. The INT consists of 45 minutes of moderate-intensity (60-65 % peak oxygen uptake) arm-crank exercise four times per week. Participants assigned to the CON group will be asked to maintain their normal lifestyle. The main outcomes of this study (biomarkers of metabolic and cardiovascular health) are obtained from venous blood samples, collected in the fasted and postprandial state. Eight other measurement categories will be assessed: (1) body composition, (2) physical activity, (3) energy intake, (4) measures of health and wellbeing, (5) resting metabolic rate, heart rate and blood pressure, (6) aerobic capacity, (7) immune function, and (8) adipose tissue gene expression. This study will explore the feasibility of home-based moderate-intensity exercise and ascertain its impact on metabolic and cardiovascular health in comparison to a lifestyle maintenance CON group. Findings
Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J
Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.
Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.
This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…
Arnow, Pat, Ed.; Cheek, Pauline, Ed.
This magazine offers interviews, short stories and articles with a general focus on childhood in Appalachia. Two interviews include: "Creative Response to Life-Pauline Cheek," by Jane Harris Woodside, and "Insights and Experience: A Talk with Eliot Wigginton," by Pauline Binkley Cheek. Short stories include: "Thief in the…
Arluke, Arnold; Levin, Jack
Ageism (unfair stereotyping of older adults), deeply embedded in the culture of 20th-century America, is reinforced by television and newspapers. The media depict old people as rigid, meddlesome, sexless, conservative, unhealthy, and forgetful. Most pernicious of all old age stereotypes is that of second childhood. Popular culture portrays…
Peters, Donald L.; Willis, Sherry L.
This book summarizes theory and discusses major issues pertaining to child development in the early childhood years. Chapter I provides an introduction to the conceptual framework and major theories of child development. Chapter II deals with motor, sensory, and perceptual development. Chapter III focuses on the cognitive-developmental theory of…
Dudley-Marling, Curt; Jackson, Janice; Stevens, Lisa Patel
In the popular imagination, Americans are a child-loving people. Across the land, selfless parents take classes, read books, create playgroups, and exchange the latest information about how to ensure safe, contented, and productive childhoods. The range of public programs and policies benefiting children, directly or indirectly, offers further…
... home hemodialysis: You do this three times a week for three to four hours or longer each time. You and your care partner are trained to do dialysis safely and to handle any problems that may come up. Training may take from several weeks to a few months. 2. Short daily home ...
Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina
Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively
Saracho, Olivia N.
Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…
Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities, Landover, MD.
This collection of 21 suggested outcome measures for early childhood intervention services is intended to apply to all types of service and support program models for children (birth to age 5) with various developmental delays and/or disabilities. The measures are appropriate for either home-based or center-based service delivery models. Section 1…
Klassen, Terry P.; MacKay, J. Morag; Moher, David; Walker, Annie; Jones, Alison L.
Reviewed 32 studies that evaluated the impact of community-based injury prevention efforts on childhood injuries, safety behaviors, and adoption of safety devices. Interventions targeted schools, municipalities, and cities. This approach effectively increased some safety practices (e.g, bicycle helmet and car seat use) but not others. Common…
... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...
... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a ... Care Providers Home Health A to Z List Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Condition Information What are common symptoms? Share ...
Biswas, Animesh; Rahman, Aminur; Mashreky, Saidur; Rahman, Fazlur; Dalal, Koustuv
Violence and injuries are under-reported in developing countries, especially during natural disasters such as floods. Compounding this, affected areas are isolated from the rest of the country. During 2007 Bangladesh experienced two consecutive floods which affected almost one-third of the country. The objective of this study was to examine unintentional injuries to children in rural Bangladesh and parental violence against them during floods, and also to explore the association of socioeconomic characteristics. A cross-sectional rural household survey was conducted in the worst flood-affected areas. A group of 638 randomly selected married women of reproductive age with at least one child at home were interviewed face-to-face using pre-tested structured questionnaires. The chi2 test and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The majority of families (90%) were affected by the flood and were struggling to find food and shelter, resulting in the parents becoming violent towards their children and other family members in the home. Cuts (38%), falls (22%) and near drowning (21%) comprised the majority of unintentional injuries affecting children during the floods. A large number of children were abused by their parents during the floods (70% by mothers and 40% by fathers). The incidence of child injuries and parental violence against children was higher among families living in poor socio-economic conditions, whose parents were of low occupational status and had micro-credit loans during the floods. Floods can have significant effects on childhood injury and parental violence against children. The improvement of socio-economic conditions would assist in preventing child injuries and parental violence.
Chueca, M; Azcona, C; Oyárzabal, M
Obesity during childhood and adolescence is an increasingly frequent cause for medical consultation. The increase in the prevalence of this disease, which has been considered as an epidemic by the World Health Organisation, is worrying. Obesity is a complex disease, whose aetiology still remains to be clarified due to the numerous factors involved: environmental, genetic, life style and behavioural, neuroendocrinological and metabolic. The persistence of childhood obesity until adulthood significantly increases the risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Treatment of obesity is complicated and few patients regularly attend follow up examinations. A multidisciplinary team is required to carry out a suitable treatment, composed of paediatricians, dieticians, nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists. Successful treatment of obesity resides in reducing the calorie intake in relation to energy expenditure, and at the time providing instruction in appropriate eating habits and life styles that in the long term will promote the maintenance of the ideal weight.
