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Sample records for childhood malaria treatment

  1. Two treatments, one disease: childhood malaria management in Tanga, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Foster, Deshka; Vilendrer, Stacie

    2009-10-27

    In the Tanga District of coastal Tanzania, malaria is one of the primary causes of mortality for children under the age of five. While some children are treated with malaria medications in biomedical facilities, as the World Health Organization recommends, others receive home-care or treatment from traditional healers. Recognition of malaria is difficult because symptoms can range from fever with uncomplicated malaria to convulsions with severe malaria. This study explores why caregivers in the Tanga District of Tanzania pursue particular courses of action to deal with malaria in their children. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with three samples: female caregivers of children under five (N = 61), medical practitioners (N = 28), and traditional healers (N = 18) in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas. The female caregiver sample is intentionally stratified to reflect the greater population of the Tanga District in level of education, marital status, gender of household head, religion, and tribal group affiliation. Qualitative data were counted, coded and analysed using NVivo7 software. Results indicate that a variety of factors influence treatment choice, including socio-cultural beliefs about malaria symptoms, associations with spiritual affliction requiring traditional healing, knowledge of malaria, and fear of certain anti-malaria treatment procedures. Most notably, some caregivers identified convulsions as a spiritual condition, unrelated to malaria. While nearly all caregivers reported attending biomedical facilities to treat children with fever (N = 60/61), many caregivers stated that convulsions are best treated by traditional healers (N = 26/61). Qualitative interviews with medical practitioners and traditional healers confirmed this belief. Results offer insight into current trends in malaria management and have implications in healthcare policy, educational campaigns, and the importance of integrating traditional and biomedical approaches.

  2. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  3. The influence of cultural perception of causation, complications, and severity of childhood malaria on determinants of treatment and preventive pathways.

    PubMed

    Falade, Catherine O; Ogundiran, Moradeke O; Bolaji, Mark O; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Akinboye, Dora O; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Adeniyi, Joshua D; Oduola, A M J

    A cluster sample of 2,052 mothers and other caregivers of children from southwest Nigeria was studied. Qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were employed, including semi-structured questionnaires, focus groups, in-depth interviews, and parasitological investigation forms/blood smears. "Too much work" (17.7%) and "too much sun" (12.6%) were the two most-often mentioned causes of malaria. Malaria was not perceived as a serious disease. Convulsions and anemia are not perceived as complications of malaria and are preferentially treated by traditional healers. Fifty-eight and one-half percent of children with malaria were treated at home. Choice of drugs used was based on previous experience and advice from various members of the community. Fathers (53.5%) and mother (32.5%) decided on where ill children received treatment. Mothers (51.5%) paid for the drugs more often than fathers (44.6%). Symptoms described as "iba lasan," which means "ordinary fever," conform to the clinical case definition of malaria. Cultural practices that are likely to influence appropriate treatment-seeking include cultural perception of malaria as ordinary fever, wrong perceptions of severe malaria, and father's role as decision maker.

  4. Improving childhood malaria treatment and referral practices by training patent medicine vendors in rural south-east Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Nigeria. Most of the early treatments for fever and malaria occur through self-medication with anti-malarials bought over-the-counter (OTC) from untrained drug vendors. Self-medication through drug vendors can be ineffective, with increased risks of drug toxicity and development of drug resistance. Global malaria control initiatives highlights the potential role of drug vendors to improve access to early effective malaria treatment, which underscores the need for interventions to improve treatment obtained from these outlets. This study aimed to determine the feasibility and impact of training rural drug vendors on community-based malaria treatment and advice with referral of severe cases to a health facility. Methods A drug vendor-training programme was carried out between 2003 and 2005 in Ugwuogo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria. A total of 16 drug vendors were trained and monitored for eight months. The programme was evaluated to measure changes in drug vendor practice and knowledge using exit interviews. In addition, home visits were conducted to measure compliance with referral. Results The intervention achieved major improvements in drug selling and referral practices and knowledge. Exit interviews confirmed significant increases in appropriate anti-malarial drug dispensing, correct history questions asked and advice given. Improvements in malaria knowledge was established and 80% compliance with referred cases was observed during the study period, Conclusion The remarkable change in knowledge and practices observed indicates that training of drug vendors, as a means of communication in the community, is feasible and strongly supports their inclusion in control strategies aimed at improving prompt effective treatment of malaria with referral of severe cases. PMID:19930561

  5. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Accuracy of Measuring Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Malaria from Household Surveys in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Eisele, Thomas P.; Silumbe, Kafula; Yukich, Josh; Hamainza, Busiku; Keating, Joseph; Bennett, Adam; Miller, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess progress in the scale-up of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) across Africa, malaria control programs have increasingly relied on standardized national household surveys to determine the proportion of children with a fever in the past 2 wk who received an effective antimalarial within 1–2 d of the onset of fever. Here, the validity of caregiver recall for measuring the primary coverage indicators for malaria diagnosis and treatment of children <5 y old is assessed. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in five public clinics in Kaoma District, Western Provence, Zambia, to estimate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of caregivers' recall of malaria testing, diagnosis, and treatment, compared to a gold standard of direct observation at the health clinics. Compared to the gold standard of clinic observation, for recall for children with fever in the past 2 wk, the sensitivity for recalling that a finger/heel stick was done was 61.9%, with a specificity of 90.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of caregivers' recalling a positive malaria test result were 62.4% and 90.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of recalling that the child was given a malaria diagnosis, irrespective of whether a laboratory test was actually done, were 76.8% and 75.9%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for recalling that an ACT was given were 81.0% and 91.5%, respectively. Conclusions Based on these findings, results from household surveys should continue to be used for ascertaining the coverage of children with a fever in the past 2 wk that received an ACT. However, as recall of a malaria diagnosis remains suboptimal, its use in defining malaria treatment coverage is not recommended. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23667337

  6. UK malaria treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Pasvol, Geoffrey; Chiodini, Peter L; Whitty, Christopher J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Hill, David R; Warrell, David A; Bannister, Barbara A

    2007-02-01

    Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1500-2000 cases reported each year, and 10-20 deaths. Approximately three-quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other two species of Plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium malariae. Mixed infections with more than 1 species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until 3 blood specimens have been examined by an experienced microscopist. There are no typical clinical features of malaria, even fever is not invariably present. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites; P. falciparum malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens or enzymes, although RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. The treatment of choice for non-falciparum malaria is a 3-day course of oral chloroquine, to which only a limited proportion of P. vivax strains have gained resistance. Dormant parasites (hypnozoites) persist in the liver after treatment of P. vivax or P. ovale infection: the only currently effective drug for eradication of hypnozoites is primaquine. This must be avoided or given with caution under expert supervision in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), in whom it may cause severe haemolysis. Uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria can be treated orally with quinine, atovaquone plus proguanil (Malarone) or co-artemether (Riamet

  7. The treatment of malaria.

    PubMed

    White, N J

    1996-09-12

    Increasing drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and a resurgence of malaria in tropical areas have effected a change in treatment of malaria in the last two decades. Symptoms of malaria are fever, chills, headache, and malaise. The prognosis worsens as the parasite counts, counts of mature parasites, and counts of neutrophils containing pigment increase. Treatment depends on severity, age of patient, degree of background immunity, likely pattern of susceptibility to antimalarial drugs, and the cost and availability of drugs. Chloroquine should be used for P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale. P. vivax has shown high resistance to chloroquine in Oceania, however. Primaquine may be needed to treat P. vivax and P. ovale to rid the body of hypnozoites that survive in the liver. Chloroquine can treat P. falciparum infections acquired in North Africa, Central America north of the Panama Canal, Haiti, or the Middle East but not in most of Africa and some parts of Asia and South America. In areas of low grade resistance to chloroquine, amodiaquine can be used to effectively treat falciparum malaria. A combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is responsive to falciparum infections with high grade resistance to chloroquine. Mefloquine, halofantrine, or quinine with tetracycline can be used to treat multidrug-resistant P. falciparum. Derivatives of artemisinin obtained from qinghao or sweet wormwood developed as pharmaceuticals in China are the most rapidly acting of all antimalarial drugs. Children tend to tolerate antimalarial drugs well. Children who weigh less than 15 kg should not be given mefloquine. Health workers should not prescribe primaquine to pregnant women or newborns due to the risk of hemolysis. Chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, quinine, and quinidine can be safely given in therapeutic doses throughout pregnancy. Clinical manifestations of severe malaria are hypoglycemia, convulsions, severe anemia, acute renal failure, jaundice, pulmonary edema

  8. Effects of bed nets and anti-malaria drugs use on childhood mortality in Kenya's malaria endemic and epidemic areas.

    PubMed

    K'Oyugi, Boniface O

    2015-01-29

    The Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS) data collected since 1989 indicate that malaria prone areas have consistently recorded the highest childhood mortality rates. Malaria control programme information also indicates that malaria contributes to about 20 per cent of the deaths among under-five year old children. The 2009-2017 National Malaria Strategy is being implemented to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. Its key interventions include: bed nets use; anti-malaria drugs use during pregnancy for prevention; and, prompt treatment using anti-malaria drugs of children with fever. This study seeks to establish differentials in childhood mortality rates by these interventions in three malaria prone areas defined as highland epidemic, coast endemic and lake endemic. It also seeks to determine the effects of these interventions on childhood mortality. The data used is drawn from the 2008/9 KDHS. The study sample consists of 3,728 children born less than 60 months prior to the survey. The direct demographic method for estimation of childhood mortality rates and multivariate Poisson regression models are used to analyse the data. The findings show that use of bed nets and anti-malaria drugs are not high in Kenya's malaria prone areas. On the average, only about 60% of the children are found to be in higher use category for each of the three intervention measures. The childhood mortality rates show that higher use of prompt treatment with anti-malaria drugs for children with fever has lower infant and under-five mortality rates in all malaria epidemic and endemic areas compared to lower use. Higher bed nets use has lower childhood mortality rates compared to lower use in coast and lake endemic areas. Higher use of anti-malaria drugs during pregnancy for prevention has lower childhood mortality rates in highland epidemic and lake endemic areas compared to lower use. The regression models fitted show that in highland epidemic area, higher use of anti-malaria

  9. Diagnosis and Treatment of Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Baird, J. Kevin; Valecha, Neena; Duparc, Stephan; White, Nicholas J.; Price, Ric N.

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria differs from that of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in fundamentally important ways. This article reviews the guiding principles, practices, and evidence underpinning the diagnosis and treatment of P. vivax malaria. PMID:27708191

  10. Mothers’ understanding of childhood malaria and practices in rural communities of Ise-Orun, Nigeria: implications for malaria control

    PubMed Central

    Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Ilesanmi, Kemisola Stella

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Regular evaluations of communities’ understanding of malaria-related practices are essential for control of the disease in endemic areas. This study was aimed at investigating the perceptions, prevention and treatments practices for childhood malaria by mothers in rural communities. Materials and Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study at rural communities of Ise-Orun local Government area, Nigeria. We randomly sampled 422 mothers of children less than 5 years and administered a validated questionnaire to assess their perceptions and practices relating to childhood malaria. We used a 10-point scale to assess perception and classified it as good (≥5) or poor (<5). Predictive factors for poor perceptions were identified using logistic regression. Results: Approximately 51% of the mothers had poor perception and 14.2% ascribed malaria illness to mosquito bite only. Majority (85.8%) of the mothers practiced malaria preventive measures, including: Insecticide treated nets (70.0%), chemoprophylaxis (20.1%) and environmental sanitation (44.8%). Of the 200 mothers whose children had malaria fever within the 3 months prior to the study visits, home treatment was adopted by 87.5%. Local herbal remedies were combined with orthodox medicine in the treatments of malaria for 91.5% of the children. The main reasons for not seeking medical treatment at existing formal health facilities were “high cost”, “challenges of access to facilities” and “mothers’ preference for herbal remedies”. Lack of formal education was the only independent predictor of poor malaria perceptions among mothers (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.18, 3.12). Conclusions: Considerable misconceptions about malaria exist among mothers in the rural communities. The implications for malaria control in holoendemic areas are highlighted. PMID:25949972

  11. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    . Most patients treated for P. falciparum malaria should be admitted to hospital for at least 24 h as patients can deteriorate suddenly, especially early in the course of treatment. In specialised units seeing large numbers of patients, outpatient treatment may be considered if specific protocols for patient selection and follow up are in place. 10. Uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria should be treated with an artemisinin combination therapy (Grade 1A). Artemether-lumefantrine (Riamet(®)) is the drug of choice (Grade 2C) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (Eurartesim(®)) is an alternative. Quinine or atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone(®)) can be used if an ACT is not available. Quinine is highly effective but poorly-tolerated in prolonged treatment and should be used in combination with an additional drug, usually oral doxycycline. 11. Severe falciparum malaria, or infections complicated by a relatively high parasite count (more than 2% of red blood cells parasitized) should be treated with intravenous therapy until the patient is well enough to continue with oral treatment. Severe malaria is a rare complication of P. vivax or P. knowlesi infection and also requires parenteral therapy. 12. The treatment of choice for severe or complicated malaria in adults and children is intravenous artesunate (Grade 1A). Intravenous artesunate is unlicensed in the EU but is available in many centres. The alternative is intravenous quinine, which should be started immediately if artesunate is not available (Grade 1A). Patients treated with intravenous quinine require careful monitoring for hypoglycemia. 13. Patients with severe or complicated malaria should be managed in a high-dependency or intensive care environment. They may require haemodynamic support and management of: acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute kidney injury, seizures, and severe intercurrent infections including Gram-negative bacteraemia/septicaemia. 14. Children with

  12. Feasibility of home management using ACT for childhood malaria episodes in an urban setting

    PubMed Central

    Nsagha, Dickson S; Elat, Jean-Bosco N; Ndong, Proper AB; Tata, Peter N; Tayong, Maureen-Nill N; Pokem, Francois F; Wankah, Christian C

    2012-01-01

    Background Over 90% of malaria cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a child under the age of 5 years dies from this illness every 30 seconds. The majority of families in Sub- Saharan Africa treat malaria at home, but therapy is often incomplete, hence the World Health Organization has adopted the strategy of home management of malaria to solve the problem. The purpose of this study was to determine community perception and the treatment response to episodes of childhood malaria in an urban setting prior to implementation of home management using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Methods This qualitative exploratory study on the home management of malaria in urban children under 5 years of age used 15 focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews in various categories of caregivers of children under 5 years. One hundred and eighteen people participated in the focus group discussions and 20 in the in-depth interviews. The study explored beliefs and knowledge about malaria, mothers’ perception of home management of the disease, health-seeking behavior, prepackaged treatment of malaria using ACT and a rapid diagnostic test, preferred channels for home management of uncomplicated malaria, communication, the role of the community in home management of malaria, and the motivation of drug distributors in the community. Results The mothers’ perception of malaria was the outcome of events other than mosquito bites. Home treatment is very common and is guided by the way mothers perceive signs and symptoms of malaria. Frequent change of malarial drugs by the national health policy and financial difficulties were the main problems mothers faced in treating febrile children. Rapid diagnostic testing and prepackaged ACT for simple malaria in children under 5 years would be accepted if it was offered at an affordable price. Tribalism and religious beliefs might hinder the delivery of home management of malaria. The availability of rapid diagnostic testing

  13. Feasibility of home management using ACT for childhood malaria episodes in an urban setting.

    PubMed

    Nsagha, Dickson S; Elat, Jean-Bosco N; Ndong, Proper Ab; Tata, Peter N; Tayong, Maureen-Nill N; Pokem, Francois F; Wankah, Christian C

    2012-01-01

    Over 90% of malaria cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a child under the age of 5 years dies from this illness every 30 seconds. The majority of families in Sub- Saharan Africa treat malaria at home, but therapy is often incomplete, hence the World Health Organization has adopted the strategy of home management of malaria to solve the problem. The purpose of this study was to determine community perception and the treatment response to episodes of childhood malaria in an urban setting prior to implementation of home management using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This qualitative exploratory study on the home management of malaria in urban children under 5 years of age used 15 focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews in various categories of caregivers of children under 5 years. One hundred and eighteen people participated in the focus group discussions and 20 in the in-depth interviews. The study explored beliefs and knowledge about malaria, mothers' perception of home management of the disease, health-seeking behavior, prepackaged treatment of malaria using ACT and a rapid diagnostic test, preferred channels for home management of uncomplicated malaria, communication, the role of the community in home management of malaria, and the motivation of drug distributors in the community. The mothers' perception of malaria was the outcome of events other than mosquito bites. Home treatment is very common and is guided by the way mothers perceive signs and symptoms of malaria. Frequent change of malarial drugs by the national health policy and financial difficulties were the main problems mothers faced in treating febrile children. Rapid diagnostic testing and prepackaged ACT for simple malaria in children under 5 years would be accepted if it was offered at an affordable price. Tribalism and religious beliefs might hinder the delivery of home management of malaria. The availability of rapid diagnostic testing and ACT all year round is one of

  14. Childhood Vitiligo: Treatment Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Amrinder Jit; Kumaran, M Sendhil

    2012-01-01

    Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders. Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists’ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo. PMID:23248365

  15. Mothers' perceptions and knowledge on childhood malaria in the holendemic Kibaha district, Tanzania: implications for malaria control and the IMCI strategy.

    PubMed

    Tarimo, D S; Lwihula, G K; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2000-03-01

    Prior to an intervention on improving the quality of malaria case management, we assessed mothers' abilities to recognize nonsevere and severe/complicated malaria in children when a child has fever with other physiological and behavioural symptoms associated with malaria. Malaria was mentioned as the commonest febrile illness (94. 1%), convulsions the least (11.4%). Fever and enteric symptoms featured as the most important symptoms of childhood malaria at frequencies of 93.5% and 73.8%, respectively. The need for laboratory diagnosis was very high (98.3%), the reason being to get accurate diagnosis and treatment (89.4%). Poor outcome of treatment was ascribed to incorrect diagnosis and prescription, noncompliance at home and ineffective drugs (62.1%). Most mothers (86.6%) would take antipyretic measures first when a child has fever, and subsequently the majority (92.9%) would seek care at a modern health facility. About 50% of the mothers would give traditional treatments for childhood convulsions and wait till fits cease before the next action. A high proportion of the mothers (75%) held the belief that an injection in a child with high fever would precipitate convulsions or death. The implications of these findings for chemotherapeutic malaria control in holoendemic areas within the context of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) strategy are discussed.

  16. Early treatment of childhood fevers with pre-packaged antimalarial drugs in the home reduces severe malaria morbidity in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu; Konaté, Amadou; Tiono, Alfred B; Convelbo, Nathalie; Cousens, Simon; Pagnoni, Franco

    2003-02-01

    In rural, malaria-endemic Burkina Faso, we evaluated the impact of the use of pre-packaged antimalarial drugs (PPAM), by mothers in the home, on the progression of disease in children from uncomplicated fever to severe malaria. In each village of one province, a core group of opinion leaders (mainly older mothers) was trained in the management of uncomplicated malaria, including the administration of PPAM. Full courses of antimalarial (chloroquine) and antipyretic (aspirin) drugs were packaged in age-specific bags and made widely available through community health workers who were supplied through the existing drug distribution system. Drugs were sold under a cost-recovery scheme. Local schoolteachers conducted surveys in a random sample of 32 villages at the end of the high transmission seasons in 1998 and 1999. Disease history and the treatment received were investigated for all children under the age of 6 years having suffered from a fever episode in the previous 4 weeks. 'Uncomplicated malaria' was defined as every episode of fever and 'severe malaria' as every episode of fever followed by convulsions or loss of consciousness. During the study period, 56%[95% confidence interval (CI) 50-62%] of 3202 fever episodes in children under 6 years of age were treated promptly by mothers with the pre-packaged drugs made available by the study. A total of 59% of children receiving PPAM were reported to have received the drugs over the prescribed 3-day period, while 52% received the correct age-specific dose. PPAM use was similar among literate (61%) and non-literate mothers (55%) (P = 0.08). The overall reported risk of developing severe malaria was 8%. This risk was lower in children treated with PPAM (5%) than in children not treated with PPAM (11%) (risk ratio = 0.47; 95% CI 0.37, 0.60; P < 0.0001). This estimate of the impact of PPAM was largely unchanged when account was taken of potential confounding by age, sex, maternal literacy status, year or village. Our

  17. Illness-related practices for the management of childhood malaria among the Bwatiye people of north-eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akogun, Oladele B; John, Kauna K

    2005-01-01

    Background A wide range of childhood illnesses are accompanied by fever,, including malaria. Child mortality due to malaria has been attributed to poor health service delivery system and ignorance. An assessment of a mother's ability to recognize malaria in children under-five was carried out among the Bwatiye, a poorly-served minority ethnic group in north-eastern Nigeria. Methods A three-stage research design involving interviews, participatory observation and laboratory tests was used to seek information from 186 Bwatiye mothers about their illness-related experiences with childhood fevers. Results Mothers classified malaria into male (fever that persists for longer than three days) and female (fever that goes away within three days) and had a system of determining when febrile illness would not be regarded as malaria. Most often, malaria would be ignored in the first 2 days before seeking active treatment. Self-medication was the preferred option. Treatment practices and sources of help were influenced by local beliefs, the parity of the mother and previous experience with child mortality. Conclusion The need to educate mothers to suspect malaria in every case of febrile illness and take appropriate action in order to expose the underlying "evil" will be more acceptable than an insistence on replacing local knowledge with biological epidemiology of malaria. The challenge facing health workers is to identify and exploit local beliefs about aetiology in effecting management procedures among culturally different peoples, who may not accept the concept of biological epidemiology. PMID:15723706

  18. Illness-related practices for the management of childhood malaria among the Bwatiye people of north-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akogun, Oladele B; John, Kauna K

    2005-02-21

    A wide range of childhood illnesses are accompanied by fever,, including malaria. Child mortality due to malaria has been attributed to poor health service delivery system and ignorance. An assessment of a mother's ability to recognize malaria in children under-five was carried out among the Bwatiye, a poorly-served minority ethnic group in north-eastern Nigeria. A three-stage research design involving interviews, participatory observation and laboratory tests was used to seek information from 186 Bwatiye mothers about their illness-related experiences with childhood fevers. Mothers classified malaria into male (fever that persists for longer than three days) and female (fever that goes away within three days) and had a system of determining when febrile illness would not be regarded as malaria. Most often, malaria would be ignored in the first 2 days before seeking active treatment. Self-medication was the preferred option. Treatment practices and sources of help were influenced by local beliefs, the parity of the mother and previous experience with child mortality. The need to educate mothers to suspect malaria in every case of febrile illness and take appropriate action in order to expose the underlying "evil" will be more acceptable than an insistence on replacing local knowledge with biological epidemiology of malaria. The challenge facing health workers is to identify and exploit local beliefs about aetiology in effecting management procedures among culturally different peoples, who may not accept the concept of biological epidemiology.

  19. Urban malaria treatment behaviour in the context of low levels of malaria transmission in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Sesay, H R; Adesina, H; Mosanya, M E; Ogunlade, P B; Ayodele, J O; Orisasona, S A

    2001-01-01

    Urban malaria in West Africa is not well documented. While rapid urbanisation may create environmental conditions that favour mosquito breeding, urban pollution may inhibit the growth of Anopheles species. In 1996, the Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival (BASICS) Project of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) started building urban community health coalitions in Lagos, Nigeria, to empower communities to provide prompt treatment and appropriate prevention for major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality, including malaria, diarrhoeal disease, acute respiratory infections and vaccine preventable diseases. Intervention against malaria was predicated on national policies that assumed Nigeria was holo-endemic for malaria and that prompt treatment of febrile illness with anti-malarial drugs was an appropriate action. At the suggestion and with the assistance of another USAID programme, the Environmental Health Project (EHP), BASICS embarked on a rapid assessment of the epidemiological, entomological and sociological situation of malaria transmission and case management in three Lagos communities. During April and May 1998, blood film investigation of 916 children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years yielded a parasite prevalence rate of 0.9%. Night knockdown collections of mosquitoes in rooms yielded only C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti. The same results were obtained for night landing collections on human bait. Very low densities of A. gambiae larvae were found in breeding sites in Lagos Island (0.7) and Ajegunle (0.3). In contrast, community members, during focus group discussion identified malaria, in it various culturally defined forms, as a major health problem. Among the children examined clinically, 186 (20.3%) reported an illness, which they called "malaria" in the previous two weeks, and 180 had sought treatment for this illness. Data obtained from 303 shops in the area documented that a minimum of US dollars 4

  20. Investigating the Important Correlates of Maternal Education and Childhood Malaria Infections

    PubMed Central

    Njau, Joseph D.; Stephenson, Rob; Menon, Manoj P.; Kachur, S. Patrick; McFarland, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between maternal education and child health has intrigued researchers for decades. This study explored the interaction between maternal education and childhood malaria infection. Cross-sectional survey data from three African countries were used. Descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were completed in line with identified correlates. Marginal effects and Oaxaca decomposition analysis on maternal education and childhood malaria infection were also estimated. Children with mothers whose education level was beyond primary school were 4.7% less likely to be malaria-positive (P < 0.001). The Oaxaca decomposition analysis exhibited an 8% gap in childhood malaria infection for educated and uneducated mothers. Over 60% of the gap was explained by differences in household wealth (26%), household place of domicile (21%), malaria transmission intensities (14%), and media exposure (12%). All other correlates accounted for only 27%. The full adjusted model showed a robust and significant relationship between maternal education and childhood malaria infection. PMID:25002302

  1. Advances in nanomedicines for malaria treatment.

    PubMed

    Aditya, N P; Vathsala, P G; Vieira, V; Murthy, R S R; Souto, E B

    2013-12-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease that mainly affects children and pregnant women from tropical countries. The mortality rate of people infected with malaria per year is enormous and became a public health concern. The main factor that has contributed to the success of malaria proliferation is the increased number of drug resistant parasites. To counteract this trend, research has been done in nanotechnology and nanomedicine, for the development of new biocompatible systems capable of incorporating drugs, lowering the resistance progress, contributing for diagnosis, control and treatment of malaria by target delivery. In this review, we discussed the main problems associated with the spread of malaria and the most recent developments in nanomedicine for anti-malarial drug delivery.

  2. Effectiveness of combined intermittent preventive treatment for children and timely home treatment for malaria control

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Whiles awaiting for the arrival of an effective and affordable malaria vaccine, there is a need to make use of the available control tools to reduce malaria risk, especially in children under five years and pregnant women. Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) has recently been accepted as an important component of the malaria control strategy. This study explored the potential of a strategy of intermittent preventive treatment for children (IPTC) and timely treatment of malaria-related febrile illness in the home in reducing the parasite prevalence and malaria morbidity in young children in a coastal village in Ghana. Methods The study combined home-based delivery of IPTC among six to 60 months old and home treatment of suspected febrile malaria illness within 24 hours. All children between six and 60 months of age received intermittent preventive treatment using amodiaquine and artesunate, delivered by community assistants every four months (three times in 12 months). Malaria parasite prevalence surveys were conducted before the first and after the third dose of IPTC. Results Parasite prevalence was reduced from 25% to 3% (p < 0.00, Mann-Whitney) one year after the inception of the two interventions. At baseline, 13.8% of the children were febrile (axillary temperature greater than or equal to 37.5 degree Celsius) compared to 2.2% at evaluation (post IPTC3 combined with timely home management of fever) (p < 0.00, Mann-Whitney). Conclusion The evaluation result indicates that IPTC given three times in a year combined with timely treatment of febrile malaria illness, impacts significantly on the parasite prevalence. The marked reduction in the parasite prevalence with this strategy points to the potential for reducing malaria-related childhood morbidity and mortality, and this should be explored by control programme managers. PMID:20003357

  3. Treatment of acute vivax malaria with tafenoquine.

    PubMed

    Nasveld, Peter; Kitchener, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquiniline related to primaquine with pre-clinical activity against a range of malaria species. We treated two acute cases of vivax malaria with tafenoquine (800 mg over three days) alone, instead of conventional chloroquine (1500 mg over three days) and primaquine (420 mg over 14 days). In addition to the convenience of this regimen, the rapid parasite clearances observed, coupled with a good clinical response and lack of recrudescence or relapse, indicate that further investigation of tafenoquine in the treatment of vivax malaria is warranted.

  4. Early Childhood Malaria Prevention and Children's Patterns of School Leaving in the Gambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood…

  5. Early Childhood Malaria Prevention and Children's Patterns of School Leaving in the Gambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood…

  6. Long-term impact of childhood malaria infection on school performance among school children in a malaria endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border.

    PubMed

    Vorasan, Nutchavadee; Pan-Ngum, Wirichada; Jittamala, Podjanee; Maneeboonyang, Wanchai; Rukmanee, Prasert; Lawpoolsri, Saranath

    2015-10-09

    Children represent a high-risk group for malaria worldwide. Among people in Thailand who have malaria during childhood, some may have multiple malaria attacks during their lifetime. Malaria may affect neurological cognition in children, resulting in short-term impairment of memory and language functions. However, little is known regarding the long-term effects of malaria infection on cognitive function. This study examines the long-term impact of malaria infection on school performance among school children living in a malaria-endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among school children aged 6-17 years in a primary-secondary school of a sub-district of Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. History of childhood malaria infection was obtained from the medical records of the sole malaria clinic in the area. School performance was assessed by using scores for the subjects Thai Language and Mathematics in 2014. Other variables, such as demographic characteristics, perinatal history, nutritional status, and emotional intelligence, were also documented. A total of 457 students were included, 135 (30 %) of whom had a history of uncomplicated malaria infection. About half of the malaria-infected children had suffered infection before the age of four years. The mean scores for both Mathematics and Thai Language decreased in relation to the increasing number of malaria attacks. Most students had their last malaria episode more than two years previously. The mean scores were not associated with duration since the last malaria attack. The association between malaria infection and school performance was not significant after adjusting for potential confounders, including gender, school absenteeism over a semester term, and emotional intelligence. This study characterizes the long-term consequences of uncomplicated malaria disease during childhood. School performance was not associated with a history of malaria infection, considering that

  7. The influence of the Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on caregivers' knowledge, perceptions and health-seeking behaviour towards childhood malaria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria remains the most important public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. Mothers' or caregivers' ability to recognize childhood malaria-related morbidity is crucial as knowledge, attitudes and health seeking behavior of caregivers towards childhood malaria could influence response to signs of the disease. Methods A total of 1,003 caregivers in 'at-risk' villages in close proximity to the Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in south-western Ethiopia, and 953 caregivers in 'control' villages further away from the dam were surveyed using structured questionnaires to assess their knowledge, perceptions and health seeking behaviour about childhood malaria. Results Malaria (busa) was ranked as the most serious health problem. Caregivers perceived childhood malaria as a preventable ('at-risk' 96%, 'control' 86%) and treatable ('at-risk' 98% and 'control' 96%) disease. Most caregivers correctly associated the typical clinical manifestations with malaria attacks. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) was mentioned as a personal protective measure, whereas the role of indoor residual spraying (IRS) in malaria prevention and control was under-recognized. Most of the caregivers would prefer to seek treatment in health-care services in the event of malaria and reported the use of recommended anti-malarials. Conclusion Health education to improve knowledge, perceptions and health-seeking behaviour related to malaria is equally important for caregivers in 'at risk' villages and caregivers in 'control' villages as minimal differences seen between both groups. Concluding, there may be a need of more than one generation after the introduction of the dam before differences can be noticed. Secondly, differences in prevalence between 'control' and 'at-risk' villages may not be sufficient to influence knowledge and behaviour. PMID:20146830

  8. The influence of the Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on caregivers' knowledge, perceptions and health-seeking behaviour towards childhood malaria.

    PubMed

    Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Kassahun, Wondwossen; Woldemichael, Kifle; Tushune, Kora; Sudaker, Morankar; Kaba, Daniel; Duchateau, Luc; Van Bortel, Wim; Speybroeck, Niko

    2010-02-11

    Malaria remains the most important public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. Mothers' or caregivers' ability to recognize childhood malaria-related morbidity is crucial as knowledge, attitudes and health seeking behavior of caregivers towards childhood malaria could influence response to signs of the disease. A total of 1,003 caregivers in 'at-risk' villages in close proximity to the Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in south-western Ethiopia, and 953 caregivers in 'control' villages further away from the dam were surveyed using structured questionnaires to assess their knowledge, perceptions and health seeking behaviour about childhood malaria. Malaria (busa) was ranked as the most serious health problem. Caregivers perceived childhood malaria as a preventable ('at-risk' 96%, 'control' 86%) and treatable ('at-risk' 98% and 'control' 96%) disease. Most caregivers correctly associated the typical clinical manifestations with malaria attacks. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) was mentioned as a personal protective measure, whereas the role of indoor residual spraying (IRS) in malaria prevention and control was under-recognized. Most of the caregivers would prefer to seek treatment in health-care services in the event of malaria and reported the use of recommended anti-malarials. Health education to improve knowledge, perceptions and health-seeking behaviour related to malaria is equally important for caregivers in 'at risk' villages and caregivers in 'control' villages as minimal differences seen between both groups. Concluding, there may be a need of more than one generation after the introduction of the dam before differences can be noticed. Secondly, differences in prevalence between 'control' and 'at-risk' villages may not be sufficient to influence knowledge and behaviour.

  9. Sickle Cell Trait and the Risk of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Other Childhood Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Thomas N.; Mwangi, Tabitha W.; Wambua, Sammy; Alexander, Neal D.; Kortok, Moses; Snow, Robert W.; Marsh, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Background The gene for sickle hemoglobin (HbS) is a prime example of natural selection. It is generally believed that its current prevalence in many tropical populations reflects selection for the carrier form (sickle cell trait [HbAS]) through a survival advantage against death from malaria. Nevertheless, >50 years after this hypothesis was first proposed, the epidemiological description of the relationships between HbAS, malaria, and other common causes of child mortality remains incomplete. Methods We studied the incidence of falciparum malaria and other childhood diseases in 2 cohorts of children living on the coast of Kenya. Results The protective effect of HbAS was remarkably specific for falciparum malaria, having no significant impact on any other disease. HbAS had no effect on the prevalence of symptomless parasitemia but was 50% protective against mild clinical malaria, 75% protective against admission to the hospital for malaria, and almost 90% protective against severe or complicated malaria. The effect of HbAS on episodes of clinical malaria was mirrored in its effect on parasite densities during such episodes. Conclusions The present data are useful in that they confirm the mechanisms by which HbAS confers protection against malaria and shed light on the relationships between HbAS, malaria, and other childhood diseases. PMID:15942909

  10. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    Quartan malaria; Falciparum malaria; Biduoterian fever; Blackwater fever; Tertian malaria; Plasmodium ... Malaria is caused by a parasite that is passed to humans by the bite of infected Anopheles ...

  11. Incidence of catastrophic health expenditures for households: an example of medical attention for the treatment of severe childhood malaria in Kinshasa reference hospitals, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Ilunga-Ilunga, Félicien; Levêque, Alain; Laokri, Samia; Dramaix, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incidence of catastrophic health expenditures faced by households in Kinshasa with children affected by severe malaria. A total of 1350 children below the age of 15 year who were hospitalized due to severe malaria were included in the study. We analyzed the incidence of households facing catastrophic expenditures according to two thresholds: 40% of the household's capacity to pay and 10% of the household's total consumption. Based on the '40% of the capacity to pay' threshold, the incidence of catastrophic health expenditures reached 81.1%, and this estimate reached 46.4% for the '10% above total consumption' threshold. Regarding the ≥ 40% capacity to pay threshold, the incidences of catastrophic expenditures was higher among households with children who were admitted to state hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.7) and private hospitals (aOR 59.1), for poor households (aOR 13), for households with medium socioeconomic statuses (aOR 3.2), for female-headed households (aOR 2.9), for households with children affected by the neurological form (aOR 4.8) and respiratory distress (aOR 3.6), and for households who opted for a pre-hospital resort (aOR 2.7). Similar results were obtained when the 10% above the total consumption threshold was applied. Greater government financing of medical attention would lead to a reduction in the catastrophic health expenditures faced by the poorest households. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of home management of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on childhood malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Uneka, C J

    2009-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa almost all of the malaria deaths occur in children below five years of age and these deaths occur within 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Consequently, the home management of malaria (HMM), was introduced to ensure early recognition of and prompt and appropriate response to malarial illness in children within the home or the community. In this report the impact of HMM in childhood malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed using relevant publications identified through a Medline Entrez-Pubmed and Google search. There was convincing evidence from the studies reviewed that HMM played a contributory role in reducing progress to severe malaria and overall childhood mortality. The major challenges to the implementation of HMM included failure of caregivers to complete a full course of antimalarial drug, provision of financial motivation to community drug distributors, non-adherence of health workers to recommendations on the use of antimalarial drugs, limited acceptance, possible adverse outcomes, and long term sustainability of HMM. With increased political will and commitment of all stakeholders as well as the mobilization of additional and substantial resources for implementation by the global community, the Abuja declaration of halving mortality from malaria in African may be attained in the nearest future.

  13. Malaria.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Margaret A; Burrows, Jeremy N; Manyando, Christine; van Huijsduijnen, Rob Hooft; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Wells, Timothy N C

    2017-08-03

    Malaria is caused in humans by five species of single-celled eukaryotic Plasmodium parasites (mainly Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax) that are transmitted by the bite of Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Malaria remains one of the most serious infectious diseases; it threatens nearly half of the world's population and led to hundreds of thousands of deaths in 2015, predominantly among children in Africa. Malaria is managed through a combination of vector control approaches (such as insecticide spraying and the use of insecticide-treated bed nets) and drugs for both treatment and prevention. The widespread use of artemisinin-based combination therapies has contributed to substantial declines in the number of malaria-related deaths; however, the emergence of drug resistance threatens to reverse this progress. Advances in our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of pathogenesis have fuelled the development of new diagnostics, drugs and insecticides. Several new combination therapies are in clinical development that have efficacy against drug-resistant parasites and the potential to be used in single-dose regimens to improve compliance. This ambitious programme to eliminate malaria also includes new approaches that could yield malaria vaccines or novel vector control strategies. However, despite these achievements, a well-coordinated global effort on multiple fronts is needed if malaria elimination is to be achieved.

  14. Doxycycline for Malaria Chemoprophylaxis and Treatment: Report from the CDC Expert Meeting on Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kathrine R.; Magill, Alan J.; Parise, Monica E.; Arguin, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Doxycycline, a synthetically derived tetracycline, is a partially efficacious causal prophylactic (liver stage of Plasmodium) drug and a slow acting blood schizontocidal agent highly effective for the prevention of malaria. When used in conjunction with a fast acting schizontocidal agent, it is also highly effective for malaria treatment. Doxycycline is especially useful as a prophylaxis in areas with chloroquine and multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Although not recommended for pregnant women and children < 8 years of age, severe adverse events are rarely reported for doxycycline. This report examines the evidence behind current recommendations for the use of doxycycline for malaria and summarizes the available literature on its safety and tolerability. PMID:21460003

  15. New treatment policy of malaria as a part of malaria control program in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kusriastuti, Rita; Surya, Asik

    2012-07-01

    Malaria control program is one of the oldest program in the Ministry of Health (MoH) Republic of Indonesia. Started with effort to eradicate malaria in 1959 through Malaria Eradication Command well known as KOPEM (Komando Pembasmian Malaria) then it evolves to Malaria Control Program, Roll Back Malaria Program, and the current Malaria Elimination Program. In terms of diagnostic and treatment, the policy has formulated by strictly follow evidence-based principles as well as technical guided from World Health Organization (WHO). In 2004, based on numerous researches conducted in Indonesia the use of chloroquine was stopped and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was then initiated. For severe cases the use of intravenous (iv) Artesunate for cases treated in hospitals and intramuscular (im) Arthemeter for cases treated in the primary care setting were also introduced. ACT, Artesunate iv, and Artemether im, all are provided nationwide through the procurement system. For radical treatment, the recommendation in Indonesia is to add primaquine (PQ) to ACT for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale infections to prevent relapses and for Plasmodium Falciparum infection to kill the gametocytes. These recommendations put hope to reduce malaria mortality to zero and eventually with other interventions will eliminate malaria from the country by 2030. The dissemination of this information is important for the policy to apply in practice across the country.

  16. Syndromic diagnosis of malaria in rural Sierra Leone and proposed additions to the national integrated management of childhood illness guidelines for fever.

    PubMed

    Nnedu, Obinna N; Rimel, Bryan; Terry, Carey; Jalloh-Vos, Heidi; Baryon, Brima; Bausch, Daniel G

    2010-04-01

    Many countries in Africa, including Sierra Leone, have adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy as first-line therapy for treatment of patients with malaria. Because laboratory testing is often unavailable in rural areas, the cost-benefit and viability of this approach may depend on accurately diagnosing malaria by using clinical criteria. We assessed the accuracy of syndromic diagnosis for malaria in three peripheral health units in rural Sierra Leone and determined factors that were associated with an accurate malaria diagnosis. Of 175 children diagnosed with malaria on syndromic grounds, 143 (82%) were confirmed by the Paracheck-Pf test. In a multivariate analysis, splenomegaly (P = 0.04) was the only clinical sign significantly associated with laboratory-confirmed malaria, and sleeping under a bed net was protective (P = 0.05). Our findings show that clinical malaria is diagnosed relatively accurately in rural Sierra Leone. Incorporating bed net use and splenomegaly into the national Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines for evaluation of fever may further enhance diagnostic accuracy for malaria.

  17. Syndromic Diagnosis of Malaria in Rural Sierra Leone and Proposed Additions to the National Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Guidelines for Fever

    PubMed Central

    Nnedu, Obinna N.; Rimel, Bryan; Terry, Carey; Jalloh-Vos, Heidi; Baryon, Brima; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Many countries in Africa, including Sierra Leone, have adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy as first-line therapy for treatment of patients with malaria. Because laboratory testing is often unavailable in rural areas, the cost-benefit and viability of this approach may depend on accurately diagnosing malaria by using clinical criteria. We assessed the accuracy of syndromic diagnosis for malaria in three peripheral health units in rural Sierra Leone and determined factors that were associated with an accurate malaria diagnosis. Of 175 children diagnosed with malaria on syndromic grounds, 143 (82%) were confirmed by the Paracheck-Pf test. In a multivariate analysis, splenomegaly (P = 0.04) was the only clinical sign significantly associated with laboratory-confirmed malaria, and sleeping under a bed net was protective (P = 0.05). Our findings show that clinical malaria is diagnosed relatively accurately in rural Sierra Leone. Incorporating bed net use and splenomegaly into the national Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines for evaluation of fever may further enhance diagnostic accuracy for malaria. PMID:20348493

  18. Chemotherapeutics challenges in developing effective treatments for the endemic malarias

    PubMed Central

    Kevin Baird, J.

    2012-01-01

    The endemic malarias threaten the several billion people residing where transmission occurs. Chemotherapeutic strategy pitted against these threats hinges upon species- and stage-specific treatments guided by diagnosis and screening against sometime dangerous contraindications. This approach suits malaria as it occurs among travelers in the developed, non-endemic world. However, limiting treatment to that which diagnosis affirms may not be rational in endemic zones. Most of the endemic malarias remain out of diagnostic reach, either by inaccessibility of the parasite stage, insensitivity of the technology, or unavailability of diagnostic services. The partial and fragmented chemotherapeutic attack of malaria guided by confirmed diagnostics leaves most of the endemic malarias unchallenged. Development of elimination therapy, a single course of treatment aimed at all species and stages, would significantly advance progress against the major killers known collectively as malaria. PMID:24533286

  19. Malaria Eradication in the Americas: A Retrospective Analysis of Childhood Exposure*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    This study uses the malaria-eradication campaigns in the United States (circa 1920), and in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico (circa 1955) to measure how much childhood exposure to malaria depresses labor productivity. The campaigns began because of advances in health technology, which mitigates concerns about reverse causality. Malarious areas saw large drops in the disease thereafter. Relative to non-malarious areas, cohorts born after eradication had higher income as adults than the preceding generation. These cross-cohort changes coincided with childhood exposure to the campaigns rather than to pre-existing trends. Estimates suggest a substantial, though not predominant, role for malaria in explaining cross-region differences in income. PMID:24179596

  20. Treatment for dystonia in childhood.

    PubMed

    Roubertie, A; Mariani, L L; Fernandez-Alvarez, E; Doummar, D; Roze, E

    2012-10-01

    Management of childhood dystonia differs in certain respects from that of adult dystonia: (i) childhood dystonia is more often secondary than primary; (ii) mixed motor disorders are frequent; (iii) in children, the course of dystonia may be influenced by ongoing brain maturation and by the remarkable plasticity of the young brain; (iv) drug tolerability and effectiveness can be different in children; (v) the therapeutic strategy must be discussed with both the patient and his or her parents; and (vi) the child's education must be taken into account. Based on a systematic review of the literature through June 2011 and on our personal experience, we propose a therapeutic approach to childhood dystonia. After a detailed clinical evaluation and a comprehensive work-up to rule out a treatable cause of dystonia, symptomatic treatment may include various drugs, local botulinum toxin injections, and deep brain stimulation, in addition to rehabilitation.

  1. [Update in the diagnosis and treatment of malaria].

    PubMed

    García López Hortelano, M; Fumadó Pérez, V; González Tomé, M I

    2013-02-01

    An increase in the cases of malaria in our country has been observed due to immigration, and adopted children. Malaria management requires an integrate approach, including prompt diagnoses and treatment to avoid the associated morbidity and mortality. In the last years, new recommendations have been introduced due to the appearance of new resistant areas. In this article we aim to provide a summary of the key recommendations following the main malaria guidelines (WHO and CDC).

  2. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy . Observation Observation is closely monitoring a patient’s condition without giving ... treatment until signs or symptoms appear or change. Observation may be used: If the patient has no ...

  3. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... depends on the type of cancer being treated. Observation Observation is closely monitoring a patient’s condition without giving ... treatment until signs or symptoms appear or change. Observation may be used to treat a child with ...

  4. Malaria.

    PubMed

    Heck, J E

    1991-03-01

    Human malaria is caused by four species of the genus plasmodium. The sexual stage of the parasite occurs in the mosquito and asexual reproduction occurs in man. Symptoms of fever, chills, headache, and myalgia result from the invasion and rupture of erythrocytes. Merozoites are released from erythrocytes and invade other cells, thus propagating the infection. The most vulnerable hosts are nonimmune travelers, young children living in the tropics, and pregnant women. P. falciparum causes the most severe infections because it infects RBCs of all ages and has the propensity to develop resistance to antimalarials. Rapid diagnosis can be made with a malarial smear, and treatment should be initiated promptly. In some regions (Mexico, Central America except Panama, and North Africa) chloroquine phosphate is effective therapy. In subsaharan Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia, chloroquine resistance has become widespread, and other antimalarials are necessary. The primary care physician should have a high index of suspicion for malaria in the traveler returning from the tropics. Malaria should also be suspected in the febrile transfusion recipient and newborns of mothers with malaria.

  5. Optimal price subsidies for appropriate malaria testing and treatment behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Lesner, Tine Hjernø; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2016-11-04

    Malaria continues to be a serious public health problem particularly in Africa. Many people infected with malaria do not access effective treatment due to high price. At the same time many individuals receiving malaria drugs do not suffer from malaria because of the common practice of presumptive diagnosis. A global subsidy on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has recently been suggested to increase access to the most effective malaria treatment. Following the recommendation by World Health Organization that parasitological testing should be performed before treatment and ACT prescribed to confirmed cases only, it is investigated in this paper if a subsidy on malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) should be incorporated. A model is developed consisting of a representative individual with fever suspected to be malaria, seeking care at a specialized drug shop where RDTs, ACT medicines, and cheap, less effective anti-malarials are sold. Assuming that the individual has certain beliefs of the accuracy of the RDT and the probability that the fever is malaria, the model predicts the diagnosis-treatment behaviour of the individual. Subsidies on RDTs and ACT are introduced to incentivize appropriate behaviour: choose an RDT before treatment and purchase ACT only if the test is positive. Solving the model numerically suggests that a combined subsidy on both RDT and ACT is cost minimizing and improves diagnosis-treatment behaviour of individuals. For certain beliefs, such as low trust in RDT accuracy and strong belief that a fever is malaria, subsidization is not sufficient to incentivize appropriate behaviour. A combined subsidy on both RDT and ACT rather than a single subsidy is likely required to improve diagnosis-treatment behaviour among individuals seeking care for malaria in the private sector.

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... genetic conditions affect the risk of having childhood ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  7. Treatment Options for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... genetic conditions affect the risk of having childhood ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  8. Pharmacokinetic Predictors for Recurrent Malaria After Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Ugandan Infants

    PubMed Central

    Creek, Darren J.; Bigira, Victor; McCormack, Shelley; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Wanzira, Humphrey; Kakuru, Abel; Tappero, Jordan W.; Sandison, Taylor G.; Lindegardh, Niklas; Nosten, Francois; Aweeka, Francesca T.; Parikh, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is used primarily in children, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) data on DP use in young children are lacking. Methods. We conducted a prospective PK/PD study of piperaquine in 107 young children in Uganda. Samples were collected up to 28 days after 218 episodes of malaria treatment, which occurred during follow-up periods of up to 5 months. Malaria follow-up was conducted actively to day 28 and passively to day 63. Results. The median capillary piperaquine concentration on day 7 after treatment was 41.9 ng/mL. Low piperaquine concentrations were associated with an increased risk of recurrent malaria for up to 42 days, primarily in those receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis. In children not receiving TMP-SMX, low piperaquine concentrations were only modestly associated with an increased risk of recurrent malaria. However, for children receiving TMP-SMX, associations were strong and evident for all sampling days, with PQ concentrations of ≤27.3 ng/mL on day 7 associated with a greatly increased risk of recurrent malaria. Notably, of 132 cases of recurrent malaria, 119 had detectable piperaquine concentrations at the time of presentation with recurrent malaria. Conclusions. These piperaquine PK/PD data represent the first in children <2 years of age. Piperaquine exposure on day 7 correlated with an increased risk of recurrent malaria after DP treatment in children receiving TMP-SMX prophylaxis. Interestingly, despite strong associations, infants remained at risk for malaria, even if they had residual levels of piperaquine. PMID:23447696

  9. Implementation of the integrated management of childhood illness with parasitological diagnosis of malaria in rural Ghana: health worker perceptions.

    PubMed

    Febir, Lawrence G; Baiden, Frank E; Agula, Justina; Delimini, Rupert K; Akpalu, Bright; Tivura, Mathilda; Amanfo, Nelson; Chandramohan, Daniel; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Webster, Jayne

    2015-04-23

    Timely and appropriate management of febrile illness among children under five years of age will contribute to achieving Millennium Development Goal-4. The revised World Health Organization-Global Malaria Programme's policy on test-based management of malaria must integrate effectively into the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI). This study reports on perceptions of health workers on the health system factors influencing effective delivery of test-based diagnosis of malaria with IMCI. A qualitative study was conducted among a range of health workers at different levels of the health system in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Interview transcripts were transferred into Nvivo 8 software for data management and analysis. A frame-work approach at two levels was used in the analysis, which included the processes required for implementation of test-based management of malaria and the health systems context. Forty-nine in-depth interviews were conducted. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was perceived to have led to an increase in health facility attendance, thereby increasing the workload of health workers. Workload was reported as the main reason that health workers were not able to complete all of the examinations included in the IMCI algorithm. The NHIS financing guidelines were seen to be determining diagnosis and treatment practices by health-care givers. Concern was expressed about the erratic supply of malaria rapid diagnostic test kits (RDTs), the quality of RDTs related to potential false negative results when clinical symptoms were consistent with malaria. IMCI was seen as important but practically impossible to fully implement due to workload. Implementation of the WHO-revised IMCI guideline is confronted with a myriad of health systems challenges. The perceptions of front-line health workers on the accuracy and need for RDTs together with the capacity of health systems to support implementation plays a crucial role. The NHIS financing

  10. Single dose treatment of malaria - current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mischlinger, Johannes; Agnandji, Selidji T; Ramharter, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased international efforts for control and ultimate elimination, malaria remains a major health problem. Currently, artemisinin-based combination therapies are the treatment of choice for uncomplicated malaria exhibiting high efficacy in clinical trial settings in sub-Saharan Africa. However, their administration over a three-day period is associated with important problems of treatment adherence resulting in markedly reduced effectiveness of currently recommended antimalarials under real world settings. Antimalarial drug candidates and antimalarial drug combinations currently under advanced clinical development for the indication as single dose antimalarial therapy. Expert commentary: Several new drug candidates and combinations are currently undergoing pivotal proof-of-concept studies or clinical development programmes. The development of a single dose combination therapy would constitute a breakthrough in the control of malaria. Such an innovative treatment approach would simultaneously close the effectiveness gap of current three-day therapies and revolutionize population based interventions in the context of malaria elimination campaigns.

  11. A long-duration dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor (DSM265) for prevention and treatment of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Margaret A.; Lotharius, Julie; Marsh, Kennan; White, John; Dayan, Anthony; White, Karen L.; Njoroge, Jacqueline W.; El Mazouni, Farah; Lao, Yanbin; Kokkonda, Sreekanth; Tomchick, Diana R.; Deng, Xiaoyi; Laird, Trevor; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; March, Sandra; Ng, Caroline L.; Fidock, David A.; Wittlin, Sergio; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria; Benito, Francisco Javier Gamo; Alonso, Laura Maria Sanz; Martinez, Maria Santos; Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Belen; Bazaga, Santiago Ferrer; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Haselden, John N.; Louttit, James; Cui, Yi; Sridhar, Arun; Zeeman, Anna-Marie; Kocken, Clemens; Sauerwein, Robert; Dechering, Koen; Avery, Vicky M.; Duffy, Sandra; Delves, Michael; Sinden, Robert; Ruecker, Andrea; Wickham, Kristina S.; Rochford, Rosemary; Gahagen, Janet; Iyer, Lalitha; Riccio, Ed; Mirsalis, Jon; Bathhurst, Ian; Rueckle, Thomas; Ding, Xavier; Campo, Brice; Leroy, Didier; Rogers, M. John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Burrows, Jeremy N.; Charman, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant causes of childhood mortality but disease control efforts are threatened by resistance of the Plasmodium parasite to current therapies. Continued progress in combating malaria requires development of new, easy to administer drug combinations with broad ranging activity against all manifestations of the disease. DSM265, a triazolopyrimidine-based inhibitor of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), is the first DHODH inhibitor to reach clinical development for treatment of malaria. We describe studies profiling the biological activity, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties, and safety of DSM265, which supported its advancement to human trials. DSM265 is highly selective towards DHODH of the malaria parasite Plasmodium, efficacious against both blood and liver stages of P. falciparum, and active against drug-resistant parasite isolates. Favorable pharmacokinetic properties of DSM265 are predicted to provide therapeutic concentrations for more than 8 days after a single oral dose in the range of 200–400 mg. DSM265 was well tolerated in repeat dose and cardiovascular safety studies in mice and dogs, was not mutagenic, and was inactive against panels of human enzymes/receptors. The excellent safety profile, blood and liver-stage activity, and predicted long human half-life position DSM265 as a new potential drug combination partner for either single-dose treatment or once weekly chemoprevention. DSM265 has advantages over current treatment options that are dosed daily or are inactive on the parasite liver-stage PMID:26180101

  12. Costs analysis of the treatment of imported malaria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To document the status of imported malaria infections and estimate the costs of treating of patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of imported malaria in the Slovak Republic during 2003 to 2008. Case study Calculating and comparing the direct and indirect costs of treatment of patients diagnosed with imported malaria (ICD-10: B50 - B54) who used and not used chemoprophylaxis. The target sample included 19 patients diagnosed with imported malaria from 2003 to 2008, with 11 whose treatment did not include chemoprophylaxis and eight whose treatment did. Results The mean direct cost of malaria treatment for patients without chemoprophylaxis was 1,776.0 EUR, and the mean indirect cost 524.2 EUR. In patients with chemoprophylaxis the mean direct cost was 405.6 EUR, and the mean indirect cost 257.4 EUR. Conclusions The analysis confirmed statistically-significant differences between the direct and indirect costs of treatment with and without chemoprophylaxis for patients with imported malaria. PMID:22212246

  13. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... common?Malaria is a health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries, including portions of Central and ... these countries. If you are traveling to a tropical area or to a country where malaria is ...

  14. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

  15. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

  16. Malaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  17. Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    appearance of dark urine after an acute attack of falciparum malaria. Other complications include gastroenteritis in children, pulmonary edema, severe...placental malaria on mothers and neonates from Zaire. Z Parasitenkd 1986;72:57-64. 12. Kean BH, Smith JA. Death due to estivo-autumnal malaria: a

  18. Malaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  19. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    Malaria is a serious disease caused by a parasite. You get it when an infected mosquito bites you. Malaria is a major cause of death worldwide, but ... at risk. There are four different types of malaria caused by four related parasites. The most deadly ...

  20. Seeking treatment for symptomatic malaria in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria places a significant burden on the limited resources of many low income countries. Knowing more about why and where people seek treatment will enable policy makers to better allocate the limited resources. This study aims to better understand what influences treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in one such low-income country context, Papua New Guinea (PNG). Methods Two culturally, linguistically and demographically different regions in PNG were selected as study sites. A cross sectional household survey was undertaken in both sites resulting in the collection of data on 928 individuals who reported suffering from malaria in the previous four weeks. A probit model was then used to identify the factors determining whether or not people sought treatment for presumptive malaria. Multinomial logit models also assisted in identifying the factors that determined where people sought treatments. Results Results in this study build upon findings from other studies. For example, while distance in PNG has previously been seen as the primary factor in influencing whether any sort of treatment will be sought, in this study cultural influences and whether it was the first, second or even third treatment for a particular episode of malaria were also important. In addition, although formal health care facilities were the most popular treatment sources, it was also found that traditional healers were a common choice. In turn, the reasons why participants chose a particular type of treatment differed according to the whether they were seeking an initial or subsequent treatments. Conclusions Simply bringing health services closer to where people live may not always result in a greater use of formal health care facilities. Policy makers in PNG need to consider within-country variation in treatment-seeking behaviour, the important role of traditional healers and also ensure that the community fully understands the potential implications of not seeking treatment for

  1. Malaria treatment policy change and implementation: the case of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nanyunja, Miriam; Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Kato, Frederick; Kaggwa, Mugagga; Katureebe, Charles; Saweka, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  2. Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Kathryn N.; Kain, Kevin C.; Keystone, Jay S.

    2004-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic infection of global importance. Although relatively uncommon in developed countries, where the disease occurs mainly in travellers who have returned from endemic regions, it remains one of the most prevalent infections of humans worldwide. In endemic regions, malaria is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and creates enormous social and economic burdens. Current efforts to control malaria focus on reducing attributable morbidity and mortality. Targeted chemoprophylaxis and use of insecticide-treated bed nets have been successful in some endemic areas. For travellers to malaria-endemic regions, personal protective measures and appropriate chemoprophylaxis can significantly reduce the risk of infection. Prompt evaluation of the febrile traveller, a high degree of suspicion of malaria, rapid and accurate diagnosis, and appropriate antimalarial therapy are essential in order to optimize clinical outcomes of infected patients. Additional approaches to malaria control, including genetic manipulation of mosquitoes and malaria vaccines, are areas of ongoing research. PMID:15159369

  3. Effect of red blood cell variants on childhood malaria in Mali: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M; Doumbia, Saibou; Konaté, Drissa; Anderson, Jennifer M; Doumbouya, Mory; Keita, Abdoul S; Diakité, Seidina A S; Traoré, Karim; Krause, Michael A; Diouf, Ababacar; Moretz, Samuel E; Tullo, Gregory S; Miura, Kazutoyo; Gu, Wenjuan; Fay, Michael P; Taylor, Steve M; Long, Carole A; Diakité, Mahamadou; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2015-04-01

    AS children than in HbAA children with normal haemoglobin (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.66 [95% CI 0.59-0.75], p<0.0001) and lower in G6PD A-/A- homozygous girls than in G6PD A+/A+ girls (0.51 [0.29-0.90], p=0.020), but was higher in HbAC children than in HbAA children (1.15 [1.01-1.32], p=0.039). Parasite density was lower in HbAS children (median 10,550 parasites per μL [IQR 1350-26,250]) than in HbAA children (15,150 parasites per μL [4250-31,050]; p=0.0004). The HbAS-associated reductions in malaria risk and parasite density were greatest in early childhood. The individual and interactive effects of HbAS, HbAC, and G6PD A-/A- genotypes on malaria risk and parasite density define clinical and cellular correlates of protection. Further identification of the molecular mechanisms of these protective effects might uncover new targets for intervention. Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Anthelminthic Treatment in Pregnancy and Childhood on Immunisations, Infections and Eczema in Childhood: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mawa, Patrice A.; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Kihembo, Macklyn; Lule, Swaib A.; Rutebarika, Diana; Apule, Barbara; Akello, Florence; Akurut, Hellen; Oduru, Gloria; Naniima, Peter; Kizito, Dennison; Kizza, Moses; Kizindo, Robert; Tweyongere, Robert; Alcock, Katherine J.; Muwanga, Moses; Elliott, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Helminth infections may modulate immune responses to unrelated pathogens and allergens; these effects may commence prenatally. We addressed the hypothesis that anthelminthic treatment in pregnancy and early childhood would improve responses to immunisation and modulate disease incidence in early childhood with both beneficial and detrimental effects. Methods and Findings A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Entebbe, Uganda [ISRCTN32849447]. In three independent randomisations, 2507 pregnant women were allocated to receive single-dose albendazole or placebo, and praziquantel or placebo; 2016 of their offspring were randomised to receive quarterly single-dose albendazole or placebo from age 15 months to 5 years. Primary outcomes were post-immunisation recall responses to BCG and tetanus antigens, and incidence of malaria, diarrhoea, and pneumonia; incidence of eczema was an important secondary outcome. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Of 2345 live births, 1622 (69%) children remained in follow-up at age 5 years. 68% of mothers at enrolment, and 11% of five-year-olds, had helminth infections. Maternal hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni were effectively treated by albendazole and praziquantel, respectively; and childhood hookworm and Ascaris by quarterly albendazole. Incidence rates of malaria, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and eczema were 34, 65, 10 and 5 per 100 py, respectively. Albendazole during pregnancy caused an increased rate of eczema in the children (HR 1.58 (95% CI 1.15–2.17), p = 0.005). Quarterly albendazole during childhood was associated with reduced incidence of clinical malaria (HR 0.85 (95% CI 0.73–0.98), p = 0.03). There were no consistent effects of the interventions on any other outcome. Conclusions Routine use of albendazole in pregnancy may not always be beneficial, even in tropical developing countries. By contrast, regular albendazole treatment in preschool children may have an additional

  5. Reviewing the literature on access to prompt and effective malaria treatment in Kenya: implications for meeting the Abuja targets

    PubMed Central

    Chuma, Jane; Abuya, Timothy; Memusi, Dorothy; Juma, Elizabeth; Akhwale, Willis; Ntwiga, Janet; Nyandigisi, Andrew; Tetteh, Gladys; Shretta, Rima; Amin, Abdinasir

    2009-01-01

    Background Effective case management is central to reducing malaria mortality and morbidity worldwide, but only a minority of those affected by malaria, have access to prompt effective treatment. In Kenya, the Division of Malaria Control is committed to ensuring that 80 percent of childhood fevers are treated with effective anti-malarial medicines within 24 hours of fever onset, but this target is largely unmet. This review aimed to document evidence on access to effective malaria treatment in Kenya, identify factors that influence access, and make recommendations on how to improve prompt access to effective malaria treatment. Since treatment-seeking patterns for malaria are similar in many settings in sub-Saharan Africa, the findings presented in this review have important lessons for other malaria endemic countries. Methods Internet searches were conducted in PUBMED (MEDLINE) and HINARI databases using specific search terms and strategies. Grey literature was obtained by soliciting reports from individual researchers working in the treatment-seeking field, from websites of major organizations involved in malaria control and from international reports. Results The review indicated that malaria treatment-seeking occurs mostly in the informal sector; that most fevers are treated, but treatment is often ineffective. Irrational drug use was identified as a problem in most studies, but determinants of this behaviour were not documented. Availability of non-recommended medicines over-the-counter and the presence of substandard anti-malarials in the market are well documented. Demand side determinants of access include perception of illness causes, severity and timing of treatment, perceptions of treatment efficacy, simplicity of regimens and ability to pay. Supply side determinants include distance to health facilities, availability of medicines, prescribing and dispensing practices and quality of medicines. Policy level factors are around the complexity and unclear

  6. Market for Artemether-Lumefantrine to treat childhood malaria in a district of southern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Sergi; Munguambe, Khátia; Sicuri, Elisa

    2017-05-26

    Malaria is one of the leading causes of death in sub-Saharan Africa. Artemisinin-based combination therapies are used as first-line treatment drugs, but their market is far from competitive. Market failures include limited availability, low quality, lack of information, and high costs of access. We estimated the theoretical demand for one of the most common artemisinin-based combination therapies, artemether-lumefantrine (AL), and its determinants among caregivers of children with malaria seeking care at public health facilities, thus, entitled to receive drugs for free, in southern Mozambique (year 2012). The predicted theoretical demand was contrasted with international and local private market AL prices. Respondents stated high willingness to pay but lower ability to pay (ATP), which was defined as the theoretical demand. The ATP was on average of 0.94 USD for the treatment of a malaria episode. This implied an average gap of 1.04 USD between average local private prices and theoretical demand. Predicted ATP decreased by 14% for every additional malaria episode that the child had suffered during the malaria season. The market price was unaffordable for a large share of our sample, highlighting an unequal welfare distribution between suppliers and potential consumers, as well as issues of inequity in the private delivery of AL. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Treatment Intensity and Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namasivayam, Aravind K.; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Hard, Jennifer; Rudzicz, Frank; Rietveld, Toni; Maassen, Ben; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive treatment has been repeatedly recommended for the treatment of speech deficits in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). However, differences in treatment outcomes as a function of treatment intensity have not been systematically studied in this population. Aim: To investigate the effects of treatment intensity on outcome…

  8. Treatment Intensity and Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namasivayam, Aravind K.; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Hard, Jennifer; Rudzicz, Frank; Rietveld, Toni; Maassen, Ben; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive treatment has been repeatedly recommended for the treatment of speech deficits in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). However, differences in treatment outcomes as a function of treatment intensity have not been systematically studied in this population. Aim: To investigate the effects of treatment intensity on outcome…

  9. Effect of integrated community case management of common childhood illnesses on the quality of malaria case management provided by health extension workers at health posts.

