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Sample records for childhood obesity prevention

  1. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  2. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  3. Preventing childhood obesity: what works?

    PubMed

    Birch, L L; Ventura, A K

    2009-04-01

    Rates of overweight in North American children and adolescents have increased dramatically since the 1970s. Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and calls for prevention and treatment programs to reverse this trend have been made. However, the evidence base needed for effective action is still incomplete, especially for childhood obesity prevention programs. This paper focuses on primary prevention of childhood obesity and has three aims: (1) to briefly describe current primary prevention approaches for childhood obesity and the evidence for their impact; (2) to elucidate promising, but untested intervention strategies using an ecological framework and evidence from experimental and epidemiological research on factors influencing children's eating and weight status; and (3) to introduce a multiphase strategy for screening intervention components and building and evaluating potent interventions for childhood obesity. Most childhood obesity prevention programs have focused on school-aged children and have had little success. We suggest that, given these findings, prevention efforts should be expanded to explore other contexts in which children live as possible settings for intervention efforts, including the family and childcare settings. Given that 25% of preschool children are already overweight, intervening with children before school entry should be a priority. A review of experimental research on the developing controls of food intake in infancy and childhood suggests possible intervention strategies, focusing on parenting and aspects of the feeding environment. Epidemiological findings point to even earlier modifiable risk factors, including gestational weight gain, maternal prepregnancy weight, and formula feeding. However, the potential impact of altering these risk factors remains to be evaluated. In response to this problem, we suggest a new, multiphase method for accomplishing this, including screening intervention components, refining

  4. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Mahshid; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Merchant, Anwar T

    2005-09-02

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool

  5. [Childhood obesity prevention from a community view].

    PubMed

    Ariza, Carles; Ortega-Rodríguez, Eduard; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Valmayor, Sara; Juárez, Olga; Pasarín, M Isabel

    2015-04-01

    The percentage of failure and relapse in the treatment of obesity is high. Where possible, the preferred strategy for preventing obesity is to modify eating habits and lifestyles. This article aims to provide a framework for evidence on the most effective interventions for addressing childhood obesity, both from a prevention point of view, as well as reducing it, when it is already established. After a review of the scientific literature, the issues that must be considered both in the universal and selective prevention of childhood obesity are presented. Also, in light of the controversy over the tools for measuring and controlling the problem, some clarification is provided on the criteria. Finally, the approach to the prevention of overweight and obesity with a community perspective is separated, with two short protocols being offered with diagrams of the basic procedure to follow.

  6. Childhood obesity: prevention is better than cure

    PubMed Central

    Pandita, Aakash; Sharma, Deepak; Pandita, Dharti; Pawar, Smita; Tariq, Mir; Kaul, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities have emerged as a major health problem garnering interests from both public health agencies and mainstream media consumers. With increasing awareness on its impact on health, finances, and community at large, it has come to the forefront for scientific research and development of health plans. The need for better strategies and novel interventions to manage obesity is now being recognized by the entire health care system. Obesity and overweight is now the fifth leading global risk factor for mortality. Strategic investment is thus urgently needed to implement population-based childhood obesity prevention programmes which are effective and also culturally appropriate. Population-based prevention is crucial to stem this rising tide of childhood obesity which is fast reaching epidemic proportions. Obesity has its onset very early in life; therefore, children constitute a major group of this disease. It is thus imperative to lay utmost importance on prevention of obesity in children and herald its progress, if present already. Furthermore, treatment is still in preliminary stage, so early prevention holds better than treatment at later stages. This article is an attempt to lay emphasis on childhood obesity as a problem that needs to be recognized early and measures for its prevention. PMID:27042133

  7. Addressing Childhood Obesity: Opportunities for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Brown, Callie L; Halvorson, Elizabeth E; Cohen, Gail M; Lazorick, Suzanne; Skelton, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    The overweight and obesity epidemic among children and adolescents in the United States continues to worsen, with notable racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities. Risk factors for pediatric obesity include genetics; environmental and neighborhood factors; increased intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast-food, and processed snacks; decreased physical activity; shorter sleep duration; and increased personal, prenatal, or family stress. Pediatricians can help prevent obesity by measuring body mass index at least yearly and providing age- and development-appropriate anticipatory guidance to families. Public policies and environmental interventions aim to make it easier for children to make healthy nutrition and physical activity choices. Interventions focused on family habits and parenting strategies have also been successful at preventing or treating childhood obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Childhood obesity: Determinants, evaluation, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Moutusi; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2012-12-01

    Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child's food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child's lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on 'junk' food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity.

  9. Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

    2010-05-01

    The increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is not unique to industrialized societies; dramatic increases are occurring in urbanized areas of developing countries. In light of the consensus that obesity is a significant public health concern and that many weight-loss interventions have been unsuccessful in the long term, an exploration of food patterns that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity. Epidemiologic studies indicate that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower prevalence of obesity in adults and children. A meta-analysis of adult vegetarian diet studies estimated a reduced weight difference of 7.6 kg for men and 3.3 kg for women, which resulted in a 2-point lower BMI (in kg/m(2)). Similarly, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarian children are leaner, and their BMI difference becomes greater during adolescence. Studies exploring the risk of overweight and food groups and dietary patterns indicate that a plant-based diet seems to be a sensible approach for the prevention of obesity in children. Plant-based diets are low in energy density and high in complex carbohydrate, fiber, and water, which may increase satiety and resting energy expenditure. Plant-based dietary patterns should be encouraged for optimal health and environmental benefits. Food policies are warranted to support social marketing messages and to reduce the cultural and economic forces that make it difficult to promote plant-based dietary patterns.

  10. Interactive media for childhood obesity prevention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Childhood obesity is a worldwide pandemic that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and multiple cancers, and reduces quality of life and functional ability. Fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable (FJV) intake, and physical activity (PA) are behaviors related to childhood obesit...

  11. Childhood obesity-an insight into preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Dube, Rajani; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is now a global problem throughout the world. The major factors affecting weight regulation and the development of obesity in children are the result of a large number of biological, behavioral, social, environmental, and economic factors and the complex interactions between them that promote a positive energy balance. The changes in the dietary habits with the adoption of sedentary life style increases manifold obesity-related diseases and their complications. An obese child later on grows up to become an obese adult. Therefore, the role of primary prevention along with methodical diet control, behavioral changes, and physical activity are the important strategies against the battle of childhood obesity. PMID:25298951

  12. Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Charlotte A.; Stevens, June; Daniels, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group’s recommendations on future research directions in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. The Working Group consisted of leaders and representatives from public and private academic and medical institutions with expertise in a variety of health specialties. They reviewed the literature and discussed the findings as well as their own experiences in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The Working Group made recommendations that were based on scientific importance, the potential likelihood of public health impact, and the feasibility and timeliness for childhood obesity prevention and treatment research. These recommendations are intended to assist investigators in the development of research agendas to advance the knowledge of effective childhood obesity prevention and treatment. PMID:18617353

  13. Interventions addressing general parenting to prevent or treat childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gerards, Sanne M P L; Sleddens, Ester F C; Dagnelie, Pieter C; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2011-06-01

    Observational studies increasingly emphasize the impact of general parenting on the development of childhood overweight and obesity. The aim of the current literature review was to provide an overview of interventions addressing general parenting in order to prevent or treat childhood obesity. Electronic literature databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Seven studies were eligible for inclusion. The studies described four different general parenting programs, which were supplemented with lifestyle components (i.e., physical activity and nutrition). All studies showed significant small to moderate intervention effects on at least one weight-related outcome measure. The current review shows that despite the emerging observational evidence for the role of parenting in children's weight-related outcomes, few interventions have been developed that address general parenting in the prevention of childhood obesity. These interventions provide evidence that the promotion of authoritative parenting is an effective strategy for the prevention and management of childhood obesity.

  14. Impact of social marketing in the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2012-07-01

    Obesity, mainly childhood obesity, is a worldwide concern. Childhood obesity continues to adulthood, and it is associated with multiple noncommunicable diseases. One important aspect in the fight against obesity is prevention, the earlier, the better. Social marketing is a novel concept being increasingly used as an approach to address social problems and more and more included in the community-based interventions aiming to change unhealthy behaviors. Although there is limited evidence of its effectiveness, it seems that when conscientiously applied, social marketing principles may be useful to change behaviors and thus better health outcomes.

  15. Childhood obesity: know it to prevent it.

    PubMed

    Bozzola, M; Bozzola, E; Abela, S; Amato, S

    2012-01-01

    Obesity can be defined as an excess of adipose tissue. It is associated to a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. The results of the Italian survey called Okkio alla Salute (2010), which was attended over 42'000 students of third-class of primary school and 44'000 parents, confirm bad eating habits, sedentary lifestyles and excess weight. In particular, 22,9% of the children resulted overweight and 11,1% obese. The prevalence of obesity is higher in the south of Italy than in the north and in males rather than in females. Moreover, parents do not always have a real idea of the physical aspect of their son: 36% of the mothers of overweight or obese children are do not believe their child is overweight. Just 29% of them think that the quantity of food eaten by their child is excessive. The relative risk for an obese child to become an obese adult increases with the age and is directly correlated to the severity of overweight. Among obese children of preschool age, 26 to 41% will be an obese adult., Among scholar children, the percentage increases to 69%. The paper describes a multidisciplinary approach the disease, in fact, dietary and behavioural modifications, associated with physical activity, have the purpose of educate overweight and of preventing the onset of complications or reducing their severity if already present and reversible.

  16. Whole of Systems Trial of Prevention Strategies for Childhood Obesity: WHO STOPS Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Allender, Steven; Millar, Lynne; Hovmand, Peter; Bell, Colin; Moodie, Marj; Carter, Rob; Swinburn, Boyd; Strugnell, Claudia; Lowe, Janette; de la Haye, Kayla; Orellana, Liliana; Morgan, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Background: Community-based initiatives show promise for preventing childhood obesity. They are characterized by community leaders and members working together to address complex local drivers of energy balance. Objectives: To present a protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial in ten communities in the Great South Coast Region of Victoria, Australia to test whether it is possible to: (1) strengthen community action for childhood obesity prevention, and (2) measure the impact of increased action on risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods: The WHO STOPS intervention involves a facilitated community engagement process that: creates an agreed systems map of childhood obesity causes for a community; identifies intervention opportunities through leveraging the dynamic aspects of the system; and, converts these understandings into community-built, systems-oriented action plans. Ten communities will be randomized (1:1) to intervention or control in year one and all communities will be included by year three. The primary outcome is childhood obesity prevalence among grade two (ages 7–8 y), grade four (9–10 y) and grade six (11–12 y) students measured using our established community-led monitoring system (69% school and 93% student participation rate in government and independent schools). An additional group of 13 external communities from other regions of Victoria with no specific interventions will provide an external comparison. These communities will also allow us to assess diffusion of the intervention to control communities during the first three years of the trial. Conclusion: This trial will test effectiveness, over a five-year period, of community-owned, -supported and -led strategies designed to address complex and dynamic causes of childhood obesity. PMID:27854354

  17. Whole of Systems Trial of Prevention Strategies for Childhood Obesity: WHO STOPS Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Allender, Steven; Millar, Lynne; Hovmand, Peter; Bell, Colin; Moodie, Marj; Carter, Rob; Swinburn, Boyd; Strugnell, Claudia; Lowe, Janette; de la Haye, Kayla; Orellana, Liliana; Morgan, Sue

    2016-11-16

    Background: Community-based initiatives show promise for preventing childhood obesity. They are characterized by community leaders and members working together to address complex local drivers of energy balance. Objectives: To present a protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial in ten communities in the Great South Coast Region of Victoria, Australia to test whether it is possible to: (1) strengthen community action for childhood obesity prevention, and (2) measure the impact of increased action on risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods: The WHO STOPS intervention involves a facilitated community engagement process that: creates an agreed systems map of childhood obesity causes for a community; identifies intervention opportunities through leveraging the dynamic aspects of the system; and, converts these understandings into community-built, systems-oriented action plans. Ten communities will be randomized (1:1) to intervention or control in year one and all communities will be included by year three. The primary outcome is childhood obesity prevalence among grade two (ages 7-8 y), grade four (9-10 y) and grade six (11-12 y) students measured using our established community-led monitoring system (69% school and 93% student participation rate in government and independent schools). An additional group of 13 external communities from other regions of Victoria with no specific interventions will provide an external comparison. These communities will also allow us to assess diffusion of the intervention to control communities during the first three years of the trial. Conclusion: This trial will test effectiveness, over a five-year period, of community-owned, -supported and -led strategies designed to address complex and dynamic causes of childhood obesity.

  18. Systematic review of childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Linda G

    2008-02-01

    This systematic review identified the current state of the evidence related to the prevention of obesity in young children. The results indicate five areas of emphasis in the literature: prevalence of the problem; prevention as the best option; preschool population as the target; crucial parental involvement; and numerous guidelines. Because the gap between clear articulation of the problem as well as population and the best strategies to impact the prevention of the problem is evident, health care practitioners must be involved in well-constructed implementation and evaluation studies that build on the limited base of current evidence.

  19. Prevention of childhood obesity in India: Way forward

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a burden in developed and developing countries. Overweight and obesity are caused by numerous social and environmental factors that influence people's food habit and physical activity. Role of primary or secondary prevention is the mainstay plan for controlling this epidemic. Various adaptable best practice models are available in the developed nations. However, further research needs to be done to examine the most effective strategies of intervention, prevention, and treatment of obesity in our setting. Through this paper, we would like to highlight best practices and potential interventions to reduce the burden of obesity in India. PMID:25810628

  20. CHILDHOOD OBESITY

    PubMed Central

    Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Elks, Cathy E.; Ong, Ken K.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical summary Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to disease risks, and limited evidence on the most effective components of interventions to prevent childhood obesity. This article reviews the trends in childhood obesity, its genetic, nutritional and other risk factors, and preventative and treatment strategies. Particular emphasis is given to early-onset obesity in pre-school children, which, as a precursor to later childhood and adult obesity, provides insights into the developmental and genetic origins of obesity and also offers the potential for early preventative approaches with long-lasting benefits. PMID:23027812

  1. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factors tend to persist over time. However, whether childhood obesity causes adult CVD directly, or does so by persisting as adult obesity, or both, is less clear. Regardless, sufficient data exist to warrant early implementation of both obesity prevention and treatment in youth and adults. In this Review, we examine the evidence supporting the impact of childhood obesity on adult obesity, surrogate markers of CVD, components of the metabolic syndrome, and the development of CVD. We also evaluate how obesity treatment strategies can improve risk factors and, ultimately, adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:21670745

  2. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Jean; Matthews, Lynsay; Cobley, Stephen; Han, Ahreum; Sanders, Ross; Wiltshire, Huw D; Baker, Julien S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW) or obese (OB), and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings from studies. OW children were more likely to experience multiple associated psychosocial problems than their healthy-weight peers, which may be adversely influenced by OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying. OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying are pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional and physical health and performance. It remains unclear as to whether psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are a cause or a consequence of childhood obesity or whether common factors promote both obesity and psychiatric disturbances in susceptible children and adolescents. A cohesive and strategic approach to tackle this current obesity epidemic is

  3. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jean; Matthews, Lynsay; Cobley, Stephen; Han, Ahreum; Sanders, Ross; Wiltshire, Huw D; Baker, Julien S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW) or obese (OB), and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings from studies. OW children were more likely to experience multiple associated psychosocial problems than their healthy-weight peers, which may be adversely influenced by OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying. OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying are pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional and physical health and performance. It remains unclear as to whether psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are a cause or a consequence of childhood obesity or whether common factors promote both obesity and psychiatric disturbances in susceptible children and adolescents. A cohesive and strategic approach to tackle this current obesity epidemic is

  4. The Role of Parents in Preventing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Ana C.; Sussner, Katarina M.; Kim, Juhee; Gortmaker, Steven

    2006-01-01

    As researchers continue to analyze the role of parenting both in the development of childhood overweight and in obesity prevention, studies of child nutrition and growth are detailing the ways in which parents affect their children's development of food- and activity-related behaviors. Ana Lindsay, Katarina Sussner, Juhee Kim, and Steven Gortmaker…

  5. Teachers as Partners in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruss, Mozhdeh B.; Dannison, Linda; Morris, Joseph R.; Quitugua, Jackie; Palacios, Rosa T.; McGowan, Judy; Michael, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the…

  6. Preventing childhood obesity: the sentinel site for obesity prevention in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bell, A Colin; Simmons, Anne; Sanigorski, Andrea M; Kremer, Peter J; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2008-12-01

    In spite of greater awareness of the need for action to reduce obesity, the evidence on sustainable community approaches to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity is surprisingly sparse. This paper describes the design and methodological components of the Sentinel Site for Obesity Prevention, a demonstration site in the Barwon-South West region of Victoria, Australia, that aims to build the programs, skills and evidence necessary to attenuate and eventually reverse the obesity epidemic in children and adolescents. The Sentinel Site for Obesity Prevention is based on a partnership between the region's university (Deakin University) and its health, education and local government agencies. The three basic foundations of the Sentinel Site are: multi-strategy, multi-setting interventions; building community capacity; and undertaking program evaluations and population monitoring. Three intervention projects have been supported that cover different age groups (preschool: 2-5 years, primary school: 5-12 years, secondary school: 13-17 years), but that have many characteristics in common including: community participation and ownership of the project; an intervention duration of at least 3 years; and full evaluations with impact (behaviours) and outcome measures (anthropometry) compared with regionally representative comparison populations. We recommend the Sentinel Site approach to others for successfully building evidence for childhood obesity prevention and stimulating action on reducing the epidemic.

  7. Prevention of childhood obesity by reducing soft drinks.

    PubMed

    James, J; Kerr, D

    2005-09-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a global problem. There are a variety of environmental factors that may be contributing to this increase. One such factor may be the increased consumption of soft drinks. This review will describe some of the latest research that has examined the association between obesity and the consumption of soft drinks. The association between the consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity has been established in three separate American studies. It has been found that children who consume these drinks have a higher energy intake and are more likely to become overweight. In adult women, the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks has been associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes. In the United Kingdom, a school-based initiative focusing on reducing the consumption of these drinks has also been effective in preventing a further increase in obesity. There is an association between obesity and consumption of soft drinks. Initiatives focusing on reducing the consumption of these drinks may help to prevent a further increase in childhood obesity.

  8. Reducing childhood obesity through policy change: acting now to prevent obesity.

    PubMed

    Frieden, Thomas R; Dietz, William; Collins, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is epidemic in the United States, and is expected to increase the rates of many chronic diseases. Increasing physical activity and improving nutrition are keys to obesity prevention and control. But changing individual behavior is difficult. A comprehensive, coordinated strategy is needed. Policy interventions that make healthy dietary and activity choices easier are likely to achieve the greatest benefits. There is emerging evidence on how to address childhood obesity, but we must take action now to begin to reverse the epidemic.

  9. Preventing childhood obesity in Asia: an overview of intervention programmes.

    PubMed

    Uijtdewilligen, L; Waters, C N; Müller-Riemenschneider, F; Lim, Y W

    2016-11-01

    The rapid economic growth in Asia in the past few decades has contributed to the global increase in childhood obesity prevalence. Yet, little is known about obesity prevention efforts in this region. This systematic review provides an overview of child obesity prevention programmes in Asia. Searches were performed in six electronic databases. Out of 4,234 studies, 17 were included, among them 11 controlled trials (of which five were randomized). Only one study was published before 2007. Identified studies were predominantly conducted in China and Thailand and targeted primary school children in a school setting. Most studies implemented different programmes, frequently targeting behavioural modification through nutrition/health education lectures and/or physical activity sessions. Programme effects related to obesity outcome measures were mixed. Most substantial effects were found for outcomes such as improved health knowledge and/or favourable lifestyle practices. The relatively small number of relevant publications in Asia highlights the need for scientific evaluations of existing and future programmes. This will help ensure the implementation and dissemination of evidence-based approaches that have been proven to be effective in the Asian context. Targeting preschool settings and applying a comprehensive multisectoral approach may increase the effectiveness and sustainability of childhood obesity prevention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity.

  10. Preventing childhood obesity: Contributions from the social sciences to intervention.

    PubMed

    Lamarque, Muriel; Orden, Alicia Bibiana

    2017-04-01

    Programming and implementation of health policies for the prevention of overweight and obesity have traditionally focused on the dissemination of specific messages identifying healthy foods and pointing out the importance of physical activity. Despite recurrent efforts, the prevalence of obesity in both adult and children populations continues to rise. The configuration of preventive proposals seems to neglect the more complex reality of the eating phenomenon, whose nature goes beyond its biological basis. Behind the presence of overweight or obesity, there are factors that exceed individual behaviors, which are constituted as elements of social order. This premise is based on the contributions made from several fields such as anthropology, sociology, and social epidemiology, especially over the past thirty years. This study aims to analyze the traditional models of institutional intervention while making visible the importance of a socially-oriented perspective that takes into account context and network analysis to address the problem of childhood overweight and obesity, centered on the food component.

  11. Childhood Obesity: Update on Predisposing Factors and Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic and children are affected in increasing numbers. Overweight children are at increased risk of becoming overweight adults with associated chronic diseases. In this update, we present key findings from a review of the current literature focused on potential causes and strategies for preventing childhood obesity. We highlight recent evidence regarding the role of genetics, maternal body mass index, postnatal influences, and environmental effects throughout childhood in predicting overweight. We also summarize the results of new research that examined the effectiveness of intervention strategies implemented in a variety of settings: home, school, community, and health care system. Statements recently released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Department of Health and Human Services emphasize the need for effective policy and environmental change to promote healthy lifestyle change at the individual and population levels. PMID:20563673

  12. Early childhood obesity prevention in low-income, urban communities.

    PubMed

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Theise, Rachelle; Palamar, Joseph J; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Barajas, R Gabriela; Calzada, Esther J

    2014-01-01

    Given the disproportionately high rates of obesity-related morbidity among low-income, ethnic minority youth, obesity prevention in this population is critical. Prior efforts to curb childhood obesity have had limited public health impact. The present study evaluates an innovative approach to obesity prevention by promoting foundational parenting and child behavioral regulation. This pre-post intervention study evaluated an enhanced version of ParentCorps with 91 families of pre-Kindergarten students in low-income, urban communities. Assessments included tests of knowledge and parent report. Consistent with findings from two randomized controlled trials of ParentCorps, parent knowledge and use of foundational parenting practices increased and child behavior problems decreased. Child nutrition knowledge and physical activity increased and television watching decreased; for boys, sleep problems decreased. Comparable benefits occurred for children at high risk for obesity based on child dysregulation, child overweight, and parent overweight. Results support a "whole child," family-centered approach to health promotion in early childhood.