Nickel, Robert E.; Cooley, W. Carl; McAllister, Jeanne W.; Samson-Fang, Lisa
Discussion of medical homes for children with special health care needs suggests such homes can provide quality health care services to children in partnership with families and community professionals. Early intervention and early childhood special education providers are encouraged to collaborate with primary health care professionals, thereby…
Callahan, Jane; Gavaghan, Bridget; Howard, Karen; Kelley, Melissa L.; Schwartz, Marvin; Walzer, Sarah
The Home Visiting Coalition represents more than 75 organizations working together to articulate the effectiveness of home visiting to a range of policymakers and stakeholders in the early childhood field. Despite varying program goals and service delivery strategies, the Coalition participants share a commitment to expanding access to…
Noting that health benefits for children should be one of the principal goals of comprehensive early childhood initiatives, this Smart Start brochure provides information on "medical homes" and their importance to the overall health of children; the brochure also describes community strategies to help promote a medical home for all…
The importance of home-school relationships between parents and practitioners in early childhood settings is widely accepted. This article discusses the effects of the level of involvement and the nature of practitioner-parent relationships in early years settings in England on the basis of a two part study that examined parents' experience of…
Seven home economics curriculum areas for grade 10 are presented in this guide, with each area consisting of one or more instructional units as follows: (1) Career Exploration (obtaining a job, progress on the job, business etiquette); (2) Child Development (guiding the preschool child, middle childhood); (3) Clothing and Textiles (labeling,…
Wong, Peter D; Wong, Jonathan P; van den Heuvel, Meta; Feller, Andrea E; Silver-Cohen, Justine; Talarico, Susanna; Humphreys, Joanna; Ford-Jones, Lee
The 'forgotten years' of middle childhood, from age 6 to 12, represent a critical period in child development. Emotional, social and physical development during this time have a lifelong impact on health and adult contributions to society. Mental health conditions have displaced physical illness as the leading childhood disability. Positive parenting can improve child behaviour, prevent early-onset conduct problems and provide a buffer from adverse childhood events resulting in decreased toxic stress and improved health. Medical homes can play a key role in supporting parents with positive parenting skills that are practical, evidence-based and useful in everyday life. Paediatricians need to explore the domains that promote healthy development, including caring environments, fundamental needs and nurturing relationships. Our objective is to promote high-quality positive parenting through middle childhood by identifying opportunities for paediatricians to frame parenting discussions in the context of development, behaviour and safety and to provide access to valuable parenting resources.
... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000-2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States Childhood obesity is a ...
... income and ability to pay. Public and private financing options may also be available. Sources of support ... Learn more by visiting https://www.ncoa.org/economic-security/home-equity/ . Search for additional resources in ...
We report the case of a male gastric cancer patient who had undergone outpatient chemotherapy with TAXOTAL+TS-1 for adrenal and lung metastases.The disease was in progress.Next, we performed home chemotherapy with TAXOL.However, this chemotherapy also was not effective either.Therefore, the patient was started on Campto with the premedication including NaseaOD, GasterD and Decadron.The 17-course was performed in the period of 12 months.However, his condition did not improve.He experienced delirium and was hospitalized and the chemotherapy was discontinued.Later, his disease was advanced further and he died.Because of our close relationship with the general hospital, this patient had undergone home chemotherapy as long as 13 months, so that if a seamless cooperation was insured, chemotherapy could have been more safely and effectively performed at the patient's home.This study suggests that home chemotherapy is an important treatment modality.
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Cho, Jin H; Adams, Susan; Holland, Andrew J A
To determine the incidence, type and severity of furniture-related injuries in children in the Sydney region. Retrospective analysis of presentations to the emergency departments of two paediatric tertiary hospitals in Sydney over a 4-year period from January 2000 to December 2003 with furniture-related injuries. Deaths of children because of furniture-related injuries reported to the Coroner, from 2000-2002, were also reviewed. The main outcome measures were circumstances of injury, type and number of injuries, morbidity, and mortality. 52 children presented with furniture-related injuries. The median age was 2.5 years (range 9 months-15 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 3:2. Falling televisions accounted for 22 (42%) of the injuries. Median Injury Severity Score was 1 (range 1-25). One child died. The most common regions injured were the limbs and the head. Thirty-one children (60%) required medical imaging, 28 (54%) required admission to hospital and 6 were allowed home in under 12 h. Of the 22 patients admitted for longer than 12 h, 14% required intensive care. Median length of stay was 1 day (range 0-15 days). Eighteen patients (35%) suffered scarring or long-term limitations as a result of their injuries. From 2000 to 2002 there were four additional deaths in NSW because of furniture-related injuries, two because of a falling television. Furniture-related injuries represent a cause of serious trauma and death in Australian children. There remains a need for the stability and security of televisions and large furniture items to be improved.
... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Share ...
... Skilled nursing - home health; Skilled nursing - home care; Physical therapy - at home; Occupational therapy - at home; Discharge - ... and any medicines that you may be taking. Physical and occupational therapists can make sure your home ...
... venous catheter - home; Port - home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... is given quickly, all at once. A slow infusion, which means the medicine is given slowly over ...
Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester; Phillips, Leslie E
A rate-based understanding of home care aides' adverse occupational outcomes related to their work location and care tasks is lacking. Within a 30-month, dynamic cohort of 43 394 home care aides in Washington State, injury rates were calculated by aides' demographic and work characteristics. Injury narratives and focus groups provided contextual detail. Injury rates were higher for home care aides categorized as female, white, 50 to <65 years old, less experienced, with a primary language of English, and working through an agency (versus individual providers). In addition to direct occupational hazards, variability in workload, income, and supervisory/social support is of concern. Policies should address the roles and training of home care aides, consumers, and managers/supervisors. Home care aides' improved access to often-existing resources to identify, manage, and eliminate occupational hazards is called for to prevent injuries and address concerns related to the vulnerability of this needed workforce. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Briskin, Susannah; LaBotz, Michele
Despite previous recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics discouraging home use of trampolines, recreational use of trampolines in the home setting continues to be a popular activity among children and adolescents. This policy statement is an update to previous statements, reflecting the current literature on prevalence, patterns, and mechanisms of trampoline-related injuries. Most trampoline injuries occur with multiple simultaneous users on the mat. Cervical spine injuries often occur with falls off the trampoline or with attempts at somersaults or flips. Studies on the efficacy of trampoline safety measures are reviewed, and although there is a paucity of data, current implementation of safety measures have not appeared to mitigate risk substantially. Therefore, the home use of trampolines is strongly discouraged. The role of trampoline as a competitive sport and in structured training settings is reviewed, and recommendations for enhancing safety in these environments are made.
Boonpleng, Wannaporn; Park, Chang Gi; Gallo, Agatha M; Corte, Colleen; McCreary, Linda; Bergren, Martha Dewey
This study aims to determine the contributing factors for early childhood overweight/obesity within the contexts of the child's home, school, and community, and to determine how much each of the ecological contexts contributes to childhood overweight/obesity. The framework was developed from Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Data for 2,100 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, were used in a series of multilevel modeling analyses. There was significant variation in childhood overweight/obesity by school and community. The majority of variation in childhood overweight/obesity was explained by the child and family factors in addition to school and community factors. Explained variance of childhood overweight/obesity at the school level was 27% and at the community level, 2%. The variance composition at children's family level alone was 71%. Therefore, overweight/obesity prevention efforts should focus primarily on child, family, and school factors and then community factors, to be more effective.
Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Dunstan, D. J.; Hodgson, D. J.
Many gardeners and horticulturalists seek non-chemical methods to control populations of snails. It has frequently been reported that snails that are marked and removed from a garden are later found in the garden again. This phenomenon is often cited as evidence for a homing instinct. We report a systematic study of the snail population in a small suburban garden, in which large numbers of snails were marked and removed over a period of about 6 months. While many returned, inferring a homing instinct from this evidence requires statistical modelling. Monte Carlo techniques demonstrate that movements of snails are better explained by drift under the influence of a homing instinct than by random diffusion. Maximum likelihood techniques infer the existence of two groups of snails in the garden: members of a larger population that show little affinity to the garden itself, and core members of a local garden population that regularly return to their home if removed. The data are strongly suggestive of a homing instinct, but also reveal that snail-throwing can work as a pest management strategy.
Axton, J. H. M.
Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…
Kursmark, Meredith; Weitzman, Michael
Food insecurity is a relatively new measure of household and child malnutrition. This paper reviews recent studies that have examined aspects of its etiology and adverse child health and development. Smoking by adults in children's homes has recently been found to be highly associated with childhood food insecurity. Much recent research has also examined the relationship between food insecurity and childhood obesity, and thus far, whereas suggestive, results are conflicting. Some studies have found that parenting practices and parental depression are factors that link household food insecurity with childhood obesity. Other health outcomes recently shown to be associated with food insecurity include undernutrition, decreased mental proficiency, increased developmental risk, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and poor health status. Most of the studies of food insecurity to date have come from the USA. There is, however, absolutely no reason to believe that this measure, and the negative child health outcomes associated with it, does not apply to other developed nations. Similarly, it is likely that children and families living in developing countries suffer a greater prevalence and severity of food insecurity and its negative consequences. Childhood food insecurity has numerous significant negative effects on childhood health and development, may be associated with obesity, and occurs much more often in impoverished homes with adult smokers.
Tepas, Joseph J
Data mining is defined as the automatic extraction of useful, often previously unknown information from large databases or data sets. It has become a major part of modern life and is extensively used in industry, banking, government, and health care delivery. The process requires a data collection system that integrates input from multiple sources containing critical elements that define outcomes of interest. Appropriately designed data mining processes identify and adjust for confounding variables. The statistical modeling used to manipulate accumulated data may involve any number of techniques. As predicted results are periodically analyzed against those observed, the model is consistently refined to optimize precision and accuracy. Whether applying integrated sources of clinical data to inferential probabilistic prediction of risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia or population surveillance for signs of bioterrorism, it is essential that modern health care providers have at least a rudimentary understanding of what the concept means, how it basically works, and what it means to current and future health care.
Starzyk, Patricia M.