    PubMed

    Wogi, Ajema; Teno, Dedefo; Bulto, Tesfaye; Deressa, Wakgari; Alemu, Hibret; Nigussie, Mesfin

    2014-10-01

    The Integrated Family Health Program supported the government of Ethiopia to implement the Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) strategy to control childhood illness of which malaria is a major cause. To assess the effect of ICCM training on quality of malaria case management at health posts. . A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 170 Health Extension Workers (HEW) providing either integrated or vertical malaria case management for children less than five years of age in 14 woredas (districts) of West Hararghe Zone using a multi-stage sampling procedure. HEWs in seven intervention woredas were trained in malaria case management and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) procedures through iCCM, and HEWs in comparison woredas were trained vertically through the national malaria control program. Performance was assessed using interview, review of registers, and observation of RDT procedure. Intervention HEWs performed better than their counterparts in correct drug prescription (90.8 vs. 81.0%, p = 0.03), treatment duration (97.7 vs. 89.9%, p = 0.001), and treatment schedule (95.4 vs. 75.9%, p = 0.000). Intervention HEWs recorded case management with more consistency than their counterparts (≥ 80% consistency between: classification and assessment [23.0 vs. 3.8%; p = 0.000], classification and treatment [24.1 vs. 7.6%; p = 0.003], and classification and follow up [24.1% vs. 0.0%; p = 0.000]); however, there is room for improvement. ICCM training has a positive effect on the quality of malaria case management at the community level.

  10. Malaria (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Malaria KidsHealth > For Parents > Malaria Print A A A ... Prevention Diagnosis and Treatment en español Malaria About Malaria Malaria is a common infection in hot, tropical ...

  11. Impact of red blood cell variants on childhood malaria in Mali: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M; Doumbia, Saibou; Konaté, Drissa; Anderson, Jennifer M; Doumbouya, Mory; Keita, Abdoul S; Diakité, Seidina AS; Traoré, Karim; Krause, Michael A; Diouf, Ababacar; Moretz, Samuel E; STullo, Gregory; Miura, Kazutoyo; Gu, Wenjuan; Fay, Michael P; Taylor, Steve M; Long, Carole A; Diakité, Mahamadou; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Red blood cell (RBC) variants protect African children from severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Their individual and interactive impacts on mild disease and parasite density, and their modification by age-dependent immunity, are poorly understood. Methods We conducted a 4-year, prospective cohort study of children aged 0.5–17 years in Maliin 2008-2011. Exposures were haemoglobin S (HbS), HbC, α-thalassaemia, ABO blood groups, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)deficiency encoded by the X-linked A- allele. Primary and secondary outcomes were malaria incidence and parasite density. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were modeled with quasi-Poisson regression; parasite densities were analyzed with Generalized Estimating Equations. Findings We diagnosed 4091 malaria episodes in 1543 children over 2656 child-years of follow-up (cyfu). RBC variants were common: HbAS 14.2%, HbAC 6.7%, α-thalassaemia 28.4%, type O blood group 40.2%, and G6PD deficiency9.4% (boys) and 20.4% (girls). Malaria incidence was 1.54 episodes/cyfu, ranged from 2.78 at age 3 to 0.40 at age 16 years, was reduced 34% in HbAS vs HbAA children (adjusted IRR [aIRR] 0.66; 95% CI 0.59-0.75) and 49% in G6PD A-/A- vs A+/A+ girls (aIRR 0.51; 95% CI 0.29-0.90), but was increased 15% in HbAC children (aIRR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01-1.32). Parasite density was reduced in HbAS vs HbAA children (median 10,550 vs 15, 150 parasites/μL; p=0.0004). HbAS-associated reductions in malaria risk and parasite density were greatest in early childhood. Interpretation Individual and interactive impacts of HbAS, HbAC, and G6PD A-/A-on malaria risk and parasite density define clinical and cellular correlates of protection. Further identification of the molecular mechanisms of these protective effects may uncover novel targets for intervention. Funding Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. PMID:26687956

  12. The treatment of imported malaria in children: an update.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Karen M; Bryant, Penelope A; Shingadia, Delane; Ladhani, Shamez; Steer, Andrew C; Burgner, David

    2013-02-01

    Since the 2010 publication in this journal of a review of the management of imported malaria for U.K. children, new evidence for the treatment of both severe and uncomplicated malaria has been published. This review discusses these new data and expands the scope of the previous review to include non-endemic countries outside of the U.K. The results of the AQUAMAT trial in late 2010 and other studies have prompted the WHO to recommend that intravenous artesunate be used preferentially over quinine for the treatment of severe malaria caused by any Plasmodium species in both adults and children. Oral artemisinin-based combination therapies have also shown equivalent (if not better) efficacy in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by all Plasmodium species (including chloroquine-resistant P vivax) in both adults and children, though there are issues regarding the availability of artemisinin-based combination therapies in many non-endemic countries. In these instances, conventional therapeutic regimens continue to be efficacious. Lastly, the use of primaquine for hypnozoite and gametocyte eradication is discussed.

  13. The malaria testing and treatment landscape in mainland Tanzania, 2016.

    PubMed

    Michael, Daniel; Mkunde, Sigsbert Patila

    2017-04-24

    Understanding the key characteristics of malaria testing and treatment is essential to the control of a disease that continues to pose a major risk of morbidity and mortality in mainland Tanzania, with evidence of a resurgence of the disease in recent years. The introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment for malaria, alongside policies to promote rational case management following testing, highlights the need for evidence of anti-malarial and testing markets in the country. The results of the most recent mainland Tanzania ACTwatch outlet survey are presented here, including data on the availability, market share and price of anti-malarials and malaria diagnosis in 2016. A nationally-representative malaria outlet survey was conducted between 18th May and 2nd July, 2016. A census of public and private outlets with potential to distribute malaria testing and/or treatment was conducted among a representative sample of administrative units. An audit was completed for all anti-malarials, malaria rapid (RDT) diagnostic tests and microscopy. A total of 5867 outlets were included in the nationally representative survey, across both public and private sectors. In the public sector, availability of malaria testing was 92.3% and quality-assured (QA) ACT was 89.1% among all screened outlets. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) was stocked by 51.8% of the public sector and injectable artesunate was found in 71.4% of all screened public health facilities. Among anti-malarial private-sector stockists, availability of testing was 15.7, and 65.1% had QA ACT available. The public sector accounted for 83.4% of the total market share for malaria diagnostics. The private sector accounted for 63.9% of the total anti-malarial market, and anti-malarials were most commonly distributed through accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs) (39.0%), duka la dawa baridi (DLDBs) (13.3%) and pharmacies (6.7%). QA ACT comprised 33.1% of the national market share (12

  14. The malaria testing and treatment landscape in Benin.

    PubMed

    Zinsou, Cyprien; Cherifath, Adjibabi Bello

    2017-04-26

    Since 2004, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Benin. In 2016, a medicine outlet survey was implemented to investigate the availability, price, and market share of anti-malarial treatment and malaria diagnostics. Results provide a timely and important benchmark to measure future interventions aimed at increasing access to quality malaria case management services. Between July 5th to August 6th 2016, a cross sectional, nationally-representative malaria outlet survey was conducted in Benin. A census of all public and private outlets with potential to distribute malaria testing and/or treatment was implemented among 30 clusters (arrondissements). Outlets were eligible for inclusion in the study if they met at least one of three study criteria: (1) one or more anti-malarials reportedly in stock on the day of the survey; (2) one or more anti-malarials reportedly in stock within the 3 months preceding the survey; and/or (3) provided malaria blood testing. An audit was completed for all anti-malarials, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and microscopy. 7260 outlets with the potential to sell or distribute anti-malarials were included in the census and 2966 were eligible and interviewed. A total of 17,669 anti-malarial and 494 RDT products were audited. Quality-assured ACT was available in 95.0% of all screened public health facilities and 59.4% of community health workers (CHW), and availability of malaria blood testing was 94.7 and 68.4% respectively. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) was available in 73.9% of public health facilities and not found among CHWs. Among private-sector outlets stocking at least one anti-malarial, non-artemisinin therapies were most commonly available (94.0% of outlets) as compared to quality-assured ACT (36.1%). 31.3% of the ACTs were marked with a "green leaf" logo, suggesting leakage of a co-paid ACT into Benin's unsubsidized ACT market from another country. 78.5% of

  15. Deployment of early diagnosis and mefloquine-artesunate treatment of falciparum malaria in Thailand: the Tak Malaria Initiative.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Verena Ilona; Sirilak, Supakit; Thonglairuam, Janjira; Rojanawatsirivet, Chaiporn; Proux, Stephane; Gilbos, Valery; Brockman, Al; Ashley, Elizabeth A; McGready, Rose; Krudsood, Srivicha; Leemingsawat, Somjai; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Singhasivanon, Pratap; White, Nicholas; Nosten, François

    2006-06-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment with artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy (MAS) have reduced the transmission of falciparum malaria dramatically and halted the progression of mefloquine resistance in camps for displaced persons along the Thai-Burmese border, an area of low and seasonal transmission of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We extended the same combination drug strategy to all other communities (estimated population 450,000) living in five border districts of Tak province in northwestern Thailand. Existing health structures were reinforced. Village volunteers were trained to use rapid diagnostic tests and to treat positive cases with MAS. Cases of malaria, hospitalizations, and malaria-related deaths were recorded in the 6 y before, during, and after the Tak Malaria Initiative (TMI) intervention. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and during the TMI period. P. falciparum malaria cases fell by 34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.5-34.4) and hospitalisations for falciparum malaria fell by 39% (95% CI, 37.0-39.9) during the TMI period, while hospitalisations for P. vivax malaria remained constant. There were 32 deaths attributed to malaria during, and 22 after the TMI, a 51.5% (95% CI, 39.0-63.9) reduction compared to the average of the previous 3 y. Cross-sectional surveys indicated that P. vivax had become the predominant species in Thai villages, but not in populations living on the Myanmar side of the border. In the displaced persons population, where the original deployment took place 7 y before the TMI, the transmission of P. falciparum continued to be suppressed, the incidence of falciparum malaria remained low, and the in vivo efficacy of the 3-d MAS remained high. In the remote malarious north western border area of Thailand, the early detection of malaria by trained village volunteers, using rapid diagnostic tests and treatment with mefloquine-artesunate was feasible and reduced the morbidity and mortality of multidrug

  16. Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Vivax Malaria: Reduction of Malaria Incidence in an Open Cohort Study in Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; de Lima, Alzemar Alves; Freitag, Elci Marlei; dos Santos, Tatiana Marcondes; do Nascimento Filha, Maria Teixeira; dos Santos Júnior, Alcides Procópio Justiniano; da Silva, Josiane Mendes; Rodrigues, Aline de Freitas; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Pereira da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando

    2013-01-01

    In children, the Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTc), currently called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC), was considered effective on malaria control due to the reduction of its incidence in Papua New Guinea and in some areas with seasonal malaria in Africa. However, the IPT has not been indicated because of its association with drug resistance and for hindering natural immunity development. Thus, we evaluated the alternative IPT impact on malaria incidence in three riverside communities on Madeira River, in the municipality of Porto Velho, RO. We denominate this scheme Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment (SIPT). The SIPT consists in a weekly dose of two 150 mg chloroquine tablets for 12 weeks, for adults, and an equivalent dose for children, after complete supervised treatment for P. vivax infection. This scheme is recommend by Brazilian Health Ministry to avoid frequent relapses. The clinic parasitological and epidemiological surveillance showed a significant reduction on vivax malaria incidence. The results showed a reduction on relapses and recurrence of malaria after SIPT implementation. The SIPT can be effective on vivax malaria control in localities with high transmission risk in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23577276

  17. Selective intermittent preventive treatment of vivax malaria: reduction of malaria incidence in an open cohort study in brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroshi; Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; de Lima, Alzemar Alves; Freitag, Elci Marlei; Dos Santos, Tatiana Marcondes; do Nascimento Filha, Maria Teixeira; Dos Santos Júnior, Alcides Procópio Justiniano; da Silva, Josiane Mendes; Rodrigues, Aline de Freitas; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Pereira da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando

    2013-01-01

    In children, the Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTc), currently called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC), was considered effective on malaria control due to the reduction of its incidence in Papua New Guinea and in some areas with seasonal malaria in Africa. However, the IPT has not been indicated because of its association with drug resistance and for hindering natural immunity development. Thus, we evaluated the alternative IPT impact on malaria incidence in three riverside communities on Madeira River, in the municipality of Porto Velho, RO. We denominate this scheme Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment (SIPT). The SIPT consists in a weekly dose of two 150 mg chloroquine tablets for 12 weeks, for adults, and an equivalent dose for children, after complete supervised treatment for P. vivax infection. This scheme is recommend by Brazilian Health Ministry to avoid frequent relapses. The clinic parasitological and epidemiological surveillance showed a significant reduction on vivax malaria incidence. The results showed a reduction on relapses and recurrence of malaria after SIPT implementation. The SIPT can be effective on vivax malaria control in localities with high transmission risk in the Brazilian Amazon.

  18. Intravenous Artesunate Reduces Parasite Clearance Time, Duration of Intensive Care, and Hospital Treatment in Patients With Severe Malaria in Europe: The TropNet Severe Malaria Study.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu; Clerinx, Jan; Antinori, Spinello; Gjørup, Ida E; Gascon, Joaquím; Mørch, Kristine; Nicastri, Emanuele; Ramharter, Michael; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Visser, Leo; Rolling, Thierry; Zanger, Philipp; Calleri, Guido; Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Nielsen, Henrik; Just-Nübling, Gudrun; Neumayr, Andreas; Hachfeld, Anna; Schmid, Matthias L; Antonini, Pietro; Pongratz, Peter; Kern, Peter; Saraiva da Cunha, José; Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Schunk, Mirjam; Suttorp, Norbert; Hatz, Christoph; Zoller, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Intravenous artesunate improves survival in severe malaria, but clinical trial data from nonendemic countries are scarce. The TropNet severe malaria database was analyzed to compare outcomes of artesunate vs quinine treatment. Artesunate reduced parasite clearance time and duration of intensive care unit and hospital treatment in European patients with imported severe malaria.

  19. Artesunate Suppositories versus Intramuscular Artemether for Treatment of Severe Malaria in Children in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Karunajeewa, Harin A.; Reeder, John; Lorry, Kerry; Dabod, Elizah; Hamzah, Juliana; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Chiswell, Gregory M.; Ilett, Kenneth F.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2006-01-01

    Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density and temperature were measured every 6 h for ≥72 h. Primary endpoints included times to 50% and 90% parasite clearance (PCT50 and PCT90) and the time to per os status. In a subset of 29 patients, plasma levels of artemether, artesunate, and their common active metabolite dihydroartemisinin were measured during the first 12 h. One suppository-treated patient with multiple complications died within 2 h of admission, but the remaining 78 recovered uneventfully. Compared to the artemether-treated children, those receiving artesunate suppositories had a significantly earlier mean PCT50 (9.1 versus 13.8 h; P = 0.008) and PCT90 (15.6 versus 20.4 h; P = 0.011). Mean time to per os status was similar for each group. Plasma concentrations of primary drug plus active metabolite were significantly higher in the artesunate suppository group at 2 h postdose. The earlier initial fall in parasitemia with artesunate is clinically advantageous and mirrors higher initial plasma concentrations of active drug/metabolite. In severely ill children with malaria in PNG, artesunate suppositories were at least as effective as i.m. artemether and may, therefore, be useful in settings where parenteral therapy cannot be given. PMID:16495259

  20. MEDICINE SELLERS AND MALARIA TREATMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    GOODMAN, CATHERINE; BRIEGER, WILLIAM; UNWIN, ALASDAIR; MILLS, ANNE; MEEK, SYLVIA; GREER, GEORGE

    2009-01-01

    Medicine sellers are widely used for fever and malaria treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, but concerns surround the appropriateness of drugs and information provided. There is increasing interest in improving their services, so we reviewed the literature on their characteristics, and interventions to improve their malaria-related practices. Sixteen interventions were identified, involving a mix of training/capacity building, demand generation, quality assurance and creating an enabling environment. Although evidence is insufficient to prove which approaches are superior, tentative conclusions were possible. Interventions increased rates of appropriate treatment, and medicine sellers were willing to participate. Features of successful interventions included a comprehensive situation analysis of the legal and market environment; “buy-in” from medicine sellers, community members and government; use of a combination of approaches; and maintenance of training and supervision. Interventions must be adapted to include artemisinin-based combination therapies, and their sustainability and potential to operate at national level should be further explored. PMID:18165494

  1. Molecular method for the diagnosis of imported pediatric malaria.

    PubMed

    Delhaes Jeanne, L; Berry, A; Dutoit, E; Leclerc, F; Beaudou, J; Leteurtre, S; Camus, D; Benoit-Vical, F

    2010-02-01

    Malaria is a polymorphous disease; it can be life threatening especially for children. We report a case of imported malaria in a boy, illustrating the epidemiological and clinical aspects of severe pediatric malaria. In this case real-time PCR was used to quantify Plasmodium falciparum DNA levels, to monitor the evolution under treatment, and to determine genetic mutations involved in chloroquine resistance. The major epidemiological features of imported malaria, and the difficulty to diagnose childhood severe malaria are described. The contribution of molecular methods for the diagnosis of imported malaria is discussed.

  2. [Treatment of fulminant falciparum malaria with erythrapheresis].

    PubMed

    Rouvier, B; Maudan, P; Debue, J F; Joussemet, M; Roué, R

    1988-01-01

    Ten days after his return from Cameroon, a twenty-six year old Frenchman, serving on voluntary service overseas, presented with fulminant falciparum malaria: shock, altered consciousness, haemolytic anaemia, threatening disseminated coagulation (platelets less than 150 X 10(-6).l-1; prothrombin time and Stuart factor less than 50%; fibrinogen less than 1.5 g.l-1). In spite of quinine therapy, parasitaemia increased from 4 to 35% within 24 h. Using an Haemonetics V50, the exchange of one and a half red blood cell masses was carried out with 17 red blood cell packs. Calcium gluconate was used to prevent the hypocalcaemia induced by the anticoagulant solution. The patient's platelets and plasma were completely reinjected. The result was very satisfactory. This kind of exchange, well tolerated clinically and biologically, would seem better than the classical exchange transfusion. When 10% of the red blood cells are infected by Plasmodium falciparum, it is necessary to exchange from one and a half to two blood masses. Lesser exchanges are always associated with important relapses and quinine therapy must be carried on during and after the exchange. Restricting this exchange only to red blood cells enabled the patient to benefit from his own coagulation factors, antibodies and platelets, and consequently to reduce the number of blood donors involved. However, metabolites (especially bilirubin and circulating immune complexes) were not eliminated. Partial plasmapheresis may be associated with erythropheresis using human albumin as plasma substitute. This technique needs to be assessed, in order to optimize immediate efficiency and post-transfusion infectious risk.

  3. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ependymoma Treatment Research Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Central Nervous System (CNS) Germ Cell Tumors Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  4. Neurocognitive Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Robert W.; Haser, Jennifer K.

    2006-01-01

    We review research on the neuropsychological effects that central nervous system (CNS) cancer treatments have on the cognitive abilities of children and adolescents. The authors focus on the two most common malignancies of childhood: leukemias and brain tumors. The literature review is structured so as to separate out earlier studies, generally…

  5. Neurocognitive Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Robert W.; Haser, Jennifer K.

    2006-01-01

    We review research on the neuropsychological effects that central nervous system (CNS) cancer treatments have on the cognitive abilities of children and adolescents. The authors focus on the two most common malignancies of childhood: leukemias and brain tumors. The literature review is structured so as to separate out earlier studies, generally…

  6. Use of quinocide in treatment and prophylaxis of vivax malaria

    PubMed Central

    Lysenko, A. Y.

    1960-01-01

    The discovery of antimalarial properties of derivatives of 8-aminoquinolines which combine high activity against the tissue stages of the malaria parasite with satisfactory tolerance by man can be said to have marked the final stage in the search for a radical cure of vivax malaria. Since its synthesis in the USSR in 1952, quinocide—an 8-aminoquinoline drug—has been subjected by Soviet workers to intensive research, an outline of which is presented in this paper. The results of their investigations, which ranged from laboratory and clinical studies of tolerance to the drug, through small-scale trials of its parasiticidal activity, to large-scale studies on the effectiveness of its mass administration are very encouraging. Both for anti-relapse treatment and for pre-epidemic prophylaxis, a short (10- or 14-day) course of quinocide proved as effective as a lengthy course of acriquine with plasmocide. Side-effects were infrequent, and most of those that occurred were transient and did not necessitate the suspension of treatment. It is suggested that the mass administration of quinocide would, in certain cases, be a useful adjunct to insecticidal measures in the clearance of malaria foci. PMID:14419205

  7. Tafenoquine for the treatment of recurrent Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, Scott; Nasveld, Peter; Edstein, Michael D

    2007-03-01

    Tafenoquine was used to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria cases who had previously failed treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. Chloroquine was followed by a loading dose of tafenoquine (200 mg base/day for 3 days) and 200 mg a week was given for 8 weeks. One of 27 treated patients relapsed after 6 months of observation. A standard course of chloroquine administered with 8 weeks of tafenoquine may be more effective than chloroquine with primaquine (22.5 mg/day for 14 days) in preventing additional P. vivax relapses. Larger studies are required to optimize the combination, but our findings suggest that an extended use of tafenoquine may be required to prevent relapses of primaquine-tolerant strains of P. vivax malaria.

  8. Oral clindamycin in the treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Salazar, N P; Saniel, M C; Estoque, M H; Talao, F A; Bustos, D G; Palogan, L P; Gabriel, A I

    1990-09-01

    Clinical trials on oral clindamycin as an antimalarial in hospitalized patients and residents of endemic communities were conducted in the Philippines between May 1984 and December 1985. Seven and 9 qualified subjects in hospital were treated with 300 mg (regimen A) and 600 mg (regimen B) respectively, twice daily for 5 days. Eighteen patients seen at a rural health unit were given the lower dosage. On the basis of the 28-day extended in vivo test of WHO, P. falciparum in all but one patient showed susceptibility to the drug as a blood schizontocide hence, the clinical cure of malaria. Side effects were few and self-limiting. Ten other patients on regimen A were cured within the 7- and/or 28-day extended test period. Clindamycin per se is currently one of the few alternatives in the treatment of clinically moderate drug-resistant malaria.

  9. [Economic evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests in malaria treatment].

    PubMed

    Faye, Adama; Ndiaye, Papa; Diagne-Camara, Maty; Badiane, Ousseynou; Wone, Issa; Diongue, Mayassine; Seck, Ibrahima; Dia, Anta Tal; Dia, Amadou Lamine

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the economic implications of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) on malaria management through the rational use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). The study was carried out in 2006 from November 10th to December 10th; it focused on patients who were seen and treated with ACT for suspicion of uncomplicated malaria in the health district of Ziguinchor, Senegal. The variables studied included age, sex, RDT results, and costs of care and RDT. The cost of care for malaria, estimated in CFA Francs, was evaluated both with and without the use of RDT. Among the 379 patients, 25,1% were aged 0-4 years, 12,7% of 5-14 years and 62,2% of at least 15 years; 51% were women. The result of the RDT was negative in 60% of cases. Without the use of diagnostic testing, the cost of care for all 379 cases was estimated at 299 957 CFA: patient contributions would cover 184 500 CFA and the State would cover the rest (115 457 CFA). With the use of RDTs, the overall cost of the RDT screening for 379 patients and the cost of treatment for the 150 positive cases amounted to 254 786 CFA, with patients bearing the cost of 205 550 CFA and the State subsidizing up to 49 236 CFA. RDT can help identify the positive cases of malaria, and avoid up to 60% of unnecessary treatments, corresponding to an estimated 27 297 cases at the district level and 584 630 cases nationally. The RDT also allow a more rational use of ACTs and a lower risk of emergence of Plasmodium resistance. The use of RDTs could result in savings of 45 171 CFA at the level of the district health centre and 111 240 136 CFA nationally.

  10. The role of private drug vendors as malaria treatment providers in selected malaria endemic areas of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajakaruna, R S; Weerasinghe, M; Alifrangis, M; Amerasinghe, P H; Konradsen, F

    2006-06-01

    The involvement of private drug vendors in malaria treatment is particularly high in developing countries and understanding their practices and knowledge about antimalarials and malaria treatment will aid in devising strategies to increase the correct use of antimalarials and improve adherence to the government's malaria drug policy. Results of a study on the knowledge and practices of the private drug vendors conducted in seven districts in Sri Lanka, mostly in malarious areas are presented. Data on awareness of government's malaria drug policy, practice of issuing antimalarials, knowledge about malaria and antimalarial drugs were collected from the drug vendors using pre-tested questionnaire in vernacular language. Data were statistically analysed using Stata 8.2. Chi-square test was carried out for individual explanatory variables and a logistic regression model was applied taking all response variables as binary outcome. Vendors' knowledge on antimalarials was poor with 58% of the vendors being unaware of the government malaria drug policy in the country. Also, the advice provided to customers buying antimalarials was limited. However, the majority of the private vendors emphasised that they were aware of the importance of case confirmation before treatment as stressed in the national policy. Although, the vendors did not have a high awareness of national drug policies they were only found selling chloroquine and primaquine as recommended by the Ministry of Health. In recent years Sri Lanka, as a whole, has experienced very little malaria. The reduction in demand for antimalarials due to low incidence levels may have influenced the knowledge and awareness on antimalarials and government drug policies. However, since low levels of malaria do not guarantee that epidemics will not occur, attempts to educate private drug vendors as a part of an organised control programmes are of major importance.

  11. Treatment for Childhood Chemical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beschner, George

    1985-01-01

    Describes intervention and treatment services available to youth and adolescents with chemical abuse problems. Discusses necessary components of a comprehensive approach. Reviews research on treatment outcomes within the various types of programs along with research on the treatment models employed. (Author/LHW)

  12. Treatment of childhood cancers: late effects.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    In France, about 1 in 1000 young adults aged 20 to 30 years is a survivor of childhood cancer and is thus faced with late effects of their cancer and its treatment (radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy). What are the late effects of childhood cancer therapy? A systematic review by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) provides useful information based on European and North American data. Cancer treatments can have many long-term consequences that depend on the drugs and doses used, radiation therapy protocols and irradiated organs, and age at the time of treatment. Cytotoxic drugs and radiation can both cause infertility. Abdominopelvic radiation therapy in girls has been linked to an increased risk of premature delivery and other complications of pregnancy. No increase in birth defects has been reported among children born to childhood cancer survivors. Anthracyclines and radiation therapy can cause cardiomyopathy. Neck irradiation can lead to thyroid disorders, and cranial irradiation to growth retardation. Chemotherapy can cause osteonecrosis and loss of bone density, but without an increased risk of fracture. The risk of cognitive impairment and structural abnormalities of the brain is higher when the child is younger or receives a high cumulative dose of cranial irradiation or total irradiation dosage. Some cytotoxic drugs can damage the kidneys. Cranial radiation therapy can cause long-term neuroendocrine disorders and growth disorders, especially when the dose exceeds 18 Gy. Cytotoxic drugs (alkylating agents, etoposide, etc.) and radiation therapy can cause second cancers of a different histological type. One analysis of second cancers showed a median time to onset of 7 years for solid tumours and 2.5 years for lymphoma and leukaemia. Better knowledge of the late effects of childhood cancer therapy can help orient the choice of treatment towards less harmful options or, if necessary, implement measures aimed at preventing late adverse

  13. A cross-sectional analysis of traditional medicine use for malaria alongside free antimalarial drugs treatment amongst adults in high-risk malaria endemic provinces of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Suswardany, Dwi Linna; Sibbritt, David W; Supardi, Sudibyo; Pardosi, Jerico F; Chang, Sungwon; Adams, Jon

    2017-01-01

    The level of traditional medicine use, particularly Jamu use, in Indonesia is substantial. Indonesians do not always seek timely treatment for malaria and may seek self-medication via traditional medicine. This paper reports findings from the first focused analyses of traditional medicine use for malaria in Indonesia and the first such analyses worldwide to draw upon a large sample of respondents across high-risk malaria endemic areas. A sub-study of the Indonesia Basic Health Research/Riskesdas Study 2010 focused on 12,226 adults aged 15 years and above residing in high-risk malaria-endemic provinces. Logistic regression was undertaken to determine the significant associations for traditional medicine use for malaria symptoms. Approximately one in five respondents use traditional medicine for malaria symptoms and the vast majority experiencing multiple episodes of malaria use traditional medicine alongside free antimalarial drug treatments. Respondents consuming traditional medicine for general health/common illness purposes every day (odds ratio: 3.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.93 4.79), those without a hospital in local vicinity (odds ratio: 1.31, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10 1.57), and those living in poorer quality housing, were more likely to use traditional medicine for malaria symptoms. A substantial percentage of those with malaria symptoms utilize traditional medicine for treating their malaria symptoms. In order to promote safe and effective malaria treatment, all providing malaria care in Indonesia need to enquire with their patients about possible traditional medicine use.

  14. Quantifying and Valuing Community Health Worker Time in Improving Access to Malaria Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Castellani, Joëlle; Mihaylova, Borislava; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O.; Siribié, Mohamadou; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Afonne, Chinenye; Sermé, Luc; Balyeku, Andrew; Kabarungi, Vanessa; Kyaligonza, Josephine; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.; Paulus, Aggie T. G.; Petzold, Max; Singlovic, Jan; Gomes, Melba

    2016-01-01

    Background. Community health workers (CHWs) are members of a community who are chosen by their communities as first-line, volunteer health workers. The time they spend providing healthcare and the value of this time are often not evaluated. Our aim was to quantify the time CHWs spent on providing healthcare before and during the implementation of an integrated program of diagnosis and treatment of febrile illness in 3 African countries. Methods. In Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda, CHWs were trained to assess and manage febrile patients in keeping with Integrated Management of Childhood Illness recommendations to use rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination therapy, and rectal artesunate for malaria treatment. All CHWs provided healthcare only to young children usually <5 years of age, and hence daily time allocation of their time to child healthcare was documented for 1 day (in the high malaria season) before the intervention and at several time points following the implementation of the intervention. Time spent in providing child healthcare was valued in earnings of persons with similar experience. Results. During the high malaria season of the intervention, CHWs spent nearly 50 minutes more in daily healthcare provision (average daily time, 30.2 minutes before the intervention vs 79.5 minutes during the intervention; test for difference in means P < .01). On average, the daily time spent providing healthcare during the intervention was 55.8 minutes (Burkina Faso), 77.4 minutes (Nigeria), and 72.2 minutes (Uganda). Using the country minimum monthly salary, CHWs’ time allocated to child healthcare for 1 year was valued at US Dollars (USD) $52 in Burkina Faso, USD $295 in Nigeria, and USD $141 in Uganda. Conclusions. CHWs spend up to an hour and a half daily on child healthcare in their communities. These data are informative in designing reward systems to motivate CHWs to continue providing good-quality services. Clinical Trials

  15. Quantifying and Valuing Community Health Worker Time in Improving Access to Malaria Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Joëlle; Mihaylova, Borislava; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O; Siribié, Mohamadou; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Afonne, Chinenye; Sermé, Luc; Balyeku, Andrew; Kabarungi, Vanessa; Kyaligonza, Josephine; Evers, Silvia M A A; Paulus, Aggie T G; Petzold, Max; Singlovic, Jan; Gomes, Melba

    2016-12-15

     Community health workers (CHWs) are members of a community who are chosen by their communities as first-line, volunteer health workers. The time they spend providing healthcare and the value of this time are often not evaluated. Our aim was to quantify the time CHWs spent on providing healthcare before and during the implementation of an integrated program of diagnosis and treatment of febrile illness in 3 African countries.  In Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda, CHWs were trained to assess and manage febrile patients in keeping with Integrated Management of Childhood Illness recommendations to use rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination therapy, and rectal artesunate for malaria treatment. All CHWs provided healthcare only to young children usually <5 years of age, and hence daily time allocation of their time to child healthcare was documented for 1 day (in the high malaria season) before the intervention and at several time points following the implementation of the intervention. Time spent in providing child healthcare was valued in earnings of persons with similar experience.  During the high malaria season of the intervention, CHWs spent nearly 50 minutes more in daily healthcare provision (average daily time, 30.2 minutes before the intervention vs 79.5 minutes during the intervention; test for difference in means P < .01). On average, the daily time spent providing healthcare during the intervention was 55.8 minutes (Burkina Faso), 77.4 minutes (Nigeria), and 72.2 minutes (Uganda). Using the country minimum monthly salary, CHWs' time allocated to child healthcare for 1 year was valued at US Dollars (USD) $52 in Burkina Faso, USD $295 in Nigeria, and USD $141 in Uganda.  CHWs spend up to an hour and a half daily on child healthcare in their communities. These data are informative in designing reward systems to motivate CHWs to continue providing good-quality services.  ISRCTN13858170. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee

  16. How unlicensed drug vendors in rural Uganda perceive their role in the management of childhood malaria.

    PubMed

    Liow, Eric; Kassam, Rosemin; Sekiwunga, Richard

    2016-12-01

    A large number of caregivers in Uganda rely on the private drug delivery sector to manage childhood illnesses such as malaria. In rural settings where the formal private sector is scarce, unlicensed retail drug outlets are an important initial source of care for households. Despite their abundance, little is known about them. This study explores unlicensed retail drug outlet vendors' perceptions of their practice and social environment in one rural district of Uganda. A qualitative design using semi-structured interviews was conducted with vendors from unlicensed retail drug outlets across all 10 sub-counties of Butaleja District. The study was conducted over a six-week period in 2011. Open-ended questions were used to gain insight into participants' perspectives, and data were analyzed using acceptable qualitative research protocols. Interviews were carried out with 75 vendors by trained local research assistants. Most vendors operated out of drug shops, just over half were both owners and shop attendants, and only 14% had qualifications to apply for operating a licensed drug shop. Vendors' experiences with managing malaria in children aged five and under in their community revealed five major themes, their perceptions of: 1) their role in the community, 2) their ability to manage uncomplicated malaria in young children, 3) the challenges of day-to-day operations, 4) the effect of regulatory policies on their ability to serve their communities, and 5) the prospect of future training programs. While the literature has raised concerns regarding the quality of care provided at such unlicensed outlets, most vendors in this study had a limited awareness of their deficiencies. There was a general sentiment among vendors that the public health system within Butaleja was failing the community and their presence was filling an important vacuum. Given the dominance of unlicensed retail drug outlets over their formal (licensed) counterparts in many rural settings, further

  17. Increasing burden of childhood severe malaria in a Nigerian tertiary hospital: implication for control.

    PubMed

    Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Fawole, Olufunmi; Okereke, James Okorie; Akinbami, Felix Olukayode; Sodeinde, Olugbemiro

    2007-06-01

    Malaria remains an important public heath concern in Nigeria because of its impact on child and maternal health, but the contribution of severe malaria to morbidity among Nigerian children was scantly reported. This study was undertaking to document the hospital-burden of severe malaria among children in Ibadan in order to reflect on the impacts and health implications of the current malaria control strategies. A review of 6-year case records of all children admitted to the emergency ward of the University College Hospital Ibadan was carried out. Cases of severe malaria were defined as those children in whom parasitaemia were confirmed with blood film microscopy and any of the WHO case definitions for severe malaria was documented. Severe malaria cases constituted 11.3% of 16 031 admissions (2000-05) with 89.1% being children <5 years old. Cerebral malaria accounted for about one-fifth (19.7%) of all severe malaria cases. The yearly proportional morbidity rate from severe malaria ranged from 8.7% to 13.2% with significant increase from 2000 to 2004 (X2 = 48.49; df = 5; P < 0.001). Severe malaria accounted for 12.4% of all paediatric deaths with an estimated overall case fatality rate of 9.6%. Deaths from malaria were significantly associated with wasting (Z-score for weight-for-height malaria over the study period. Severe malarial anaemia was a more common complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria than cerebral malaria in hospitalized Nigerian children and it was associated with a high number of deaths. The consequences of high rate of severe malaria may be beyond health as it also affects the economy and the developmental prospects of the country. There may therefore a need to review the current strategies for malaria control in Nigeria.

  18. The risk of malaria in Ghanaian infants born to women managed in pregnancy with intermittent screening and treatment for malaria or intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.

    PubMed

    Awine, Timothy; Belko, Mark M; Oduro, Abraham R; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Tagbor, Harry; Chandramohan, Daniel; Milligan, Paul; Cairns, Matthew; Greenwood, Brian; Williams, John E

    2016-01-28

    Several studies have reported an association between malaria infection of the placenta and the risk of malaria in young children in the first year of life, but it is not known if this is causal, or influenced by malaria control measures during pregnancy. This paper compares the incidence of malaria in infants born to mothers who received either intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) or screening with a rapid diagnostic test and treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (ISTp-AL) during their pregnancy. From July 2011 to April 2013, 988 infants of women enrolled in a trial of IPTp-SP versus ISTp-AL in the Kassena-Nankana districts of northern Ghana were followed to determine the risk of clinical malaria during early life, and their risk of parasitaemia and anaemia at 6 and 12 months of age. In addition, the incidence of clinical malaria in infants whose mothers had malaria infection of the placenta was compared with that in infants born to women free of placental malaria. The incidence of clinical malaria was 0.237 and 0.211 episodes per child year in infants whose mothers had received ISTp-AL or IPTp-SP, respectively. The adjusted incidence rate ratio and the adjusted rate difference were 0.94 (95% CI 0.68, 1.33) and 0.029 (95% CI -0.053, 0.110) cases per child year at risk respectively. The incidence of clinical malaria was similar in infants born to women with placental malaria (0.195 episodes per child year) and in infants of women without placental malaria (0.224 episodes per child year) (rate ratio = 0.86 [95% CI 0.54, 1.37]). Infants born to women managed with ISTp-AL during pregnancy were not at greatly increased risk of malaria compared with infants born to women who had received IPTp-SP. The incidence of malaria in infants was similar whether or not their mother had had placental malaria.

  19. Treatment Failure of Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Phuc, Bui Quang; Duong, Tran Thanh; Dong, Le Than; Loi, Mai Anh; Ménard, Didier; Tarning, Joel; Bustos, Dorina; Ringwald, Pascal; Galappaththy, Gawrie Loku; Thieu, Nguyen Quang

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a study in Binh Phuoc, Vietnam, in 2015 on the therapeutic efficacy of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. A high number of treatment failures (14/40) was found, and piperaquine resistance in Vietnam was confirmed. A change in the malaria treatment policy for Vietnam is in process. PMID:28322709

  20. Malaria and Age Variably but Critically Control Hepcidin Throughout Childhood in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sarah H; Uyoga, Sophie M; Armitage, Andrew E; Khandwala, Shivani; Mugyenyi, Cleopatra K; Bejon, Philip; Marsh, Kevin; Beeson, James G; Prentice, Andrew M; Drakesmith, Hal; Williams, Thomas N

    2015-10-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and malaria are common among African children. Studies show that the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is induced by malaria, but few studies have investigated this relationship longitudinally. We measured hepcidin concentrations, markers of iron status, and antibodies to malaria antigens during two cross-sectional surveys within a cohort of 324 Kenyan children ≤ 8 years old who were under intensive surveillance for malaria and other febrile illnesses. Hepcidin concentrations were the highest in the youngest, and female infants, declined rapidly in infancy and more gradually thereafter. Asymptomatic malaria and malaria antibody titres were positively associated with hepcidin concentrations. Recent episodes of febrile malaria were associated with high hepcidin concentrations that fell over time. Hepcidin concentrations were not associated with the subsequent risk of either malaria or other febrile illnesses. Given that iron absorption is impaired by hepcidin, our data suggest that asymptomatic and febrile malaria contribute to the high burden of ID seen in African children. Further, the effectiveness of iron supplementation may be sub-optimal in the presence of asymptomatic malaria. Thus, strategies to prevent and eliminate malaria may have the added benefit of addressing an important cause of ID for African children.

  1. Treatment of schizophrenia in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Clark, A F; Lewis, S W

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews the management of schizophrenia occurring during childhood and adolescence. It considers the clinical features of the disorder particular to its early onset before providing a practical framework for assessment and treatment based upon a critical review of the available literature. A multi-modal approach to treatment encompassing the individual and their family is adopted with the roles of pharmacological, psychological, and environmental interventions all considered. The place of the newer "atypical" antipsychotic agents and the likelihood that they will soon become the first-line drugs of choice is particularly discussed.

  2. Local barriers and solutions to improve care-seeking for childhood pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bedford, K Juliet A; Sharkey, Alyssa B

    2014-01-01

    We present qualitative research findings on care-seeking and treatment uptake for pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria among children under 5 in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger. The study aimed to determine the barriers caregivers face in accessing treatment for these conditions; to identify local solutions that facilitate more timely access to treatment; and to present these findings as a platform from which to develop context-specific strategies to improve care-seeking for childhood illness. Kenya, Nigeria and Niger are three high burden countries with low rates of related treatment coverage, particularly in underserved areas. Data were collected in Homa Bay County in Nyanza Province, Kenya; in Kebbi and Cross River States, Nigeria; and in the Maradi and Tillabéri regions of Niger. Primary caregivers of children under 5 who did not regularly engage with health services or present their child at a health facility during illness episodes were purposively selected for interview. Data underwent rigorous thematic analysis. We organise the identified barriers and related solutions by theme: financial barriers; distance/location of health facilities; socio-cultural barriers and gender dynamics; knowledge and information barriers; and health facility deterrents. The relative importance of each differed by locality. Participant suggested solutions ranged from community-level actions to facility-level and more policy-oriented actions, plus actions to change underlying problems such as social perceptions and practices and gender dynamics. We discuss the feasibility and implications of these suggested solutions. Given the high burden of childhood morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger, this study provides important insights relating to demand-side barriers and locally proposed solutions. Significant advancements are possible when communities participate in both problem identification and resolution, and are engaged as important

  3. Local Barriers and Solutions to Improve Care-Seeking for Childhood Pneumonia, Diarrhoea and Malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, K. Juliet A.; Sharkey, Alyssa B.

    2014-01-01

    We present qualitative research findings on care-seeking and treatment uptake for pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria among children under 5 in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger. The study aimed to determine the barriers caregivers face in accessing treatment for these conditions; to identify local solutions that facilitate more timely access to treatment; and to present these findings as a platform from which to develop context-specific strategies to improve care-seeking for childhood illness. Kenya, Nigeria and Niger are three high burden countries with low rates of related treatment coverage, particularly in underserved areas. Data were collected in Homa Bay County in Nyanza Province, Kenya; in Kebbi and Cross River States, Nigeria; and in the Maradi and Tillabéri regions of Niger. Primary caregivers of children under 5 who did not regularly engage with health services or present their child at a health facility during illness episodes were purposively selected for interview. Data underwent rigorous thematic analysis. We organise the identified barriers and related solutions by theme: financial barriers; distance/location of health facilities; socio-cultural barriers and gender dynamics; knowledge and information barriers; and health facility deterrents. The relative importance of each differed by locality. Participant suggested solutions ranged from community-level actions to facility-level and more policy-oriented actions, plus actions to change underlying problems such as social perceptions and practices and gender dynamics. We discuss the feasibility and implications of these suggested solutions. Given the high burden of childhood morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger, this study provides important insights relating to demand-side barriers and locally proposed solutions. Significant advancements are possible when communities participate in both problem identification and resolution, and are engaged as important

  4. Childhood tuberculosis: epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Hsiao-Ling; Chien, Shun-Tien; Chen, Kwo-Liang; Chen, Kou-Huang; Mai, Ming-Hsin; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2013-10-01

    Despite the existence of a government-run tuberculosis (TB) control program, the current nationwide burden of TB continues to be a public health problem in Taiwan. Intense current and previous efforts into diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive interventions have focused on TB in adults, but childhood TB has been relatively neglected. Children are particularly vulnerable to severe disease and death following infection, and children with latent infections become reservoirs for future transmission following disease reactivation in adulthood, thus fueling future epidemics. Additional research, understanding, and prevention of childhood TB are urgently needed. This review assesses the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and relevant principles of TB vaccine development and presents efficacy data for the currently licensed vaccines.

  5. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Brentlinger, Paula E; Dgedge, Martinho; Correia, Maria Ana Chadreque; Rojas, Ana Judith Blanco; Saúte, Francisco; Gimbel-Sherr, Kenneth H; Stubbs, Benjamin A; Mercer, Mary Anne; Gloyd, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    New WHO strategies for control of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) recommend intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), bednet use and improved case management. A pilot MiP programme in Mozambique was designed to determine requirements for scale-up. The Ministry of Health worked with a nongovernmental organization and an academic institution to establish and monitor a pilot programme in two impoverished malaria-endemic districts. Implementing the pilot programme required provision of additional sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), materials for directly observed SP administration, bednets and a modified antenatal card. National-level formulary restrictions on SP needed to be waived. The original protocol required modification because imprecision in estimation of gestational age led to missed SP doses. Multiple incompatibilities with other health initiatives (including programmes for control of syphilis, anaemia and HIV) were discovered and overcome. Key outputs and impacts were measured; 92.5% of 7911 women received at least 1 dose of SP, with the mean number of SP doses received being 2.2. At the second antenatal visit, 13.5% of women used bednets. In subgroups (1167 for laboratory analyses; 2600 births), SP use was significantly associated with higher haemoglobin levels (10.9 g/dL if 3 doses, 10.3 if none), less malaria parasitaemia (prevalence 7.5% if 3 doses, 39.3% if none), and fewer low-birth-weight infants (7.3% if 3 doses, 12.5% if none). National-level scale-up will require attention to staffing, supplies, bednet availability, drug policy, gestational-age estimation and harmonization of vertical initiatives.

  6. Butterbur extract: prophylactic treatment for childhood migraines.

    PubMed

    Utterback, Gretchann; Zacharias, Rayna; Timraz, Shahrazad; Mershman, Denay

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of migraine headaches in childhood is increasing. Migraines are often difficult to diagnose in pediatrics and even more difficult to treat and prevent. In order to decrease the impact of the condition on the child and the family, prophylactic treatment is recommended if the child is experiencing disabling migraines. The medications currently prescribed for the prevention of pediatric migraines often have significant side effects and are of questionable therapeutic value. For those patients and parents who are interested in alternative therapies and natural remedies for preventive treatment of pediatric migraines, butterbur extract derived from the butterbur plant, Petasites hybridus, has emerged as a promising treatment. This paper discusses the impact of migraines among pediatric patients, the rationale for the preventative treatment of pediatric migraines, the current therapies and the relevance of butterbur extract as a prophylactic treatment for migraines in this patient population.

  7. Annotation: Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia--Clinical and Treatment Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Tompson, Martha C.; McGrath, Emily P.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In the past 10 years, there has been increased research on childhood-onset schizophrenia and clear advances have been achieved. Method: This annotation reviews the recent clinical and treatment literature on childhood-onset schizophrenia. Results: There is now strong evidence that the syndrome of childhood-onset schizophrenia exists…

  8. Annotation: Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia--Clinical and Treatment Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Tompson, Martha C.; McGrath, Emily P.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In the past 10 years, there has been increased research on childhood-onset schizophrenia and clear advances have been achieved. Method: This annotation reviews the recent clinical and treatment literature on childhood-onset schizophrenia. Results: There is now strong evidence that the syndrome of childhood-onset schizophrenia exists…

  9. Optimal strategy for controlling the spread of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria: Treatment and culling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullahi, Mohammed Baba; Hasan, Yahya Abu; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-05-01

    Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria is a parasitic mosquito-borne disease caused by a eukaryotic protist of genus Plasmodium Knowlesi transmitted by mosquito, Anopheles leucosphyrus to human and macaques. We developed and analyzed a deterministic Mathematical model for the transmission of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria in human and macaques. The optimal control theory is applied to investigate optimal strategies for controlling the spread of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria using treatment and culling as control strategies. The conditions for optimal control of the Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria are derived using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. Finally, numerical simulations suggested that the combination of the control strategies is the best way to control the disease in any community.

  10. Impact of Improving Community-Based Access to Malaria Diagnosis and Treatment on Household Costs

    PubMed Central

    Castellani, Joëlle; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Mihaylova, Borislava; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O.; Siribié, Mohamadou; Afonne, Chinenye; Balyeku, Andrew; Sermé, Luc; Sanou, Armande K.; Sombié, Benjamin S.; Tiono, Alfred B.; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; Kabarungi, Vanessa; Falade, Catherine O.; Kyaligonza, Josephine; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.; Paulus, Aggie T. G.; Petzold, Max; Singlovic, Jan; Gomes, Melba

    2016-01-01

    Background. Community health workers (CHWs) were trained in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda to diagnose febrile children using malaria rapid diagnostic tests, and treat positive malaria cases with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and those who could not take oral medicines with rectal artesunate. We quantified the impact of this intervention on private household costs for childhood febrile illness. Methods. Households with recent febrile illness in a young child in previous 2 weeks were selected randomly before and during the intervention and data obtained on household costs for the illness episode. Household costs included consultation fees, registration costs, user fees, diagnosis, bed, drugs, food, and transport costs. Private household costs per episode before and during the intervention were compared. The intervention's impact on household costs per episode was calculated and projected to districtwide impacts on household costs. Results. Use of CHWs increased from 35% of illness episodes before the intervention to 50% during the intervention (P < .0001), and total household costs per episode decreased significantly in each country: from US Dollars (USD) $4.36 to USD $1.54 in Burkina Faso, from USD $3.90 to USD $2.04 in Nigeria, and from USD $4.46 to USD $1.42 in Uganda (all P < .0001). There was no difference in the time used by the child's caregiver to care for a sick child (59% before intervention vs 51% during intervention spent ≤2 days). Using the most recent population figures for each study district, we estimate that the intervention could save households a total of USD $29 965, USD $254 268, and USD $303 467, respectively, in the study districts in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda. Conclusions. Improving access to malaria diagnostics and treatments in malaria-endemic areas substantially reduces private household costs. The key challenge is to develop and strengthen community human resources to deliver the intervention, and ensure

  11. Impact of Improving Community-Based Access to Malaria Diagnosis and Treatment on Household Costs.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Joëlle; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Mihaylova, Borislava; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O; Siribié, Mohamadou; Afonne, Chinenye; Balyeku, Andrew; Sermé, Luc; Sanou, Armande K; Sombié, Benjamin S; Tiono, Alfred B; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Kabarungi, Vanessa; Falade, Catherine O; Kyaligonza, Josephine; Evers, Silvia M A A; Paulus, Aggie T G; Petzold, Max; Singlovic, Jan; Gomes, Melba

    2016-12-15

     Community health workers (CHWs) were trained in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda to diagnose febrile children using malaria rapid diagnostic tests, and treat positive malaria cases with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and those who could not take oral medicines with rectal artesunate. We quantified the impact of this intervention on private household costs for childhood febrile illness.  Households with recent febrile illness in a young child in previous 2 weeks were selected randomly before and during the intervention and data obtained on household costs for the illness episode. Household costs included consultation fees, registration costs, user fees, diagnosis, bed, drugs, food, and transport costs. Private household costs per episode before and during the intervention were compared. The intervention's impact on household costs per episode was calculated and projected to districtwide impacts on household costs.  Use of CHWs increased from 35% of illness episodes before the intervention to 50% during the intervention (P < .0001), and total household costs per episode decreased significantly in each country: from US Dollars (USD) $4.36 to USD $1.54 in Burkina Faso, from USD $3.90 to USD $2.04 in Nigeria, and from USD $4.46 to USD $1.42 in Uganda (all P < .0001). There was no difference in the time used by the child's caregiver to care for a sick child (59% before intervention vs 51% during intervention spent ≤2 days). Using the most recent population figures for each study district, we estimate that the intervention could save households a total of USD $29 965, USD $254 268, and USD $303 467, respectively, in the study districts in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda.  Improving access to malaria diagnostics and treatments in malaria-endemic areas substantially reduces private household costs. The key challenge is to develop and strengthen community human resources to deliver the intervention, and ensure adequate supplies of commodities and

  12. Factors affecting adherence to national malaria treatment guidelines in management of malaria among public healthcare workers in Kamuli District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bawate, Charles; Callender-Carter, Sylvia T; Nsajju, Ben; Bwayo, Denis

    2016-02-24

    Malaria remains a major public health threat accounting for 30.4 % of disease morbidity in outpatient clinic visits across all age groups in Uganda. Consequently, malaria control remains a major public health priority in endemic countries such as Uganda. Experiences from other countries in Africa that revised their malaria case management suggest that health workers adherence may be problematic. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used and collected information on health system, health workers and patients. Using log-binomial regression model, adjusted prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) and their associated 95 % confidence intervals were determined in line with adherence to new treatment guidelines of parasitological diagnosis and prompt treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). Nine health centres, 24 health workers and 240 patient consultations were evaluated. Overall adherence to national malaria treatment guidelines (NMTG) was 50.6 % (122/241). It was significantly high at HC III [115 (53 %)] than at HC IV (29 %) [PRR = 0.28 (95 % CI 0.148 0.52), p = 0.000]. Compared to the nursing aide, the adherence level was 1.57 times higher among enrolled nurses (p = 0.004) and 1.68 times higher among nursing officers, p = 0.238, with statistical significance among the former. No attendance of facility malaria-specific continuing medical education (CME) sessions [PRR = 1.9 (95 % CI 1.29 2.78), p = 0.001] and no display of malaria treatment job aides in consultation rooms [PRR = 0.64 (95 % CI 0.4 1.03), p = 0.07] was associated with increased adherence to guidelines with the former showing a statistical significance and the association of the latter borderline statistical significance. The adherence was higher when the laboratory was functional [PRR = 0.47 (95 % CI 0.35 0.63)] when the laboratory was functional in previous 6 months. Age of health worker, duration of employment, supervision, educational level, and age of patient were found not associated with

  13. Malaria Prevention and Treatment Using Educational Animations: A Case Study in Kakamega County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello-Bravo, Julia; Namatsi Lutomia, Anne; Madela, Lawrence Mbhekiseni; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert

    2017-01-01

    Despite worldwide efforts to prevent malaria, the disease continues to take its strongest toll in sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya is no exception, with millions of cases and thousands of deaths reported annually. This pilot study looks at knowledge on malaria prevention and treatment among peri-urban communities in Western Kenya. Through a study on the…

  14. Long term results of childhood dysphonia treatment.

    PubMed

    Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Hanna; Sinkiewicz, Anna; Bielecka, Arleta; Owczarzak, Hanna; Mackiewicz-Milewska, Magdalena; Winiarski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long term results of treatment and rehabilitation of childhood dysphonia. This study included a group of adolescents (n=29) aged from 15 to 20 who were treated due to pediatric hyperfunctional dysphonia and soft vocal fold nodules during their pre-mutational period (i.e. between 5 and 12 years of age). The pre-mutational therapy was comprised of proper breathing pattern training, voice exercises and psychological counseling. Laryngostroboscopic examination and perceptual analysis of voice were performed in each patient before treatment and one to four years after mutation was complete. The laryngostroboscopic findings, i.e. symmetry, amplitude, mucosal wave and vocal fold closure, were graded with NAPZ scale, and the GRBAS scale was used for the perceptual voice analysis. Complete regression of the childhood dysphonia was observed in all male patients (n=14). Voice disorders regressed completely also in 8 out of 15 girls, but symptoms of dysphonia documented on perceptual scale persisted in the remaining seven patients. Complex voice therapy implemented in adolescence should be considered as either the treatment or preventive measure of persistent voice strain, especially in girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Diagnosis and treatment for three imported Plasmodium malariae malaria cases in Henan Province].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yan; Zhou, Rui-Min; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Qian, Dan; Liu, Ying; Chen, Wei-Qi; Zhao, Xu-Dong

    2014-02-01

    Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy, CareStart rapid detection and PCR were used to detect the three cases who returned from Angola and Equatorial Guinea to Henan Province. Onset of malaria symptoms for two patients occurred 15 d and 27 d after their return from Angola, respectively. Two months after returning home, another case relapsed who had suffered from malaria in Equatorial Guinea. All three patients had the symptoms such as irregular fever, headache, chills and so on. Two cases had elevated total bilirubin and splenomegaly. The cases were confirmed as P. malariae infection by microscopic morphological examination. Amplified bands were produced by 18S rRNA nested PCR, which was the same with P. malariae in size, whereas the results of CareStart repaid detection test were all negative. They were cured by using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT).

  16. Prevention and treatment practices and implications for malaria control in Mukono District Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, A K; Bygbjerg, I C; Magnussen, P

    2008-03-01

    Available data in Uganda indicate a resurgence of malaria morbidity and mortality countrywide. This study assessed the burden of malaria, treatment and prevention practices in order initiate a policy debate on the scaling-up of current interventions. A triangulation of methods using a cross-sectional survey and key informant interviews was used to assess self-reported malaria at a household level in Mukono District, Uganda. A total of 5583 households were surveyed, and a high proportion (2897, 51.9%) reported a person with malaria two weeks prior to the survey. Only 546 households (9.8%) owned and used insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. Similarly, only a few households (86, 1.5%) used indoor residual spraying. Self-treatment with home-stocked drugs was high, yet there was low awareness of the effectiveness of expired drugs on malaria treatment. Self-reported malaria was associated with socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental factors, but more especially with household ownership of ITNs. These results will contribute to the current debate on identifying new approaches for scaling-up prevention interventions and effective case management, as well as selection of priority interventions for malaria control in Uganda.

  17. Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Malaria Microscopy for Guiding Malaria Treatment of Uncomplicated Fevers in Nigeria and Prereferral Cases in 3 African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Falade, Catherine O.; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O.; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Siribié, Mohamadou; Diarra, Amidou; Sermé, Luc; Afonne, Chinenye; Yusuf, Oyindamola B.; Gansane, Zakaria; Jegede, Ayodele S.; Singlovic, Jan; Gomes, Melba

    2016-01-01

    Background. The World Health Organization recommends that malaria treatment be based on demonstration of the infecting Plasmodium parasite specie. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are recommended at community points of care because they are accurate and rapid. We report on parasitological results in a malaria study in selected rural communities in 3 African countries. Methods. In Nigeria, community health workers (CHWs) performed RDTs (SD-Bioline) and thick blood smears on all children suspected to have malaria. Malaria RDT-positive children able to swallow received artemisinin-based combination therapy (Coartem). In all countries, children unable to take oral drugs received prereferral rectal artesunate irrespective of RDT result and were referred to the nearest health facility. Thick blood smears and RDTs were usually taken at hospital admission. In Nigeria and Burkina Faso, RDT cassettes and blood smears were re-read by an experienced investigator at study end. Results. Trained CHWs enrolled 2148 children in Nigeria. Complete parasitological data of 1860 (86.6%) enrollees were analyzed. The mean age of enrollees was 30.4 ± 15.7 months. The prevalence of malaria parasitemia in the study population was 77.8% (1447/1860), 77.6% (1439/1855), and 54.1% (862/1593) by RDT performed by CHWs vs an expert clinical research assistant vs microscopy (gold standard), respectively. Geometric mean parasite density was 6946/µL (range, 40–436 450/µL). There were 49 cases of RDT false-negative results with a parasite density range of 40–54 059/µL. False-negative RDT results with high parasitemia could be due to non-falciparum infection or result from a prozone effect. Sensitivity and specificity of SD-Bioline RDT results as read by CHWs were 94.3% and 41.6%, respectively, while the negative and positive predictive values were 86.1% and 65.6%, respectively. The level of agreement in RDT reading by the CHWs and experienced research staff was 86.04% and κ

  18. Childhood Malaria Admission Rates to Four Hospitals in Malawi between 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Okiro, Emelda A.; Kazembe, Lawrence N.; Kabaria, Caroline W.; Ligomeka, Jeffrey; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Ali, Doreen; Snow, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The last few years have witnessed rapid scaling-up of key malaria interventions in several African countries following increases in development assistance. However, there is only limited country-specific information on the health impact of expanded coverage of these interventions. Methods Paediatric admission data were assembled from 4 hospitals in Malawi reflecting different malaria ecologies. Trends in monthly clinical malaria admissions between January 2000 and December 2010 were analysed using time-series models controlling for covariates related to climate and service use to establish whether changes in admissions can be related to expanded coverage of interventions aimed at reducing malaria infection. Results In 3 of 4 sites there was an increase in clinical malaria admission rates. Results from time series models indicate a significant month-to-month increase in the mean clinical malaria admission rates at two hospitals (trend P<0.05). At these hospitals clinical malaria admissions had increased from 2000 by 41% to 100%. Comparison of changes in malaria risk and ITN coverage appear to correspond to a lack of disease declines over the period. Changes in intervention coverage within hospital catchments showed minimal increases in ITN coverage from <6% across all sites in 2000 to maximum of 33% at one hospital site by 2010. Additionally, malaria transmission intensity remained unchanged between 2000–2010 across all sites. Discussion Despite modest increases in coverage of measures to reduce infection there has been minimal changes in paediatric clinical malaria cases in four hospitals in Malawi. Studies across Africa are increasingly showing a mixed set of impact results and it is important to assemble more data from more sites to understand the wider implications of malaria funding investment. We also caution that impact surveillance should continue in areas where intervention coverage is increasing with time, for example Malawi, as decline may

  19. Free treatment, rapid malaria diagnostic tests and malaria village workers can hasten progress toward achieving the malaria related millennium development goals: the Médecins Sans Frontières experience from Chad, Sierra-Leone and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Tayler-Smith, Katie; Kociejowski, Alice; de Lamotte, Nadine; Gerard, Seco; Ponsar, Frederique; Philips, Mit; Zachariah, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Halving the burden of malaria by 2015 and ensuring that 80% of people with malaria receive treatment is among the health related targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Despite political momentum toward achieving this target, progress is slow and many with malaria (particularly in poor and rural communities in Africa) are still without access to effective treatment. Finding ways to improve access to anti-malarial treatment in Africa is essential to achieve the malaria related and other MDG targets. During its work in Chad, Sierra Leone and Mali in the period 2004 to 2008, Médecins Sans Frontières showed that it was possible to significantly improve access to effective malaria treatment through: i) the removal of health centre level user fees for essential healthcare for vulnerable population groups, ii) the introduction of free community based treatment for children using malaria village workers to diagnose and treat simple malaria in communities where geographical and financial barriers limited access to effective malaria care, iii) the improved diagnosis and treatment of malaria using rapid diagnosis tests and artemisinin based combination therapy, at both health facilities and in the community. This paper describes and discusses these strategies and their related impact.