  13. [Scientific Evidence on Preventive Interventions in Childhood Obesity].

    PubMed

    Alba-Martín, Raquel

    The increasing prevalence of obesity or overweight at all ages, their associated morbidity and mortality associated, and the increased perception of the problem by the society have generated several hypotheses in response to the scientific and the international community. Investigate the preventive interventions in childhood obesity so far. Integrative review during the study period from April 2013 to November 2014. The MEDLINE international database was used, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library (Issue 4 2002), the national database Isooc (CSIC) national database, as well as the Internet. The review included health articles published in Spanish and English between 1990 and 2014 that focused on or included education, prevention, diagnostic, and treatment of obesity interventions. Of the 726 articles identified, 34 of most relevant (peer reviewed) were selected. It was noted that there is limited generisable evidence on interventions that could be implemented in Primary Care or referral services available, although numerous studies suggest that improvements in the overweight are possible. Despite the abundant literature and that many institutions place childhood obesity as one of the priorities of Public Health, we face the paradox that the evidence on cost-effectiveness of prevention interventions is sparse. Knowing these gaps in knowledge should lead to filling them with rigorous and well-designed studies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychosocial Perspectives and the Issue of Prevention in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Daniel; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L.; Latzer, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50 years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review, we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors, lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries), being female, belonging to a minority group, and being exposed to adverse life events may all be associated with a greater risk of childhood overweight/obesity. These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above-average food intake of low nutritional quality and reduction in physical activity. Other important psychosocial mediators include the influence of the family and peer environment, and exposure to the media. In the second part of the review, we discuss the potential of psychosocial prevention programs to intervene in the processes involved in the rise of childhood overweight/obesity. Two points are emphasized. First, prevention programs should be multidisciplinary, combining the knowledge of experts from different professions, and taking into consideration the important role of the family environment and relevant influential social organizations, particularly school. Second, effective change is unlikely to occur without large-scale programs carried out on a public policy level. PMID:25133140

  15. Psychosocial perspectives and the issue of prevention in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Stein, Daniel; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L; Latzer, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50 years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review, we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors, lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries), being female, belonging to a minority group, and being exposed to adverse life events may all be associated with a greater risk of childhood overweight/obesity. These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above-average food intake of low nutritional quality and reduction in physical activity. Other important psychosocial mediators include the influence of the family and peer environment, and exposure to the media. In the second part of the review, we discuss the potential of psychosocial prevention programs to intervene in the processes involved in the rise of childhood overweight/obesity. Two points are emphasized. First, prevention programs should be multidisciplinary, combining the knowledge of experts from different professions, and taking into consideration the important role of the family environment and relevant influential social organizations, particularly school. Second, effective change is unlikely to occur without large-scale programs carried out on a public policy level.

  16. Photovoice engages rural youth in childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Davis, Melinda M

    2011-01-01

    Photovoice is a participatory action research methodology that involves the use of photography and enables people to document, reflect upon, and communicate community needs to policymakers for the purpose of promoting social change. We describe how Photovoice was used to engage rural youth in childhood obesity prevention research and obtain their perspectives of community assets and barriers that influenced children's physical activity and diets in their county. The photographs and stories produced by the youth garnered public interest and were beneficial in raising community awareness of community conditions that may contribute to childhood obesity and the need for environmental change. Utilization of the method also provided a beneficial leadership experience for the youth participants.

  17. Prevention: The First Line of Defense against Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milano, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become an alarming problem in this country. Risk factors associated with childhood obesity include having obese parents, a history of low or high birth weight, Black or Hispanic ethnicity, and low socioeconomic background. Although most healthy American infants and toddlers have adequate diets, many parents and health…

  18. Prevention: The First Line of Defense against Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milano, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become an alarming problem in this country. Risk factors associated with childhood obesity include having obese parents, a history of low or high birth weight, Black or Hispanic ethnicity, and low socioeconomic background. Although most healthy American infants and toddlers have adequate diets, many parents and health…

  19. Designing Insurance to Promote Use of Childhood Obesity Prevention Services

    PubMed Central

    Rask, Kimberly J.; Gazmararian, Julie A.; Kohler, Susan S.; Hawley, Jonathan N.; Bogard, Jenny; Brown, Victoria A.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a recognized public health crisis. This paper reviews the lessons learned from a voluntary initiative to expand insurance coverage for childhood obesity prevention and treatment services in the United States. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with key informants from 16 participating health plans and employers in 2010-11. Key informants reported difficulty ensuring that both providers and families were aware of the available services. Participating health plans and employers are beginning new tactics including removing enrollment requirements, piloting enhanced outreach to selected physician practices, and educating providers on effective care coordination and use of obesity-specific billing codes through professional organizations. The voluntary initiative successfully increased private health insurance coverage for obesity services, but the interviews described variability in implementation with both best practices and barriers identified. Increasing utilization of obesity-related health services in the long term will require both family- and provider-focused interventions in partnership with improved health insurance coverage. PMID:23691284

  20. The Childhood Obesity Prevention Task Force (ACT 269): recommendations for obesity prevention in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Richards, Katie; Fuddy, Loretta J; Greenwood, M R C; Pressler, Virginia; Rajan, Ranjani; St John, Tonya Lowery; Sinclair, Bronwyn M; Irvin, Lola

    2013-03-01

    Obesity in both adults and children is a critical issue in Hawai'i, as well as nationally and internationally. Today in Hawai'i, 57 percent of adults are overweight or obese as are almost 1 in 3 children entering kindergarten. Each year, obesity costs Hawai'i more than $470 million in medical expenditures alone.(1) These staggering human and economic costs underscore the serious need for Hawai'i to address obesity now. Due to the urgent need to reverse the current trends in obesity Senate Bill 2778 was signed into law, on July 6, 2012, as Act 269 by Governor Neil Abercrombie, creating The Childhood Obesity Prevention Task Force. The task force was charged with developing policy recommendations and proposed legislation for the 2013 legislature. The task force ultimately identified eleven recommendations for the 2013 legislative session and one recommendation for the 2014 legislative session. When implemented together, these recommendations could profoundly reshape Hawai'i's school, work, community, and health care environments, making healthier lifestyles obtainable for all Hawai'i residents.

  1. Systematic review of community-based childhood obesity prevention studies.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Sara N; Segal, Jodi; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee; Wang, Youfa

    2013-07-01

    This study systematically reviewed community-based childhood obesity prevention programs in the United States and high-income countries. We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library for relevant English-language studies. Studies were eligible if the intervention was primarily implemented in the community setting; had at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline; and compared results from an intervention to a comparison group. Two independent reviewers conducted title scans and abstract reviews and reviewed the full articles to assess eligibility. Each article received a double review for data abstraction. The second reviewer confirmed the first reviewer's data abstraction for completeness and accuracy. Nine community-based studies were included; 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 non-randomized controlled trials. One study was conducted only in the community setting, 3 were conducted in the community and school setting, and 5 were conducted in the community setting in combination with at least 1 other setting such as the home. Desirable changes in BMI or BMI z-score were found in 4 of the 9 studies. Two studies reported significant improvements in behavioral outcomes (1 in physical activity and 1 in vegetable intake). The strength of evidence is moderate that a combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. More research and consistent methods are needed to understand the comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs in the community setting.

  2. [Electronic media in obesity prevention in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Weihrauch-Blüher, Susann; Koormann, Stefanie; Brauchmann, Jana; Wiegand, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is - amongst other factors - due to changed leisure time habits with decreased physical activity and increased media consumption. However, electronic media such as tablets and smartphones might also provide a novel intervention approach to prevent obesity in childhood and adolescence. A summary of interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity is provided to investigate short term effects as well as long term results of these interventions. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed/Web of Science to identify randomized and/or controlled studies that have investigated the efficacy of electronic media for obesity prevention below the age of 18. A total of 909 studies were identified, and 88 studies were included in the analysis. Active video games did increase physical activity compared to inactive games when applied within a peer group. Interventions via telephone had positive effects on certain lifestyle-relevant behaviours. Interventions via mobile were shown to decrease dropout rates by sending regular SMS messages. To date, interventions via smartphones are scarce for adolescents; however, they might improve cardiorespiratory fitness. The results from internet-based interventions showed a trend towards positive effects on lifestyle-relevant behaviors. The combination of different electronic media did not show superior results compared to interventions with only one medium. Interventions via TV, DVD or video-based interventions may increase physical activity when offered as an incentive, however, effects on weight status were not observed. Children and adolescents currently grow up in a technology- and media-rich society with computers, tablets, smartphones, etc. used daily. Thus, interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity are contemporary. Available studies applying electronic media are however heterogeneous in terms of applied medium and duration

  3. Collaborating for impact: a multilevel early childhood obesity prevention initiative.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Tara; Hoffman, Jessica A; Ahl, Marilyn; Bhaumik, Urmi; Healey, Christine; Carter, Sonia; Dickerson, Deborah; Nethersole, Shari; Griffin, Daphne; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures, a multilevel initiative in Boston, Massachusetts, which brings major institutions' missions and resources together to address early childhood obesity prevention. Programming is designed to facilitate healthy eating and physical activity in preschool children's home, school, and community environments by engaging parents and early childhood educators in the places where they live, learn, and play. This article describes how established interventions were implemented in a novel setting to engage the parents of children attending Head Start and staff, and presents pilot data from the first 2 years of the initiative. Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures is a feasible initiative, which has shown concrete, positive results that can be replicated.

  4. Preventing childhood obesity: what are we doing right?

    PubMed

    Farley, Thomas A; Dowell, Deborah

    2014-09-01

    After decades of increases, the prevalence of childhood obesity has declined in the past decade in New York City, as measured in children participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and public school students, with the greatest reductions occurring in the youngest children. Possible explanations were changes in demographics; WIC, day care, and school food policies; citywide obesity prevention policies, media messages; and family and community food consumption. Although the decreases cannot be attributed to any one cause, the most plausible explanation is changes in food consumption at home, prompted by media messages and reinforced by school and child care center policy changes. Continued media messages and policy changes are needed to sustain these improvements and extend them to other age groups.

  5. Prevention of childhood obesity: a review of the current guidelines and supporting evidence.

    PubMed

    Thury, Chad; de Matos, Carla Valentina Melo

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is considered by many one of the biggest public health issues facing our country. In the U.S. almost one in three children are overweight and one in five are obese. This article aims to outline the current childhood obesity prevention measures as well as discuss programs that have had success in reducing childhood overweight and obesity. Recent literature on prevention of childhood obesity was reviewed. There was a focus on systematic reviews, random controlled trials and well-designed observational studies. Evidenced-based prevention of childhood obesity demonstrates that there is a benefit to programs that focus on a collaboration of community/school, primary health care, and home/family based interventions that involve both a physical activity and dietary component. Successful programs have more efficacy if they are longer in duration and initiated for children in middle school or younger. The most recent recommendations regarding prevention of childhood obesity focus on increased exercise and improved diet to prevent childhood obesity. Despite these clear recommendations and general consensus for them, childhood obesity continues to increase. The evidence supports a collaborative effort with multiple stakeholders to reverse the trend in childhood obesity.

  6. Causal pathways linking Farm to School to childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anupama; Ratcliffe, Michelle M

    2012-08-01

    Farm to School programs are rapidly gaining attention as a potential strategy for preventing childhood obesity; however, the causal linkages between Farm to School activities and health outcomes are not well documented. To capitalize on the increased interest in and momentum for Farm to School, researchers and practitioners need to move from developing and implementing evidence informed programs and policies to ones that are evidence-based. The purpose of this article is to outline a framework for facilitating an evidence base for Farm to School programs and policies through a systematic and coordinated approach. Employing the concepts of causal pathways, the authors introduce a proposed framework for organizing and systematically testing out multiple hypotheses (or potential causal links) for how, why, and under what conditions Farm to School Inputs and Activities may result in what Outputs, Effects, and Impacts. Using the causal pathways framework may help develop and test competing hypotheses, identify multicausality, strength, and interactions of causes, and discern the difference between catalysts and causes. In this article, we introduce causal pathways, present menus of potential independent and dependent variables from which to create and test causal pathways linking Farm to School interventions and their role in preventing childhood obesity, discuss their applicability to Farm to School research and practice, and outline proposed next steps for developing a coordinated research framework for Farm to School programs.

  7. Dietary education in school-based childhood obesity prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to review school based interventions designed to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity that focused on modifying dietary behavior and were published between 2000 and May 2009. A total of 25 interventions met the criteria. The grade range of these interventions was from K to 12; 13 studies exclusively targeted elementary school, 2 targeted both elementary and middle school, 9 exclusively targeted middle school, and 1 targeted high school. The majority of the interventions focused on both dietary and physical activity behaviors, whereas 8 interventions focused exclusively on dietary behaviors. Approximately one-half of the interventions were based on a behavioral theory. In terms of duration, 13 were longer than 6 mo, 4 were less than 1 mo, and 8 had a duration between 1 and 6 mo. The majority of the interventions were implemented by teachers. In terms of activities, almost all interventions had a curricular component except 2 that distributed free fruit or vegetables. Besides curricular instructions, parental and family involvement was also utilized by several interventions. Environmental and policy changes were used in 7 interventions. For evaluation, the 2 most popular designs were experimental design with random assignment at group level and quasi experimental design, both of which were used by 9 interventions each. In terms of impact on adiposity indices, only 14 interventions measured it and only 6 of those were able to demonstrate significant changes. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of school based dietary education interventions for childhood obesity prevention are presented.

  8. Systematic Review of Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Jodi; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee; Wang, Youfa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviewed community-based childhood obesity prevention programs in the United States and high-income countries. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library for relevant English-language studies. Studies were eligible if the intervention was primarily implemented in the community setting; had at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline; and compared results from an intervention to a comparison group. Two independent reviewers conducted title scans and abstract reviews and reviewed the full articles to assess eligibility. Each article received a double review for data abstraction. The second reviewer confirmed the first reviewer’s data abstraction for completeness and accuracy. RESULTS: Nine community-based studies were included; 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 non–randomized controlled trials. One study was conducted only in the community setting, 3 were conducted in the community and school setting, and 5 were conducted in the community setting in combination with at least 1 other setting such as the home. Desirable changes in BMI or BMI z-score were found in 4 of the 9 studies. Two studies reported significant improvements in behavioral outcomes (1 in physical activity and 1 in vegetable intake). CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is moderate that a combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. More research and consistent methods are needed to understand the comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs in the community setting. PMID:23753099

  9. Do Maternal Caregiver Perceptions of Childhood Obesity Risk Factors and Obesity Complications Predict Support for Prevention Initiatives Among African Americans?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Cao, Chunhua; Wright, Alesha R

    2017-07-01

    Objectives African American maternal caregiver support for prevention of childhood obesity may be a factor in implementing, monitoring, and sustaining children's positive health behaviors. However, little is known about how perceptions of childhood obesity risk factors and health complications influence caregivers' support of childhood obesity prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine if childhood obesity risk factors and health complications were associated with maternal caregivers' support for prevention initiatives. Methods A convenience sample of maternal caregivers (N = 129, ages 22-65 years) completed the childhood obesity perceptions (COP) survey. A linear regression was conducted to determine whether perceptions about childhood obesity risk factors and subsequent health complications influenced caregivers' support for prevention strategies. Results Caregivers' perceptions of childhood obesity risk factors were moderate (M = 3.4; SD = 0.64), as were their perceptions of obesity-related health complications (M = 3.3; SD = 0.75); however, they perceived a high level of support for prevention strategies (M = 4.2; SD = 0.74). In the regression model, only health complications were significantly associated with caregiver support (β = 0.348; p < 0.004). Conclusions Childhood obesity prevention efforts should emphasize health complications by providing education and strategies that promote self-efficacy and outcome expectations among maternal caregivers.

  10. Harnessing the power of advertising to prevent childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew Colin; Wolfenden, Luke; Sutherland, Rachel; Coggan, Lucy; Young, Kylie; Fitzgerald, Michael; Hodder, Rebecca; Orr, Neil; Milat, Andrew J; Wiggers, John

    2013-10-04

    Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005-2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns promoting the program and its key messages: drinking water; getting physically active and; eating more vegetables and fruit. Pre-post telephone surveys (n = 9) were undertaken to evaluate awareness of the campaigns among parents of children aged 2-15 years using repeat cross-sections of randomly selected cohorts. A total of 1,367 parents (HNE = 748, NSW = 619) participated. At each survey post baseline, HNE parents were significantly more likely to have seen, read or heard about the program and its messages in the media than parents in the remainder of the state (p < 0.001). Further, there was a significant increase in awareness of the program and each of its messages over time in HNE compared to no change over time in NSW (p < 0.001). Awareness was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in HNE compared to NSW after each specific campaign (except the vegetable one) and significantly higher awareness levels were sustained for each campaign until the end of the program. At the end of the program participants without a tertiary education were significantly more likely (p = 0.04) to be aware of the brand campaign (31%) than those with (20%) but there were no other statistically significant socio-demographic differences in awareness. The Good for Kids communication campaigns increased and maintained awareness of childhood obesity prevention messages. Moreover, messages were delivered equitably to diverse socio-demographic groups within the region.

  11. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Wagner, Donald I; Wilkerson, Janice

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary children. A 52-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 159 fifth graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.072). Hours of TV watching were predicted by number of times taught about healthy eating at school and self-control through goal setting (R2 = 0.055). Glasses of water consumed were predicted by expectations for drinking water (R2 = 0.091). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.137). Social cognitive theory offers a practically useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.

  12. Towards Health in All Policies for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Gubbels, Jessica S.; Raat, Hein; de Vries, Nanne K.; Jansen, Maria W. J.

    2013-01-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from health and nonhealth sectors. Such intersectoral collaboration has been proved to be difficult. In this study, we investigated which resources influence intersectoral collaboration. The behavior change wheel framework was used to categorize motivation-, capability-, and opportunity-related resources for intersectoral collaboration. In-depth interviews were held with eight officials representing 10 non-health policy sectors within a local government. Results showed that health and non-health policy sectors did not share policy goals, which decreased motivation for intersectoral collaboration. Awareness of the linkage between health and nonhealth policy sectors was limited, and management was not involved in creating such awareness, which reduced the capability for intersectoral collaboration. Insufficient organizational resources and structures reduced opportunities for intersectoral collaboration. To stimulate intersectoral collaboration to prevent childhood obesity, we recommend that public health professionals should reframe health goals in the terminology of nonhealth policy sectors, that municipal department managers should increase awareness of public health in non-health policy sectors, and that flatter organizational structures should be established. PMID:24490059

  13. A randomised controlled trial for overweight and obese parents to prevent childhood obesity - Early STOPP (STockholm Obesity Prevention Program)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, Early STOPP, combating multiple obesity-promoting behaviors such unbalanced diet, physical inactivity and disturbed sleeping patterns. We also aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the early childhood obesity prevention in a well-characterized population of overweight or obese parents. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Design and methods This randomized controlled trial (RCT) targets overweight and/or obese parents with infants, recruited from the Child Health Care Centers (CHCC) within the Stockholm area. The intervention starts when infants are one year of age and continues until they are six and is regularly delivered by a trained coach (dietitian, physiotherapist or a nurse). The key aspects of Early STOPP family intervention are based on Swedish recommendations for CHCC, which include advices on healthy food choices and eating patterns, increasing physical activity/reducing sedentary behavior and regulating sleeping patterns. Discussion The Early STOPP trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by recruiting from a well-characterized population, defining a feasible, theory-based intervention and assessing multiple measurements to validate and interpret the program effectiveness. The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge, this longitudinal RCT is the first attempt to demonstrate whether an early, long-term, targeted health promotion program focusing on healthy eating, physical activity

  14. Dissecting and customising the Childhood Obesity Prevention Advisory Council (COPAC): the development and application of a community engagement framework to improve childhood obesity prevention among migrant populations.

    PubMed

    Renzaho, A M N

    2017-01-01

    Migrant communities in Australia bear a disproportionate childhood obesity burden. They also show poor engagement in obesity prevention initiatives which may contribute to widening obesity disparities. Community engagement has been shown to be effective in reducing health disparities by improving migrant communities' participation in prevention programmes. This study aimed to develop a community engagement framework to improve childhood obesity prevention among migrants. Based on the African Review Panel model and the Community-Based Participatory Research conceptual logic model, the Childhood Obesity Prevention Advisory Council (COPAC) framework was developed and established in four disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. The COPAC included service providers and migrant community members from the same project's site. COPAC demonstrated several benefits including cross-organisational and multidisciplinary collaborations; understanding of the cultural barriers in childhood obesity prevention; enthusiasm from the COPAC members in addressing childhood obesity in their multicultural communities; equitable involvement, motivation, and empowerment of COPAC members in research development; and establishing organisational affiliations to foster long-term community involvement. This study also documented several challenges in community engagement including lack of prioritisation of migration-related childhood obesity disparities by the policymakers; staffing constraints among service providers leading to frequent disruptions in COPAC members' contributions; and lack of adequate training and skill-building of bicultural workers. The COPAC model adopted a flexible and dynamic community engagement process to suit the ongoing needs of the migrant community which incorporated the existing talents and resources within the community. For effective community engagement of migrant communities, it is important for policymakers to develop the knowledge, capacity and skills of the

  15. Dissecting and customising the Childhood Obesity Prevention Advisory Council (COPAC): the development and application of a community engagement framework to improve childhood obesity prevention among migrant populations

    PubMed Central

    Renzaho, A. M. N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Migrant communities in Australia bear a disproportionate childhood obesity burden. They also show poor engagement in obesity prevention initiatives which may contribute to widening obesity disparities. Community engagement has been shown to be effective in reducing health disparities by improving migrant communities’ participation in prevention programmes. Objective: This study aimed to develop a community engagement framework to improve childhood obesity prevention among migrants. Design: Based on the African Review Panel model and the Community-Based Participatory Research conceptual logic model, the Childhood Obesity Prevention Advisory Council (COPAC) framework was developed and established in four disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. The COPAC included service providers and migrant community members from the same project’s site. Results: COPAC demonstrated several benefits including cross-organisational and multidisciplinary collaborations; understanding of the cultural barriers in childhood obesity prevention; enthusiasm from the COPAC members in addressing childhood obesity in their multicultural communities; equitable involvement, motivation, and empowerment of COPAC members in research development; and establishing organisational affiliations to foster long-term community involvement. This study also documented several challenges in community engagement including lack of prioritisation of migration-related childhood obesity disparities by the policymakers; staffing constraints among service providers leading to frequent disruptions in COPAC members’ contributions; and lack of adequate training and skill-building of bicultural workers. Conclusions: The COPAC model adopted a flexible and dynamic community engagement process to suit the ongoing needs of the migrant community which incorporated the existing talents and resources within the community. For effective community engagement of migrant communities, it is important

  16. Exploring Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity Prevention Among Migrant Communities in Victoria, Australia: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Renzaho, Andre M N; Green, Julie; Smith, Ben J; Polonsky, Michael

    2017-07-12

    Despite the availability of numerous obesity prevention initiatives in developed countries including Australia, rising childhood obesity levels have been found among migrant communities which contribute to widening obesity-related disparities in these countries. We sought to understand the factors influencing the participation of migrant communities in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews among 48 migrant parents from African, Middle Eastern, Indian and Vietnamese origins living in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia to explore their views on childhood obesity and its prevention. Thematic analysis showed low obesity literacy among migrant communities, cultural influences negatively impacting their healthy lifestyle behaviours and cultural, family-level and community-level barriers impacting their participation in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. There is an urgent need to improve obesity literacy among migrant communities using bicultural workers in order to improve their responsiveness to childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Health interventionists are urged to incorporate culturally-mediated influences in the design of obesity prevention programs to achieve energy balance and maintain healthy weight among migrants. Such culturally appropriate approaches have the potential of reducing the widening ethnic-related obesity disparities in Australia.