This paper discusses data on the deaths of children aged 1-4 years in Washington State. A two-fold approach was used in the analysis. First, Washington State death certificate data for 1979-85 were used to characterize the deaths and identify hazardous situations. Second, death certificates were linked to birth certificates of children born in…
Under the Guaranteed Watt Savers (GWS) system, plans for a new home are computer analyzed for anticipated heat loss and gain. Specifications are specifically designed for each structure and a Smart- House Radiant Barrier is installed. Designed to reflect away 95% of the Sun's radiant energy, the radiant barrier is an adaptation of an aluminum shield used on Apollo spacecraft. On completion of a home, technicians using a machine, check for air tightness, by creating a vacuum in the house and computer calculations that measure the amount of air exchanged. A guarantee that only the specified number kilowatt hours will be used is then provided.
Metayer, Catherine; Buffler, Patricia A.
Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case–control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ∼600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale genotyping to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene–environment interaction studies. PMID:18940823
Beauvais, Audrey; Frost, Lenore
Predicted work-related injuries for nurses and home healthcare workers are on the rise given the many risk factors in the home environment and the escalating demands for home healthcare workers in the United States. Fortunately, safe patient handling and mobility programs can dramatically decrease injuries. Despite strides being made to promote safe patient handling and mobility programs in acute care, more can be done to establish such initiatives in the home care setting.
This book calls into question the degree to which early childhood experiences affect psychological development, critiquing three related myths: (1) personality is formed by early childhood experiences; (2) mental disorders are caused by early childhood experiences; and (3) effective psychotherapy depends on reconstructing childhood experiences.…
Wortham, Sue C.
Written to celebrate a century of childhood and to mark the centennial year of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI), this book describes childhood and childhood education during the past century in the context of the conditions during different periods. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "The American…
Weese, J Scott; Jack, Douglas C
Needlestick injuries are an inherent risk of handling needles during the course of veterinary practice. While significant effort has been expended to reduce needlestick injuries in human medicine, a relatively lax approach seems to be prevalent in veterinary medicine. It appears that needlestick injuries are very common among veterinary personnel and that serious adverse effects, while uncommon, do occur. Clients may also receive injuries in clinics during the course of animal restraint, and at home following prescription of injectable medications or fluids. Because of occupational health, personal health, and liability concerns, veterinary practices should review the measures they are taking to reduce the likelihood of needlestick injuries and develop written needlestick injury avoidance protocols.
Weese, J. Scott; Jack, Douglas C.
Needlestick injuries are an inherent risk of handling needles during the course of veterinary practice. While significant effort has been expended to reduce needlestick injuries in human medicine, a relatively lax approach seems to be prevalent in veterinary medicine. It appears that needlestick injuries are very common among veterinary personnel and that serious adverse effects, while uncommon, do occur. Clients may also receive injuries in clinics during the course of animal restraint, and at home following prescription of injectable medications or fluids. Because of occupational health, personal health, and liability concerns, veterinary practices should review the measures they are taking to reduce the likelihood of needlestick injuries and develop written needlestick injury avoidance protocols. PMID:18978971
Swan, J H; Benjamin, A E
Home health market growth suggests the need for models explaining home health utilization. We have previously explained state-level Medicare home health visits with reference to nursing home markets. Here we introduce a model whereby state-level Medicare home health use is a function of nursing home queues and other demand and supply factors. Medicare home health users per state population is negatively related to nursing home bed stock, positively to Medicaid eligibility levels and to Medicaid nursing home recipients per population, as well as to various other demand and supply measures. This explanation of home health users explains previously-reported findings for home health visits. The findings support the argument that home health use is explained by factors affecting lengths of nursing home queues.
... breathe in toxic substances, such as smoke (from fires), chemicals, particle pollution, and gases. Inhalation injuries can ... of thermal injuries. Over half of deaths from fires are due to inhalation injuries. Symptoms of inhalation ...
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
Vaughn, Michael G; Fu, Qiang; Beaver, Kevin M; Delisi, Matt; Perron, Brian E; Howard, Matthew O
This study examined effects of type of and cumulative burden of childhood adversities on bullying and cruelty to animals in the United States. Data were derived from Waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Structured psychiatric interviews were completed by trained lay interviewers between 2001-2002 and 2003-2004. Although the effects of childhood adversity diminished with the inclusion of confounding variables, several adversities remained significant. For bullying, these included being made to do chores that were too difficult or dangerous, threatening to hit or throw something, pushing, shoving, slapping, or hitting, and hitting that left bruises, marks, or injuries. With respect to cruelty to animals, swearing and saying hurtful things, having a parent or other adult living within the home that went to jail or prison, and adult/other person fondling/touching in a sexual way were significant. The final models indicated that the cumulative burden of childhood adversities had strong effects on the increased likelihood of bullying behavior but not cruelty to animals.
Vaughn, Michael G.; Fu, Qiang; Beaver, Kevin M.; DeLisi, Matt; Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.