  20. Magnitude of Treatment Abandonment in Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Paola; Lam, Catherine G.; Itriago, Elena; Perez, Rafael; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Arora, Ramandeep S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment abandonment (TxA) is recognized as a leading cause of treatment failure for children with cancer in low-and-middle-income countries (LMC). However, its global frequency and burden have remained elusive due to lack of global data. This study aimed to obtain an estimate using survey and population data. Methods Childhood cancer clinicians (medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists), nurses, social workers, and psychologists involved in care of children with cancer were approached through an online survey February-May 2012. Incidence and population data were obtained from public sources. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable analyses were conducted. Results 602 responses from 101 countries were obtained from physicians (84%), practicing pediatric hematology/oncology (83%) in general or children’s hospitals (79%). Results suggested, 23,854 (15%) of 155,088 children <15 years old newly diagnosed with cancer annually in the countries analyzed, abandon therapy. Importantly, 83% of new childhood cancer cases and 99% of TxA were attributable to LMC. The annual number of cases of TxA expected in LMC worldwide (26,166) was nearly equivalent to the annual number of cancer cases in children <15 years expected in HIC (26,368). Approximately two thirds of LMC had median TxA≥6%, but TxA ≥6% was reported in high- (9%), upper-middle- (41%), lower-middle- (80%), and low-income countries (90%, p<0.001). Most LMC centers reporting TxA>6% were outside the capital. Lower national income category, higher reliance on out-of-pocket payments, and high prevalence of economic hardship at the center were independent contextual predictors for TxA ≥6% (p<0.001). Global survival data available for more developed and less developed regions suggests TxA may account for at least a third of the survival gap between HIC and LMC. Conclusion Results show TxA is prevalent (compromising cancer survival for 1 in 7 children globally), confirm the suspected

  1. Efficacy of chloroquine in the treatment of malaria in children under five years in Baissa (Gongola State, Nigeria).

    PubMed

    Daniel, H I; Molta, N B

    1989-08-01

    The Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health in 1987 instituted a nationwide programme to gather data on the efficacy of chloroquine in treating malaria in children as a basis for the development of a national malaria therapy policy. The programme is part of a comprehensive Combating Childhood Communicable Diseases (CCCD) programme. A simplified WHO in vivo method, involving follow-up observations on day 1 (D1), D2, D7 and D14 following the first day the study began (D0), was used for this study. A total of 769 children were screened, of which 363 (47%) were positive for malaria parasites. Fifty-three children were enrolled for the 14-day follow up, and chloroquine phosphate, 25 mg (base) kg-1, was given in three divided doses on D0, D1 and D2. Parasitological failure occurred in 25% of the children. There were no clinical failures in the study; i.e. no child found with parasitaemia after completing treatment was judged to be clinically ill. Generally the older children had the heavier parasite densities and severer symptoms.

  2. A cross-sectional analysis of traditional medicine use for malaria alongside free antimalarial drugs treatment amongst adults in high-risk malaria endemic provinces of Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Suswardany, Dwi Linna; Sibbritt, David W.; Supardi, Sudibyo; Pardosi, Jerico F.; Chang, Sungwon; Adams, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Background The level of traditional medicine use, particularly Jamu use, in Indonesia is substantial. Indonesians do not always seek timely treatment for malaria and may seek self-medication via traditional medicine. This paper reports findings from the first focused analyses of traditional medicine use for malaria in Indonesia and the first such analyses worldwide to draw upon a large sample of respondents across high-risk malaria endemic areas. Methods A sub-study of the Indonesia Basic Health Research/Riskesdas Study 2010 focused on 12,226 adults aged 15 years and above residing in high-risk malaria-endemic provinces. Logistic regression was undertaken to determine the significant associations for traditional medicine use for malaria symptoms. Findings Approximately one in five respondents use traditional medicine for malaria symptoms and the vast majority experiencing multiple episodes of malaria use traditional medicine alongside free antimalarial drug treatments. Respondents consuming traditional medicine for general health/common illness purposes every day (odds ratio: 3.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.93 4.79), those without a hospital in local vicinity (odds ratio: 1.31, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10 1.57), and those living in poorer quality housing, were more likely to use traditional medicine for malaria symptoms. Conclusion A substantial percentage of those with malaria symptoms utilize traditional medicine for treating their malaria symptoms. In order to promote safe and effective malaria treatment, all providing malaria care in Indonesia need to enquire with their patients about possible traditional medicine use. PMID:28329019

  3. Prescription practices for malaria in Mozambique: poor adherence to the national protocols for malaria treatment in 22 public health facilities.

    PubMed

    Salomão, Cristolde A; Sacarlal, Jahit; Chilundo, Baltazar; Gudo, Eduardo Samo

    2015-12-01

    Current World Health Organization and national protocols recommend the 'test and treat' strategy for the management of uncomplicated malaria, to reduce over prescription of artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT). Therefore, adherence to these protocols varies in different sub-Saharan African countries and no information is available for Mozambique. This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the prescription practices of ACT in Mozambique. Retrospective audit of medical records corresponding to the period between July and December 2011 was conducted in 22 health units across 11 provinces in Mozambique. Two health units were selected per province according to availability of laboratory data (performing microscopy and rapid diagnostics testing-RDT or RDT only) and geographic setting (rural versus urban). At each facility, demographic data, laboratory results (blood smear or RDT), and prescription of ACT were all collected from the existing records. Between July and December 2011, a total of 61,730 cases were tested for malaria, of which 42.7 % (26,369/61,730) were positive. A total of 35.361 patients were malaria negative, and ACT was prescribed to 72.0 % (25.448/35.361) of them. Prescription of ACT to malaria negative patients was higher in the central region of the country as compared to the northern and southern (81.1 % in the central region versus 72.4 and 63.7 % in the northern and southern, respectively, p = 0.000) and in urban settings (88.7 % in rural versus 58.0 % in urban settings, p = 0.000). Stock out of RDT was observed in six (27.3 %) of the health facilities. When no RDT was available, patients were empirically treated with ACT. Findings from this study demonstrate that health care worker's adherence to the new guidelines for malaria treatment is poor in Mozambique and prescription of ACT to malaria negative patients remains very high. Enhanced training and supervision activities, community education and external quality assurance might

  4. Artesunate/Amodiaquine Malaria Treatment for Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Charle, Pilar; Berzosa, Pedro; de Lucio, Aida; Raso, José; Nseng Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination artesunate (AS)/amodiaquine (AQ) therapy, and 2) to determine the difference between recrudescence and resistance. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted in Equatorial Guinea. A total of 122 children 6–59 months of age from two regional hospitals were randomized and subjected to a 28-day clinical and parasitological follow-up. A blood sample on Whatman paper was taken on Days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 or on any day in cases of treatment failure, with the parasite DNA then being extracted for molecular analysis purposes. A total of 4 children were excluded, and 9 cases were lost to follow-up. There were 17 cases of late parasitological failure, 3 cases of late clinical failure, and 89 cases of adequate clinical and parasitological response. The parasitological failure rate was 18.3% (20 of 109) and the success rate 81.70% (95% confidence interval [72.5–87.9%]). After molecular correction, real treatment efficacy stood at 97.3%. Our study showed the good efficacy of combination AS/AQ therapy. This finding enabled this treatment to be recommended to Equatorial Guinea's National Malaria Control Program to change the official treatment policy as of March 2008. PMID:23530078

  5. Impact of a malaria-control project in Benin that included the integrated management of childhood illness strategy.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Alexander K; Onikpo, Faustin; Lama, Marcel; Osterholt, Dawn M; Deming, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    To estimate the impact of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy on early-childhood mortality, we evaluated a malaria-control project in Benin that implemented IMCI and promoted insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). We conducted a before-and-after intervention study that included a nonrandomized comparison group. We used the preceding birth technique to measure early-childhood mortality (risk of dying before age 30 months), and we used health facility surveys and household surveys to measure process indicators. Most process indicators improved in the area covered by the intervention. Notably, because ITNs were also promoted in the comparison area children's ITN use increased by about 20 percentage points in both areas. Regarding early-childhood mortality, the trend from baseline (1999-2001) to follow-up (2002-2004) for the intervention area (13.0% decrease; P < .001) was 14.1% (P < .001) lower than was the trend for the comparison area (1.3% increase; P = .46). Mortality decreased in the intervention area after IMCI and ITN promotion. ITN use increased similarly in both study areas, so the mortality impact of ITNs in the 2 areas might have canceled each other out. Thus, the mortality reduction could have been primarily attributable to IMCI's effect on health care quality and care-seeking.

  6. Impact of a Malaria-Control Project in Benin That Included the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Onikpo, Faustin; Lama, Marcel; Osterholt, Dawn M.; Deming, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the impact of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy on early-childhood mortality, we evaluated a malaria-control project in Benin that implemented IMCI and promoted insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Methods. We conducted a before-and-after intervention study that included a nonrandomized comparison group. We used the preceding birth technique to measure early-childhood mortality (risk of dying before age 30 months), and we used health facility surveys and household surveys to measure process indicators. Results. Most process indicators improved in the area covered by the intervention. Notably, because ITNs were also promoted in the comparison area children's ITN use increased by about 20 percentage points in both areas. Regarding early-childhood mortality, the trend from baseline (1999–2001) to follow-up (2002–2004) for the intervention area (13.0% decrease; P < .001) was 14.1% (P < .001) lower than was the trend for the comparison area (1.3% increase; P = .46). Conclusions. Mortality decreased in the intervention area after IMCI and ITN promotion. ITN use increased similarly in both study areas, so the mortality impact of ITNs in the 2 areas might have canceled each other out. Thus, the mortality reduction could have been primarily attributable to IMCI's effect on health care quality and care-seeking. PMID:21566036

  7. Artemisia annua as a self-reliant treatment for malaria in developing countries.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Sanne; van der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert

    2008-12-08

    Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by the protozoan Plasmodium parasites. Each year, it causes disease in approximately 515 million people and kills between one and three million people, the majority of whom are young children in sub-Saharan Africa. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. Due to climate change and the gradual warming of the temperate regions the future distribution of the malaria disease might include regions which are today seen as safe. Currently, malaria control requires an integrated approach comprising of mainly prevention, including vector control and the use of effective prophylactic medicines, and treatment of infected patients with antimalarials. The antimalarial chloroquine, which was in the past a mainstay of malaria control, is now ineffective in most malaria areas and resistance to other antimalarials is also increasing rapidly. The discovery and development of artemisinins from Artemisia annua have provided a new class of highly effective antimalarials. ACTs are now generally considered as the best current treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This review gives a short history of the malaria disease, the people forming a high risk group and the botanical aspects of A. annua. Furthermore the review provides an insight in the use of ART and its derivatives for the treatment of malaria. Its mechanism of action and kinetics will be described as well as the possibilities for a self-reliant treatment will be revealed. This self-reliant treatment includes the local production practices of A. annua followed by the possibilities for using traditional prepared teas from A. annua as an effective treatment for malaria. Finally, HMM will be described and the advantages and disadvantages discussed.

  8. Treatment-seeking Paths in the Management of Severe Malaria in Children under 15 Years of Age Treated in Reference Hospitals of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Ilunga-Ilunga, Félicien; Levêque, Alain; Ngongo, Léon Okenge; Laokri, Samia; Dramaix, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), few studies have focused on treatment-seeking paths selected by caretakers for the management of severe childhood malaria in an urban environment. The present study aims at describing the treatment-seeking paths according to the characteristics of households, as well as the subsequent impact on pre-hospitalisation delay and malarial fatality and on the main syndromes associated with severe childhood malaria. Methods: This descriptive study included data collected at nine hospitals in Kinshasa between January and November 2011. A total of 1,350 children, under 15 years of age and hospitalised for severe malaria, were included in the study. Results: Regarding the management of malaria, 31.5% of households went directly to the health centre or hospital while 68.5% opted for self-medication, church and/or traditional healing therapy. The most frequent first-line option was self-medication, adopted by more than 61.5% of households. Nevertheless, rational self-medication using antimalarial drugs recommended by the WHO (artemisinin-based combinations) was reported for only 5.5% of children. Only 12.5% of households combined 2 or 3 traditional options. The following criteria influenced the choice of a modern vs. traditional path: household socioeconomic level, residential environment, maternal education level and religious beliefs. When caretakers opted for traditional healing therapy, the pre-hospitalisation delay was longer and the occurrence of respiratory distress, severe anaemia and mortality was higher. Conclusion: The implementation of a malaria action plan in the Democratic Republic of Congo should take into account the diversity and pluralistic character of treatment-seeking behaviours in order to promote the most appropriate options (hospital and rational self-medication) and to avoid detrimental outcomes. PMID:25729313

  9. [Diagnosis and treatment of imported malaria in Spain: Recommendations from the Malaria Working Group of the Spanish Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health (SEMTSI)].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Jose; Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Ramírez-Olivencia, Germán; Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Treviño, Begoña; Perez Arellano, José Luis; Torrús, Diego; Muñoz Vilches, Maria Jose; Ramos, Jose Manuel; Alegría, Iñaki; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Perez-Molina, Jose Antonio; Rubio, Jose Miguel; Bassat, Quique

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a common parasitic disease diagnosed in the returned traveler. Mortality in travelers with imported malaria is around 2-3%, and one of the main factors associated with poor prognosis is the delay in the diagnosis and treatment. Imported malaria cases usually present with fever, headache and myalgia, but other symptoms may appear. The diagnosis should be performed as soon as possible, using thick smear or rapid diagnostic tests, and a blood smear. Treatment should be initiated urgently. In cases of severe malaria, the use of intravenous artemisinins has proved to be superior to intravenous quinine. This document reviews the recommendations of the expert group of the Spanish Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health (SEMTSI) for the diagnosis and treatment of imported malaria in Spain.

  10. Decline in childhood iron deficiency after interruption of malaria transmission in highland Kenya123

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, Anne EP; Ondigo, Bartholomew N; Ayodo, George A; Vulule, John M; John, Chandy C; Cusick, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Achieving optimal iron status in children in malaria-endemic areas may increase the risk of malaria. Malaria itself may contribute to iron deficiency, but the impact of an interruption in malaria transmission on the prevalence of iron deficiency is unknown. Objectives: We aimed to determine whether 1) iron status improved in children living in 2 Kenyan villages with a documented cessation in malaria transmission and 2) changes in iron status correlated with changes in hemoglobin. Design: We measured iron [hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR)] and inflammatory [C-reactive protein (CRP)] markers in paired plasma samples from 190 children aged 4–59 mo at the beginning (May 2007) and end (July 2008) of a documented 12-mo period of interruption in malaria transmission in 2 highland areas in Kenya with unstable malaria transmission and ongoing malaria surveillance. Results: Between May 2007 and July 2008, mean (±SD) hemoglobin increased from 10.8 ± 1.6 to 11.6 ± 1.6 g/dL. Median (25th, 75th percentile) ferritin increased from 17.0 (9.7, 25.6) to 22.6 (13.4, 34.7) μg/L (P < 0.001), whereas median sTfR decreased from 32.4 (26.3, 43.2) to 27.7 (22.1, 36.0) nmol/L (P < 0.001). Median CRP was low (<1 mg/L in both years) and did not change significantly. Iron deficiency prevalence (ferritin <12 μg/L, or <30 μg/L if CRP ≥10 mg/L) decreased from 35.9% (95% CI: 28.9%, 43.0%) to 24.9% (18.5%, 31.2%) (P = 0.005). The prevalence of iron deficiency with anemia (hemoglobin <11.0 g/dL) declined from 27.2% (20.7%, 33.8%) to 12.2% (7.4%, 17.1%) (P < 0.001). Improvement in iron status correlated with an increase in hemoglobin and was greater than explained by physiologic changes expected with age. Conclusions: In this area of unstable malaria transmission, the prevalence of iron deficiency in children decreased significantly after the interruption of malaria transmission and was correlated with an increase in hemoglobin. These findings suggest

  11. Progression of skeletal muscle damage during treatment of severe falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Davis, T M; Supanaranond, W; Pukrittayakamee, S; Holloway, P; Chubb, P; White, N J

    2000-10-02

    To assess the relationship between severity of malaria and progression of skeletal muscle damage during initial treatment, we studied 28 Thai adults with slide-positive falciparum malaria. Six had uncomplicated malaria (Group 1), 12 had severe non-cerebral malaria (Group 2) and ten had cerebral malaria (Group 3). There were no significant differences between baseline serum creatine kinase (CK) levels in the three groups (P=0.071). There was no change in serum CK during the first 48 h of treatment in Group 1 cases. In Group 2 patients, the median peak serum CK was nine times that at baseline while in Group 3, serum CK peaked at a median concentration 20 times that at presentation. In Groups 2 and 3, the peak serum CK occurred at least 24 h after presentation in more than half the patients, and was independent of intramuscular injections and convulsions during initial therapy. These longitudinal data suggest that: (i) severe falciparum malaria is associated with skeletal muscle damage that increases during initial therapy especially in patients with coma; (ii) the effect of other major treatment or infection-specific factors that are associated with muscle damage does not diminish this relationship; and (iii) cerebral malaria in combination with a high baseline and rising serum CK should pre-empt monitoring and management strategies aimed at preserving renal function including renal dialysis.

  12. Community perceptions of malaria and malaria treatment behaviour in a rural district of Ghana: implications for artemisinin combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) was introduced in Ghana as the first line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in 2004. We report the perceptions of malaria and malaria treatment behaviour, the community awareness of and perceptions about AS-AQ two years after the introduction of this ACT treatment for malaria. Methods Two surveys were conducted; a cross-sectional survey of 729 randomly selected household heads (urban-362, rural-367) and 282 women with children < 5 years (urban-121, rural-161) was conducted in 2006. A district wide survey was conducted in 2007 to assess awareness of AS-AQ. These were complemented with twenty-eight focus group discussions (FGDs) and 16 key informant interviews (KII) among community members and major stakeholders in the health care delivery services. All nine (9) health facilities and five (5) purposively selected drug stores were audited in order to identify commonly used anti-malarials in the study area at the time of the survey. Results Majority of respondents ( > 75%) in the sampled survey mentioned mosquito bites as the cause of malaria. Other causes mentioned include environmental factors (e.g. dirty surroundings) and standing in the sun. Close to 60% of the household heads and 40% of the care-givers interviewed did not know about AS-AQ. The community respondents who knew about and had ever taken AS-AQ perceived it to be a good drug; although they mentioned they had experienced some side effects including headaches and body weakness. Co-blistered AS-AQ was available in all the government health facilities in the study area. Different formulations of ACTs were however found in urban chemical shops but not in rural chemical stores where monotherapy antimalarials were predominant. Conclusion The knowledge of fever as a symptom of malaria is high among the study population. The awareness of AS-AQ therapy and its side-effect was low in the study area. Community education and sensitization, targeting all categories

  13. Efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Banegas, Engels Ilich; Mendoza, Meisy; Diaz, Cesar; Bucheli, Sandra Tamara Mancero; Fontecha, Gustavo A; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Goldman, Ira; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Zambrano, Jose Orlinder Nicolas

    2013-05-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is officially used for the primary treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of CQ for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in the municipality of Puerto Lempira, Gracias a Dios, Honduras was evaluated using the Pan American Health Organization-World Health Organization protocol with a follow-up of 28 days. Sixty-eight patients from 6 months to 60 years of age microscopically diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were included in the final analysis. All patients who were treated with CQ (25 mg/kg over 3 days) cleared parasitemia by day 3 and acquired no new P. falciparum infection within 28 days of follow-up. All the parasite samples sequenced for CQ resistance mutations (pfcrt) showed only the CQ-sensitive genotype (CVMNK). This finding shows that CQ remains highly efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Gracias a Dios, Honduras.

  14. PATRONAGE AND COST OF MALARIA TREATMENT IN PRIVATE HOSPITALS IN IBADAN NORTH L.G.A SOUTH WESTERN, NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Salawu, A.T.; Fawole, O.I.; Dairo, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malaria accounts for about 60% of all clinic attendance in Nigeria. About 300,000 children die of malaria annually while an estimated 4,500 pregnant women are lost annually on account of malaria in Nigeria alone. High cost of treatment is a barrier to the uptake of health services in low resource settings, therefore an exploration of the cost of malaria management will reveal possible components that may benefit from intervention and thus reveal important clues for improving access to malaria treatment. Objective of this study therefore is to describe patronage and cost of malaria treatment in private hospitals in Ibadan. Method: This was a descriptive cross sectional study, carried out in private hospitals in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire with open and close-ended questions was used to collect data on patronage and cost of treatment in adults, children and pregnant women attending private health facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data were presented using tables of frequencies and proportions while analysis was by descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 40 doctors and hospitals participated in the study. Average patronage for malaria, both complicated and uncomplicated per month was 153 patients per hospital. Malaria cases accounts for 331 (46.2%) of total clinic cases seen in private hospitals in a month. About 121 (78%) of malaria cases seen were uncomplicated while 32 (21%) of cases were complicated malaria. Average amount charged patient for treating uncomplicated malaria in private hospitals was N3,941. Average amount spent on antimalarial drugs was about N2,443 (62%) while N1,064 (27.7%) was spent on laboratory investigation and N406.00 (10.3%) for medical consultation. Conclusion: Drugs cost constitute the bulk of expenses on malaria treatment. Policy makers may improve access to malaria treatment by subsidizing the cost of anti-malaria drugs for pregnant women and children, who might not be able to afford

  15. Caregivers' perception of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour for under five children in Mandura District, West Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mitiku, Israel; Assefa, Adane

    2017-04-08

    Early diagnosis and prompt malaria treatment is essential to reduce progression of the illness to severe disease and, therefore, decrease mortality particularly among children under 5 years of age. This study assessed perception of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour for children under five with fever in the last 2 weeks in Mandura District, West Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 491 caregivers of children under five in Mandura District, West Ethiopia in December 2014. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Data were entered into Epi Info version 7 and analysed using SPSS version 20. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the determinants of caregivers' treatment-seeking behaviour. Overall, 94.1% of the respondents perceived that fever is the most common symptom and 70% associated mosquito bite with the occurrence of malaria. Of 197 caregivers with under five children with fever in the last 2 weeks preceding the study 87.8% sought treatment. However, only 38.7% received treatment within 24 h of onset of fever. Determinants of treatment-seeking include place of residence (rural/urban) (AOR 2.80, 95% CI 1.01-7.70), caregivers age (AOR 3.40, 95% CI 1.27-9.10), knowledge of malaria (AOR 4.65, 95% CI 1.38-15.64), perceived susceptibility to malaria (AOR 3.63, 95% CI 1.21-10.88), and perceived barrier to seek treatment (AOR 0.18, 95% CI 0.06-0.52). Majority of the respondents of this study sought treatment for their under five children. However, a considerable number of caregivers first consulted traditional healers and tried home treatment, thus, sought treatment late. Living in rural village, caregivers' age, malaria knowledge, perceived susceptibility to malaria and perceived barrier to seek treatment were important factors in seeking health care. There is a need to focus on targeted interventions, promote awareness and prevention, and address misconceptions about

  16. Inequities in incidence, morbidity and expenditures on prevention and treatment of malaria in southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria places a great burden on households, but the extent to which this is tilted against the poor is unclear. However, the knowledge of the level of the burden of malaria amongst different population groups is vital for ensuring equitable control of malaria. This paper examined the inequities in occurrence, economic burden, prevention and treatment of malaria. Methods The study was undertaken in four malaria endemic villages in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria. Data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. An asset-based index was used to categorize the households into socio-economic status (SES) quartiles: least poor; poor; very poor; and most poor. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the statistical significance of the SES differences in incidence, length of illness, ownership of treated nets, expenditures on treatment and prevention. Results All the SES quartiles had equal exposure to malaria. The pattern of health seeking for all the SES groups was almost similar, but in one of the villages the most poor, very poor and poor significantly used the services of patent medicine vendors and the least poor visited hospitals. The cost of treating malaria was similar across the SES quartiles. The average expenditure to treat an episode of malaria ranged from as low as 131 Naira ($1.09) to as high as 348 Naira ($2.9), while the transportation expenditure to receive treatment ranged from 26 Naira to 46 Naira (both less than $1). The level of expenditure to prevent malaria was low in the four villages, with less than 5% owning untreated nets and 10.4% with insecticide treated nets. Conclusion Malaria constitutes a burden to all SES groups, though the poorer socio-economic groups were more affected, because a greater proportion of their financial resources compared to their income are spent on treating the disease. The expenditures to treat malaria by the poorest households could lead to catastrophic health expenditures. Effective pro

  17. Adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines among healthcare workers in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamiselu, Oluyomi F; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Dairo, David; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Oladimeji, Abisola; Steven, Yoon

    2016-08-19

    Malaria case management remains a vital component of malaria control strategies. Despite the introduction of national malaria treatment guidelines and scale-up of malaria control interventions in Nigeria, anecdotal evidence shows some deviations from the guidelines in malaria case management. This study assessed factors influencing adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines among healthcare workers in public and private sectors in Ogun State, Nigeria. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among 432 (216 public and 216 private) healthcare workers selected from nine Local Government Areas using a multistage sampling technique. A pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on availability and use of malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT) and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), for management of uncomplicated malaria. Adherence was defined as when choice of antimalarials for parasitological confirmed malaria cases was restricted to recommended antimalarial medicines. Association between adherence and independent variables were tested using Chi-square at 5 % level of significance. Malaria RDT was available in 81.9 % of the public health facilities and 19.4 % of the private health facilities (p = 0.001). Its use was higher among public healthcare workers (85.2 %) compared to 32.9 % in private facilities (p = 0.000). Presumptive diagnosis of malaria was higher among private healthcare workers (94.9 %) compared to 22.7 % public facilities (p = <0.0001). The main reason for non-usage of mRDT among private healthcare workers was its perceived unreliability of mRDT (40.9 %). Monotherapy including artesunate (58.3 % vs 12.5 %), amodiaquine (38.9 % vs 8.3 %) and chloroquine (26.4 % vs 4.2 %) were significantly more available in private than public health facilities, respectively. Adherence to guidelines was significantly higher among public healthcare workers (60.6 %) compared to those

  18. Preventing Childhood Malaria in Africa by Protecting Adults from Mosquitoes with Insecticide-Treated Nets

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Gerry F; Smith, Tom A; Ferguson, Heather M; Mshinda, Hassan; Abdulla, Salim; Lengeler, Christian; Kachur, Steven P

    2007-01-01

    Background Malaria prevention in Africa merits particular attention as the world strives toward a better life for the poorest. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) represent a practical means to prevent malaria in Africa, so scaling up coverage to at least 80% of young children and pregnant women by 2010 is integral to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Targeting individual protection to vulnerable groups is an accepted priority, but community-level impacts of broader population coverage are largely ignored even though they may be just as important. We therefore estimated coverage thresholds for entire populations at which individual- and community-level protection are equivalent, representing rational targets for ITN coverage beyond vulnerable groups. Methods and Findings Using field-parameterized malaria transmission models, we show that high (80% use) but exclusively targeted coverage of young children and pregnant women (representing <20% of the population) will deliver limited protection and equity for these vulnerable groups. In contrast, relatively modest coverage (35%–65% use, with this threshold depending on ecological scenario and net quality) of all adults and children, rather than just vulnerable groups, can achieve equitable community-wide benefits equivalent to or greater than personal protection. Conclusions Coverage of entire populations will be required to accomplish large reductions of the malaria burden in Africa. While coverage of vulnerable groups should still be prioritized, the equitable and communal benefits of wide-scale ITN use by older children and adults should be explicitly promoted and evaluated by national malaria control programmes. ITN use by the majority of entire populations could protect all children in such communities, even those not actually covered by achieving existing personal protection targets of the MDG, Roll Back Malaria Partnership, or the US President's Malaria Initiative. PMID:17608562

  19. Treatment of drug-resistant malaria in man*

    PubMed Central

    Clyde, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    The progressive spread in Asia and South America of falciparum malaria resistant to 4-aminoquinolines, and the focal occurrence in all malarious regions of infections resistant to dihydrofolate dehydrogenase inhibitors such as pyrimethamine and proguanil, make it everywhere necessary to be alert to the failure of accepted curative, prophylactic, or sporontocidal chemotherapeutic agents. Resistance to 4-aminoquinolines may be met curatively with courses of treatment lasting 1-14 days, or more, the longer courses relying on quinine, often with a sulfonamide, or on tetracyclines, and the shorter courses on associations of sulfonamides or sulfones with pyrimethamine or trimethoprim. Suppressive prophylaxis of these infections is obtained by the injection at 3-month intervals of a repository mixture of acedapsone and cycloguanil, or by the weekly ingestion of sulfadoxine, sulfalene, or diformyl-dapsone associated with pyrimethamine, or the daily ingestion of dapsone with proguanil. Primaquine, although continuing to be an efficient sporontocide of P. falciparum when pyrimethamine and proguanil no longer suffice, is becoming less effective in preventing relapses of P. vivax in countries around New Guinea. PMID:4613507

  20. Household food insecurity is associated with childhood malaria in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dessalines, Michael; Finnigan, Mousson; Pachón, Helena; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Gupta, Nishang

    2009-11-01

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and is heavily affected by food insecurity and malaria. To find out if these 2 conditions are associated with each other, we studied a convenience sample of 153 women with children 1-5 y old in Camp Perrin, South Haiti. Household food insecurity was assessed with the 16-item Escala Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Seguridad Alimentaria (ELCSA) scale previously validated in the target communities. ELCSA's reference time period was the 3 mo preceding the survey and it was answered by the mother. Households were categorized as either food secure (2%; ELCSA score = 0), food insecure/very food insecure (42.7%; ELCSA score range: 1-10), or severely food insecure (57.3%; ELCSA score range: 11-16). A total of 34.0% of women reported that their children had malaria during the 2 mo preceding the survey. Multivariate analyses showed that severe food insecure was a risk factor for perceived clinical malaria (odds ratio: 5.97; 95% CI: 2.06-17.28). Additional risk factors for perceived clinical malaria were as follows: not receiving colostrum, poor child health (via maternal self-report), a child BMI <17 kg/m(2), and child vitamin A supplementation more than once since birth. Findings suggest that policies and programs that address food insecurity are also likely to reduce the risk of malaria in Haiti.

  1. Changing trends in incidence and aetiology of childhood acute non-traumatic coma over a period of changing malaria transmission in rural coastal Kenya: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thuo, Nahashon; Idro, Richard; Ndiritu, Moses; Boga, Mwanamvua; Newton, Charles; Kirkham, Fenella

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Recent changes in malaria transmission have likely altered the aetiology and outcome of childhood coma in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors conducted this study to examine change in incidence, aetiology, clinical presentation, mortality and risk factors for death in childhood non-traumatic coma over a 6-year period. Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Setting Secondary level health facility: Kilifi, Coast, Kenya. Participants Children aged 9 months to 13 years admitted with acute non-traumatic coma (Blantyre Coma Score =2) between January 2004 and December 2009 to Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya. Exclusion criteria: delayed development, epilepsy and sickle cell disease. Results During the study period, 665 children (median age 32 (IQR 20–46) months; 46% were girls) were admitted in coma. The incidence of childhood coma declined from 93/100 000 children in 2004 to 44/100 000 children in 2009. There was a 64% overall drop in annual malaria-positive coma admissions and a 272% overall increase in annual admissions with encephalopathies of undetermined cause over the study period. There was no change in case death of coma. Vomiting, breathing difficulties, bradycardia, profound coma (Blantyre Coma Score=0), bacteraemia and clinical signs of meningitis were associated with increased risk of death. Seizures within 24 h prior to admission, and malaria parasitaemia, were independently associated with survival, unchanging during the study period. Conclusion The decline in the incidence and number of admissions of childhood acute non-traumatic coma is due to decreased malaria transmission. The relative and absolute increase in admissions of encephalopathy of undetermined aetiology could represent aetiologies previously masked by malaria or new aetiologies. PMID:22466156

  2. Measuring coverage in MNCH: evaluation of community-based treatment of childhood illnesses through household surveys.

    PubMed

    Hazel, Elizabeth; Requejo, Jennifer; David, Julia; Bryce, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Community case management (CCM) is a strategy for training and supporting workers at the community level to provide treatment for the three major childhood diseases--diarrhea, fever (indicative of malaria), and pneumonia--as a complement to facility-based care. Many low- and middle-income countries are now implementing CCM and need to evaluate whether adoption of the strategy is associated with increases in treatment coverage. In this review, we assess the extent to which large-scale, national household surveys can serve as sources of baseline data for evaluating trends in community-based treatment coverage for childhood illnesses. Our examination of the questionnaires used in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) conducted between 2005 and 2010 in five sub-Saharan African countries shows that questions on care seeking that included a locally adapted option for a community-based provider were present in all the DHS surveys and in some MICS surveys. Most of the surveys also assessed whether appropriate treatments were available, but only one survey collected information on the place of treatment for all three illnesses. This absence of baseline data on treatment source in household surveys will limit efforts to evaluate the effects of the introduction of CCM strategies in the study countries. We recommend alternative analysis plans for assessing CCM programs using household survey data that depend on baseline data availability and on the timing of CCM policy implementation.

  3. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Evaluation of Community-Based Treatment of Childhood Illnesses through Household Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Hazel, Elizabeth; Requejo, Jennifer; David, Julia; Bryce, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Community case management (CCM) is a strategy for training and supporting workers at the community level to provide treatment for the three major childhood diseases—diarrhea, fever (indicative of malaria), and pneumonia—as a complement to facility-based care. Many low- and middle-income countries are now implementing CCM and need to evaluate whether adoption of the strategy is associated with increases in treatment coverage. In this review, we assess the extent to which large-scale, national household surveys can serve as sources of baseline data for evaluating trends in community-based treatment coverage for childhood illnesses. Our examination of the questionnaires used in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) conducted between 2005 and 2010 in five sub-Saharan African countries shows that questions on care seeking that included a locally adapted option for a community-based provider were present in all the DHS surveys and in some MICS surveys. Most of the surveys also assessed whether appropriate treatments were available, but only one survey collected information on the place of treatment for all three illnesses. This absence of baseline data on treatment source in household surveys will limit efforts to evaluate the effects of the introduction of CCM strategies in the study countries. We recommend alternative analysis plans for assessing CCM programs using household survey data that depend on baseline data availability and on the timing of CCM policy implementation. PMID:23667329

  4. Self-treatment of malaria in rural communities, Butajira, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Deressa, Wakgari; Ali, A.; Enqusellassie, F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify the use of self-treatment and to determine the actions taken to manage malaria illness. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in six peasant associations in Butajira district, southern Ethiopia, between January and September 1999. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample of 630 households with malaria cases within the last six months. FINDINGS: Overall, 616 (>97%) of the study households acted to manage malaria, including the use of antimalarial drugs at home (112, 17.8%), visiting health services after taking medication at home (294, 46.7%), and taking malaria patients to health care facilities without home treatment (210, 33.3%). Although 406 (64.5%) of the households initiated treatment at home, the use of modern drugs was higher (579, 92%) than that of traditional medicine (51, 8%). Modern drugs used included chloroquine (457, 73.5%) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (377, 60.6%). Malaria control programmes were the main sources of antimalarials. In most cases of malaria, treatment was started (322, 52.3%) or health services visited (175, 34.7%) within two days of the onset of symptoms. Cases of malaria in the lowland areas started treatment and visited health services longer after the onset of malaria than those in the midland areas (adjusted odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.30-0.64; and adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.25-0.56, respectively). Similarly, those further than one hour's walk from the nearest health care facility initiated treatment later than those with less than one hour's walk (adjusted odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI 0.43-0.87). This might be because of inaccessibility to antimalarial drugs and distant health care facilities in the lowland areas; however, statistically insignificant associations were found for sex, age, and religion. CONCLUSION: Self-treatment at home is the major action taken to manage malaria. Efforts should be made to improve the availability of effective antimalarials

  5. Reduction in symptomatic malaria prevalence through proactive community treatment in rural Senegal.

    PubMed

    Linn, Annē M; Ndiaye, Youssoupha; Hennessee, Ian; Gaye, Seynabou; Linn, Patrick; Nordstrom, Karin; McLaughlin, Matt

    2015-11-01

    We piloted a community-based proactive malaria case detection model in rural Senegal to evaluate whether this model can increase testing and treatment and reduce prevalence of symptomatic malaria in target communities. Home care providers conducted weekly sweeps of every household in their village throughout the transmission season to identify patients with symptoms of malaria, perform rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) on symptomatic patients and provide treatment for positive cases. The model was implemented in 15 villages from July to November 2013, the high transmission season. Fifteen comparison villages were chosen from those implementing Senegal's original, passive model of community case management of malaria. Three sweeps were conducted in the comparison villages to compare prevalence of symptomatic malaria using difference in differences analysis. At baseline, prevalence of symptomatic malaria confirmed by RDT for all symptomatic individuals found during sweeps was similar in both sets of villages (P = 0.79). At end line, prevalence was 16 times higher in the comparison villages than in the intervention villages (P = 0.003). Adjusting for potential confounders, the intervention was associated with a 30-fold reduction in odds of symptomatic malaria in the intervention villages (AOR = 0.033; 95% CI: 0.017, 0.065). Treatment seeking also increased in the intervention villages, with 57% of consultations by home care providers conducted between sweeps through routine community case management. This pilot study suggests that community-based proactive case detection reduces symptomatic malaria prevalence, likely through more timely case management and improved care seeking behaviour. A randomised controlled trial is needed to further evaluate the impact of this model. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, H.; Schell, M.; Pui, C.H. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 (27.9-135.9), 23.0 (9.8-54.1), 15.1 (7.1-32.2), and 7.4 (3.2-17.0), respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones.

  7. NFC as a Childhood Obesity Treatment Tool.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Hellín, P; Fontecha, J; Hervás, R; Bravo, J

    2015-09-01

    Childhood Obesity is associated with a wide range of serious health complications and constitutes an increased risk of premature syndromes, including diabetes or heart diseases. Its treatment seems to be complicated. So, in order to help parents we have developed a system that will try to make easier the process of choosing foodstuff for overweight and obese children at the supermarket. To interact with the system, Near Field Communication mobile phones and tags are used. Those tags would have nutritional information such as energy or fat contain of each product. When the interaction takes place, the system will generate an alert determining if the product is adequate for the user diet or not. Decision will be influenced by specific prescript diets, which would have been previously generated by the system based on user profile parameters. At the same time the diet is established, the shopping list would be generated automatically. Therefore, the user could download and print both things at home easily by the PC application. The system also takes into account physical activity of the user. Children mobile phone includes an accelerometer that will detect and collect user activities in order to modify calorical requirements and, if necessary, to change physical activity too. In the future, it would be possible to extend this project system for adults, managing diets not just for obese and overweight, but also to diabetic or celiac people.

  8. Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Childhood craniopharyngiomas are benign (not cancer) brain tumors found near the pituitary gland. Learn about the signs, tests to diagnose, and treatment (surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy) of pediatric craniopharyngioma in this expert-reviewed summary.

  9. Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Charlotte A.; Stevens, June; Daniels, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group’s recommendations on future research directions in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. The Working Group consisted of leaders and representatives from public and private academic and medical institutions with expertise in a variety of health specialties. They reviewed the literature and discussed the findings as well as their own experiences in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The Working Group made recommendations that were based on scientific importance, the potential likelihood of public health impact, and the feasibility and timeliness for childhood obesity prevention and treatment research. These recommendations are intended to assist investigators in the development of research agendas to advance the knowledge of effective childhood obesity prevention and treatment. PMID:18617353

  10. Treatment for childhood cancer -- long-term risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000849.htm Treatment for childhood cancer - long-term risks To use the sharing features on this ... has. Being aware of your child's risk of long-term health problems can help you follow-up with ...

  11. Automated erythrocytapheresis in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Macallan, D C; Pocock, M; Bishop, E; Bevan, D H; Parker-Williams, J; Harrison, T; Robinson, G T

    1999-11-01

    Removal of parasitized erythrocytes is generally considered to be of value as adjunctive therapy in severe falciparum malaria with high parasitaemia. This is commonly achieved by exchange transfusion. We describe three cases of severe falciparum malaria treated by automated erythrocytapheresis (red cell exchange) in addition to quinine and conventional supportive therapy. Erythrocytapheresis consists of removal of the red-cell fraction by apheresis. Plasma, leukocyte and platelet fractions are returned to the patient. In all cases, dramatic reduction in parasitaemia was achieved within 2 h with subsequent complete clinical recovery. Erythrocytapheresis has significant advantages over exchange transfusion in terms of speed, efficiency, haemodynamic stability and retention of plasma components such as clotting factors and may thus represent an improvement in adjunctive therapy for severe malaria.

  12. Primaquine treatment and relapse in Plasmodium vivax malaria

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The relapsing peculiarity of Plasmodium vivax is one of the prime reasons for sustained global malaria transmission. Global containment of P. vivax is more challenging and crucial compared to other species for achieving total malaria control/elimination. Primaquine (PQ) failure and P. vivax relapse is a major global public health concern. Identification and characterization of different relapse strains of P. vivax prevalent across the globe should be one of the thrust areas in malaria research. Despite renewed and rising global concern by researchers on this once ‘neglected’ species, research and development on the very topic of P. vivax reappearance remains inadequate. Many malaria endemic countries have not mandated routine glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) testing before initiating PQ radical cure in P. vivax malaria. This results in either no PQ prescription or thoughtless prescription and administration of PQ to P. vivax patients by healthcare providers without being concerned about patients’ G6PD status and associated complications. It is imperative to ascertain the G6PD status and optimum dissemination of PQ radical cure in all cases of P. vivax malaria across the globe. There persists a compelling need to develop/validate a rapid, easy-to-perform, easy-to-interpret, quality controllable, robust, and cost-effective G6PD assay. High-dose PQ of both standard and short duration appears to be safe and more effective for preventing relapses and should be practiced among patients with normal G6PD activity. Multicentric studies involving adequately representative populations across the globe with reference PQ dose must be carried out to determine the true distribution of PQ failure. Study proving role of cytochrome P450-2D6 gene in PQ metabolism and association of CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotypes and P. vivax relapse is of prime importance and should be carried forward in multicentric systems across the globe. PMID:27077309

  13. Primaquine treatment and relapse in Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Rishikesh, Kumar; Saravu, Kavitha

    2016-01-01

    The relapsing peculiarity of Plasmodium vivax is one of the prime reasons for sustained global malaria transmission. Global containment of P. vivax is more challenging and crucial compared to other species for achieving total malaria control/elimination. Primaquine (PQ) failure and P. vivax relapse is a major global public health concern. Identification and characterization of different relapse strains of P. vivax prevalent across the globe should be one of the thrust areas in malaria research. Despite renewed and rising global concern by researchers on this once 'neglected' species, research and development on the very topic of P. vivax reappearance remains inadequate. Many malaria endemic countries have not mandated routine glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) testing before initiating PQ radical cure in P. vivax malaria. This results in either no PQ prescription or thoughtless prescription and administration of PQ to P. vivax patients by healthcare providers without being concerned about patients' G6PD status and associated complications. It is imperative to ascertain the G6PD status and optimum dissemination of PQ radical cure in all cases of P. vivax malaria across the globe. There persists a compelling need to develop/validate a rapid, easy-to-perform, easy-to-interpret, quality controllable, robust, and cost-effective G6PD assay. High-dose PQ of both standard and short duration appears to be safe and more effective for preventing relapses and should be practiced among patients with normal G6PD activity. Multicentric studies involving adequately representative populations across the globe with reference PQ dose must be carried out to determine the true distribution of PQ failure. Study proving role of cytochrome P450-2D6 gene in PQ metabolism and association of CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotypes and P. vivax relapse is of prime importance and should be carried forward in multicentric systems across the globe.

  14. Milk supply related to childhood leukaemia treatment.

    PubMed

    Hall, Gillian; McGuire, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    This literature review and case study answers the question: 'Do the late effects of childhood cranial radiation therapy include impacts on breastfeeding?' PubMed was searched for papers using the terms lactation and cranial radiotherapy or childhood cranial radiotherapy. The case study was written from one author's experience of helping a mother with a history of childhood cranial radiation therapy. The few available studies report a high rate of lactation failure in women who were treated with cranial radiation therapy for childhood cancer, but the exceptions indicate that lactation failure is not inevitable in this group of mothers. Breastfeeding may ameliorate some of the adverse effects of cranial radiation therapy. Health professionals caring for mothers with a history of cranial radiation therapy must balance encouraging women to breastfeed with preparing them for the possibility that they may be unable to do so.

  15. Childhood trauma and treatment outcome in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Sibel; Tasdelen Durak, Rumeysa; Ozyildirim, Ilker; Ince, Ezgi; Sar, Vedat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential influence of childhood trauma on clinical presentation, psychiatric comorbidity, and long-term treatment outcome of bipolar disorder. A total of 135 consecutive patients with bipolar disorder type I were recruited from an ongoing prospective follow-up project. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders were administered to all participants. Response to long-term treatment was determined from the records of life charts of the prospective follow-up project. There were no significant differences in childhood trauma scores between groups with good and poor responses to long-term lithium treatment. Poor responders to long-term anticonvulsant treatment, however, had elevated emotional and physical abuse scores. Lifetime diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with poor response to lithium treatment and antidepressant use but not with response to treatment with anticonvulsants. Total childhood trauma scores were related to the total number of lifetime comorbid psychiatric disorders, antidepressant use, and the presence of psychotic features. There were significant correlations between all types of childhood abuse and the total number of lifetime comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Whereas physical neglect was related to the mean severity of the mood episodes and psychotic features, emotional neglect was related to suicide attempts. A history of childhood trauma or PTSD may be a poor prognostic factor in the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. Whereas abusive experiences in childhood seem to lead to nosological fragmentation (comorbidity), childhood neglect tends to contribute to the severity of the mood episodes.

  16. Factors associated with treatment-seeking for malaria in Madhya Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mrigendra P; Saha, Kalyan B; Chand, Sunil K; Anvikar, Anup

    2017-09-11

    To determine household factors associated with treatment-seeking for malaria. The study was carried out in four districts of Madhya Pradesh with different malaria endemicity. 1470 households were interviewed in which at least one member suffered from microscopically confirmed malaria in the 3 months preceding the survey. Socio-demographic, economic, cultural characteristics, their health beliefs, knowledge and practices regarding malaria and choice of treatment seeking were explored. 764 households were from high endemic and 706 from low endemic areas. More than half of household heads were illiterate; most are farmers. 46% sought treatment for malaria from unqualified informal providers; 19% from qualified private health practitioners and 35% from government health providers. Analysis revealed that household's area of residence, education, occupation, ethnicity, use of preventive measures, economic status, knowledge and practices, distance and delayed treatment seeking were strongly associated with the type of health care providers selected. Demand for formal health services among the poor, illiterate, tribal population living in remote areas is low. Accessible and affordable health services and a sensitization programme to increase the demand for formal providers are needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioural aspects of travellers in their use of malaria presumptive treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Schlagenhauf, P.; Steffen, R.; Tschopp, A.; Van Damme, P.; Mittelholzer, M. L.; Leuenberger, H.; Reinke, C.

    1995-01-01

    The use of stand-by treatment for malaria by travellers depends on their knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. We examined the behavioural aspects of a cohort of travellers from Switzerland to low-risk malarial areas who, on recruitment, were provided with a kit containing medication for stand-by treatment, guidelines on the diagnosis of malaria, and materials for collection of blood samples for later confirmation of malaria. All subjects were urged to seek medical advice at the first signs of possible malarial symptoms. Illness (fever as the main indicator) was reported by 123 of the 1187 participants, often accompanied by shivering/chills (36.6%), headache (35.0%), gastrointestinal symptoms (69.9%), and myalgia and/or arthralgia (41.5%). Two-thirds of those ill failed to seek medical attention despite their symptoms and pretravel advice. Only 9 (7.3%) were actually beyond the reach of medical attention. The stand-by treatment was self-administered by 6 travellers, only one of whom had confirmed malaria. Two non-serious adverse events were reported. All users consulted a physician after administering the presumptive treatment. This stand-by approach is limited by inappropriate behaviour and poor malaria awareness among travellers. These negative factors can be mitigated by development of an improved kit containing a simple test for self-diagnosis. PMID:7743593

  18. Predictors of the failure of treatment with pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Sowunmi, A; Fateye, B A; Adedeji, A A; Gbotosho, G O; Happi, T C; Bamgboye, A E; Bolaji, O M; Oduola, A M J

    2006-04-01

    The prevalence of pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (PS)-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been increasing in sub-Saharan Africa or other parts of the world in the last one or two decades. The factors that identify children at risk of treatment failure after being given PS were evaluated in 291 children with acute, symptomatic, uncomplicated, P. falciparum malaria. The children took part in four antimalarial drug trials between July 1996 and July 2004 in a hyperendemic area of southwestern Nigeria. Following treatment, 64 (22%) of 291 children failed treatment by day 7 or 14. In a multivariate analysis, an age < or = 1.5 years (AOR=2.9, 95% CI 1.3-6.4, P = 0.009) and presence of fever (AOR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.28-7.14, P = 0.01) were independent predictors of the failure of treatment with PS at presentation. Following treatment, delay in parasite clearance >3 days (AOR = 2.56, CI 1.19-5.56, P = 0.016) was an independent predictor of the failure of treatment with PS. In addition, compared with the children who had no fever then, children with fever three or more days after starting treatment were more likely to be treatment failures. These findings may have implications for malaria control efforts in some sub-Saharan African countries where treatment of malaria disease depends almost entirely on PS monotherapy, and for programmes employing PS or PS-based combination therapy.

  19. PD-1 Deficiency Enhances Humoral Immunity of Malaria Infection Treatment Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Taiping; Lu, Xiao; Zhao, Chenghao; Fu, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    Malaria infection treatment vaccine (ITV) is a promising strategy to induce homologous and heterologous protective immunity against the blood stage of the parasite. However, the underlying mechanism of protection remains largely unknown. Here, we found that a malaria-specific antibody (Ab) could mediate the protective immunity of ITV-immunized mice. Interestingly, PD-1 deficiency greatly elevated the levels of both malaria-specific total IgG and subclass IgG2a and enhanced the protective efficacy of ITV-immunized mice against the blood-stage challenge. A serum adoptive-transfer assay demonstrated that the increased Ab level contributed to the enhanced protective efficacy of the immunized PD-1-deficient mice. Further study showed that PD-1 deficiency could also promote the expansion of germinal center (GC) B cells and malaria parasite-specific TFH cells in the spleens of ITV-immunized mice. These results suggest that PD-1 deficiency improves the protective efficacy of ITV-immunized mice by promoting the generation of malaria parasite-specific Ab and the expansion of GC B cells. The results of this study provide new evidence to support the negative function of PD-1 on humoral immunity and will guide the design of a more effective malaria vaccine. PMID:25733520

  20. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of a herbal medicine used for the treatment of malaria.

    PubMed

    Ankrah, Nii-Ayi; Nyarko, Alexander K; Addo, Phyllis G A; Ofosuhene, Mark; Dzokoto, Comfort; Marley, Ethel; Addae, Michael M; Ekuban, Frederick A

    2003-06-01

    Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine has been reported in several countries. Other anti-malarial drugs in use are expensive and not readily accessible to most people in malaria endemic countries. This has led to renewed interest in the development of herbal medicines that have the potential to treat malaria with little or no side effects. This study obtained a preliminary information on the safety and effectiveness of a plant decoction (AM-1), used in treating malaria. The AM-1 is formulated from Jatropha curcas, Gossypium hirsutum, Physalis angulata and Delonix regia. Patients with suspected malaria attending a herbal clinic were enrolled in the study on voluntary basis. They were hospitalized for treatment, clinical observation, biochemical and haematological monitoring, and parasite clearance while on AM-1. In addition male and female Sprague Dawley rats were used to evaluate the acute and subchronic toxicity effects of AM-1. The AM-1 eliminated malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malarie) from the peripheral blood of patients with malaria. In addition the AM-1 did not show any undesired effects in the patients as well as in laboratory rats. The AM-1, however, showed differential effect on the activities of selected cytochrome P450 isozymes (7-pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylation, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase) in relation to sex of the laboratory rats. These results indicate that AM-1 could be used to treat malaria. However, it could precipitate interactions with other drugs via their biotransformation and elimination. The obtained data warrant further studies in a large number of malaria subjects with monitoring for possible drug interactions.

  1. A systematic review of the clinical presentation, treatment and relapse characteristics of human Plasmodium ovale malaria.

    PubMed

    Groger, Mirjam; Fischer, Hannah S; Veletzky, Luzia; Lalremruata, Albert; Ramharter, Michael

    2017-03-11

    Despite increased efforts to control and ultimately eradicate human malaria, Plasmodium ovale malaria is for the most part outside the focus of research or public health programmes. Importantly, the understanding of P. ovale-nowadays regarded as the two distinct species P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi-largely stems from case reports and case series lacking study designs providing high quality evidence. Consecutively, there is a lack of systematic evaluation of the clinical presentation, appropriate treatment and relapse characteristics of P. ovale malaria. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a systematic appraisal of the current evidence for severe manifestations, relapse characteristics and treatment options for human P. ovale malaria. This systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines and registered in the international prospective register for systematic reviews (PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016039214). P. ovale mono-infection was a strict inclusion criterion. Of 3454 articles identified by the literature search, 33 articles published between 1922 and 2015 met the inclusion criteria. These articles did not include randomized controlled trials. Five prospective uncontrolled clinical trials were performed on a total of 58 participants. P. ovale was sensitive to all tested drugs within the follow-up periods and on interpretable in vitro assays. Since its first description in 1922, only 18 relapsing cases of P. ovale with a total of 28 relapse events were identified in the scientific literature. There was however no molecular evidence for a causal relationship between dormant liver stages and subsequent relapses. A total of 22 severe cases of P. ovale malaria were published out of which five were fatal. Additionally, two cases of congenital P. ovale malaria were reported. Current knowledge of P. ovale malaria is based on small trials with minor impact, case reports and clinical observations. This systematic review highlights that P

  2. TRALI Syndrome During the Treatment of a Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Case.

    PubMed

    Çaşkurlu, Hülya; Nurmuhammedov, Rahman; Htway, Zarni

    2016-12-01

    Malaria, which is one of the three most important infectious diseases globally, is endemic in many areas of the world. Plasmodium falciparum is not endemic to Turkey but can be seen after travel to epidemic countries. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) syndrome is a rare disease, which may develop following the transfusion of all types of blood products, including plasma. Here we describe a case of TRALI syndrome in a 29-year-old male, who presented with fever after 15 days of returning from a business trip to Burkina Faso. It developed immediately after the infusion of fresh frozen plasma during the treatment of P. falciparum malaria. The patient's condition improved on respiratory support treatment in the intensive care unit for 48 hours without the need of mechanical ventilation. This case indicated that TRALI syndrome has to be considered in the differential diagnosis as an emerging acute lung disease during the treatment of malaria.

  3. Biochemical markers of nutritional status and childhood malaria severity in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mfonkeu, Joël Bertrand Pankoui; Gouado, Inocent; Kuaté, Honoré Fotso; Zambou, Odile; Combes, Valéry; Grau, Georges Emile Raymond; Zollo, Paul Henri Amvam

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the part played by undernutrition in malaria severity, some biomarkers of nutritional status were assessed in children with severe malarial anaemia (MA) and cerebral malaria (CM) in comparison with healthy children or those with uncomplicated malaria. Undernutrition was assessed using the weight-for-age Z score (WAZ). Retinol was determined by HPLC; lipid profile, Ca, Mg and albumin were determined by spectrophotometry. Severe and moderate undernutritions were more prevalent in children with MA and those with the combined symptoms of CM and MA, but not in those with CM alone. Some perturbations were noticed in the lipid profile, but most of the values remained within the normal ranges. The risk of vitamin A deficiency, as assessed by plasma retinol concentration, was noteworthy in children with severe malaria: 0.48 × 10(-6) and 0.50 × 10(-6) mol/l, respectively, in children with MA and CM (reference value: >0.7 × 10(-6) mol/l). A significant difference was obtained for retinol values after an ANOVA of all the groups (P = 0.0029), with the value in the MA group being significantly low than that in the control group (P < 0.05); likewise, a significant difference was obtained after comparison of all the groups for Mg and albumin (P = 0.0064 and 0.0082, respectively). Despite their low number (n 6), fatal cases of CM had a normal mean WAZ on admission, but low values of retinol, albumin and HDL:LDL ratio. Despite these associations, undernutrition itself did not appear to be a primary factor associated with fatal outcome.

  4. Assessing Acceptability of a Diagnostic and Malaria Treatment Package Delivered by Community Health Workers in Malaria-Endemic Settings of Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Jegede, Ayodele S.; Oshiname, Frederick O.; Sanou, Armande K.; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O.; Siribié, Mohamadou; Afonne, Chinenye; Sermé, Luc; Falade, Catherine O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rectal artesunate for severe malaria in children is proven. However, acceptability of a package of interventions that included use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), ACTs, and rectal artesunate when provided by community health workers (CHWs) is uncertain. This study assessed acceptability of use of CHWs for case management of malaria using RDTs, ACTs, and rectal artesunate. Methods. The study was carried out in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda in 2015 toward the end of an intervention using CHWs to provide diagnosis and treatment. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with parents of sick children, community leaders, and health workers to understand whether they accepted the package for case management of malaria using CHWs. Transcripts from FGDs and KII recordings were analyzed using content analysis. The findings were described, interpreted, and reported in the form of narratives. Results. Treatment of malaria using the CHWs was acceptable to caregivers and communities. The CHWs were perceived to be accessible, diligent, and effective. There were no physical, social, or cultural barriers to accessing the CHWs’ services. Respondents were extremely positive about the intervention and were concerned that CHWs had limited financial and nonfinancial incentives that would reduce their motivation and willingness to continue. Conclusions. Treatment of malaria using CHWs was fully accepted. CHWs should be compensated, trained, and well supervised. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN13858170. PMID:27941109

  5. Drugs use pattern for uncomplicated malaria in medicine retail outlets in Enugu urban, southeast Nigeria: implications for malaria treatment policy.

    PubMed

    Ezenduka, Charles C; Ogbonna, Brian O; Ekwunife, Obinna I; Okonta, Mathew J; Esimone, Charles O

    2014-06-24

    Malaria treatment policy recommends regular monitoring of drug utilization to generate information for ensuring effective use of anti-malarial drugs in Nigeria. This information is currently limited in the retail sector which constitutes a major source of malaria treatment in Nigeria, but are characterized by significant inappropriate use of drugs. This study analyzed the use pattern of anti-malarial drugs in medicine outlets to assess the current state of compliance to policy on the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). A prospective cross-sectional survey of randomly selected medicine outlets in Enugu urban, southeast Nigeria, was conducted between May and August 2013, to determine the types, range, prices, and use pattern of anti-malarial drugs dispensed from pharmacies and patent medicine vendors (PMVs). Data were collected and analyzed for anti-malarial drugs dispensed for self-medication to patients, treatment by retail outlets and prescription from hospitals. A total of 1,321 anti-malarial drugs prescriptions were analyzed. ACT accounted for 72.7%, while monotherapy was 27.3%. Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) drugs contributed 33.9% (326/961) of ACT. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL), 668 (50.6%) was the most used anti-malarial drug, followed by monotherapy sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), 248 (18.8%). Median cost of ACT at $2.91 ($0.65-7.42) per dose, is about three times the median cost of monotherapy, $0.97 ($0.19-13.55). Total cost of medication (including co-medications) with ACT averaged $3.64 (95% CI; $3.53-3.75) per prescription, about twice the mean cost of treatment with monotherapy, $1.83 (95% CI; $1.57-2.1). Highest proportion 46.5% (614), of the anti-malarial drugs was dispensed to patients for self-treatment. Treatment by retail outlets accounted for 35.8% while 17.7% of the drugs were dispensed from hospital prescriptions. Self-medication, 82%, accounted for the highest source of monotherapy and a majority of prescriptions

  6. Drugs use pattern for uncomplicated malaria in medicine retail outlets in Enugu urban, southeast Nigeria: implications for malaria treatment policy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria treatment policy recommends regular monitoring of drug utilization to generate information for ensuring effective use of anti-malarial drugs in Nigeria. This information is currently limited in the retail sector which constitutes a major source of malaria treatment in Nigeria, but are characterized by significant inappropriate use of drugs. This study analyzed the use pattern of anti-malarial drugs in medicine outlets to assess the current state of compliance to policy on the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Methods A prospective cross-sectional survey of randomly selected medicine outlets in Enugu urban, southeast Nigeria, was conducted between May and August 2013, to determine the types, range, prices, and use pattern of anti-malarial drugs dispensed from pharmacies and patent medicine vendors (PMVs). Data were collected and analyzed for anti-malarial drugs dispensed for self-medication to patients, treatment by retail outlets and prescription from hospitals. Results A total of 1,321 anti-malarial drugs prescriptions were analyzed. ACT accounted for 72.7%, while monotherapy was 27.3%. Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) drugs contributed 33.9% (326/961) of ACT. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL), 668 (50.6%) was the most used anti-malarial drug, followed by monotherapy sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), 248 (18.8%). Median cost of ACT at $2.91 ($0.65-7.42) per dose, is about three times the median cost of monotherapy, $0.97 ($0.19-13.55). Total cost of medication (including co-medications) with ACT averaged $3.64 (95% CI; $3.53-3.75) per prescription, about twice the mean cost of treatment with monotherapy, $1.83 (95% CI; $1.57-2.1). Highest proportion 46.5% (614), of the anti-malarial drugs was dispensed to patients for self-treatment. Treatment by retail outlets accounted for 35.8% while 17.7% of the drugs were dispensed from hospital prescriptions. Self-medication, 82%, accounted for the highest source of monotherapy and

  7. Medicinal plants used in malaria treatment by Prometra herbalists in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Adia, Madina Mohamed; Anywar, Godwin; Byamukama, Robert; Kamatenesi-Mugisha, Maud; Sekagya, Yahaya; Kakudidi, Esezah K; Kiremire, Bernard T

    2014-08-08

    The aim of the survey was to document medicinal plants used in malaria treatment by Prometra (Promocion de la medicina tradicional amazonica) Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMPs) of Uganda and for search of new antiplasmodial herbal medicines (HMs) for further phytochemical analysis. In this study, semi structured guided open and close ended questionnaires were used. Focus group discussions were conducted and key informants were chosen within the TMPs who helped in further discussions of how the herbal remedies where collected, prepared and administered. A sample size of 51 respondents was randomly selected among the TMPs with the help of their leader. 86 species distributed over 81 genera and 39 families were reportedly being used as herbal remedies in malaria treatment. The TMPs use symptoms like high temperature, shivering, among others in malaria diagnosis an indication that they understand malaria. They emphasized the use of leaves and bark in treatment because they can regenerate and therefore ensure sustainable use of plants rather than the use of roots which would be destructive. These TMPS treat and also advise their patients on preventive measures against malaria attacks like sleeping under mosquito nets, clearing bushes near homesteads, among others which is an indication that they help in the prevention and mitigation of malaria incidences and prevalence in the areas where they live. The Informant Consensus Factor (FIC) value of 0.8 demonstrated that the TMPs of Prometra-Uganda tend to agree with each other in terms of the plant species they use in malaria treatment an indication of quality control in as far as administration of the herbal remedies. Vernonia amygdalina Delile, Bidens pilosa L., Justicia betonica L. were highly cited as being used in malaria treatment with frequencies of mention of 38, 28 and 25, respectively. TMPs of Prometra-Uganda understand and treat malaria using the available plant diversity from their huge forest and the

  8. Three case definitions of malaria and their effect on diagnosis, treatment and surveillance in Cox's Bazar district, Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Montanari, R. M.; Bangali, A. M.; Talukder, K. R.; Baqui, A.; Maheswary, N. P.; Gosh, A.; Rahman, M.; Mahmood, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    In countries where malaria is endemic, routine blood slide examinations remain the major source of data for the public health surveillance system. This approach has become inadequate, however, as the public health emphasis has changed from surveillance of laboratory-confirmed malaria infections to the early detection and treatment of the disease. As a result, it has been advocated that the information collected about malaria be changed radically and should include the monitoring of morbidity and mortality, clinical practice and quality of care. To improve the early diagnosis and prompt treatment (EDPT) of malaria patients, three malaria case definitions (MCDs) were developed, with treatment and reporting guidelines, and used in all static health facilities of Cox's Bazar district, Bangladesh (population 1.5 million). The three MCDs were: uncomplicated malaria (UM); treatment failure malaria (TFM); and severe malaria (SM). The number of malaria deaths was also reported. This paper reviews the rationale and need for MCDs in malaria control programmes and presents an analysis of the integrated surveillance information collected during the three-year period, 1995-97. The combined analysis of slide-based and clinical data and their related indicators shows that blood slide analysis is no longer used to document fever episodes but to support EDPT, with priority given to SM and TFM patients. Data indicate a decrease in the overall positive predictive value of the three MCDs as malaria prevalence decreases. Hence the data quantify the extent to which the mainly clinical diagnosis of UM leads to over-diagnosis and over-treatment in changing epidemiological conditions. Also the new surveillance data show: a halving in the case fatality rate among SM cases (from 6% to 3.1%) attributable to improved quality of care, and a stable proportion of TFM cases (around 7%) against a defined population denominator. Changes implemented in the EDPT of malaria patients and in the

  9. [Perceptions of parental participation by health professionals in childhood malaria control in Benin].

    PubMed

    Houéto, David; d'Hoore, William; Deccache, Alain

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and document the perceptions of health professionals regarding parental participation in the fight against child malaria, specifically with regard to fever management, in Benin (West Africa). The findings indicate that community participation in Malaria control in general, and in the case of children in particular, is essential due to the contributing factors surrounding the disease. This form of participation is different from the one recommended and practiced within the structure of the National Health system. Deep-seated, thorough reform of health care program planning is necessary in order to contribute to the improvement of the population's participation in this process. The concept of health promotion was used to frame and shed light on the analysis of the proposed recommendations. Parents' participation, one that integrates their perceptions and depictions of child fever, is not currently a reality in Benin; the study revealed that the participants seek out and request the development of skills necessary that could enable them to better contribute to the fight against malaria.