  17. Atherosclerosis prevention starts in childhood: the obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Medina-Ruiz, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and advances rapidly triggered by multiple genetic and environmental factors, including obesity. Obesity has reach epidemic proportions mainly by the consumption of junk food and a sedentary lifestyle. Our children spend long time inactive in front of the television and video games, further aggravated by the consumption of excessive calories of unhealthy food bombardment from TV commercials. The health related expenses of the obese is in average $1,500 annually higher than for persons with normal weight. The annual cost of diseases associated to obesity is estimated on $147 billion in the United States, a 10% of the national medical expenses. We must uncover strategies conducting to healthier lifestyles. School and home initiatives together with community and governmental efforts are necessary to stimulate our youngsters to live healthy lifestyles. The commitment of the food industry is critical to achieve the difficult goal of reducing childhood obesity to the prevalent 5% of the 1970's.

  18. Childhood Obesity: Causes and Prevention. Symposium Proceedings (Washington, DC, October 27, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services (USDA), Washington, DC. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.

    This report documents the proceedings of a 1998 symposium on the causes and prevention of childhood obesity sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion to focus attention on the growing problem of childhood obesity in the United States and the link between nutrition and health. Following opening…

  19. Harnessing the power of advertising to prevent childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. Methods A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005–2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns promoting the program and its key messages: drinking water; getting physically active and; eating more vegetables and fruit. Pre-post telephone surveys (n = 9) were undertaken to evaluate awareness of the campaigns among parents of children aged 2–15 years using repeat cross-sections of randomly selected cohorts. A total of 1,367 parents (HNE = 748, NSW = 619) participated. Results At each survey post baseline, HNE parents were significantly more likely to have seen, read or heard about the program and its messages in the media than parents in the remainder of the state (p < 0.001). Further, there was a significant increase in awareness of the program and each of its messages over time in HNE compared to no change over time in NSW (p < 0.001). Awareness was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in HNE compared to NSW after each specific campaign (except the vegetable one) and significantly higher awareness levels were sustained for each campaign until the end of the program. At the end of the program participants without a tertiary education were significantly more likely (p = 0.04) to be aware of the brand campaign (31%) than those with (20%) but there were no other statistically significant socio-demographic differences in awareness. Conclusions The Good for Kids communication campaigns increased and maintained awareness of childhood obesity prevention messages. Moreover, messages were delivered equitably to diverse socio-demographic groups within the

  20. Medical students' perceived educational needs to prevent and treat childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Natalie K; Ash, Sarah L; Goodell, L Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Medical schools are challenged to incorporate more prevention-based education into curricula, offering an opportunity to revisit approaches to nutrition education. The objective of this study was to explore United States (US) medical students' understanding of childhood obesity, specifically barriers to childhood obesity prevention and treatment and students' perceived educational deficits. The research team conducted phone interviews with 78 3rd- and 4th-year medical students, representing 25 different medical schools across the US. Using a semi-structured interview guide, researchers asked students to describe the etiology of childhood obesity and reflect on where they acquired knowledge of the etiology and what additional resources they would need to treat obese children. Using a phenomenological approach to analysis, researchers identified five dominant emergent themes. Student-perceived barriers to childhood obesity prevention and treatment in clinical care included student-centered (e.g., lack of knowledge), patient-centered (e.g., lack of access), and healthcare system-centered barriers (e.g., limited time). Students requested more applicable nutrition information and counseling skills relevant to preventing and treating childhood obesity; however, they tended to identify others (e.g., parents, schools), rather than themselves, when asked to describe how childhood obesity should be prevented or treated. To provide students with an understanding of their role in preventing and treating childhood obesity, US medical schools need to provide students with childhood obesity-specific and general nutrition education. To build their self-efficacy in nutrition counseling, schools can use a combination of observation and practice led by skilled physicians and other healthcare providers. Increasing students' self-efficacy through training may help them overcome perceived barriers to childhood obesity prevention and treatment.

  1. Childhood obesity in developing countries: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Goel, Kashish; Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop

    2012-02-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices and a sedentary lifestyle have led to increasing prevalence of childhood obesity (5-19 yr) in developing countries recently: 41.8% in Mexico, 22.1% in Brazil, 22.0% in India, and 19.3% in Argentina. Moreover, secular trends indicate increasing prevalence rates in these countries: 4.1 to 13.9% in Brazil during 1974-1997, 12.2 to 15.6% in Thailand during 1991-1993, and 9.8 to 11.7% in India during 2006-2009. Important determinants of childhood obesity include high socioeconomic status, residence in metropolitan cities, female gender, unawareness and false beliefs about nutrition, marketing by transnational food companies, increasing academic stress, and poor facilities for physical activity. Childhood obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the early-onset metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, and adulthood obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity through parental initiative and social support interventions are the most important strategies in managing childhood obesity. Also, high-risk screening and effective health educational programs are urgently needed in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society

  2. Etiology, Treatment and Prevention of Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence: A Decade in Review

    PubMed Central

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: 1) current definitions of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity; 2) demography of childhood and adolescent obesity both in the US and globally; 3) current topics in the physiology of fat and obesity; 4) psychosocial correlates of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity; 5) the three major obesity-related behaviors, i.e. dietary intake, physical activity and sleep; 6) genes components of childhood and adolescent obesity; 7) environment and childhood and adolescent obesity; and 8) progress in interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity. The article concludes with recommendations for future research, including the need for large-scale, high dose and long-term interventions that take into account the complex nature of the problem. PMID:21625328

  3. Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  4. Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  5. What Can We Do to Prevent Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumeng, Julie

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the growing problem of childhood obesity and suggests guidelines for professionals to recommend to parents. Research has shown that an overweight child at 3 years is nearly eight times as likely to become an overweight young adult as is a typically developing 3-year-old. More of America's children are becoming overweight, and…

  6. What Can We Do to Prevent Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumeng, Julie

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the growing problem of childhood obesity and suggests guidelines for professionals to recommend to parents. Research has shown that an overweight child at 3 years is nearly eight times as likely to become an overweight young adult as is a typically developing 3-year-old. More of America's children are becoming overweight, and…

  7. A research agenda to guide progress on childhood obesity prevention in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kline, L; Jones-Smith, J; Jaime Miranda, J; Pratt, M; Reis, R S; Rivera, J A; Sallis, J F; Popkin, B M

    2017-07-01

    Childhood obesity rates in Latin America are among the highest in the world. This paper examines and evaluates the many efforts underway in the region to reduce and prevent further increases in obesity, identifies and discusses unique research challenges and opportunities in Latin America, and proposes a research agenda in Latin America for the prevention of childhood obesity and concomitant non-communicable diseases. Identified research gaps include biological challenges to healthy growth across the life cycle, diet and physical activity dynamics, community interventions promoting healthy child growth, and rigorous evaluation of national food and activity programs and regulatory actions. Addressing these research gaps is critical to advance the evidence-based policy and practice in childhood obesity tailored to the Latin American context that will be effective in addressing obesity. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  8. Exploring Service Providers' Perspectives in Improving Childhood Obesity Prevention among CALD Communities in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Cyril, Sheila; Green, Julie; Nicholson, Jan M; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre M N

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services. We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers. This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health conditions of CALD communities to ensure

  9. Exploring Service Providers' Perspectives in Improving Childhood Obesity Prevention among CALD Communities in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cyril, Sheila; Green, Julie; Nicholson, Jan M.; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers’ perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities’ participation in these services. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. Results Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers. Conclusion This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health

  10. Accelerating efforts to prevent childhood obesity: spreading, scaling, and sustaining healthy eating and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Debbie I; Gertel-Rosenberg, Allison; Snyder, Kim

    2014-12-01

    During the past decade, progress has been made in addressing childhood obesity through policy and practice changes that encourage increased physical activity and access to healthy food. With the implementation of these strategies, an understanding of what works to prevent childhood obesity is beginning to emerge. The task now is to consider how best to spread, scale, and sustain promising childhood obesity prevention strategies. In this article we examine a project led by Nemours, a children's health system, to address childhood obesity. We describe Nemours's conceptual approach to spreading, scaling, and sustaining a childhood obesity prevention intervention. We review a component of a Nemours initiative in Delaware that focused on early care and education settings and its expansion to other states through the National Early Care and Education Learning Collaborative to prevent childhood obesity. We also discuss lessons learned. Focusing on the spreading, scaling, and sustaining of promising strategies has the potential to increase the reach and impact of efforts in obesity prevention and help ensure their impact on population health. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Childhood Obesity Prevention: Fathers' Reflections with Healthcare Providers

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Berry, Diane; Vu, Maihan B.; Pullen Davis, Lisa; Cai, Jianwen; Tzeng, Janice P.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background To prevent childhood obesity, parents and their children's healthcare providers need to engage in effective dialogue. We know much about mothers' experiences, but very little about fathers' experiences. Methods We explored African-American, Caucasian, and Latino fathers' perceptions and experiences communicating with their children's provider during clinic visits regarding weight, diet, and physical activity. Focus groups (n=3), grouped by race/ethnicity, including a total of 24 fathers, were conducted. The men were asked open-ended questions; responses were recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Results Findings revealed that these fathers were involved in their children's healthcare and found providers to be helpful partners in keeping their children healthy, yet they generally felt “left out” during clinic appointments. The quality of the relationship with their children's provider influenced how receptive fathers were to discussing their children's weight, diet, and physical activity behaviors. Fathers made suggestions to help improve communication between providers and fathers, such as personalizing the discussion. Conclusions These fathers expressed strong feelings about the provider–parent relationship when discussing weight, diet, and physical activity. PMID:23472966

  12. Physical activity in the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Guinhouya, Benjamin C

    2012-09-01

    The current high prevalence of childhood obesity and its co-morbidities is concomitant with a low level of physical activity and an abundance of sedentary pastimes for Westernised children. To increase the participation of a majority of children in a sustained physical activity, interventions require a fair understanding and consideration of the influences of this behaviour, especially as children are overweight or obese. Basically, the physical activity behaviour of children depends on biological, sociocultural and psychosocial factors and their interplay. The recent literature lends support to the fact that some psychosocial factors such as self-efficacy and physical competence may be solid anchor points upon which to improve the participation of overweight and obese children in free-living physical activity. Thus, interventionists should first concentrate on improving these personal dimensions around which physiological and environmental factors might revolve. The development of motor skills may be a good means for enhancing the self-image of obese children.

  13. Childhood obesity in Australia remains a widespread health concern that warrants population-wide prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Gill, Timothy P; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; Steinbeck, Kate S; Storlien, Leonard H; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Colagiuri, Stephen; Caterson, Ian D

    2009-02-02

    Recent reports have suggested that the problem of childhood and adolescent obesity has been exaggerated in Australia, and that community-wide obesity prevention initiatives are not warranted; we argue that this is not an accurate reflection of the situation. Available data indicate that obesity affects 6%-8% of Australian schoolchildren, and that the proportion has continued to increase in recent years. Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with a wide range of immediate health concerns, as well as increasing the risk of disease in adulthood. Some weight-related health problems are also found in overweight children. A range of strategies, including whole-of-community obesity prevention programs, will be required to tackle this problem. Concerns about disordered eating in children and adolescents should not preclude appropriate action on childhood obesity.

  14. Myths about childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Bandini, L G; Dietz, W H

    1992-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a multifactorial and complex disease. Myths such as those that we have described may distract our patients from the underlying behaviors that contribute to the disease or may deflect the blame perceived by obese patients and their parents. Myths that suggest that the obese are inactive, eat differently, or eat more junk food suggest that obese individuals are socially deviant and justifies the intense discrimination directed against them. The myth that obesity represents an untreatable disease helps free health-care professionals from the responsibility to understand and care for obese children. Dispelling the myths about childhood obesity represents a critical step in prevention and treatment.

  15. Readiness of communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Cyril, Sheila; Polonsky, Michael; Green, Julie; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre

    2016-07-15

    Objective Disadvantaged communities bear a disproportionate burden of childhood obesity and show low participation in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. This study aims to examine the level of readiness of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives.Methods Using the community readiness model, 95 semi-structured interviews were conducted among communities in four disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Community readiness analysis and paired t-tests were performed to assess the readiness levels of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives.Results The results showed that disadvantaged communities demonstrated low levels of readiness (readiness score=4/9, 44%) to engage with the existing childhood obesity prevention initiatives, lacked knowledge of childhood obesity and its prevention, and reported facing challenges in initiating and sustaining participation in obesity prevention initiatives.Conclusion This study highlights the need to improve community readiness by addressing low obesity-related literacy levels among disadvantaged communities and by facilitating the capacity-building of bicultural workers to deliver obesity prevention messages to these communities. Integrating these needs into existing Australian health policy and practice is of paramount importance for reducing obesity-related disparities currently prevailing in Australia.What is known about the topic? Childhood obesity prevalence is plateauing in developed countries including Australia; however, obesity-related inequalities continue to exist in Australia especially among communities living in disadvantaged areas, which experience poor engagement in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Studies in the USA have found that assessing disadvantaged communities' readiness to participate in health programs is a critical initial step in reducing the disproportionate obesity burden among these communities. However

  16. [Regulation of food advertising on television for the prevention of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Catalina González; Samur, Eduardo Atalah

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is a serious global epidemic and the prevention strategies implemented have been insufficient. Numerous environmental factors have been associated with risk of obesity and their full consideration in prevention policies is important. The connection between food advertising on television and childhood obesity has been demonstrated. The large number of advertisements for unhealthy foods targeted at children through television and its possible impact on health has led some countries to legislate on this matter. However, a conceptual framework of reference enabling legislation must be internationally defined in order to achieve a real impact in preventing childhood obesity. This paper reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between food advertising and childhood obesity as a basis for developing public policies to regulate food marketing on television.

  17. Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410

  18. School nurses' experiences with motivational interviewing for preventing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    2014-12-01

    Motivational interviewing is a counseling method used to bring about behavior change; its application by school nurses for preventing obesity in children is still new. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses, shows how school nurses adapted motivational interviewing and integrated it into their daily practice along with other methods they knew from the past. Three dilemmas for school nurses were revealed: when the child was severely overweight and the parents did not perceive this as a problem, when the child and the parents were at different stages of motivation to change, and when applying an individualized approach such as motivational interviewing for preventing a complex societal problem, in this instance obesity. The study raises an important issue to consider, with implications for school nursing and obesity prevention: motivational interviewing as either a counseling method or a prevention strategy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Exploring primary school headteachers' perspectives on the barriers and facilitators of preventing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Howard-Drake, E J; Halliday, V

    2016-03-01

    Headteachers of primary schools in England are a crucial partner for childhood obesity prevention. Understanding how this works in practice is limited by their views being underrepresented or missing from the evidence base. The aim of this study was to explore primary school headteachers' perspectives on childhood obesity and the perceived barriers and facilitators of prevention. A qualitative study with a purposive sample of 14 primary school headteachers from the Yorkshire and Humber region of England was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using an inductive thematic approach. An extensive range of barriers and facilitators emerged within four key themes; understanding childhood obesity, primary school setting, the role of parents and external partners. A lack of knowledge, awareness and skills to deal with the sensitivity and complexity of childhood obesity across all school stakeholders presents the most significant barrier to effective action. Headteachers recognize primary schools are a crucial setting for childhood obesity prevention; however their school's often do not have the capability, capacity and confidence to make a meaningful and sustainable impact. To increase headteachers' ability and desire to prevent childhood obesity, schools require specialist and tailored training, resources and support from external partners such as public health teams and school nursing services. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Preventing childhood obesity in Latin America: an agenda for regional research and strategic partnerships.

    PubMed

    Caballero, B; Vorkoper, S; Anand, N; Rivera, J A

    2017-07-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America poses a major public health challenge to the region. In response, many countries are implementing obesity prevention programmes aimed at modifying known risk factors. However, the limited scientific evidence inhibits the development and implementation of novel, effective interventions across the region. To address these gaps, the NIH Fogarty International Center convened a workshop of researchers, policymakers, programme implementers and public health advocates who are actively engaged in the region to prevent childhood obesity. Major aims of the meeting were to define the current status of childhood obesity, identify the scientific gaps in our understanding of the epidemic, point out the barriers and opportunities for research and outline a plan for capacity building in the region in the area of childhood obesity. This series of articles reflects the key outcome of the meeting and offers an analysis of the knowledge translation needed for evidence-based policy initiatives, a review of the research agenda and an evaluation of research capacity in the region. The goal of the papers is to inform the development of multidisciplinary and multisector research collaborations, which are essential to the implementation of successful childhood obesity prevention strategies in the region. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  1. Determinants, consequences and prevention of childhood overweight and obesity: An Indian context

    PubMed Central

    Ranjani, Harish; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mehreen, T. S.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Anand, Krishnan; Garg, Renu; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in adolescents and children has risen to alarming levels globally, and this has serious public health consequences. Sedentary lifestyle and consumption of calorie-dense foods of low nutritional value are speculated to be two of the most important etiological factors responsible for escalating rate of childhood overweight in developing nations. To tackle the childhood obesity epidemic we require comprehensive multidisciplinary evidence-based interventions. Some suggested strategies for childhood obesity prevention and management include increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary time including television viewing, personalized nutrition plans for very obese kids, co-curriculum health education which should be implemented in schools and counseling for children and their parents. In developing countries like India we will need practical and cost-effective community-based strategies with appropriate policy changes in order to curb the escalating epidemic of childhood obesity. PMID:25538874

  2. Determinants, consequences and prevention of childhood overweight and obesity: An Indian context.

    PubMed

    Ranjani, Harish; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mehreen, T S; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Anand, Krishnan; Garg, Renu; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in adolescents and children has risen to alarming levels globally, and this has serious public health consequences. Sedentary lifestyle and consumption of calorie-dense foods of low nutritional value are speculated to be two of the most important etiological factors responsible for escalating rate of childhood overweight in developing nations. To tackle the childhood obesity epidemic we require comprehensive multidisciplinary evidence-based interventions. Some suggested strategies for childhood obesity prevention and management include increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary time including television viewing, personalized nutrition plans for very obese kids, co-curriculum health education which should be implemented in schools and counseling for children and their parents. In developing countries like India we will need practical and cost-effective community-based strategies with appropriate policy changes in order to curb the escalating epidemic of childhood obesity.

  3. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development.

    PubMed

    Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B

    2012-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input--drawing on the evidence-base--together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. Impact of Social Marketing in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity123

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, mainly childhood obesity, is a worldwide concern. Childhood obesity continues to adulthood, and it is associated with multiple noncommunicable diseases. One important aspect in the fight against obesity is prevention, the earlier, the better. Social marketing is a novel concept being increasingly used as an approach to address social problems and more and more included in the community-based interventions aiming to change unhealthy behaviors. Although there is limited evidence of its effectiveness, it seems that when conscientiously applied, social marketing principles may be useful to change behaviors and thus better health outcomes. PMID:22798001

  5. [Childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Chueca, M; Azcona, C; Oyárzabal, M

    2002-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is an increasingly frequent cause for medical consultation. The increase in the prevalence of this disease, which has been considered as an epidemic by the World Health Organisation, is worrying. Obesity is a complex disease, whose aetiology still remains to be clarified due to the numerous factors involved: environmental, genetic, life style and behavioural, neuroendocrinological and metabolic. The persistence of childhood obesity until adulthood significantly increases the risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Treatment of obesity is complicated and few patients regularly attend follow up examinations. A multidisciplinary team is required to carry out a suitable treatment, composed of paediatricians, dieticians, nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists. Successful treatment of obesity resides in reducing the calorie intake in relation to energy expenditure, and at the time providing instruction in appropriate eating habits and life styles that in the long term will promote the maintenance of the ideal weight.

  6. Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings with Parental Involvement: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…

  7. Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings with Parental Involvement: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…

  8. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  9. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  10. School Nurses' Experiences with Motivational Interviewing for Preventing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Motivational interviewing is a counseling method used to bring about behavior change; its application by school nurses for preventing obesity in children is still new. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses, shows how school nurses adapted motivational interviewing and integrated it into their daily practice along with…

  11. School Nurses' Experiences with Motivational Interviewing for Preventing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Motivational interviewing is a counseling method used to bring about behavior change; its application by school nurses for preventing obesity in children is still new. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses, shows how school nurses adapted motivational interviewing and integrated it into their daily practice along with…

  12. Public policy to prevent childhood obesity, and the role of pediatric endocrinologists.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Roberta R; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2008-08-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence rates in the United States are steadily increasing. Public health experts consider a host of overarching and powerful influences beyond any one person's control to be the pivotal causes of childhood obesity. Consequently, it is more useful from a prevention and policy standpoint to examine the increasingly 'toxic environments' in which we live, consider a comprehensive strategy, and introduce, implement, and enforce public health policy to change those environments. In this paper we give an overview of different types of public policies that have been proposed as pieces of the complex solution to the growing problem of childhood obesity. We review some of the strategies needed, and the barriers to overcome, in order to pass effective policy, and discuss the important role pediatric endocrinologists can play in the fight to win effective policy campaigns to reverse the epidemic of childhood obesity.