This study examined effects of type of and cumulative burden of childhood adversities on bullying and cruelty to animals in the United States. Data were derived from Waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Structured psychiatric interviews were completed by trained lay interviewers between 2001–2002 and 2003–2004. Although the effects of childhood adversity diminished with the inclusion of confounding variables, several adversities remained significant. For bullying, these included being made to do chores that were too difficult or dangerous, threatening to hit or throw something, pushing, shoving, slapping, or hitting, and hitting that left bruises, marks, or injuries. With respect to cruelty to animals, swearing and saying hurtful things, having a parent or other adult living within the home that went to jail or prison, and adult/other person fondling/touching in a sexual way were significant. The final models indicated that the cumulative burden of childhood adversities had strong effects on the increased likelihood of bullying behavior but not cruelty to animals. PMID:21602208
Gladstone, G; Parker, G; Wilhelm, K; Mitchell, P; Austin, M P
Depressed patients who had and had not been exposed to childhood sexual abuse were studied to determine differences in severity of depressed mood, lifetime histories of anxiety and depression, childhood environment, and disordered personality function. Data were obtained from 269 inpatients and outpatients with major depression (171 women and 98 men) by means of structured clinical interviews and self-report questionnaires. Forty-six of the 269 patients reported childhood sexual abuse; 40 of these were women. These 40 women were compared with the 131 who did not report childhood sexual abuse. The patients who experienced abuse did not differ from those who had not on psychiatrist-rated mood severity estimates, but they did have higher self-report depression scores. They also evidenced more self-destructive behavior, more personality dysfunction, and more overall adversity in their childhood environment. Childhood sexual abuse status was associated with more borderline personality characteristics independently of other negative aspects of the patients' earlier parenting. Childhood sexual abuse status was linked strongly to adult self-destructiveness, as was early exposure to maternal indifference. Multivariate analyses suggest that depression is unlikely to be a direct consequence of childhood sexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse appears to be associated with a greater chance of having experienced a broadly dysfunctional childhood home environment, a greater chance of having a borderline personality style, and, in turn, a greater chance of experiencing depression in adulthood.
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Nursing home checklist Name of nursing home: ____________________________________________________ Address: ________________________________________________________________ Phone number: __________________________________________________________ Date of visit: _____________________________________________________________ Basic information Yes No Notes Is the nursing home Medicare certified? Is the nursing ...
McIntosh, Andrew S
The purpose of this chapter is to review critically the existing studies on the epidemiology of pediatric rugby injuries and discuss suggestions for injury prevention and further research. Data were sourced from the sports medicine and science literature mainly since 1990, and from a prospective injury surveillance project in rugby undertaken by the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney during 2002. Literature searches were performed using Medline and SportsDiscus. Reported injury rates were between 7 and 18 injuries per 1,000 hours played, with the rate of injuries resulting in loss of playing or training time measured at 6.5-10.6 per 1,000 hours played. Injury rates increased with age and level of qualification. Head injury and concussion accounted for 10-40% of all injuries. In the UNSW study, concussion accounted for 25% of injuries resulting in loss of playing or training time in the under 13 year age group. Upper and lower extremity injuries were equally apportioned, with musculoskeletal injuries being the main type of injury. Fractures were observed in the upper extremity and ankle, and joint/ligament injuries affected the shoulder, knee and ankle. The tackle was associated with around 50% of all injuries. The scrum produced fewer injuries, but is historically associated with spinal cord injury. Rugby is a contact sport with injury risks related to physical contact, primarily in the tackle. Most injuries affect the musculoskeletal system, with the exception of concussion. Spinal cord injury is rare, but catastrophic. Research is required to understand better injury risks and to reduce the incidence of shoulder, knee and ankle joint injuries, concussion and spinal injury.
Kim, Hae Ok; Kim, Gyo Nam; Park, Euna
The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology. A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results. There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the "authoritative discipline type," the "generous home meal focused type," and the "home meal based on household financial situation type." The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity.
Gadian, D G; Aicardi, J; Watkins, K E; Porter, D A; Mishkin, M; Vargha-Khadem, F
We recently reported on three young patients with severe impairments of episodic memory resulting from brain injury sustained early in life. These findings have led us to hypothesize that such impairments might be a previously unrecognized consequence of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Neuropsychological and quantitative magnetic resonance investigations were carried out on five young patients, all of whom had suffered hypoxic-ischaemic episodes at or shortly after birth. All five patients showed severe impairments of episodic memory (memory for events), with relative preservation of semantic memory (memory for facts). However, none had any of the major neurological deficits that are typically associated with hypoxic-ischaemic injury, and all attended mainstream schools. Quantitative magnetic resonance investigations revealed severe bilateral hippocampal atrophy in all cases. As a group, the patients also showed bilateral reductions in grey matter in the regions of the putamen and the ventral part of the thalamus. On the basis of their clinical histories and the pattern of magnetic resonance findings, we attribute the patients' pathology and associated memory impairments primarily to hypoxic-ischaemic episodes sustained very early in life. We suggest that the degree of hypoxia-ischaemia was sufficient to produce selective damage to particularly vulnerable regions of the brain, notably the hippocampi, but was not sufficient to result in the more severe neurological and cognitive deficits that can follow hypoxic-ischaemic injury. The impairments in episodic memory may be difficult to recognize, particularly in early childhood, but this developmental amnesia can have debilitating consequences, both at home and at school, and may preclude independent life in adulthood.