  10. Malaria treatment and prophylaxis in endemic and nonendemic countries: evidence on strategies and their cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Michèle; van Beest, Anne; Sicuri, Elisa; van Tulder, Maurits; Grobusch, Martin P

    2011-12-01

    Artemisinin combination treatment is currently the preferred treatment strategy to combat malaria. However, the drug costs are considerably higher than for previously used therapies. This review discusses the cost-effectiveness of current malaria treatment and prophylaxis in endemic and nonendemic countries. For endemic countries, a systematic search for economic evaluations (i.e., cost-effectiveness, cost-utility and cost-benefit analyses) was conducted, looking at the use of Artemisinin combination treatments in children, pregnant women and other adults. In total, 24 studies were identified investigating the cost-effectiveness of malaria treatments with the focus on uncomplicated malaria, severe or prereferral treatment, all in combination with adequate diagnosis, and malaria prevention by intermittent preventive treatment, respectively. In areas with both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission, artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, respectively, are currently the most cost-effective treatment options. Treatment of severe malaria with artesunate is more cost effective compared with treatment with quinine. For patients that live more than 6 h away from an appropriate healthcare facility, prereferral treatment proved to be more cost-effective compared with no prereferral intervention. Cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women (IPTp) was dependent an clinical attendance. IPT in infants with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is cost effective in sites with high malaria transmission. IPT in children with artesunate (AS + SP), amodiaquine (AQ) + SPQ or SP alone is a cost effective and safe intervention for reducing the burden of malaria in children in areas with markedly seasonal malaria transmission. Although there is a need for it, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of current approaches to malaria therapy in nonendemic countries and the cost-effectiveness of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis.

  11. Exploring the impact of targeted distribution of free bed nets on households bed net ownership, socio-economic disparities and childhood malaria infection rates: analysis of national malaria survey data from three sub-Saharan Africa countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The last decade has witnessed increased funding for malaria control. Malaria experts have used the opportunity to advocate for rollout of such interventions as free bed nets. A free bed net distribution strategy is seen as the quickest way to improve coverage of effective malaria control tools especially among poorest communities. Evidence to support this claim is however, sparse. This study explored the effectiveness of targeted free bed net distribution strategy in achieving equity in terms of ownership and use of bed nets and also reduction of malaria prevalence among children under-five years of age. Methods National malaria indicator survey (MIS) data from Angola, Tanzania and Uganda was used in the analysis. Hierarchical multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyse the relationship between variables of interest. Outcome variables were defined as: childhood test-confirmed malaria infections, household ownership of any mosquito net and children’s use of any mosquito nets. Marginal effects of having free bed net distribution on households with different wealth status were calculated. Results Angolan children from wealthier households were 6.4 percentage points less likely to be parasitaemic than those in poorest households, whereas those from Tanzania and Uganda were less likely to test malaria positive by 7 and 11.6 percentage points respectively (p < 0.001). The study estimates and present results on the marginal effects based on the impact of free bed net distribution on children's malaria status given their socio-economic background. Poorest households were less likely to own a net by 21.4% in Tanzania, and 2.8% in Uganda, whereas both poorer and wealthier Angolan households almost achieved parity in bed net ownership (p < 0.001). Wealthier households had a higher margin of using nets than poorest people in both Tanzania and Uganda by 11.4% and 3.9% respectively. However, the poorest household in Angola had a 6.1% net use

  12. Exploring the impact of targeted distribution of free bed nets on households bed net ownership, socio-economic disparities and childhood malaria infection rates: analysis of national malaria survey data from three sub-Saharan Africa countries.

    PubMed

    Njau, Joseph D; Stephenson, Rob; Menon, Manoj; Kachur, S Patrick; McFarland, Deborah A

    2013-07-15

    The last decade has witnessed increased funding for malaria control. Malaria experts have used the opportunity to advocate for rollout of such interventions as free bed nets. A free bed net distribution strategy is seen as the quickest way to improve coverage of effective malaria control tools especially among poorest communities. Evidence to support this claim is however, sparse. This study explored the effectiveness of targeted free bed net distribution strategy in achieving equity in terms of ownership and use of bed nets and also reduction of malaria prevalence among children under-five years of age. National malaria indicator survey (MIS) data from Angola, Tanzania and Uganda was used in the analysis. Hierarchical multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyse the relationship between variables of interest. Outcome variables were defined as: childhood test-confirmed malaria infections, household ownership of any mosquito net and children's use of any mosquito nets. Marginal effects of having free bed net distribution on households with different wealth status were calculated. Angolan children from wealthier households were 6.4 percentage points less likely to be parasitaemic than those in poorest households, whereas those from Tanzania and Uganda were less likely to test malaria positive by 7 and 11.6 percentage points respectively (p < 0.001). The study estimates and present results on the marginal effects based on the impact of free bed net distribution on children's malaria status given their socio-economic background. Poorest households were less likely to own a net by 21.4% in Tanzania, and 2.8% in Uganda, whereas both poorer and wealthier Angolan households almost achieved parity in bed net ownership (p < 0.001). Wealthier households had a higher margin of using nets than poorest people in both Tanzania and Uganda by 11.4% and 3.9% respectively. However, the poorest household in Angola had a 6.1% net use advantage over children in

  13. Clinical manifestations of new versus recrudescent malaria infections following anti-malarial drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Shaukat, Ayesha M; Gilliams, Elizabeth A; Kenefic, Leo J; Laurens, Matthew B; Dzinjalamala, Fraction K; Nyirenda, Osward M; Thesing, Phillip C; Jacob, Christopher G; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Taylor, Terrie E; Plowe, Christopher V; Laufer, Miriam K

    2012-06-18

    Distinguishing new from recrudescent infections in post-treatment episodes of malaria is standard in anti-malarial drug efficacy trials. New infections are not considered malaria treatment failures and as a result, the prevention of subsequent episodes of malaria infection is not reported as a study outcome. However, in moderate and high transmission settings, new infections are common and the ability of a short-acting medication to cure an initial infection may be outweighed by its inability to prevent the next imminent infection. The clinical benefit of preventing new infections has never been compared to that of curing the initial infection. Children enrolled in a sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine efficacy study in Blantyre, Malawi from 1998-2004 were prospectively evaluated. Six neutral microsatellites were used to classify new and recrudescent infections in children aged less than 10 years with recurrent malaria infections. Children from the study who did not experience recurrent parasitaemia comprised the baseline group. The odds of fever and anaemia, the rate of haemoglobin recovery and time to recurrence were compared among the groups. Fever and anemia were more common among children with parasitaemia compared to those who remained infection-free throughout the study period. When comparing recrudescent vs. new infections, the incidence of fever was not statistically different. However, children with recrudescent infections had a less robust haematological recovery and also experienced recurrence sooner than those whose infection was classified as new. The results of this study confirm the paramount importance of providing curative treatment for all malaria infections. Although new and recrudescent infections caused febrile illnesses at a similar rate, recurrence due to recrudescent infection did have a worsened haemological outcome than recurrence due to new infections. Local decision-makers should take into account the results of genotyping to distinguish new

  14. Mass primaquine treatment to eliminate vivax malaria: lessons from the past

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Recent successes in malaria control have put malaria eradication back on the public health agenda. A significant obstacle to malaria elimination in Asia is the large burden of Plasmodium vivax, which is more difficult to eliminate than Plasmodium falciparum. Persistent P. vivax liver stages can be eliminated only by radical treatment with a ≥ seven-day course of an 8-aminoquinoline, with the attendant risk of acute haemolytic anaemia in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Primaquine is the only generally available 8-aminoquinoline. Testing for G6PD deficiency is not widely available, and so whilst it is widely recommended, primaquine is often not prescribed. In the past, some countries aiming for vivax malaria eradication deployed mass treatments with primaquine on a massive scale, without G6PD testing. In Azerbaijan, Tajikistan (formerly USSR), North Afghanistan and DPR Korea 8,270,185 people received either a 14-day “standard” or a 17-day “interrupted” primaquine treatment to control post-eradication malaria epidemics. These mass primaquine preventive treatment campaigns were conducted by dedicated teams who administered the drugs under supervision and then monitored the population for adverse events. Despite estimated G6PD prevalences up to 38.7%, the reported frequency of severe adverse events related to primaquine was very low. This experience shows that with careful planning and implementation of mass treatment strategies using primaquine and adequate medical support to manage haemolytic toxicity, it is possible to achieve high population coverage, substantially reduce malaria transmission, and manage the risk of severe acute haemolytic anaemia in communities with a relatively high prevalence of G6PD deficiency safely. PMID:24502194

  15. Causes, Detection and Treatment of Childhood Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahraes, Herbert

    Three types of depressive illness of childhood (masked depression, acute depressive illness, and chronic depressive illness) are described; contributing factors (heredity and parental behavior) are discussed; and indications of depression are considered. Briefly reviewed are various methods of treating depressed children, including the use of…

  16. The process of changing national malaria treatment policy: lessons from country-level studies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Holly Ann; Durrheim, David; Shretta, Rima

    2004-11-01

    Widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites to commonly used antimalarials, such as chloroquine, has resulted in many endemic countries considering changing their malaria treatment policy. Identifying and understanding the key influences that affect decision-making, and factors that facilitate or undermine policy implementation, is critical for improving the policy process and guiding resource allocation during this process. A historical review of archival documents from Malaŵi and data obtained from in-depth policy studies in four countries (Tanzania, South Africa, Kenya and Peru) that have changed malaria treatment policy provides important lessons about decision-making, the policy cycle and complex policy environment, while specifically identifying strategies successfully employed to facilitate policy-making and implementation. Findings from these country-level studies indicate that the process of malaria drug policy review should be institutionalized in endemic countries and based on systematically collected data. Key stakeholders need to be identified early and engaged in the process, while improved communication is needed on all levels. Although malaria drug policy change is often perceived to be a daunting task, using these and other proven strategies should assist endemic countries to tackle this challenge in a systematic fashion that ensures the development and implementation of the rational malaria drug policy.

  17. [Therapeutic efficacy of 3 treatment protocols for non-complicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Antioquia, Colombia, 2002].

    PubMed

    Blair, Silvia; López, Mary Luz; Piñeros, Juan Gabriel; Alvarez, Tania; Tobón, Alberto; Carmona, Jaime

    2003-09-01

    High resistance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria to chloroquine poses malaria as a major public health problem in Colombia. In this context, the therapeutic response of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria patients to chloroquine (CQ), sulfadoxine/pirymethamine (SDXP) and combined therapy (SDXP/CQ) was evaluated according to the WHO/PAHO protocols of 1998. The comparisons were based on a sample of 160 patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Turbo and Zaragoza (Antioquia, Colombia). Patients were randomly assigned each of the treatment categories. The results were statistically similar in each municipality. In Turbo percentage of treatment failure was 87.5%, 22.2% and 22.6% for CQ, SDXP and SDXP/CQ, respectively, whereas in Zaragoza, the corresponding treatment failure was 77.7%, 26.5% and 12.1%. During follow up, 50% of subjects with late treatment failure were asymptomatic in Turbo, while 33.3% were asymptomatic in Zaragoza. A high level of treatment failure occurred with CQ monotherapy, while SDXP and SDXP/CQ had acceptable levels of failure, i.e., below 25%. The high percentage of late treatment failure in asymptomatic patients may contribute to increased risk of persistent transmission.

  18. Malaria treatment policies and drug efficacy in Haiti from 1955-2012.

    PubMed

    von Fricken, Michael E; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Hosford, Jennifer D; Existe, Alexander; Okech, Bernard A

    2013-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ), after 67 years of use in Haiti, is still part of the official treatment policy for malaria. Several countries around the world have used CQ in the past due to its low incidence of adverse events, therapeutic efficacy, and affordability, but were forced to switch treatment policy due to the development of widespread CQ resistance. The purpose of this paper was to compile literature on malaria treatment policies and antimalarial drug efficacy in Haiti over 67-year period. A systematic review of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Armed Forces Pest Management Board, was conducted to find pertinent documents on national malaria treatment policies and antimalarial drug efficacy studies in Haiti between 1955 and 2012. A total of 329 citations and abstracts were reviewed independently by two researchers, of which thirty three met the final inclusion criteria of studies occurring in Haiti between 1955 and 2012 which specifically discuss malaria treatment policies and drug efficacy. Results suggest that CQ has been the predominant antimalarial drug in use from 1955 to 2012. In 2010 single dose primaquine (PQ) was added to the national treatment policy, however it is not clear whether this new policy has been put into practice. Although no widespread CQ resistance has been reported, some studies have detected low levels of CQ resistance. Increased surveillance and monitoring for CQ resistance should be implemented in Haiti.

  19. Medicinal Plants Used by Various Tribes of Bangladesh for Treatment of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Hossan, Shahadat; Khatun, Afsana; Seraj, Syeda; Jahan, Rownak

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that 300–500 million malaria infections occur on an annual basis and causes fatality to millions of human beings. Most of the drugs used for treatment of malaria have developed drug-resistant parasites or have serious side effects. Plant kingdom has throughout the centuries proved to be efficient source of efficacious malarial drugs like quinine and artemisinin. Since these drugs have already developed or in the process of developing drug resistance, it is important to continuously search the plant kingdom for more effective antimalarial drugs. In this aspect, the medicinal practices of indigenous communities can play a major role in identification of antimalarial plants. Bangladesh has a number of indigenous communities or tribes, who because of their living within or in close proximity to mosquito-infested forest regions, have high incidences of malaria. Over the centuries, the tribal medicinal practitioners have treated malaria with various plant-based formulations. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among various tribes of Bangladesh to identify the plants that they use for treatment of the disease. Surveys were conducted among seven tribes, namely, Bawm, Chak, Chakma, Garo, Marma, Murong, and Tripura, who inhabit the southeastern or northcentral forested regions of Bangladesh. Interviews conducted with the various tribal medicinal practitioners indicated that a total of eleven plants distributed into 10 families were used for treatment of malaria and accompanying symptoms like fever, anemia, ache, vomiting, and chills. Leaves constituted 35.7% of total uses followed by roots at 21.4%. Other plant parts used for treatment included barks, seeds, fruits, and flowers. A review of the published scientific literature showed that a number of plants used by the tribal medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses. Taken together, the plants merit further scientific research

  20. Should countries implementing an artemisinin-based combination malaria treatment policy also introduce rapid diagnostic tests?

    PubMed Central

    Zikusooka, Charlotte M; McIntyre, Diane; Barnes, Karen I

    2008-01-01

    Background Within the context of increasing antimalarial costs and or decreasing malaria transmission, the importance of limiting antimalarial treatment to only those confirmed as having malaria parasites becomes paramount. This motivates for this assessment of the cost-effectiveness of routine use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) as an integral part of deploying artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Methods The costs and cost-effectiveness of using RDTs to limit the use of ACTs to those who actually have Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in two districts in southern Mozambique were assessed. To evaluate the potential impact of introducing definitive diagnosis using RDTs (costing $0.95), five scenarios were considered, assuming that the use of definitive diagnosis would find that between 25% and 75% of the clinically diagnosed malaria patients are confirmed to be parasitaemic. The base analysis compared two ACTs, artesunate plus sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (AS+SP) costing $1.77 per adult treatment and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) costing $2.40 per adult treatment, as well as the option of restricting RDT use to only those older than six years. Sensitivity analyses considered lower cost ACTs and RDTs and different population age distributions. Results Compared to treating patients on the basis of clinical diagnosis, the use of RDTs in all clinically diagnosed malaria cases results in cost savings only when 29% and 52% or less of all suspected malaria cases test positive for malaria and are treated with AS+SP and AL, respectively. These cut-off points increase to 41.5% (for AS+SP) and to 74% (for AL) when the use of RDTs is restricted to only those older than six years of age. When 25% of clinically diagnosed patients are RDT positive and treated using AL, there are cost savings per malaria positive patient treated of up to $2.12. When more than 29% of clinically diagnosed cases are malaria test positive, the incremental cost per malaria positive patient

  1. Dietitians and exercise professionals in a childhood obesity treatment team.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Paulina

    2005-06-01

    There has been a remarkable increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity in most countries in recent years, which indicates that modern lifestyle is the triggering factor for genetic susceptibility. This report focuses on the two main environmental factors, nutrition and physical activity, that could influence paediatric obesity development, and how health professionals can address these aspects in the management of childhood obesity in a multidisciplinary treatment team. First, the role of a nutrition expert in the multidisciplinary obesity team is discussed and then the importance of physical activity in the treatment of paediatric obesity. The part on nutrition highlights some interesting areas in this field, namely glycaemic index, high-protein diet, fast foods, portion sizes and soft-drink consumption. Dietary treatment in childhood obesity should be combined with changes in physical activity to promote long-term weight loss. Research on the physical activity of children and adolescents indicates some significant changes over the last decades, which are also reviewed. Factors such as sports club participation and television viewing are discussed. The appropriate physical activity level and effective physical activity programmes are also presented. Physical activity can be promoted in childhood obesity treatment in many ways. Practical advice regarding physical activity programme and the role of exercise professionals in childhood obesity treatment team is given. For successful obesity management, the child should be assessed and treated by a multidisciplinary team, including a physician, dietitian, exercise expert, nurse and behavioural therapist.

  2. Artesunate versus quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in African children (AQUAMAT): an open-label, randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, Arjen M; Fanello, Caterina I; Hendriksen, Ilse C E; Gomes, Ermelinda; Seni, Amir; Chhaganlal, Kajal D; Bojang, Kalifa; Olaosebikan, Rasaq; Anunobi, Nkechinyere; Maitland, Kathryn; Kivaya, Esther; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Evans, Jennifer; Gesase, Samwel; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mtove, George; Nadjm, Behzad; Deen, Jacqueline; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Nansumba, Margaret; Karema, Corine; Umulisa, Noella; Uwimana, Aline; Mokuolu, Olugbenga A; Adedoyin, Olanrewaju T; Johnson, Wahab B R; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Onyamboko, Marie A; Sakulthaew, Tharisara; Ngum, Wirichada Pan; Silamut, Kamolrat; Stepniewska, Kasia; Woodrow, Charles J; Bethell, Delia; Wills, Bridget; Oneko, Martina; Peto, Tim E; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J

    2010-11-13

    Severe malaria is a major cause of childhood death and often the main reason for paediatric hospital admission in sub-Saharan Africa. Quinine is still the established treatment of choice, although evidence from Asia suggests that artesunate is associated with a lower mortality. We compared parenteral treatment with either artesunate or quinine in African children with severe malaria. This open-label, randomised trial was undertaken in 11 centres in nine African countries. Children (<15 years) with severe falciparum malaria were randomly assigned to parenteral artesunate or parenteral quinine. Randomisation was in blocks of 20, with study numbers corresponding to treatment allocations kept inside opaque sealed paper envelopes. The trial was open label at each site, and none of the investigators or trialists, apart from for the trial statistician, had access to the summaries of treatment allocations. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN50258054. 5425 children were enrolled; 2712 were assigned to artesunate and 2713 to quinine. All patients were analysed for the primary outcome. 230 (8·5%) patients assigned to artesunate treatment died compared with 297 (10·9%) assigned to quinine treatment (odds ratio [OR] stratified for study site 0·75, 95% CI 0·63-0·90; relative reduction 22·5%, 95% CI 8·1-36·9; p=0·0022). Incidence of neurological sequelae did not differ significantly between groups, but the development of coma (65/1832 [3·5%] with artesunate vs 91/1768 [5·1%] with quinine; OR 0·69 95% CI 0·49-0·95; p=0·0231), convulsions (224/2712 [8·3%] vs 273/2713 [10·1%]; OR 0·80, 0·66-0·97; p=0·0199), and deterioration of the coma score (166/2712 [6·1%] vs 208/2713 [7·7%]; OR 0·78, 0·64-0·97; p=0·0245) were all significantly less frequent in artesunate recipients than in quinine recipients. Post-treatment hypoglycaemia was also less frequent in patients

  3. A cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Pascalina; Masiye, Felix; Chitah, Bona M; Sipilanyambe, Naawa; Hawela, Moonga; Banda, Patrick; Okorosobo, Tuoyo

    2007-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line treatment for malaria. Despite the acclaimed therapeutic advantages of ACTs over monotherapies with SP and CQ, the cost of ACTs is much greater, raising concerns about affordability in many poor countries such as Zambia. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether-lumefantrine, a version of ACTs adopted in Zambia in mid 2004. Methods Using data gathered from patients presenting at public health facilities with suspected malaria, the costs and effects of using ACTs versus SP as first-line treatment for malaria were estimated. The study was conducted in six district sites. Treatment success and reduction in demand for second line treatment constituted the main effectiveness outcomes. The study gathered data on the efficacy of, and compliance to, AL and SP treatment from a random sample of patients. Costs are based on estimated drug, labour, operational and capital inputs. Drug costs were based on dosages and unit prices provided by the Ministry of Health and the manufacturer (Norvatis). Findings The results suggest that AL produces successful treatment at less cost than SP, implying that AL is more cost-effective. While it is acknowledged that implementing national ACT program will require considerable resources, the study demonstrates that the health gains (treatment success) from every dollar spent are significantly greater if AL is used rather than SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated to be US$4.10. When the costs of second line treatment are considered the

  4. Changing the malaria treatment protocol policy in Timor-Leste: an examination of context, process, and actors' involvement.

    PubMed

    Martins, João S; Zwi, Anthony B; Hobday, Karen; Bonaparte, Fernando; Kelly, Paul M

    2013-05-15

    In 2007 Timor-Leste, a malaria endemic country, changed its Malaria Treatment Protocol for uncomplicated falciparum malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to artemether-lumefantrine. The change in treatment policy was based on the rise in morbidity due to malaria and perception of increasing drug resistance. Despite a lack of nationally available evidence on drug resistance, the Ministry of Health decided to change the protocol. The policy process leading to this change was examined through a qualitative study on how the country developed its revised treatment protocol for malaria. This process involved many actors and was led by the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and the WHO country office. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities identified during this period of treatment protocol change.

  5. Changing the malaria treatment protocol policy in Timor-Leste: an examination of context, process, and actors’ involvement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 2007 Timor-Leste, a malaria endemic country, changed its Malaria Treatment Protocol for uncomplicated falciparum malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to artemether-lumefantrine. The change in treatment policy was based on the rise in morbidity due to malaria and perception of increasing drug resistance. Despite a lack of nationally available evidence on drug resistance, the Ministry of Health decided to change the protocol. The policy process leading to this change was examined through a qualitative study on how the country developed its revised treatment protocol for malaria. This process involved many actors and was led by the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and the WHO country office. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities identified during this period of treatment protocol change. PMID:23672371

  6. Feedback Frequency in Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Edwin; Butalla, Christine E.; Farinella, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of feedback frequency in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Reducing the frequency of feedback enhances motor learning, and recently, such feedback frequency reductions have been recommended for the treatment of CAS. However, no published studies have explicitly compared different feedback frequencies in…

  7. Feedback Frequency in Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Edwin; Butalla, Christine E.; Farinella, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of feedback frequency in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Reducing the frequency of feedback enhances motor learning, and recently, such feedback frequency reductions have been recommended for the treatment of CAS. However, no published studies have explicitly compared different feedback frequencies in…

  8. Treatment of Childhood Depression: The State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarizio, Harvey F.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews various aspects of seven approaches to the treatment of childhood depression--psychoanalytic, behavioral, cognitive, familial, rational-emotive, multimodal, and drug interventions. Implications for practitioners are considered in terms of target selection, choice of treatment methods, rational evaluation based on developmental…

  9. Family Functioning and Sibling Adjustment Following Treatment of Childhood Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Cindy L.; Hansen, James C.; Zevon, Michael A.

    Childhood cancer and its treatment have been identified as significant stressors for individuals and families. The impact of this experience on healthy siblings has not been clearly determined. This study was designed to assess siblings regarding their adjustment and their perceptions of their families following a sick sibling's treatment.…

  10. Prospects of intermittent preventive treatment of adults against malaria in areas of seasonal and unstable malaria transmission, and a possible role for chloroquine.

    PubMed

    Giha, Hayder A

    2010-04-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is outmoded as an antimalarial drug in most of the malarial world because of the high resistance rate of parasites. The parasite resistance to CQ is attributed to pfcrt/pfmdr1 gene mutations. Recent studies showed that parasites with mutations of pfcrt/pfmdr1 genes are less virulent, and that those with dhfr/dhps mutations are more susceptible to host immune clearance; the former and latter mutations are linked. In the era of artemisinin-based combination therapy, the frequency of pfcrt/pfmdr1 wild variants is expected to rise. In areas of unstable malaria transmission, the unpredictable severe epidemics of malaria and epidemics of severe malaria could result in high mortality rate among the semi-immune population. With this in mind, the use of CQ for intermittent preventive treatment of adults (IPTa) is suggested as a feasible control measure to reduce malaria mortality in adults and older children without reducing uncomplicated malaria morbidity. The above is discussed in a multidisciplinary approach validating the deployment of molecular techniques in malaria control and showing a possible role for CQ as a rescue drug after being abandoned.

  11. Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine against Malaria and Anemia in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nana O.; Ceesay, Fatou K.; Obed, Samuel A.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Gyasi, Richard K.; Rodney, Patricia; Ndjakani, Yassa; Anderson, Winston A.; Lucchi, Naomi W.; Stiles, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) against malaria and anemia is unclear because of the spread of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. This study evaluates the effectiveness of IPTp-SP among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. A cross-sectional study comparing malaria and anemia prevalence among pregnant women using IPTp-SP with non-IPTp-SP users was conducted during June–August 2009. A total of 363 pregnant women (202 of IPTp users and 161 non-IPTp users) were recruited. A total of 15.3% of IPTp users had malaria compared with 44.7% of non-IPTp users (P < 0.001). A total of 58.4% of non-IPTp users were anemic compared with 22.8% of IPTp users (P < 0.001). When we controlled for other variables, the difference in the prevalence of malaria (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval = 0.08–0.37) and anemia (odds ratio = 0.20, 95% confidence interval = 0.12–0.34) remained significant. The recommended IPTp-SP regimen is useful in preventing malaria and anemia among pregnant women in Ghana. PMID:21734118

  12. Travel medicine physician adherence to guidelines for the emergency self treatment of malaria.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Gerard T; Walden, Lucas M; Townend, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have examined emergency self treatment (EST) antimalarial prescribing patterns. 110 physician-members of the Travel Medicine Society of Ireland and British Global and Travel Health Association participated in this study. There was a trend towards the prescription of EST for travel to remote low-risk malaria areas; for long-term residents living in low-risk areas; and for frequent travellers to low-risk areas. This study provides insights into the use of EST in travellers' malaria. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Lead Selection of a New Aminomethylphenol, JPC-3210, for Malaria Treatment and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Chavchich, Marina; Birrell, Geoffrey W; Ager, Arba L; MacKenzie, Donna O; Heffernan, Gavin D; Schiehser, Guy A; Jacobus, Laura R; Shanks, G Dennis; Jacobus, David P; Edstein, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Structure-activity relationship studies of trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridine and pyrimidine analogues of 2-aminomethylphenols (JPC-2997, JPC-3186, and JPC-3210) were conducted for preclinical development for malaria treatment and/or prevention. Of these compounds, JPC-3210 [4-(tert-butyl)-2-((tert-butylamino)methyl)-6-(5-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)phenol] was selected as the lead compound due to superior in vitro antimalarial activity against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum lines, lower in vitro cytotoxicity in mammalian cell lines, longer plasma elimination half-life, and greater in vivo efficacy against murine malaria.

  14. Lead Selection of a New Aminomethylphenol, JPC-3210, for Malaria Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chavchich, Marina; Birrell, Geoffrey W.; Ager, Arba L.; MacKenzie, Donna O.; Heffernan, Gavin D.; Schiehser, Guy A.; Jacobus, Laura R.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Jacobus, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Structure-activity relationship studies of trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridine and pyrimidine analogues of 2-aminomethylphenols (JPC-2997, JPC-3186, and JPC-3210) were conducted for preclinical development for malaria treatment and/or prevention. Of these compounds, JPC-3210 [4-(tert-butyl)-2-((tert-butylamino)methyl)-6-(5-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)phenol] was selected as the lead compound due to superior in vitro antimalarial activity against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum lines, lower in vitro cytotoxicity in mammalian cell lines, longer plasma elimination half-life, and greater in vivo efficacy against murine malaria. PMID:26856849

  15. Modelling the Epidemiological Impact of Intermittent Preventive Treatment against Malaria in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Amanda; Penny, Melissa; Maire, Nicolas; Studer, Alain; Carneiro, Ilona; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian; Tanner, Marcel; Smith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Trials of intermittent preventive treatment against malaria in infants (IPTi) using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) have shown a positive, albeit variable, protective efficacy against clinical malaria episodes. The impact of IPTi in different epidemiological settings and over time is unknown and predictions are hampered by the lack of knowledge about how IPTi works. We investigated mechanisms proposed for the action of IPTi and made predictions of the likely impact on morbidity and mortality. Methods/Principal Findings We used a comprehensive, individual-based, stochastic model of malaria epidemiology to simulate recently published trials of IPTi using SP with site-specific characteristics as inputs. This baseline model was then modified to represent hypotheses concerning the duration of action of SP, the temporal pattern of fevers caused by individual infections, potential benefits of avoiding fevers on immunity and the effect of sub-therapeutic levels of SP on parasite dynamics. The baseline model reproduced the pattern of results reasonably well. None of the models based on alternative hypotheses improved the fit between the model predictions and observed data. Predictions suggest that IPTi would have a beneficial effect across a range of transmission intensities. IPTi was predicted to avert a greater number of episodes where IPTi coverage was higher, the health system treatment coverage lower, and for drugs which were more efficacious and had longer prophylactic periods. The predicted cumulative benefits were proportionately slightly greater for severe malaria episodes and malaria-attributable mortality than for acute episodes in the settings modelled. Modest increased susceptibility was predicted between doses and following the last dose, but these were outweighed by the cumulative benefits. The impact on transmission intensity was negligible. Conclusions The pattern of trial results can be accounted for by differences between the trial sites

  16. The malaria testing and treatment market in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2013.

    PubMed

    Mpanya, Godéfroid; Tshefu, Antoinette; Likwela, Joris Losimba

    2017-02-28

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is one of the two most leading contributors to the global burden of disease due to malaria. This paper describes the malaria testing and treatment market in the nation's capital province of Kinshasa, including availability of malaria testing and treatment and relative anti-malarial market share for the public and private sector. A malaria medicine outlet survey was conducted in Kinshasa province in 2013. Stratified multi-staged sampling was used to select areas for the survey. Within sampled areas, all outlets with the potential to sell or distribute anti-malarials in the public and private sector were screened for eligibility. Among outlets with anti-malarials or malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) in stock, a full audit of all available products was conducted. Information collected included product information (e.g. active ingredients, brand name), amount reportedly distributed to patients in the past week, and retail price. In total, 3364 outlets were screened for inclusion across Kinshasa and 1118 outlets were eligible for the study. Among all screened outlets in the private sector only about one in ten (12.1%) were stocking quality-assured Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) medicines. Among all screened public sector facilities, 24.5% had both confirmatory testing and quality-assured ACT available, and 20.2% had sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) available for intermittent preventive therapy during pregnancy (IPTp). The private sector distributed the majority of anti-malarials in Kinshasa (96.7%), typically through drug stores (89.1% of the total anti-malarial market). Non-artemisinin therapies were the most commonly distributed anti-malarial (50.1% of the total market), followed by non quality-assured ACT medicines (38.5%). The median price of an adult quality-assured ACT was $6.59, and more expensive than non quality-assured ACT ($3.71) and SP ($0.44). Confirmatory testing was largely not available in the private

  17. Key stakeholders' perspectives towards childhood obesity treatment: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Staniford, Leanne Jane; Breckon, Jeff David; Copeland, Robert James; Hutchison, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Over the past three decades, there has been a dramatic global increase in childhood obesity. A better understanding of stakeholders' perceptions of intervention requirements could contribute to developing more effective interventions for childhood obesity. This study provides a qualitative, in-depth, analysis of stakeholders' (children, parents and health professionals) perspectives toward the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment interventions. Twenty-six stakeholders were recruited using purposive sampling; semi-structured interviews were adopted to explore stakeholders' perceptions with data analysed using a framework approach. Stakeholders concurred that treatment should be family-based incorporating physical activity, nutrition and psychological components, and be delivered in familiar environments to recipients. However, incongruence existed between stakeholders towards the sustainability of obesity treatment interventions. Parents and children reported needing ongoing support to sustain behavioural changes made during treatment, while health professionals suggested interventions should aim to create autonomous individuals who exit treatment and independently sustain behaviour change. This study provides an insight into issues of stakeholder involvement in the obesity intervention design and delivery process. To promote long-term behaviour change, there needs to be increased congruence between the delivery and receipt of childhood obesity treatment interventions. Interventions need to incorporate strategies that promote autonomous and self-regulated motivation, to enhance families' confidence in sustaining behaviour change independent of health professional support.

  18. Parental involvement: contribution to childhood anxiety and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chiaying; Kendall, Philip C

    2014-12-01

    Anxiety disorders are prevalent in youth. Despite demonstrated efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), approximately 40% of anxiety-disordered youth remain unresponsive to treatment. Because developmental and etiological models suggest that parental factors are relevant to the onset and maintenance of childhood anxiety, researchers have proposed and investigated family-based interventions with increased parent work in treatment, aiming to improve the efficacy of treatment for childhood anxiety. However, contrary to what theoretical models suggest, data to date did not indicate additive benefit of family-based CBT in comparison with child-centered modality. Is parent/family involvement unnecessary when treating childhood anxiety disorders? Or could there be the need for specificity (tailored family-based treatment) that is guided by a revised conceptualization that improves the implementation of a family-based intervention? The current review examines (1) relevant parental factors that have been found to be associated with the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety and (2) interventions that incorporate parental involvement. Relevant findings are integrated to formulate a "targeted" treatment approach for parental involvement in CBT for youth anxiety. Specifically, there is potential in the assessment of parent/family factors prior to treatment (for appropriateness) followed by a target-oriented implementation of parent training.

  19. The economic value of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia: results from a contingent valuation survey

    PubMed Central

    Masiye, Felix; Rehnberg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations for malaria control. Aims and objectives This paper specifically seeks to elicit a measure of the economic benefits of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia. The paper also studies the equity implications in malaria treatment given that demand or malaria treatment is determined by household socio-economic status. Methods A contingent valuation survey of about 300 Zambian households was conducted in four districts. Willingness-to-pay (WTP) was elicited for an improved treatment programme for malaria in order to generate a measure of the economic benefits of the programme. The payment card method was used in eliciting WTP bids. Findings The study reports that malaria treatment has significant economic benefits to society. The total economic benefits of an improved treatment programme were estimated at an equivalent of US$ 77 million per annum, representing about 1.8% of Zambia's GDP. The study also reports the theoretically anticipated association between WTP and several socio-economic factors. Our income elasticity of demand is positive and similar in magnitude to estimates reported in similar studies. Finally, from an equity standpoint, the constraints imposed by income and socio-economic status are discussed. PMID:16356176

  20. Rural-Urban Differences in Household Treatment-Seeking Behaviour for Suspected Malaria in Children at Bata District, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Romay-Barja, Maria; Jarrin, Inma; Ncogo, Policarpo; Nseng, Gloria; Sagrado, Maria Jose; Santana-Morales, Maria A.; Aparcio, Pilar; Valladares, Basilio; Riloha, Matilde; Benito, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years old in Equatorial Guinea. However, little is known about the community management of malaria and treatment-seeking patterns. We aimed to assess symptoms of children with reported malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour of their caretakers in rural and urban areas in the Bata District. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted in the district of Bata and 440 houses were selected from 18 rural villages and 26 urban neighbourhoods. Differences between rural and urban caregivers and children with reported malaria were assessed through the chi-squared test for independence of categorical variables and the t-Student or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test for normally or not-normally distributed continuous variables, respectively. Results Differences between rural and urban households were observed in caregiver treatment-seeking patterns. Fever was the main symptom associated with malaria in both areas. Malaria was treated first at home, particularly in rural areas. The second step was to seek treatment outside the home, mainly at hospital and Health Centre for rural households and at hospital and private clinic for urban ones. Artemether monotherapy was the antimalarial treatment prescribed most often. Households waited for more than 24 hours before seeking treatment outside and delays were longest in rural areas. The total cost of treatment was higher in urban than in rural areas in Bata. Conclusions The delays in seeking treatment, the type of malaria therapy received and the cost of treatment are the principal problems found in Bata District. Important steps for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in this area are to provide sufficient supplies of effective antimalarial drugs and to improve malaria treatment skills in households and in both public and private sectors. PMID:26284683

  1. Rural-Urban Differences in Household Treatment-Seeking Behaviour for Suspected Malaria in Children at Bata District, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Romay-Barja, Maria; Jarrin, Inma; Ncogo, Policarpo; Nseng, Gloria; Sagrado, Maria Jose; Santana-Morales, Maria A; Aparicio, Pilar; Aparcio, Pilar; Valladares, Basilio; Riloha, Matilde; Benito, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years old in Equatorial Guinea. However, little is known about the community management of malaria and treatment-seeking patterns. We aimed to assess symptoms of children with reported malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour of their caretakers in rural and urban areas in the Bata District. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the district of Bata and 440 houses were selected from 18 rural villages and 26 urban neighbourhoods. Differences between rural and urban caregivers and children with reported malaria were assessed through the chi-squared test for independence of categorical variables and the t-Student or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test for normally or not-normally distributed continuous variables, respectively. Differences between rural and urban households were observed in caregiver treatment-seeking patterns. Fever was the main symptom associated with malaria in both areas. Malaria was treated first at home, particularly in rural areas. The second step was to seek treatment outside the home, mainly at hospital and Health Centre for rural households and at hospital and private clinic for urban ones. Artemether monotherapy was the antimalarial treatment prescribed most often. Households waited for more than 24 hours before seeking treatment outside and delays were longest in rural areas. The total cost of treatment was higher in urban than in rural areas in Bata. The delays in seeking treatment, the type of malaria therapy received and the cost of treatment are the principal problems found in Bata District. Important steps for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in this area are to provide sufficient supplies of effective antimalarial drugs and to improve malaria treatment skills in households and in both public and private sectors.

  2. Malaria treatment in the retail sector: Knowledge and practices of drug sellers in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hetzel, Manuel W; Dillip, Angel; Lengeler, Christian; Obrist, Brigit; Msechu, June J; Makemba, Ahmed M; Mshana, Christopher; Schulze, Alexander; Mshinda, Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Background Throughout Africa, the private retail sector has been recognised as an important source of antimalarial treatment, complementing formal health services. However, the quality of advice and treatment at private outlets is a widespread concern, especially with the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). As a result, ACTs are often deployed exclusively through public health facilities, potentially leading to poorer access among parts of the population. This research aimed at assessing the performance of the retail sector in rural Tanzania. Such information is urgently required to improve and broaden delivery channels for life-saving drugs. Methods During a comprehensive shop census in the districts of Kilombero and Ulanga, Tanzania, we interviewed 489 shopkeepers about their knowledge of malaria and malaria treatment. A complementary mystery shoppers study was conducted in 118 retail outlets in order to assess the vendors' drug selling practices. Both studies included drug stores as well as general shops. Results Shopkeepers in drug stores were able to name more malaria symptoms and were more knowledgeable about malaria treatment than their peers in general shops. In drug stores, 52% mentioned the correct child-dosage of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) compared to only 3% in general shops. In drug stores, mystery shoppers were more likely to receive an appropriate treatment (OR = 9.6), but at an approximately seven times higher price. Overall, adults were more often sold an antimalarial than children (OR = 11.3). On the other hand, general shopkeepers were often ready to refer especially children to a higher level if they felt unable to manage the case. Conclusion The quality of malaria case-management in the retail sector is not satisfactory. Drug stores should be supported and empowered to provide correct malaria-treatment with drugs they are allowed to dispense. At the same time, the role of general shops as first contact points

  3. Retail sector distribution chains for malaria treatment in the developing world: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In many low-income countries, the retail sector plays an important role in the treatment of malaria and is increasingly being considered as a channel for improving medicine availability. Retailers are the last link in a distribution chain and their supply sources are likely to have an important influence on the availability, quality and price of malaria treatment. This article presents the findings of a systematic literature review on the retail sector distribution chain for malaria treatment in low and middle-income countries. Methods Publication databases were searched using key terms relevant to the distribution chain serving all types of anti-malarial retailers. Organizations involved in malaria treatment and distribution chain related activities were contacted to identify unpublished studies. Results A total of 32 references distributed across 12 developing countries were identified. The distribution chain had a pyramid shape with numerous suppliers at the bottom and fewer at the top. The chain supplying rural and less-formal outlets was made of more levels than that serving urban and more formal outlets. Wholesale markets tended to be relatively concentrated, especially at the top of the chain where few importers accounted for most of the anti-malarial volumes sold. Wholesale price mark-ups varied across chain levels, ranging from 27% to 99% at the top of the chain, 8% at intermediate level (one study only) and 2% to 67% at the level supplying retailers directly. Retail mark-ups tended to be higher, and varied across outlet types, ranging from 3% to 566% in pharmacies, 29% to 669% in drug shops and 100% to 233% in general shops. Information on pricing determinants was very limited. Conclusions Evidence on the distribution chain for retail sector malaria treatment was mainly descriptive and lacked representative data on a national scale. These are important limitations in the advent of the Affordable Medicine Facility for Malaria, which aims to

  4. Retail sector distribution chains for malaria treatment in the developing world: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patouillard, Edith; Hanson, Kara G; Goodman, Catherine A

    2010-02-11

    In many low-income countries, the retail sector plays an important role in the treatment of malaria and is increasingly being considered as a channel for improving medicine availability. Retailers are the last link in a distribution chain and their supply sources are likely to have an important influence on the availability, quality and price of malaria treatment. This article presents the findings of a systematic literature review on the retail sector distribution chain for malaria treatment in low and middle-income countries. Publication databases were searched using key terms relevant to the distribution chain serving all types of anti-malarial retailers. Organizations involved in malaria treatment and distribution chain related activities were contacted to identify unpublished studies. A total of 32 references distributed across 12 developing countries were identified. The distribution chain had a pyramid shape with numerous suppliers at the bottom and fewer at the top. The chain supplying rural and less-formal outlets was made of more levels than that serving urban and more formal outlets. Wholesale markets tended to be relatively concentrated, especially at the top of the chain where few importers accounted for most of the anti-malarial volumes sold. Wholesale price mark-ups varied across chain levels, ranging from 27% to 99% at the top of the chain, 8% at intermediate level (one study only) and 2% to 67% at the level supplying retailers directly. Retail mark-ups tended to be higher, and varied across outlet types, ranging from 3% to 566% in pharmacies, 29% to 669% in drug shops and 100% to 233% in general shops. Information on pricing determinants was very limited. Evidence on the distribution chain for retail sector malaria treatment was mainly descriptive and lacked representative data on a national scale. These are important limitations in the advent of the Affordable Medicine Facility for Malaria, which aims to increase consumer access to artemisinin

  5. Malaria treatment in the retail sector: knowledge and practices of drug sellers in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Manuel W; Dillip, Angel; Lengeler, Christian; Obrist, Brigit; Msechu, June J; Makemba, Ahmed M; Mshana, Christopher; Schulze, Alexander; Mshinda, Hassan

    2008-05-09

    Throughout Africa, the private retail sector has been recognised as an important source of antimalarial treatment, complementing formal health services. However, the quality of advice and treatment at private outlets is a widespread concern, especially with the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). As a result, ACTs are often deployed exclusively through public health facilities, potentially leading to poorer access among parts of the population. This research aimed at assessing the performance of the retail sector in rural Tanzania. Such information is urgently required to improve and broaden delivery channels for life-saving drugs. During a comprehensive shop census in the districts of Kilombero and Ulanga, Tanzania, we interviewed 489 shopkeepers about their knowledge of malaria and malaria treatment. A complementary mystery shoppers study was conducted in 118 retail outlets in order to assess the vendors' drug selling practices. Both studies included drug stores as well as general shops. Shopkeepers in drug stores were able to name more malaria symptoms and were more knowledgeable about malaria treatment than their peers in general shops. In drug stores, 52% mentioned the correct child-dosage of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) compared to only 3% in general shops. In drug stores, mystery shoppers were more likely to receive an appropriate treatment (OR = 9.6), but at an approximately seven times higher price. Overall, adults were more often sold an antimalarial than children (OR = 11.3). On the other hand, general shopkeepers were often ready to refer especially children to a higher level if they felt unable to manage the case. The quality of malaria case-management in the retail sector is not satisfactory. Drug stores should be supported and empowered to provide correct malaria-treatment with drugs they are allowed to dispense. At the same time, the role of general shops as first contact points for malaria patients needs to be re

  6. Malaria rapid testing by community health workers is effective and safe for targeting malaria treatment: randomised cross-over trial in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mubi, Marycelina; Janson, Annika; Warsame, Marian; Mårtensson, Andreas; Källander, Karin; Petzold, Max G; Ngasala, Billy; Maganga, Gloria; Gustafsson, Lars L; Massele, Amos; Tomson, Göran; Premji, Zul; Björkman, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Early diagnosis and prompt, effective treatment of uncomplicated malaria is critical to prevent severe disease, death and malaria transmission. We assessed the impact of rapid malaria diagnostic tests (RDTs) by community health workers (CHWs) on provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and health outcome in fever patients. Twenty-two CHWs from five villages in Kibaha District, a high-malaria transmission area in Coast Region, Tanzania, were trained to manage uncomplicated malaria using RDT aided diagnosis or clinical diagnosis (CD) only. Each CHW was randomly assigned to use either RDT or CD the first week and thereafter alternating weekly. Primary outcome was provision of ACT and main secondary outcomes were referral rates and health status by days 3 and 7. The CHWs enrolled 2930 fever patients during five months of whom 1988 (67.8%) presented within 24 hours of fever onset. ACT was provided to 775 of 1457 (53.2%) patients during RDT weeks and to 1422 of 1473 (96.5%) patients during CD weeks (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.039, 95% CI 0.029-0.053). The CHWs adhered to the RDT results in 1411 of 1457 (96.8%, 95% CI 95.8-97.6) patients. More patients were referred on inclusion day during RDT weeks (10.0%) compared to CD weeks (1.6%). Referral during days 1-7 and perceived non-recovery on days 3 and 7 were also more common after RDT aided diagnosis. However, no fatal or severe malaria occurred among 682 patients in the RDT group who were not treated with ACT, supporting the safety of withholding ACT to RDT negative patients. RDTs in the hands of CHWs may safely improve early and well-targeted ACT treatment in malaria patients at community level in Africa. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00301015.

  7. Ethnomedicinal survey of plants used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iyamah, P C; Idu, M

    2015-09-15

    Malaria is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide. It is a leading cause of death and disease in many developing countries, where young children and pregnant women are the groups most affected. Spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium and the adverse side effects of the existing anti-malarial drugs have necessitated the search for novel, well tolerated and more efficient antimalarial drugs. This ethnomedicinal study surveyed the different types of medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria with the intent of identifying plants that are traditionally employed in the treatment of malaria across geopolitical boundaries. Data were collected from 79 respondents composed of 50 traditional herbsellers and 29 herbal practitioners using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using frequency and percentages. Of the 79 respondents interviewed, 24% were males while 76% were females. A total of 156 species belonging to 60 families were reported being used to treat malaria in the study area. Fabaceae was the most represented family having fourteen (14) plant species. Of the plants identified during the survey, Azadirachta indica was the species of highest relative frequency of citation (RFC - 1.0). The dominant plant parts used in the preparation of remedies were leaves (50.50%) and Decoction was the main method of preparation. Analysis of regional plant occurrence revealed that South-Western Nigeria represented the region with the highest plant occurrence (60.7%) followed by South-South (24%) and South-East (15.3%). Regional occurrence of plants used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria is reported here for the first time. This study has documented a great diversity of plants used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria. Extracts prepared strictly according to the practitioners' recipes should therefore be screened for antiplasmodial activity and toxicity by in vitro and in vivo standard

  8. Fever treatment in the absence of malaria transmission in an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yazoume; Madise, Nyovani; Ndugwa, Robert; Ochola, Sam; Snow, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge of malaria transmission across rapidly proliferating urban centres and recommendations for its prevention or management remain poorly defined. This paper presents the results of an investigation into infection prevalence and treatment of recent febrile events among a slum population in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods In July 2008, a community-based malaria parasite prevalence survey was conducted in Korogocho slum, which forms part of the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance system. Interviewers visited 1,069 participants at home and collected data on reported fevers experienced over the preceding 14 days and details on the treatment of these episodes. Each participant was tested for malaria parasite presence with Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) and microscopy. Descriptive analyses were performed to assess the period prevalence of reported fever episodes and treatment behaviour. Results Of the 1,069 participants visited, 983 (92%) consented to be tested. Three were positive for Plasmodium falciparum using RDT; however, all were confirmed negative on microscopy. Microscopic examination of all 953 readable slides showed zero prevalence. Overall, from the 1,004 participants who have data on fever, 170 fever episodes were reported giving a relatively high period prevalence (16.9%, 95% CI:13.9%–20.5%) and higher among children below five years (20.1%, 95%CI:13.8%–27.8%). Of the fever episodes with treatment information 54.3% (95%CI:46.3%–62.2%) were treated as malaria using mainly sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine or amodiaquine, including those managed at a formal health facility. Only four episodes were managed using the nationally recommended first-line treatment, artemether-lumefantrine. Conclusion The study could not demonstrate any evidence of malaria in Korogocho, a slum in the centre of Nairobi. Fever was a common complaint and often treated as malaria with anti-malarial drugs. Strategies, including testing for malaria

  9. Factors affecting delay in seeking treatment among malaria patients along Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sonkong, Krit; Chaiklieng, Sunisa; Neave, Penny; Suggaravetsiri, Pornnapa

    2015-01-07

    Malaria is a major health problem in Thailand, especially in areas adjacent to the borders of Myanmar. Delay in seeking treatment is an important factor in the development of severe complications, death and the transmission of the disease. This study aimed to investigate factors affecting delays in seeking treatment of malaria patients. A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted in 456 malaria patients along the Thailand-Myanmar border. Patients were selected by stratified sampling from 11 malaria clinics and five public hospitals in Tak Province, Thailand. Data were collected by the use of a structured interview questionnaire and from patient's medical records. The majority of patients were categorized with an ethnicity of 'hill tribe' (65.8%), followed by Thai (34.2%). Seventy-nine per cent of patients delayed seeking treatment. A simple logistic regression identified significant factors affecting delays in seeking treatment: people of "hill tribe" ethnicity; plasmodium species; self-treatment; visiting sub-district health promotion hospital/malaria post before visiting a malaria clinic or public hospital; and low to medium social support. After being subjected to multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with the delay were "hill tribe" ethnicity (ORadj = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.34-4.04); infection with P.vivax (ORadj=2.02, 95% CI: 1.19-3.41; self-treatment (ORadj = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.04-2.85); and receiving a low degree of social support (ORadj = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24-5.35). Emphasis should be placed on need for early diagnosis and treatment in malaria patients as well as on ensuring the first facility for detection and treatment of malaria is a malaria clinic or public hospital, and the promotion of social support. These are especially important issues for the health of hill tribe people.

  10. Improving Childhood Obesity Treatment Using New Technologies: The ETIOBE System

    PubMed Central

    Baños, Rosa. M; Cebolla, Ausias; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Oliver, Elia; Zaragoza, Irene; Alcaniz, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem in western culture. Sedentary lifestyles and an “obesogenic environment” are the main influences on children leading to an increase in obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe an e-health platform for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity called ETIOBE. This e-health platform is an e-therapy system for the treatment of obesity, aimed at improving treatment adherence and promoting the mechanisms of self-control in patients, to obtain weight loss maintenance and to prevent relapse by establishing healthy lifestyle habits. ETIOBE is composed of three different applications, the Clinician Support System (CSS), the Home Support System (HSS) and the Mobile Support System (MSS). The use of new Information and Communication (ICT) technologies can help clinicians to improve the effectiveness of weight loss treatments, especially in the case of children, and to achieve designated treatment goals. PMID:21559232

  11. Management of malaria before and after introduction of a treatment protocol at the Eldoret District Hospital.

    PubMed

    Nabiswa, A K; Makokha, J D; Godfrey, R C; Lore, W

    1994-01-01

    A prospective study on the management of suspected malaria using a protocol on a general medical ward during the months of February and March, 1992 was done and the results compared with those of a retrospective study covering the months of November and December, 1991. The retrospective analysis showed that 78 (65%) from a total of 120 patients received antimalarial drugs despite negative or absent blood smears for malarial parasites. In 41 (34%) of the 120 patients, the first line treatment given was quinine. In the prospective study the overall quinine use dropped sharply to 19% from 54% in the retrospective study. 94 (49%) from a total of 193 patients with suspected malaria had negative blood smears of whom only 8 (4%) received quinine while 63 (33%) did not receive any antimalarial therapy and 38 of these 63 patients ended up with different final diagnoses; the remaining 25 were observed on no antimalarial treatment and discharged home feeling well. These results emphasize the need for proper diagnosis of malaria and suggest that chloroquine is still acceptable and effective as a first line drug for proven cases of malaria in adult patients in Eldoret. Unnecessary quinine use is discouraged as the drug is more expensive with more toxic effects compared to chloroquine.

  12. Factors influencing dropout rate of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Doku, David Teye; Zankawah, Mumuni Mukaila; Adu-Gyamfi, Addae Boateng

    2016-10-10

    The burden of malaria in terms of morbidity and mortality is huge is Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among pregnant women. Among the measures to curb down this burden include intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and effective case management. These strategies were adopted by Ghana and implemented since 2003; however, there is still high dropout rate in IPT coverage. This study sought to investigate factors contributing to high dropout rate between IPT1 and IPT3 in the Tamale Metropolis, one of the health facilities with the highest IPT dropout rates in Ghana. Survey, in-depth interviews and short ethnographic techniques were conducted among pregnant women, antenatal care (ANC) health workers and heads of health facilities to investigate factors which account for dropout rate of intermittent treatment of malaria. Shortage of sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP), inadequate supply of portable water for administration of SP, unavailability of IPT during outreach services, lack of knowledge by ANC staff about the dropout rate in their area of jurisdiction and poor attitude of some health workers were identified as barriers to achieving high IPT3 coverage. Late ANC visit, provider and logistical barriers account for the women's missed opportunities to prevent malaria in pregnancy through IPT. Addressing the above barriers will contribute to saving lives and ensuring progress towards the goal of combating malaria as well as reducing maternal, neonatal and child mortalities.

  13. Cost analysis of school-based intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Drake, Thomas L; Okello, George; Njagi, Kiambo; Halliday, Katherine E; Jukes, Matthew Ch; Mangham, Lindsay; Brooker, Simon

    2011-09-20

    The control of malaria in schools is receiving increasing attention, but there remains currently no consensus as to the optimal intervention strategy. This paper analyses the costs of intermittent screening and treatment (IST) of malaria in schools, implemented as part of a cluster-randomized controlled trial on the Kenyan coast. Financial and economic costs were estimated using an ingredients approach whereby all resources required in the delivery of IST are quantified and valued. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate how programme variation affects costs and to identify potential cost savings in the future implementation of IST. The estimated financial cost of IST per child screened is US$ 6.61 (economic cost US$ 6.24). Key contributors to cost were salary costs (36%) and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) (22%). Almost half (47%) of the intervention cost comprises redeployment of existing resources including health worker time and use of hospital vehicles. Sensitivity analysis identified changes to intervention delivery that can reduce programme costs by 40%, including use of alternative RDTs and removal of supervised treatment. Cost-effectiveness is also likely to be highly sensitive to the proportion of children found to be RDT-positive. In the current context, school-based IST is a relatively expensive malaria intervention, but reducing the complexity of delivery can result in considerable savings in the cost of intervention. (Costs are reported in US$ 2010).

  14. Modeling the Impact of Bed-Net Use and Treatment on Malaria Transmission Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We modeled the impact of bed-net use and insecticide treated nets (ITNs), temperature, and treatment on malaria transmission dynamics using ordinary differential equations. To achieve this we formulated a simple model of mosquito biting rate that depends on temperature and usage of insecticides treated bed nets. We conducted global uncertainty and sensitivity analysis using Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHC) and Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient (PRCC) in order to find the most effective parameters that affect malaria transmission dynamics. We established the existence of the region where the model is epidemiologically feasible. We conducted the stability analysis of the disease-free equilibrium by the threshold parameter. We found the condition for the existence of the endemic equilibrium and provided necessary condition for its stability. Our results show that the peak of mosquitoes biting rate occurs at a range of temperature values not on a single value as previously reported in literature. The results also show that the combination of treatment and ITNs usage is the most effective intervention strategy towards control and eradication of malaria transmissions. Sensitivity analysis results indicate that the biting rate and the mosquitoes death rates are the most important parameters in the dynamics of malaria transmission. PMID:28835913

  15. Adherence to Plasmodium vivax malaria treatment in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients' adherence to malaria treatment is an important factor in determining the therapeutic response to anti-malarial drugs. It contributes to the patient's complete recovery and prevents the emergence of parasite resistance to anti-malarial drugs. In Brazil, the low compliance with malaria treatment probably explains the large number of Plasmodium vivax malaria relapses observed in the past years. The goal of this study was to estimate the proportion of patients adhering to the P. vivax malaria treatment with chloroquine + primaquine in the dosages recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Methods Patients who were being treated for P. vivax malaria with chloroquine plus primaquine were eligible for the study. On the seventh day of taking primaquine, they were visited at their home and were interviewed. The patients were classified as probably adherent, if they reported having taken all the medication as prescribed, in the correct period of time and dosage, and had no medication tablets remaining; probably non-adherent, if they reported not having taken the medication, in the correct period of time and dosage, and did not show any remaining tablets; and certainly non-adherent, if they showed any remaining medication tablets. Results 242 of the 280 patients reported having correctly followed the prescribed instructions and represented a treatment adherence frequency (CI95%) of 86.4% (81.7%-90.1%). Of the 38 patients who did not follow the recommendations, 27 (9.6%) were still taking the medication on the day of the interview and, therefore, still had primaquine tablets left in the blister pack. These patients were then classified as certainly non-adherent to treatment. Although 11 patients did not show any tablets left, they reported incorrect use of the prescribed therapy regimen and were considered as probably non-adherent to treatment. Conclusions Compliance with the P. vivax malaria treatment is a characteristic of 242/280 patients in the

  16. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Childhood ALL is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many immature lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). Here’s what you need to know about the risk factors, signs, tests to diagnose, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent ALL in this expert-reviewed summary.

  17. A Treatment for Dysprosody in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Kirrie J.; Robin, Donald A.; McCabe, Patricia; McDonald, Jeannie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dysprosody is considered a core feature of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), especially impaired production of lexical stress. Few studies have tested the effects of intervention for dysprosody. This Phase II study with 3 children investigated the efficacy of a treatment targeting improved control of relative syllable durations in…

  18. Childhood Resiliency Effects from Schoolwide Treatment: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinerman, Krystal M.; Hull, Darrell M.; Hayes, DeMarquis; Powell, Marvin G.; Ferguson, Sarah; Naslund-Hadley, Emma I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Childhood Resiliency Effects from Schoolwide Treatment (CREST) Pilot was to implement a comprehensive school wide social and character development program aimed at decreasing violence among students and assisting students exposed to violence in Belize City. This one-year pilot program implemented portions of the Positive Action…

  19. Early Childhood Health--Mental Health Prevention and Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lawrence S.

    The Maimonides Early Childhood Health-Mental Health Prevention and Treatment Program is described. The program provides a broad range of preventive services to children who are five years of age and younger. Services are organized into Post-Natal and Pre-School Programs. The Post-Natal Program offers group education and counseling, individual…

  20. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    In childhood ependymoma, cancer forms in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. The cause of ependymoma is unknown. Find out about the molecular and clinical features, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and clinical trials for pediatric ependymoma, subependymoma, myxopapillary ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, and RELA fusion–positive ependymoma.

  1. Pulmonary function after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Nysom, K.; Holm, K.; Olsen, J. H.; Hertz, H.; Hesse, B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine pulmonary function after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood and identify risk factors for reduced pulmonary function. We studied a population-based cohort of 94 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood who were in first remission after treatment without spinal irradiation or bone marrow transplantation. Pulmonary function test results were compared with reference values for our laboratory, based on 348 healthy subjects who had never smoked from a local population study. A median of 8 years after cessation of therapy (range 1-18 years) the participants had a slight, subclinical, restrictive ventilatory insufficiency and reduced transfer factor and transfer coefficient. The changes in lung function were related to younger age at treatment and to more dose-intensive treatment protocols that specified more use of cranial irradiation and higher cumulative doses of anthracyclines, cytosine arabinoside and intravenous cyclophosphamide than previous protocols. We conclude that, 8 years after treatment without bone marrow transplantation or spinal irradiation, survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first remission were without pulmonary symptoms but had signs of slight restrictive pulmonary disease including reduced transfer factor. The increased dose intensity of many recent protocols for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia may lead to increased late pulmonary toxicity. PMID:9662245

  2. Childhood Theft: A Comprehensive Review of Assessment and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gloria E.; Klungness, Leah

    1989-01-01

    Non-confrontative stealing in childhood has been recognized as predictive of social maladjustment in adolescence and adulthood. A conceptual overview of issues that complicate the assessment of stealing and contribute to the maintenance of this behavior in children is provided. Diagnostic recommendations and treatment strategies in schools are…

  3. A Treatment for Dysprosody in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Kirrie J.; Robin, Donald A.; McCabe, Patricia; McDonald, Jeannie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dysprosody is considered a core feature of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), especially impaired production of lexical stress. Few studies have tested the effects of intervention for dysprosody. This Phase II study with 3 children investigated the efficacy of a treatment targeting improved control of relative syllable durations in…

  4. Implementing two treatment approaches to childhood dysarthria.

    PubMed

    Levy, Erika S

    2014-08-01

    The paucity of evidence and detail in the literature regarding speech treatment for children with dysarthria due to cerebral palsy (CP) renders it difficult for researchers to replicate studies and make further inroads into this area in need of exploration. Furthermore, for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) wishing to follow treatments that the literature indicates have promise, little guidance is available on the details of the treatments that yielded the positive results. The present article details the implementation of two treatment approaches in speech treatment research for children with dysarthria: Speech Systems Intelligibility Treatment (SSIT) and the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment LOUD (LSVT LOUD). Specific strategies, primarily for treatment, but also for outcome measurement and acoustic analysis of dysarthric speech, are described. These techniques are provided for researchers and clinicians to consider implementing in order to advance speech treatment for this population. New data from research using these approaches are presented, including findings of acoustic vowel space changes following both speech treatments.

  5. [Imported severe falciparum malaria in France in 2000-2011: epidemiological trends and the need for new treatments].

    PubMed

    Danis, Martin; Thellier, Marc; Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Bricaire, François; Buffet, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    In France malaria is monitored by the Centre National de Référence (CNR) du Paludisme (French National Malaria Reference Centre). The annual incidence of imported malaria currently ranges from 4 800 to 3 500 cases and has fallen gradually since 2000. However, the proportion of patients with severe P. falciparum malaria is increasing (2.5% in 2000, 7% in 2011), particularly among French residents from sub-Saharan Africa who neglect preventive measures. Overall mortality remains stable at 0.4%, but survival is improving in severe cases. The survival rate is higher among patients of African origin than among Europeans. Nonetheless, between 10 and 20 patients die of malaria every year in France. Two large controlled trials published in 2005 and 2010 showed that IV artesunate, a new treatment for severe falciparum malaria, is associated with a 22-38% absolute reduction in mortality relative to quinine. Artesunate is not licensed in Europe but has been available in France since May 2011 through a named-patient program controlled by the French Agency for Drug Safety [ANSM]. The first 99 patients treated with artesunate up to September 2012 experienced satisfactory efficacy and tolerability. Delayed, sometimes persistent anemia was observed in 13 patients, a rate similar to that noted in recent reports on imported malaria in Europe. This unexpected adverse effect requires further investigation. IV artesunate is now recommended as the first-line treatment for severe falciparum malaria in France.