  13. Play it forward! A community-based participatory research approach to childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hanson, Carrie; Doty, Jennifer; Jagaraj, Kimberly; Braaten, Kent; Doherty, William J

    2016-03-01

    To date there has been limited success with childhood obesity prevention interventions. This may be due in part, to the challenge of reaching and engaging parents in interventions. The current study used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to engage parents in cocreating and pilot testing a childhood obesity prevention intervention. Because CBPR approaches to childhood obesity prevention are new, this study aims to detail the creation, including the formation of the citizen action group (CAG), and implementation of a childhood obesity prevention intervention using CBPR methods. A CBPR approach was used to recruit community members to partner with university researchers in the CAG (n = 12) to create and implement the Play It Forward! childhood obesity intervention. The intervention creation and implementation took 2 years. During Year 1 (2011-2012), the CAG carried out a community needs and resources assessment and designed a community-based and family focused childhood obesity prevention intervention. During Year 2 (2012-2013), the CAG implemented the intervention and conducted an evaluation. Families (n = 50; 25 experimental/25 control group) with children ages 6-12 years participated in Play It Forward! Feasibility and process evaluation data suggested that the intervention was highly feasible and participants in both the CAG and intervention were highly satisfied. Specifically, over half of the families attended 75% of the Play It Forward! events and 33% of families attended all the events. Equal collaboration between parents and academic researchers to address childhood obesity may be a promising approach that merits further testing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Play it Forward!: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach to Childhood Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Jin, Seokwon; Hanson-Bradley, Carrie; Doty, Jennifer; Jagaraj, Kimberly; Braaten, Kent; Doherty, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Background To date there has been limited success with childhood obesity prevention interventions. This may be due in part, to the challenge of reaching and engaging parents in interventions. The current study used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to engage parents in co-creating and pilot testing a childhood obesity prevention intervention. Because CBPR approaches to childhood obesity prevention are new, this study aims to detail the creation, including the formation of the Citizen Action Group (CAG), and implementation of a childhood obesity prevention intervention using CBPR methods. Methods A CBPR approach was used to recruit community members to partner with university researchers in the CAG (n=12) to create and implement the Play it Forward! childhood obesity intervention. The intervention creation and implementation took two years. During year 1 (2011–2012), the CAG carried out a community needs and resources assessment and designed a community-based and family-focused childhood obesity prevention intervention. During year 2 (2012–2013), the CAG implemented the intervention and conducted an evaluation. Families (n = 50; 25 experimental/25 control group) with children ages 6–12 years participated in Play it Forward! Results Feasibility and process evaluation data suggested that the intervention was highly feasible and participants in both the CAG and intervention were highly satisfied. Specifically, over half of the families attended 75% of the Play it Forward! events and 33% of families attended all the events. Conclusion Equal collaboration between parents and academic researchers to address childhood obesity may be a promising approach that merits further testing. PMID:26618640

  15. Perceptions of employed parents about early childhood obesity and the need for prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Morin, Pascale; Roy, Marie-Andrée

    2013-01-01

    Responses to the increased prevalence of childhood obesity are merging, and employed parents will become targets for strategies designed to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed at describing their perceptions of employed parents about childhood obesity and determining which prevention strategies they would need the most. In this cross-sectional study, 504 employed parents were recruited from 33 child care centers in Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada) who completed a self-administered questionnaire on their perceptions about childhood obesity and the need for prevention strategies. Logistic regression was used to explore differences in needs for prevention strategies according to participant characteristics. Most participants were female, aged 32.9 ± 4.9 years, and perceived childhood obesity was an important problem. The prevention strategies that seemed most needed were the implementation of (a) physical and nutrition education programs in child care settings and (b) measures that give employed parents more time to cook for and be physically active with their children. Support for specific strategies differed across genders and education levels. Moreover, they depended on the perceived relationship between work and meal preparation. Policy makers should be aware of the needs of employed parents to develop policies that would have the greatest likelihood of success in this population.

  16. Factors associated with Ohio nurse practitioners' childhood obesity preventive practice patterns.

    PubMed

    Tanda, Rika; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Hughes, Kimberly

    2017-09-25

    More nurse practitioners (NPs) infiltrate into primary care settings, and play a pivotal role in prevention of childhood obesity. However, minimal research has been published about their practice patterns. The current study uses a sample of Ohio NPs and describes NPs' childhood obesity prevention practice patterns, knowledge of the guidelines, their personal physical activity in relation to childhood obesity prevention practices, and identification of perceived barriers for practice. Mail surveys were sent to a random selection of Ohio NPs. Quantitative and qualitative analyses methods were used to analyze the association between NPs' personal physical activity and their practice patterns and barriers to preventive practices related to childhood obesity. Ohio NPs who reported engaging in higher physical activity levels were more likely to report providing frequent assessment and counseling of healthy diet and physical activity. Frequency of weight tracking and referral to specialists were less frequent regardless of physical activity engagement by the NPs. Parental resistance was the most significant barrier to lifestyle counseling. Findings from the current study may offer new insight into innovative approaches for treatment and prevention of childhood obesity. These may include simple quality improvement projects to advocacy for community and school programs. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  17. Parenting efficacy and its relationship to the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Grossklaus, Heather; Marvicsin, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a topic of interest for the health sciences research community due to the childhood obesity epidemic. Pediatric nurse practitioners are in the frontline of prevention for children who are obese or at risk of becoming obese. Serving in this role requires the nurses' ability to measure parenting practices, parents' inner beliefs, and parental control over their child's eating practices. Questionnaires and other tools are needed to understand parents' thoughts on how satisfied they are as parents, their locus of control in their parent-child relationship, and how competent they feel in the parenting role. Many parenting scales related to self-efficacy, competence, locus of control, and satisfaction have been developed over the past decades, but little research development has occurred in relation to child's eating behaviors within nursing. This article will review the current parent efficacy literature and examine its relationship to childhood obesity.

  18. Modifiable Risk Factors and Interventions for Childhood Obesity Prevention within the First 1,000 Days.

    PubMed

    Dattilo, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity. Promising obesity prevention interventions include those beginning during the first 1,000 days, using a multicomponent approach, with roots in nutrition education theories or behavior change communication that can continue over time. However, the limited number of completed interventions to date (within pediatric clinics or in home-based or community settings) may not be scalable to the magnitude needed for sustainable obesity prevention. Scale-up interventions that can be maintained for the durations needed, addressing infant and young child feeding and other modifiable risk factors associated with childhood obesity are needed. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Modeling social transmission dynamics of unhealthy behaviors for evaluating prevention and treatment interventions on childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, Leah M; Araz, Ozgur M; Huang, Terry T-K

    2013-01-01

    Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2) to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively). Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence) than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally, targeting adults may

  20. Modeling Social Transmission Dynamics of Unhealthy Behaviors for Evaluating Prevention and Treatment Interventions on Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Frerichs, Leah M.; Araz, Ozgur M.; Huang, Terry T. – K.

    2013-01-01

    Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2) to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2–1.8% and 0.2–1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively). Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence) than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally, targeting adults

  1. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development

    PubMed Central

    Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B

    2012-01-01

    Summary Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multistakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. ‘Ensemble Prévenons l'ObésitéDes Enfants’ (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input – drawing on the evidence-base – together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. PMID:22106871

  2. Education for childhood obesity prevention across the life-course: workshop conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Hospedales, J; Contreras, A; Kac, G

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to present the conclusions from the workshop ‘Education for childhood obesity prevention: a life-course approach', coordinated by the Pan-American Health Organization and the Pan-American Health and Education Foundation, and held on 14 June 2012 in Aruba, as part of the II Pan-American Conference on Childhood Obesity (http://www.paco.aw/). This workshop focused on the need to recognize the life-course framework and education as a social determinant of health to address the childhood obesity epidemic through diverse education-based initiatives. Workshop participants agreed that both education per se and the education sector are key for obesity prevention and must form part of multidisciplinary interventions and collaboration between schools, families and the entire society. Capacity building in obesity prevention is required and should include the entire learning community, teachers, leaders, health-care providers, related services personnel, university professors and other interested community members. Obesity prevention initiatives should also engage key community institutions outside the formal education system, including early childhood centers, churches, pediatric/family medicine clinics, among others, to support family nutrition education, healthy food access and daily physical activity—all of which are key to promote a child's ‘healthy weight'. PMID:25018874

  3. Education for childhood obesity prevention across the life-course: workshop conclusions.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Hospedales, J; Contreras, A; Kac, G

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this paper are to present the conclusions from the workshop 'Education for childhood obesity prevention: a life-course approach', coordinated by the Pan-American Health Organization and the Pan-American Health and Education Foundation, and held on 14 June 2012 in Aruba, as part of the II Pan-American Conference on Childhood Obesity (http://www.paco.aw/). This workshop focused on the need to recognize the life-course framework and education as a social determinant of health to address the childhood obesity epidemic through diverse education-based initiatives. Workshop participants agreed that both education per se and the education sector are key for obesity prevention and must form part of multidisciplinary interventions and collaboration between schools, families and the entire society. Capacity building in obesity prevention is required and should include the entire learning community, teachers, leaders, health-care providers, related services personnel, university professors and other interested community members. Obesity prevention initiatives should also engage key community institutions outside the formal education system, including early childhood centers, churches, pediatric/family medicine clinics, among others, to support family nutrition education, healthy food access and daily physical activity-all of which are key to promote a child's 'healthy weight'.

  4. Practicalities and Research Considerations for Conducting Childhood Obesity Prevention Interventions with Families.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Rachel A; Collins, Clare E; Hesketh, Kylie D; Young, Myles D; Burrows, Tracy L; Magarey, Anthea M; Brown, Helen L; Hinkley, Trina; Perry, Rebecca A; Brennan, Leah; Spence, Alison C; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-11-08

    Internationally, childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Given the established difficulties in treating obesity, designing and evaluating effective obesity prevention interventions are research priorities. As parents play a crucial role in establishing positive health behaviours in children, they are a key target for child obesity prevention programs. However, recruiting and engaging parents in such interventions can be a considerable challenge for researchers and practitioners. Members of the 'Parenting, Child Behaviour and Well-being' stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN) have considerable and varied expertise in conducting such interventions and can provide insights into addressing these challenges. This paper aims to highlight considerations regarding the design, implementation, and evaluation of obesity prevention interventions with families and provide practical insights and recommendations for researchers and practitioners conducting family-based research in this area. Case studies of three family-based interventions conducted by ACAORN members are highlighted to provide examples and contextualise the recommendations proposed.

  5. Research capacity for childhood obesity prevention in Latin America: an area for growth.

    PubMed

    Parra, Diana C; Vorkoper, Susan; Kohl, Harold W; Caballero, Benjamin; Batis, Carolina; Jauregui, Alejandra; Mason, Jessica; Pratt, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The rise of childhood obesity in Latin America calls for research capacity to understand, monitor and implement strategies, policies and programmes to address it. The objective of the study was to assess current research capacity in Latin America related to childhood obesity, nutrition and physical activity. We conducted a search of peer-reviewed articles on childhood obesity in Latin America with at least one Latin American author from 2010 to May 2015. We coded 484 published articles for author affiliation, study subjects' nationality, research topic and study design and extracted a series of networks per research topic, study design and collaborating country for each of the countries. Obesity is the most frequently explored topic. Nutrition and obesity are somewhat better developed compared with physical activity and sedentary behaviour. There are numerous observational and cross-sectional studies, indicating either a lack of capacity required for more complex research or the extent of the problem and associated factors is still unknown. The low number of intervention studies and the near absence of policy articles suggest a void in research capacity. For childhood obesity, there is a clear need to build research capacity that documents the current state of the problem and design evidence-based prevention and intervention efforts. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  6. [Effectiveness evaluation of healthy lifestyle interventions in childhood obesity prevention: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Lien, Angela Shin-Yu; Cho, Yen-Hua; Tsai, Jia-Ling

    2013-08-01

    There is significant reporting on evidence-based research in the literature regarding lifestyle modification programs. There is a need to review and synthesize results in order to develop childhood obesity prevention and intervention strategy recommendations. Main purposes of the present review were to update the systematic review and critical appraisal of recent evidence in this area and assess the efficacy and quality of published research studies. Studies included in this review incorporated the following inclusion criteria: obese children participants 5 to 14 years of age; a face-to-face randomized-controlled study with a 4-week intervention period; and anthropometry, physical activity, sedentary behavior evaluated as primary outcomes after > 6 months. Eleven studies met the 3 inclusion criteria. All were found using the following key word string: RCT or CCT interventional study researches, childhood obesity, overweight, preventive intervention, healthy lifestyle". Evidence from these studies showed that all interventions varied in terms of approach and settings. Most provided a healthy lifestyle program duration of more than 15 minutes per week. Those that included culturally sensitive diet education and 30-60 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise everyday significantly enhanced childhood obesity prevention in terms of both anthropometry and dietary habits and decreased sedentary behavior. Results suggest that effective healthy lifestyle programs for childhood obesity prevention in Taiwan should provide dietary guidance sensitive to Taiwanese dietary habits, encourage daily physical activities, and decrease sedentary behavior.

  7. Home visitation programs: An untapped opportunity for the delivery of early childhood obesity prevention

    PubMed Central

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Galama, Titus; Goran, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: 1) short duration and low intensity; 2) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; 3) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and 4) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. Objective This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. Conclusion The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (1) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health due to socio-economic and structural conditions; (2) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (3) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. PMID:27911984

  8. Evidence-based obesity prevention in childhood and adolescence: critique of recent etiological studies, preventive interventions, and policies.

    PubMed

    Reilly, John J

    2012-07-01

    Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the "energy gap" that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers.

  9. Evidence-Based Obesity Prevention in Childhood and Adolescence: Critique of Recent Etiological Studies, Preventive Interventions, and Policies123

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the “energy gap” that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers. PMID:22798005

  10. Influence of Perceptions on School Nurse Practices to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quelly, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive childhood obesity prevention (COP) strategies should include increasing school nurse involvement. This study was conducted to determine the influence of key school nurse perceptions (self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers) on participation in COP practices at the individual child and school level. Florida…

  11. Finding common ground: perspectives on community-based childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Porter, Christine M; Pelletier, David L

    2012-11-01

    To support successful and inclusive community organizing for childhood obesity prevention, this research identified stakeholder perspectives on what communities should do to prevent childhood obesity. It employed factor analysis on statement sorts (Q methodology) conducted by 95 people in an upstate New York community. These participants sorted 36 statements about the issue by how much he or she agreed or disagreed with each. Participants were recruited through strategic snowball sampling to sample a variety of perspectives. The four resulting factors, or perspectives, were interpreted in the context of presort demographic surveys and postsort interviews. This research found one stance that fits the environmental perspective common in public health. The other three factors indicate important variations among perspectives centered on individual responsibility, ranging from libertarian to technocratic views. However, overall, results revealed a substantial degree of agreement among the four perspectives, including on providing access to family activities and on making fruits and vegetables more available and affordable, for example, through subsidies. This article points to common ground for community action on childhood obesity prevention, highlights areas likely to generate considerable contention, and shows whose views are not being accounted for in, at least, this community's childhood obesity prevention project.

  12. Influence of Perceptions on School Nurse Practices to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quelly, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive childhood obesity prevention (COP) strategies should include increasing school nurse involvement. This study was conducted to determine the influence of key school nurse perceptions (self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers) on participation in COP practices at the individual child and school level. Florida…

  13. Parent-Child Interaction, Self-Regulation, and Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah E; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the epidemiologic evidence linking parent-child relationships, self-regulation, and weight status with a focus on early childhood. The emotional quality of parent-child interactions may influence children's risk for obesity through multiple pathways. Prospective studies linking observer ratings of young children's self-regulation, particularly inhibitory control, to future weight status are discussed. Although findings are preliminary, promoting positive relationships between parents/caregivers and young children holds promise as a component of efforts to prevent childhood obesity. Multi-disciplinary collaborations between researchers with training in developmental science and child health should be encouraged.

  14. Parent-child interaction, self-regulation, and obesity prevention in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Sarah E.; Keim, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the epidemiologic evidence linking parent-child relationships, self-regulation, and weight status with a focus on early childhood. The emotional quality of parent-child interactions may influence children’s risk for obesity through multiple pathways. Prospective studies linking observer ratings of young children’s self-regulation, particularly inhibitory control, to future weight status are discussed. Although findings are preliminary, promoting positive relationships between parents/caregivers and young children holds promise as a component of efforts to prevent childhood obesity. Multi-disciplinary collaborations between researchers with training in developmental science and child health should be encouraged. PMID:27037572

  15. Economic Evaluation of Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood: Methods, Limitations and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Döring, Nora; Mayer, Susanne; Rasmussen, Finn; Sonntag, Diana

    2016-09-13

    Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention.

  16. A Systematic Review of Health Videogames on Childhood Obesity Prevention and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Lu, Amy Shirong; Kharrazi, Hadi; Gharghabi, Fardad; Thompson, Debbe

    2013-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health videogames are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health videogames on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health videogames published between 2005 and 2013 in English were selected from 2433 articles identified through five major search engines. Results indicated that academic interest in using health videogames for childhood obesity prevention has increased during this time. Most games were commercially available. Most studies were of short duration. Diverse player and game play patterns have been identified. Most studies involved players of both genders with slightly more boys. The majority of players were non-white. Most studies had the players play the games at home, whereas some extended the play setting to school and sports/recreational facilities. Most of the games were commercially available. Positive outcomes related to obesity were observed in about 40 percent of the studies, all of which targeted overweight or obese participants.

  17. A Systematic Review of Health Videogames on Childhood Obesity Prevention and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kharrazi, Hadi; Gharghabi, Fardad; Thompson, Debbe

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health videogames are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health videogames on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health videogames published between 2005 and 2013 in English were selected from 2433 articles identified through five major search engines. Results indicated that academic interest in using health videogames for childhood obesity prevention has increased during this time. Most games were commercially available. Most studies were of short duration. Diverse player and game play patterns have been identified. Most studies involved players of both genders with slightly more boys. The majority of players were non-white. Most studies had the players play the games at home, whereas some extended the play setting to school and sports/recreational facilities. Most of the games were commercially available. Positive outcomes related to obesity were observed in about 40 percent of the studies, all of which targeted overweight or obese participants. PMID:24353906

  18. The development and validation of the childhood obesity prevention self-efficacy (COP-SE) survey.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Natalie K; Nietfeld, John L; Goodell, L Suzanne

    2015-04-01

    Physicians can play an important role in preventing and treating childhood obesity. There are currently no validated measures of medical students' self-efficacy in these skills; therefore, we sought to develop a valid and reliable computerized survey to measure medical students' self-efficacy in skills needed to prevent and treat childhood obesity. We developed the Childhood Obesity Prevention Self-Efficacy (COP-SE) survey with input from two expert panels and cognitive interviews with medical students. We administered the 43-item COP-SE computerized survey to a nation-wide sample of medical students. The final sample consisted of 444 medical students from 53 medical schools. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure with a correlation of 0.637 between factors and high reliability within factors. The correlation between the COP-SE and a measure of general self-efficacy was moderate (0.648), and reliability within factors was high (Factor 1=0.946; Factor 2=0.927). The 18-item COP-SE is a valid and reliable measure of childhood obesity prevention self-efficacy. Factor 1 assesses self-efficacy in nutrition counseling, and Factor 2 measures self-efficacy to assess readiness to change and initiate nutrition lifestyle changes. The correlation between the COP-SE and a measure of general self-efficacy indicates that the COP-SE is a distinct, valid assessment of domain-specific self-efficacy. The high reliability of items within factors indicates the items measure the same constructs. Therefore, medical schools can use this valid and reliable instrument as a formative or summative assessment of students' self-efficacy in childhood obesity prevention and treatment.

  19. Sustainable childhood obesity prevention through community engagement (SCOPE) program: evaluation of the implementation phase.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Bonnie; Daly, Amelia; Mâsse, Louise C; Collet, Jean-Paul; Higgins, Joan Wharf; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Amed, Shazhan

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity rates are steadily rising. Sustainable Childhood Obesity Prevention Through Community Engagement (SCOPE) is a community-based participatory action research (PAR) program aimed at preventing childhood obesity. This study aimed to describe community perspectives on, and elicit feedback about, SCOPE's first phase of implementation in two pilot cities in British Columbia, Canada. A case study was implemented using interviews and questionnaires to obtain feedback about SCOPE from two groups: SCOPE coordinators and stakeholders (i.e., individuals and organizations that were a member of the community and engaged with SCOPE coordinators). Participants were recruited via email and (or) by telephone. Coordinators completed a telephone interview. Stakeholders completed a questionnaire and (or) a telephone interview. Thematic analysis was conducted. Participants included 2 coordinators and 15 stakeholders. Participants similarly interpreted SCOPE as a program focused on raising awareness about childhood obesity prevention, while engaging multiple community sectors. Overall, participants valued the program's role in facilitating networking and partnership development, providing evidence-based resources, technical expertise, and contributing funding. Participants felt that SCOPE is sustainable. However, participants felt that barriers to achieving healthy weights among children included those related to the built environment, and social, behavioral, and economic obstacles. Perspectives on factors that facilitated and acted as barriers to SCOPE's first phase of implementation were obtained from the SCOPE communities and may be used to enhance the sustainability of SCOPE and its applicability to other BC communities.

  20. Parents as health promoters: a theory of planned behavior perspective on the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kyle R; Silk, Kami S; Eneli, Ihuoma U

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States. A number of communication campaigns and interventions have been conducted to combat the problem, with parents being recognized as an important target audience. A critical aspect of involving parents in such campaigns is formative research on parents' perceptions of their role in preventing childhood obesity. To facilitate this process, a study was conducted in which parents (N = 201) responded to Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) survey items as they relate to providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods for their children. Results indicated support for TPB predictions. Additionally, the degree to which parents viewed providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods as effective in preventing obesity (response efficacy) was predictive of parent tracking of children's unhealthy eating behavior. Finally, parent TV viewing behavior was related to perceived response efficacy of limiting children's TV viewing hours. Practical implications for communication practitioners are discussed.

  1. Engaging low-income parents in childhood obesity prevention from start to finish: a case study.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Janine M; Green Mills, Lisa L; Lawson, Hal A; Bovenzi, Mary C; Quartimon, Ronald; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-02-01

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a national priority. Parents influence young children's healthy lifestyles, so it is paradoxical that obesity interventions focus primarily on children. Evidence and theory suggest that including parents in interventions offers promise for effective childhood obesity prevention. This case study engaged parents' as co-researchers in the design, implementation and evaluation of an intervention for low-income families with a child enrolled in Head Start. Parent engagement mechanisms include: (1) targeted partnership development (2) operationalizing a Community Advisory Board (CAB) that was the key decision making body; (3) a majority of CAB members were parents who were positioned as experts, and (4) addressing structural barriers to parent participation. Lessons learned are provided for future research, and practice.