Nomori, Koji; Kitamura, Koji; Motomura, Yoichi; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Komatsubara, Akinori
In Japan, childhood injury prevention is urgent issue. Safety measures through creating knowledge of injury data are essential for preventing childhood injuries. Especially the injury prevention approach by product modification is very important. The risk assessment is one of the most fundamental methods to design safety products. The conventional risk assessment has been carried out subjectively because product makers have poor data on injuries. This paper deals with evidence-based risk assessment, in which artificial intelligence technologies are strongly needed. This paper describes a new method of foreseeing usage of products, which is the first step of the evidence-based risk assessment, and presents a retrieval system of injury data. The system enables a product designer to foresee how children use a product and which types of injuries occur due to the product in daily environment. The developed system consists of large scale injury data, text mining technology and probabilistic modeling technology. Large scale text data on childhood injuries was collected from medical institutions by an injury surveillance system. Types of behaviors to a product were derived from the injury text data using text mining technology. The relationship among products, types of behaviors, types of injuries and characteristics of children was modeled by Bayesian Network. The fundamental functions of the developed system and examples of new findings obtained by the system are reported in this paper.
... for Educators Search English Español Bringing Your Baby Home KidsHealth / For Parents / Bringing Your Baby Home What's ... recall your baby's seemingly endless crying episodes. The Home Front Introducing your baby to others at home ...
Singh, Parul; Tyagi, Manoj; Kumar, Yogesh; Gupta, K K; Sharma, P D
Chemical burns represent potentially blinding ocular injuries and constitute a true ocular emergency requiring immediate assessment and initiation of treatment. The majority of victims are young and exposure occurs at home, work place and in association with criminal assaults. Alkali injuries occur more frequently than acid injuries. Chemical injuries of the eye produce extensive damage to the ocular surface epithelium, cornea, anterior segment and limbal stem cells resulting in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Emergency management if appropriate may be single most important factor in determining visual outcome. This article reviews the emergency management and newer techniques to improve the prognosis of patients with chemical injuries.
ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Al-Awamreh, Khetam; Gharaibeh, Huda; Al-Kloub, Manal; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Alhalaiqa, Fadwa; Hamadneh, Shereen
Nonfatal injuries are considered as one of the major public health hazards affecting schoolchildren, and the majority of these injuries occur at school or in the home. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 3 months, March-May 2015. The participants were 4,355 Jordanian schoolchildren in Grades 7-12. The Pearson ?[superscript 2]…
Hooper, R; Coggan, C; Adams, B
Objectives: This study was designed to obtain New Zealand data on beliefs related to a broad spectrum of injuries and their prevention. Methods: A cross sectional phone survey was conducted of approximately 400 randomly selected households from each of 13 territorial local authorities across New Zealand, giving a total of 5282. Respondents were asked questions on awareness and attitudes to injury prevention, ownership and use of safety equipment, safety behaviours, and incidence of self reported injury. Results: 84% agreed with the statement that "Most injuries are preventable" and 91% rated their homes as "very safe" or "reasonably safe". A high proportion of homes had smoke alarms (81%) and first aid kits (81%), and more than half (56%) had turned down the temperature of their hot water to 55°C or lower. However, less than half of the respondents said that they practised the other safety behaviours. Significant associations were found between the practise of safety behaviours and respondents' home safety ratings. There was a significant association between home safety ratings and the incidence of injury occurring in all settings (p<0.0001), however there was no discernable association between home safety ratings and injury occurring in the home. Conclusions: Although this survey found that most respondents believed that injuries are preventable and considered their homes to be safe, the public need to be further encouraged to adopt common safety practices and behaviours in the home. PMID:12642558
Ashida, Sato; Heaney, Catherine A; Kmet, Jennifer M; Wilkins, J R
The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to reduce childhood agricultural injuries by assisting adults in assigning appropriate chores and providing needed supervision and training. To develop an effective intervention to increase adherence to NAGCAT among farm parents, formative research (focus groups and pilot-testing) was conducted. Protection motivation theory (PMT) was used to guide this research and inform intervention development. Focus group results suggested how PMT constructs might be addressed to increase adherence. A home visit intervention, using a standardized presentation in POWERPoint™, was developed to (a) introduce NAGCAT, (b) increase motivation to use NAGCAT and enhance safe work behaviors, and (c) ultimately reduce agricultural work-related injuries among youth. Process evaluation data suggests that the intervention was well received by farm parents. Conducting theory-guided formative research identified motivational barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers that might not have been otherwise apparent.
Schwebel, David C.; Lewis, Terri; Simon, Thomas R.; Elliott, Marc N.; Toomey, Sara L.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Schuster, Mark A.