  6. Intra-household relations and treatment decision-making for childhood illness: a Kenyan case study.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, C S; Murira, G; Masha, J; Snow, R W

    2002-01-01

    This study, conducted on the Kenyan coast, assesses the effect of intra-household relations on maternal treatment-seeking. Rural and urban Mijikenda mothers' responses to childhood fevers in the last 2 weeks (n=317), and to childhood convulsions in the previous year (n=43), were documented through survey work. The intra-household relations and decision-making dynamics surrounding maternal responses were explored through in-depth individual and group interviews, primarily with women (n=223). Responses to convulsions were more likely than responses to fevers to include a healer consultation (p<0.0001), and less likely to include the purchase of over-the-counter medications (p<0.0001). Mothers received financial or advisory assistance from others in 71% (n=236) of actions taken outside the household in response to fevers. In-depth interviews suggested that general agreement on appropriate therapy results in relatively few intra-household conflicts over the treatment of fevers. Disputes over perceived cause and appropriate therapy of convulsions, however, highlighted the importance of age, gender and relationship to household head in intra-household relations and treatment decision-making. Although mothers' treatment-seeking preferences are often circumscribed by these relations, a number of strategies can be drawn upon to circumvent 'inappropriate' decisions, sometimes with implications for future household responses to similar syndromes. The findings highlight the complexity of intra-household relations and treatment decision-making dynamics. Tentative implications for interventions aimed at improving the home management of malaria, and for further research, are presented.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy in Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Sicuri, Elisa; Bardají, Azucena; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Maixenchs, Maria; Nhacolo, Ariel; Nhalungo, Delino; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menéndez, Clara

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria in pregnancy is a public health problem for endemic countries. Economic evaluations of malaria preventive strategies in pregnancy are needed to guide health policies. Methods and Findings This analysis was carried out in the context of a trial of malaria intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP), where both intervention groups received an insecticide treated net through the antenatal clinic (ANC) in Mozambique. The cost-effectiveness of IPTp-SP on maternal clinical malaria and neonatal survival was estimated. Correlation and threshold analyses were undertaken to assess the main factors affecting the economic outcomes and the cut-off values beyond which the intervention is no longer cost-effective. In 2007 US$, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for maternal malaria was 41.46 US$ (95% CI 20.5, 96.7) per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. The ICER per DALY averted due to the reduction in neonatal mortality was 1.08 US$ (95% CI 0.43, 3.48). The ICER including both the effect on the mother and on the newborn was 1.02 US$ (95% CI 0.42, 3.21) per DALY averted. Efficacy was the main factor affecting the economic evaluation of IPTp-SP. The intervention remained cost-effective with an increase in drug cost per dose up to 11 times in the case of maternal malaria and 183 times in the case of neonatal mortality. Conclusions IPTp-SP was highly cost-effective for both prevention of maternal malaria and reduction of neonatal mortality in Mozambique. These findings are likely to hold for other settings where IPTp-SP is implemented through ANC visits. The intervention remained cost-effective even with a significant increase in drug and other intervention costs. Improvements in the protective efficacy of the intervention would increase its cost-effectiveness. Provision of IPTp with a more effective, although more expensive drug than SP may still remain a cost-effective public health measure to

  8. Disparities between malaria infection and treatment rates: Evidence from a cross-sectional analysis of households in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Saran, Indrani; Cohen, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, both under-treatment and over-treatment of malaria are common since illnesses are often diagnosed and treated on the basis of symptoms. We investigate whether malaria treatment rates among febrile individuals correspond to observed patterns of malaria infection by age and by local prevalence. Methods and findings We use data on treatment of febrile illnesses from a household survey that was conducted between March and May 2012 in 92 villages in six districts in Eastern Uganda. All household members were also tested for malaria using a rapid diagnostic test. We show that both the age of the febrile individual and the village prevalence rate are strongly associated with the odds that a febrile patient was infected with malaria, but not with the odds of ACT treatment. Compared to individuals who were aged 15 or above, febrile individuals aged 5–14 had 3.21 times the odds of testing positive for malaria (95% CI: [2.36 4.37], P<0·001), and febrile individuals who were under age 5 had 2.66 times the odds of testing positive for malaria (95% CI: [1.99 3.56], P<0·001). However, ACT treatment rates for febrile illnesses were not significantly higher for either children ages 5–14 (Unadjusted OR: 1.19, 95% CI: [0.88 1.62], P = 0.255) or children under the age of 5 (Unadjusted OR: 1.24, 95% CI: [0.92 1.68], P = 0·154). A one standard deviation increase in the village malaria prevalence rate was associated with a 2.03 times higher odds that a febrile individual under the age of five tested positive for malaria (95% CI: [1.63 2.54], p<0·001), but was not significantly associated with the odds of ACT treatment (Un-adjusted OR: 0.83, 95% CI: [0.66 1.05], P = 0·113). We present some evidence that this discrepancy may be because caregivers do not suspect a higher likelihood of malaria infection, conditional on fever, in young children or in high-prevalence villages. Conclusion Our findings suggest that households have significant mis

  9. A Functional IL22 Polymorphism (rs2227473) Is Associated with Predisposition to Childhood Cerebral Malaria.

    PubMed

    Marquet, Sandrine; Conte, Ianina; Poudiougou, Belco; Argiro, Laurent; Dessein, Hélia; Couturier, Charlène; Burté, Florence; Oumar, Aboubacar A; Brown, Biobele J; Traore, Abdoualye; Afolabi, Nathaniel K; Barry, Abdoulaye; Omokhodion, Samuel; Shokunbi, Wuraola A; Sodeinde, Olugbemiro; Doumbo, Ogobara; Fernandez-Reyes, Delmiro; Dessein, Alain J

    2017-01-31

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. This encephalopathy is characterized by coma and is thought to result from mechanical microvessel obstruction and an excessive activation of immune cells leading to pathological inflammation and blood-brain barrier alterations. IL-22 contributes to both chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases, and may have protective or pathogenic effects, depending on the tissue and disease state. We evaluated whether polymorphisms (n = 46) of IL22 and IL22RA2 were associated with CM in children from Nigeria and Mali. Two SNPs of IL22, rs1012356 (P = 0.016, OR = 2.12) and rs2227476 (P = 0.007, OR = 2.08) were independently associated with CM in a sample of 115 Nigerian children with CM and 160 controls. The association with rs2227476 (P = 0.01) was replicated in 240 nuclear families with one affected child from Mali. SNP rs2227473, in linkage disequilibrium with rs2227476, was also associated with CM in the combined cohort for these two populations, (P = 0.004, OR = 1.55). SNP rs2227473 is located within a putative binding site for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a master regulator of IL-22 production. Individuals carrying the aggravating T allele of rs2227473 produced significantly more IL-22 than those without this allele. Overall, these findings suggest that IL-22 is involved in the pathogenesis of CM.

  10. Eradicating malaria.

    PubMed

    Breman, Joel G

    2009-01-01

    The renewed interest in malaria research and control is based on the intolerable toll this disease takes on young children and pregnant women in Africa and other vulnerable populations; 150 to 300 children die each hour from malaria amounting to 1 to 2 million deaths yearly. Malaria-induced neurologic impairment, anemia, hypoglycemia, and low birth weight imperil normal development and survival. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to drugs and Anopheles mosquitoes to insecticides has stimulated discovery and development of artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) and other drugs, long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (with synthetic pyrethroids) and a search for non-toxic, long-lasting, affordable insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS). Malaria vaccine development and testing are progressing rapidly and a recombinant protein (RTS,S/AS02A) directed against the circumsporozoite protein is soon to be in Phase 3 trials. Support for malaria control, research, and advocacy through the Global Fund for HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the U.S. President's Malaria Initiative, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, WHO and other organizations is resulting in decreasing morbidity and mortality in many malarious countries. Sustainability of effective programs through training and institution strengthening will be the key to malaria elimination coupled with improved surveillance and targeted research.

  11. Childhood stimulant treatment and teen depression: is there a relationship?

    PubMed

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Marks, David J; Miller, Carlin J; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2010-10-01

    Recent preclinical data have raised the possibility that prepubertal treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with stimulant medication might increase risk for later depression. The current longitudinal study investigated whether children with ADHD who were treated with stimulant medication displayed heightened levels of adolescent depression. Adolescents diagnosed with ADHD during childhood who had received a minimum of 1 year of treatment with stimulant medication were compared to adolescents with a childhood history of ADHD who were never treated with stimulants and a demographically matched comparison group on self-reports of depressive symptoms and diagnoses of depressive disorders. Both subgroups with childhood ADHD reported significantly higher dimensional ratings of depression and categorical rates of depressive disorders relative to the comparison group (all p<0.05), yet those who were and were not medicated did not differ from one another. Results indicate that, while childhood ADHD increases risk for adolescent depression, stimulant treatment for ADHD neither heightens nor protects against such risk.

  12. Community participation for malaria elimination in tafea province, vanuatu: part ii. social and cultural aspects of treatment-seeking behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis and prompt effective case management are important components of any malaria elimination strategy. Tafea Province, Vanuatu has a rich history of traditional practices and beliefs, which have been integrated with missionary efforts and the introduction of modern constructions of health. Gaining a detailed knowledge of community perceptions of malarial symptomatology and treatment-seeking behaviours is essential in guiding effective community participation strategies for malaria control and elimination. Method An ethnographic study involving nine focus group discussions (FGD), 12 key informant interviews (KII) and seven participatory workshops were carried out on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Villages in areas of high and low malaria transmission risk were selected. Four ni-Vanuatu research officers, including two from Tanna, were trained and employed to conduct the research. Data underwent thematic analysis to examine treatment-seeking behaviour and community perceptions of malaria. Results Malaria was perceived to be a serious, but relatively new condition, and in most communities, identified as being apparent only after independence in 1980. Severe fever in the presence of other key symptoms triggered a diagnosis of malaria by individuals. Use of traditional or home practices was common: perceived vulnerability of patient and previous experience with malaria impacted on the time taken to seek treatment at a health facility. Barriers to health care access and reasons for delay in care-seeking included the availability of health worker and poor community infrastructure. Conclusion Due to programme success of achieving low malaria transmission, Tafea province has been identified for elimination of malaria by 2012 in the Government of Vanuatu Malaria Action Plans (MAP). An effective malaria elimination programme requires interactions between the community and its leaders, malaria workers and health providers for success in diagnosis and prompt

  13. [The focal control of malaria. Focal treatment using chemoprophylaxis and home insecticide spraying for the control of malaria in southern Mexico].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez López, M H; Loyola Elizondo, E G; Betanzos Reyes, A F; Villarreal Treviño, C; Bown, D N

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of a focal control strategy for malaria was evaluated against a conventional scheme carried out in two groups of villages in the Soconusco, southern Chiapas, Mexico. Focal control consisted on the prophylactic administration of antimalarial drugs to people who had experienced malaria episodes two years previous to the study. Homes of these malaria patients were also sprayed indoors with DDT. The traditional strategy consisted on the treatment of all patients with antimalarial drugs as well as indoor spraying with DDT of all houses in the villages. Results from the focal control demonstrated similar efficacy as compared to conventional. However, in terms of cost, focal control was four fold more economical. Focal control had an additional advantage of incorporating community participation within the control operations.

  14. Medicinal Plants Used in Mali for the Treatment of Malaria and Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Haidara, Mahamane; Bourdy, Geneviève; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Braca, Alessandra; Traore, Korotoumou; Giani, Sergio; Sanogo, Rokia

    2016-03-01

    Today, ethno-pharmacology is a very important resource in order to discover new therapies for the current diseases. Moreover, another good justification for the ethno-pharmacological approach is to obtain new, effective, less expensive and simple therapies, limiting at the same time the cost of pharmaceutical research. Two major anti-malarial drugs widely used today, i.e. quinine and artemisinin, came respectively from Peruvian and Chinese ancestral treatments reported in the traditional medicines. In this contest, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new drugs, due to the critical epidemiological situation of this disease and to the growth of resistances. In Mali, malaria and liver diseases remain one of the leading public health problems. Many medicinal plants are often used, in local traditional medicine, for the treatment at the same time of malaria and liver diseases, including hepatic syndromes, jaundice, hepatitis and other hepatic disorders. Moreover, in the local language Bamanan, the word "Sumaya" is used both for malaria and some liver diseases. In addition, we noted that some of the improved traditional phytomedicines produced by the Department of Traditional Medicine are prescribed by modern doctors both for malaria and liver diseases. In this review, pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical data on Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae), Cochlospermum tinctorium Perr. ex A. Rich (Cochlospermaceae), Combretum micranthum G.Don (Combretaceae), Entada africana Guillet Perr. (Mimosaceae), Erythrina senegalensis A. DC (Fabaceae), Mitragyna inermis (Willd) Kuntze (Rubiaceae), Nauclea latifolia Smith syn. Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) Bruce (Rubiaceae), Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen (Polygalaceae), Trichilia emetica Vahl. (Meliaceae), and Vernonia colorata (Willd) Drake (Asteraceae) are reported. Some of the collected data could be used to improve the actual herbal drugs and to propose new phytomedicines for the management of malaria and

  15. Construction site workers' malaria knowledge and treatment-seeking pattern in a highly endemic urban area of India.

    PubMed

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Pai, Sudarshan; Akshaya, Kibballi Madhukeshwar; D'Souza, Neevan

    2016-03-16

    Construction sites are potential breeding places for some species of mosquitoes. Construction workers usually stay at the construction sites, thus being extremely susceptible to malaria. For malaria control, a special focus on them is warranted as they often seek treatment from unregulated, private vendors, increasing their risk of exposure to substandard drugs. To elicit the socio-demographic factors associated with comprehensive malaria knowledge (symptoms, mode of spread, and preventive measures) and treatment-seeking pattern (preferred source and type of treatment) among the construction workers in Mangaluru, India; and, to study the association among their comprehensive malaria knowledge, past suffering from malaria (within 1 year) and treatment-seeking pattern. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in nine randomly selected construction sites of Mangaluru, a high-risk city for malaria with an annual parasite incidence of >2/1000/year, from June-September 2012. A sample size of 132 was estimated assuming at least 30% of them have satisfactory malaria knowledge, 10% absolute precision, 95% confidence level, design effect of 1.5 and 10% non-responses. A semi-structured interview schedule was used, and knowledge scores were computed. Multivariate linear (for knowledge score) and logistic regressions (for preferred source and type of treatment) were applied. One hundred and nineteen workers participated in the study (total approached-138). 85% (n = 101) of them were males. Mean knowledge score was 9.95 ± 3.19 (maximum possible score-16). The majority of them were aware of the symptoms and the mode of malaria transmission. However, <12% could explain the malaria preventive measures. Females workers (β = -0.281, p = 0.001), self stated malaria within 1 year (β = 0.276, p < 0.001) and who preferred allopathic treatment (β = 0.283, P = 0.001) displayed better knowledge scores. Male workers (AdjOR 7.21, 95% CI 2.3-22.9) and those with self stated

  16. Assessing Knowledge and Perceptions Related to Preventive Methods and Treatment of Malaria in the Local Endemic Area of Trujillo, Honduras.

    PubMed

    Campodonico, Joanna; Sevilla-Martir, Javier; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Kochhar, Komal

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in Honduras is endemic and accounts for 40% of the total cases in Central America. Our goal was to assess knowledge of preventive methods and current treatment of malaria among the affected community of Trujillo, Honduras. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 71 individuals. Most respondents had a good understanding about common malaria symptoms but not about the complications associated with severe cases. More important, we found that less than 20% of the respondents recognized indoor residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets as effective preventive measures, which are the most efficient preventive methods. Our study highlights the perceptions the people of Trujillo have about malaria. From our observations, we put forward recommendations to implement a comprehensive campaign to educate the Trujillo population about malaria preventive methods and to recruit local and international efforts to distribute insecticide-treated nets.

  17. Corticosteroid treatment of childhood Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Unüvar, E; Oğuz, F; Sidal, M; Kiliç, A

    1999-11-01

    The therapeutic effect of corticosteroids in acute idiopathic peripheral nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy) in children is controversial. The authors evaluated the effect of steroids on the early and late outcome of children with Bell's palsy in a prospective randomized controlled setting. Forty-two patients (21 females, 21 males) with complete paralysis were enrolled in the study. Group 1 (n = 21) received methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg daily for 10 days orally); Group 2 (n = 21) did not. All patients were observed in the first 3 days of the disease and at 4, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. The mean age of Group 1 was 52.4 +/- 4.3 months, not significantly different from that of Group 2. In Group 1, 86% and 100% exhibited normal nerve function at 4 and 6 months of follow-up, respectively; in Group 2, 72% and 86% demonstrated complete recovery at 4 and 6 months, respectively, with improvement in all patients by 12 months. The improvement rates between the treated and untreated groups did not differ significantly. No side effects necessitated steroid withdrawal. The results of this study indicate that steroid therapy initiated at an early stage of childhood Bell's palsy does not significantly improve the outcome.

  18. Tafenoquine and its potential in the treatment and relapse prevention of Plasmodium vivax malaria: the evidence to date

    PubMed Central

    Ebstie, Yehenew A; Abay, Solomon M; Tadesse, Wondmagegn T; Ejigu, Dawit A

    2016-01-01

    Despite declining global malaria incidence, the disease continues to be a threat to people living in endemic regions. In 2015, an estimated 214 million new malaria cases and 438,000 deaths due to malaria were recorded. Plasmodium vivax is the second most common cause of malaria next to Plasmodium falciparum. Vivax malaria is prevalent especially in Southeast Asia and the Horn of Africa, with enormous challenges in controlling the disease. Some of the challenges faced by vivax malaria-endemic countries include limited access to effective drugs treating liver stages of the parasite (schizonts and hypnozoites), emergence/spread of drug resistance, and misperception of vivax malaria as nonlethal. Primaquine, the only 8-aminoquinoline derivative approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, is intended to clear intrahepatic hypnozoites of P. vivax (radical cure). However, poor adherence to a prolonged treatment course, drug-induced hemolysis in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and the emergence of resistance make it imperative to look for alternative drugs. Therefore, this review focuses on data accrued to date on tafenoquine and gives insight on the potential role of the drug in preventing relapse and radical cure of patients with vivax malaria. PMID:27528800

  19. Tafenoquine and its potential in the treatment and relapse prevention of Plasmodium vivax malaria: the evidence to date.

    PubMed

    Ebstie, Yehenew A; Abay, Solomon M; Tadesse, Wondmagegn T; Ejigu, Dawit A

    2016-01-01

    Despite declining global malaria incidence, the disease continues to be a threat to people living in endemic regions. In 2015, an estimated 214 million new malaria cases and 438,000 deaths due to malaria were recorded. Plasmodium vivax is the second most common cause of malaria next to Plasmodium falciparum. Vivax malaria is prevalent especially in Southeast Asia and the Horn of Africa, with enormous challenges in controlling the disease. Some of the challenges faced by vivax malaria-endemic countries include limited access to effective drugs treating liver stages of the parasite (schizonts and hypnozoites), emergence/spread of drug resistance, and misperception of vivax malaria as nonlethal. Primaquine, the only 8-aminoquinoline derivative approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, is intended to clear intrahepatic hypnozoites of P. vivax (radical cure). However, poor adherence to a prolonged treatment course, drug-induced hemolysis in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and the emergence of resistance make it imperative to look for alternative drugs. Therefore, this review focuses on data accrued to date on tafenoquine and gives insight on the potential role of the drug in preventing relapse and radical cure of patients with vivax malaria.

  20. Barriers to prompt and effective treatment of malaria in northern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Reilley, B; Abeyasinghe, R; Pakianathar, M Vincent

    2002-09-01

    For the past 18 years, northern Sri Lanka has been affected by armed ethnic conflict. This has had a heavy impact on displacement of civilians, health delivery services, number of health professionals in the area and infrastructure. The north of Sri Lanka has a severe malaria burden, with less than 5% of the national population suffering 34% of reported cases. Health care providers investigated treatment-seeking behaviour and levels of treatment failure believed to be the result of lack of adherence to treatment. Pre- and post-treatment interviews with patients seeking treatment in the outpatient department (OPD) and focus groups. A total of 271 persons completed interviews: 54.4% sought treatment within 2 days of the onset of symptoms, and 91.9% self-treated with drugs with prior to seeking treatment, mainly with paracetamol. Self-treatment was associated with delaying treatment (RR 3.55, CI 1.23-10.24, P=0.002). In post-treatment interviews, self-reported default was 26.1%. The main reasons for not taking the entire regimen were side-effects (57.6%) and disappearance of symptoms (16.7%). Focus groups indicated some lack of confidence in chloroquine treatment and prophylaxis, and scant enthusiasm for prevention methods. A number of factors contribute to a lack of access and a lower quality of care for malaria: lack of medical staff and facilities because of the fighting; lack of confidence in treatment, and perception of malaria as a routine illness. Prevention efforts need to take into account certain beliefs and practices to be successful.

  1. A Functional IL22 Polymorphism (rs2227473) Is Associated with Predisposition to Childhood Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, Sandrine; Conte, Ianina; Poudiougou, Belco; Argiro, Laurent; Dessein, Hélia; Couturier, Charlène; Burté, Florence; Oumar, Aboubacar A.; Brown, Biobele J.; Traore, Abdoualye; Afolabi, Nathaniel K.; Barry, Abdoulaye; Omokhodion, Samuel; Shokunbi, Wuraola A.; Sodeinde, Olugbemiro; Doumbo, Ogobara; Fernandez-Reyes, Delmiro; Dessein, Alain J.

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. This encephalopathy is characterized by coma and is thought to result from mechanical microvessel obstruction and an excessive activation of immune cells leading to pathological inflammation and blood-brain barrier alterations. IL-22 contributes to both chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases, and may have protective or pathogenic effects, depending on the tissue and disease state. We evaluated whether polymorphisms (n = 46) of IL22 and IL22RA2 were associated with CM in children from Nigeria and Mali. Two SNPs of IL22, rs1012356 (P = 0.016, OR = 2.12) and rs2227476 (P = 0.007, OR = 2.08) were independently associated with CM in a sample of 115 Nigerian children with CM and 160 controls. The association with rs2227476 (P = 0.01) was replicated in 240 nuclear families with one affected child from Mali. SNP rs2227473, in linkage disequilibrium with rs2227476, was also associated with CM in the combined cohort for these two populations, (P = 0.004, OR = 1.55). SNP rs2227473 is located within a putative binding site for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a master regulator of IL-22 production. Individuals carrying the aggravating T allele of rs2227473 produced significantly more IL-22 than those without this allele. Overall, these findings suggest that IL-22 is involved in the pathogenesis of CM. PMID:28139719

  2. Child malaria treatment practices among mothers in the district of Yanfolila, Sikasso region, Mali.

    PubMed

    Théra, M A; D'Alessandro, U; Thiéro, M; Ouedraogo, A; Packou, J; Souleymane, O A; Fané, M; Ade, G; Alvez, F; Doumbo, O

    2000-12-01

    We studied child malaria treatment practices among mothers living in the District of Yanfolila in southern Mali. For sampling, we first chose five of 13 health areas with probability proportional to size. Then villages, compounds and mothers with at least one child aged 1-5 years were randomly chosen. We assessed the spleen size of one 1-5 year-old child of each mother, collected a thick blood film and recorded the body temperature of every child whose mother thought he/she was sick. 399 mothers in 28 villages were interviewed with a structured questionnaire divided into two parts. If the child had had soumaya (a term previously associated with uncomplicated malaria) during the past rainy season, we asked about signs and symptoms, health-seeking behaviour (who the mother consulted first) and treatment. If not, information about knowledge of the disease and treatment to be given was collected. 86% of the mothers interviewed stated that their child had been sick and almost half of them had had soumaya. All mothers named at least one sign by which they recognized the disease. Vomiting, fever and dark urine/yellow eyes/jaundice were the three most common signs mentioned. 75.8% managed their child's disease at home and used both traditional and modern treatment. The most common anti-malarial drug was chloroquine, often given at inappropriate dosage. The sensitivity and specificity of the mothers' diagnosis was poor, although this might be explained by the large percentage of children who had already been treated at the time of the interview. The results of our survey call for prompt educational action for the correct treatment of uncomplicated malaria/soumaya, particularly for mothers and possibly for shopkeepers. The high spleen rate (58.1%) among randomly selected children confirms that malaria is a common disease in this area. Improved case-management at home could only be beneficial.

  3. Access to malaria treatment in young children of rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Effective and timely treatment is an essential aspect of malaria control, but remains a challenge in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to describe young children's access to malaria treatment in Nouna Health District, Burkina Faso. Methods In February/March 2006, a survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1,052 households. Results Overall 149/1052 (14%) households reported the current possession of anti-malarial medicine, which was significantly associated with urban area, literacy of household head, having young children, and high socio-economic status. Out of a total of 802 children under five years, at least one malaria episode was reported for 239 (30%) within the last month. Overall 95% of children received treatment, either modern (72%), traditional (18%) or mixed (5%). Most of the medicines were provided as home treatment by the caregiver and half of children received some type of modern treatment within 24 hours of the occurrence of first symptoms. Despite a recent policy change to artemisinin-based combination therapy, modern anti-malarials consisted mainly of chloroquine (93%). Modern drugs were obtained more often from a health facility in localities with a health facility compared to those without (60% vs. 25.6%, p < 0.001). In contrast, beside informal providers, volunteer community health workers (CHW) were the main source of modern medicine in localities without a health centre (28% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). Conclusion Access to modern health services providing quality controlled effective combination therapies against malaria needs to be strengthened in rural Africa, which should include a re-investigation of the role of CHW 30 years after Alma Ata. PMID:19930680

  4. Cost comparison of microscopy vs. empiric treatment for malaria in Southwestern Nigeria: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Ravi; Amole, Isaac; Tarpley, Margaret; Gbadero, Daniel; Davidson, Mario; Vermund, Sten H

    2010-12-22

    Presumptive treatment for malaria is common in resource-limited settings, yet controversial given the imprecision of clinical diagnosis. The researchers compared costs of diagnosis and drugs for two strategies: (1) empirical treatment of malaria via clinical diagnosis; and (2) empirical diagnosis followed by treatment only with Giemsa smear confirmation. Patients with a diagnosis of clinical malaria were recruited from a mission/university teaching hospital in southwestern Nigeria. The patients underwent free Giemsa thick (diagnosis) and thin (differentiation) smears, but paid for all anti-malarial drugs. Clinical diagnosis was made on clinicians' judgments based on symptoms, including fever, diarrhoea, headache, and body aches. The paediatric regimen was artesunate (6-9 tablets of 3 mg/kg on day one and 1.5 mg/kg for the next four days) plus amodiaquine (10 mg/kg day 1-2 and 5 mg/kg on day three in suspension). Adults were given two treatment options: option one (four and one-half 50 mg artesunate tablets on day one and nine tablets for the next four days, plus three 500 mg sulphadoxine/25 mg pyrimethamine tablets) and option two (same artesunate regimen plus nine 200 mg tablets of amodiaquine at 10 mg/kg day 1-2 and 5 mg/kg on day three). The researchers calculated the costs of smears/drugs from standard hospital charges. Doctors diagnosed 304 patients (170 adults ages >16 years and 134 pediatric) with clinical malaria, prescribing antimalarial drugs to all. Giemsa thick smears were positive in 115/304 (38%). The typical patient cost for a Giemsa smear was 550 Naira (US$3.74 in 2009). For children, the cost of testing all, but treating only Giemsa positives was N888 ($6.04)/child; the cost of empiric treatment of all who were clinically diagnosed was lower, N660 ($4.49)/child. For adults, the cost of testing all, but treating only Giemsa positives was N711 ($4.84)/adult for treatment option one (artesunate and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine) and N730 ($4.97)/adult

  5. Cost comparison of microscopy vs. empiric treatment for malaria in southwestern nigeria: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Presumptive treatment for malaria is common in resource-limited settings, yet controversial given the imprecision of clinical diagnosis. The researchers compared costs of diagnosis and drugs for two strategies: (1) empirical treatment of malaria via clinical diagnosis; and (2) empirical diagnosis followed by treatment only with Giemsa smear confirmation. Methods Patients with a diagnosis of clinical malaria were recruited from a mission/university teaching hospital in southwestern Nigeria. The patients underwent free Giemsa thick (diagnosis) and thin (differentiation) smears, but paid for all anti-malarial drugs. Clinical diagnosis was made on clinicians' judgments based on symptoms, including fever, diarrhoea, headache, and body aches. The paediatric regimen was artesunate (6-9 tablets of 3 mg/kg on day one and 1.5 mg/kg for the next four days) plus amodiaquine (10 mg/kg day 1-2 and 5 mg/kg on day three in suspension). Adults were given two treatment options: option one (four and one-half 50 mg artesunate tablets on day one and nine tablets for the next four days, plus three 500 mg sulphadoxine/25 mg pyrimethamine tablets) and option two (same artesunate regimen plus nine 200 mg tablets of amodiaquine at 10 mg/kg day 1-2 and 5 mg/kg on day three). The researchers calculated the costs of smears/drugs from standard hospital charges. Results Doctors diagnosed 304 patients (170 adults ages >16 years and 134 pediatric) with clinical malaria, prescribing antimalarial drugs to all. Giemsa thick smears were positive in 115/304 (38%). The typical patient cost for a Giemsa smear was 550 Naira (US$3.74 in 2009). For children, the cost of testing all, but treating only Giemsa positives was N888 ($6.04)/child; the cost of empiric treatment of all who were clinically diagnosed was lower, N660 ($4.49)/child. For adults, the cost of testing all, but treating only Giemsa positives was N711 ($4.84)/adult for treatment option one (artesunate and sulphadoxine

  6. [Clinical problems in the treatment of myeloid leukemia in childhood].

    PubMed

    Kiyotani, Chikako; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Mori, Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    As for childhood AML, intensification of chemotherapy and advance in supportive care have contributed toward the patient survival. In addition to prevent early death, we have to develop a risk classification and appropriate therapies with updated genomics, especially for the intermediate risk group which has much diversity. Also, new treatment strategies utilizing various molecular-targeted therapies are required. For childhood CML, the possibilities of unknown risks which accompanied by life-long imatinib treatment should be considered. Comparing SCT and imatinib, We need to make an original treatment guideline for child CML. Furthermore, according to the increase of long-term survivors, the late adverse effects showed up. We should aim for "full recovery" and hope to have a long-term follow up and feedback system for the survivors.

  7. The Potential Contribution of Mass Treatment to the Control of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Okell, Lucy C.; Griffin, Jamie T.; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Hollingsworth, T. Déirdre; Churcher, Thomas S.; White, Michael J.; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris J.; Ghani, Azra C.

    2011-01-01

    Mass treatment as a means to reducing P. falciparum malaria transmission was used during the first global malaria eradication campaign and is increasingly being considered for current control programmes. We used a previously developed mathematical transmission model to explore both the short and long-term impact of possible mass treatment strategies in different scenarios of endemic transmission. Mass treatment is predicted to provide a longer-term benefit in areas with lower malaria transmission, with reduced transmission levels for at least 2 years after mass treatment is ended in a scenario where the baseline slide-prevalence is 5%, compared to less than one year in a scenario with baseline slide-prevalence at 50%. However, repeated annual mass treatment at 80% coverage could achieve around 25% reduction in infectious bites in moderate-to-high transmission settings if sustained. Using vector control could reduce transmission to levels at which mass treatment has a longer-term impact. In a limited number of settings (which have isolated transmission in small populations of 1000–10,000 with low-to-medium levels of baseline transmission) we find that five closely spaced rounds of mass treatment combined with vector control could make at least temporary elimination a feasible goal. We also estimate the effects of using gametocytocidal treatments such as primaquine and of restricting treatment to parasite-positive individuals. In conclusion, mass treatment needs to be repeated or combined with other interventions for long-term impact in many endemic settings. The benefits of mass treatment need to be carefully weighed against the risks of increasing drug selection pressure. PMID:21629651

  8. Artemether–lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, Stephan; Meyer, Christian G

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization strongly recommends artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) regimens for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in endemic areas. Among the combinations of compounds that are available at present, excellent results have been obtained for the artemisinin derivative artemether, in a combination galenic preparation with lumefantrine (artemether–lumefantrine, AL). Here, the pharmacological properties and the therapeutic options of both substances are briefly reviewed and a cursory overview is given on recent trials that have compared the therapeutic effects of AL in the standard 6-dose regimen with other antimalarials and combinations. In order to ensure the most achievable and reliable adherence and compliance of children in the treatment of malaria, a dispersible formulation of AL is now attainable. Recent reports on the emergence of resistance to ACT regimens in Asia, however, are alarming. PMID:19851528

  9. Changing home treatment of childhood fevers by training shop keepers in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Marsh, V M; Mutemi, W M; Muturi, J; Haaland, A; Watkins, W M; Otieno, G; Marsh, K

    1999-05-01

    Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a

  10. Adherence to Childhood Tuberculosis Treatment in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Varela, Elisa; Sequera, Victor Guillermo; García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Augusto, Orvalho Joaquim; Munguambe, Khatia; Sacarlal, Jahit; Alonso, Pedro L

    2017-04-01

    There is limited literature regarding adherence rates for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in children. We aimed to describe TB treatment outcomes and adherence as well as to evaluate associated factors to poor adherence in Mozambican children. This is a sub-study of a community TB incidence study among children <3 years of age. Incomplete adherence included the sum of lost-to-follow-up cases plus those with a delay of > 3 weeks to treatment completion. Fifty TB treatments were assessed. Forty-four (88.0%) patients completed treatment, two (4.0%) died during treatment and four (8.0%) were lost to follow-up. Incomplete adherence was observed in 31.3% (15 of 48) of cases and was associated with malnutrition or history of a migrant mother. Although treatment outcome is overall good, there is still a significant proportion of incomplete adherence. Further larger paediatric TB cohorts and qualitative approaches are needed to assess and confirm potential factors for non-adherence.

  11. Improving malaria recognition, treatment and referral practices by training caretakers in rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Theodora A

    2010-05-01

    A caretaker training programme was carried out in Ugwuogo-Nike, a rural area in south-east Nigeria, based on formative research within the community. A training of trainers workshop was organized for 30 leaders of women groups who subsequently trained other mothers in their group. Community information activities, which lasted for a period of eight months, included the use of posters, drama group and jingles. The programme was evaluated using the quantitative and qualitative methods that were employed at baseline, which included community survey and focus group discussions (FGDs). For the community survey, households with children under five years of age were identified and provided the sampling frame, from which 300 households were chosen using the systematic sampling method. The target population for the FGDs were caretakers of children under five years. Post-intervention evaluation of the programme showed significant (p<0.05) improvements in knowledge, home management of malaria and referral practices for severe malaria. Those who correctly reported that mosquitoes were the cause of malaria rose markedly from 39.7% to 88.7%. Knowledge of symptoms of mild and severe malaria also increased significantly. Only 1.5% of caretakers were aware of the correct dose of anti-malarial before intervention, but this increased to 41.5%. The impact of intervention brought about a dramatic change in the practice of taking severely ill children, especially those with convulsion, to a traditional healer. A minority (6.7%) of caretakers took a severely ill child to a traditional healer as against 60% pre-intervention. There was also a significant increase in use of formal health facilities for the treatment of severely ill children. The study findings support the view that training of mothers to recognize, treat appropriately and refer severe cases of malaria is feasible and may lead to a reduction in the incidence of severe disease.

  12. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs): best hope for malaria treatment but inaccessible to the needy!

    PubMed

    Mutabingwa, T K

    2005-09-01

    within funding agencies might improve the situation. Increased interest in drug development together with the public and private sector partnership have led to new anti-malarials, some less expensive and therefore affordable by poor malaria endemic countries. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (Artekin) has a cost advantage over other ACTs (USD 1 for an adult treatment) making it a potential best candidate for deployment in Africa. Part of available funds should be invested into capacity building and strengthening (personnel, resources and infrastructure) of institutions in malaria endemic countries. This will create enabling environment and a critical mass of scientists and public health experts to spearhead ACT policy implementation. Active involvement of scientists from malaria endemic countries in recent International Scientific Forums like the Malaria in Pregnancy Working Group and the Consortium on ACT Implementation is the best way forward to emulate.

  13. Dynamics of malaria transmission and susceptibility to clinical malaria episodes following treatment of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic carriers: results of a cluster-randomized study of community-wide screening and treatment, and a parallel entomology study.

    PubMed

    Tiono, Alfred B; Guelbeogo, Moussa W; Sagnon, N Falé; Nébié, Issa; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Mukhopadhyay, Amitava; Hamed, Kamal

    2013-11-12

    In malaria-endemic countries, large proportions of individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum are asymptomatic and constitute a reservoir of parasites for infection of newly hatched mosquitoes. Two studies were run in parallel in Burkina Faso to evaluate the impact of systematic identification and treatment of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum, detected by rapid diagnostic test, on disease transmission and susceptibility to clinical malaria episodes. A clinical study assessed the incidence of symptomatic malaria episodes with a parasite density >5,000/μL after three screening and treatment campaigns ~1 month apart before the rainy season; and an entomological study determined the effect of these campaigns on malaria transmission as measured by entomological inoculation rate. The intervention arm had lower prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of asexual parasites and lower prevalence of gametocyte carriers during campaigns 2 and 3 as compared to the control arm. During the entire follow-up period, out of 13,767 at-risk subjects, 2,516 subjects (intervention arm 1,332; control arm 1,184) had symptomatic malaria. Kaplan-Meier analysis of the incidence of first symptomatic malaria episode with a parasite density >5,000/μL showed that, in the total population, the two treatment arms were similar until Week 11-12 after campaign 3, corresponding with the beginning of the malaria transmission season, after which the probability of being free of symptomatic malaria was lower in the intervention arm (logrank p < 0.0001). Similar trends were observed in infants and children <5 years and in individuals ≥5 years of age. In infants and children <5 years old who experienced symptomatic malaria episodes, the geometric mean P. falciparum density was lower in the intervention arm than the control arm. This trend was not seen in those individuals aged ≥5 years. Over the year, monthly variation in mosquito density and entomological inoculation rate was

  14. Potential efficacy of citicoline as adjunct therapy in treatment of cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    El-Assaad, Fatima; Combes, Valery; Grau, Georges Emile Raymond; Jambou, Ronan

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is characterized by a dysregulated immune response that results in endothelial membrane destabilization and increased microparticle (MP) production. Citicoline (CTC) is a membrane stabilizer used for the treatment of neurological disorders. We evaluated the efficacy of CTC as adjunct therapy to aid recovery from experimental CM. We show that CTC reduces MP production in vitro; in combination with artesunate in vivo, confers partial protection against CM; and prolongs survival.

  15. Treatment of Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria with Esters of Cephalotaxine: Homoharringtonine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Phase II clinical trial drug with the National Cancer Institute, in the treatment of malaria. Homoharringtonine, 2ś-3.4 nM, was effective in causing 50...comparative biochemical analyses, that there was some similarity of these cells to tumour cells. Both tumour cells and parasite-infected cells exhibit...in Fujian, China, as a folk medicine for cancer . It is one group of cephalotaxine ester alkaloids which may be isolated from several species of

  16. Factors affecting treatment-seeking for febrile illness in a malaria endemic block in Boudh district, Orissa, India: policy implications for malaria control

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Orissa state in eastern India accounts for the highest malaria burden to the nation. However, evidences are limited on its treatment-seeking behaviour in the state. We assessed the treatment-seeking behaviour towards febrile illness in a malaria endemic district in Orissa. Methods A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out during the high malaria transmission season of 2006 in Boudh district. Respondents (n = 300) who had fever with chills within two weeks prior to the day of data collection were selected through a multi-stage sampling and interviewed with a pre-tested and structured interview schedule. Malaria treatment providers (n = 23) were interviewed in the district to gather their insights on factors associated with prompt and effective treatment through a semi-structured and open-ended interview guideline. Results Majority of respondents (n = 281) sought some sort of treatment e.g. government health facility (35.7%), less qualified providers (31.3%), and community level health workers and volunteers (24.3%). The single most common reason (66.9%) for choosing a provider was proximity. Over a half (55.7%) sought treatment from appropriate providers within 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Respondents under five years (OR 2.00, 95% CI 0.84-4.80, P = 0.012), belonging to scheduled tribe community (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.11-4.07, P = 0.022) and visiting a provider more than five kilometers (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.09-3.83, P = 0.026) were more likely to have delayed or inappropriate treatment. Interviews with the providers indicated that patients' lack of trust in community volunteers providing treatment led to inappropriate treatment-seeking from the less qualified providers. The reasons for the lack of trust included drug side effects, suspicions about drug quality, stock-outs of drugs and inappropriate attitude of the provider. Conclusion Large-scale involvement of less qualified providers is suggested in the malaria control programme as volunteers

  17. A village treatment center for malaria: community response in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, F; Amerasinghe, P H; Perera, D; Van der Hoek, W; Amerasinghe, F P

    2000-03-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases is one of the basic elements of the current global malaria control strategy. In order to provide this service to people in rural areas there is a need for new cost-effective approaches. To ensure that such new approaches are acceptable to the target communities, it is important to know the rationale for people's malaria treatment-seeking behavior. The present study provides insights into the reasons for people's preferences for different types of healthcare facilities and describes variation of these preferences within a rural community in Sri Lanka. The study reports on the experiences with the establishment of a village health facility and its effect on the treatment-seeking behavior of the population. After the introduction of the village treatment center it quickly took over the role of main provider for diagnosis and treatment of malaria from the government facilities. The treatment center did not improve the response time in seeking treatment for young children, but the delay for adults was reduced by 1-2 days. Mothers with small children often preferred the government facilities since they wanted a more qualified opinion than available from the locally recruited staff of the village treatment center. The treatment center significantly reduced the stress and discomfort experienced by the elderly and handicapped segment of the community. The study indicated that the effective catchment area of a village treatment center will be influenced by the degree of initial support from key individuals in the communities, the selection procedure and training of assistants, and the history of the relationships between different villages to be served by the center. The government health services and communities across the dry zone of Sri Lanka could benefit substantially from the establishment of more village treatment centers. To ensure the long-term sustainability of these type of facilities it is necessary to assess the

  18. The Behavioral Treatment of Childhood Nocturnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that of the treatments attempted for nocturnal enuresis, pharmacotherapy, individual psychotherapy, and behavioral conditioning, the most effective is behavioral conditioning with a urine alarm. Reviews the enuresis literature and provides recommendations for use of the urine alarm approach. (Author/ABB)

  19. The accuracy of the first response histidine-rich protein2 rapid diagnostic test compared with malaria microscopy for guiding field treatment in an outbreak of falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ghouth, Abdulla Salim Bin; Nasseb, Faraj Mubarak; Al-Kaldy, Khaled Hussin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent WHO guidelines recommended a universal “test and treat” strategy for malaria mainly by use of the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in all areas. There are concerns about RDT that use the antigen histidine-rich protein2 (HRP2) to detect Plasmodium falciparum, because infection can persist after effective treatment. Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe the accuracy of the first response (HRP2)-RDT compared with malaria microscopy used for guiding the field treatment of patients in an outbreak situation in the Al-Rahabah area in Al-Rydah district in Hadramout/Yemen. Materials and Methods: An ad hoc cross sectional survey of all febrile patients in the affected area was conducted in May 2011. The field team was developed including the case management group and the entomology group. The group of case management prepared their plan based on “test and treat” strategy by using First Response Malaria Antigen HRP2 rapid diagnostic test for falciparum malaria, artemsinin-based combination therapy (ACT) according to the national policy of anti-malaria drugs in Yemen were supplied to treat those who were found to be RDT positive in the field; also blood smear films were taken from every patient with fever in order to validate the use of the RDT in the field. Blood film slides prepared and read by skilled lab technicians, the fourth reading was done by one lab expert in the malaria referral lab. Results: The accuracy parameters of HRP2 compared with microscopy are: Sensitivity (74%), specificity (94%). The positive predictive value is 68% and the negative predictive value is 96%. Total agreement is 148/162 (93%) and the overall prevalence is 14%. All the positive malaria cases were of P. falciparum either coming from RDT or microscopy. Conclusions: HRP2–rapid test is an acceptable test as a guide for field treatment in an outbreak situation where prompt response is indicated. Good prepared blood film slides should be used as it is feasible to

  20. Quinine, an old anti-malarial drug in a modern world: role in the treatment of malaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Quinine remains an important anti-malarial drug almost 400 years after its effectiveness was first documented. However, its continued use is challenged by its poor tolerability, poor compliance with complex dosing regimens, and the availability of more efficacious anti-malarial drugs. This article reviews the historical role of quinine, considers its current usage and provides insight into its appropriate future use in the treatment of malaria. In light of recent research findings intravenous artesunate should be the first-line drug for severe malaria, with quinine as an alternative. The role of rectal quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria has not been fully explored, but it remains a promising intervention. In pregnancy, quinine continues to play a critical role in the management of malaria, especially in the first trimester, and it will remain a mainstay of treatment until safer alternatives become available. For uncomplicated malaria, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) offers a better option than quinine though the difficulty of maintaining a steady supply of ACT in resource-limited settings renders the rapid withdrawal of quinine for uncomplicated malaria cases risky. The best approach would be to identify solutions to ACT stock-outs, maintain quinine in case of ACT stock-outs, and evaluate strategies for improving quinine treatment outcomes by combining it with antibiotics. In HIV and TB infected populations, concerns about potential interactions between quinine and antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis drugs exist, and these will need further research and pharmacovigilance. PMID:21609473

  1. Scaling up of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine: prospects and challenges.

    PubMed

    Oyibo, Wellington Aghoghovwia; Agomo, Chimere Obiora

    2011-05-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTpSP) is one of the major strategies of malaria control in most African countries where malaria is endemic. The use of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy was adopted when proof of its superiority to weekly prophylactic dosing with either chloroquine or pyrimethamine became evident from studies in different malaria endemic countries. The administration of 2 and 3 treatment doses of SP for HIV-negative and HIV-positive pregnant women respectively, given after quickening and at an interval not less than 4 weeks was recommended. The prospects of this control strategy lies on the efficacy of SP, convenient treatment dose and high compliance rate. However, the implementation of this strategy and the efficacy of SP are faced with challenges such as: timing of SP administration, rising levels of parasite resistance to SP in the general population, effect of folate supplementation, adequacy of the recommended doses with regards to malaria endemicity and HIV status, interactions between SP and antiretroviral drugs and low coverage in the bid to scale-up its use. This review highlights the prospects and challenges of scaling up IPTp-SP.

  2. Quinine, an old anti-malarial drug in a modern world: role in the treatment of malaria.

    PubMed

    Achan, Jane; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Erhart, Annette; Yeka, Adoke; Tibenderana, James K; Baliraine, Frederick N; Rosenthal, Philip J; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2011-05-24

    Quinine remains an important anti-malarial drug almost 400 years after its effectiveness was first documented. However, its continued use is challenged by its poor tolerability, poor compliance with complex dosing regimens, and the availability of more efficacious anti-malarial drugs. This article reviews the historical role of quinine, considers its current usage and provides insight into its appropriate future use in the treatment of malaria. In light of recent research findings intravenous artesunate should be the first-line drug for severe malaria, with quinine as an alternative. The role of rectal quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria has not been fully explored, but it remains a promising intervention. In pregnancy, quinine continues to play a critical role in the management of malaria, especially in the first trimester, and it will remain a mainstay of treatment until safer alternatives become available. For uncomplicated malaria, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) offers a better option than quinine though the difficulty of maintaining a steady supply of ACT in resource-limited settings renders the rapid withdrawal of quinine for uncomplicated malaria cases risky. The best approach would be to identify solutions to ACT stock-outs, maintain quinine in case of ACT stock-outs, and evaluate strategies for improving quinine treatment outcomes by combining it with antibiotics. In HIV and TB infected populations, concerns about potential interactions between quinine and antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis drugs exist, and these will need further research and pharmacovigilance.

  3. Efficacy of Chloroquine for the Treatment of Vivax malaria in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Habtamu Bedimo; Beyene, Melkamu Bedimo; Ebstie, Yehenew Asmamaw; Desalegn, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance to anti-malarials is a major challenge for effective malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. This triggered a need for routine monitoring of the efficacy of the antimalarial drugs every two years in all malaria endemic countries. Chloroquine remained the drug of choice for the treatment of vivax malaria in Ethiopia. Though, a strong scientific evidence of chloroquine resistance to P.vivax that could have brought change of treatment regimen is yet to be established in Ethiopia, continuous and regular monitoring of drug’s efficacy is critical for establishing rational anti-malarial drug policies. This study therefore, assessed the therapeutic efficacy of Chloroquine (CQ) for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infections in Northwestern Ethiopia. Methods An observational, 28- day therapeutic clinical efficacy study was conducted from August to December, 2014, in Northwest Ethiopia. Patients confirmed to have monoinfection of vivax malaria, aged above 6 months were included. All subjects were treated with standard chloroquine dose of 25 mg/kg for three (3) days. Parasitological and clinical outcomes of treated patients were then evaluated on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 during the entire 28-day follow-up period. A portable spectrophotometer (HemoCue Hb 301 System, Sweden) was used to estimate hemoglobin concentration. Results A total of 69 subjects had completed follow up. Some 57/69 (82.6%) had fever at enrolment and the rest 12 patients 48 hours before enrollment. Out of total, 65/69 (94.2%) and 66/69 (95.6%) of the study subjects were free of fever by day 1 and day 2 respectively but fever was cleared in all subjects by day 3. At base line the mean asexual parasitemia was 3540 parasites/μL of blood. Parasite carriage on day 3 was 3%. The overall cure rate (an adequate and clinical parasitological response) was very high (97%) [(95% CI = 93.1–99.4)]. The time to parasite, fever and gametocyte clearance as expressed in mean (SD) was 35 (3

  4. Treatment of childhood and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Clark, Molly S; Jansen, Kate L; Cloy, J Anthony

    2012-09-01

    Major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is a common condition that affects physical, emotional, and social development. Risk factors include a family history of depression, parental conflict, poor peer relationships, deficits in coping skills, and negative thinking. Diagnostic criteria are the same for children and adults, with the exception that children and adolescents may express irritability rather than sad or depressed mood, and weight loss may be viewed in terms of failure to reach appropriate weight milestones. Treatment must take into account the severity of depression, suicidality, developmental stage, and environmental and social factors. Cognitive behavior therapy and interpersonal therapy are recommended for patients with mild depression and are appropriate adjuvant treatments to medication in those with moderate to severe depression. Pharmacotherapy is recommended for patients with moderate or severe depression. Tricyclic antidepressants are not effective in children and adolescents. Antidepressants have a boxed warning for the increased risk of suicide; therefore, careful assessment, follow-up, safety planning, and patient and family education should be included when treatment is initiated.

  5. SC83288 is a clinical development candidate for the treatment of severe malaria

    PubMed Central

    Pegoraro, Stefano; Duffey, Maëlle; Otto, Thomas D; Wang, Yulin; Rösemann, Roman; Baumgartner, Roland; Fehler, Stefanie K; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Avery, Vicky M; Moreno-Sabater, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique; Vial, Henri J; Strobl, Stefan; Sanchez, Cecilia P; Lanzer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Severe malaria is a life-threatening complication of an infection with the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which requires immediate treatment. Safety and efficacy concerns with currently used drugs accentuate the need for new chemotherapeutic options against severe malaria. Here we describe a medicinal chemistry program starting from amicarbalide that led to two compounds with optimized pharmacological and antiparasitic properties. SC81458 and the clinical development candidate, SC83288, are fast-acting compounds that can cure a P. falciparum infection in a humanized NOD/SCID mouse model system. Detailed preclinical pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies reveal no observable drawbacks. Ultra-deep sequencing of resistant parasites identifies the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ transporting PfATP6 as a putative determinant of resistance to SC81458 and SC83288. Features, such as fast parasite killing, good safety margin, a potentially novel mode of action and a distinct chemotype support the clinical development of SC83288, as an intravenous application for the treatment of severe malaria. PMID:28139658

  6. Optimization of Potent Inhibitors of P. falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase for the Treatment of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) for P. falciparum potentially represents a new treatment option for malaria, since DHODH catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway and P. falciparum is unable to salvage pyrimidines and must rely on de novo biosynthesis for survival. We report herein the synthesis and structure–activity relationship of a series of 5-(2-methylbenzimidazol-1-yl)-N-alkylthiophene-2-carboxamides that are potent inhibitors against PfDHODH but do not inhibit the human enzyme. On the basis of efficacy observed in three mouse models of malaria, acceptable safety pharmacology risk assessment and safety toxicology profile in rodents, lack of potential drug–drug interactions, acceptable ADME/pharmacokinetic profile, and projected human dose, 5-(4-cyano-2-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)-N-cyclopropylthiophene-2-carboxamide 2q was identified as a potential drug development candidate. PMID:24900364

  7. Multidisciplinary treatment of medulloblastomas in childhood.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Luna, R; Rueda-Franco, F; Lanche-Guevara, M T; Martínez-Guerra, G

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of 65 medulloblastomas in children treated at the National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico City, between 1971 and 1986 is reported. The patients were staged retrospectively. Ninety percent presented without metastasis in the subarachnoid space or the spinal fluid. Following surgery, all patients underwent radiotherapy to the brain, posterior fossa, and spinal cord. For the last 35 patients, chemotherapy was added to the treatment regimen. The actuarial survival was 55% at 6 years in the group with chemotherapy versus 27% to the group without chemotherapy, with a statistically significant difference (P less than 0.01).

  8. An assessment of early diagnosis and treatment of malaria by village health volunteers in the Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Phommanivong, Viengvaly; Thongkham, Khanti; Deyer, Gopinath; Rene, Jean P; Barennes, Hubert

    2010-12-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment (EDAT) is crucial to reducing the burden of malaria in low-income countries. In the Lao PDR, this strategy was introduced in 2004-2005 and an assessment was performed at the community level in January 2007. EDAT with malaria rapid diagnostic test (MRDT) and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) was prospectively assessed among 36 randomized village health volunteers (VHVs) and 720 patients in six malaria-endemic provinces of Laos (three pilot provinces (PP), and three non-pilots provinces (NPP)). ACT was also retrospectively assessed among 2188 patients within the same areas from June to November 2006. Two checklists were used and scores were calculated. EDAT performance of the VHVs was rated better in PP than in NPP (16.67% versus 38.89%, respectively, p = 0.004). Nearly all VHVs could diagnose malaria but only 16 (44%) could describe the symptoms of severe malaria. In January 2007, 31/720 (4%) patients tested positive using the Paracheck test, 35 (5%) with microscopy (sensibility: 74.3%, specificity 99.3%, positive and negative predictive values: 83.9% and 98.7%, respectively). Patients from June to November were at higher risk of malaria: 35.19% of 2,188 febrile patients were positive (OR: 10.6, 95%CI: 7.4-15.5, p < 0.000). VHVs reported the MRDT easy to use, and yielded a satisfactory performance score. EDAT performance was rated as poor despite satisfactory results regarding ACT treatment, duration and dosages. Pre-referral treatment of severe malaria was infrequent and often inadequate, with 20% of these patients dying. Results suggest a higher mortality from severe malaria than officially reported. Shortage of ACT was frequent. MRDT and ACT are useful and efficient and can be used by VHVs. VHVs' global EDAT performance is enhanced through training and monitoring. Persistent gaps in knowledge, care of patients and wrong treatment have to be addressed.

  9. [Treatment of childhood cancer in Africa. Action of the Franco-African childhood cancer group].

    PubMed

    Lemerle, J; Barsaoui, S; Harif, M; Hireche, K; Ladjadj, Y; Moreira, C; Andoh, J; Doumbé, P; Togo, B; Kam, L; Rafaramino, F; Patte, C; Tournade, M F; Raphaël, M; Boccon-Gibod, L; Mallon, B; Raquin, M A; Msefer Alaoui, F

    2007-10-01

    The childhood cancer survival rate is currently 75% in industrialized countries. Rates in developing countries are much lower. The Franco-African Childhood Cancer Group (French acronym, GFAOP) was founded in 2000 with aim of reducing this unfavorable situation in Africa. The GFAOP has developed two forms of action. The main form consists of organizing two- to twelve-month training sessions for physicians and nurses in France and Morocco. The other form involves assessing the feasibility of modern treatment protocols for various cancers in Africa. The first feasibility trials were carried out on nephroblastoma and Burkitt's lymphoma in 12 pilot units in North Africa, West Africa, and Madagascar. In the first study from 2001 to 2005 we treated 306 cases of Burkitt's lymphoma using French LMB protocols adapted to the African setting and achieved a survival rate of 61%. A second study started in 2005 using Endoxan alone achieved a highly satisfactory survival rate of 73% for neuroblastoma in all stages except bilateral. Altogether from 2001 to 2007 more than 1000 cases of nephroblastoma and Burkitt's lymphoma were treated in African hospitals by African doctors and nurses. No patients were transferred to Europe. The GFAOP supplied drugs when necessary and took care of most travel expenses. African and French doctors worked together on protocol design, trial management, and data analysis. These promising results show that the latest therapeutic techniques can be used to treat childhood cancer in Africa by adapting the protocol to conditions in developing countries. Sanofi-Aventis Laboratories in association with the International Union against Cancer has launched a major campaign to improve Pediatric Oncology in developing countries. Projects in four GFAOP units are being financed through this campaign. In 2006 the GFAOP began assessment of two new treatment protocols, i.e., one for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the other for Hodgkin's disease. Two other projects are

  10. Levetiracetam in the treatment of childhood epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wheless, James W

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common pediatric neurologic disorder that is difficult to manage in a substantial portion of children. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a novel antiepileptic drug (AED) that has recently been approved as add-on treatment for various seizure types in epilepsy populations that include children: for refractory partial seizures in epilepsy patients ≥4 years old, for myoclonic seizures in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy patients ≥12 years old, and for primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy patients (≥6 years old with FDA approval; ≥12 years old with EMEA approval). A review of published pediatric studies indicates that the efficacy of LEV is best established for partial seizures; however, results from recent double-blind and open-label trials indicate that adjunctive LEV also controls generalized seizures – particularly myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic – in children and adolescents with primary generalized epilepsy. LEV was well-tolerated in pediatric studies. The most common adverse events (AEs) reported were sedation related. Behavioral AEs were among the most commonly reported events in some trials; conversely, improvements in behavior and cognition were also frequently reported. LEV appears to be a safe and effective AED with unique characteristics that benefit the treatment of children with epilepsy. PMID:19300570

  11. Efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in southern Mauritania.

    PubMed

    Ouldabdallahi, M M; Sarr, O; Basco, L K; Lebatt, S M; Lo, B; Gaye, O

    2016-08-01

    Until 2006, the Mauritanian Ministry of Health recommended chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for first- and second-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria, respectively. This study assessed the clinical efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Kobeni as first-line treatment. This study included 55 patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections, who were treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and followed up for 28 days. Isolates were genotyped to distinguish between recrudescence and reinfection. Treatment success rates and survival were analysed per protocol to evaluate drug efficacy. After inclusion, 2 patients were excluded for protocol violations, and 3 patients were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 50 patients (per protocol population), 43 (86%) had adequate clinical and parasitological responses. Of the 7 patients with treatment failure, 5 (10%) were early failures, while 2 (4%) had initially responded and had late clinical failure on day 7, associated with recrudescence. With the exception of one adult weighing 91 kg, all treatment failures occurred in children aged from 7 to 12 years. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy was moderately effective but insufficiently reliable in view of the relatively high rate of early treatment failure. The high prevalence of chloroquine resistance found in earlier studies and the results of the present study on sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine justify the change in national policy and systematic use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for first-line treatment of P. falciparum malaria in Mauritania.

  12. Treatment of alternating hemiplegia of childhood with aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Haffejee, Shereen; Santosh, Paramala J

    2009-01-01

    We report the pharmacological treatment of a case of alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) in a 14-year-old female with an established diagnosis. Although the patient's symptoms are consistent with those of the condition, she did not respond to treatment with haloperidol, flunarizine, or propranolol. Treatment with aripiprazole resulted in a reduction in the frequency, duration, and severity of episodes of alternating hemiplegia, along with other therapeutic benefits. After treatment with aripiprazole was started, the patient was inadvertently given an inactive drug, resulting in a worsening of her hemiplegic episodes, which improved again on rechallenge. A comparison of the pharmacological actions of successful and unsuccessful treatments for AHC is made. Modulation of both dopamine and histamine systems together appears to be important in the treatment of AHC and further investigation of such pharmacotherapies is suggested.

  13. The cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Conteh, Lesong; Sicuri, Elisa; Manzi, Fatuma; Hutton, Guy; Obonyo, Benson; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Biao, Prosper; Masika, Paul; Matovu, Fred; Otieno, Peter; Gosling, Roly D; Hamel, Mary; Odhiambo, Frank O; Grobusch, Martin P; Kremsner, Peter G; Chandramohan, Daniel; Aponte, John J; Egan, Andrea; Schellenberg, David; Macete, Eusebio; Slutsker, Laurence; Newman, Robert D; Alonso, Pedro; Menéndez, Clara; Tanner, Marcel

    2010-06-15

    Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) has been shown to decrease clinical malaria by approximately 30% in the first year of life and is a promising malaria control strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa which can be delivered alongside the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). To date, there have been limited data on the cost-effectiveness of this strategy using sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) and no published data on cost-effectiveness using other antimalarials. We analysed data from 5 countries in sub-Saharan Africa using a total of 5 different IPTi drug regimens; SP, mefloquine (MQ), 3 days of chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD), SP plus 3 days of artesunate (SP-AS3) and 3 days of amodiaquine-artesunate (AQ3-AS3).The cost per malaria episode averted and cost per Disability-Adjusted Life-Year (DALY) averted were modeled using both trial specific protective efficacy (PE) for all IPTi drugs and a pooled PE for IPTi with SP, malaria incidence, an estimated malaria case fatality rate of 1.57%, IPTi delivery costs and country specific provider and household malaria treatment costs. In sites where IPTi had a significant effect on reducing malaria, the cost per episode averted for IPTi-SP was very low, USD 1.36-4.03 based on trial specific data and USD 0.68-2.27 based on the pooled analysis. For IPTi using alternative antimalarials, the lowest cost per case averted was for AQ3-AS3 in western Kenya (USD 4.62) and the highest was for MQ in Korowge, Tanzania (USD 18.56). Where efficacious, based only on intervention costs, IPTi was shown to be cost effective in all the sites and highly cost-effective in all but one of the sites, ranging from USD 2.90 (Ifakara, Tanzania with SP) to USD 39.63 (Korogwe, Tanzania with MQ) per DALY averted. In addition, IPTi reduced health system costs and showed significant savings to households from malaria cases averted. A threshold analysis showed that there is room for the IPTi-efficacy to fall and still remain highly cost effective in

  14. The Cost-Effectiveness of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Conteh, Lesong; Sicuri, Elisa; Manzi, Fatuma; Hutton, Guy; Obonyo, Benson; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Biao, Prosper; Masika, Paul; Matovu, Fred; Otieno, Peter; Gosling, Roly D.; Hamel, Mary; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Chandramohan, Daniel; Aponte, John J.; Egan, Andrea; Schellenberg, David; Macete, Eusebio; Slutsker, Laurence; Newman, Robert D.; Alonso, Pedro; Menéndez, Clara; Tanner, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) has been shown to decrease clinical malaria by approximately 30% in the first year of life and is a promising malaria control strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa which can be delivered alongside the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). To date, there have been limited data on the cost-effectiveness of this strategy using sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) and no published data on cost-effectiveness using other antimalarials. Methods We analysed data from 5 countries in sub-Saharan Africa using a total of 5 different IPTi drug regimens; SP, mefloquine (MQ), 3 days of chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD), SP plus 3 days of artesunate (SP-AS3) and 3 days of amodiaquine-artesunate (AQ3-AS3).The cost per malaria episode averted and cost per Disability-Adjusted Life-Year (DALY) averted were modeled using both trial specific protective efficacy (PE) for all IPTi drugs and a pooled PE for IPTi with SP, malaria incidence, an estimated malaria case fatality rate of 1.57%, IPTi delivery costs and country specific provider and household malaria treatment costs. Findings In sites where IPTi had a significant effect on reducing malaria, the cost per episode averted for IPTi-SP was very low, USD 1.36–4.03 based on trial specific data and USD 0.68–2.27 based on the pooled analysis. For IPTi using alternative antimalarials, the lowest cost per case averted was for AQ3-AS3 in western Kenya (USD 4.62) and the highest was for MQ in Korowge, Tanzania (USD 18.56). Where efficacious, based only on intervention costs, IPTi was shown to be cost effective in all the sites and highly cost-effective in all but one of the sites, ranging from USD 2.90 (Ifakara, Tanzania with SP) to USD 39.63 (Korogwe, Tanzania with MQ) per DALY averted. In addition, IPTi reduced health system costs and showed significant savings to households from malaria cases averted. A threshold analysis showed that there is room for the IPTi-efficacy to fall and still

  15. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants: a decision-support tool for sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy; Ross, Amanda; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Greenwood, Brian; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Smith, Thomas; Schellenberg, David

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a decision-support tool to help policy-makers in sub-Saharan Africa assess whether intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) would be effective for local malaria control. Methods An algorithm for predicting the effect of IPTi was developed using two approaches. First, study data on the age patterns of clinical cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, hospital admissions for infection with malaria parasites and malaria-associated death for different levels of malaria transmission intensity and seasonality were used to estimate the percentage of cases of these outcomes that would occur in children aged < 10 years targeted by IPTi. Second, a previously developed stochastic mathematical model of IPTi was used to predict the number of cases likely to be averted by implementing IPTi under different epidemiological conditions. The decision-support tool uses the data from these two approaches that are most relevant to the context specified by the user. Findings Findings from the two approaches indicated that the percentage of cases targeted by IPTi increases with the severity of the malaria outcome and with transmission intensity. The decision-support tool, available on the Internet, provides estimates of the percentage of malaria-associated deaths, hospitalizations and clinical cases that will be targeted by IPTi in a specified context and of the number of these outcomes that could be averted. Conclusion The effectiveness of IPTi varies with malaria transmission intensity and seasonality. Deciding where to implement IPTi must take into account the local epidemiology of malaria. The Internet-based decision-support tool described here predicts the likely effectiveness of IPTi under a wide range of epidemiological conditions. PMID:21076561

  16. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants: a decision-support tool for sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Ilona; Smith, Lucy; Ross, Amanda; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Greenwood, Brian; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Smith, Thomas; Schellenberg, David

    2010-11-01

    To develop a decision-support tool to help policy-makers in sub-Saharan Africa assess whether intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) would be effective for local malaria control. An algorithm for predicting the effect of IPTi was developed using two approaches. First, study data on the age patterns of clinical cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, hospital admissions for infection with malaria parasites and malaria-associated death for different levels of malaria transmission intensity and seasonality were used to estimate the percentage of cases of these outcomes that would occur in children aged <10 years targeted by IPTi. Second, a previously developed stochastic mathematical model of IPTi was used to predict the number of cases likely to be averted by implementing IPTi under different epidemiological conditions. The decision-support tool uses the data from these two approaches that are most relevant to the context specified by the user. Findings from the two approaches indicated that the percentage of cases targeted by IPTi increases with the severity of the malaria outcome and with transmission intensity. The decision-support tool, available on the Internet, provides estimates of the percentage of malaria-associated deaths, hospitalizations and clinical cases that will be targeted by IPTi in a specified context and of the number of these outcomes that could be averted. The effectiveness of IPTi varies with malaria transmission intensity and seasonality. Deciding where to implement IPTi must take into account the local epidemiology of malaria. The Internet-based decision-support tool described here predicts the likely effectiveness of IPTi under a wide range of epidemiological conditions.