  2. Primary care providers' knowledge, practices, and perceived barriers to the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Spivack, Jordan G; Swietlik, Maggie; Alessandrini, Evaline; Faith, Myles S

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated primary care providers' (PCPs, pediatricians, and nurse practitioners) knowledge, current practices, and perceived barriers to childhood obesity prevention and treatment, with an emphasis on first-year well-child care visits. A questionnaire was distributed to 192 PCPs in the primary care network at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) addressing (i) knowledge of obesity and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines, (ii) anticipatory guidance practices at well visits regarding nutrition and exercise, and (iii) perceived barriers to childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Eighty pediatricians and seven nurse practitioners responded, and a minority correctly identified the definition (26%) and prevalence (9%) of childhood overweight and AAP guidelines for exercise (39%) and juice consumption (44%). Most PCPs (81%) spent 11-20 min per well visit during the first 2 years, and 79% discussed diet, nutrition, and exercise for > or =3 min. Although >95% of PCPs discussed juice, fruits and vegetables, sippy cups, and finger foods during the first year, over 35% never discussed fast food, TV, or candy, and 55% never discussed exercise. Few rated current resources as adequate to treat or prevent childhood obesity. Over 90% rated the following barriers for obesity prevention and treatment as important or very important: parent is not motivated, child is not motivated, parents are overweight, families often have fast food, watch too much TV, and do not get enough exercise. In conclusion, there is much room to improve PCPs' knowledge of obesity and AAP guidelines. Although PCPs rate fast-food consumption, TV viewing, and lack of exercise as important treatment barriers, many never discussed these topics during the first year.

  3. A randomized controlled trial to prevent childhood obesity through early childhood feeding and parenting guidance: rationale and design of study.

    PubMed

    Reifsnider, Elizabeth; McCormick, David P; Cullen, Karen W; Szalacha, Laura; Moramarco, Michael W; Diaz, Abigail; Reyna, Lucy

    2013-09-24

    Early and rapid growth in Infants is strongly associated with early development and persistence of obesity in young children. Substantial research has linked child obesity/overweight to increased risks for serious health outcomes, which include adverse physical, psychological, behavioral, or social consequences. The goal of this study is to compare the effectiveness of structured Community Health Worker (CHW)--provided home visits, using an intervention created through community-based participatory research, to standard care received through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) office visits in preventing the development of overweight (weight/length ≥ 85th percentile) and obesity (weight/length ≥ 95th percentile) in infants during their first 3 years of life. One hundred forty pregnant women in their third trimester (30-36 weeks) will be recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. This study will provide prospective data on the effects of an intervention to prevent childhood obesity in children at high risk for obesity due to ethnicity, income, and maternal body mass index (BMI). It will have wide-ranging applicability and the potential for rapid dissemination through the WIC program, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of a community approach though employing CHWs in preventing obesity during the first 3 years of life. This easy-to-implement obesity prevention intervention can be adapted for many locales and diverse communities and can provide evidence for policy change to influence health throughout life. Clinical Trials Number: NCT01905072.

  4. Story Immersion in a Health Videogame for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Stories can serve as powerful tools for health interventions. Story immersion refers to the experience of being absorbed in a story. This is among the first studies to analyze story immersion's role in health videogames among children by addressing two main questions: Will children be more immersed when the main characters are similar to them? Do increased levels of immersion relate to more positive health outcomes? Subjects and Methods Eighty-seven 10–12-year-old African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic children from Houston, TX, played a health videogame, “Escape from Diab” (Archimage, Houston, TX), featuring a protagonist with both African-American and Hispanic phenotypic features. Children's demographic information, immersion, and health outcomes (i.e., preference, motivation, and self-efficacy) were recorded and then correlated and analyzed. Results African-American and Hispanic participants reported higher immersion scores than Caucasian participants (P=0.01). Story immersion correlated positively (P values<0.03) with an increase in Fruit and Vegetable Preference (r=0.27), Intrinsic Motivation for Water (r=0.29), Vegetable Self-Efficacy (r=0.24), and Physical Activity Self-Efficacy (r=0.32). Conclusion Ethnic similarity between videogame characters and players enhanced immersion and several health outcomes. Effectively embedding characters with similar phenotypic features to the target population in interactive health videogame narratives may be important when motivating children to adopt obesity prevention behaviors. PMID:24066276

  5. Story Immersion in a Health Videogame for Childhood Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-02-15

    Stories can serve as powerful tools for health interventions. Story immersion refers to the experience of being absorbed in a story. This is among the first studies to analyze story immersion's role in health videogames among children by addressing two main questions: Will children be more immersed when the main characters are similar to them? Do increased levels of immersion relate to more positive health outcomes? Eighty-seven 10-12-year-old African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic children from Houston, TX, played a health videogame, "Escape from Diab" (Archimage, Houston, TX), featuring a protagonist with both African-American and Hispanic phenotypic features. Children's demographic information, immersion, and health outcomes (i.e., preference, motivation, and self-efficacy) were recorded and then correlated and analyzed. African-American and Hispanic participants reported higher immersion scores than Caucasian participants (P = 0.01). Story immersion correlated positively (P values < 0.03) with an increase in Fruit and Vegetable Preference (r = 0.27), Intrinsic Motivation for Water (r = 0.29), Vegetable Self-Efficacy (r = 0.24), and Physical Activity Self-Efficacy (r = 0.32). Ethnic similarity between videogame characters and players enhanced immersion and several health outcomes. Effectively embedding characters with similar phenotypic features to the target population in interactive health videogame narratives may be important when motivating children to adopt obesity prevention behaviors.

  6. Environmental components of childhood obesity prevention interventions: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Cauchi, D; Glonti, K; Petticrew, M; Knai, C

    2016-11-01

    Childhood obesity has a complex multi-factorial aetiology grounded in environmental and individual level factors that affect behaviour and outcomes. An ecological, systems-based approach to addressing childhood obesity is increasingly being advocated. The primary aim of this review is to summarize the evidence reported in systematic reviews on the effectiveness of population-level childhood obesity prevention interventions that have an environmental component. We conducted a systematic review of reviews published since 1995, employing a standardized search strategy in nine databases. Inclusion criteria required that reviews be systematic and evaluated at least one population-level, environmental intervention in any setting aimed at preventing or reducing obesity in children (5-18 years). Sixty-three reviews were included, ten of which were of high quality. Results show modest impact of a broad range of environmental strategies on anthropometric outcomes. Systematic reviews vary in methodological quality, and not all relevant primary studies may be included in each review. To ensure relevance of our findings to practice, we also report on relevant underlying primary studies, providing policy-relevant recommendations based on the evidence reviewed. Greater standardization of review methods and reporting structures will benefit policymakers and public health professionals seeking informed decision-making. © 2016 World Obesity.

  7. A systematic review of health videogames on childhood obesity prevention and intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health video games are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health video games on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health video ames published betwee...

  8. Prevention of childhood obesity in Spain: a focus on policies outside the health sector. SESPAS report 2010.

    PubMed

    Franco, Manuel; Sanz, Belén; Otero, Laura; Domínguez-Vila, Adrián; Caballero, Benjamín

    2010-12-01

    Obesity is currently a global public health problem. Obesity in early life increases the risk of long-term energy imbalance and adult obesity and its comorbidities, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Since infancy and childhood are critical periods for the adoption of food preferences and physical activity, prevention strategies must intervene in these early periods to promote healthy habits and reduce risk behaviors. Trends in the prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight in Spain have continuously increased in the last three decades. Obesity and overweight currently affect 15 and 20% of Spanish children, respectively, and these percentages are among the highest in Europe. Childhood obesity is determined by social and economic factors pertaining to sectors other than the health system, such as advertising, the built environment, education and the school environment, transportation and the food environment. Following the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach, the authors identified a series of multisector policy changes that may help to prevent and control the current rising trend of childhood obesity in Spain. The HiAP approach acknowledges that social factors including socioeconomic status, gender differences and the work-life balance are important to develop effective policy changes in the prevention of childhood obesity. A key to success in the prevention of childhood obesity in Spain through policy changes will depend on the ability to establish a policy with the explicit and primary goal of improving health outcomes, despite the anticipated resistance from various sectors and stakeholders.

  9. Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…

  10. Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…

  11. A scoping review of epidemiologic risk factors for pediatric obesity: Implications for future childhood obesity and dental caries prevention research.

    PubMed

    Chi, Donald L; Luu, Monique; Chu, Frances

    2017-06-01

    What are the non-modifiable (socioeconomic, genetic) and modifiable factors (physical activity, dietary behaviors) related to childhood (under age 12) obesity? How can this knowledge be applied to oral health professionals' efforts to prevent or manage dental caries in children? Studies have identified risk factors for childhood obesity. The purpose of this scoping review was to develop a conceptual model to identify non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity and to illustrate how these findings are relevant in developing interventions aimed at preventing obesity and dental caries in children. The authors searched PubMed and Embase and limited the study to English-language publications. A total of 2,572 studies were identified. After de-duplication, 2,479 studies remained and were downloaded into a citation-management tool. Two authors screened the titles and abstracts for relevance. Two hundred and sixty studies remained and were retrieved for a full-text review, and 80 studies were excluded, resulting in 180 studies included in the scoping review. An inductive content analytic methods was used to organize all statistically significant obesity risk factors into seven domains, which were classified as non-modifiable or modifiable; then a conceptual model of common risk factors associated with childhood obesity and dental caries was developed. Non-modifiable obesity risk factors include biological and developmental (e.g., genes, developmental conditions, puberty), sociodemographic and household (e.g., race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parent education, unemployment), cultural (e.g., degree of acculturation), and community (e.g., neighborhood composition). Modifiable risk factors included behavioral (e.g., diet, physical activity, weight), psychosocial (e.g., maternal stress, family functioning, parenting practices, child temperament), and medical (e.g., parent smoking, maternal health, child health). Identifying common risk factors has

  12. Prevention of childhood obesity and food policies in Latin America: from research to practice.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Lutter, C K; Rabadan-Diehl, C; Rubinstein, A; Calvillo, A; Corvalán, C; Batis, C; Jacoby, E; Vorkoper, S; Kline, L; Ewart-Pierce, E; Rivera, J A

    2017-07-01

    Addressing childhood obesity in Latin America requires a package of multisectoral, evidence-based policies that enable environments conducive to healthy lifestyles. Identify and examine key elements to translating research into effective obesity policies in Latin America. We examined obesity prevention policies through case studies developed with an expert in the specific policy. Policies were selected based on their level of implementation, visibility and potential impact to reduce childhood obesity. They include: (i) excise taxes on sugar sweetened beverages and energy-dense foods; (ii) front-of-package food label legislation; (iii) trans fatty acids removal from processed foods; and (iv) Ciclovías recreativas or 'open streets'. Case studies were coded to identify components that explained successful implementation and sustainability using the Complex Adaptive Health Systems framework. The analysis identified key elements for effective and sustainable policy, including evidence justifying policy; evidence-based advocacy by civil society; political will; and legislation and skillful negotiations across government, academia, the private sector and civil society. Scientific evidence and evaluation played an important role in achieving tipping points for policies' launch and sustain effective implementation. Well-coordinated, intersectoral partnerships are needed to successfully implement evidence-based anti-obesity policies. Prospective policy research may be useful for advancing knowledge translation. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  13. Advocacy, Efficacy, and Engagement in an Online Network for Latino Childhood Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Gallion, Kipling J; Despres, Cliff; Aguilar, Rosalie P; Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Seidel, Sarah E; McAlister, Alfred L

    2015-11-01

    Salud America! is a national network created to engage Latino researchers, health professionals and community leaders in actions to reduce Latino childhood obesity. An online survey of 148 Salud America! network members investigated relationships between (1) their levels of engagement with the network, (2) self- and collective-efficacy, and (3) behavioral intentions to engage in advocacy for policies that can help reduce Latino childhood obesity. Analyses of these data found that higher levels of Salud America! engagement was associated with collective-advocacy efficacy-greater confidence in organized group advocacy as a way of advancing policies to reduce Latino childhood obesity. A multiple regression analysis found that this sense of collective-efficacy moderately predicted intentions to engage in advocacy behaviors. Salud America! engagement levels were less strongly associated with members' confidence in their personal ability to be an effective advocate, yet this sense of self-efficacy was a very strong predictor of a behavioral intention to advocate. Based on these findings, new online applications aimed at increasing self- and collective-efficacy through peer modeling are being developed for Salud America! in order to help individuals interested in Latino childhood obesity prevention to connect with each other and with opportunities for concerted local actions in their communities. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  14. A meta-analysis of school-based obesity prevention programs demonstrates limited efficacy of decreasing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ling-Shen; Tidwell, Diane K; Hall, Michael E; Lee, Michelle L; Briley, Chiquita A; Hunt, Barry P

    2015-03-01

    Childhood obesity is a global concern. The objectives of this meta-analytical study were to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based childhood obesity prevention programs, and to examine program components (moderators). The methods included searching databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and the university's EBSCOhost Web service) as well as handsearching reference lists of articles published in English. Selection criteria for studies to be included in the meta-analysis were limited to studies that reported body mass index (BMI) or skinfold thickness as outcome measures and were school-based obesity prevention interventions; cross-sectional design studies were excluded. We hypothesized the meta-analysis would yield a summary effect size of magnitude which would indicate that school-based interventions have been effective in improving children's BMI or skinfold thickness values. A total of 26 114 children from 27 school-based childhood obesity prevention programs provided 54 effect sizes. A random-effects model calculated a small summary effect size of 0.039 (95% confidence interval -0.013 to 0.092). Heterogeneity among studies was observed which disappeared after pooling studies that used a randomized controlled trial design with one program moderator (physical activity or nutrition). We failed to accept our hypothesis and concluded that overall, school-based interventions have not been effective for improving body mass index or skinfold thickness to curb childhood obesity; however, randomized controlled trials that focused on physical activity or nutrition appeared to produce promising results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preventing childhood obesity through state policy: qualitative assessment of enablers and barriers.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Elizabeth A; Fleming, Chris; Boehmer, Tegan K; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Luke, Douglas A; Brownson, Ross C

    2009-01-01

    As the prevalence of obesity rapidly climbs among youth in the United States, public health practitioners and policymakers seek effective means of slowing and reversing these trends. Recently, many state laws and regulations addressing childhood obesity have been introduced and enacted. Understanding determinants of such legislation may inform the development and passage of future policies. For this study, key-informant interviews were conducted with 16 legislators and staffers from 11 states in 2005-2006 to examine qualitative factors that enable and impede state-level childhood obesity prevention legislation. Commonly cited factors positively influencing the passage of childhood obesity prevention legislation included national media exposure, introduction of the policy by senior legislators, and gaining the support of key players including parents, physicians, and schools. Noteworthy barriers included powerful lobbyists of companies that produce unhealthy foods and misconceptions about legislating foods at schools. Although the total number of informants was modest, their valuable insights provide policymakers and practitioners with a set of enablers and barriers to be considered when pursuing state-level policy.

  16. Interventions for prevention of childhood obesity in primary care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Nicole; Brauer, Paula; Simpson, Janis Randall; Kim, Susie; Haines, Jess

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preventing childhood obesity is a public health priority, and primary care is an important setting for early intervention. Authors of a recent national guideline have identified a need for effective primary care interventions for obesity prevention and that parent perspectives on interventions are notably absent from the literature. Our objective was to determine the perspectives of primary care clinicians and parents of children 2-5 years of age on the implementation of an obesity prevention intervention within team-based primary care to inform intervention implementation. Methods: We conducted focus groups with interprofessional primary care clinicians (n = 40) and interviews with parents (n = 26). Participants were asked about facilitators and barriers to, and recommendations for implementing a prevention program in primary care. Data were recorded and transcribed, and we used directed content analysis to identify major themes. Results: Barriers existed to addressing obesity-related behaviours in this age group and included a gap in well-child primary care between ages 18 months and 4-5 years, lack of time and sensitivity of the topic. Trust and existing relationships with primary care clinicians were facilitators to program implementation. Offering separate programs for parents and children, and addressing both general parenting topics and obesity-related behaviours were identified as desirable. Interpretation: Despite barriers to addressing obesity-related behaviours within well-child primary care, both clinicians and parents expressed interest in interventions in primary care settings. Next steps should include pilot studies to identify feasible strategies for intervention implementation. PMID:27398363

  17. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting.

    PubMed

    Natale, Ruby; Scott, Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah, Sarah E; Schrack, Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-28

    Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children's nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity

  18. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Discussion Although few

  19. Development and Feasibility of a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program for Rural Families: Application of the Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knol, Linda L.; Myers, Harriet H.; Black, Sheila; Robinson, Darlene; Awololo, Yawah; Clark, Debra; Parker, Carson L.; Douglas, Joy W.; Higginbotham, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effective childhood obesity prevention programs for preschool children are limited in number and focus on changes in the child care environment rather than the home environment. Purpose: The purpose of this project was to develop and test the feasibility of a home environment obesity prevention program that incorporates mindful eating…

  20. Development and Feasibility of a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program for Rural Families: Application of the Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knol, Linda L.; Myers, Harriet H.; Black, Sheila; Robinson, Darlene; Awololo, Yawah; Clark, Debra; Parker, Carson L.; Douglas, Joy W.; Higginbotham, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effective childhood obesity prevention programs for preschool children are limited in number and focus on changes in the child care environment rather than the home environment. Purpose: The purpose of this project was to develop and test the feasibility of a home environment obesity prevention program that incorporates mindful eating…

  1. Childhood obesity in America.

    PubMed

    Van Grouw, Jacqueline M; Volpe, Stella L

    2013-10-01

    To provide an overview of the current advances in childhood obesity physiology, intervention, and prevention. Structural and functional brain impairments are present in obese adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Aerobic training for 20 or 40 min per day produced similar affects on metabolic risk factors. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve the metabolic risk factors in obese children; however, obese children require greater doses to treat vitamin D deficiency. A 10-week community-based exergaming weight management program significantly decreased the BMI in obese children. There is surmounting research on MetS and its associated risk factors in obese children. Gaining a comprehensive overview of the factors associated with obesity in children is crucial in developing the most effective intervention strategies. Community-based and family-centered interventions have generated positive results in reducing children's BMI and improving MetS risk factors. In addition to obesity intervention efforts, ongoing prevention initiatives are imperative to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity.

  2. Childhood obesity and food intake.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Yi; Qi, Sui-Jian

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children is growing in China at present. Childhood obesity reflects complex interactions of genetic, environmental, social and behavioral factors. Foods, nutritional components, and food intake patterns may be associated with the increasing obesity rate in children. Articles about the relationship between childhood obesity and food intake were collected from the databases including Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Elsevier and Google Scholar. Foods and nutritional components such as calcium, dietary fiber are inversely related to obesity, whereas others such as vitamin B and sugar-sweeten beverages play a positive role in obesity development. The differences in food intake pattern also influence the risk of obesity. Food intake is an important factor influencing childhood obesity. One strategy to prevent childhood obesity is to take foods of moderate amount in a proper pattern.

  3. A health literate approach to the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard O.; Thompson, Jessica R.; Rothman, Russell L.; Scott, Amanda M. McDougald; Heerman, William J.; Sommer, Evan C.; Barkin, Shari L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe a systematic assessment of patient educational materials for the Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) trial, a childhood obesity prevention study targeting a low health literate population. Methods Process included: (1) expert review of educational content, (2) assessment of the quality of materials including use of the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) tool, and (3) material review and revision with target population. Results 12 core modules were developed and assessed in an iterative process. Average readability was at the 6th grade reading level (SMOG Index 5.63 ± 0.76, and Fry graph 6.0 ± 0.85). SAM evaluation resulted in adjustments to literacy demand, layout & typography, and learning stimulation & motivation. Cognitive interviews with target population revealed additional changes incorporated to enhance participant's perception of acceptability and feasibility for behavior change. Conclusion The GROW modules are a collection of evidence-based materials appropriate for parents with low health literacy and their preschool aged children, that target the prevention of childhood overweight/obesity. Practice implications Most trials addressing the treatment or prevention of childhood obesity use written materials. Due to the ubiquitous prevalence of limited health literacy, our described methods may assist researchers in ensuring their content is both understood and actionable. PMID:24001660

  4. A health literate approach to the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    White, Richard O; Thompson, Jessica R; Rothman, Russell L; McDougald Scott, Amanda M; Heerman, William J; Sommer, Evan C; Barkin, Shari L

    2013-12-01

    To describe a systematic assessment of patient educational materials for the Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) trial, a childhood obesity prevention study targeting a low health literate population. Process included: (1) expert review of educational content, (2) assessment of the quality of materials including use of the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) tool, and (3) material review and revision with target population. 12 core modules were developed and assessed in an iterative process. Average readability was at the 6th grade reading level (SMOG Index 5.63 ± 0.76, and Fry graph 6.0 ± 0.85). SAM evaluation resulted in adjustments to literacy demand, layout & typography, and learning stimulation & motivation. Cognitive interviews with target population revealed additional changes incorporated to enhance participant's perception of acceptability and feasibility for behavior change. The GROW modules are a collection of evidence-based materials appropriate for parents with low health literacy and their preschool aged children, that target the prevention of childhood overweight/obesity. Most trials addressing the treatment or prevention of childhood obesity use written materials. Due to the ubiquitous prevalence of limited health literacy, our described methods may assist researchers in ensuring their content is both understood and actionable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Practicalities and Research Considerations for Conducting Childhood Obesity Prevention Interventions with Families

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Philip J.; Jones, Rachel A.; Collins, Clare E.; Hesketh, Kylie D.; Young, Myles D.; Burrows, Tracy L.; Magarey, Anthea M.; Brown, Helen L.; Hinkley, Trina; Perry, Rebecca A.; Brennan, Leah; Spence, Alison C.; Campbell, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Given the established difficulties in treating obesity, designing and evaluating effective obesity prevention interventions are research priorities. As parents play a crucial role in establishing positive health behaviours in children, they are a key target for child obesity prevention programs. However, recruiting and engaging parents in such interventions can be a considerable challenge for researchers and practitioners. Members of the ‘Parenting, Child Behaviour and Well-being’ stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN) have considerable and varied expertise in conducting such interventions and can provide insights into addressing these challenges. This paper aims to highlight considerations regarding the design, implementation, and evaluation of obesity prevention interventions with families and provide practical insights and recommendations for researchers and practitioners conducting family-based research in this area. Case studies of three family-based interventions conducted by ACAORN members are highlighted to provide examples and contextualise the recommendations proposed. PMID:27834820

  6. Effect of Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs on Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Li; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee F.; Segal, Jodi B.; Kim, Miyong T.; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about how childhood obesity lifestyle prevention programs affect BP. We assessed the effects of childhood obesity prevention programs on BP in children in developed countries. Methods and Results We searched databases up to April 22, 2013 for relevant randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments. Studies were included if they applied a diet and/or physical activity intervention(s) and were followed for ≥1 year (or ≥ 6 months for school-based intervention studies); they were excluded if they targeted only overweight/obese subjects or those with a medical condition. In our meta-analysis, intervention effects were calculated for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using weighted random effects models. Of the 23 included intervention studies (involving 18,925 participants), 21 involved a school setting. Our meta-analysis included 19 studies reporting on SBP and 18 on DBP. The pooled intervention effect was −1.64 mmHg (95% CI: -2.56, −0.71; P=0.001) for SBP and -1.44 mmHg (95% CI: −2.28, −0.60; P=0.001) for DBP. The combined diet and physical activity interventions led to a significantly greater reduction in both SBP and DBP than the diet-only or physical activity-only intervention. Thirteen interventions (46%) had a similar effect on both adiposity-related outcomes and BP; while 11 interventions (39%) showed a significant desirable effect on BP, but not on adiposity-related outcomes. Conclusions Obesity prevention programs have a moderate effect on reducing BP and those targeting at both diet and physical activity seem to be more effective. PMID:24552832

  7. Effect of childhood obesity prevention programs on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Li; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee F; Segal, Jodi B; Kim, Miyong T; Wang, Youfa

    2014-05-06

    Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about how childhood obesity lifestyle prevention programs affect BP. We assessed the effects of childhood obesity prevention programs on BP in children in developed countries. We searched databases up to April 22, 2013, for relevant randomized, controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments. Studies were included if they applied a diet or physical activity intervention(s) and were followed for ≥ 1 year (or ≥ 6 months for school-based intervention studies); they were excluded if they targeted only overweight/obese subjects or those with a medical condition. In our meta-analysis, intervention effects were calculated for systolic BP and diastolic BP with the use of weighted random-effects models. Of the 23 included intervention studies (involving 18 925 participants), 21 involved a school setting. Our meta-analysis included 19 studies reporting on systolic BP and 18 on diastolic BP. The pooled intervention effect was -1.64 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -2.56 to -0.71; P=0.001) for systolic BP and -1.44 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -2.28 to -0.60; P=0.001) for diastolic BP. The combined diet and physical activity interventions led to a significantly greater reduction in both systolic BP and diastolic BP than the diet-only or physical activity-only intervention. Thirteen interventions (46%) had a similar effect on both adiposity-related outcomes and BP, whereas 11 interventions (39%) showed a significant desirable effect on BP but not on adiposity-related outcomes. Obesity prevention programs have a moderate effect on reducing BP, and those targeting both diet and physical activity seem to be more effective.