Firearms in the home are associated with increased injury risk, especially when loaded and unlocked. In this study, 5,010 fifth-graders and their caregivers in three U.S. metropolitan areas participated in the 2004-2006 Healthy Passages study on adolescent health. Firearm ownership and storage patterns were examined by four self-reported sociodemographic characteristics (child’s race/ethnicity, child’s gender, family socioeconomic status, and study site) and reasons for ownership. Eighteen percent (n = 880) of the families reported firearms in the home. Families with African American and Hispanic children had lower odds of owning firearms than families with non-Hispanic White children. The most common reasons for ownership were protection from crime and hunting. Six percent (n = 56) of the families with firearms stored at least one firearm unlocked, assembled, without a trigger lock, and with unlocked ammunition. Compared with families with non-Hispanic White children, families with African American children engaged in safer storage practices. Results can inform childhood firearm injury prevention activities. PMID:24419969
Schwebel, David C; Lewis, Terri; Simon, Thomas R; Elliott, Marc N; Toomey, Sara L; Tortolero, Susan R; Cuccaro, Paula M; Schuster, Mark A
Firearms in the home are associated with increased injury risk, especially when loaded and unlocked. In this study, 5,010 fifth-graders and their caregivers in three U.S. metropolitan areas participated in the 2004-2006 Healthy Passages study on adolescent health. Firearm ownership and storage patterns were examined by four self-reported sociodemographic characteristics (child's race/ethnicity, child's gender, family socioeconomic status, and study site) and reasons for ownership. Eighteen percent (n = 880) of the families reported firearms in the home. Families with African American and Hispanic children had lower odds of owning firearms than families with non-Hispanic White children. The most common reasons for ownership were protection from crime and hunting. Six percent (n = 56) of the families with firearms stored at least one firearm unlocked, assembled, without a trigger lock, and with unlocked ammunition. Compared with families with non-Hispanic White children, families with African American children engaged in safer storage practices. Results can inform childhood firearm injury prevention activities. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Freshwater, Amy; Sherwood, Elizabeth; Mbugua, Esther
Sharing classroom practices across international borders can add new dimensions to teaching methods, no matter where one calls home. With this idea in mind, the authors (two U.S. early childhood teacher educators and a Kenyan-born U.S. early childhood teacher) have corresponded for several years through e-mail with a small group of early childhood…
Gyedu, A; Nakua, E K; Otupiri, E; Mock, C; Donkor, P; Ebel, B
There are few population-based studies on household child injury in African countries. To determine the incidence, characteristics and risk factors of household and neighbourhood injury among children in semiurban communities in Kumasi, Ghana. We conducted a cross-sectional population-weighted survey of 200 randomly selected caregivers of children under 18, representing 6801 households. Caregivers were interviewed about moderate to severe childhood injuries occurring within the past 6 months, for which the child staying home from school or activity, and/or required medical care. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with injury risk. Annual injury incidence was 593.5 injuries per 1000 children. Common causes of injury were falls (315.7 injuries per 1000 children), followed by cuts/lacerations and burns. Most injuries (93.8%) were of moderate severity. Children whose caregivers were hourly workers (AOR=1.97; 95% CI 1.06 to 3.68) had increased odds of sustaining an injury compared to those of unemployed caregivers. Girls had decreased odds of injury (AOR=0.59; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.91). Cooking outdoors (AOR=0.45; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.76) and presence of cabinet/cupboards (AOR=0.41; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.70) in the house were protective. Among children under 5 years of age, living in uncompleted accommodation was associated with higher odds of injury compared with living in a rented single room (AOR=3.67; 95% CI 1.17 to 11.48). The incidence of household and neighbourhood child injury is high in semiurban Kumasi. We identified several novel injury risk factors (hourly work, younger children) and protective factors (cooking outdoors, presence of cabinet/cupboards). These data may identify priorities for household injury prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...
... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...
Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...
Ahmed, Nasim; Vernick, Jerome J
Injury to the pancreas, because of its retroperitoneal location, is a rare occurrence, most commonly seen with penetrating injuries (gun shot or stab wounds). Blunt trauma to the pancreas accounts for only 25% of the cases. Pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to accompanying vascular and duodenal injuries. Pancreatic injuries are not always easy to diagnose resulting in life threatening complications. Physical examination as well as serum amylase is not diagnostic following blunt trauma. Computed tomography (CT) scan can delineate the injury or transaction of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERCP) is the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of the main pancreatic duct. Unrecognized ductal injury leads to pancreatic pseudocyst, fistula, abscess, and other complications. Management depends upon the severity of the pancreatic injury as well as associated injuries. Damage control surgery in hemodynamic unstable patients reduces morbidity and mortality.
Childhood TB is an indication of failing TB control in the community. It allows disease persistence in the population. Mortality and morbidity due to TB is high in children. Moreover, HIV co-infection and multidrug-resistant diseases are as frequent in children as in adults. Infection is more frequent in younger children. Disease risk after primary infection is greatest in infants younger than 2 years. In case of exposure, evidence of infection can be obtained using the tuberculin skin test (TST) or an interferon-gamma assay (IGRA). There is no evidence to support the use of IGRA over TST in young children. TB suspicion should be confirmed whenever possible, using new available tools, particularly in case of pulmonary and lymph node TB. Induced sputum, nasopharyngeal aspiration and fine needle aspiration biopsy provide a rapid and definitive diagnosis of mycobacterial infection in a large proportion of patients. Analysis of paediatric samples revealed higher sensitivity and specificity values of molecular techniques in comparison with the ones originated from adults. Children require higher drugs dosages than adults. Short courses of steroids are associated with TB treatment in case of respiratory distress, bronchoscopic desobstruction is proposed for severe airways involvement and antiretroviral therapy is mandatory in case of HIV infection. Post-exposure prophylaxis in children is a highly effective strategy to reduce the risk of TB disease. The optimal therapy for treatment of latent infection with a presumably multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain is currently not known. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kehily, Mary Jane, Ed.