  17. Improvements in access to malaria treatment in Tanzania following community, retail sector and health facility interventions -- a user perspective.

    PubMed

    Alba, Sandra; Dillip, Angel; Hetzel, Manuel W; Mayumana, Iddy; Mshana, Christopher; Makemba, Ahmed; Alexander, Mathew; Obrist, Brigit; Schulze, Alexander; Kessy, Flora; Mshinda, Hassan; Lengeler, Christian

    2010-06-15

    The ACCESS programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment. Between 2004 and 2008 the programme implemented a social marketing campaign for improved treatment-seeking. To improve access to treatment in the private retail sector a new class of outlets known as accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDO) was created in Tanzania in 2006. Tanzania changed its first-line treatment for malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) in 2007 and subsidized ALu was made available in both health facilities and ADDOs. The effect of these interventions on understanding and treatment of malaria was studied in rural Tanzania. The data also enabled an investigation of the determinants of access to treatment. Three treatment-seeking surveys were conducted in 2004, 2006 and 2008 in the rural areas of the Ifakara demographic surveillance system (DSS) and in Ifakara town. Each survey included approximately 150 people who had suffered a fever case in the previous 14 days. Treatment-seeking and awareness of malaria was already high at baseline, but various improvements were seen between 2004 and 2008, namely: better understanding causes of malaria (from 62% to 84%); an increase in health facility attendance as first treatment option for patients older than five years (27% to 52%); higher treatment coverage with anti-malarials (86% to 96%) and more timely use of anti-malarials (80% to 93-97% treatments taken within 24 hrs). Unfortunately, the change of treatment policy led to a low availability of ALu in the private sector and, therefore, to a drop in the proportion of patients taking a recommended malaria treatment (85% to 53%). The availability of outlets (health facilities or drug shops) is the most important determinant of whether patients receive prompt and effective treatment, whereas affordability and accessibility contribute to a lesser extent. An integrated approach aimed at improving understanding and

  18. [Practices of caregivers and national recommendations for treatment of malaria in Benin in 2009].

    PubMed

    Robin, S; Bruneton, C; Guévart, E

    2017-01-31

    New treatments against malaria (artemisinin-based combination therapies, ACT) resulted in profound changes in the therapeutic behaviours in Africa. This study aims to evaluate the practices adaptation to the new strategies in Benin in 2009. In three southern areas of the country, 14 private pharmacies, 10 public health centers and 10 private health centers were audited. Between July and October 2009, 36 providers and 93 prescribers were interviewed, 127 dispensations for self-medication were observed, 210 prescriptions were analyzed according to the WHO recommendations, 251 patients with complaints of malaria and 50 healthy women were interviewed and 34 physical inventories were conducted in pharmacies. Knowledge and trainings were inadequate, especially in the private sector and for the providers, as 41.6% of requests for antimalarial drugs were without prescription in private pharmacies. Only 28% of prescribers and 47% of providers knew the national recommendations of 1st line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. 53% of prescribers treated patients by ACT without prior parasitological examination in the case of uncomplicated malaria and no Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was carried out or requested during the dispensation. Pharmaceutical advices were absent in 78.7% of cases and population acknowledged a lack of knowledge about use of the treatment. Private pharmacies were structures where the variability of available antimalarial drugs was the largest, up to 70 different specialities and where unit prices were highest, up to 7.7 times those charged in public health centers. In the field, the difficulties of application of recommendations, given at the scientific or political level, show the necessity of accompanying policy change by prior training activities of all health stakeholders and of adapting the previous regulations to facilitate implementation of the new rules. The number of authorizations issued for the ACT should be limited; authorization to chloroquine

  19. Community response to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Building on previous acceptability research undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa this article aims to investigate the acceptability of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Methods A questionnaire was administered to mothers whose infants participated in the randomised placebo controlled trial of IPTi. Mothers whose infants participated and who refused to participate in the trial, health workers, community reporters and opinion leaders were interviewed. Men and women from the local community also participated in focus group discussions. Results Respondents viewed IPTi as acceptable in light of wider concern for infant health and the advantages of trial participation. Mothers reported complying with at-home administration of IPTi due to perceived benefits of IPTi and pressure from health workers. In spite of patchy knowledge, respondents also demonstrated a demand for infant vaccinations and considered non-vaccination to be neglect. There is little evidence that IPTi has negative impacts on attitudes to EPI, EPI adherence or existing malaria prevention practices. Conclusion The degree of similarity between findings from the acceptability studies undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa and PNG allows some generalization relating to the implementation of IPTi outside of Africa: IPTi fits well with local health cultures, appears to be accepted easily and has little impact on attitudes towards EPI or malaria prevention. The study adds to the evidence indicating that IPTi could be rolled out in a range of social and cultural contexts. PMID:21176197

  20. Community response to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Pell, Christopher; Straus, Lianne; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Lupiwa, Sebeya; Mueller, Ivo; Senn, Nicolas; Siba, Peter; Gysels, Marjolein; Pool, Robert

    2010-12-22

    Building on previous acceptability research undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa this article aims to investigate the acceptability of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). A questionnaire was administered to mothers whose infants participated in the randomised placebo controlled trial of IPTi. Mothers whose infants participated and who refused to participate in the trial, health workers, community reporters and opinion leaders were interviewed. Men and women from the local community also participated in focus group discussions. Respondents viewed IPTi as acceptable in light of wider concern for infant health and the advantages of trial participation. Mothers reported complying with at-home administration of IPTi due to perceived benefits of IPTi and pressure from health workers. In spite of patchy knowledge, respondents also demonstrated a demand for infant vaccinations and considered non-vaccination to be neglect. There is little evidence that IPTi has negative impacts on attitudes to EPI, EPI adherence or existing malaria prevention practices. The degree of similarity between findings from the acceptability studies undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa and PNG allows some generalization relating to the implementation of IPTi outside of Africa: IPTi fits well with local health cultures, appears to be accepted easily and has little impact on attitudes towards EPI or malaria prevention. The study adds to the evidence indicating that IPTi could be rolled out in a range of social and cultural contexts.

  1. Azithromycin-chloroquine and the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chico, R Matthew; Pittrof, Rudiger; Greenwood, Brian; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In the high malaria-transmission settings of sub-Saharan Africa, malaria in pregnancy is an important cause of maternal, perinatal and neonatal morbidity. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) reduces the incidence of low birth-weight, pre-term delivery, intrauterine growth-retardation and maternal anaemia. However, the public health benefits of IPTp are declining due to SP resistance. The combination of azithromycin and chloroquine is a potential alternative to SP for IPTp. This review summarizes key in vitro and in vivo evidence of azithromycin and chloroquine activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, as well as the anticipated secondary benefits that may result from their combined use in IPTp, including the cure and prevention of many sexually transmitted diseases. Drug costs and the necessity for external financing are discussed along with a range of issues related to drug resistance and surveillance. Several scientific and programmatic questions of interest to policymakers and programme managers are also presented that would need to be addressed before azithromycin-chloroquine could be adopted for use in IPTp. PMID:19087267

  2. Childhood tuberculosis in Bhutan: profile and treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dorji, T.; Edgnton, M. E.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Wangchuk, D.; Dophu, U.; Jamtsho, T.; Rinzin, C.

    2013-01-01

    Setting: All hospitals and health centres under the National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTCP) in Bhutan. Objective: To describe the number and proportion of childhood tuberculosis (TB) cases registered under the NTCP in 2010, their demographic and clinical characteristics and any associations with treatment outcomes. Design: Retrospective cohort study involving a review of TB treatment cards and registers. Results: Of 1332 TB cases registered, 187 (14%) were children aged <15 years, 75 (40%) were aged <5 years, and 180 (96%) were new cases; nearly half were extra-pulmonary TB, with lymphadenitis being the most common form. The overall treatment success rate was 93%, and none of the demographic and clinical characteristics were associated with treatment outcomes. A few recording deficiencies were identified. Conclusion: TB in children is well recognised in Bhutan, and their treatment outcomes were excellent. PMID:26392988

  3. The neurobiological Correlates of Childhood Adversity and Implications for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Burgers, Darcy E.; Philip, Noah S.; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper provides an overview of research on the neurobiological correlates of childhood adversity and a selective review of treatment implications. Method Findings from a broad array of human and animal studies of early adversity were reviewed. Results Topics reviewed include neuroendocrine, neurotrophic, neuroimaging, and cognitive effects of adversity, as well as genetic and epigenetic influences. Effects of early life stress on treatment outcome are considered, and development of treatments designed to address the neurobiological abnormalities is discussed. Conclusion Early adversity is associated with abnormalities of several neurobiological systems that are implicated in the development of psychopathology and other medical conditions. Early life stress negatively impacts treatment outcome and individuals may require treatments that are specific to this condition. PMID:23662634

  4. [Endocrine consequences in young adult survivors of childhood cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Leroy, C; Cortet-Rudelli, C; Desailloud, R

    2015-10-01

    Endocrine complications (particularly gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary and metabolic) of childhood cancer treatments are common in young adults. Gonadal damage may be the result of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Fertility preservation must be systematically proposed before initiation of gonadotoxic treatment if only the child is eligible. Hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency is common after brain or total-body irradiation, the somatotropic axis is the most sensitive to irradiation. Pituitary deficiency screening must be repeated since this endocrine consequence can occur many years after treatment. Hormone replacement must be prudent particularly in case of treatment with growth hormone or steroids. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular damage resulting from cancer treatments contribute to the increase of morbidity and mortality in this population and should be screened routinely even if the patient is asymptomatic. The multidisciplinary management of these adults must be organized and the role of the endocrinologist is now well established.

  5. Metabolic syndrome induced by anticancer treatment in childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Chueh, Hee Won; Yoo, Jae Ho

    2017-06-01

    The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.

  6. Metabolic syndrome induced by anticancer treatment in childhood cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Chueh, Hee Won

    2017-01-01

    The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology. PMID:28690985

  7. Assessment of Malawian Mothers’ Malaria Knowledge, Healthcare Preferences and Timeliness of Seeking Fever Treatments for Children Under Five

    PubMed Central

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is one of the major public health problems in Malawi, contributing to the majority of morbidity and mortality among children under five. Ignorance of malaria symptoms results in delayed treatment, which often degenerates into fatal emergencies. This study analyzed the impact of maternal malaria knowledge on healthcare preferences and timeliness of treating children with reported fever. The Malaria Indicator Survey data for 2012, which were adequately weighted, were analyzed using multinomial logit and Poisson regression models. The results showed low maternal average years of formal education (3.52) and average mothers’ age was 27.97 years. Majority of the women (84.98%) associated fever with malaria, while 44.17% associated it with chilling. Also, 54.42% and 32.43% of the children were treated for fever on the same day and the following day that fever started, respectively. About 9.70% paid for fever treatment from their regular incomes, while 51.38% sought treatment from either public or private health centers. Multinomial Logit regression results showed that relative to using of other treatments, probabilities of selecting private hospitals and public health centers increased with age of the household heads, resident in urban areas, mothers’ years of education, number of days taken off for treatment, paying medical bills from regular, occasional and borrowed incomes, and knowledge of diarrhea and shivering as symptoms of malaria. In the Poisson regression results, timeliness of seeking treatment was significantly enhanced by knowledge of fever as malaria symptom, residence in northern and central regions of Malawi and use of income from sale of assets to pay medical bills (p < 0.10).However, delays in treating children was motivated by age of the household heads, number of days taken off to care for sick child and usage of regular, borrowed and other incomes to pay medical bills. (p < 0.05). It was concluded that efficiency of public sector in

  8. The effectiveness of a nationwide universal coverage campaign of insecticide-treated bed nets on childhood malaria in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Zamawe, Collins O F; Nakamura, Kanan; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-10-18

    Although the universal coverage campaign of insecticide-treated mosquito bed nets (ITNs) has been associated with improved malaria outcomes, recent reports indicate that the campaign is losing its sparkle in some countries. In Malawi, the universal coverage campaign was implemented in 2012, but its impacts are yet to be ascertained. Thus, this study examined the effects of the campaign on malaria morbidity among children in Malawi. This is a repeated cross-sectional study. The study used nationally-representative malaria indicator survey (MIS) data collected in 2012 and 2014. In total, the analysis included 4193 children between the ages of 6 and 59 months (2171 from 2012 MIS and 2022 from 2014 MIS). ITNs coverage and malaria morbidity before (2012 = pre-test/control) and after (2014 = post-test/treated) the universal coverage campaign of ITNs were compared. The treated and control samples were matched on measured relevant covariates using propensity scores. The mean number of ITNs per household improved significantly from 1.1 (SD 1.0) in 2012 to 1.4 (SD 1.1) in 2014 (p < 0.001). Nonetheless, the prevalence of malaria among children increased considerably from 27.7 % (2012) to 32.0 % (2014) (p = 0.002). The risk of malaria was also significantly higher in 2014 compared to 2012 (RR = 1.14; 95 % CI 1.01-1.29). Besides, the use of bed nets was not significantly associated with malaria morbidity in 2014 (RR = 0.92; 95 % CI 0.76-1.12), but it was in 2012 (RR = 0.83; 95 % CI 0.70-1.00). The universal coverage campaign of ITNs was not associated with a reduced burden of malaria among children in Malawi. This was likely due to increased insecticide resistance, inconsistent use of bed nets and under-utilization of other methods of malaria control. This calls for a multifaceted approach in the fight against malaria instead of simple dependence on ITNs. In particular, local or community level malaria interventions should go hand in hand with the universal

  9. N-Acetylcysteine as adjunctive treatment in severe malaria: A randomized double blinded placebo controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Faiz, M. Abul; Ruangveerayut, Ronnatrai; Maude, Richard; Rahman, M. Ridwanur; Roberts, L. Jackson; Moore, Kevin; Yunus, Emran Bin; Hoque, M. Gofranul; Hasan, Mahatab Uddin; Lee, Sue J.; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Newton, Paul N.; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P.J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Markers of oxidative stress are reported to be increased in severe malaria. It has been suggested that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in treatment. We studied the efficacy and safety of parenteral N-acetylcysteine as an adjunct to artesunate treatment of severe falciparum malaria. Design A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial on the use of high dose intravenous NAC as adjunctive treatment to artesunate. Setting A provincial hospital in Western Thailand and a tertiary referral hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Patients One hundred and eight adult patients with severe falciparum malaria. Interventions Patients were randomized to receive N-acetylcysteine or placebo as adjunctive treatment to intravenous artesunate. Measurements and main results A total of 56 patients were treated with NAC and 52 received placebo. NAC had no significant effect on mortality, lactate clearance times (p=0.74) or coma recovery times (p=0.46). Parasite clearance time was increased from 30h (range 6h to 144h) to 36h (range 6h to 120h) (p=0.03), but this could be explained by differences in admission parasitemia. Urinary F2-isoprostane metabolites, measured as a marker of oxidative stress, were increased in severe malaria compared to patients with uncomplicated malaria and healthy volunteers. Admission red cell rigidity correlated with mortality, but did not improve with NAC. Conclusion Systemic oxidative stress is increased in severe malaria. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine had no effect on outcome in patients with severe falciparum malaria in this setting. PMID:19114891

  10. What determines providers' stated preference for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria?

    PubMed

    Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Hanson, Kara; Mbacham, Wilfred; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Wiseman, Virginia

    2014-03-01

    As agents for their patients, providers often make treatment decisions on behalf of patients, and their choices can affect health outcomes. However, providers operate within a network of relationships and are agents not only for their patients, but also other health sector actors, such as their employer, the Ministry of Health, and pharmaceutical suppliers. Providers' stated preferences for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria were examined to determine what factors predict their choice of treatment in the absence of information and institutional constraints, such as the stock of medicines or the patient's ability to pay. 518 providers working at non-profit health facilities and for-profit pharmacies and drug stores in Yaoundé and Bamenda in Cameroon and in Enugu State in Nigeria were surveyed between July and December 2009 to elicit the antimalarial they prefer to supply for uncomplicated malaria. Multilevel modelling was used to determine the effect of financial and non-financial incentives on their preference, while controlling for information and institutional constraints, and accounting for the clustering of providers within facilities and geographic areas. 69% of providers stated a preference for artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT), which is the recommended treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Cameroon and Nigeria. A preference for ACT was significantly associated with working at a for-profit facility, reporting that patients prefer ACT, and working at facilities that obtain antimalarials from drug company representatives. Preferences were similar among colleagues within a facility, and among providers working in the same locality. Knowing the government recommends ACT was a significant predictor, though having access to clinical guidelines was not sufficient. Providers are agents serving multiple principals and their preferences over alternative antimalarials were influenced by patients, drug company representatives, and other providers working at the

  11. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mani Kant; Kumar, Prashant; Singh, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Despite over 2.3 million (26% of global burden) cases of tuberculosis (TB) in India the accurate diagnosis of childhood TB remains a major challenge. Children with TB usually have paucibacillary disease and contribute little to disease transmission within the community. Consequently the treatment of children with TB is often not considered a priority by TB control programmes. Adequate and timely assessment of TB infection in childhood could diminish epidemiological burden as underdiagnosed pediatric patients can eventually evolve in to an active state and have the potential to disseminate the etiological agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, notably increasing this worldwide public health problem. In this review we discuss the most important recent advances in the diagnosis of childhood TB: (1) Symptom-based approaches, (2) novel immune-based approaches, including in vitro interferon-γ IGRA release assays IGRA tests; and (3) bacteriological and molecular methods that are more rapid and/or less expensive than conventional culture techniques for TB diagnosis and/or drug-resistance testing. Recent advances have improved our ability to diagnose latent infection and active TB in children, nevertheless establishing a diagnosis of either latent infection or active disease in HIV-infected children remains a major challenge. PMID:26283820

  12. Malaria vaccine.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor.

  13. Community perceptions and practices of treatment seeking for childhood pneumonia: a mixed methods study in a rural district, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abbey, Mercy; Chinbuah, Margaret A; Gyapong, Margaret; Bartholomew, L Kay; van den Borne, Bart

    2016-08-22

    The World Health Organization recommends community case management of malaria and pneumonia for reduction of under-five mortality in developing countries. Caregivers' perception and understanding of the illness influences the care a sick child receives. Studies in Ghana and elsewhere have routinely shown adequate recognition of malaria by caregivers. Similarly, evidence from Asia and some African countries have shown adequate knowledge on pneumonia. However, in Ghana, little has been documented about community awareness, knowledge, perceptions and management of childhood pneumonia particularly in the Dangme West district. Therefore this formative study was conducted to determine community perceptions of pneumonia for the purpose of informing the design and implementation of context specific health communication strategies to promote early and appropriate care seeking behaviour for childhood pneumonia. A mixed method approach was adopted. Data were obtained from structured interviews (N = 501) and eight focus group discussions made up of 56 caregivers of under-fives and eight community Key Informants. Descriptive and inference statistics were used for the quantitative data and grounded theory to guide the analysis of the qualitative data. Two-thirds of the respondents had never heard the name pneumonia. Most respondents did not know about the signs and symptoms of pneumonia. For the few who have heard about pneumonia, causes were largely attributed to coming into contact with cold temperature in various forms. Management practices mostly were self-treatment with home remedies and allopathic care. The low awareness and inadequate recognition of pneumonia implies that affected children may not receive prompt and appropriate treatment as their caregivers may misdiagnose the illness. Adequate measures need to be taken to create the needed awareness to improve care seeking behaviour.

  14. Childhood food allergies: current diagnosis, treatment, and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Dyer, Ashley A; Jain, Namrita; Greenhawt, Matthew J

    2013-05-01

    Food allergy is a growing public health concern in the United States that affects an estimated 8% of children. Food allergy is defined as an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a specific food. Nearly 40% of children with food allergy have a history of severe reactions that if not treated immediately with proper medication can lead to hospitalization or even death. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened an expert panel in 2010 to develop guidelines outlining evidence-based practices in diagnosing and managing food allergy. The purpose of this review is to aid clinicians in translating the NIAID guidelines into primary care practice and includes the following content domains: (1) the definition and mechanism of childhood food allergy, (2) differences between food allergy and food intolerance, (3) the epidemiology of childhood food allergy in the United States, (4) best practices derived from the NIAID guidelines focused on primary care clinicians' management of childhood food allergy, (5) emerging food allergy treatments, and (6) future directions in food allergy research and practice. Articles focused on childhood food allergy were considered for inclusion in this review. Studies were restricted to the English language and to those published within the past 40 years. A cross-listed combination of the following words, phrases, and MeSH terms was searched in PubMed and Google Scholar to identify relevant articles: food allergy, food hypersensitivity, child, pediatric, prevalence, and epidemiology. Additional sources were identified through the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of uncomplicated malaria at public health facilities and medicine retailers in south-eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background At primary care facilities in Nigeria, national treatment guidelines state that malaria should be symptomatically diagnosed and treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Evidence from households and health care providers indicates that many patients do not receive the recommended treatment. This study sought to determine the extent of the problem by collecting data as patients and caregivers leave health facilities, and determine what influences the treatment received. Methods A cross-sectional cluster survey of 2,039 respondents exiting public health centres, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers was undertaken in urban and rural settings in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria. Results Although 79% of febrile patients received an anti-malarial, only 23% received an ACT. Many patients (38%) received sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). A further 13% of patients received an artemisinin-derivative as a monotherapy. An estimated 66% of ACT dispensed was in the correct dose. The odds of a patient receiving an ACT was highly associated with consumer demand (OR: 55.5, p < 0.001). Conclusion Few febrile patients attending public health facilities, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers received an ACT, and the use of artemisinin-monotherapy and less effective anti-malarials is concerning. The results emphasize the importance of addressing both demand and supply-side influences on malaria treatment and the need for interventions that target consumer preferences as well as seek to improve health service provision. PMID:21651787

  16. A qualitative study on health workers' and community members' perceived sources, role of information and communication on malaria treatment, prevention and control in southeast Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umeano-Enemuoh, Jane C; Uzochukwu, Benjamim; Ezumah, Nkoli; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Wiseman, Virginia; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-10-22

    It has been widely acknowledged that well-planned and executed communication programmes can contribute to achieving malaria prevention and treatment goals. This however requires a good understanding of current sources and roles of information used by both health workers and communities. The study aimed at determining health workers' and community members' sources, value and use of information on malaria prevention and treatment in Nigeria. Qualitative data was collected from six selected communities (three urban and three rural) in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria. A total of 18 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with 179 community members and 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health workers in public and private health facilities were used to collect data on where people receive treatment for malaria and access information on malaria. The FGDS and IDIs also provided data on the values, uses and effects of information and communication on malaria treatment seeking and provision of services. The findings revealed that the major sources of information on malaria for health workers and community members were advertisements in the mass media, workshops and seminars organized by donor agencies, facility supervision, posters, other health workers, television and radio adverts. Community involvement in the design and delivery of information on malaria control was seen as a strong strategy for improving both consumer and provider knowledge. Information from the different sources catalyzed appropriate provision and consumption of malaria treatment amongst health workers and community members. Health workers and consumers receive information on malaria prevention and treatment from multiple sources of communication and information, which they find useful. Harnessing these information sources to encourage consistent and accurate messages around malaria prevention and treatment is a necessary first step in the design and implementation of malaria communication and behaviour change

  17. A Cluster Randomised Trial Introducing Rapid Diagnostic Tests into Registered Drug Shops in Uganda: Impact on Appropriate Treatment of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mbonye, Anthony K.; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham; Hansen, Kristian S.; Cundill, Bonnie; Chandler, Clare; Clarke, Siân E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inappropriate treatment of malaria is widely reported particularly in areas where there is poor access to health facilities and self-treatment of fevers with anti-malarial drugs bought in shops is the most common form of care-seeking. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) in registered drug shops in Uganda, with the aim to increase appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in patients seeking treatment for fever in drug shops. Methods A cluster-randomized trial of introducing mRDTs in registered drug shops was implemented in 20 geographical clusters of drug shops in Mukono district, central Uganda. Ten clusters were randomly allocated to the intervention (diagnostic confirmation of malaria by mRDT followed by ACT) and ten clusters to the control arm (presumptive treatment of fevers with ACT). Treatment decisions by providers were validated by microscopy on a reference blood slide collected at the time of consultation. The primary outcome was the proportion of febrile patients receiving appropriate treatment with ACT defined as: malaria patients with microscopically-confirmed presence of parasites in a peripheral blood smear receiving ACT or rectal artesunate, and patients with no malaria parasites not given ACT. Findings A total of 15,517 eligible patients (8672 intervention and 6845 control) received treatment for fever between January-December 2011. The proportion of febrile patients who received appropriate ACT treatment was 72·9% versus 33·7% in the control arm; a difference of 36·1% (95% CI: 21·3 – 50·9), p<0·001. The majority of patients with fever in the intervention arm accepted to purchase an mRDT (97·8%), of whom 58·5% tested mRDT-positive. Drug shop vendors adhered to the mRDT results, reducing over-treatment of malaria by 72·6% (95% CI: 46·7– 98·4), p<0·001) compared to drug shop vendors using presumptive

  18. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Malaria in the Plateau Region, Togo

    PubMed Central

    Agbodeka, Kodjovi; Gbekley, Holaly E.; Karou, Simplice D.; Anani, Kokou; Agbonon, Amegnona; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Batawila, Komlan; Simpore, Jacques; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Togo, malaria constitutes a major public health problem but, until now, the population still mostly relies on herbal medicine for healing. This study aimed to document medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in the Plateau region of the country. Methodology: Semi-structured questionnaire interviews were used to gather ethnobotanical and sociodemographic data from traditional healers of the study area. Results: A total of 61 plants species belonging to 33 families were found to be in use for malaria therapy in the Plateau region. Caesalpiniaceae were the most represented family with 7 species, followed by Euphorbiaceae and Poaceae with 4 species each. According to the relative frequency of citation (RFC), Newbouldia laevis Seem. (RFC =0.52), Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A. Bruce (RFC =0.48), Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (RFC =0.43), and Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby (RFC =0.40) were the most cited in the treatment of malaria in the traditional medicine in the Plateau region. The parts of plants used could either be the barks, roots, leaves, or whole plants. The recipes also could be a combination of various species of plants or plant parts. Conclusion: This study highlights the potential sources for the development of new antimalarial drugs from indigenous medicinal plants found in the Plateau region of Togo. Such results could be a starting point for in vitro antimalarial screenings. SUMMARY 61 plants species from 33 families are use for malaria therapy in the Plateau region of TogoThe main families are Caesalpiniaceae Euphorbiaceae and PoaceaeThe most used species are Newbouldia laevis Seem. (RFC = 0.52), Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A. Bruce (RFC = 0.48), Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (RFC = 0.43), and Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby (RFC = 0.40) Abbreviations Used: RFC: Relative frequency of citation, FC: Frequency of citation, Dec: Decoction, Orl: Oral route, Mac: Maceration, Jui: Juice, Inf: Infusion, Sau: Sauce

  19. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Malaria in the Plateau Region, Togo.

    PubMed

    Agbodeka, Kodjovi; Gbekley, Holaly E; Karou, Simplice D; Anani, Kokou; Agbonon, Amegnona; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Batawila, Komlan; Simpore, Jacques; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2016-03-01

    In Togo, malaria constitutes a major public health problem but, until now, the population still mostly relies on herbal medicine for healing. This study aimed to document medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in the Plateau region of the country. Semi-structured questionnaire interviews were used to gather ethnobotanical and sociodemographic data from traditional healers of the study area. A total of 61 plants species belonging to 33 families were found to be in use for malaria therapy in the Plateau region. Caesalpiniaceae were the most represented family with 7 species, followed by Euphorbiaceae and Poaceae with 4 species each. According to the relative frequency of citation (RFC), Newbouldia laevis Seem. (RFC =0.52), Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A. Bruce (RFC =0.48), Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (RFC =0.43), and Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby (RFC =0.40) were the most cited in the treatment of malaria in the traditional medicine in the Plateau region. The parts of plants used could either be the barks, roots, leaves, or whole plants. The recipes also could be a combination of various species of plants or plant parts. This study highlights the potential sources for the development of new antimalarial drugs from indigenous medicinal plants found in the Plateau region of Togo. Such results could be a starting point for in vitro antimalarial screenings. 61 plants species from 33 families are use for malaria therapy in the Plateau region of TogoThe main families are Caesalpiniaceae Euphorbiaceae and PoaceaeThe most used species are Newbouldia laevis Seem. (RFC = 0.52), Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A. Bruce (RFC = 0.48), Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (RFC = 0.43), and Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby (RFC = 0.40) Abbreviations Used: RFC: Relative frequency of citation, FC: Frequency of citation, Dec: Decoction, Orl: Oral route, Mac: Maceration, Jui: Juice, Inf: Infusion, Sau: Sauce, Kne: Kneading, Le: Leaves, Rt: Roots, Wp: Whole plant

  20. Intermittent preventive treatment for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in high transmission areas

    PubMed Central

    Briand, Valérie; Cottrell, Gilles; Massougbodji, Achille; Cot, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Malaria in pregnancy is one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes. In high transmission areas, its prevention has recently changed, moving from a weekly or bimonthly chemoprophylaxis to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp). IPTp consists in the administration of a single curative dose of an efficacious anti-malarial drug at least twice during pregnancy – regardless of whether the woman is infected or not. The drug is administered under supervision during antenatal care visits. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the drug currently recommended by the WHO. While SP-IPTp seems an adequate strategy, there are many issues still to be explored to optimize it. This paper reviewed data on IPTp efficacy and discussed how to improve it. In particular, the determination of both the optimal number of doses and time of administration of the drug is essential, and this has not yet been done. As both foetal growth and deleterious effects of malaria are maximum in late pregnancy women should particularly be protected during this period. Monitoring of IPTp efficacy should be applied to all women, and not only to primi- and secondigravidae, as it has not been definitively established that multigravidae are not at risk for malaria morbidity and mortality. In HIV-positive women, there is an urgent need for specific information on drug administration patterns (need for higher doses, possible interference with sulpha-based prophylaxis of opportunistic infections). Because of the growing level of resistance of parasites to SP, alternative drugs for IPTp are urgently needed. Mefloquine is presently one of the most attractive options because of its long half life, high efficacy in sub-Saharan Africa and safety during pregnancy. Also, efforts should be made to increase IPTp coverage by improving the practices of health care workers, the motivation of women and their perception of malaria complications in pregnancy. Because IPTp is not applicable in early

  1. Malaria in Children.

    PubMed

    Cohee, Lauren M; Laufer, Miriam K

    2017-08-01

    Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, leading to an estimated 438,000 deaths in 2015. Malaria is also an important health threat to travelers to endemic countries and should be considered in evaluation of any traveler returning from a malaria-endemic area who develops fever. Considering the diagnosis of malaria in patients with potential exposure is critical. Prompt provision of effective treatment limits the complications of malaria and can be life-saving. Understanding Plasmodium species variation, epidemiology, and drug-resistance patterns in the geographic area where infection was acquired is important for determining treatment choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Review of the use of artemisinin and its derivatives in the treatment of malaria].

    PubMed

    Van der Meersch, H

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the development of the artemisinins used in the treatment of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The story starts in China with Artemisia annua L., a plant that was traditionally used as an antipyretic. The activity of Annual wormwood can be explained by the presence of the active substance artemisinin. Soon, artemether, artemotil, artenimol, artesunate and sodium artesunate, derivatives of artemisinin, have been developed. Each has its own physical and pharmaceutical properties, dosage and dosage forms. Other aspects, such as the general guidelines for use, safety during pregnancy and the perspectives of artemisinin compounds, are being discussed.

  3. Combination therapy--a way to forestall artemisinin resistance and optimize uncomplicated malaria treatment.

    PubMed

    Ștefan, I

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin resistance represents a global concern, which requires a concerted and coordinated effort at a global level. Lessons learned from the experience of drug combination therapies in HIV, TB, and HCV infections showed that combination therapies reduce the risk of drug resistance development. In order to maximize the effectiveness of artemisinin and its derivates and to protect it from the development of resistance, WHO recommended that they should be combined with other drugs that have different mechanisms of action and longer half-lives. Until the attainment of new pharmaceuticals, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the way to forestall artemisinin resistance and optimize uncomplicated malaria treatment.

  4. Food Allergy in childhood: phenotypes, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Silvia; Cipriani, Francesca; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in childhood increased in the last decades, especially in Westernized countries where this phenomenon has been indicated as a second wave of the allergic epidemic. In parallel, scientific interest also increased with the effort to explain the reasons of this sudden rise and to identify potential protective and risk factors. A great attention has been focused on early exposures to allergenic foods, as well as on other nutritional factors or supplements that may influence the immune system in a positive direction. Both interventions on maternal diet before birth or during breastfeeding and then directly on infant nutrition have been investigated. Furthermore, the natural history of food allergy also seems to be changing over time; IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy and egg allergy seem to be more frequently a persistent rather than a transient disease in childhood, as described in the last years. Food avoidance and the emergency drugs in case of an adverse event, such as epinephrine self-injector, are currently the first-line treatment in patients with food allergies, with a resulting impairment in the quality of life and social behaviour. During the last decade, oral immunotherapy emerged as an optional treatment with remarkable results, offering a novel perspective in the treatment for and management of food allergy.

  5. Medicinal plants and finished marketed herbal products used in the treatment of malaria in the Ashanti region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Komlaga, Gustav; Agyare, Christian; Dickson, Rita Akosua; Mensah, Merlin Lincoln Kwao; Annan, Kofi; Loiseau, Philippe M; Champy, Pierre

    2015-08-22

    Ethnobotanical survey was performed to document medicinal plants employed in the management of malaria in the Bosomtwe and Sekyere East Districts of the Ashanti Region (Ghana), in comparison with the plant ingredients in herbal antimalarial remedies registered by the Ghana Food and Drug Administration. Two hundred and three (203) herbalists from 33 communities within the two districts were interviewed on medicinal plants they use to manage malaria. A literature search was made to determine already documented plants. In addition, 23 finished marketed herbal products indicated for the management of malaria were identified and their labels examined to find out which of the plants mentioned in our survey were listed as ingredients and whether these products are in anyway regulated. Ninety-eight (98) species of plants were cited for the management of malaria. In comparison with literature citations, 12 (12.2%) species were reported for the management of malaria for the first time and 20 (20.4%) others for the first time in Ghana. Twenty-three (23) finished marketed herbal antimalarial products examined contained aerial or underground parts of 29 of the plants cited in our survey as ingredients. Twenty-two (22) of these products have been registered by the Ghana Food and Drugs Authority, four (4) of which were included in the recommended herbal medicine list for treating malaria in Ghana. This study provides new additions to the inventory of medicinal plants used for the management of malaria and reports the commercial availability and regulation of finished marketed labelled herbal products intended for the treatment of malaria in Ghana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure in children presenting with malaria and prolonged seizures in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mpimbaza, Arthur; Staedke, Sarah G; Ndeezi, Grace; Byarugaba, Justus; Rosenthal, Philip J

    2009-01-01

    Background In endemic areas, falciparum malaria remains the leading cause of seizures in children presenting to emergency departments. In addition, seizures in malaria have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality in these patients. The management of seizures in malaria is sometimes complicated by the refractory nature of these seizures to readily available anti-convulsants. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence after initial control among children with malaria. Methods In a previous study, the efficacy and safety of buccal midazolam was compared to that of rectal diazepam in the treatment of prolonged seizures in children aged three months to 12 years in Kampala, Uganda. For this study, predictive models were used to determine risk factors for anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence among the 221 of these children with malaria. Results Using predictive models, focal seizures (OR 3.21; 95% CI 1.42–7.25, p = 0.005), cerebral malaria (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.20–4.91, p = 0.01) and a blood sugar ≥200 mg/dl at presentation (OR 2.84; 95% CI 1.11–7.20, p = 0.02) were independent predictors of treatment failure (seizure persistence beyond 10 minutes or recurrence within one hour of treatment). Predictors of seizure recurrence included: 1) cerebral malaria (HR 3.32; 95% CI 1.94–5.66, p < 0.001), 2) presenting with multiple seizures (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.42–4.23, p = 0.001), 3) focal seizures (HR 2.86; 95% CI 1.49–5.49, p = 0.002), 4) recent use of diazepam (HR 2.43; 95% CI 1.19–4.95, p = 0.01) and 5) initial control of the seizure with diazepam (HR 1.96; 95% CI 1.16–3.33, p = 0.01). Conclusion Specific predictors, including cerebral malaria, can identify patients with malaria at risk of anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence. PMID:19563665

  7. Application of mobile-technology for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria in the "Better Border Healthcare Programme"

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating the use of cell-phones into a routine malaria prevention and control programme, to improve the management of malaria cases among an under-served population in a border area. The module for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria (DTMM) consisted of case investigation and case follow-up for treatment compliance and patients' symptoms. Methods The module combining web-based and mobile technologies was developed as a proof of concept, in an attempt to replace the existing manual, paper-based activities that malaria staff used in treating and caring for malaria patients in the villages for which they were responsible. After a patient was detected and registered onto the system, case-investigation and treatment details were recorded into the malaria database. A follow-up schedule was generated, and the patient's status was updated when the malaria staff conducted their routine home visits, using mobile phones loaded with the follow-up application module. The module also generated text and graph messages for a summary of malaria cases and basic statistics, and automatically fed to predetermined malaria personnel for situation analysis. Following standard public-health practices, access to the patient database was strictly limited to authorized personnel in charge of patient case management. Results The DTMM module was developed and implemented at the trial site in late November 2008, and was fully functioning in 2009. The system captured 534 malaria patients in 2009. Compared to paper-based data in 2004-2008, the mobile-phone-based case follow-up rates by malaria staff improved significantly. The follow-up rates for both Thai and migrant patients were about 94-99% on Day 7 (Plasmodium falciparum) and Day 14 (Plasmodium vivax) and maintained at 84-93% on Day 90. Adherence to anti-malarial drug therapy, based on self-reporting, showed high completion rate for P. falciparum

  8. Dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia regarding combined treatment regimens for acute uncomplicated malaria, Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Gonzalo; Tobón, Alberto; Piñeros, Juan-Gabriel; Ríos, Alexandra; Blair, Silvia

    2010-07-01

    Selecting suitable anti-malarial treatment represents one of the best tools for reducing morbidity and mortality caused by this disease. Sexual and asexual parasite dynamics were thus evaluated in patients involved in antimalarial drug efficacy studies by using combined treatment with and without artemisinin derivatives for treating uncomplicated acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Antioquia, Colombia. All treatment doses were supervised and administered according to patients' weight; sexual and asexual parasitemia were evaluated during 28- or 42-days follow-up in 468 patients. Artemisinin-based combination therapy showed greater parasiticidal ability, showing a mean asexual parasitemia survival rate of one day and mean gametocyte survival rate of 1-2 days. Sexual and asexual parasitemias were eliminated more quickly and effectively in the group receiving artemisinin-based combination therapy. Adding 45 mg of primaquine to treatment with artesunate and mefloquine reduced gametocyte and asexual parasite survival by one day.

  9. CAN TREATMENT OF P. VIVAX LEAD TO A UNEXPECTED APPEARANCE OF FALCIPARUM MALARIA?

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Daniel Philippe; Krudsood, Srivicha; Wilairatana, Polrat; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Silachamroon, Udomsak; Chokejindachai, Watcharee; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Supavej, Suvanee; McKenzie, F Ellis; Looareesuwan, Sornchai

    2008-01-01

    Of 994 patients admitted to the Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases for P. vivax malaria, 104 (10.5%) experienced appearance of Plasmodium falciparum following drug treatment for P. vivax . In all patients, P. falciparum parasites were not found by microscopic examination upon admission. The mean time for P. falciparum appearance was 12.6 days after the commencement of chloroquine treatment. Patients experiencing appearance of P. falciparum. had significantly lower hematocrit, and greater initial P. vivax parasite counts. We use a mathematical model to explore the consequences of chloroquine treatment of such mixed infections. Both clinical results and features of the model suggest that such “hidden infections” may be quite common, and that the appearance of P. falciparum may be stimulated by treatment of P. vivax. PMID:11485096

  10. Dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia Regarding Combined Treatment Regimens for Acute Uncomplicated Malaria, Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Tobón, Alberto; Piñeros, Juan-Gabriel; Ríos, Alexandra; Blair, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Selecting suitable anti-malarial treatment represents one of the best tools for reducing morbidity and mortality caused by this disease. Sexual and asexual parasite dynamics were thus evaluated in patients involved in antimalarial drug efficacy studies by using combined treatment with and without artemisinin derivatives for treating uncomplicated acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Antioquia, Colombia. All treatment doses were supervised and administered according to patients' weight; sexual and asexual parasitemia were evaluated during 28- or 42-days follow-up in 468 patients. Artemisinin-based combination therapy showed greater parasiticidal ability, showing a mean asexual parasitemia survival rate of one day and mean gametocyte survival rate of 1–2 days. Sexual and asexual parasitemias were eliminated more quickly and effectively in the group receiving artemisinin-based combination therapy. Adding 45 mg of primaquine to treatment with artesunate and mefloquine reduced gametocyte and asexual parasite survival by one day. PMID:20595483

  11. Malaria in rural Burkina Faso: local illness concepts, patterns of traditional treatment and influence on health-seeking behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Beiersmann, Claudia; Sanou, Aboubakary; Wladarsch, Evelyn; De Allegri, Manuela; Kouyaté, Bocar; Müller, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    Background The literature on health care seeking behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa for children suffering from malaria is quite extensive. This literature, however, is predominately quantitative and, inevitably, fails to explore how the local concepts of illness may affect people's choices. Understanding local concepts of illness and their influence on health care-seeking behaviour can complement existing knowledge and lead to the development of more effective malaria control interventions. Methods In a rural area of Burkina Faso, four local concepts of illness resembling the biomedical picture of malaria were described according to symptoms, aetiology, and treatment. Data were collected through eight focus group discussions, 17 semi-structured interviews with key informants, and through the analysis of 100 verbal autopsy questionnaires of children under-five diagnosed with malaria. Results Sumaya, dusukun yelema, kono, and djoliban were identified as the four main local illness concepts resembling respectively uncomplicated malaria, respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral malaria, and severe anaemia. The local disease categorization was found to affect both treatment and provider choice. While sumaya is usually treated by a mix of traditional and modern methods, dusukun yelema and kono are preferably treated by traditional healers, and djoliban is preferably treated in modern health facilities. Besides the conceptualization of illness, poverty was found to be another important influencing factor of health care-seeking behaviour. Conclusion The findings complement previous evidence on health care-seeking behaviour, by showing how local concepts of illness strongly influence treatment and choice of provider. Local concepts of illness need to be considered when developing specific malaria control programmes. PMID:17686147

  12. Home-based management of fever and malaria treatment practices in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Peterson, Stefan; Pariyo, George; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Petzold, Max G; Tomson, Goran

    2007-12-01

    The Home-Based Management of Fever/Malaria (HBMF) strategy in rural Uganda was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study. The intervention consisted of volunteers educating mothers and providing a 3-day course of pre-packaged chloroquine plus sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine tablets (HOMAPAK), free of charge, for the treatment of under-five fevers. Using a structured questionnaire, information was obtained on care-seeking and treatment practices before (n=498) and 18 months after the introduction of HBMF (n=587). Assessment of the intervention effect indicated 13.5% improvement in the accumulated proportion of patients (1) treated, (2) treated within 24h of illness onset, (3) treated with the recommended antimalarials, (4) treated at an adequate dosage and (5) treated for the correct duration. Combining this with the antimalarial drug efficacy resulted in a 10.4% improvement in the community effectiveness of malaria treatment. HOMAPAK use was reported in 25% of 156 febrile children; 23% in the most poor compared with 50% in the least poor. Using HOMAPAK instead of other allopathic antimalarials increased the likelihood of completing all steps (odds ratio 37, 95% CI 4.8-286). Similar to other large-scale public health interventions, this study demonstrates modest practice changes at the population level. However, practices improved markedly among HOMAPAK users, suggesting that intensifying implementation efforts to increase HOMAPAK use, especially among the poorest, would be beneficial.

  13. Early treatment during a primary malaria infection modifies the development of cross immunity.

    PubMed

    Legorreta-Herrera, M; Ventura-Ayala, M L; Licona-Chávez, R N; Soto-Cruz, I; Hernández-Clemente, F F

    2004-01-01

    We have used a murine model to study the kinetics of cross-protection when a primary infection is halted at different times. We analysed how parasitaemia is modified during a second infection with the homologous parasite, a heterologous parasite, or a mixture of the two. In addition, possible mechanisms involved in cross-protection were analysed. Results show that treatment with pyrimethamine on day 5 during a primary infection with P. chabaudi AS (non-lethal), prevents the generation of cross-protection to a new challenge with lethal P. yoelii 17XL. In contrast, when treatment is on day 7, mice survive a P. yoelii infection. Differences between both groups suggest that in order for 'preimmune' mice to survive a lethal challenge, a predominantly TH2-type response is required, with a higher mRNA expression level of IL-4 and IL-10, and a lower mRNA expression of IFN-gamma. This work shows that an early treatment of a malaria infection produced by a non-lethal parasite drives the immune response towards a loss of cross-protection to further infections, in particular with more virulent parasites. This finding should be taken into account for the development of effective malaria vaccines.

  14. Factors associated with utilization of community health workers in improving access to malaria treatment among children in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kisia, James; Nelima, Florence; Otieno, David Odhiambo; Kiilu, Kioko; Emmanuel, Wamalwa; Sohani, Salim; Siekmans, Kendra; Nyandigisi, Andrew; Akhwale, Willis

    2012-07-30

    The success of community case management in improving access to effective malaria treatment for young children relies on broad utilization of community health workers (CHWs) to diagnose and treat fever cases. A better understanding of the factors associated with CHW utilization is crucial in informing national malaria control policy and strategy in Kenya. Specifically, little is known in Kenya on the extent to which CHWs are utilized, the characteristics of families who report utilizing CHWs and whether utilization is associated with improved access to prompt and effective malaria treatment. This paper examines factors associated with utilization of CHWs in improving access to malaria treatment among children under five years of age by women caregivers in two malaria endemic districts in Kenya. This study was conducted in 113 hard-to-reach and poor villages in Malindi and Lamu districts in the coastal region classified as having endemic transmission of malaria. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted using a standardized malaria indicator questionnaire at baseline (n=1,187) and one year later at endline assessment (n=1,374) using two-stage cluster sampling. There was an increase in reported utilization of CHWs as source of advice/treatment for child fevers from 2% at baseline to 35% at endline, accompanied by a decline in care-seeking from government facilities (from 67% to 48%) and other sources (26% to 2%) including shops. The most poor households and poor households reported higher utilization of CHWs at 39.4% and 37.9% respectively, compared to the least poor households (17.0%). Households in villages with less than 200 households reported higher CHWs utilization as compared to households in villages having >200 households. Prompt access to timely and effective treatment was 5.7 times higher (95% CI 3.4-9.7) when CHWs were the source of care sought. Adherence was high regardless of whether source was CHWs (73.1%) or public health facility (66.7%). The

  15. Factors associated with utilization of community health workers in improving access to malaria treatment among children in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The success of community case management in improving access to effective malaria treatment for young children relies on broad utilization of community health workers (CHWs) to diagnose and treat fever cases. A better understanding of the factors associated with CHW utilization is crucial in informing national malaria control policy and strategy in Kenya. Specifically, little is known in Kenya on the extent to which CHWs are utilized, the characteristics of families who report utilizing CHWs and whether utilization is associated with improved access to prompt and effective malaria treatment. This paper examines factors associated with utilization of CHWs in improving access to malaria treatment among children under five years of age by women caregivers in two malaria endemic districts in Kenya. Methods This study was conducted in 113 hard-to-reach and poor villages in Malindi and Lamu districts in the coastal region classified as having endemic transmission of malaria. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted using a standardized malaria indicator questionnaire at baseline (n = 1,187) and one year later at endline assessment (n = 1,374) using two-stage cluster sampling. Results There was an increase in reported utilization of CHWs as source of advice/treatment for child fevers from 2% at baseline to 35% at endline, accompanied by a decline in care-seeking from government facilities (from 67% to 48%) and other sources (26% to 2%) including shops. The most poor households and poor households reported higher utilization of CHWs at 39.4% and 37.9% respectively, compared to the least poor households (17.0%). Households in villages with less than 200 households reported higher CHWs utilization as compared to households in villages having >200 households. Prompt access to timely and effective treatment was 5.7 times higher (95% CI 3.4-9.7) when CHWs were the source of care sought. Adherence was high regardless of whether source was CHWs (73

  16. Glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood leukodystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, M. Joana; Goldman, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    The childhood leukodystrophies comprise a group of hereditary disorders characterized by the absence, malformation or destruction of myelin. These disorders share common clinical, radiological and pathological features, despite their diverse molecular and genetic etiologies. Oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are the major affected cell populations, and are either structurally impaired or metabolically compromised through cell-intrinsic pathology, or are the victims of mis-accumulated toxic byproducts of metabolic derangement. In either case, glial cell replacement using implanted tissue or pluripotent stem cell-derived human neural or glial progenitor cells may comprise a promising strategy for both structural remyelination and metabolic rescue. A broad variety of pediatric white matter disorders, including the primary hypomyelinating disorders, the lysosomal storage disorders, and the broader group of non-lysosomal metabolic leukodystrophies, may all be appropriate candidates for glial progenitor cell-based treatment. Nonetheless, a variety of specific challenges remain before this therapeutic strategy can be applied to children. These include timely diagnosis, before irreparable neuronal injury has ensued; understanding the natural history of the targeted disease; defining the optimal cell phenotype for each disorder; achieving safe and scalable cellular compositions, designing age-appropriate controlled clinical trials; and for autologous therapy of genetic disorders, achieving the safe genetic editing of pluripotent stem cells. Yet these challenges notwithstanding, the promise of glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood myelin disorders offers hope to the many victims of this otherwise largely untreatable class of disease. PMID:27170209

  17. Malaria treatment-seeking behaviour and related factors of Wa ethnic minority in Myanmar: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Southeast Asia, data on malaria treatment-seeking behaviours and related affecting factors are rare. The population of the Wa ethnic in Myanmar has difficulty in accessing formal health care. To understand malaria treatment-seeking behaviour and household-affecting factors of the Wa people, a cross-sectional study carried out in Shan Special Region II, Myanmar. Methods The two methods, questionnaire-based household surveys to household heads and in-depth interviews to key informants, were carried out independently. The proportion of treatment-seeking patterns was calculated. Logistic regression was used to determine affecting factors of treatment-seeking. Qualitative data were analysed by using Text Analysis Markup System. Results Overall, 87.5% of the febrile population sought treatment, but only 32.0% did so within 24 hours. The proportion accessing the retail sector (79.6%) was statistically significant higher (P<0.0001) than accessing the public sector (10.6%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified family income, distances from a health facility, family decision and patient characteristics being independently associated with delayed malaria treatment. Conclusion Malaria treatment-seeking behaviour is not appropriate, and affecting factors include health service systems, social and cultural factors in Wa State of Myanmar. PMID:23237576

  18. Modelling the potential of focal screening and treatment as elimination strategy for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Peruvian Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Erhart, Annette; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Branch, Oralee; Berkvens, Dirk; Abatih, Emmanuel; Lambert, Philippe; Frasso, Gianluca; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gamboa, Dionicia; Sihuincha, Moisés; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Speybroeck, Niko

    2015-05-07

    Focal screening and treatment (FSAT) of malaria infections has recently been introduced in Peru to overcome the inherent limitations of passive case detection (PCD) and further decrease the malaria burden. Here, we used a relatively straightforward mathematical model to assess the potential of FSAT as elimination strategy for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Peruvian Amazon Region. A baseline model was developed to simulate a scenario with seasonal malaria transmission and the effect of PCD and treatment of symptomatic infections on the P. falciparum malaria transmission in a low endemic area of the Peruvian Amazon. The model was then adjusted to simulate intervention scenarios for predicting the long term additional impact of FSAT on P. falciparum malaria prevalence and incidence. Model parameterization was done using data from a cohort study in a rural Amazonian community as well as published transmission parameters from previous studies in similar areas. The effect of FSAT timing and frequency, using either microscopy or a supposed field PCR, was assessed on both predicted incidence and prevalence rates. The intervention model indicated that the addition of FSAT to PCD significantly reduced the predicted P. falciparum incidence and prevalence. The strongest reduction was observed when three consecutive FSAT were implemented at the beginning of the low transmission season, and if malaria diagnosis was done with PCR. Repeated interventions for consecutive years (10 years with microscopy or 5 years with PCR), would allow reaching near to zero incidence and prevalence rates. The addition of FSAT interventions to PCD may enable to reach P. falciparum elimination levels in low endemic areas of the Amazon Region, yet the progression rates to those levels may vary substantially according to the operational criteria used for the intervention.

  19. Treatment-seeking behaviour and associated costs for malaria in Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Karyana, Muhammad; Devine, Angela; Kenangalem, Enny; Burdarm, Lenny; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini; Vemuri, Ram; Anstey, Nicholas M; Tjitra, Emiliana; Price, Ric N; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-11-08

    Malaria remains a significant public health issue in Eastern Indonesia, where multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are highly prevalent. The objective of this study was to describe treatment-seeking behaviour and household costs prior to a change to a unified treatment policy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Mimika district, Papua province in 2006. In 2005 a randomized cross-sectional household survey was conducted to collect data on demographics, socio-economic status (SES), treatment-seeking, case management, and household costs. Information on the cost of illness was also collected from patients exiting health facilities, in order to compare the cost of episodes diagnosed as P. vivax compared with those diagnosed as P. falciparum. 825 households were included in the survey. Of the 764 individuals who sought treatment for fever outside the home in the last month, 46% (349/764) went to a public health facility. Of the 894 reported visits to healthcare providers, 48% (433) resulted in a blood test, of which 78% (337) were reportedly positive. Only 10% (17/177) of individuals who reported testing positive for P. falciparum or mixed infection received the first-line treatment of chloroquine with SP, and 38% (61/159) of those with a diagnosis of P. vivax reportedly received the first-line treatment of chloroquine and primaquine. Overall, public facilities were more likely to prescribe the correct prevailing first-line drug combinations than private providers (OR = 3.77 [95% CI 2.31-6.14], p < 0.001). The mean cost to the household of an episode of P. vivax was similar to the cost of P. falciparum [US$44.50 (SD: 46.23) vs US$48.58 (SD: 64.65)]. Private providers were a popular source of treatment for malaria, but adherence to the national guidelines was low and the economic burden of malaria for both P. falciparum and P. vivax infections was substantial. Engagement with the private sector is needed to ensure that patients have access

  20. Packaged treatment for first-line care in cerebral malaria and meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Cullinan, T. R.; Pieterick, C.

    1998-01-01

    Described are the results of a trial carried out from January to June 1996 in southern Malawi to determine the effectiveness of a treatment pack for infants and children under the age of 6 years, who presented as emergencies to rural health centres with presumptive diagnoses of severe/cerebral malaria or meningitis. Each complete treatment pack (approximate cost, US$ 6) contained, inter alia, intramuscular quinine, intramuscular choloramphenicol, dextrose, paraldehyde, a nasogastric tube, prepacked syringes, and sterile water. A modified coma score and drug dosage nomogram were also included in the package. Despite a considerable drop in overall mortality, problems arose with regard to the incomplete treatment of possible meningitis and in the development of a rational referral policy. PMID:9744245

  1. Ultrasound biofeedback treatment for persisting childhood apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Brick, Nickole; Landi, Nicole

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment program that includes ultrasound biofeedback for children with persisting speech sound errors associated with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Six children ages 9-15 years participated in a multiple baseline experiment for 18 treatment sessions during which treatment focused on producing sequences involving lingual sounds. Children were cued to modify their tongue movements using visual feedback from real-time ultrasound images. Probe data were collected before, during, and after treatment to assess word-level accuracy for treated and untreated sound sequences. As participants reached preestablished performance criteria, new sequences were introduced into treatment. All participants met the performance criterion (80% accuracy for 2 consecutive sessions) on at least 2 treated sound sequences. Across the 6 participants, performance criterion was met for 23 of 31 treated sequences in an average of 5 sessions. Some participants showed no improvement in untreated sequences, whereas others showed generalization to untreated sequences that were phonetically similar to the treated sequences. Most gains were maintained 2 months after the end of treatment. The percentage of phonemes correct increased significantly from pretreatment to the 2-month follow-up. A treatment program including ultrasound biofeedback is a viable option for improving speech sound accuracy in children with persisting speech sound errors associated with CAS.

  2. In vivo antimalarial activity of extracts of Tanzanian medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Nondo, Ramadhani S.O.; Erasto, Paul; Moshi, Mainen J.; Zacharia, Abdallah; Masimba, Pax J.; Kidukuli, Abdul W.

    2016-01-01

    Plants used in traditional medicine have been the source of a number of currently used antimalarial medicines and continue to be a promising resource for the discovery of new classes of antimalarial compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of four plants; Erythrina schliebenii Harms, Holarrhena pubescens Buch-Ham, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius Poir, and Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Flem used for treatment of malaria in Tanzania. In vivo antimalarial activity was assessed using the 4-day suppressive antimalarial assay. Mice were infected by injection via tail vein with 2 × 107 erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Extracts were administered orally, once daily, for a total of four daily doses from the day of infection. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg/day) and solvent (5 mL/kg/day) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The extracts of C. bonducella, E. schliebenii, H. pubescens, and P. nummulariifolius exhibited dose-dependent suppression of parasite growth in vivo in mice, with the highest suppression being by C. bonducella extract. While each of the plant extracts has potential to yield useful antimalarial compounds, the dichloromethane root extract of C. bonducella seems to be the most promising for isolation of active antimalarial compound(s). In vivo antimalarial activity presented in this study supports traditional uses of C. bonducella roots, E. schliebenii stem barks, H. pubescens roots, and P. nummulariifolius for treatment of malaria. PMID:27144154

  3. Residual antimalarial concentrations before treatment in patients with malaria from Cambodia: indication of drug pressure.

    PubMed

    Hodel, Eva Maria; Genton, Blaise; Zanolari, Boris; Mercier, Thomas; Duong, Socheat; Beck, Hans-Peter; Olliaro, Piero; Decosterd, Laurent Arthur; Ariey, Frédéric

    2010-10-01

    The Thai-Cambodian border has been known as the origin of antimalarial drug resistance for the past 30 years. There is a highly diverse market for antimalarials in this area, and improved knowledge of drug pressure would be useful to target interventions aimed at reducing inappropriate drug use. Baseline samples from 125 patients with falciparum malaria recruited for 2 in vivo studies (in Preah Vihear and Pursat provinces) were analyzed for the presence of 14 antimalarials in a single run, by means of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Half of the patients had residual drug concentrations above the lower limit of calibration for at least 1 antimalarial at admission. Among the drugs detected were the currently used first-line drugs mefloquine (25% and 35% of patients) and piperaquine (15% of patients); the first-line drug against vivax malaria, chloroquine (25% and 41% of patients); and the former first-line drug, quinine (5% and 34% patients). The findings demonstrate that there is high drug pressure and that many people still seek treatment in the private and informal sector, where appropriate treatment is not guaranteed. Promotion of comprehensive behavioral change, communication, community-based mobilization, and advocacy are vital to contain the emergence and spread of parasite resistance against new antimalarials.

  4. The treatment and management of alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    PubMed

    Neville, B G R; Ninan, M

    2007-10-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood has many factors that make it difficult to manage. These include its rarity of about one case per million, the variability of the manifestations, with seven characteristic features, and the potential for disabilities and acute, often severe, episodes in a disease that is of uncertain cause and for which treatment evidence is sparse. An integrated multidisciplinary team and emergency availability are key medical requirements, as well as an educational setting that understands the variations in performance that occur. The mainstays of treatment have been flunarizine, antiepilepsy drugs for the 50% of patients with epilepsy, attempts to avoid trigger situations, and the rapid encouragement of sleep when attacks begin. The diagnostic and management predicament of child, parent, and paediatrician in complex rare disorders are well illustrated by this condition.

  5. Botulinum Toxin Treatment for Limb Spasticity in Childhood Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Pavone, Vito; Testa, Gianluca; Restivo, Domenico A.; Cannavò, Luca; Condorelli, Giuseppe; Portinaro, Nicola M.; Sessa, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    CP is the most common cause of chronic disability in childhood occurring in 2–2.5/1000 births. It is a severe disorder and a significant number of patients present cognitive delay and difficulty in walking. The use of botulinum toxin (BTX) has become a popular treatment for CP especially for spastic and dystonic muscles while avoiding deformity and pain. Moreover, the combination of physiotherapy, casting, orthotics and injection of BTX may delay or decrease the need for surgical intervention while reserving single-event, multi-level surgery for fixed musculotendinous contractures and bony deformities in older children. This report highlights the utility of BTX in the treatment of cerebral palsy in children. We include techniques for administration, side effects, and possible resistance as well as specific use in the upper and lower limbs muscles. PMID:26924985

  6. Measurements of treatment response in childhood acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Coustan-Smith, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Measuring response to chemotherapy is a backbone of the clinical management of patients with acute leukemia. This task has historically relied on the ability to identify leukemic cells among normal bone marrow cells by their morphology. However, more accurate ways to identify leukemic cells have been developed, which allow their detection even when they are present in small numbers that would be impossible to be recognized by microscopic inspection. The levels of such minimal residual disease (MRD) are now widely used as parameters for risk assignment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and increasingly so in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, different MRD monitoring methods may produce discrepant results. Moreover, results of morphologic examination may be in stark contradiction to MRD measurements, thus creating confusion and complicating treatment decisions. This review focusses on the relation between results of different approaches to measure response to treatment and define relapse in childhood acute leukemia. PMID:23320002

  7. Tutorials for Africa - Malaria: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    Tutorials for Africa: Malaria In Uganda, the burden of malaria outranks that of all other diseases. This tutorial includes information about how malaria spreads, the importance of treatment and techniques for ...