  8. Introduction to proceedings of healthy futures: engaging the oral health community in childhood obesity prevention national conference.

    PubMed

    Tinanoff, Norman; Holt, Katrina

    2017-06-01

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) has worked to ensure that all children have healthy weights. To promote this goal, the RWJF has supported the Healthy Futures: Engaging the Oral Health Community in Childhood Obesity Prevention National Conference, held on November 3-4, 2016, and the proceeding of this conference. The goals of the conference were to increase understanding of the science focusing on oral health and childhood obesity, increase understanding of how to prevent childhood obesity, and provide opportunities to network and plan activities to prevent childhood obesity. The papers prepared for the conference identified through systematic reviews or scoping reviews the state of the science related to preventing childhood obesity and reducing children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and strategies that oral health professionals and organizations can employ prevent childhood obesity. Causes of childhood obesity are multifactorial and include genetic components, environmental and lifestyle variables, and nutritional factors. Dental caries also is caused by a combination of factors, including cariogenic diet, inadequate fluoride exposure, a susceptible host, and the presence of caries-causing bacteria in the oral cavity. One key risk factors for both obesity and caries is excessive sugar consumption. To reduce the risk of obesity and dental caries in children, health professionals and parents need to be aware of the sugar content of processed foods and beverages as well as of current daily sugar-consumption recommendations. Additionally, oral health professionals must become more engaged in identifying children who are at risk for obesity and dental caries; and provide education, screening and referral to reduce these risks. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence: A Decade in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: (1) current definitions of childhood and…

  10. Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence: A Decade in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: (1) current definitions of childhood and…

  11. Shaping a Healthier Generation: Successful State Strategies to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulheron, Joyal; Vonasek, Kara

    2009-01-01

    Studies show that childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Today, more than 23 million American children--or nearly one in every three--are overweight or obese. If childhood obesity is left unaddressed, a generation of individuals could face health, social, and economic challenges that promise to stress government…

  12. A randomized controlled trial to prevent childhood obesity through early childhood feeding and parenting guidance: rationale and design of study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early and rapid growth in Infants is strongly associated with early development and persistence of obesity in young children. Substantial research has linked child obesity/overweight to increased risks for serious health outcomes, which include adverse physical, psychological, behavioral, or social consequences. Methods/design The goal of this study is to compare the effectiveness of structured Community Health Worker (CHW)- provided home visits, using an intervention created through community-based participatory research, to standard care received through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) office visits in preventing the development of overweight (weight/length ≥85th percentile) and obesity (weight/length ≥95th percentile) in infants during their first 3 years of life. One hundred forty pregnant women in their third trimester (30–36 weeks) will be recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Discussion This study will provide prospective data on the effects of an intervention to prevent childhood obesity in children at high risk for obesity due to ethnicity, income, and maternal body mass index (BMI). It will have wide-ranging applicability and the potential for rapid dissemination through the WIC program, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of a community approach though employing CHWs in preventing obesity during the first 3 years of life. This easy-to-implement obesity prevention intervention can be adapted for many locales and diverse communities and can provide evidence for policy change to influence health throughout life. Trial registration Clinical Trials Number: NCT01905072 PMID:24063435

  13. Opportunities to Strengthen Childhood Obesity Prevention in Two Mexican Health Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Cespedes, Elizabeth; Andrade, Gloria Oliva Martínez; Rodríguez-Oliveros, Guadalupe; Perez-Cuevas, Ricardo; González-Unzaga, Marco A.; Trejo, Amalia Benitez; Haines, Jess; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine Mexican caregivers’ perceptions of the role of primary care in childhood obesity management, understand the barriers and facilitators of behavior change, and identify opportunities to strengthen obesity prevention and treatment in clinical settings. Methods We conducted 52 in-depth interviews with parents and caregivers of overweight and obese children age 2–5 years in 4 Ministry of Health (public, low SES) and 4 Social Security Institute (insured, higher SES) primary care clinics in Mexico City and did systematic thematic analysis. Results In both health systems, caregivers acknowledged childhood overweight but not its adverse health consequences. Although the majority of parents had not received nutrition or physical activity recommendations from health providers, many were open to clinician guidance. Despite knowledge of healthful nutrition and physical activity, parents identified several barriers to change including child feeding occurring in the context of competing priorities (work schedules, spouses’ food preferences), and cultural norms (heavy as healthy, food as nurturance) that take precedence over adherence to dietary guidelines. Physical activity, while viewed favorably, is not a structured part of most preschooler’s routines as reported by parents. Conclusions The likelihood of success for clinic-based obesity prevention among Mexican preschoolers will be higher by addressing contextual barriers such as cultural norms regarding children’s weight and support of family members for behavior change. Similarities in caregivers’ perceptions across 2 health systems highlight the possibility of developing comprehensive interventions for the population as a whole. PMID:25530836

  14. Opportunities to Strengthen Childhood Obesity Prevention in Two Mexican Health Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Cespedes, Elizabeth; Andrade, Gloria Oliva Martínez; Rodríguez-Oliveros, Guadalupe; Perez-Cuevas, Ricardo; González-Unzaga, Marco A; Trejo, Amalia Benitez; Haines, Jess; Gillman, Matthew W; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Mexican caregivers' perceptions of the role of primary care in childhood obesity management, understand the barriers and facilitators of behavior change, and identify opportunities to strengthen obesity prevention and treatment in clinical settings. We conducted 52 in-depth interviews with parents and caregivers of overweight and obese children age 2-5 years in 4 Ministry of Health (public, low SES) and 4 Social Security Institute (insured, higher SES) primary care clinics in Mexico City and did systematic thematic analysis. In both health systems, caregivers acknowledged childhood overweight but not its adverse health consequences. Although the majority of parents had not received nutrition or physical activity recommendations from health providers, many were open to clinician guidance. Despite knowledge of healthful nutrition and physical activity, parents identified several barriers to change including child feeding occurring in the context of competing priorities (work schedules, spouses' food preferences), and cultural norms (heavy as healthy, food as nurturance) that take precedence over adherence to dietary guidelines. Physical activity, while viewed favorably, is not a structured part of most preschooler's routines as reported by parents. The likelihood of success for clinic-based obesity prevention among Mexican preschoolers will be higher by addressing contextual barriers such as cultural norms regarding children's weight and support of family members for behavior change. Similarities in caregivers' perceptions across 2 health systems highlight the possibility of developing comprehensive interventions for the population as a whole.

  15. Development and psychometric testing of the childhood obesity perceptions (COP) survey among African American caregivers: A tool for obesity prevention program planning.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Cao, Chunhua

    2016-12-01

    Currently, public health practitioners are analyzing the role that caregivers play in childhood obesity efforts. Assessing African American caregiver's perceptions of childhood obesity in rural communities is an important prevention effort. This article's objective is to describe the development and psychometric testing of a survey tool to assess childhood obesity perceptions among African American caregivers in a rural setting, which can be used for obesity prevention program development or evaluation. The Childhood Obesity Perceptions (COP) survey was developed to reflect the multidimensional nature of childhood obesity including risk factors, health complications, weight status, built environment, and obesity prevention strategies. A 97-item survey was pretested and piloted with the priority population. After pretesting and piloting, the survey was reduced to 59-items and administered to 135 African American caregivers. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test how well the survey items represented the number of Social Cognitive Theory constructs. Twenty items were removed from the original 59-item survey and acceptable internal consistency of the six factors (α=0.70-0.85) was documented for all scales in the final COP instrument. CFA resulted in a less than adequate fit; however, a multivariate Lagrange multiplier test identified modifications to improve the model fit. The COP survey represents a promising approach as a potentially comprehensive assessment for implementation or evaluation of childhood obesity programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. What childhood obesity prevention programmes work? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Cai, L; Wu, Y; Wilson, R F; Weston, C; Fawole, O; Bleich, S N; Cheskin, L J; Showell, N N; Lau, B D; Chiu, D T; Zhang, A; Segal, J

    2015-07-01

    Previous reviews of childhood obesity prevention have focused largely on schools and findings have been inconsistent. Funded by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the National Institutes of Health, we systematically evaluated the effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programmes conducted in high-income countries and implemented in various settings. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL®, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane Library from inception through 22 April 2013 for relevant studies, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies and natural experiments, targeting diet, physical activity or both, and conducted in children aged 2-18 in high-income countries. Two reviewers independently abstracted the data. The strength of evidence (SOE) supporting interventions was graded for each study setting (e.g. home, school). Meta-analyses were performed on studies judged sufficiently similar and appropriate to pool using random effect models. This paper reported our findings on various adiposity-related outcomes. We identified 147 articles (139 intervention studies) of which 115 studies were primarily school based, although other settings could have been involved. Most were conducted in the United States and within the past decade. SOE was high for physical activity-only interventions delivered in schools with home involvement or combined diet-physical activity interventions delivered in schools with both home and community components. SOE was moderate for school-based interventions targeting either diet or physical activity, combined interventions delivered in schools with home or community components or combined interventions delivered in the community with a school component. SOE was low for combined interventions in childcare or home settings. Evidence was insufficient for other interventions. In conclusion, at least moderately strong evidence supports the effectiveness of school-based interventions

  17. Childhood obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings: systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan E; Emerson, Janice S; Levine, Robert S; Kihlberg, Courtney J; Hull, Pamela C

    2014-01-01

    Childcare settings are an opportune location for early intervention programs seeking to prevent childhood obesity. This article reports on a systematic review of controlled trials of obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings. The review was limited to English language articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, and Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) between January 2000 and April 2012. childhood obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings using controlled designs that reported adiposity and behavior outcomes. no interventions, non-childcare settings, clinical weight loss programs, non-English publications. Publications were identified by key word search. Two authors reviewed eligible studies to extract study information and study results. Qualitative synthesis was conducted, including tabulation of information and a narrative summary. Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria. Seven studies reported improvements in adiposity. Six of the 13 interventions with dietary components reported improved intake or eating behaviors. Eight of the 12 interventions with physical activity components reported improved activity levels or physical fitness. Evidence was mixed for all outcomes. Results should be interpreted cautiously given the high variability in study designs and interventions. Further research needs long-term follow-up, multistrategy interventions that include changes in the nutrition and physical activity environment, reporting of cost data, and consideration of sustainability.

  18. [Prevention and treatment of obesity since childhood: strategy to decrease the non transmissible chronic diseases in adult].

    PubMed

    Burrows, R

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children and teenagers is increasing by 1.5% per year, probably due to a higher consumption of highly caloric foods and to physical inactivity. Hypercholesterolemia, increased insulin levels and high blood pressure of childhood obesity, precede atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetes and hypertension in adulthood. The prevention of childhood obesity is an efficient strategy to decrease the prevalence of non transmissible chronic diseases in the adult. The recommendations of experts committees for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of childhood obesity are reviewed. They aim at a change in dietary habits and increasing physical activity. A well balanced healthy diet and a decrease in physical inactivity time will result in a successful treatment approach for obesity.

  19. The blind spot in the drive for childhood obesity prevention: bringing eating disorders prevention into focus as a public health priority.

    PubMed

    Austin, S Bryn

    2011-06-01

    Public health attention to childhood obesity has increased in tandem with the growing epidemic, but despite this intense focus, successes in prevention have lagged far behind. There is a blind spot in our drive for childhood obesity prevention that prevents us from generating sufficiently broad solutions. Eating disorders and the constellation of perilous weight-control behaviors are in that blind spot. Evidence is mounting that obesity and eating disorders are linked in myriad ways, but entrenched myths about eating disorders undermine our ability to see the full range of leverage points to target in obesity preventive intervention studies. Our efforts to prevent childhood obesity can no longer afford to ignore eating disorders and the assemblage of related behaviors that persist unabated.

  20. Effective behaviour change techniques in the prevention and management of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Chater, A; Lorencatto, F

    2013-10-01

    Rates of childhood obesity are increasing, and it is essential to identify the active components of interventions aiming to prevent and manage obesity in children. A systematic review of behaviour change interventions was conducted to find evidence of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) that are most effective in changing physical activity and/or eating behaviour for the prevention or management of childhood obesity. An electronic search was conducted for randomised controlled trials published between January 1990 and December 2009. Of 4309 titles and abstracts screened, full texts of 135 articles were assessed, of which 17 published articles were included in this review. Intervention descriptions were coded according to the behaviour-specific CALO-RE taxonomy of BCTs. BCTs were identified and compared across obesity management (n=9) vs prevention (n=8) trials. To assess the effectiveness of individual BCTs, trials were further divided into those that were effective (defined as either a group reduction of at least 0.13 body mass index (BMI) units or a significant difference in BMI between intervention and control groups at follow-up) vs non-effective (reported no significant differences between groups). We reliably identified BCTs utilised in effective and non-effective prevention and management trials. To illustrate the relative effectiveness of each BCT, effectiveness ratios were calculated as the ratio of the number of times each BCT was a component of an intervention in an effective trial divided by the number of times they were a component of all trials. Results indicated six BCTs that may be effective components of future management interventions (provide information on the consequences of behaviour to the individual, environmental restructuring, prompt practice, prompt identification as role model/position advocate, stress management/emotional control training and general communication skills training), and one that may be effective in prevention

  1. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  2. “Greenlight Study”: A Controlled Trial of Low-Literacy, Early Childhood Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Bronaugh, Andrea; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Children who become overweight by age 2 years have significantly greater risks of long-term health problems, and children in low-income communities, where rates of low adult literacy are highest, are at increased risk of developing obesity. The objective of the Greenlight Intervention Study is to assess the effectiveness of a low-literacy, primary-care intervention on the reduction of early childhood obesity. At 4 primary-care pediatric residency training sites across the US, 865 infant-parent dyads were enrolled at the 2-month well-child checkup and are being followed through the 24-month well-child checkup. Two sites were randomly assigned to the intervention, and the other sites were assigned to an attention-control arm, implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' The Injury Prevention Program. The intervention consists of an interactive educational toolkit, including low-literacy materials designed for use during well-child visits, and a clinician-centered curriculum for providing low-literacy guidance on obesity prevention. The study is powered to detect a 10% difference in the number of children overweight (BMI > 85%) at 24 months. Other outcome measures include observed physician–parent communication, as well as parent-reported information on child dietary intake, physical activity, and injury-prevention behaviors. The study is designed to inform evidence-based standards for early childhood obesity prevention, and more generally to inform optimal approaches for low-literacy messages and health literacy training in primary preventive care. This article describes the conceptual model, study design, intervention content, and baseline characteristics of the study population. PMID:24819570

  3. "Greenlight study": a controlled trial of low-literacy, early childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Lee M; Perrin, Eliana M; Yin, H Shonna; Bronaugh, Andrea; Rothman, Russell L

    2014-06-01

    Children who become overweight by age 2 years have significantly greater risks of long-term health problems, and children in low-income communities, where rates of low adult literacy are highest, are at increased risk of developing obesity. The objective of the Greenlight Intervention Study is to assess the effectiveness of a low-literacy, primary-care intervention on the reduction of early childhood obesity. At 4 primary-care pediatric residency training sites across the US, 865 infant-parent dyads were enrolled at the 2-month well-child checkup and are being followed through the 24-month well-child checkup. Two sites were randomly assigned to the intervention, and the other sites were assigned to an attention-control arm, implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' The Injury Prevention Program. The intervention consists of an interactive educational toolkit, including low-literacy materials designed for use during well-child visits, and a clinician-centered curriculum for providing low-literacy guidance on obesity prevention. The study is powered to detect a 10% difference in the number of children overweight (BMI > 85%) at 24 months. Other outcome measures include observed physician-parent communication, as well as parent-reported information on child dietary intake, physical activity, and injury-prevention behaviors. The study is designed to inform evidence-based standards for early childhood obesity prevention, and more generally to inform optimal approaches for low-literacy messages and health literacy training in primary preventive care. This article describes the conceptual model, study design, intervention content, and baseline characteristics of the study population.

  4. Effect of childhood obesity prevention programmes on blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Wu, Y; Cheskin, L J; Wilson, R F; Wang, Y

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of childhood obesity prevention programmes on blood lipids in high-income countries. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL®, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library up to 22 April 2013 for relevant randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies and natural experiments published in English. Studies were included if they implemented diet and/or physical activity intervention(s) with ≥1 year follow-up (or ≥6 months for school-based intervention studies) in 2-18-year-olds, and were excluded if they targeted only overweight/obese children, or those with a pre-existing medical condition. Seventeen studies were finally included. For total cholesterol, the pooled intervention effect was -0.97 mg dL(-1) [95% confidence interval (CI): -3.26, 1.32; P = 0.408]; for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), -6.06 mg dL(-1) (95% CI: -11.09, -1.02; P = 0.018); for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 1.87 mg dL(-1) (95% CI: 0.39, 3.34; P = 0.013); and for triglycerides, -1.95 mg dL(-1) (95% CI: -4.94, 1.04; P = 0.202). Most interventions (70%) showed similar significant or no effects on adiposity- and lipids outcomes: 15% interventions improved both adiposity- and lipids outcomes; 55% had no significant effects on either. Childhood obesity prevention programmes had a significant desirable effect on LDL-C and HDL-C. Two-thirds of interventions showed similar significant or no effects in adiposity- and lipids outcomes. Assessing lipids outcomes provide additional useful information on obesity prevention programme benefits. © 2014 World Obesity.

  5. The IDEFICS intervention trial to prevent childhood obesity: design and study methods.

    PubMed

    Pigeot, I; Baranowski, T; De Henauw, S

    2015-12-01

    One of the major research dimensions of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study involved the development, implementation and evaluation of a setting-based community-oriented intervention programme for primary prevention of childhood obesity. In this supplement of Obesity Reviews, a compilation of key results of the IDEFICS intervention is packaged in a series of complementary papers. This paper describes the overall design and methods of the IDEFICS intervention in order to facilitate a comprehensive reading of the supplement. In addition, some 'best practice' examples are described. The IDEFICS intervention trial was conducted to assess whether the IDEFICS intervention prevented obesity in young children aged 2 to 9.9 years. The study was a non-randomized, quasi-experimental trial with one intervention matched to one control region in each of eight participating countries. The intervention was designed following the intervention mapping framework, using a socio-ecological theoretical approach. The intervention was designed to address several key obesity-related behaviours in children, parents, schools and community actors; the primary outcome was the prevalence of overweight/obesity according to the IOTF criteria based on body mass index. The aim was to achieve a reduction of overweight/obesity prevalence in the intervention regions. The intervention was delivered in school and community settings over a 2-year period. Data were collected in the intervention and control cohort regions at baseline and 2 years later. This paper offers an introductory framework for a comprehensive reading of this supplement on IDEFICS intervention key results. © 2015 World Obesity.

  6. Growing Fit: Georgia’s model for engaging early care environments in preventing childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    McDavid, Kelsey; Piedrahita, Catalina; Hashima, Patricia; Vall, Emily Anne; Kay, Christi; O’Connor, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Background In the United States, one in three children is overweight or obese by their fifth birthday. In Georgia, 35 percent of children are overweight or obese. Contrary to popular belief, children who are overweight or obese are likely to be the same weight status as adults, making early childhood an essential time to address weight status. An estimated 380,000 Georgia children attend early care and education environments, such as licensed child care centers, Head Start, and pre-kindergarten programs, which provide an opportunity to reach large numbers of children, including those at risk for obesity and overweight. Methods To address this opportunity, the Georgia Department of Public Health, Georgia Shape - the Governor’s Initiative to prevent childhood obesity, and HealthMPowers, Inc., created the Growing Fit training and toolkit to assist early childhood educators in creating policy, systems, and environmental changes that support good nutrition and physical activity. This report, the first related to this project, describes the training and its dissemination between January and December 2015. Results A total of 103 early childcare educators from 39 early childcare education centers (22 individual childcare systems) from 19 counties in Georgia were trained. Fifteen systems completed a pre and post-test assessment of their system, demonstrating slight improvements. Training for an additional 125 early childcare education centers is planned for 2016. Conclusions Lessons learned from the first year of the training include the need for more robust assessment of adoption and implementation of policy, systems, and environmental changes in trained centers. PMID:27331199

  7. Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demo...