Educationalists and social scientists are increasingly interested in childhood as a distinct social category, and Childhood Studies is now a recognized area of research and analysis. This book brings together the key themes of Childhood Studies in a broad and accessible introduction for students and practitioners working in this field.…
... Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV). Date and Time: October 28, 2010, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. EDT. Place... meeting will include, but are not limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation...
... Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV). Date and Time: June 9, 2011, 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. EDT; June 10, 2011, 9... will include, but are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC...
... Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV). Date and Time: June 10, 2010, 1 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. EDT; June 11, 2010... meeting will include, but are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation...
... Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV). Date and Time: June 07, 2013, 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EDT. Place... Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of Justice (DOJ), National Vaccine Program...
... Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV). Date and Time: September 5, 2013, 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EDT. Place... Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC); Department of Justice (DOJ); National Vaccine Program...
... Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV). Date and Time: June 14, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 11:45 a.m. EDT. Place... will include, but are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC...
... Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV). Date and Time: September 1, 2011, 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. EDT, September 2... September meeting will include, but are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury...
... Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV). Date and Time: December 6, 2012, 1:00 p.m. to 4:45 p.m. EDT. Place... Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC); Department of Justice (DOJ); National Vaccine Program Office (NVPO...
... Commission on Childhood Vaccines, Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV). Date and Time: September 06, 2012, 1:00 p.m. to 5:15 p.m. EDT. Place... September meeting will include, but are not limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury...
... Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV). Date And Time: March 3, 2011, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. EDT, March 4, 2011, 9... will include, but are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC...
... Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV). Dates and Times: March 8, 2012, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. March 9, 2012... will include, but are not limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC...
... Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV). Date and Time: December 5, 2013, 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. (EDT... Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of Justice, National Vaccine Program Office...
... Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV) Date and Time: March 4, 2010, 1 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. EST. March 5, 2010... will include, but are not limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC...
... reactions; surveying federal, state, and local programs and activities related to gathering information on injuries associated with the administration of childhood vaccines, including the adverse reaction reporting... using credible data related to the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with childhood...
Elsous, A.; Salah, M.; Ouda, M.
Summary Burns are a serious public health problem among paediatrics. Little is known about the epidemiological profile and outcomes of hospitalized paediatric burns in the Gaza Strip. A cross-sectional retrospective review was conducted of medical records of patients aged 15 years and below, admitted to the Al Alamy burn centre in the Al Shifa Medical Complex from 30 June, 2013 to 01 July, 2014. There were 189 admissions; 124 (65.6%) of them were below 15 years, their mean age ± SD being 4.02 ± 2.85 years. 72 of these cases (58.1%) were males, giving a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. 89.5% of the injuries were accidents and 96% were home-located. Scalds, which were a common cause of burns, represented 83.9% of cases. Mean TBSA was 10.72 ± 8.15%: half of the patients (50.8%) sustained second-degree burns, while 34.7% were a mix of second- and third-degree. Mean length of hospital stay was 10.23 ± 10.60 days. Only two children died during the study period, giving a case fatality rate and total mortality rate of 1.6% and 1.0% respectively. In conclusion, there is a need to focus on home safety and parents’ education as a means of reducing childhood burns. PMID:27777545
Slayter, Elspeth M.; Garnick, Deborah W.; Kubisiak, Joanna M.; Bishop, Christine E.; Gilden, Daniel M.; Hakim, Rosemarie B.
Childhood injuries lead to increased morbidity and result in significant costs to public insurance programs. People with mental retardation, most of whom are covered by Medicaid, are at high risk for injury, which has implications for community inclusion, a central policy goal. Medicaid data from inpatient, outpatient, and long-term care settings…
Hassan, I; Dorani, B J
OBJECTIVES: To establish the demographic profile and injury characteristics of children presenting with rollerblading or skateboarding associated injuries. This study also examines the circumstances leading to these injuries with a view to suggesting preventive measures. METHODS: A prospective study using a proforma to collect data from each child presenting with rollerblading or skateboarding related injuries. Injury details were obtained from clinical and radiological records. The injury severity score (ISS) was calculated for each child and statistical analysis was done using chi2. RESULTS: Eighty one children presented with rollerblading associated injuries accounting for 7% of childhood injuries seen during the eight month study period. The mean age was 10.3 years and sex distribution was equal. Soft tissue injuries accounted for 51% and fractures for 49% of the injuries. Wrist fractures alone accounted for 86% of all fractures seen. Seventy per cent of soft tissue injuries involved the upper limb. The overall mean ISS was 3.0 with a range from 1 to 9. Injury was attributed to fall secondary to loss of control or collision with an obstacle while rollerblading in the majority of children. Injury occurred while rollerblading in residential or public places in 99% of the children. In contrast skateboarding related injuries were much rarer and caused soft tissue injuries only. CONCLUSION: This study has revealed a higher incidence of rollerblading injuries than previously suspected. Effective management strategies should include not only the treatment of these injuries but also attention to their causes and prevention. PMID:10505916
... as sand or dust Ultraviolet injuries: Caused by sunlight, sun lamps, snow or water reflections, or arc- ... a corneal injury if you: Are exposed to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for long periods of ...