  8. Therapeutic responses of Plasmodium vivax malaria to chloroquine and primaquine treatment in northeastern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lili; Wang, Ying; Parker, Daniel M; Gupta, Bhavna; Yang, Zhaoqing; Liu, Huaie; Fan, Qi; Cao, Yaming; Xiao, Yuping; Lee, Ming-chieh; Zhou, Guofa; Yan, Guiyun; Baird, J Kevin; Cui, Liwang

    2015-02-01

    Chloroquine-primaquine (CQ-PQ) continues to be the frontline therapy for radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Emergence of CQ-resistant (CQR) P. vivax parasites requires a shift to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), which imposes a significant financial, logistical, and safety burden. Monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of CQ is thus important. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of CQ-PQ for P. vivax malaria in northeast Myanmar. We recruited 587 patients with P. vivax monoinfection attending local malaria clinics during 2012 to 2013. These patients received three daily doses of CQ at a total dose of 24 mg of base/kg of body weight and an 8-day PQ treatment (0.375 mg/kg/day) commencing at the same time as the first CQ dose. Of the 401 patients who finished the 28-day follow-up, the cumulative incidence of recurrent parasitemia was 5.20% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04% to 7.36%). Among 361 (61%) patients finishing a 42-day follow-up, the cumulative incidence of recurrent blood-stage infection reached 7.98% (95% CI, 5.20% to 10.76%). The cumulative risk of gametocyte carriage at days 28 and 42 was 2.21% (95% CI, 0.78% to 3.64%) and 3.93% (95% CI, 1.94% to 5.92%), respectively. Interestingly, for all 15 patients with recurrent gametocytemia, this was associated with concurrent asexual stages. Genotyping of recurrent parasites at the merozoite surface protein 3α gene locus from 12 patients with recurrent parasitemia within 28 days revealed that 10 of these were the same genotype as at day 0, suggesting recrudescence or relapse. Similar studies in 70 patients in the same area in 2007 showed no recurrent parasitemias within 28 days. The sensitivity to chloroquine of P. vivax in northeastern Myanmar may be deteriorating.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum malaria: Convergent evolutionary trajectories towards delayed clearance following artemisinin treatment.

    PubMed

    Wilairat, Prapon; Kümpornsin, Krittikorn; Chookajorn, Thanat

    2016-05-01

    Malaria is a major global health challenge with 300million new cases every year. The most effective regimen for treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria is based on artemisinin and its derivatives. The drugs are highly effective, resulting in rapid clearance of parasites even in severe P. falciparum malaria patients. During the last five years, artemisinin-resistant parasites have begun to emerge first in Cambodia and now in Thailand and Myanmar. At present, the level of artemisinin resistance is relatively low with clinical presentation of delayed artemisinin clearance (a longer time to reduce parasite load) and a small decrease in artemisinin sensitivity in cultured isolates. Nevertheless, multiple genetic loci associated with delayed parasite clearance have been reported, but they cannot account for a large portion of cases. Even the most well-studied kelch 13 propeller mutations cannot always predict the outcome of artemisinin treatment in vitro and in vivo. Here we propose that delayed clearance by artemisinin could be the result of convergent evolution, driven by multiple trajectories to overcome artemisinin-induced stress, but precluded to become full blown resistance by high fitness cost. Genetic association studies by several genome-wide approaches reveal linkage disequilibrium between multiple loci and delayed parasite clearance. Genetic manipulations at some of these loci already have resulted in loss in artemisinin sensitivity. The notion presented here is by itself consistent with existing evidence on artemisinin resistance and has the potential to be explored using available genomic data. Most important of all, molecular surveillance of artemisinin resistance based on multi-genic markers could be more informative than relying on any one particular molecular marker. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tailoring a Pediatric Formulation of Artemether-Lumefantrine for Treatment of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ogutu, Bernhards; Djimde, Abdoulaye; Stricker, Kirstin; Hamed, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Specially created pediatric formulations have the potential to improve the acceptability, effectiveness, and accuracy of dosing of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in young children, a patient group that is inherently vulnerable to malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) Dispersible is a pediatric formulation of AL that is specifically tailored for the treatment of children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, offering benefits relating to efficacy, convenience and acceptance, accuracy of dosing, safety, sterility, stability, and a pharmacokinetic profile and bioequivalence similar to those of crushed and intact AL tablets. However, despite being the first pediatric antimalarial to meet World Health Organization (WHO) specifications for use in infants and children who are ≥5 kg in body weight and its inclusion in WHO Guidelines, there are few publications that focus on AL Dispersible. Based on a systematic review of the recent literature, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of the clinical experience with AL Dispersible to date. A randomized, phase 3 study that compared the efficacy and safety of AL Dispersible to those of crushed AL tablets in 899 African children reported high PCR-corrected cure rates at day 28 (97.8% and 98.5% for AL Dispersible and crushed tablets, respectively), and the results of several subanalyses of these data indicate that this activity is observed regardless of patient weight, food intake, and maximum plasma concentrations of artemether or its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin. These and other clinical data support the continued use of pediatric antimalarial formulations in all children <5 years of age with uncomplicated malaria when accompanied by continued monitoring for the emergence of resistance. PMID:26014953

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of artesunate and quinine + tetracycline for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Chanthaburi, Thailand.

    PubMed Central

    Honrado, E. R.; Fungladda, W.; Kamoiratanaku, P.; Kitayaporn, D.; Karbwang, J.; Thimasarn, K.; Masngammueng, R.

    1999-01-01

    A randomized, controlled, malaria-clinic-based field trial was carried out to compare the cost-effectiveness of a 5-day 700-mg oral artesunate and a 7-day quinine + tetracycline regimen for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Thailand. Cost-effectiveness was determined from the providers' perspective and based on curative effectiveness. A total of 137 patients, aged 15-60 years, attending a malaria clinic were followed for 28 days, 60 of them received quinine + tetracycline and 77 received artesunate. Cure rates were assessed on day 5 (artesunate) and day 7 (quinine + tetracycline), using the intention-to-treat approach. Cost-effectiveness and sensitivity analyses were performed by varying the day 5/day 7 curative effectiveness and cost of artesunate. The cure rate with artesunate (100%) was significantly higher than with quinine + tetracycline (77.4%) (relative risk adjusted for sex (aRR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12-1.55; referent quinine + tetracycline). Artesunate was more cost-effective than quinine + tetracycline at the following costs: artesunate, < or = US$0.36 per 50-mg tablet; quinine, US$0.06 per 300-mg tablet; tetracycline, US$0.02 per 250-mg capsule; and services per case found, < or = US$11.49. Because of the higher cure rate and higher cost-effectiveness of the artesunate regimen compared with quinine + tetracycline, we recommend its use for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in malaria clinics in Thailand. PMID:10212514

  12. Correlates of perceived malarial episodes and treatment-seeking behavior in a malaria-endemic rural area in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, S M; Bhuiya, A; Rasheed, S

    2001-12-01

    Malaria is one of the most serious diseases of developing countries. In Bangladesh the estimated population at risk of malaria was calculated to be 103.7 million. This study, carried out in 1995 in villages of the malaria-endemic south-eastern part of Bangladesh aimed to identify the correlates of perceived malarial episodes and healthcare-seeking behavior. Data were collected from villagers and healthcare providers by interviewing. Seventeen percent of the study population reported an episode of malaria during the two months prior to the survey. Males reported more malarial episodes than females; irregular visitors to the jungle and day laborers reported higher prevalence of illness than their regular counterparts. Ninety-nine percent of those who reported suffering from malaria consulted a village healthcare provider within 21 days of the onset of symptoms. Contact rate was higher for those living in highlands, the economically better-off and those aged 10-14 years. The education of the household head, location of the house, the age of the individual, the duration of treatment and the kind of medication suggested were significantly associated with treatment compliance. There is a need to raise awareness about prevention and appropriate management of malarial episodes.

  13. The impact of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Uchenna Anthony; Obi, Samuel N; Onah, Hyacinth E; Ugwu, Emmanuel Onyebuchi V; Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Umeh, Chioma Roseline; Okafor, Innocent Igwebuike

    2012-07-01

    The Roll Back Malaria initiatives were introduced to ensure that 60% of pregnant women receive intermittent preventive anti-malarial treatment by the end of 2005 in an attempt to halve the mortality from malaria by 2010. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in pregnant women on intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) compared with a control group. This comparative study involved testing the peripheral blood of pregnant women on IPT with SP and a control group that did not receive SP for the malaria parasite upon registration and at 34 weeks gestational age. The levels of parasitaemia in the intervention group upon registration (4.9%) and at 34 weeks (63.9%) were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the control group (10%) and at 34 weeks gestation (68.3%). IPT with SP during pregnancy did not significantly reduce the prevalence of the malaria parasitaemia among the pregnant women in our environment.

  14. Inadequate Diagnosis and Treatment of Malaria Among Travelers Returning from Africa During the Ebola Epidemic--United States, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kathrine R; Cullen, Karen A; Koumans, Emilia H; Arguin, Paul M

    2016-01-22

    Among 1,683 persons in the United States who developed malaria following international travel during 2012, more than half acquired disease in one of 16 countries in West Africa. Since March 2014, West Africa has experienced the world's largest epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola), primarily affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia; in 2014, approximately 20,000 Ebola cases were reported. Both Ebola and malaria are often characterized by fever and malaise and can be clinically indistinguishable, especially early in the course of disease. Immediate laboratory testing is critical for diagnosis of both Ebola and malaria, so that appropriate lifesaving treatment can be initiated. CDC recommends prompt malaria testing of patients with fever and history of travel to an area that is endemic for malaria, using blood smear microscopy, with results available within a few hours. Empiric treatment of malaria is not recommended by CDC. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing is recommended to diagnose Ebola. During the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, CDC received reports of delayed laboratory testing for malaria in travelers returning to the United States because of infection control concerns related to Ebola. CDC reviewed documented calls to its malaria consultation service and selected three patient cases to present as examples of deficiencies in the evaluation and treatment of malaria among travelers returning from Africa during the Ebola epidemic.

  15. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  16. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  17. Feedback frequency in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Maas, Edwin; Butalla, Christine E; Farinella, Kimberly A

    2012-08-01

    To examine the role of feedback frequency in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Reducing the frequency of feedback enhances motor learning, and recently, such feedback frequency reductions have been recommended for the treatment of CAS. However, no published studies have explicitly compared different feedback frequencies in this population. Using an alternating treatments single-subject design with multiple baselines across behaviors, retention and transfer of learning were compared following high-frequency feedback and low-frequency feedback in 4 children with CAS. Feedback frequency was manipulated in the context of an integral stimulation treatment. Changes in perceptual accuracy were quantified with effect sizes and were compared across conditions. Findings were mixed, with 2 children showing an advantage for low-frequency feedback, 1 child showing a small advantage for high-frequency feedback, and 1 child showing no clear improvement in either condition. These findings suggest that reducing the frequency of feedback may be beneficial for some children with CAS, although this may vary with the child's age or severity of apraxia. Caution is warranted in extrapolating from the nonspeech motor learning literature to speech treatment for CAS. Finally, this study contributes another replication to the literature on the efficacy of integral stimulation treatment for children with CAS.

  18. Space-time clustering of childhood malaria at the household level: a dynamic cohort in a Mali village

    PubMed Central

    Gaudart, Jean; Poudiougou, Belco; Dicko, Alassane; Ranque, Stéphane; Toure, Ousmane; Sagara, Issaka; Diallo, Mouctar; Diawara, Sory; Ouattara, Amed; Diakite, Mahamadou; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2006-01-01

    Background Spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the risk of malaria have led the WHO to recommend fine-scale stratification of the epidemiological situation, making it possible to set up actions and clinical or basic researches targeting high-risk zones. Before initiating such studies it is necessary to define local patterns of malaria transmission and infection (in time and in space) in order to facilitate selection of the appropriate study population and the intervention allocation. The aim of this study was to identify, spatially and temporally, high-risk zones of malaria, at the household level (resolution of 1 to 3 m). Methods This study took place in a Malian village with hyperendemic seasonal transmission as part of Mali-Tulane Tropical Medicine Research Center (NIAID/NIH). The study design was a dynamic cohort (22 surveys, from June 1996 to June 2001) on about 1300 children (<12 years) distributed between 173 households localized by GPS. We used the computed parasitological data to analyzed levels of Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale infection and P. falciparum gametocyte carriage by means of time series and Kulldorff's scan statistic for space-time cluster detection. Results The time series analysis determined that malaria parasitemia (primarily P. falciparum) was persistently present throughout the population with the expected seasonal variability pattern and a downward temporal trend. We identified six high-risk clusters of P. falciparum infection, some of which persisted despite an overall tendency towards a decrease in risk. The first high-risk cluster of P. falciparum infection (rate ratio = 14.161) was detected from September 1996 to October 1996, in the north of the village. Conclusion This study showed that, although infection proportions tended to decrease, high-risk zones persisted in the village particularly near temporal backwaters. Analysis of this heterogeneity at the household scale by GIS methods lead to target preventive

  19. Splenic enlargement and abdominal scarification in childhood malaria. Beliefs, practices and their possible roles in management in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibadin, O M; Ofili, A N; Airauhi, L U; Ozolua, E I; Umoru, A B

    2008-12-01

    To achieve sustainable reduction in malaria burden in Africa, cultural practices that foster increased malaria burden must be addressed. In Edo state Nigeria, scarification/tattooing on the left hypochondrium presumably over an enlarged spleen arising mainly from malaria is widely practiced. This practice is deleterious, diversionary and causes complications. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study to evaluate the beliefs and practice, regarding abdominal wall scarification in children and within the context of malaria control; It was carried out among experienced women in child care selected from Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Information relating to beliefs, knowledge and their practices including possible socio-cultural/economic determinants were obtained with use of questionnaire. Of the 400 questionnaires administered 394 were responded to. The modal age bracket was 26 - 30 years (Range, 18 - 56 years) Respondents were mainly Binis Esan and Ibos amongst others. About 27.0% of respondents considered the spleen a "bag of worms". Other views included "collection of bad blood" 27.2% and as a sickness of its own, 14.7%. Named causes of splenomegaly were fever, 59.6% and evil spirit, 15.5%. Over 45.0% of respondents would consult the herbalists for splenomegaly. Less educated (X2 = 40.0, p<0.005), women over 40 years of age (X2 = 13.5, p< 0.05) and Esan/Bini ethnic groups (X2 = 15.6, p <0.05) are more prone to the practice. Reasons for widespread use included perceived effectiveness, low cost and accessibility. Information on scarification was obtained mainly from family members, 49.5%, neighbours, 25.1%; and friends/colleagues, 16.7% Practice of scarification is deep rooted and widespread in the study location. It has potentials to negate efforts involved in malaria control. Education including public enlightenment campaign should effectively check the practice.

  20. Understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment and care in rural Tanzania: the ACCESS Programme

    PubMed Central

    Hetzel, Manuel W; Iteba, Nelly; Makemba, Ahmed; Mshana, Christopher; Lengeler, Christian; Obrist, Brigit; Schulze, Alexander; Nathan, Rose; Dillip, Angel; Alba, Sandra; Mayumana, Iddy; Khatib, Rashid A; Njau, Joseph D; Mshinda, Hassan

    2007-01-01

    Background Prompt access to effective treatment is central in the fight against malaria. However, a variety of interlinked factors at household and health system level influence access to timely and appropriate treatment and care. Furthermore, access may be influenced by global and national health policies. As a consequence, many malaria episodes in highly endemic countries are not treated appropriately. Project The ACCESS Programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment and care in a rural Tanzanian setting. The programme's strategy is based on a set of integrated interventions, including social marketing for improved care seeking at community level as well as strengthening of quality of care at health facilities. This is complemented by a project that aims to improve the performance of drug stores. The interventions are accompanied by a comprehensive set of monitoring and evaluation activities measuring the programme's performance and (health) impact. Baseline data demonstrated heterogeneity in the availability of malaria treatment, unavailability of medicines and treatment providers in certain areas as well as quality problems with regard to drugs and services. Conclusion The ACCESS Programme is a combination of multiple complementary interventions with a strong evaluation component. With this approach, ACCESS aims to contribute to the development of a more comprehensive access framework and to inform and support public health professionals and policy-makers in the delivery of improved health services. PMID:17603898

  1. Drug resistance maps to guide intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in African infants.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Inbarani; Roper, Cally

    2011-10-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment of infants (IPTi) with sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended as an additional malaria control intervention in high transmission areas of sub-Saharan Africa, provided its protective efficacy is not compromised by SP resistance. A significant obstacle in implementing SP-IPTi, is in establishing the degree of resistance in an area. Since SP monotherapy is discontinued, no contemporary measures of in vivo efficacy can be made, so the World Health Organisation has recommended a cut-off based upon molecular markers, stating that SP-IPTi should not be implemented when the prevalence of the dhps 540E mutation among infections exceeds 50%. We created a geo-referenced database of SP resistance markers in Africa from published literature. By selecting surveys of malaria infected blood samples conducted since 2004 we have mapped the contemporary prevalence of dhps 540E. Additional maps are freely available in interactive form at http://www.drugresistancemaps.org/ipti/. Eight countries in East Africa are classified as unsuitable for SP-IPTi when data are considered at a national level. Fourteen countries in Central and West Africa were classified as suitable while seven countries had no available contemporary data to guide policy. There are clear deficiencies in molecular surveillance data coverage. We discuss requirements for ongoing surveillance of SP resistance markers in support of the use of SP-IPTi.

  2. Do consumers' preferences for improved provision of malaria treatment services differ by their socio-economic status and geographic location? A study in southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Improvement of utilization of malaria treatment services will depend on provision of treatment services that different population groups of consumers prefer and would want to use. Treatment of malaria in Nigeria is still problematic and this contributes to worsening burden of the disease in the country. Therefore this study explores the socio-economic and geographic differences in consumers' preferences for improved treatment of malaria in Southeast Nigeria and how the results can be used to improve the deployment of malaria treatment services. Methods This study was undertaken in Anambra state, Southeast Nigeria in three rural and three urban areas. A total of 2,250 randomly selected householders were interviewed using a pre tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Preferences were elicited using both a rating scale and ranking of different treatment provision sources by the respondents. A socio-economic status (SES) index was used to examine for SES differences, whilst urban-rural comparison was used to examine for geographic differences, in preferences. Results The most preferred source of provision of malaria treatment services was public hospitals (30.5%), training of mothers (19%) and treatment in Primary healthcare centres (18.1%). Traditional healers (4.8%) and patent medicine dealers (4.2%) were the least preferred strategies for improving malaria treatment. Some of the preferences differed by SES and by a lesser extent, the geographic location of the respondents. Conclusion Preferences for provision of improved malaria treatment services were influenced by SES and by geographic location. There should be re-invigoration of public facilities for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria, in addition to improving the financial and geographic accessibility of such facilities. Training of mothers should be encouraged but home management will not work if the quality of services of patent medicine dealers and pharmacy shops where drugs for

  3. [Atypical etiology of malaria: local perceptions and practices for treatment and prevention in the department of Gaoua, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Some, D T; Zerbo, R

    2007-02-01

    Malaria is still a public health problem in many sub-Saharan countries. This study was undertaken to understand and analyze the relationship between local perceptions of malaria and practices for prevention and management in the department of Gaoua in Burkina Faso. The goal was to improve the effectiveness of prevention and management of malaria in the target population, i.e., children under the age of five. Individual interviews and focus groups using a semi-structured guide were carried out with mothers, traditional healthcare providers and elderly persons in four villages of the department of Gaoua. Findings showed that practices used for treatment and prevention were directly related to perceptions about malaria. Due to poverty, inadequate health service delivery and ignorance, people do not always seek medical attention and express doubts about the efficacy of modern care. Endogenous practices for malaria prevention are directly related to causes described by the population. Modern preventive techniques are not used by the population. For instance nets are misused to protect corpses from flies or for shelter during funerals.

  4. Rosette-Disrupting Effect of an Anti-Plasmodial Compound for the Potential Treatment of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Complications

    PubMed Central

    Ch’ng, Jun-Hong; Moll, Kirsten; Quintana, Maria del Pilar; Chan, Sherwin Chun Leung; Masters, Ellen; Moles, Ernest; Liu, Jianping; Eriksson, Anders B.; Wahlgren, Mats

    2016-01-01

    The spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites could lead to higher incidence of patients with malaria complications. However, there are no current treatments that directly dislodge sequestered parasites from the microvasculature. We show that four common antiplasmodial drugs do not disperse rosettes (erythrocyte clusters formed by malaria parasites) and therefore develop a cell-based high-throughput assay to identify potential rosette-disrupting compounds. A pilot screen of 2693 compounds identified Malaria Box compound MMV006764 as a potential candidate. Although it reduced rosetting by a modest 20%, MMV006764 was validated to be similarly effective against both blood group O and A rosettes of three laboratory parasite lines. Coupled with its antiplasmodial activity and drug-likeness, MMV006764 represents the first small-molecule compound that disrupts rosetting and could potentially be used in a resource-limited setting to treat patients deteriorating rapidly from malaria complications. Such dual-action drugs that simultaneously restore microcirculation and reduce parasite load could significantly reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. PMID:27403804

  5. The Impact of Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Diseases Interventions to Prevent Malaria Fever in Children Less than Five Years Old in Bauchi State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Bassi, Amos; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Bamidele, Moyosola; Abdulkrim, Masduq; Nwizugbe, Ezenwa

    2016-01-01

    Malaria accounts for about 300,000 childhood deaths and 30% of under-five year old mortality in Nigeria annually. We assessed the impact of intervention strategies that integrated Patent Medicines Vendors into community case management of childhood-diseases, improved access to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and distributed bed nets to households. We explored the influence of household socioeconomic characteristics on the impact of the interventions on fever in the under-five year olds in Bauchi State Nigeria. A cross-sectional case-controlled, interventional study, which sampled 3077 and 2737 under-5 year olds from 1,588 and 1601 households in pre- and post-intervention periods respectively, was conducted from 2013 to 2015. Difference-in-differences and logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the impact attributable to the interventions: integrated community case management of childhood illness which introduced trained public and private sector health providers and the possession of nets on the prevalence of fever. Two-week prevalence of fever among under-fives declined from 56.6% at pre-intervention to 42.5% at post-intervention. Fever-prevention fraction attributable to nets was statistically significant (OR = 0.217, 95% CI: 0.08-0.33). Children in the intervention group had significantly fewer incidence of fever than children in the control group had (OR = 0.765, 95% CI: 0.67-0.87). Although being in the intervention group significantly provided 23.5% protection against fever (95% CI: 0.13-0.33), the post-intervention likelihood of fever was also significantly less than at pre-intervention (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.50-0.65). The intervention protection fraction against fever was statistically significant at 43.4% (OR = 0.434, 95% CI: 0.36-0.50). Logistic regression showed that the odds of fever were lower in households with nets (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88), among children whose mothers had higher education, in the post-intervention period

  6. The Impact of Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Diseases Interventions to Prevent Malaria Fever in Children Less than Five Years Old in Bauchi State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria accounts for about 300,000 childhood deaths and 30% of under-five year old mortality in Nigeria annually. We assessed the impact of intervention strategies that integrated Patent Medicines Vendors into community case management of childhood-diseases, improved access to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and distributed bed nets to households. We explored the influence of household socioeconomic characteristics on the impact of the interventions on fever in the under-five year olds in Bauchi State Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional case-controlled, interventional study, which sampled 3077 and 2737 under-5 year olds from 1,588 and 1601 households in pre- and post-intervention periods respectively, was conducted from 2013 to 2015. Difference-in-differences and logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the impact attributable to the interventions: integrated community case management of childhood illness which introduced trained public and private sector health providers and the possession of nets on the prevalence of fever. Results Two-week prevalence of fever among under-fives declined from 56.6% at pre-intervention to 42.5% at post-intervention. Fever-prevention fraction attributable to nets was statistically significant (OR = 0.217, 95% CI: 0.08–0.33). Children in the intervention group had significantly fewer incidence of fever than children in the control group had (OR = 0.765, 95% CI: 0.67–0.87). Although being in the intervention group significantly provided 23.5% protection against fever (95% CI: 0.13–0.33), the post-intervention likelihood of fever was also significantly less than at pre-intervention (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.50–0.65). The intervention protection fraction against fever was statistically significant at 43.4% (OR = 0.434, 95% CI: 0.36–0.50). Logistic regression showed that the odds of fever were lower in households with nets (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60–0.88), among children whose mothers had higher

  7. Global Call to Action to scale-up coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: seminar report.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Koki; Alonso, Pedro; Chico, R Matthew; Coleman, Jane; Dellicour, Stephanie; Hill, Jenny; Majeres-Lugand, Maud; Mangiaterra, Viviana; Menendez, Clara; Mitchell, Kate; Roman, Elaine; Sicuri, Elisa; Tagbor, Harry; van Eijk, Anna Maria; Webster, Jayne

    2015-05-18

    In 2014, a global 'Call to Action' seminar for the scale-up of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy was held during the 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. This report summarizes the presentations and main discussion points from the meeting.

  8. Ketogenic diet in the treatment of refractory epilepsy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A M; Keene, D L; Whiting, S E; Jacob, P J; Champagne, J R; Humphreys, P

    1999-08-01

    There has been renewed interest in the ketogenic diet in the treatment of medically refractory seizure disorders in childhood. This article reports the results of a retrospective chart review of 52 patients who were treated with the ketogenic diet. The vast majority (49 of 52) were treated with the classic 4:1 diet. Seizure control improved in 67.3% of patients with complete abolition of seizures in six. Adverse reactions were uncommon and included the development of renal stones, gall bladder stones, and hypoproteinemia in one patient each. Routine biochemical screening during the diet did not identify or prevent adverse events. The authors' experiences with the diet emphasize the need for close ongoing medical and dietary supervision.

  9. Childhood opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Blaes, Franz; Dharmalingam, Backialakshmi

    2016-06-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare and primarily immune-mediated disease in children and adults. The main symptoms include opsoclonus, myoclonus and ataxia. In children, the symptoms also include irritability, and, over a long-term course, learning and behavioural disturbances. OMS can be idiopathic, parainfectious or occur as a paraneoplastic (tumour-associated) syndrome. Paraneoplastic OMS in children is almost exclusively associated with neuroblastoma, whereas in adults, small cell lung cancer and breast cancer are the main underlying tumours. An autoimmune pathophysiology is suspected because childhood OMS patients have functionally active autoantibodies, proinflammatory changes in the cytokine network and immunotherapy responses. Children appear to respond regularly to immunosuppressive treatment. However, although the neurological symptoms show a good response, most children continue to show neuropsychological disturbances.

  10. A treatment for dysprosody in childhood apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Kirrie J; Robin, Donald A; McCabe, Patricia; McDonald, Jeannie

    2010-10-01

    Dysprosody is considered a core feature of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), especially impaired production of lexical stress. Few studies have tested the effects of intervention for dysprosody. This Phase II study with 3 children investigated the efficacy of a treatment targeting improved control of relative syllable durations in 3-syllable nonwords representing strong-weak (SW) and weak-strong (WS) stress patterns (e.g., BAtigu or baTIgu). Treatment sessions were structured along the principles of motor learning (PML) approach. Three children, age 7 to 10 years, with mild to moderate CAS and normal language development participated in an intensive 3-week treatment. Within-participant designs with multiple baselines across participants and behaviors were used to examine acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of skill. All children improved in their ability to control relative duration of syllables in SW and WS nonwords. Improvement was also noted in control of loudness and pitch contrasts. Treatment effects generalized to untreated nonword stimuli, but minimal change was seen in production of real words. Findings support the efficacy of this approach for improving production of lexical stress contrasts. Structuring the intervention according to the PML approach likely stimulated strong maintenance and generalization effects.

  11. Increasing use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of malaria infection in Nigerian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Igboeli, Nneka U; Ukwe, Chinwe V; Ekwunife, Obinna I

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed at describing the pattern of outpatient antimalarial drug prescribing in a secondary and a tertiary hospital, and to assess adherence to the National Antimalarial Treatment Guideline (ATG). An audit of antimalarial prescription files from the two health facilities for a period of six months in 2008 was conducted. Semi structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the doctors and pharmacists on their awareness and knowledge of the National Antimalarial Treatment Guideline. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) were the most prescribed antimalarials. Overall, 81.4% of the total prescriptions contained ACTs, out of which 56.8% were artemetherlumefantrine. However, adherence to the drugs indicated by national guideline within the DU90% was 38.5% for the tertiary and 66.7 % for the secondary hospital. The standard practice of prescribing with generic name was still not adhered to as evidenced in the understudied hospitals. The percentage of health care providers that were aware of the ATG was 88.2% for doctors and 85.1% for pharmacists. However, 13.3% and 52.2% of doctors and pharmacists respectively could not properly list the drugs specified in the guideline. Amodiaquine was the most commonly preferred option for managing children aged 0 - 3 months with malaria infection against the indicated oral quinine. This study showed an increased use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria compared previous reports in Nigeria. This study also highlights the need for periodic in-service quality assurance among health professionals with monitoring of adherence to and assessment of knowledge of clinical guidelines to ensure the practice of evidence based medicine.

  12. Severe malaria: lessons learned from the management of critical illness in children.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Kathryn

    2006-10-01

    Two hypotheses have recently been raised to explain the metabolic acidosis (increased blood acidity) of severe malaria, and both are relevant to treatment. The first suggests that a decreased blood volume (hypovolaemia) has an important role in severe malaria; following this, treatment should be based on the current standard paediatric management of acidosis in children with features of cardiovascular compromise. The second hypothesis contends that acidosis in malaria has a metabolic cause and proposes treatment with dichloroacetate. Both hypotheses are plausible and are not mutually exclusive. In truth, the risks and benefits of either treatment are uncertain, and will remain so until large multicentre, randomised controlled trials provide appropriate supportive evidence. As both views involve complex physiological rationales, beyond the usual scope of this journal, I attempt here to present the largely academic aspects of these hypotheses within the practical and contextual aspects of childhood severe malaria.

  13. Quality of care for the treatment for uncomplicated malaria in South-East Nigeria: how important is socioeconomic status?

    PubMed

    Ibe, Ogochukwu P; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Cundill, Bonnie; Wiseman, Virginia; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S; Onwujekwe, Obinna E

    2015-02-14

    Ensuring equitable coverage of appropriate malaria treatment remains a high priority for the Nigerian government. This study examines the health seeking behaviour, patient-provider interaction and quality of care received by febrile patients of different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A total of 1642 febrile patients and caregivers exiting public health centres, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers were surveyed in Enugu state, South-East Nigeria to obtain information on treatment seeking behaviour, patient-provider interactions and treatment received. Socioeconomic status was estimated for each patient using exit survey data on household assets in combination with asset ownership data from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Among the poorest SES group, 29% sought treatment at public health centres, 13% at pharmacies and 58% at patent medicine dealers (p < 0.01). Very few of those in the richest SES group used public health centres (4%) instead choosing to go to pharmacies (44%) and patent medicine dealers (52%, p < 0.001). During consultations with a healthcare provider, the poorest compared to the richest were significantly more likely to discuss symptoms with the provider, be physically examined and rely on providers for diagnosis and treatment rather than request a specific medicine. Those from the poorest SES group were however, least likely to request or to receive an antimalarial (p < 0.001). The use of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), the recommended treatment for uncomplicated malaria, was low across all SES groups. The quality of malaria treatment is sub-optimal for all febrile patients. Having greater interaction with the provider also did not translate to better quality care for the poor. The poor face a number of significant barriers to accessing quality treatment especially in relation to treatment seeking behaviour and type of treatment received. Strategies to address these inequities are fundamental to achieving

  14. Treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine in nonimmune populations: a safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Hatz, Christoph; Soto, Jaime; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Zoller, Thomas; Weitzel, Thomas; Loutan, Louis; Bricaire, Francois; Gay, Frederick; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Andriano, Kim; Lefèvre, Gilbert; De Palacios, Patricia Ibarra; Genton, Blaise

    2008-02-01

    The efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of malaria in nonimmune populations are not well defined. In this study, 165 nonimmune patients from Europe and non-malarious areas of Colombia with acute, uncomplicated falciparum malaria or mixed infection including P. falciparum were treated with the six-dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine. The parasitologic cure rate at 28 days was 96.0% for the per protocol population (119/124 patients). Median times to parasite clearance and fever clearance were 41.5 and 36.8 hours, respectively. No patient had gametocytes after Day 7. Treatment was well tolerated; most adverse events were mild to moderate and seemed to be related to malaria. There were few serious adverse events, none of which were considered to be drug-related. No significant effects on ECG or laboratory parameters were observed. In conclusion, the six-dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine was effective and well tolerated in the treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in nonimmune patients.

  15. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of mass screening and treatment for reducing Plasmodium falciparum malaria burden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Past experience and modelling suggest that, in most cases, mass treatment strategies are not likely to succeed in interrupting Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission. However, this does not preclude their use to reduce disease burden. Mass screening and treatment (MSAT) is preferred to mass drug administration (MDA), as the latter involves massive over-use of drugs. This paper reports simulations of the incremental cost-effectiveness of well-conducted MSAT campaigns as a strategy for P. falciparum malaria disease-burden reduction in settings with varying receptivity (ability of the combined vector population in a setting to transmit disease) and access to case management. Methods MSAT incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated in different sub-Saharan African settings using simulation models of the dynamics of malaria and a literature-based MSAT cost estimate. Imported infections were simulated at a rate of two per 1,000 population per annum. These estimates were compared to the ICERs of scaling up case management or insecticide-treated net (ITN) coverage in each baseline health system, in the absence of MSAT. Results MSAT averted most episodes, and resulted in the lowest ICERs, in settings with a moderate level of disease burden. At a low pre-intervention entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of two infectious bites per adult per annum (IBPAPA) MSAT was never more cost-effective than scaling up ITNs or case management coverage. However, at pre-intervention entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) of 20 and 50 IBPAPA and ITN coverage levels of 40 or 60%, respectively, the ICER of MSAT was similar to that of scaling up ITN coverage further. Conclusions In all the transmission settings considered, achieving a minimal level of ITN coverage is a “best buy”. At low transmission, MSAT probably is not worth considering. Instead, MSAT may be suitable at medium to high levels of transmission and at moderate ITN coverage. If undertaken as a

  16. Engineering of microcomplex of artemether and lumefantrine for effective drug treatment in malaria.

    PubMed

    Shende, Pravin; Desai, Prachi; Gaud, Ram S; Dhumatkar, Rohan

    2016-12-14

    The objective of the present work was to engineer and characterize stable citric acid cross-linked microcomplex of the inclusion complexes of artemether with β-cyclodextrin and Kollidon VA 64(®) with lumefantrine to release the drugs in controlled manner for effective combinational drug treatment in malaria. The microcomplex had a hydrodynamic diameter of 1047 ± 147 nm with surface charge of -19.7 ± 0.5 mV. The microcomplex showed high encapsulation efficiencies 85.6 ± 1.78% for artemether and 91.16 ± 2.21% for lumefantrine due to the lipophilic nature of drugs. In-vitro and in-vivo drug release studies showed the controlled release of artemether and lumefantrine for a period of 24 h. [Formula: see text].

  17. Shifting from presumptive to test-based management of malaria - technical basis and implications for malaria control in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Baiden, F; Malm, K; Bart-Plange, C; Hodgson, A; Chandramohan, D; Webster, J; Owusu-Agyei, S

    2014-06-01

    The presumptive approach was the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended to the management of malaria for many years and this was incorporated into syndromic guidelines such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI). In early 2010 however, WHO issued revised treatment guidelines that call for a shift from the presumptive to the test-based approach. Practically, this implies that in all suspected cases, the diagnosis of uncomplicated malaria should be confirmed using rapid test before treatment is initiated. This revision effectively brings to an end an era of clinical practice that span several years. Its implementation has important implications for the health systems in malaria-endemic countries. On the basis of research in Ghana and other countries, and evidence from program work, the Ghana National Malaria Control Program has issued revised national treatment guidelines that call for implementation of test-based management of malaria in all cases, and across all age groups. This article reviews the evidence and the technical basis for the shift to test-based management and examines the implications for malaria control in Ghana.

  18. Childhood trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with psychosis: clinical challenges and emerging treatments.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Ingo; Fisher, Helen L

    2011-11-01

    To review the current literature on childhood trauma and emerging treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of its most prevalent consequences, in patients with psychotic disorders. Of patients with psychosis, 40-50% report either childhood sexual abuse or childhood physical abuse, and 11-46% fulfil a diagnosis of PTSD. About one-third of patients report childhood emotional abuse in the absence of other forms of childhood trauma. More robust evidence is mounting to support the role of childhood trauma in the aetiology of psychosis, but more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms. Patients with a history of childhood trauma and/or PTSD have a more severe clinical profile compared with those without these experiences, worse overall functioning, and lower remission rates. Research suggests that instruments assessing childhood trauma and PTSD developed for the general population are also appropriate for use among people with psychosis, and trauma-focussed treatments can be used safely and effectively in this group. Childhood trauma and its consequences are highly prevalent among patients with psychosis and severely affect the course and outcome. Treatment approaches appropriate for this population need to be further evaluated and implemented into routine practice.

  19. [WHO's malaria program Roll Back Malaria].

    PubMed

    Myrvang, B; Godal, T

    2000-05-30

    Malaria is one of the main health problems in the world with 300-500 millions cases yearly and about one million deaths, mainly children in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the 1990s the malaria problem in Africa has increased, although we have methods to control the disease. In 1998 the new secretary general of WHO, Gro Harlem Brundtland, established the Roll Back Malaria programme, with the aim to markedly reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. Governments in malaria-affected countries have to take the lead in Roll Back Malaria. Their health systems must be improved and malaria control integrated into the general health system, and the methods available for prevention and treatment have to be intensified and improved. At the same time, Roll Back Malaria will encourage and promote malaria research which hopefully will result in new medicines, vaccines and other tools which will improve the chances of reducing malaria-related deaths and suffering. Roll Back Malaria is a cabinet project within the WHO, and the organisation has a key role as manager, co-ordinator and monitor of the project. However, it depends for resources on international support and commitment from other UN bodies, the World Bank, governments in the western world, pharmaceutical industry, philanthropists and other sources. At present an optimistic view prevails, and the preliminary aim, to halve the malaria mortality by the year 2010, seems realistic even with the control methods of today. However, if research efforts result in new and better tools to combat the disease, the task will definitely be easier.

  20. An evaluation of oxygen systems for treatment of childhood pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oxygen therapy is recommended for all of the 1.5 – 2.7 million young children who consult health services with hypoxemic pneumonia each year, and the many more with other serious conditions. However, oxygen supplies are intermittent throughout the developing world. Although oxygen is well established as a treatment for hypoxemic pneumonia, quantitative evidence for its effect is lacking. This review aims to assess the utility of oxygen systems as a method for reducing childhood mortality from pneumonia. Methods Aiming to improve priority setting methods, The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) has developed a common framework to score competing interventions into child health. That framework involves the assessment of 12 different criteria upon which interventions can be compared. This report follows the proposed framework, using a semi-systematic literature review and the results of a structured exercise gathering opinion from experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies), to assess and score each criterion as their “collective optimism” towards each, on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results A rough estimate from an analysis of the literature suggests that global strengthening of oxygen systems could save lives of up to 122,000 children from pneumonia annually. Following 12 CHNRI criteria, the experts expressed very high levels of optimism (over 80%) for answerability, low development cost and low product cost; high levels of optimism (60-80%) for low implementation cost, likelihood of efficacy, deliverability, acceptance to end users and health workers; and moderate levels of optimism (40-60%) for impact on equity, affordability and sustainability. The median estimate of potential effectiveness of oxygen systems to reduce the overall childhood pneumonia mortality was ~20% (interquartile range: 10-35%, min. 0%, max. 50%). However

  1. Platinum-induced hearing loss after treatment for childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    van As, Jorrit W; van den Berg, Henk; van Dalen, Elvira C

    2016-08-03

    Platinum-based therapy, including cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin or a combination of these, is used to treat a variety of paediatric malignancies. Unfortunately, one of the most important adverse effects is the occurrence of hearing loss or ototoxicity. There is a wide variation in the reported prevalence of platinum-induced ototoxicity and the associated risk factors. More insight into the prevalence of and risk factors for platinum-induced hearing loss is essential in order to develop less ototoxic treatment protocols for the future treatment of children with cancer and to develop adequate follow-up protocols for childhood cancer survivors treated with platinum-based therapy. To evaluate the existing evidence on the association between childhood cancer treatment including platinum analogues and the occurrence of hearing loss. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 8), MEDLINE (PubMed) (1945 to 23 September 2015) and EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to 23 September 2015). In addition, we searched reference lists of relevant articles and the conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology (2008 to 2014), the American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (2008 to 2015) and the International Conference on Long-Term Complications of Treatment of Children and Adolescents for Cancer (2010 to 2015). Experts in the field provided information on additional studies. All study designs, except case reports, case series (i.e. a description of non-consecutive participants) and studies including fewer than 100 participants treated with platinum-based therapy who had an ototoxicity assessment, examining the association between childhood cancer treatment including platinum analogues and the occurrence of hearing loss. Two review authors independently performed the study selection. One review author performed data extraction and risk of bias assessment, which was checked by another review author. We identified

  2. Effectiveness of Provider and Community Interventions to Improve Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Nigeria: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Onwujekwe, Obinna; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Cundill, Bonnie; Alexander, Neal; Langham, Julia; Ibe, Ogochukwu; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Wiseman, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that malaria be confirmed by parasitological diagnosis before treatment using Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT). Despite this, many health workers in malaria endemic countries continue to diagnose malaria based on symptoms alone. This study evaluates interventions to help bridge this gap between guidelines and provider practice. A stratified cluster-randomized trial in 42 communities in Enugu state compared 3 scenarios: Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) with basic instruction (control); RDTs with provider training (provider arm); and RDTs with provider training plus a school-based community intervention (provider-school arm). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients treated according to guidelines, a composite indicator requiring patients to be tested for malaria and given treatment consistent with the test result. The primary outcome was evaluated among 4946 (93%) of the 5311 patients invited to participate. A total of 40 communities (12 in control, 14 per intervention arm) were included in the analysis. There was no evidence of differences between the three arms in terms of our composite indicator (p = 0.36): stratified risk difference was 14% (95% CI -8.3%, 35.8%; p = 0.26) in the provider arm and 1% (95% CI -21.1%, 22.9%; p = 0.19) in the provider-school arm, compared with control. The level of testing was low across all arms (34% in control; 48% provider arm; 37% provider-school arm; p = 0.47). Presumptive treatment of uncomplicated malaria remains an ingrained behaviour that is difficult to change. With or without extensive supporting interventions, levels of testing in this study remained critically low. Governments and researchers must continue to explore alternative ways of encouraging providers to deliver appropriate treatment and avoid the misuse of valuable medicines. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01350752 PMID:26309023

  3. Effectiveness of Provider and Community Interventions to Improve Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Nigeria: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Onwujekwe, Obinna; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Cundill, Bonnie; Alexander, Neal; Langham, Julia; Ibe, Ogochukwu; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Wiseman, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that malaria be confirmed by parasitological diagnosis before treatment using Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT). Despite this, many health workers in malaria endemic countries continue to diagnose malaria based on symptoms alone. This study evaluates interventions to help bridge this gap between guidelines and provider practice. A stratified cluster-randomized trial in 42 communities in Enugu state compared 3 scenarios: Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) with basic instruction (control); RDTs with provider training (provider arm); and RDTs with provider training plus a school-based community intervention (provider-school arm). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients treated according to guidelines, a composite indicator requiring patients to be tested for malaria and given treatment consistent with the test result. The primary outcome was evaluated among 4946 (93%) of the 5311 patients invited to participate. A total of 40 communities (12 in control, 14 per intervention arm) were included in the analysis. There was no evidence of differences between the three arms in terms of our composite indicator (p = 0.36): stratified risk difference was 14% (95% CI -8.3%, 35.8%; p = 0.26) in the provider arm and 1% (95% CI -21.1%, 22.9%; p = 0.19) in the provider-school arm, compared with control. The level of testing was low across all arms (34% in control; 48% provider arm; 37% provider-school arm; p = 0.47). Presumptive treatment of uncomplicated malaria remains an ingrained behaviour that is difficult to change. With or without extensive supporting interventions, levels of testing in this study remained critically low. Governments and researchers must continue to explore alternative ways of encouraging providers to deliver appropriate treatment and avoid the misuse of valuable medicines. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01350752.

  4. Childhood obesity treatment: targeting parents exclusively v. parents and children.

    PubMed

    Golan, Moria; Kaufman, Vered; Shahar, Danit R

    2006-05-01

    There is a consensus that interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity should involve the family; however, the extent of the child's involvement has received little attention. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of treating childhood obesity via a family-based health-centred intervention, targeting parents alone v. parents and obese children together. Thirty-two families with obese children of 6-11 years of age were randomised into groups, in which participants were provided for 6 months a comprehensive educational and behavioural programme for a healthy lifestyle. These groups differed in their main agent of change: parents-only v. the parents and the obese child. In both groups, parents were encouraged to foster authoritative parenting styles (parents are both firm and supportive; assume a leadership role in the environmental change with appropriate granting of child's autonomy). Only the intervention aimed at parents-only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage overweight at the end of the programme (P=0.02) as well as at the 1-year follow-up meeting. The differences between groups at both times were significant (P<0.05). A greater reduction in food stimuli in the home (P<0.05) was noted in the parents-only group. In both groups, the parents' weight status did not change. Regression analysis shows that the level of attendance in sessions explained 28 % of the variability in the children's weight status change, the treatment group explained another 10 %, and the improvement in the obesogenic load explained 11 % of the variability. These results suggest that omitting the obese child from active participation in the health-centred programme may be beneficial for weight loss and for the promotion of a healthy lifestyle among obese children.

  5. Methemoglobinemia and adverse events in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients associated with high doses of primaquine treatment.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Maestre, Amanda

    2009-02-01

    Primaquine (PQ) is recommended to prevent relapses in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria infection. However, treatment with PQ causes methemoglobinemia. In this study, we measured the methemoglobin (MetHB) levels in three groups of subjects who received PQ treatment at 0.58, 0.83, or 1.17 mg/kg/d. A total of 112 subjects were studied. MetHB levels were detected at > or = 4% in 46-50% 1 day after PQ treatment in all three groups and 4-9% of subjects had MetHB levels > or = 4% 15 days after treatment. Only subjects receiving the highest doses of PQ had mild and brief adverse events, and 17% of them were associated with treatment. We conclude that when PQ is administered under certain conditions (i.e., normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, in non-pregnant subjects and with a light meal), daily doses as high as 1.17 mg/kg do not represent a serious risk of high MetHB levels to patients.

  6. Treatment and prevention of malaria in pregnancy in the private health sector in Uganda: implications for patient safety.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Clarke, Siân E; Lal, Sham; Hansen, Kristian S; Magnussen, Pascal; LaRussa, Philip

    2016-04-14

    Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Uganda; and it is the leading cause of anaemia among pregnant women and low birth weight in infants. Previous studies have noted poor quality of care in the private sector. Thus there is need to explore ways of improving quality of care in the private sector that provides almost a half of health services in Uganda. A survey was conducted from August to October 2014 within 57 parishes in Mukono district, central Uganda. The selected parishes had a minimum of 200 households and at least one registered drug shop, pharmacy or private clinic. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire targeting one provider who was found on duty in each selected private health facility and consented to the study. The main variables were: provider characteristics, previous training received, type of drugs stocked, treatment and prevention practices for malaria among pregnant women. The main study outcome was the proportion of private health facilities who prescribe treatment of fever among pregnant women as recommended in the guidelines. A total of 241 private health facilities were surveyed; 70.5 % were registered drug shops, 24.5 % private clinics and 5.0 % pharmacies. Treatment of fever among pregnant women in accordance with the national treatment guidelines was poor: 40.7 % in private clinics, decreasing to 28.2 % in drug shops and 16.7 % at pharmacies. Anti-malarial monotherapies sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and quinine were commonly prescribed, often without consideration of gestational age. The majority of providers (>75 %) at all private facilities prescribed SP for intermittent preventive treatment but artemisinin-based combination therapy was prescribed: 8.3, 6.9 and 8.3 % respectively at drug shops, private clinics and pharmacies for prevention of malaria in pregnancy. Few facilities had malaria treatment guidelines; (44.1 % of private clinics, 17.9 % of drug shops, and 41.7 % at pharmacies. Knowledge

  7. Adverse effects of falciparum and vivax malaria and the safety of antimalarial treatment in early pregnancy: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    McGready, R; Lee, SJ; Wiladphaingern, J; Ashley, EA; Rijken, MJ; Boel, M; Simpson, JA; Paw, MK; Pimanpanarak, M; Mu, Oh; Singhasivanon, P; White, NJ; Nosten, FH

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The effects of malaria and its treatment in the first trimester of pregnancy remain an area of concern. We aimed to assess the outcome of malaria-exposed and malaria-unexposed first-trimester pregnancies of women from the Thai–Burmese border and compare outcomes after chloroquine-based, quinine-based, or artemisinin-based treatments. Methods We analysed all antenatal records of women in the first trimester of pregnancy attending Shoklo Malaria Research Unit antenatal clinics from May 12, 1986, to Oct 31, 2010. Women without malaria in pregnancy were compared with those who had a single episode of malaria in the first trimester. The association between malaria and miscarriage was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Findings Of 48 426 pregnant women, 17 613 (36%) met the inclusion criteria: 16 668 (95%) had no malaria during the pregnancy and 945 (5%) had a single episode in the first trimester. The odds of miscarriage increased in women with asymptomatic malaria (adjusted odds ratio 2·70, 95% CI 2·04–3·59) and symptomatic malaria (3·99, 3·10–5·13), and were similar for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Other risk factors for miscarriage included smoking, maternal age, previous miscarriage, and non-malaria febrile illness. In women with malaria, additional risk factors for miscarriage included severe or hyperparasitaemic malaria (adjusted odds ratio 3·63, 95% CI 1·15–11·46) and parasitaemia (1·49, 1·25–1·78 for each ten-fold increase in parasitaemia). Higher gestational age at the time of infection was protective (adjusted odds ratio 0·86, 95% CI 0·81–0·91). The risk of miscarriage was similar for women treated with chloroquine (92 [26%] of 354), quinine (95 [27%) of 355), or artesunate (20 [31%] of 64; p=0·71). Adverse effects related to antimalarial treatment were not observed. Interpretation A single episode of falciparum or vivax malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy can cause

  8. Implementing Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Pregnancy: Review of Prospects, Achievements, Challenges and Agenda for Research

    PubMed Central

    Mubyazi, Godfrey Martin; Magnussen, Pascal; Goodman, Catherine; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Kitua, Andrew Yona; Olsen, Øystein Evjen; Byskov, Jens; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Bloch, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Implementing Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria in Pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) through antenatal care (ANC) clinics is recommended for malaria endemic countries. Vast biomedical literature on malaria prevention focuses more on the epidemiological and cost-effectiveness analyses of the randomised controlled trials carried out in selected geographical settings. Such studies fail to elucidate the economic, psychosocial, managerial, organization and other contextual systemic factors influencing the operational effectiveness, compliance and coverage of the recommended interventions. Objective To review literature on policy advances, achievements, constraints and challenges to malaria IPTp implementation, emphasising on its operational feasibility in the context of health-care financing, provision and uptake, resource constraints and psychosocial factors in Africa. Results The importance of IPTp in preventing unnecessary anaemia, morbidity and mortality in pregnancy and improving childbirth outcomes is highly acknowledged, although the following factors appear to be the main constraints to IPTp service delivery and uptake: cost of accessing ANC; myths and other discriminatory socio-cultural values on pregnancy; target users, perceptions and attitudes towards SP, malaria, and quality of ANC; supply and cost of SP at health facilities; understaffing and demoralised staff; ambiguity and impracticability of user-fee exemption policy guidelines on essential ANC services; implementing IPTp, bednets, HIV and syphilis screening programmes in the same clinic settings; and reports on increasing parasite resistant to SP. However, the noted increase in the coverage of the delivery of IPTp doses in several countries justify that IPTp implementation is possible and better than not. Conclusion IPTp for malaria is implemented in constrained conditions in Africa. This is a challenge for higher coverage of at least two doses and attainment

  9. Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) for the treatment of childhood moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Ross, I B; Shevell, M I; Montes, J L; Rosenblatt, B; Watters, G V; Farmer, J P; O'Gorman, A M

    1994-05-01

    Moyamoya disease is defined by the angiographic demonstration of stenosis or occlusion of the vessels of the anterior circulation at the base of the brain and the concomitant development of collateral blood supply. Untreated, the disease is often clinically progressive, resulting in significant neurologic sequelae. Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS), which involves the transposition of a segment of a scalp artery onto the surface of the brain, is a surgical treatment aimed at improving collateral blood flow. Six children underwent 8 EDAS procedures and were followed from 6 months to 9 years after surgery. No patient experienced further deterioration in neurologic status. Postoperative angiography demonstrated cerebral revascularization from the donor scalp artery on 3 of the 6 EDASs that were studied. The 2 patients who did not revascularize after EDAS demonstrated angiographic regression of their disease. The data suggest that EDAS is a safe procedure for the treatment of childhood moyamoya disease. Given the potential severity of the sequelae, early operative intervention is recommended in all children with this disease.

  10. Evaluation and Treatment of Severe Obesity in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Edmond P.; DeBoer, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is highly prevalent in developed countries globally (and worsening in developing countries) and threatens to shorten the lifespan of the current generation. At highest risk for weight-related comorbidities including Type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and dyslipidemia is a sub-set of children with severe obesity, often defined as a body mass index (BMI) percentile ≥99th percentile for age and sex. The pathophysiology of severe obesity in childhood is complex, resulting from the dynamic interplay of a myriad of individual and societal factors including genetic predisposition and health behaviors contributing to energy imbalance. Approximately 4–6% of children have severe obesity, representing a common scenario encountered by providers, and intervention is critical to halt ongoing weight gain and, when possible, reverse the trend. Clinical approaches promoting behavioral weight loss may result in modest, albeit clinically significant, reductions in BMI; however, such changes are often difficult to maintain long-term. Data regarding the impact of targeted pharmacotherapy including agents such as orlistat are limited in the pediatric population and again only suggest modest results. However, increasing evidence suggest that surgical treatment, as an adjunct to ongoing lifestyle changes, may be a promising option in carefully-screened adolescents with severe obesity and weight-related comorbidities who are motivated to adhere to the long-term treatment needs. PMID:25567296

  11. Impact of combining intermittent preventive treatment with home management of malaria in children less than 10 years in a rural area of Senegal: a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Tine, Roger C K; Faye, Babacar; Ndour, Cheikh T; Ndiaye, Jean L; Ndiaye, Magatte; Bassene, Charlemagne; Magnussen, Pascal; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Sylla, Khadim; Ndour, Jacques D; Gaye, Oumar

    2011-12-13

    Current malaria control strategies recommend (i) early case detection using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), (ii) pre-referral rectal artesunate, (iii) intermittent preventive treatment and (iv) impregnated bed nets. However, these individual malaria control interventions provide only partial protection in most epidemiological situations. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the potential benefits of integrating several malaria interventions to reduce malaria prevalence and morbidity. A randomized controlled trial was carried out to assess the impact of combining seasonal intermittent preventive treatment in children (IPTc) with home-based management of malaria (HMM) by community health workers (CHWs) in Senegal. Eight CHWs in eight villages covered by the Bonconto health post, (South Eastern part of Senegal) were trained to diagnose malaria using RDT, provide prompt treatment with artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated malaria cases and pre-referral rectal artesunate for complicated malaria occurring in children under 10 years. Four CHWs were randomized to also administer monthly IPTc as single dose of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus three doses of amodiaquine (AQ) in the malaria transmission season, October and November 2010. Primary end point was incidence of single episode of malaria attacks over 8 weeks of follow up. Secondary end points included prevalence of malaria parasitaemia, and prevalence of anaemia at the end of the transmission season. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. The study protocol was approved by the Senegalese National Ethical Committee (approval 0027/MSP/DS/CNRS, 18/03/2010). A total of 1,000 children were enrolled. The incidence of malaria episodes was 7.1/100 child months at risk [95% CI (3.7-13.7)] in communities with IPTc + HMM compared to 35.6/100 child months at risk [95% CI (26.7-47.4)] in communities with only HMM (aOR = 0.20; 95% CI 0.09-0.41; p = 0.04). At

  12. Concentration and drug prices in the retail market for malaria treatment in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Catherine; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim; Bloland, Peter; Mills, Anne

    2009-06-01

    The impact of market concentration has been little studied in markets for ambulatory care in the developing world, where the retail sector often accounts for a high proportion of treatments. This study begins to address this gap through an analysis of the consumer market for malaria treatment in rural areas of three districts in Tanzania. We developed methods for investigating market definition, sales volumes and concentration, and used these to explore the relationship between antimalarial retail prices and competition.The market was strongly geographically segmented and highly concentrated in terms of antimalarial sales. Antimalarial prices were positively associated with market concentration. High antimalarial prices were likely to be an important factor in the low proportion of care-seekers obtaining appropriate treatment.Retail sector distribution of subsidised antimalarials has been proposed to increase the coverage of effective treatment, but this analysis indicates that local market power may prevent such subsidies from being passed on to rural customers. Policymakers should consider the potential to maintain lower retail prices by decreasing concentration among antimalarial providers and recommending retail price levels. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. CONCENTRATION AND DRUG PRICES IN THE RETAIL MARKET FOR MALARIA TREATMENT IN RURAL TANZANIA

    PubMed Central

    GOODMAN, CATHERINE; KACHUR, S. PATRICK; ABDULLA, SALIM; BLOLAND, PETER; MILLS, ANNE

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The impact of market concentration has been little studied in markets for ambulatory care in the developing world, where the retail sector often accounts for a high proportion of treatments. This study begins to address this gap through an analysis of the consumer market for malaria treatment in rural areas of three districts in Tanzania. We developed methods for investigating market definition, sales volumes and concentration, and used these to explore the relationship between antimalarial retail prices and competition. The market was strongly geographically segmented and highly concentrated in terms of antimalarial sales. Antimalarial prices were positively associated with market concentration. High antimalarial prices were likely to be an important factor in the low proportion of care seekers obtaining appropriate treatment. Retail sector distribution of subsidised antimalarials has been proposed to increase the coverage of effective treatment, but this analysis indicates that local market power may prevent such subsidies from being passed on to rural customers. Policymakers should consider the potential to maintain lower retail prices by decreasing concentration among antimalarial providers and recommending retail price levels. PMID:19301420

  14. Relevance of undetectably rare resistant malaria parasites in treatment failure: experimental evidence from Plasmodium chabaudi.

    PubMed

    Huijben, Silvie; Chan, Brian H K; Read, Andrew F

    2015-06-01

    Resistant malaria parasites are frequently found in mixed infections with drug-sensitive parasites. Particularly early in the evolutionary process, the frequency of these resistant mutants can be extremely low and below the level of molecular detection. We tested whether the rarity of resistance in infections impacted the health outcomes of treatment failure and the potential for onward transmission of resistance. Mixed infections of different ratios of resistant and susceptible Plasmodium chabaudi parasites were inoculated in laboratory mice and dynamics tracked during the course of infection using highly sensitive genotype-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Frequencies of resistant parasites ranged from 10% to 0.003% at the onset of treatment. We found that the rarer the resistant parasites were, the lower the likelihood of their onward transmission, but the worse the treatment failure was in terms of parasite numbers and disease severity. Strikingly, drug resistant parasites had the biggest impact on health outcomes when they were too rare to be detected by any molecular methods currently available for field samples. Indeed, in the field, these treatment failures would not even have been attributed to resistance.

  15. Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood: Pharmacological treatment of 30 Italian patients.