  8. A systematic review of home-based childhood obesity prevention studies.

    PubMed

    Showell, Nakiya N; Fawole, Oluwakemi; Segal, Jodi; Wilson, Renee F; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Bleich, Sara N; Wu, Yang; Lau, Brandyn; Wang, Youfa

    2013-07-01

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home on obesity risk behaviors, the evidence base for the effectiveness of home-based interventions on obesity prevention remains uncertain. The objective was to systematically review the effectiveness of home-based interventions on weight, intermediate (eg, diet and physical activity [PA]), and clinical outcomes. We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library from inception through August 11, 2012. We included experimental and natural experimental studies with ≥1-year follow-up reporting weight-related outcomes and targeting children at home. Two independent reviewers screened studies and extracted data. We graded the strength of the evidence supporting interventions targeting diet, PA, or both for obesity prevention. We identified 6 studies; 3 tested combined interventions (diet and PA), 1 used diet intervention, 1 combined intervention with primary care and consumer health informatics components, and 1 combined intervention with school and community components. Select combined interventions had beneficial effects on fruit/vegetable intake and sedentary behaviors. However, none of the 6 studies reported a significant effect on weight outcomes. Overall, the strength of evidence is low that combined home-based interventions effectively prevent obesity. The evidence is insufficient for conclusions about home-based diet interventions or interventions implemented at home in association with other settings. The strength of evidence is low to support the effectiveness of home-based child obesity prevention programs. Additional research is needed to test interventions in the home setting, particularly those incorporating parenting strategies and addressing environmental influences.

  9. A Systematic Review of Home-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fawole, Oluwakemi; Segal, Jodi; Wilson, Renee F.; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Bleich, Sara N.; Wu, Yang; Lau, Brandyn; Wang, Youfa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home on obesity risk behaviors, the evidence base for the effectiveness of home-based interventions on obesity prevention remains uncertain. The objective was to systematically review the effectiveness of home-based interventions on weight, intermediate (eg, diet and physical activity [PA]), and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library from inception through August 11, 2012. We included experimental and natural experimental studies with ≥1-year follow-up reporting weight-related outcomes and targeting children at home. Two independent reviewers screened studies and extracted data. We graded the strength of the evidence supporting interventions targeting diet, PA, or both for obesity prevention. RESULTS: We identified 6 studies; 3 tested combined interventions (diet and PA), 1 used diet intervention, 1 combined intervention with primary care and consumer health informatics components, and 1 combined intervention with school and community components. Select combined interventions had beneficial effects on fruit/vegetable intake and sedentary behaviors. However, none of the 6 studies reported a significant effect on weight outcomes. Overall, the strength of evidence is low that combined home-based interventions effectively prevent obesity. The evidence is insufficient for conclusions about home-based diet interventions or interventions implemented at home in association with other settings. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is low to support the effectiveness of home-based child obesity prevention programs. Additional research is needed to test interventions in the home setting, particularly those incorporating parenting strategies and addressing environmental influences. PMID:23753095

  10. Development of a childhood obesity prevention programme with a focus on UK South Asian communities.

    PubMed

    Pallan, Miranda; Parry, Jayne; Cheng, K K; Adab, Peymané

    2013-12-01

    We report the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention for UK South Asian primary school-aged children, guided by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for complex intervention development and evaluation. We combined information gained from a literature review, stakeholder focus groups, an expert group, review of local resources and mapping to the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO framework) in an intervention development process. The study took place in 2007 in Birmingham, UK. Contextual information from the stakeholder focus groups was essential for informing intervention development. The expert group defined guiding principles for the intervention. Informing intervention design by assessing existing local resources addressed intervention sustainability. The use of the ANGELO framework ensured a comprehensive environmental approach to intervention development. The intervention consisted of two broad processes; increasing children's physical activity levels through school, and increasing skills of families through activity-based learning. The developed intervention is being evaluated in a major study. The intervention development process has resulted in a tailored intervention programme to prevent childhood obesity in UK South Asian communities, but also intervention processes that could be applied to other communities and tailored to local context. © 2013.

  11. Economic evaluation of "healthy beginnings" an early childhood intervention to prevent obesity.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Alison; Lung, Tom; Wen, Li Ming; Baur, Louise; Rissel, Chris; Howard, Kirsten

    2014-07-01

    To determine the costs and cost-effectiveness of an early childhood home visiting program delivered to families in socio-economically disadvantaged areas of Sydney, Australia during 2007-2010. Economic evaluation of a randomized controlled trial, the healthy beginnings (HB) trial, from the perspective of the health funder. Intervention resources were determined from local health district records in 2012 $AUD. Health-care resource utilization was determined through patient-level data linkage. The cost of HB intervention in the clinical trial over 2 years was $1309 per child (2012 $AUD). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $4230 per unit BMI avoided and $631 per 0.1 reduction in BMI z-score. It was estimated that the program could be delivered in practice for $709 per child; with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $2697 per unit BMI avoided and $376 per 0.1 reduction in BMI z-score. We present the first economic evaluation of an effective obesity prevention initiative in early childhood. HB is a moderately priced intervention with demonstrated effectiveness that offers similar or better value for money than existing obesity prevention or treatment interventions targeted at older children. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  12. Design of a Digital-Based, Multicomponent Nutrition Guidance System for Prevention of Early Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Keriann H; Dattilo, Anne M; Black, Maureen M; Saavedra, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parenting focused modifiable factors to prevent obesity and promote healthy growth in the first 1000 days of life are needed. Scale-up of interventions to global populations is necessary to reverse trends in weight status among infants and toddlers, and large scale dissemination will require understanding of effective strategies. Utilizing nutrition education theories, this paper describes the design of a digital-based nutrition guidance system targeted to first-time mothers to prevent obesity during the first two years. The multicomponent system consists of scientifically substantiated content, tools, and telephone-based professional support delivered in an anticipatory and sequential manner via the internet, email, and text messages, focusing on educational modules addressing the modifiable factors associated with childhood obesity. Digital delivery formats leverage consumer media trends and provide the opportunity for scale-up, unavailable to previous interventions reliant on resource heavy clinic and home-based counseling. Designed initially for use in the United States, this system's core features are applicable to all contexts and constitute an approach fostering healthy growth, not just obesity prevention. The multicomponent features, combined with a global concern for optimal growth and positive trends in mobile internet use, represent this system's future potential to affect change in nutrition practice in developing countries.

  13. Design of a Digital-Based, Multicomponent Nutrition Guidance System for Prevention of Early Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M.; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parenting focused modifiable factors to prevent obesity and promote healthy growth in the first 1000 days of life are needed. Scale-up of interventions to global populations is necessary to reverse trends in weight status among infants and toddlers, and large scale dissemination will require understanding of effective strategies. Utilizing nutrition education theories, this paper describes the design of a digital-based nutrition guidance system targeted to first-time mothers to prevent obesity during the first two years. The multicomponent system consists of scientifically substantiated content, tools, and telephone-based professional support delivered in an anticipatory and sequential manner via the internet, email, and text messages, focusing on educational modules addressing the modifiable factors associated with childhood obesity. Digital delivery formats leverage consumer media trends and provide the opportunity for scale-up, unavailable to previous interventions reliant on resource heavy clinic and home-based counseling. Designed initially for use in the United States, this system's core features are applicable to all contexts and constitute an approach fostering healthy growth, not just obesity prevention. The multicomponent features, combined with a global concern for optimal growth and positive trends in mobile internet use, represent this system's future potential to affect change in nutrition practice in developing countries. PMID:27635257

  14. Perception of Childhood Obesity and Support for Prevention Policies among Latinos and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Puricelli Perin, Douglas M.; Frerichs, Leah; Costa, Sergio; Ramirez, Amelie G.; Huang, Terry T.-K.

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was administered to Latino and White residents of Omaha, NE, to assess perception of the childhood obesity problem, attribution of responsibility, and support for obesity-related policies. The sample included 40.8% (n = 271) Latinos and 59.2% (n = 393) Whites. Among Latinos, 25% did not see childhood obesity as a problem, compared to 6% of Whites (P < 0.001). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, gender, and education level (odds ratio (OR) 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07–4.14). Latinos were more likely to agree that government was responsible for addressing childhood obesity compared to Whites (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.82–4.35). Higher support for policy interventions was observed among individuals who perceived childhood obesity as a big problem compared to those who did not, independent of race, sex, age, or education level. The relationship between support for tax-based policies and perception of the childhood obesity problem was mainly evident among Latinos rather than Whites. Despite city-wide efforts to address obesity, differential penetration in community subgroups appears evident. There is room to further engage Latinos in the cause of obesity. Deepening community awareness about the consequences and complexity of childhood obesity can lead to stronger support for childhood obesity policy interventions. PMID:25045532

  15. Perception of childhood obesity and support for prevention policies among Latinos and Whites.

    PubMed

    Puricelli Perin, Douglas M; Frerichs, Leah; Costa, Sergio; Ramirez, Amelie G; Huang, Terry T-K

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was administered to Latino and White residents of Omaha, NE, to assess perception of the childhood obesity problem, attribution of responsibility, and support for obesity-related policies. The sample included 40.8% (n = 271) Latinos and 59.2% (n = 393) Whites. Among Latinos, 25% did not see childhood obesity as a problem, compared to 6% of Whites (P < 0.001). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, gender, and education level (odds ratio (OR) 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-4.14). Latinos were more likely to agree that government was responsible for addressing childhood obesity compared to Whites (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.82-4.35). Higher support for policy interventions was observed among individuals who perceived childhood obesity as a big problem compared to those who did not, independent of race, sex, age, or education level. The relationship between support for tax-based policies and perception of the childhood obesity problem was mainly evident among Latinos rather than Whites. Despite city-wide efforts to address obesity, differential penetration in community subgroups appears evident. There is room to further engage Latinos in the cause of obesity. Deepening community awareness about the consequences and complexity of childhood obesity can lead to stronger support for childhood obesity policy interventions.

  16. What childhood obesity prevention programmes work? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Cai, L.; Wu, Y.; Wilson, R. F.; Weston, C.; Fawole, O.; Bleich, S. N.; Cheskin, L. J.; Showell, N. N.; Lau, B. D.; Chiu, D. T.; Zhang, A.; Segal, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Previous reviews of childhood obesity prevention have focused largely on schools and findings have been inconsistent. Funded by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the National Institutes of Health, we systematically evaluated the effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programmes conducted in high-income countries and implemented in various settings. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL®, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane Library from inception through 22 April 2013 for relevant studies, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies and natural experiments, targeting diet, physical activity or both, and conducted in children aged 2–18 in high-income countries. Two reviewers independently abstracted the data. The strength of evidence (SOE) supporting interventions was graded for each study setting (e.g. home, school). Meta-analyses were performed on studies judged sufficiently similar and appropriate to pool using random effect models. This paper reported our findings on various adiposity-related outcomes. We identified 147 articles (139 intervention studies) of which 115 studies were primarily school based, although other settings could have been involved. Most were conducted in the United States and within the past decade. SOE was high for physical activity-only interventions delivered in schools with home involvement or combined diet–physical activity interventions delivered in schools with both home and community components. SOE was moderate for school-based interventions targeting either diet or physical activity, combined interventions delivered in schools with home or community components or combined interventions delivered in the community with a school component. SOE was low for combined interventions in childcare or home settings. Evidence was insufficient for other interventions. In conclusion, at least moderately strong evidence supports the effectiveness of school

  17. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-09-09

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  18. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  19. Family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions: a systematic review and quantitative content analysis.

    PubMed

    Ash, Tayla; Agaronov, Alen; Young, Ta'Loria; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Davison, Kirsten K

    2017-08-24

    A wide range of interventions has been implemented and tested to prevent obesity in children. Given parents' influence and control over children's energy-balance behaviors, including diet, physical activity, media use, and sleep, family interventions are a key strategy in this effort. The objective of this study was to profile the field of recent family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions by employing systematic review and quantitative content analysis methods to identify gaps in the knowledge base. Using a comprehensive search strategy, we searched the PubMed, PsycIFO, and CINAHL databases to identify eligible interventions aimed at preventing childhood obesity with an active family component published between 2008 and 2015. Characteristics of study design, behavioral domains targeted, and sample demographics were extracted from eligible articles using a comprehensive codebook. More than 90% of the 119 eligible interventions were based in the United States, Europe, or Australia. Most interventions targeted children 2-5 years of age (43%) or 6-10 years of age (35%), with few studies targeting the prenatal period (8%) or children 14-17 years of age (7%). The home (28%), primary health care (27%), and community (33%) were the most common intervention settings. Diet (90%) and physical activity (82%) were more frequently targeted in interventions than media use (55%) and sleep (20%). Only 16% of interventions targeted all four behavioral domains. In addition to studies in developing countries, racial minorities and non-traditional families were also underrepresented. Hispanic/Latino and families of low socioeconomic status were highly represented. The limited number of interventions targeting diverse populations and obesity risk behaviors beyond diet and physical activity inhibit the development of comprehensive, tailored interventions. To ensure a broad evidence base, more interventions implemented in developing countries and targeting racial

  20. Healthy Families Study: Design of a Childhood Obesity Prevention Trial for Hispanic Families

    PubMed Central

    Zoorob, Roger; Buchowski, Maciej; Beech, Bettina M.; Canedo, Juan R.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Akohoue, Sylvie; Hull, Pamela C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The childhood obesity epidemic disproportionately affects Hispanics. This paper reports on the design of the ongoing Healthy Families Study, a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a community-based, behavioral family intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in Hispanic children using a community-based participatory research approach. Methods The study will enroll 272 Hispanic families with children ages 5–7 residing in greater Nashville, Tennessee, United States. Families are randomized to the active weight gain prevention intervention or an alternative intervention focused on oral health. Lay community health promoters implement the interventions primarily in Spanish in a community center. The active intervention was adapted from the We Can! parent program to be culturally-targeted for Hispanic families and for younger children. This 12-month intervention promotes healthy eating behaviors, increased physical activity, and decreased sedentary behavior, with an emphasis on parental modeling and experiential learning for children. Families attend eight bi-monthly group sessions during four months then receive information and/or support by phone or mail each month for eight months. The primary outcome is change in children’s body mass index. Secondary outcomes are changes in children’s waist circumference, dietary behaviors, preferences for fruits and vegetables, physical activity, and screen time. Results Enrollment and data collection are in progress. Conclusion This study will contribute valuable evidence on efficacy of a childhood obesity prevention intervention targeting Hispanic families with implications for reducing disparities. PMID:23624172

  1. Healthy families study: design of a childhood obesity prevention trial for Hispanic families.

    PubMed

    Zoorob, Roger; Buchowski, Maciej S; Beech, Bettina M; Canedo, Juan R; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Akohoue, Sylvie; Hull, Pamela C

    2013-07-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic disproportionately affects Hispanics. This paper reports on the design of the ongoing Healthy Families Study, a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a community-based, behavioral family intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in Hispanic children using a community-based participatory research approach. The study will enroll 272 Hispanic families with children ages 5-7 residing in greater Nashville, Tennessee, United States. Families are randomized to the active weight gain prevention intervention or an alternative intervention focused on oral health. Lay community health promoters implement the interventions primarily in Spanish in a community center. The active intervention was adapted from the We Can! parent program to be culturally-targeted for Hispanic families and for younger children. This 12-month intervention promotes healthy eating behaviors, increased physical activity, and decreased sedentary behavior, with an emphasis on parental modeling and experiential learning for children. Families attend eight bi-monthly group sessions during four months then receive information and/or support by phone or mail each month for eight months. The primary outcome is change in children's body mass index. Secondary outcomes are changes in children's waist circumference, dietary behaviors, preferences for fruits and vegetables, physical activity, and screen time. Enrollment and data collection are in progress. This study will contribute valuable evidence on efficacy of a childhood obesity prevention intervention targeting Hispanic families with implications for reducing disparities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a Systems Science Curriculum to Engage Rural African American Teens in Understanding and Addressing Childhood Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, Leah; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Young, Tiffany L; Dave, Gaurav; Stith, Doris; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-08-01

    Engaging youth from racial and ethnic minority communities as leaders for change is a potential strategy to mobilize support for addressing childhood obesity, but there are limited curricula designed to help youth understand the complex influences on obesity. Our aim was to develop and pilot test a systems science curriculum to elicit rural African American youth perspectives on childhood obesity and enhance their understanding of and support for obesity prevention solutions. The curriculum was designed so it could be integrated with existing positive youth development curricula that help youth advocate for and implement identified solutions. We conducted four workshop sessions with youth that engaged them in systems learning activities such as guided systems diagramming activities. The participants ( n = 21) completed validated surveys presession and postsession that assessed their causal attributions of obesity and support for obesity prevention policies. The youths' perception that environmental factors cause obesity increased ( p < .05), and perceptions that individual behavior and biology cause obesity did not change. Their support for policies that addressed food access and food pricing significantly increased ( p < .05). The youths' system diagrams elucidated links between multilevel factors such as personal attitudes, social influence, and the built environment, which provides important information for designing synergistic solutions. The changes we observed in youths' perceptions of obesity and support for policy changes have important implications for youths' interest and willingness to advocate for social and environmental changes in their community. The strategies have a promising role in supporting community mobilization to address childhood obesity.

  3. Translation of clinical practice guidelines for childhood obesity prevention in primary care mobilizes a rural Midwest community.

    PubMed

    Gibson, S Jo

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to implement clinic system changes that support evidence-based guidelines for childhood obesity prevention. Adherence rates for prevention and screening of children in a rural Midwest primary care setting were used to measure the success of the program. Retrospective chart reviews reflected gaps in current practice and documentation. An evidence-based toolkit for childhood obesity prevention was used to implement clinic system changes for the identified gaps. The quality improvement approach proved to be effective in translating knowledge of obesity prevention guidelines into rural clinic practices with significant improvements in documentation of prevention measures that may positively impact the childhood obesity epidemic. Primary care providers, including nurse practitioners (NPs), are at the forefront of diagnosing, educating, and counseling children and families on obesity prevention and need appropriate resources and tools to deliver premier care. The program successfully demonstrated how barriers to practice, even with the unique challenges in a rural setting, can be overcome. NPs fulfill a pivotal primary care role and can provide leadership that may positively impact obesity prevention in their communities. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  4. Online course increases nutrition professionals' knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy in using an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Stark, Christina M; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L; Devine, Carol M; Dollahite, Jamie S; Olson, Christine M

    2011-01-01

    To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Online continuing education course. Nutrition and health professionals in an online course (n = 105) and a delayed intervention comparison group (n = 37). A 6-week, facilitated online course titled, Preventing Childhood Obesity: An Ecological Approach. Changes in knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy in using an ecological approach to address childhood obesity. Paired and independent sample t tests, factor analysis, regression analysis. In contrast to a comparison group, nutrition and health professionals who participated in a 6-week online course had statistically significant increases (P < .01) in their knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy related to using an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. A facilitated online course can be effective at increasing the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of community-based nutrition and health professionals in using an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity in their communities. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population: study design and demographic data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) study.

    PubMed

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Butte, Nancy F; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Sharma, Shreela V; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H

    2015-02-01

    There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2-12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3-83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity.

  6. Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study

    PubMed Central

    Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188

  7. Dietary Education in School-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs12

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review school based interventions designed to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity that focused on modifying dietary behavior and were published between 2000 and May 2009. A total of 25 interventions met the criteria. The grade range of these interventions was from K to 12; 13 studies exclusively targeted elementary school, 2 targeted both elementary and middle school, 9 exclusively targeted middle school, and 1 targeted high school. The majority of the interventions focused on both dietary and physical activity behaviors, whereas 8 interventions focused exclusively on dietary behaviors. Approximately one-half of the interventions were based on a behavioral theory. In terms of duration, 13 were longer than 6 mo, 4 were less than 1 mo, and 8 had a duration between 1 and 6 mo. The majority of the interventions were implemented by teachers. In terms of activities, almost all interventions had a curricular component except 2 that distributed free fruit or vegetables. Besides curricular instructions, parental and family involvement was also utilized by several interventions. Environmental and policy changes were used in 7 interventions. For evaluation, the 2 most popular designs were experimental design with random assignment at group level and quasi experimental design, both of which were used by 9 interventions each. In terms of impact on adiposity indices, only 14 interventions measured it and only 6 of those were able to demonstrate significant changes. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of school based dietary education interventions for childhood obesity prevention are presented. PMID:22332053

  8. Preventing Weight Gain and Obesity: Indirect Effects of the Family Check-Up in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Montaño, Zorash; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2014-01-01

    The early signs of obesity are observable in early childhood. Although the most promising prevention approaches are family centered, few relevant early prevention programs exist. This study evaluated the effects of an evidence-based, home-visiting intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on the trajectory of children’s weight gain. The FCU was designed to prevent the development of behavior problems by improving family management practices; children’s weight has not been an explicit target. On the basis of previous research and conceptual models, we hypothesized that intervention effects on parenting practices, specifically caregivers’ use of positive behavior support (PBS) strategies in toddlerhood, would mediate improvements in children’s weight trajectories. A total of 731 indigent caregiver–child dyads from a multisite randomized intervention trial were examined. Observational assessment of parenting and mealtime behaviors occurred from age 2 to 5. The child’s body mass index (BMI) was assessed yearly from age 5 to 9.5. Path analysis with a latent growth model revealed a significant indirect effect of the FCU on the trajectory of BMI in later childhood. Improvements in caregivers’ PBS in toddlerhood, which was related to the nutritional quality of the meals caregivers served to the child during the mealtime task, served as the intervening process. Further, findings indicate that the FCU prevents progression to overweight and obese status amongst at-risk children. These study results add to existing evidence that has demonstrated that family-based interventions aimed at improving general family management skills are effective at preventing weight gain. Future directions are discussed. PMID:25263212

  9. Active living research: creating and using evidence to support childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Sallis, James F; Cutter, Carmen L; Lou, Deborah; Spoon, Chad; Wilson, Amanda L; Ding, Ding; Ponkshe, Prabhu; Cervero, Robert; Patrick, Kevin; Schmid, Thomas L; Mignano, Alexandra; Orleans, C Tracy

    2014-02-01

    The second phase of Active Living Research (ALR-2, 2007-2012) focused on advancing the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF)'s goal of reversing the childhood obesity epidemic. The mission was to stimulate and support research to identify environmental factors and policies that influence physical activity for children and families to inform effective childhood obesity prevention strategies, with an emphasis on the lower-income and racial/ethnic communities with highest childhood obesity prevalence. The present report describes ALR activities undertaken to accomplish three goals. The first goal-to build an evidence base-was furthered by funding 230 competitive grants to identify and evaluate promising environment and policy changes. More than 300 publications have been produced so far. The second goal-to build an interdisciplinary and diverse field of investigators-was supported through annual conferences and linked journal supplements, academic outreach to multiple disciplines, and grants targeting young investigators and those representing groups historically disadvantaged or underrepresented in RWJF-funded research. The third goal-to use research to inform policy and practice-was advanced through research briefs; webinars; research-translation grants supporting ALR grantees to design communications tailored to decision-maker audiences; active engagement of policymakers and other stakeholders in ALR program meetings and annual conferences; ALR presentations at policy-related meetings; and broad outreach through a widely used website, e-mailed newsletters, and social media. ALR-2 findings and products have contributed to a rapid increase in the evidence base and field of active living research, as documented by an independent program evaluation.