    PubMed

    Pisciotta, Livia; Gherzi, Marcella; Stagnaro, Michela; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Giannotta, Melania; Vavassori, Maria Rosaria; Veneselli, Edvige; De Grandis, Elisa

    2017-06-01

    Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC) is a severe disorder. Several drugs have been administered as prophylaxis for paroxysmal attacks, however, no therapy is completely effective. Our aim is to review the pharmacological data related to the prophylactic and acute treatment of a cohort of 30 patients (16M, 14F, age range 5-42years) and to correlate them with the clinical and genetic data collected through the Italian Biobank and Clinical Registry for AHC. Flunarizine was the most commonly used long-term treatment in the cohort; it reduced duration and frequency of attacks in 50% of patients and decreased intensity in 32.1%. In younger patients, flunarizine seemed significantly more effective in reducing intensity. We found no correlation between the effectiveness of flunarizine and genotype, or between developmental outcome and duration of treatment. In particular, 3 of our patients affected by E815K mutation presented rapid neurological deterioration despite ongoing treatment. Among the other administered prophylactic therapies, few proved to be effective (benzodiazepines, niaprazine, acetazolamide, melatonin, olanzapine, ketogenic diet). No clear rationale exists regarding their use, but these therapies may work by reducing the triggering factors. The presented data are retrospective, but they are aimed at filling a gap given the rarity of the disease and the lack of randomized and controlled studies. Besides their usefulness in clarifying the pathophysiology of the disease, prospective studies involving larger cohorts of ATP1A3 mutated AHC patients are needed to provide a rationale for testing other molecules. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between the Plasmodium falciparum parasite ratio in childhood and climate estimates of malaria transmission in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Omumbo, Judith A; Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Snow, Robert W

    2004-06-17

    Plasmodium falciparum morbid and fatal risks are considerably higher in areas supporting parasite prevalence > or =25%, when compared with low transmission areas supporting parasite prevalence below 25%. Recent descriptions of the health impacts of malaria in Africa are based upon categorical descriptions of a climate-driven fuzzy model of suitability (FCS) for stable transmission developed by the Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa collaboration (MARA). An electronic and national search was undertaken to identify community-based parasite prevalence surveys in Kenya. Data from these surveys were matched using ArcView 3.2 to extract spatially congruent estimates of the FCS values generated by the MARA model. Levels of agreement between three classes used during recent continental burden estimations of parasite prevalence (0%, >0-<25% and > or =25%) and three classes of FCS (0, >0-<0.75 and > or =0.75) were tested using the kappa (k) statistic and examined as continuous variables to define better levels of agreement. Two hundred and seventeen independent parasite prevalence surveys undertaken since 1980 were identified during the search. Overall agreement between the three classes of parasite prevalence and FCS was weak although significant (k = 0.367, p < 0.0001). The overall correlation between the FCS and the parasite ratio when considered as continuous variables was also positive (0.364, p < 0.001). The margins of error were in the stable, endemic (parasite ratio > or =25%) class with 42% of surveys represented by an FCS <0.75. Reducing the FCS value criterion to > or =0.6 improved the classification of stable, endemic parasite ratio surveys. Zero values of FCS were not adequate discriminators of zero parasite prevalence. Using the MARA model to categorically distinguish populations at differing intensities of malaria transmission in Kenya may under-represent those who are exposed to stable, endemic transmission and over-represent those at no risk. The MARA approach

  17. Low referral completion of rapid diagnostic test-negative patients in community-based treatment of malaria in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria is hyper-endemic and a major public health problem in Sierra Leone. To provide malaria treatment closer to the community, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) launched a community-based project where Community Malaria Volunteers (CMVs) tested and treated febrile children and pregnant women for malaria using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). RDT-negative patients and severely ill patients were referred to health facilities. This study sought to determine the referral rate and compliance of patients referred by the CMVs. Methods In MSF's operational area in Bo and Pujehun districts, Sierra Leone, a retrospective analysis of referral records was carried out for a period of three months. All referral records from CMVs and referral health structures were reviewed, compared and matched for personal data. The eligible study population included febrile children between three and 59 months and pregnant women in their second or third trimester with fever who were noted as having received a referral advice in the CMV recording form. Results The study results showed a total referral rate of almost 15%. During the study period 36 out of 2,459 (1.5%) referred patients completed their referral. There was a significant difference in referral compliance between patients with fever but a negative RDT and patients with signs of severe malaria. Less than 1% (21/2,442) of the RDT-negative patients with fever completed their referral compared to 88.2% (15/17) of the patients with severe malaria (RR = 0.010 95% CI 0.006 - 0.015). Conclusions In this community-based malaria programme, RDT-negative patients with fever were referred to a health structure for further diagnosis and care with a disappointingly low rate of referral completion. This raises concerns whether use of CMVs, with referral as backup in RDT-negative cases, provides adequate care for febrile children and pregnant women. To improve the referral completion in MSF's community-based malaria programme in Sierra

  18. Modelling the Protective Efficacy of Alternative Delivery Schedules for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Matthew; Ghani, Azra; Okell, Lucy; Gosling, Roly; Carneiro, Ilona; Anto, Francis; Asoala, Victor; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Greenwood, Brian; Chandramohan, Daniel; Milligan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended by WHO where malaria incidence in infancy is high and SP resistance is low. The current delivery strategy is via routine Expanded Program on Immunisation contacts during infancy (EPI-IPTi). However, improvements to this approach may be possible where malaria transmission is seasonal, or where the malaria burden lies mainly outside infancy. Methods and Findings A mathematical model was developed to estimate the protective efficacy (PE) of IPT against clinical malaria in children aged 2-24 months, using entomological and epidemiological data from an EPI-IPTi trial in Navrongo, Ghana to parameterise the model. The protection achieved by seasonally-targeted IPT in infants (sIPTi), seasonal IPT in children (sIPTc), and by case-management with long-acting artemisinin combination therapies (LA-ACTs) was predicted for Navrongo and for sites with different transmission intensity and seasonality. In Navrongo, the predicted PE of sIPTi was 26% by 24 months of age, compared to 16% with EPI-IPTi. sIPTc given to all children under 2 years would provide PE of 52% by 24 months of age. Seasonally-targeted IPT retained its advantages in a range of transmission patterns. Under certain circumstances, LA-ACTs for case-management may provide similar protection to EPI-IPTi. However, EPI-IPTi or sIPT combined with LA-ACTs would be substantially more protective than either strategy used alone. Conclusion Delivery of IPT to infants via the EPI is sub-optimal because individuals are not protected by IPT at the time of highest malaria risk, and because older children are not protected. Alternative delivery strategies to the EPI are needed where transmission varies seasonally or the malaria burden extends beyond infancy. Long-acting ACTs may also make important reductions in malaria incidence. However, delivery systems must be developed to ensure that both forms of chemoprevention

  19. Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria Provides Substantial Protection against Malaria in Children Already Protected by an Insecticide-Treated Bednet in Burkina Faso: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Konaté, Amadou T.; Yaro, Jean Baptiste; Ouédraogo, Amidou Z.; Diarra, Amidou; Gansané, Adama; Soulama, Issiaka; Kangoyé, David T.; Kaboré, Youssouf; Ouédraogo, Espérance; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Tiono, Alfred B.; Ouédraogo, Issa N.; Chandramohan, Daniel; Cousens, Simon; Milligan, Paul J.; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; Greenwood, Brian; Diallo, Diadier A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc) is a promising new approach to the control of malaria in areas of seasonal malaria transmission but it is not known if IPTc adds to the protection provided by an insecticide-treated net (ITN). Methods and Findings An individually randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of seasonal IPTc was conducted in Burkina Faso in children aged 3 to 59 months who were provided with a long-lasting insecticide-treated bednet (LLIN). Three rounds of treatment with sulphadoxine pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine or placebos were given at monthly intervals during the malaria transmission season. Passive surveillance for malaria episodes was established, a cross-sectional survey was conducted at the end of the malaria transmission season, and use of ITNs was monitored during the intervention period. Incidence rates of malaria were compared using a Cox regression model and generalized linear models were fitted to examine the effect of IPTc on the prevalence of malaria infection, anaemia, and on anthropometric indicators. 3,052 children were screened and 3,014 were enrolled in the trial; 1,505 in the control arm and 1,509 in the intervention arm. Similar proportions of children in the two treatment arms were reported to sleep under an LLIN during the intervention period (93%). The incidence of malaria, defined as fever or history of fever with parasitaemia ≥5,000/µl, was 2.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.70–3.06) per child during the intervention period in the control arm versus 0.87 (95% CI 0.78–0.97) in the intervention arm, a protective efficacy (PE) of 70% (95% CI 66%–74%) (p<0.001). There was a 69% (95% CI 6%–90%) reduction in incidence of severe malaria (p = 0.04) and a 46% (95% CI 7%–69%) (p = 0.03) reduction in the incidence of all-cause hospital admissions. IPTc reduced the prevalence of malaria infection at the end of the malaria transmission season by 73% (95% CI 68%

  20. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy: survey of current practice among private medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Rabiu, Kabiru Afolarin; Davies, Nosimot Omolola; Nzeribe-Abangwu, Ugochi O; Adewunmi, Adeniyi Abiodun; Akinlusi, Fatimat Motunrayo; Akinola, Oluwarotimi Ireti; Ogundele, Sunday O

    2015-01-01

    We studied the practice of malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy of 394 private medical practitioners in Lagos State, Nigeria using a self-administered pre-tested structured questionnaire. Only 39 (9.9%) respondents had correct knowledge of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategies. Malaria prophylaxis in pregnancy was offered by 336 (85.3%), but only 98 (24.9%) had correct knowledge of recommended chemoprophylaxis. Of these, 68 (17.3%) had correct knowledge of first trimester treatment, while only 41 (10.4%) had knowledge of second and third trimester treatment. Only 64 (16.2%) of respondents routinely recommended use of insecticide-treated bed nets. The most common anti-malarial drug prescribed for chemoprophylaxis was pyrimethamine (43.7%); chloroquine was the most common anti-malarial prescribed for both first trimester treatment (81.5%) and second and third trimester treatment (55.3%). The study showed that private medical practitioners have poor knowledge of malaria prophylaxis and treatment in pregnancy, and the practice of most do not conform to recommended guidelines. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In traditional medicine whole plants or mixtures of plants are used rather than isolated compounds. There is evidence that crude plant extracts often have greater in vitro or/and in vivo antiplasmodial activity than isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. The aim of this paper is to review positive interactions between components of whole plant extracts, which may explain this. Methods Narrative review. Results There is evidence for several different types of positive interactions between different components of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria. Pharmacodynamic synergy has been demonstrated between the Cinchona alkaloids and between various plant extracts traditionally combined. Pharmacokinetic interactions occur, for example between constituents of Artemisia annua tea so that its artemisinin is more rapidly absorbed than the pure drug. Some plant extracts may have an immunomodulatory effect as well as a direct antiplasmodial effect. Several extracts contain multidrug resistance inhibitors, although none of these has been tested clinically in malaria. Some plant constituents are added mainly to attenuate the side-effects of others, for example ginger to prevent nausea. Conclusions More clinical research is needed on all types of interaction between plant constituents. This could include clinical trials of combinations of pure compounds (such as artemisinin + curcumin + piperine) and of combinations of herbal remedies (such as Artemisia annua leaves + Curcuma longa root + Piper nigum seeds). The former may enhance the activity of existing pharmaceutical preparations, and the latter may improve the effectiveness of existing herbal remedies for use in remote areas where modern drugs are unavailable. PMID:21411015

  2. Drugs for preventing malaria in pregnant women in endemic areas: any drug regimen versus placebo or no treatment

    PubMed Central

    Radeva-Petrova, Denitsa; Kayentao, Kassoum; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnancy increases the risk of malaria and this is associated with poor health outcomes for both the mother and the infant, especially during the first or second pregnancy. To reduce these effects, the World Health Organization recommends that pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas sleep under insecticide-treated bednets, are treated for malaria illness and anaemia, and receive chemoprevention with an effective antimalarial drug during the second and third trimesters. Objectives To assess the effects of malaria chemoprevention given to pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas on substantive maternal and infant health outcomes. We also summarised the effects of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) alone, and preventive regimens for Plasmodium vivax. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and reference lists up to 1 June 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of any antimalarial drug regimen for preventing malaria in pregnant women living in malaria-endemic areas compared to placebo or no intervention. In the mother, we sought outcomes that included mortality, severe anaemia, and severe malaria; anaemia, haemoglobin values, and malaria episodes; indicators of malaria infection, and adverse events. In the baby, we sought foetal loss, perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality; preterm birth and birthweight measures; and indicators of malaria infection. We included regimens that were known to be effective against the malaria parasite at the time but may no longer be used because of parasite drug resistance. Data collection and analysis Two review authors applied inclusion criteria, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Dichotomous outcomes were compared using risk ratios (RR), and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD); both are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We

  3. Clinical Efficacy of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria at the China-Myanmar Border.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yuan, Lili; Zhou, Guofa; Parker, Daniel; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Fan, Qi; Xiao, Yuping; Cao, Yaming; Cui, Liwang

    2015-09-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are currently used as the first-line therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the recent emergence and/or spread of artemisinin resistance in parts of Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) of southeast Asia requires close monitoring of the therapeutic efficacy of ACTs. This study was conducted from March 2012 to December 2013 in four clinics and seven villages along the China-Myanmar border. A total of 109 patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) and followed up on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 42 after treatment. A total of 71 patients (22 children and 49 adults) completed the 42-day follow-up. DP remained highly efficacious for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria with an overall 42-day cure rate of 100%. The day 3 parasite-positive rate was 7.04% (5/71). Within 14 days of treatment, a total of 13 (18.31%) patients had detectable gametocytes and a large proportion of these were persistent from the first three days of treatment. The presence of gametocytes in patients through 14 days after DP treatment suggests that the incorporation of a single dose of primaquine for clearing gametocytemia should be considered for blocking parasite transmission.

  4. Treatment approaches and outcomes in childhood supracondylar humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Uçar, B Y; Demirtaş, A; Uçar, D E

    2012-07-01

    Being one of the most frequent elbow fractures during childhood, supracondylar humerus fractures require rapid diagnosis and treatment, as they may be associated with significant neurovascular and functional problems. QUESTIONS AND PURPOSES: To evaluate demographic and clinical features, and treatment outcomes of the patients with supracondylar humerus fractures who underwent open reduction+minimal osteosynthesis or closed reduction+percutaneous wiring. Forty patients (30 boys + 10 girls) between 2 and 13 years of age who were operated on with the diagnosis of supracondylar humerus fracture, between August 2003 and December 2006, were included. Open reduction+minimal osteosynthesis (n=34) and closed reduction+percutaneous wiring (n=6) were performed. The fractures were classified according to the Gartland classification and outcomes were assessed according to Flynn's criteria. All patients (mean age, 7.35 years; range, 2-13 years) had closed fractures (28 left and 12 right). Seven (17.5%) and 33 (82.5%) patients had Gartland type II and III fractures respectively. Three patients had flexion-type and 37 patients had extension-type fractures. Based on Flynn's criteria, cosmetic results were excellent in 37 (92.5%) patients and good in 3 (7.5%) patients, and functional results were excellent in 36 (90%) patients, good in 3 (7.5%) patients, and poor in 1 (2.5%) patient. A surgical success rate of 97.5% was noted. No significant difference was found between wire configurations (p > 0.05). Treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures in children should be patient-specific based on factors such as patient's age, soft tissue conditions and deformity status.

  5. Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment prevents malaria in children in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mbeye, Nyanyiwe M; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Davies, Mary-Ann; Phiri, Kamija S; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles

    2014-09-01

    Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) prevents opportunistic infections in HIV-infected or HIV-exposed children, but estimates of the effectiveness in preventing malaria vary. We reviewed studies that examined the effect of CPT on incidence of malaria in children in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies on the effect of CPT on incidence of malaria and mortality in children and extracted data on the prevalence of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-conferring point mutations. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) from individual studies were combined using random effects meta-analysis; confounder-adjusted estimates were used for cohort studies. The importance of resistance was examined in meta-regression analyses. Three RCTs and four cohort studies with 5039 children (1692 HIV-exposed; 2800 HIV-uninfected; 1486 HIV-infected) were included. Children on CPT were less likely to develop clinical malaria episodes than those without prophylaxis (combined IRR 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.66), but there was substantial between-study heterogeneity (I-squared = 94%, P < 0.001). The protective efficacy of CPT was highest in an RCT from Mali, where the prevalence of antifolate resistant plasmodia was low. In meta-regression analyses, there was some evidence that the efficacy of CPT declined with increasing levels of resistance. Mortality was reduced with CPT in an RCT from Zambia, but not in a cohort study from Côte d'Ivoire. Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment reduces incidence of malaria and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa, but study designs, settings and results were heterogeneous. CPT appears to be beneficial for HIV-infected and HIV-exposed as well as HIV-uninfected children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. How much do Blantyre dispensers in hospital and community pharmacies know about the new malaria treatment guidelines?

    PubMed

    Minyaliwa, Collins; Bandawe, Chiwoza; Mwale, Richman James

    2012-03-01

    To determine the knowledge of dispensers in hospital and community pharmacies within Blantyre on new malaria treatment guidelines. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection and the questions focused on the knowledge of dispensers on the new malaria treatment guidelines and whether the subjects were involved in the preparation or implementation of the guidelines or had undertaken any training on how to dispense the new anti-malarial medicines. None of the participants had been involved in the preparation of the treatment guidelines and only 45.5% of the participants had undertaken the pre-implementation training. Ninety percent of the interviewees had knowledge concerning the appropriate treatment of malaria in pregnancy. However, as many as 90.9% of the interviewed participants could not mention any possible five or more side-effects of LA and only 13.6% knew how to properly manage the possible effects. Only 27.3% knew the correct dose regimen of LA and none of them knew the condition of taking LA with a fatty meal for improved absorption. Lack of involvement of the pharmaceutical personnel working in hospital and community pharmacies, from the preparation of new malaria treatment guidelines to their implementation, inadequate training and qualifications of the dispensing personnel contributed to their lack of knowledge and skill on how to rationally dispense the medicines. Pharmaceutical personnel dispensing in the pharmacies need to be involved from the beginning in the preparation of treatment guidelines. Adequate training should be provided and followed by continuous professional education.

  7. Evolution of modern treatment of childhood acute leukemia and cancer: adventures and battles in the 1970s and 1980s.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi

    2015-02-01

    This article summarizes the adventures and explorations in the 1970s and 1980s in the treatment of children with leukemia and cancer that paved the way for the current success in childhood cancers. Indeed, these were adventures and bold steps into unchartered waters. Because childhood leukemia the most common of the childhood cancers, success in childhood leukemia was pivotal in the push toward cure of all childhood cancers. The success in childhood leukemia illustrates how treatment programs were designed using clinical- and biology-based risk factors seen in the patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. A Triazolopyrimidine-Based Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor with Improved Drug-like Properties for Treatment and Prevention of Malaria.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Margaret A; White, Karen L; Kokkonda, Sreekanth; Deng, Xiaoyi; White, John; El Mazouni, Farah; Marsh, Kennan; Tomchick, Diana R; Manjalanagara, Krishne; Rudra, Kakali Rani; Wirjanata, Grennady; Noviyanti, Rintis; Price, Ric N; Marfurt, Jutta; Shackleford, David M; Chiu, Francis C K; Campbell, Michael; Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Belen; Bazaga, Santiago Ferrer; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Martinez, Maria Santos; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria; Kaminsky, Werner; Silue, Kigbafori; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Kocken, Clemens; Leroy, Didier; Blasco, Benjamin; Rossignol, Emilie; Rueckle, Thomas; Matthews, Dave; Burrows, Jeremy N; Waterson, David; Palmer, Michael J; Rathod, Pradipsinh K; Charman, Susan A

    2016-12-09

    The emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites continues to hamper efforts to control this lethal disease. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase has recently been validated as a new target for the treatment of malaria, and a selective inhibitor (DSM265) of the Plasmodium enzyme is currently in clinical development. With the goal of identifying a backup compound to DSM265, we explored replacement of the SF5-aniline moiety of DSM265 with a series of CF3-pyridinyls while maintaining the core triazolopyrimidine scaffold. This effort led to the identification of DSM421, which has improved solubility, lower intrinsic clearance, and increased plasma exposure after oral dosing compared to DSM265, while maintaining a long predicted human half-life. Its improved physical and chemical properties will allow it to be formulated more readily than DSM265. DSM421 showed excellent efficacy in the SCID mouse model of P. falciparum malaria that supports the prediction of a low human dose (<200 mg). Importantly DSM421 showed equal activity against both P. falciparum and P. vivax field isolates, while DSM265 was more active on P. falciparum. DSM421 has the potential to be developed as a single-dose cure or once-weekly chemopreventative for both P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria, leading to its advancement as a preclinical development candidate.

  9. Cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Newton, C.; Hien, T. T.; White, N.

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral malaria may be the most common non-traumatic encephalopathy in the world. The pathogenesis is heterogenous and the neurological complications are often part of a multisystem dysfunction. The clinical presentation and pathophysiology differs between adults and children. Recent studies have elucidated the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and raised possible interventions. Antimalarial drugs, however, remain the only intervention that unequivocally affects outcome, although increasing resistance to the established antimalarial drugs is of grave concern. Artemisinin derivatives have made an impact on treatment, but other drugs may be required. With appropriate antimalarial drugs, the prognosis of cerebral malaria often depends on the management of other complications—for example, renal failure and acidosis. Neurological sequelae are increasingly recognised, but further research on the pathogenesis of coma and neurological damage is required to develop other ancillary treatments.

 PMID:10990500

  10. Orthopedic interventions for problems associated with the treatment of cancer in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, W.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Early recognition of the musculoskeletal sequelae of the treatment of childhood tumors can lead to well-planned and minimization of deformity. Technological advances have improved both our recognition and our ability to manage these problems.18 references.

  11. Mass media can help improve treatment of childhood diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rao, K V; Mishra, V K; Retherford, R D

    1998-08-01

    The Government of India has identified oral rehydration therapy (ORT) promotion as a priority child survival strategy. Since two-thirds of mothers in India are illiterate, radio and television have been important vehicles for educating mothers about the need to increase a child's fluid intake and continue feeding during episodes of diarrhea, to use prepackaged oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home-made solution (RHS), and to recognize symptoms that require treatment at a health facility. The effects of exposure to electronic media messages about childhood diarrhea on mothers' knowledge and use of ORT were investigated through data from the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey. the data set included 38,161 women who gave birth in the 4 years preceding the survey and 4558 children born 1-47 months before the survey who were sick with diarrhea at any time during the 2 weeks before the interview. 43% of mothers were aware of ORS. Only 18% of infants received ORS and 19% were given RHS during the recent diarrhea episode; 69% received neither ORS or RHS. Moreover, children with diarrhea were twice as likely to receive decreased amounts of breast milk and other fluids than to be given increased amounts. The low use of ORS is especially alarming since 61% of children with diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks were taken to a health facility for treatment. 94% of these children were given antibiotics or other unnecessary drugs. Both knowledge and use of ORS were significantly higher among mothers with regular (weekly) exposure to electronic media, even after controls for potential confounding factors. These findings indicate a need to strengthen education programs in this area for both mothers and health care providers.

  12. Treatment outcomes in a safety observational study of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (Eurartesim(®)) in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria at public health facilities in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Adjei, Alexander; Narh-Bana, Solomon; Amu, Alberta; Kukula, Vida; Nagai, Richard Afedi; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Oduro, Abraham; Macete, Eusebio; Abdulla, Salim; Halidou, Tinto; Sie, Ali; Osei, Isaac; Sevene, Esperance; Asante, Kwaku-Poku; Mulokozi, Abdunoor; Compaore, Guillaume; Valea, Innocent; Adjuik, Martin; Baiden, Rita; Ogutu, Bernhards; Binka, Fred; Gyapong, Margaret

    2016-01-27

    Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) is one of five WHO recommended artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. However, little was known on its post-registration safety and effectiveness in sub-Saharan Africa. DHA-PQ provides a long post-treatment prophylactic effect against re-infection; however, new infections have been reported within a few weeks of treatment, especially in children. This paper reports the clinical outcomes following administration of DHQ-PQ in real-life conditions in public health facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mozambique, and Tanzania for the treatment of confirmed uncomplicated malaria. An observational, non-comparative, longitudinal study was conducted on 10,591 patients with confirmed uncomplicated malaria visiting public health facilities within seven health and demographic surveillance system sites in four African countries (Ghana, Tanzania, Burkina Faso, Mozambique) between September 2013 and April 2014. Patients were treated with DHA-PQ based on body weight and followed up for 28 days to assess the clinical outcome. A nested cohort of 1002 was intensely followed up. Clinical outcome was assessed using the proportion of patients who reported signs and symptoms of malaria after completing 3 days of treatment. A total of 11,097 patients were screened with 11,017 enrolled, 94 were lost to follow-up, 332 withdrew and 10,591 (96.1%) patients aged 6 months-85 years met protocol requirements for analysis. Females were 52.8 and 48.5% were <5 years of age. Malaria was diagnosed by microscopy and rapid diagnostic test in 69.8% and 29.9%, respectively. At day 28, the unadjusted risk of recurrent symptomatic parasitaemia was 0.5% (51/10,591). Most of the recurrent symptomatic malaria patients (76%) were children <5 years. The mean haemoglobin level decreased from 10.6 g/dl on day 1 to 10.2 g/dl on day 7. There was no significant renal impairment in the nested cohort during the first 7 days of follow

  13. Psychological interventions in the treatment of childhood obesity: what we know and need to find out.

    PubMed

    Bogle, Vanessa; Sykes, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    This review aims to assess the effectiveness of psychological interventions for treating childhood obesity. Firm conclusions about the effectiveness of psychological interventions to treat childhood obesity remain unclear. Based on current knowledge, the review suggests that a number of interventions may be effective including: multi-component family-based behavioural interventions, interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behaviour and/or increasing physical activity levels as a component of family-based behavioural treatments, in addition to population-based school-wide treatment for girls. Further investment is needed to improve current research and find new, more imaginative ways to research childhood obesity.

  14. Uncommon non-Hodgkin lymphomas of childhood: pathological diagnosis, clinical features and treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Sandlund, John T; Perkins, Sherrie L

    2015-06-01

    We provide a review of the pathological and clinical features for uncommon B-cell and T-cell lymphomas of childhood with a specific focus on advances in treatment approaches and outcomes. There is clearly a need for prospective investigation of both the clinical and biological features of the uncommon non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes in childhood. These results should lead to more uniform and more effective treatment approaches.

  15. Presumptive treatment to reduce imported malaria among refugees from east Africa resettling in the United States.

    PubMed

    Phares, Christina R; Kapella, Bryan K; Doney, Annelise C; Arguin, Paul M; Green, Michael; Mekonnen, Leul; Galev, Aleksander; Weinberg, Michelle; Stauffer, William M

    2011-10-01

    During May 4, 2007-February 29, 2008, the United States resettled 6,159 refugees from Tanzania. Refugees received pre-departure antimalarial treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), partially supervised (three/six doses) artemether-lumefantrine (AL), or fully supervised AL. Thirty-nine malaria cases were detected. Disease incidence was 15.5/1,000 in the SP group and 3.2/1,000 in the partially supervised AL group (relative change = -79%, 95% confidence interval = -56% to -90%). Incidence was 1.3/1,000 refugees in the fully supervised AL group (relative change = -92% compared with SP group; 95% confidence interval = -66% to -98%). Among 39 cases, 28 (72%) were in refugees < 15 years of age. Time between arrival and symptom onset (median = 14 days, range = 3-46 days) did not differ by group. Thirty-two (82%) persons were hospitalized, 4 (10%) had severe manifestations, and 9 (27%) had parasitemias > 5% (range = < 0.1-18%). Pre-departure presumptive treatment with an effective drug is associated with decreased disease among refugees.

  16. Presumptive Treatment to Reduce Imported Malaria among Refugees from East Africa Resettling in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Phares, Christina R.; Kapella, Bryan K.; Doney, Annelise C.; Arguin, Paul M.; Green, Michael; Mekonnen, Leul; Galev, Aleksander; Weinberg, Michelle; Stauffer, William M.

    2011-01-01

    During May 4, 2007–February 29, 2008, the United States resettled 6,159 refugees from Tanzania. Refugees received pre-departure antimalarial treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), partially supervised (three/six doses) artemether-lumefantrine (AL), or fully supervised AL. Thirty-nine malaria cases were detected. Disease incidence was 15.5/1,000 in the SP group and 3.2/1,000 in the partially supervised AL group (relative change = –79%, 95% confidence interval = –56% to –90%). Incidence was 1.3/1,000 refugees in the fully supervised AL group (relative change = –92% compared with SP group; 95% confidence interval = –66% to –98%). Among 39 cases, 28 (72%) were in refugees < 15 years of age. Time between arrival and symptom onset (median = 14 days, range = 3–46 days) did not differ by group. Thirty-two (82%) persons were hospitalized, 4 (10%) had severe manifestations, and 9 (27%) had parasitemias > 5% (range = < 0.1–18%). Pre-departure presumptive treatment with an effective drug is associated with decreased disease among refugees. PMID:21976559

  17. Enhanced transmission of drug-resistant parasites to mosquitoes following drug treatment in rodent malaria.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew S; Huijben, Silvie; Paaijmans, Krijn P; Sim, Derek G; Chan, Brian H K; Nelson, William A; Read, Andrew F

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of drug resistant Plasmodium parasites is a major challenge to effective malaria control. In theory, competitive interactions between sensitive parasites and resistant parasites within infections are a major determinant of the rate at which parasite evolution undermines drug efficacy. Competitive suppression of resistant parasites in untreated hosts slows the spread of resistance; competitive release following treatment enhances it. Here we report that for the murine model Plasmodium chabaudi, co-infection with drug-sensitive parasites can prevent the transmission of initially rare resistant parasites to mosquitoes. Removal of drug-sensitive parasites following chemotherapy enabled resistant parasites to transmit to mosquitoes as successfully as sensitive parasites in the absence of treatment. We also show that the genetic composition of gametocyte populations in host venous blood accurately reflects the genetic composition of gametocytes taken up by mosquitoes. Our data demonstrate that, at least for this mouse model, aggressive chemotherapy leads to very effective transmission of highly resistant parasites that are present in an infection, the very parasites which undermine the long term efficacy of front-line drugs.

  18. Where do people from different socio-economic groups receive diagnosis and treatment for presumptive malaria, in south-eastern Nigeria?

    PubMed

    Onwujekwe, O; Ojukwu, J; Uzochukwu, B; Dike, N; Ikeme, A; Shu, E

    2005-07-01

    The relationship between the socio-economic status (SES) of a household and its sources of malaria diagnosis and treatment was explored in south-eastern Nigeria. One aim was to see if, as seems likely, the poorest people generally seek care from 'low-level' providers, such as traditional healers and community-based healthworkers, because of their severe budget constraints. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information from 1197 randomly selected respondents from four villages where malaria is holo-endemic. An index was used to categorize the study households into SES quartiles. The self-diagnosis of presumptive malaria and the use of patent-medicine dealers for treatment were very common among all the SES groupings. Compared with the other interviewees, however, the least-poor were significantly more likely to rely on laboratory tests for diagnosis and to visit hospitals when seeking treatment for presumptive malaria. The most-poor, in contrast, were significantly more likely to seek treatment from traditional healers or community-based healthworkers. Thus, even though the use of low-level providers was so common, there was still evidence of wealth-related inequity--in terms of the probabilities of the good diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Improvements in the quality of malaria diagnosis and treatment by the providers patronised by the most-poor villagers would help to redress this inequity, at least in the short- to medium-term.

  19. Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment prevents malaria in children in sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mbeye, Nyanyiwe; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Davies, Mary-Ann; Phiri, Kamija; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) prevents opportunistic infections in HIV-infected or HIV-exposed children, but estimates of the effectiveness in preventing malaria vary. We reviewed studies that examined the effect of CPT on malaria incidence in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies of the effect of CPT on malaria incidence and mortality in children, and extracted data on the prevalence of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance–conferring point mutations. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) from individual studies were combined using random-effects meta-analysis; confounder-adjusted estimates were used for cohort studies. The importance of resistance was examined in meta-regression analyses. Results Three RCTs and four cohort studies with 5,039 children (1,692 HIV-exposed; 2,800 HIV-uninfected; 1,486 HIV-infected) were included. Children on CPT were less likely to develop clinical malaria episodes than those without prophylaxis (combined IRR 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.66) but there was substantial between-study heterogeneity (l-squared=94%, p < 0.001). The protective efficacy of CPT was highest in an RCT from Mali, where the prevalence of antifolate resistant plasmodia was low. In meta-regression analyses there was some evidence that the efficacy of CPT declined with increasing levels of resistance. Mortality was reduced with CPT in an RCT from Zambia, but not in a cohort study from Côte d'Ivoire. Conclusions CPT reduces malaria incidence and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa, but study designs, settings and results were heterogeneous. CPT appears to be beneficial for HIV-infected and HIV-exposed as well as HIV-uninfected children. PMID:25039469

  20. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of artemether and lumefantrine during combination treatment in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hietala, Sofia Friberg; Mårtensson, Andreas; Ngasala, Billy; Dahlström, Sabina; Lindegårdh, Niklas; Annerberg, Anna; Premji, Zul; Färnert, Anna; Gil, Pedro; Björkman, Anders; Ashton, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The combination of artemether (ARM) and lumefantrine is currently the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in mainland Tanzania. While the exposure to lumefantrine has been associated with the probability of adequate clinical and parasitological cure, increasing exposure to artemether and the active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) has been shown to decrease the parasite clearance time. The aim of this analysis was to describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of artemether, dihydroartemisinin, and lumefantrine in African children with uncomplicated malaria. In addition to drug concentrations and parasitemias from 50 Tanzanian children with falciparum malaria, peripheral parasite densities from 11 asymptomatic children were included in the model of the parasite dynamics. The population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of artemether, dihydroartemisinin, and lumefantrine were modeled in NONMEM. The distribution of artemether was described by a two-compartment model with a rapid absorption and elimination through metabolism to dihydroartemisinin. Dihydroartemisinin concentrations were adequately illustrated by a one-compartment model. The pharmacokinetics of artemether was time dependent, with typical oral clearance increasing from 2.6 liters/h/kg on day 1 to 10 liters/h/kg on day 3. The pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine was sufficiently described by a one-compartment model with an absorption lag time. The typical value of oral clearance was estimated to 77 ml/h/kg. The proposed semimechanistic model of parasite dynamics, while a rough approximation of the complex interplay between malaria parasite and the human host, adequately described the early effect of ARM and DHA concentrations on the parasite density in malaria patients. However, the poor precision in some parameters illustrates the need for further data to support and refine this model.

  1. The roles and influence of actors in the uptake of evidence: the case of malaria treatment policy change in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet; Nanyunja, Miriam; Marchal, Bruno; Criel, Bart; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2014-10-08

    Uganda changed its malaria treatment policy in response to evidence of resistance to commonly used antimalarials. The use of evidence in policy development--also referred to as knowledge translation (KT)--is crucial, especially in resource-limited settings. However, KT processes occur amidst a complex web of stakeholder interactions. Stakeholder involvement in evidence generation and in KT activities is essential. In the present study, we explored how stakeholders impacted the uptake of evidence in the malaria treatment policy change in Uganda. We employed a qualitative case study methodology involving interviews with key informants and review of documents. A timeline of events was developed, which guided the purposive sampling of respondents and identification of relevant documents. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis techniques. Stakeholders played multiple roles in evidence uptake in the malaria treatment policy change. Donors, the Ministry of Health (MoH), service providers, and researchers engaged in the role of evidence generation. The MoH, parliamentarians, and opinion leaders at the national and local levels engaged in dissemination of evidence. The donors, MoH, researchers, and service providers engaged in the uptake of evidence in policy development and implementation. Stakeholders exerted varying levels of support and influence for different reasons. It is noteworthy that all of the influential stakeholders were divided regarding the best antimalarial alternative to adopt. Our results showed a diverse group of stakeholders who played multiple roles, with varying levels of support and influence on the uptake of evidence in the malaria treatment policy change. For a given KT processes, mapping the relevant stakeholders and devising mechanism for their engagement and for how to resolve conflicts of interest and disagreements a priori will enhance uptake of evidence in policy development.

  2. Efficacy of Quinine, Artemether-Lumefantrine and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine as Rescue Treatment for Uncomplicated Malaria in Ugandan Children

    PubMed Central

    Yeka, Adoke; Tibenderana, James; Achan, Jane; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Talisuna, Ambrose O.

    2013-01-01

    Background The treatment of falciparum malaria poses unique challenges in settings where malaria transmission intensity is high because recurrent infections are common. These could be new infections, recrudescences, or a combination of the two. Though several African countries continue to use quinine as the second line treatment for patients with recurrent infections, there is little information on its efficacy when used for rescue therapy. Moreover, such practice goes against the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendation to use combination therapy for uncomplicated malaria. Methods We conducted a nested, randomized, open label, three-arm clinical trial of rescue therapy in children 6–59 months old with recurrent malaria infection during 28 days post treatment with artemisinin combination treatment (ACT). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either quinine, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAPQ), and actively followed up for 28 days. Findings Among 220 patients enrolled, 217 (98.6 %) were assigned an efficacy outcome and 218 (99.1 %) were assessed for safety. The risk of recurrent infection was significantly higher in patients treated with quinine (70 %, 74/110, HR = 3.9; 95 % CI: 2.4–6.7, p<0.0001) and AL (60%, 21/35, HR = 3.3; 95 % CI: 1.8–6.3, p<0.0002), compared to DHAPQ (25%, 18/72). Recrudescence tended to be lower in the DHAPQ (1%, 1/72) than in the quinine (7%, 8/110) or AL (6 %, 2/35) group, though it was not statistically significant. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Recurrent infections observed after the administration of an ACT can be successfully treated with an alternative ACT rather than with quinine. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN99046537 PMID:23349741

  3. Malaria treatment policy change in Uganda: what role did evidence play?

    PubMed

    Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet; Ssengooba, Freddie; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2014-09-02

    Although increasing attention is being paid to knowledge translation (KT), research findings are not being utilized to the desired extent. The present study explores the role of evidence, barriers, and factors facilitating the uptake of evidence in the change in malaria treatment policy in Uganda, building on previous work in Uganda that led to the development of a middle range theory (MRT) outlining the main facilitatory factors for KT. Application of the MRT to a health policy case will contribute to refining it. Using a case study approach and mixed methods, perceptions of respondents on whether evidence was available, had been considered and barriers and facilitatory factors to the uptake of evidence were explored. In addition, the respondents' rating of the degree of consistency between the policy decision and available evidence was assessed. Data collection methods included key informant interviews and document review. Qualitative data were analysed using content thematic analysis, whereas quantitative data were analysed using Excel spreadsheets. The two data sets were eventually triangulated. Evidence was used to change the malaria treatment policy, though the consistency between evidence and policy decisions varied along the policy development cycle. The availability of high-quality and contextualized evidence, including effective dissemination, Ministry of Health institutional capacity to lead the KT process, intervention of the WHO and a regional professional network, the existence of partnerships for KT with mutual trust and availability of funding, tools, and inputs to implement evidence, were the most important facilitatory factors that enhanced the uptake of evidence. Among the barriers that had to be overcome were resistance from implementers, the health system capacity to implement evidence, and financial sustainability. The results agree with facilitatory factors identified in the earlier developed MRT, though additional factors emerged. These

  4. [Influence of interleukin-1 beta gene polymorphism and childhood maltreatment on antidepressant treatment].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Zhijun; Xu, Zhi; Pu, Mengjia; Geng, Leiyu

    2015-12-01

    To explore the influence of interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) gene polymorphism and childhood maltreatment on antidepressant treatment. Two hundred and four patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have received treatment with single antidepressant drugs and were followed up for 8 weeks. Hamilton depression scale-17 (HAMD-17) was used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms and therapeutic effect. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a 28-item Short Form (CTQ-SF). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the IL1B gene was determined using a SNaPshot method. Correlation of rs16944 gene polymorphism with response to treatment was analyzed using Unphased 3.0.13 software. The main and interactive effects of SNP and childhood maltreatment on the antidepressant treatment were analyzed using Logistic regression analysis. No significant difference of gender, age, year of education, family history, episode time, and antidepressant agents was detected between the remitters and non-remitters. Association analysis has found that the SNP rs16944 in the IL1B AA genotype carriers antidepressant response was poorer (χ2=3.931, P=0.047). No significant difference was detected in the CTQ scores between the two groups. Genetic and environmental interaction analysis has demonstrated a significant correlation between rs16944 AA genotype and childhood maltreatment and poorer response to antidepressant treatment. The SNP rs16944 in the IL1B gene and its interaction with childhood maltreatment may influence the effect of antidepressant treatment for patients with MDD.

  5. [Fever and malaria in children under 5 years of age in Benin: do we have accurate statistics?].

    PubMed

    Houeto, David; d'Hoore, William; Ouendo, Edgar-Marius; Deccache, Alain

    2008-01-01

    In Benin, mothers generally seek health care for their children with fever and malaria only when complications appear, including severe anemia, convulsions, and coma. Statistics from the national health system are based on consultations at national health care centers and do not take into account existing cases in the community. To determine the prevalence of malaria from the analysis of subjects with fever and their management in two participating villages. This evaluation--and a better approach to fighting childhood malaria--rely on habits of management and care-seeking and the extent of parental participation. Parents in two villages were interviewed about their practices in managing fever in children and about active malaria screening. The prevalence of (thick smear-positive) malaria was the same in both villages (p>0.05). Parents brought children to health centers for consultation in only 6% of the cases of fever. Treatment was administered immediately within 48 hours for most children (75%) but only 15% received adequate anti-malarial treatment. Care-seeking is highly associated with perceptions and representations of childhood fever: for every case treated at the health centre, 16 remain in the community. Adequate management of fever and the malaria often associated with it requires understanding the perceptions and representations of parents, which will make it possible to learn the true proportion of malaria in fevers in the two villages and thus to apply appropriate strategies.

  6. A Non-Inferiority, Individually Randomized Trial of Intermittent Screening and Treatment versus Intermittent Preventive Treatment in the Control of Malaria in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Tagbor, Harry; Cairns, Matthew; Bojang, Kalifa; Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Kayentao, Kassoum; Williams, John; Abubakar, Ismaela; Akor, Francis; Mohammed, Khalifa; Bationo, Richard; Dabira, Edgar; Soulama, Alamissa; Djimdé, Moussa; Guirou, Etienne; Awine, Timothy; Quaye, Stephen; Njie, Fanta; Ordi, Jaume; Doumbo, Ogobara; Hodgson, Abraham; Oduro, Abraham; Meshnick, Steven; Taylor, Steve; Magnussen, Pascal; ter Kuile, Feiko; Woukeu, Arouna; Milligan, Paul; Chandramohan, Daniel; Greenwood, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in pregnancy is threatened in parts of Africa by the emergence and spread of resistance to SP. Intermittent screening with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and treatment of positive women (ISTp) is an alternative approach. Methods and Findings An open, individually randomized, non-inferiority trial of IPTp-SP versus ISTp was conducted in 5,354 primi- or secundigravidae in four West African countries with a low prevalence of resistance to SP (The Gambia, Mali, Burkina Faso and Ghana). Women in the IPTp-SP group received SP on two or three occasions whilst women in the ISTp group were screened two or three times with a RDT and treated if positive for malaria with artemether-lumefantrine (AL). ISTp-AL was non-inferior to IPTp-SP in preventing low birth weight (LBW), anemia and placental malaria, the primary trial endpoints. The prevalence of LBW was 15.1% and 15.6% in the IPTp-SP and ISTp-AL groups respectively (OR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.88, 1.22]). The mean hemoglobin concentration at the last clinic attendance before delivery was 10.97g/dL and 10.94g/dL in the IPTp-SP and ISTp-AL groups respectively (mean difference: -0.03 g/dL [95% CI: -0.13, +0.06]). Active malaria infection of the placenta was found in 24.5% and in 24.2% of women in the IPTp-SP and ISTp-AL groups respectively (OR = 0.95 [95% CI 0.81, 1.12]). More women in the ISTp-AL than in the IPTp-SP group presented with malaria parasitemia between routine antenatal clinics (310 vs 182 episodes, rate difference: 49.4 per 1,000 pregnancies [95% CI 30.5, 68.3], but the number of hospital admissions for malaria was similar in the two groups. Conclusions Despite low levels of resistance to SP in the study areas, ISTp-AL performed as well as IPTp-SP. In the absence of an effective alternative medication to SP for IPTp, ISTp-AL is a potential alternative to IPTp in areas where SP resistance is high. It may also

  7. Challenges encountered by local health volunteers in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of malaria in Myanmar artemisinin resistance containment zones.

    PubMed

    Nyunt, Myat Htut; Aye, Khin Myo; Kyaw, Khin Thiri; Han, Soe Soe; Aye, Thin Thin; Wai, Khin Thet; Kyaw, Myat Phone

    2016-06-06

    After artemisinin resistance was reported, the Myanmar artemisinin resistance containment (MARC) project was initiated in 2011. One of the activities of MARC is to train volunteers for early diagnosis and prompt treatment by providing rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and artemisinin combination therapy. This study aimed to fulfil the gap of information on the challenges faced by malaria volunteers in artemisinin-containment areas. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in 11 townships in MARC areas to assess the challenges in early diagnosis of malaria and treatment by malaria volunteers using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Altogether 405 volunteers participated in the study. Although 97.5 % of volunteers can interpret a positive result for malaria, only 41.2 % correctly stated the persistence of a positive result in recently infected cases. Over 80 % knew the effects of temperature and humidity on performance of the malaria RDT. Unexpectedly, 15.1 % perceived that expired RDTs can still be useful for diagnosis although 98.3 % of respondents cited that the overall results of RDTs were reliable. Although most of them knew the treatment for malaria based on RDT results, some could not give the correct answer, while a few (2 %) mentioned artesunate monotherapy for RDT-negative cases. Training received by volunteers was also varied in study sites and 92.1 % believed that it was not sufficient. A certain portion of them faced the problem of regular supply of RDTs (9.9 %) and drugs (47.5 %), interpretation of result of RDTs (30 %), and performing blood test (20 %). The median RDT tested per month (25th, 75th percentile) was 6.0 (2.0, 15.0) indicating the need for prioritization based on endemicity. Regular reporting, supervision, monitoring system, and proper refresher training using uniform content of guideline to correct misconception of the volunteers, were needed to be strengthened. Moreover, the reliable and regular supply of materials

  8. Preventive malaria treatment for contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease in the context of the west Africa 2014-15 Ebola virus disease response: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Carias, Cristina; Greening, Bradford; Campbell, Caresse G; Meltzer, Martin I; Hamel, Mary J

    2016-04-01

    After the detection of an Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa in 2014, one of the elements of the response was to contact trace and isolate patients in specialised Ebola treatment units (ETUs) at onset of fever. We aimed to assess the economic feasibility of administering preventive malaria treatment to all contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease, to prevent the onset of febrile malaria and subsequent admission to ETUs. We used a decision tree model to analyse the costs of preventive malaria treatment (artemisinin-based combination treatment [ACT]) for all contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease (in terms of administration and averted ETU-stay costs) and benefits (in terms of averted ETU admissions) in west Africa, from a health-care provider perspective. The period of analyses was 1 year, which is roughly similar to the duration of the 2014-15 west Africa Ebola outbreak response. We calculated the intervention's cost per ETU admission averted (average cost-effectiveness ratio) by season (wet and dry), country (Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea), and age of contact (<5 years, 5-14 years, and ≥15 years). We did sensitivity analyses to assess how results varied with malaria parasite prevalence (in children aged 2-10 years), daily cost of ETU stay (for Liberian malaria incidence levels), and compliance and effectiveness of preventive malaria treatment. Administration of ACTs to contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease was cost saving for contacts of all ages in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea, in both seasons, from a health-care provider perspective. In the wet season, preventive malaria treatment was estimated to reduce the probability of a contact being admitted to an ETU by a maximum of 36% (in Guinea, for contacts aged <5 years), and a minimum of 10% (in Guinea and Sierra Leone, for those aged ≥15 years). Assuming 85% compliance and taking into account the African population pyramid, the intervention is expected to be cost saving in

  9. pfk13-Independent Treatment Failure in Four Imported Cases of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Treated with Artemether-Lumefantrine in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Colin J; Lansdell, Paul; Sanders, Mandy; Muwanguzi, Julian; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Kaur, Harparkash; Nolder, Debbie; Tucker, Julie; Bennett, Hayley M; Otto, Thomas D; Berriman, Matthew; Patel, Trupti A; Lynn, Roderick; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Chiodini, Peter L

    2017-03-01

    We present case histories of four patients treated with artemether-lumefantrine for falciparum malaria in UK hospitals in 2015 to 2016. Each subsequently presented with recurrent symptoms and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia within 6 weeks of treatment with no intervening travel to countries where malaria is endemic. Parasite isolates, all of African origin, harbored variants at some candidate resistance loci. No evidence of pfk13-mediated artemisinin resistance was found. Vigilance for signs of unsatisfactory antimalarial efficacy among imported cases of malaria is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Sutherland et al.

  10. pfk13-Independent Treatment Failure in Four Imported Cases of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Treated with Artemether-Lumefantrine in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Lansdell, Paul; Sanders, Mandy; Muwanguzi, Julian; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A.; Kaur, Harparkash; Tucker, Julie; Bennett, Hayley M.; Otto, Thomas D.; Berriman, Matthew; Patel, Trupti A.; Lynn, Roderick; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Chiodini, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present case histories of four patients treated with artemether-lumefantrine for falciparum malaria in UK hospitals in 2015 to 2016. Each subsequently presented with recurrent symptoms and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia within 6 weeks of treatment with no intervening travel to countries where malaria is endemic. Parasite isolates, all of African origin, harbored variants at some candidate resistance loci. No evidence of pfk13-mediated artemisinin resistance was found. Vigilance for signs of unsatisfactory antimalarial efficacy among imported cases of malaria is recommended. PMID:28137810

  11. Adverse effects of mefloquine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Thailand: A pooled analysis of 19, 850 individual patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sue J.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Luxemburger, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Mefloquine (MQ) has been used for the treatment of malaria since the mid-1980s, first as monotherapy or as fixed combination with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (MSP) and since the mid-1990s in combination with artesunate. There is a renewed interested in MQ as part of a triple therapy for the treatment of multi-drug resistance P. falciparum malaria. The widespread use of MQ beyond south-East Asia has been constrained by reports of poor tolerability. Here we present the side effect profile of MQ for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria on the Thai-Myanmar/Cambodia borders. In total 19,850 patients received seven different regimens containing either 15 or 24–25 mg/kg of MQ, the latter given either as a single dose, or split over two or three days. The analysis focused on (predominantly) gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric events as compared to the new fixed dose combination of MQ plus artesunate given as equal doses of 8 mg/kg MQ per day over three days. Gastrointestinal side effects were dose-dependent and associated with the severity of malaria symptoms. Serious neuropsychiatric side effects associated with MQ use were rare: for a single 25 mg/kg dose it was 11.9 per 10,000 treatments (95% confidence interval, CI, 4–285) vs. 7.8 (3–15) for the 15 mg/kg dose. The risk with 25 mg/kg was much higher when it was given as repeat dosing in patients who had failed treatment with 15 mg/kg MQ in the preceding month; (RR 6.57 (95% CI 1.33 to 32.4), p = 0.0077). MQ was best tolerated as 15 mg/kg or as 24 mg/kg when given over three days in combination with artesunate. We conclude that the tolerance of a single dose of MQ in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria is moderate, but can be improved by administering it as a split dose over three days. PMID:28192434

  12. Intermittent preventive treatment using artemisinin-based combination therapy reduces malaria morbidity among school-aged children in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Breanna; Maiga, Hamma; Traore, Oumar Bila; Tekete, Mamadou; Tembine, Intimbeye; Dara, Antoine; Traore, Zoumana Isaac; Gantt, Soren; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) against malaria in school-aged children. METHODS This was an open randomized controlled trial of seasonal IPT among school children (IPTsc) aged 6–13 years in Kollé, Mali. The study began in September 2007 and completed follow-up in May 2008. Students were randomized to one of three study arms: Sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine plus artesunate (SP/AS), amodiaquine plus artesunate (AQ/AS) or vitamin C. All students received two full treatment doses, given 2 months apart during the season of high transmission from September to December. Groups were compared with respect to incidence of clinical malaria, asymptomatic parasitemia and haemoglobin concentration. RESULTS A total of 296 students were randomized, and retention in the study was 99.3%. Clinical malaria incidence in the SP/AS and AQ/AS arms was reduced by 66.6% and 46.5%, respectively, vs. vitamin C (P < 0.001). There were fewer clinic visits for any cause among the children receiving SP/AS or AQ/AS (P = 0.024). The prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia was fivefold higher in the vitamin C arm than either SP/AS or AQ/AS at each post-treatment evaluation (P < 0.001). At the end of the transmission period, children treated with IPT had lower rates of anaemia (SP/AS, 17.7%; AQ/AS, 16.0%; vitamin C, 29.6%; P = 0.039). CONCLUSION IPT among school children reduced the rates of clinical malaria, all-cause acute clinic visits, asymptomatic parasitemia and anaemia among school-aged children. PMID:19497079

  13. Spinal meningioma in childhood: clinical features and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Zeng, Xian-Wei; Zhang, Bi-Yun; Dou, Ya-Fang; Wu, Jin-Song; Jiang, Cheng-Chuan; Zhong, Ping; Chen, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine the clinical characteristics and the prognosis of the spinal meningioma in childhood (under 18 years of age) based on the treatment at our institution. Ten spinal meningioma cases in children were treated during the last 9 years. The clinical data was retrospectively analyzed and the results were compared with those in the literature. The series included eight males and two females and the mean age was 13.2 years. The most common initial symptoms were pain (6/10) and the common signs were limb weakness (4/10) and gait disturbance (2/10) and distal paresthesia (1/10) and bladder disturbance (1/10). Four patients had other clinical signs of neurofibromatosis type II (NF-2) such as tumors elsewhere. All the tumors were located in cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Resection according to Simpson Grade I (6/10), II (2/10), III (1/10), and IV (1/10) were performed. Grade II meningiomas accounted for 3/10 in this series. All patients were followed up with mean follow-up period of 43 months. Seven patients had recurrence of the tumor in that period and one had died. Spinal meningioma is an uncommon pediatric neoplasm and has a poor prognosis. It has a male predominance and is inclined to be associated with NF-2, and those that are associated with higher pathologic subtypes and NF-2 have more unfavorable outcome. Every effort should be made to achieve total removal which may decrease the incidence of recurrence.

  14. Controlled release of artemisone for the treatment of experimental cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Golenser, Jacob; Buchholz, Viola; Bagheri, Amir; Nasereddin, Abed; Dzikowski, Ron; Guo, Jintao; Hunt, Nicholas H; Eyal, Sara; Vakruk, Natalia; Greiner, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a leading cause of malarial mortality resulting from infection by Plasmodium falciparum. Treatment commonly involves adjunctive care and injections or transfusion of artemisinins. All artemisinins that are in current use are metabolized to dihydroxyartemisinin (DHA), to which there is already some parasite resistance. We used artemisone, a derivative that does not convert to DHA, has improved pharmacokinetics and anti-plasmodial activity and is also anti-inflammatory (an advantage given the immunopathological nature of CM). We examined controlled artemisone release from biodegradable polymers in a mouse CM model. This would improve treatment by exposing the parasites for a longer period to a non-toxic drug concentration, high enough to eliminate the pathogen and prevent CM. The preparations were inserted into mice as prophylaxis, early or late treatment in the disease course. The most efficient formulation was a rigid polymer, containing 80 mg/kg artemisone, which cured all of the mice when used as early treatment and 60% of the mice when used as a very late treatment (at which stage all control mice would die of CM within 24 h). In those mice that were not completely cured, relapse followed a latent period of more than seven days. Prophylactic treatment four days prior to the infection prevented CM. We also measured the amount of artemisone released from the rigid polymers using a bioassay with cultured P. falciparum. Significant amounts of artemisone were released throughout at least ten days, in line with the in vivo prophylactic results. Overall, we demonstrate, as a proof-of-concept, a controlled-sustained release system of artemisone for treatment of CM. Mice were cured or if treated at a very late stage of the disease, depicted a delay of a week before death. This delay would enable a considerable time window for exact diagnosis and appropriate additional treatment. Identical methods could be used for other parasites that are

  15. Impact of Intermittent Screening and Treatment for Malaria among School Children in Kenya: A Cluster Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Katherine E.; Okello, George; Turner, Elizabeth L.; Njagi, Kiambo; Mcharo, Carlos; Kengo, Juddy; Allen, Elizabeth; Dubeck, Margaret M.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.; Brooker, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence of the benefits of alternative school-based malaria interventions or how the impacts of interventions vary according to intensity of malaria transmission. We investigated the effect of intermittent screening and treatment (IST) for malaria on the health and education of school children in an area of low to moderate malaria transmission. Methods and Findings A cluster randomised trial was implemented with 5,233 children in 101 government primary schools on the south coast of Kenya in 2010–2012. The intervention was delivered to children randomly selected from classes 1 and 5 who were followed up for 24 months. Once a school term, children were screened by public health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and children (with or without malaria symptoms) found to be RDT-positive were treated with a six dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Given the nature of the intervention, the trial was not blinded. The primary outcomes were anaemia and sustained attention. Secondary outcomes were malaria parasitaemia and educational achievement. Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. During the intervention period, an average of 88.3% children in intervention schools were screened at each round, of whom 17.5% were RDT-positive. 80.3% of children in the control and 80.2% in the intervention group were followed-up at 24 months. No impact of the malaria IST intervention was observed for prevalence of anaemia at either 12 or 24 months (adjusted risk ratio [Adj.RR]: 1.03, 95% CI 0.93–1.13, p = 0.621 and Adj.RR: 1.00, 95% CI 0.90–1.11, p = 0.953) respectively, or on prevalence of P. falciparum infection or scores of classroom attention. No effect of IST was observed on educational achievement in the older class, but an apparent negative effect was

  16. Impact of childhood trauma on treatment outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS).

    PubMed

    Lewis, Cara C; Simons, Anne D; Nguyen, Lananh J; Murakami, Jessica L; Reid, Mark W; Silva, Susan G; March, John S

    2010-02-01

    The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB), and placebo (PBO). Teens were separated into four trauma history groups: (1) no trauma; (2) trauma, no abuse; (3) physical abuse; (4), and sexual abuse. The effects of treatment and trauma history on depression severity across 12 weeks of acute treatment, as measured by the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), were examined. A significant trauma-by-treatment-by-time interaction indicated that trauma history moderated treatment. The Week 12 primary efficacy findings previously reported by TADS were replicated in the no trauma group (n = 201): COMB = FLX > CBT = PBO. No significant differences in treatment arms were observed among the trauma, no abuse, or physical abuse group. Teens with a history of sexual abuse treated with COMB, FLX, and PBO showed significant and equivalent improvement on the CDRS-R (mean <45), whereas the mean CDRS-R for the CBT group tended to remain in the depressed range (mean >45). Baseline suicidality and self-reported depression were significantly related to a history of sexual abuse. The study was limited by the level of detail regarding childhood traumatic experiences. Results are discussed in terms of the implications for treating depressed adolescents with traumatic backgrounds.Clinical Trials Registry Information: Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00006286.

  17. Impact of Extended Duration of Artesunate Treatment on Parasitological Outcome in a Cytocidal Murine Malaria Model.

    PubMed

    Walker, Leah A; Sullivan, David J

    2017-04-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies are a key pillar in global malaria control and are recommended as a first-line Plasmodium falciparum treatment. They rely upon a rapid 4-log-unit reduction in parasitemia by artemisinin compounds with a short half-life and the killing of remaining parasites by a partner compound with a longer half-life. Current treatment guidelines stipulate giving three 24-h-interval doses or six 12-h-interval doses over a 3-day period. Due to the short half-life of artesunate and artemether, almost all of the resulting cytocidal activity is confined within a single 48-h asexual P. falciparum cycle. Here, we utilized a luciferase reporter, Plasmodium berghei ANKA, in a cytocidal model in which treatment was initiated at high parasitemia, allowing us to monitor a greater than 3-log-unit reduction in parasite density, as well as 30-day survival. In this study, we demonstrated that increasing the artesunate duration from spanning one asexual cycle to spanning three asexual cycles while keeping the total dose constant results in enhanced cytocidal activity. Single daily artesunate doses at 50 mg/kg of body weight over 7 days were the minimum necessary for curative monotherapy. In combination with a single sub-human-equivalent dose of the partner drug amodiaquine or piperaquine, the three-asexual-cycle artesunate duration was able to cure 75% and 100% of mice, respectively, whereas 0% and 33% cures were achieved with the single-asexual-cycle artesunate duration. In summary, cytocidal activity of the artemisinin compounds, such as artesunate, can be improved solely by altering the dosing duration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Impact of Extended Duration of Artesunate Treatment on Parasitological Outcome in a Cytocidal Murine Malaria Model

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Leah A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Artemisinin-based combination therapies are a key pillar in global malaria control and are recommended as a first-line Plasmodium falciparum treatment. They rely upon a rapid 4-log-unit reduction in parasitemia by artemisinin compounds with a short half-life and the killing of remaining parasites by a partner compound with a longer half-life. Current treatment guidelines stipulate giving three 24-h-interval doses or six 12-h-interval doses over a 3-day period. Due to the short half-life of artesunate and artemether, almost all of the resulting cytocidal activity is confined within a single 48-h asexual P. falciparum cycle. Here, we utilized a luciferase reporter, Plasmodium berghei ANKA, in a cytocidal model in which treatment was initiated at high parasitemia, allowing us to monitor a greater than 3-log-unit reduction in parasite density, as well as 30-day survival. In this study, we demonstrated that increasing the artesunate duration from spanning one asexual cycle to spanning three asexual cycles while keeping the total dose constant results in enhanced cytocidal activity. Single daily artesunate doses at 50 mg/kg of body weight over 7 days were the minimum necessary for curative monotherapy. In combination with a single sub-human-equivalent dose of the partner drug amodiaquine or piperaquine, the three-asexual-cycle artesunate duration was able to cure 75% and 100% of mice, respectively, whereas 0% and 33% cures were achieved with the single-asexual-cycle artesunate duration. In summary, cytocidal activity of the artemisinin compounds, such as artesunate, can be improved solely by altering the dosing duration. PMID:28096162

  19. Oral iron supplements for children in malaria-endemic areas

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, Ami; Okebe, Joseph; Yahav, Dafna; Paul, Mical

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron-deficiency anaemia is common during childhood. Iron administration has been claimed to increase the risk of malaria. Objectives To evaluate the effects and safety of iron supplementation, with or without folic acid, in children living in areas with hyperendemic or holoendemic malaria transmission. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (up to August 2015) and LILACS (up to February 2015). We also checked the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) up to February 2015. We contacted the primary investigators of all included trials, ongoing trials, and those awaiting assessment to ask for unpublished data and further trials. We scanned references of included trials, pertinent reviews, and previous meta-analyses for additional references. Selection criteria We included individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs conducted in hyperendemic and holoendemic malaria regions or that reported on any malaria-related outcomes that included children younger than 18 years of age. We included trials that compared orally administered iron, iron with folic acid, and iron with antimalarial treatment versus placebo or no treatment. We included trials of iron supplementation or fortification interventions if they provided at least 80% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for prevention of anaemia by age. Antihelminthics could be administered to either group, and micronutrients had to be administered equally to both groups. Data collection and analysis The primary outcomes were clinical malaria, severe malaria, and death from any cause. We assessed the risk of bias in included trials with domain-based evaluation and assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment

  20. The diminishing returns of atovaquone-proguanil for elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria: modelling mass drug administration and treatment.

    PubMed

    Maude, Richard J; Nguon, Chea; Dondorp, Arjen M; White, Lisa J; White, Nicholas J

    2014-09-24

    Artemisinin resistance is a major threat to current efforts to eliminate Plasmodium falciparum malaria which rely heavily on the continuing efficacy of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). It has been suggested that ACT should not be used in mass drug administration (MDA) in areas where artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum is prevalent, and that atovaquone-proguanil (A-P) might be a preferable alternative. However, a single point mutation in the cytochrome b gene confers high level resistance to atovaquone, and such mutant parasites arise frequently during treatment making A-P a vulnerable tool for elimination. A deterministic, population level, mathematical model was developed based on data from Cambodia to explore the possible effects of large-scale use of A-P compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine ACT for mass drug administration and/or treatment of P. falciparum malaria, with and without adjunctive primaquine (PQ) and long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLIN). The aim was local elimination. The model showed the initial efficacy of ACT and A-P for MDA to be similar. However, each round of A-P MDA resulted in rapid acquisition and spread of atovaquone resistance. Even a single round of MDA could compromise efficacy sufficient to preclude its use for treatment or prophylaxis. A switch to A-P for treatment of symptomatic episodes resulted in a complete loss of efficacy in the population within four to five years of its introduction. The impact of MDA was temporary and a combination of maintained high coverage with ACT treatment for symptomatic individuals and LLIN was necessary for elimination. For malaria elimination, A-P for MDA or treatment of symptomatic cases should be avoided. A combined strategy of high coverage with ACT for treatment of symptomatic episodes, LLIN and ACT + P MDA would be preferable.

  1. Treatment of Whole Blood With Riboflavin and UV Light: Impact on Malaria Parasite Viability and Whole Blood Storage

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Kusi, Joseph; Owusu-Ofori, Alex; Freimanis, Graham; Olver, Christine; Martinez, Caitlyn R.; Wilkinson, Shilo; Mundt, Janna M.; Keil, Shawn D.; Goodrich, Raymond P.; Allain, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Sub-Saharan African countries utilize whole blood (WB) to treat severe anemia secondary to severe blood loss or malaria on an emergency basis. In many areas with high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible agents, blood safety measures are insufficient. Pathogen reduction technology applied to WB might considerably improve blood safety. Methods: Whole blood from 40 different donors were treated with riboflavin and UV light (pathogen reduction technology) in order to inactivate malaria parasite replication. The extent of parasite inactivation was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods and was correlated to studies evaluating the replication of malaria parasites in culture. Products were also stored for 21 days at +4°C and monitored for cell quality throughout storage. Results: Plasmodium amplicon was present in 21 samples (>100 copies/mL), doubtful in four (10–100 genome equivalents [gEq]/mL), and negative in 15 U. The majority of asymptomatic parasitemic donors carried low parasite levels, with only six donors above 5,000 copies/mL (15%). After treatment with riboflavin and UV light, these six samples demonstrated a 0.5 to 1.2 log reduction in quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification. This correlated to equal to or greater than 6.4 log reductions in infectivity. In treated WB units, cell quality parameters remained stable; however, plasma hemoglobin increased to 0.15 g/dL. All markers behaved similarly to published data for stored, untreated WB. Conclusions: Pathogen reduction technology treatment can inactivate malaria parasites in WB while maintaining adequate blood quality during posttreatment cold storage for 21 days. PMID:25423125

  2. Treatment of Whole Blood With Riboflavin and UV Light: Impact on Malaria Parasite Viability and Whole Blood Storage.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Kusi, Joseph; Owusu-Ofori, Alex; Freimanis, Graham; Olver, Christine; Martinez, Caitlyn R; Wilkinson, Shilo; Mundt, Janna M; Keil, Shawn D; Goodrich, Raymond P; Allain, Jean-Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries utilize whole blood (WB) to treat severe anemia secondary to severe blood loss or malaria on an emergency basis. In many areas with high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible agents, blood safety measures are insufficient. Pathogen reduction technology applied to WB might considerably improve blood safety. Whole blood from 40 different donors were treated with riboflavin and UV light (pathogen reduction technology) in order to inactivate malaria parasite replication. The extent of parasite inactivation was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods and was correlated to studies evaluating the replication of malaria parasites in culture. Products were also stored for 21 days at +4°C and monitored for cell quality throughout storage. Plasmodium amplicon was present in 21 samples (>100 copies/mL), doubtful in four (10-100 genome equivalents [gEq]/mL), and negative in 15 U. The majority of asymptomatic parasitemic donors carried low parasite levels, with only six donors above 5,000 copies/mL (15%). After treatment with riboflavin and UV light, these six samples demonstrated a 0.5 to 1.2 log reduction in quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification. This correlated to equal to or greater than 6.4 log reductions in infectivity. In treated WB units, cell quality parameters remained stable; however, plasma hemoglobin increased to 0.15 g/dL. All markers behaved similarly to published data for stored, untreated WB. Pathogen reduction technology treatment can inactivate malaria parasites in WB while maintaining adequate blood quality during posttreatment cold storage for 21 days.

  3. Oral iron supplements for children in malaria-endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Ami; Okebe, Joseph; Yahav, Dafna; Paul, Mical

    2016-02-27

    Iron-deficiency anaemia is common during childhood. Iron administration has been claimed to increase the risk of malaria. To evaluate the effects and safety of iron supplementation, with or without folic acid, in children living in areas with hyperendemic or holoendemic malaria transmission. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (up to August 2015) and LILACS (up to February 2015). We also checked the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) up to February 2015. We contacted the primary investigators of all included trials, ongoing trials, and those awaiting assessment to ask for unpublished data and further trials. We scanned references of included trials, pertinent reviews, and previous meta-analyses for additional references. We included individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs conducted in hyperendemic and holoendemic malaria regions or that reported on any malaria-related outcomes that included children younger than 18 years of age. We included trials that compared orally administered iron, iron with folic acid, and iron with antimalarial treatment versus placebo or no treatment. We included trials of iron supplementation or fortification interventions if they provided at least 80% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for prevention of anaemia by age. Antihelminthics could be administered to either group, and micronutrients had to be administered equally to both groups. The primary outcomes were clinical malaria, severe malaria, and death from any cause. We assessed the risk of bias in included trials with domain-based evaluation and assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. We performed a fixed-effect meta

  4. Malaria illness mediated by anaemia lessens cognitive development in younger Ugandan children.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Michael J; Sikorskii, Alla; Familiar-Lopez, Itziar; Ruiseñor-Escudero, Horacio; Muhindo, Mary; Kapisi, James; Bigira, Victor; Bass, Judy K; Opoka, Robert O; Nakasujja, Noeline; Kamya, Moses; Dorsey, Grant

    2016-04-14

    Asymptomatic falciparum malaria is associated with poorer cognitive performance in African schoolchildren and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria improves cognitive outcomes. However, the developmental benefits of chemoprevention in early childhood are unknown. Early child development was evaluated as a major outcome in an open-label, randomized, clinical trial of anti-malarial chemoprevention in an area of intense, year-round transmission in Uganda. Infants were randomized to one of four treatment arms: no chemoprevention, daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, or monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), to be given between enrollment (4-6 mos) and 24 months of age. Number of malaria episodes, anaemia (Hb < 10) and neurodevelopment [Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL)] were assessed at 2