  10. Early childhood family intervention and long-term obesity prevention among high-risk minority youth.

    PubMed

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Theise, Rachelle; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2012-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that family intervention to promote effective parenting in early childhood affects obesity in preadolescence. Participants were 186 minority youth at risk for behavior problems who enrolled in long-term follow-up studies after random assignment to family intervention or control condition at age 4. Follow-up Study 1 included 40 girls at familial risk for behavior problems; Follow-up Study 2 included 146 boys and girls at risk for behavior problems based on teacher ratings. Family intervention aimed to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems during early childhood; it did not focus on physical health. BMI and health behaviors were measured an average of 5 years after intervention in Study 1 and 3 years after intervention in Study 2. Youth randomized to intervention had significantly lower BMI at follow-up relative to controls (Study 1 P = .05; Study 2 P = .006). Clinical impact is evidenced by lower rates of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) among intervention girls and boys relative to controls (Study 2: 24% vs 54%, P = .002). There were significant intervention-control group differences on physical and sedentary activity, blood pressure, and diet. Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities.

  11. Modifying the food environment for childhood obesity prevention: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Penney, Tarra L; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Shearer, Cindy; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee; Kirk, Sara F L

    2014-05-01

    The prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. However, a range of complex social and environmental influences is implicated in the development of obesity and chronic disease that goes beyond the notion of individual choice. A population-level approach recognises the importance of access to and availability of healthy foods outside the home. These external food environments, in restaurants, supermarkets, and in school, or recreation and sports settings, are often characterised by energy dense, nutrient-poor food items that do not reflect the current nutritional guidelines for health. In addition, our understanding of these broader influences on nutritional intake is still limited. Particularly, lacking is a clear understanding of what constitutes the food environment, as well as robust measures of components of the food environment across different contexts. Therefore, this review summarises the literature on food environments of relevance to childhood obesity prevention, with a focus on places where children live, learn and play. Specifically, the paper highlights the approaches and challenges related to defining and measuring the food environment, discusses the aspects of the food environment unique to children and reports on environmental characteristics that are being modified within community, school and recreational settings. Results of the review show the need for a continued focus on understanding the intersection between individual behaviour and external factors; improved instrument development, especially regarding validity and reliability; clearer reported methodology including protocols for instrument use and data management; and considering novel study design approaches that are targeted at measuring the relationship between the individual and their food environment.

  12. [Evaluation of an education intervention for childhood obesity prevention in basic schools in Chile].

    PubMed

    Lobos Fernández, Luz Lorena; Leyton Dinamarca, Bárbara; Kain Bercovich, Juliana; Vio del Río, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a comprehensive intervention in nutrition education and physical activity to prevent childhood obesity in primary school children of low socioeconomic status in Macul county in Chile, with a two year follow-up (2008 and 2009) of the children. The intervention consisted in teacher nutrition training in healthy eating and the implementation of educational material based on Chilean dietary guidelines. In addition, there was an increase in physical education classes to 3-4 hours per week and physical education teachers were recruited for that purpose. Weight, height and six minutes walk test (6MWT) were measured and body mass index (BMI), BMI Z score, prevalence of normal, overweight and obese children were calculated with WHO 2007reference. Changes between baseline and BMI Z in each period and 6MWT/height, and changes in nutrition knowledge through questionnaires were measured. There was no significant difference in BMI Z score between the initial and final periods and in the evolution of the nutritional status of children. Nutrition knowledge improved significantly between the two measurements. There was a significant increase in 6MWT/height (10 meters between baseline and follow-up, p < 0.001). We conclude that although there was an improvement in nutrition knowledge and physical fitness of children, there was a stabilization of BMI Z score in the period of the study. New educational interventions are required according to the reality of each community to obtain a positive impact to prevent childhood obesity in primary schools.

  13. Early Childhood Family Intervention and Long-term Obesity Prevention Among High-risk Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Theise, Rachelle; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that family intervention to promote effective parenting in early childhood affects obesity in preadolescence. METHODS: Participants were 186 minority youth at risk for behavior problems who enrolled in long-term follow-up studies after random assignment to family intervention or control condition at age 4. Follow-up Study 1 included 40 girls at familial risk for behavior problems; Follow-up Study 2 included 146 boys and girls at risk for behavior problems based on teacher ratings. Family intervention aimed to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems during early childhood; it did not focus on physical health. BMI and health behaviors were measured an average of 5 years after intervention in Study 1 and 3 years after intervention in Study 2. RESULTS: Youth randomized to intervention had significantly lower BMI at follow-up relative to controls (Study 1 P = .05; Study 2 P = .006). Clinical impact is evidenced by lower rates of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) among intervention girls and boys relative to controls (Study 2: 24% vs 54%, P = .002). There were significant intervention-control group differences on physical and sedentary activity, blood pressure, and diet. CONCLUSIONS: Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities. PMID:22311988

  14. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory: children in China.

    PubMed

    Murnan, Judy; Sharma, Manoj; Lin, Danhua

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary Chinese children. A 55-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 282 fifth-graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.198). Hours of TV watching was predicted by self-efficacy of watching less than two hours of TV (R2 = 0.155). Glasses of water consumed was predicted by self-efficacy for drinking water, gender, and number of times taught about physical activity at school (R2 = 0.100). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed was predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.197). Social cognitive theory offers a useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.

  15. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  16. Low levels of energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors: Implications for obesity prevention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (medi...

  17. Project Energize: intervention development and 10 years of progress in preventing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; Cairncross, Carolyn; Williams, Margaret Hinepo; Tseng, Marilyn; Coppinger, Tara; McLennan, Steph; Latimer, Kasha

    2016-01-26

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. The school setting offers access to large numbers of children and the ability to provide supportive environments for quality physical activity and nutrition. This article describes Project Energize, a through-school physical activity and nutrition programme that celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015 so that it might serve as a model for similar practices, initiatives and policies elsewhere. The programme was envisaged and financed by the Waikato District Health Board of New Zealand in 2004 and delivered by Sport Waikato to 124 primary schools as a randomised controlled trial from 2005 to 2006. The programme has since expanded to include all 242 primary schools in the Waikato region and 70 schools in other regions, including 53,000 children. Ongoing evaluation and development of Project Energize has shown it to be sustainable (ongoing for >10 years), both effective (lower obesity, higher physical fitness) and cost effective (one health related cost quality adjusted life year between $18,000 and $30,000) and efficient ($45/child/year) as a childhood 'health' programme. The programme's unique community-based approach is inclusive of all children, serving a population that is 42% Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. While the original nine healthy eating and seven quality physical activity goals have not changed, the delivery and assessment processes has been refined and the health service adapted over the 10 years of the programme existence, as well as adapted over time to other settings including early childhood education and schools in Cork in Ireland. Evaluation and research associated with the programme delivery and outcomes are ongoing. The dissemination of findings to politicians and collaboration with other service providers are both regarded as priorities.

  18. Using frameworks to diagram value in complex policy and environmental interventions to prevent childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Swank, Melissa Farrell; Brennan, Laura K; Gentry, Daniel; Kemner, Allison L

    2015-01-01

    To date, few tools assist policy makers and practitioners in understanding and conveying the implementation costs, potential impacts, and value of policy and environmental changes to address healthy eating, active living, and childhood obesity. For the Evaluation of Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC), evaluators considered inputs (resources and investments) that generate costs and savings as well as benefits and harms related to social, economic, environmental, and health-related outcomes in their assessment of 49 HKHC community partnerships funded from 2009 to 2014. Using data collected through individual and group interviews and an online performance monitoring system, evaluators created a socioecological framework to assess investments, resources, costs, savings, benefits, and harms at the individual, organizational, community, and societal levels. Evaluators customized frameworks for 6 focal strategies: active transportation, parks and play spaces, child care physical activity standards, corner stores, farmers' markets, and child care nutrition standards. To illustrate the Value Frameworks, this brief highlights the 38 HKHC communities implementing at least 1 active transportation strategy. Evaluators populated this conceptual Value Framework with themes from the strategy-specific inputs and outputs. The range of factors corresponding to the implementation and impact of the HKHC community partnerships are highlighted along with the inputs and outputs. The Value Frameworks helped evaluators identify gaps in current analysis models (ie, benefit-cost analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis) as well as paint a more complete picture of value for potential obesity prevention strategies. These frameworks provide a comprehensive understanding of investments needed, proposed costs and savings, and potential benefits and harms associated with economic, social, environmental, and health outcomes. This framing also allowed evaluators to demonstrate the interdependence

  19. An Examination of Educators' Perceptions of the School's Role in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sharon Kay Harris

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a prevalent subject of research currently, and many researchers have studied the effectiveness of school programs in battling obesity among students. This case study, utilizing ethnographic tools of observation, interviews, and investigation of artifacts, examines educators' perceptions of the role of the school in the…

  20. An Examination of Educators' Perceptions of the School's Role in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sharon Kay Harris

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a prevalent subject of research currently, and many researchers have studied the effectiveness of school programs in battling obesity among students. This case study, utilizing ethnographic tools of observation, interviews, and investigation of artifacts, examines educators' perceptions of the role of the school in the…

  1. Online Course Increases Nutrition Professionals' Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy in Using an Ecological Approach to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…

  2. Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Process evaluations of large-scale school based programs are necessary to aid in the interpretation of the outcome data. The Louisiana Health (LA Health) study is a multi-component childhood obesity prevention study for middle school children. The Physical Education (PEQ), Intervention (IQ), and F...

  3. Online Course Increases Nutrition Professionals' Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy in Using an Ecological Approach to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…

  4. Preventing childhood obesity during infancy in UK primary care: a mixed-methods study of HCPs' knowledge, beliefs and practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a strong rationale for intervening in early childhood to prevent obesity. Over a quarter of infants gain weight more rapidly than desirable during the first six months of life putting them at greater risk of obesity in childhood. However, little is known about UK healthcare professionals' (HCPs) approach to primary prevention. This study explored obesity-related knowledge of UK HCPs and the beliefs and current practice of general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses in relation to identifying infants at risk of developing childhood obesity. Method Survey of UK HCPs (GPs, practice nurses, health visitors, nursery, community and children's nurses). HCPs (n = 116) rated their confidence in providing infant feeding advice and completed the Obesity Risk Knowledge Scale (ORK-10). Semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 12 GPs and 6 practice nurses were audio recorded, taped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results GPs were less confident about giving advice about infant feeding than health visitors (p = 0.001) and nursery nurses (p = 0.009) but more knowledgeable about the health risks of obesity (p < 0.001) than nurses (p = 0.009). HCPs who were consulted more often about feeding were less knowledgeable about the risks associated with obesity (r = -0.34, n = 114, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between HCPs' ratings of confidence in their advice and their knowledge of the obesity risk. Six main themes emerged from the interviews: 1) Attribution of childhood obesity to family environment, 2) Infant feeding advice as the health visitor's role, 3) Professional reliance on anecdotal or experiential knowledge about infant feeding, 4) Difficulties with recognition of, or lack of concern for, infants "at risk" of becoming obese, 5) Prioritising relationship with parent over best practice in infant feeding and 6) Lack of shared understanding for dealing with early years

  5. From good ideas to actions: a model-driven community collaborative to prevent childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Huberty, Jennifer L; Balluff, Mary; O'Dell, Molly; Peterson, Kerri

    2010-01-01

    Activate Omaha Kids, a community collaborative, was designed, implemented, and evaluated with the aim of preventing childhood obesity in the Omaha community. Activate Omaha Kids brought together key stakeholders and community leaders to create a community coalition. The coalition's aim was to oversee a long-term sustainable approach to preventing obesity. Following a planning phase, a business plan was developed that prioritized best practices to be implemented in Omaha. The business plan was developed using the Ecological Model, Health Policy Model, and Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Active Living by Design 5P model. The three models helped the community identify target populations and activities that then created a single model for sustainable change. Twenty-four initiatives were identified, over one million dollars in funding was secured, and evaluation strategies were identified. By using the models from the initial steps through evaluation, a clear facilitation of the process was possible, and the result was a comprehensive, feasible plan. The use of the models to design a strategic plan was pivotal in building a sustainable coalition to achieve measurable improvements in the health of children and prove replicable over time.

  6. Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

  7. The cost of a primary care-based childhood obesity prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Wright, Davene R; Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Horan, Christine M; Hohman, Katherine H; Gortmaker, Steven L; Prosser, Lisa A

    2014-01-29

    United States pediatric guidelines recommend that childhood obesity counseling be conducted in the primary care setting. Primary care-based interventions can be effective in improving health behaviors, but also costly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost of a primary care-based obesity prevention intervention targeting children between the ages of two and six years who are at elevated risk for obesity, measured against usual care. High Five for Kids was a cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial that aimed to modify children's nutrition and TV viewing habits through a motivational interviewing intervention. We assessed visit-related costs from a societal perspective, including provider-incurred direct medical costs, provider-incurred equipment costs, parent time costs and parent out-of-pocket costs, in 2011 dollars for the intervention (n = 253) and usual care (n =192) groups. We conducted a net cost analysis using both societal and health plan costing perspectives and conducted one-way sensitivity and uncertainty analyses on results. The total costs for the intervention group and usual care groups in the first year of the intervention were $65,643 (95% CI [$64,522, $66,842]) and $12,192 (95% CI [$11,393, $13,174]). The mean costs for the intervention and usual care groups were $259 (95% CI [$255, $264]) and $63 (95% CI [$59, $69]) per child, respectively, for a incremental difference of $196 (95% CI [$191, $202]) per child. Children in the intervention group attended a mean of 2.4 of a possible 4 in-person visits and received 0.45 of a possible 2 counseling phone calls. Provider-incurred costs were the primary driver of cost estimates in sensitivity analyses. High Five for Kids was a resource-intensive intervention. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention relative to other pediatric obesity interventions.

  8. A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach for Preventing Childhood Obesity: The Communities and Schools Together Project

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Evers, Cody; Zwink, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a systemic and complex multilevel public health problem. Research approaches are needed that effectively engage communities in reversing environmental determinants of child obesity. Objectives This article discusses the Communities and Schools Together Project (CAST) and lessons learned about the project’s community-based participatory research (CBPR) model. Methods A partnership of schools, community organizations, and researchers used multiple methods to examine environmental health risks for childhood obesity and conduct school–community health programs. Action work groups structured partner involvement for designing and implementing study phases. Lessons Learned CBPR in child obesity prevention involves engaging multiple communities with overlapping yet divergent goals. Schools are naturally situated to participate in child obesity projects, but engagement of key personnel is essential for functional partnerships. Complex societal problems require CBPR approaches that can align diverse communities and necessitate significant coordination by researchers. CBPR can provide simultaneous health promotion across multiple communities in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Support for emergent partner activities is an essential practice for maintaining community interest and involvement in multi-year CBPR projects. Conclusion Investigator-initiated CBPR partnerships can effectively organize and facilitate large health-promoting partnerships involving multiple, diverse stakeholder communities. Lessons learned from CAST illustrate the synergy that can propel projects that are holistically linked to the agents of a community. PMID:26548786

  9. Are You Talking to ME? The Importance of Ethnicity and Culture in Childhood Obesity Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Michelle-Marie; Dixon, Brittany

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity is prevalent, is of consequence, and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority populations. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence and substantial differences in many risk factors for obesity are already present, suggesting that disparities in obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. The reasons for racial/ethnic variation in obesity are complex and may include differences in cultural beliefs and practices, level of acculturation, ethnicity-based differences in body image, and perceptions of media, sleep, and physical activity. In addition, racial/ethnic differences in obesity may evolve as a consequence of the socio- and environmental context in which families live. The primary care setting offers unique opportunities to intervene and alter the subsequent course of health and disease for children at risk for obesity. Regular visits during childhood allow both detection of elevated weight status and offer opportunities for prevention and treatment. Greater awareness of the behavioral, social–cultural, and environmental determinants of obesity among ethnic minority populations could assist clinicians in the treatment of obesity among diverse pediatric populations. Specific strategies include beginning prevention efforts early in life before obesity is present and recognizing and querying about ethnic- and culturally specific beliefs and practices, the role of the extended family in the household, and parents' beliefs of the causative factors related to their child's obesity. Efforts to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate care, family-based treatment programs, and support services that aim to uncouple socioeconomic factors from adverse health outcomes could improve obesity care for racial/ethnic minority children. PMID:22799474

  10. Childhood obesity case statement.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary.

  11. Childhood obesity case statement.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood environment and obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  13. Childhood Obesity Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCHS) data brief [PDF-705KB] The prevalence of obesity among children aged 2 to 5 years decreased significantly from ... 2292-9. Top of Page Prevalence of Childhood Obesity among Young Low-Income WIC Children in the United States, 2014 Obesity disproportionally affects ...

  14. The IDEFICS community-oriented intervention programme: a new model for childhood obesity prevention in Europe?

    PubMed

    De Henauw, S; Verbestel, V; Mårild, S; Barba, G; Bammann, K; Eiben, G; Hebestreit, A; Iacoviello, L; Gallois, K; Konstabel, K; Kovács, E; Lissner, L; Maes, L; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Reisch, L; Siani, A; Tornaritis, M; Williams, G; Ahrens, W; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Pigeot, I

    2011-04-01

    The European Union-as well as other parts of the world-faces a major challenge of increasing incidence of overweight/obesity. In particular, the increase in childhood obesity gives rise to a strong imperative for immediate action. Yet, little is known about the effectiveness of community interventions, and further research in this field is needed. There is, however, a growing consensus that such research should start from the paradigm that the current living environments tend to counteract healthy lifestyles. Questioning these environments thoroughly can help to develop new pathways for sustainable health-promoting communities. Against this background, the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study developed and implemented innovative community-oriented intervention programmes for obesity prevention and healthy lifestyle primarily in children aged 2-10 years in eight European countries: Sweden, Estonia, Germany, Belgium, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Cyprus. The IDEFICS community-oriented intervention study mobilised an integrated set of interventional efforts at different levels of society, with the aim of facilitating the adoption of a healthy obesity-preventing lifestyle. The overall programme has been composed of 10 modules: three at community level, six at school level and one for parents. The main focus was on diet, physical activity and stress-coping capacity. The sphere of action encompassed both children and their (grand) parents, schools, local public authorities and influential stakeholders in the community. All materials for the interventions were centrally developed and culturally adapted. So far, the following has been achieved: focus group research, literature review and expert consultations were done in an early phase as a basis for the development of the intervention modules. The intervention mapping protocol was followed as guide for structuring the intervention research. The

  15. Medical curricula and preventing childhood obesity: pooling the resources of medical students and primary care to inform curricula.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Ann; Furmedge, Daniel S; Appleton, Amber; Toop, Helen; Coats, Tom

    2009-03-01

    The study aimed to firstly provide a small self-selecting group of medical students with the opportunity to explore current approaches and opportunities addressing the prevention of childhood obesity and, secondly, to consider what aspects could be part of the taught curriculum. Medical students in their third and fourth year were invited to self-design special study modules (SSMs) exploring interventions and processes addressing the growing concern about childhood obesity. One student looked at the role of the primary care teams, two looked at community-based opportunities to improve physical activity in urban areas where there is significant deprivation and one student explored the complex role of the media as a social determinant of dietary patterns and sedentary behaviour. Primary care health professionals questioned their role in regard to raising the topic of obesity in the consultation and had limited awareness of current NICE guidelines and local interventions for referral. Local authority physical activity programmes have an important role in preventing and tackling obesity and although the media are regulated, there is limited impact on reducing obesity. Conversely, the influence of the media is complex and enables medical students and teachers to be aware of some of the social determinants influencing health-related behaviour. About a third of UK GP practices have some role in medical undergraduate education. It will therefore be inevitable that students will encounter GPs working with prevention and management of childhood obesity, however limited, and this will increasingly be part of the teaching agenda, whether formal and planned or opportunistic. Curricula could include being familiar with the evidence that informs NICE guidelines, observing these guidelines being implemented and their limitations, awareness of local schemes for referral to prevent or treat obesity and the influence of wider determinants on diet and physical activity behaviour

  16. Low Levels of Energy Expenditure in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Implications for Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Parsons, Susan K; Must, Aviva; Kelly, Michael J; Wong, William W; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (median age, 11.5 y). Mean total energy expenditure was 2073 kcal/d, which was nearly 500 kcal/d lower than estimated energy requirements with recommended levels of physical activity. This energy gap is likely to contribute to the risk of obesity in this population and future trials are needed to assess implications and potential treatment strategies.

  17. Interventions for Preventing Childhood Obesity with Smartphones and Wearable Device: A Protocol for a Non-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye Jung; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Ok Hyun; Choi, Mona; Oh, Myungju; Nam, Jihyun; Sung, Eunju

    2017-02-13

    Childhood obesity is a critical health issue, both currently and for the foreseeable future. To prevent obesity, behavior changes are essential. Smartphones can be a good tool, as the number of child smartphone users is rapidly increasing. We have developed a mobile platform system named "HAPPY ME," which is a smartphone application coupled with a wearable device, designed to improve healthy behaviors to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention among children 10-12 years of age using HAPPY ME. A total of 1000 participants, all fifth and sixth graders from four schools, were assigned to either control or intervention groups by school. Students in the intervention group used HAPPY ME. The study comprises a safety test, a 12-week efficacy test, and a six-month follow-up test to determine the long-term effects of preventive intervention via the integrated service platform. The integrated service platform aims to facilitate child-parent-school participation, involving the child-parent mobile application, a child-teacher mobile web, and a school website. Primary outcome measures are behavioral changes, including healthy eating, increased physical activity, and fitness. Secondary outcome measures are changes in anthropometric parameters (body weight, height, body mass index z-score, and waist circumference), body mass index (BMI) percentiles (obesity rate), and psychological perceptions among participants. The results of this study will offer evidence of the effectiveness of a mobile platform service with a multi-component intervention program based on a comprehensive approach.

  18. Louisiana (LA) health: design and methods for a childhood obesity prevention program in rural schools."

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a worldwide epidemic of obesity with far-reaching consequences for the health of our nation. Prevention of obesity, especially in children, has been deemed by public health policy makers to be one of the most important objectives for our country. This prevention project, called Louisiana (L...

  19. Assessing Implementation Fidelity and Adaptation in a Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed…

  20. Assessing Implementation Fidelity and Adaptation in a Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed…

  1. Process evaluation design in a cluster randomised controlled childhood obesity prevention trial: the WAVES study.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Tania L; Pallan, Miranda J; Clarke, Joanne L; Lancashire, Emma R; Lyon, Anna; Parry, Jayne M; Adab, Peymane

    2014-09-10

    The implementation of a complex intervention is heavily influenced by individual context. Variation in implementation and tailoring of the intervention to the particular context will occur, even in a trial setting. It is recognised that in trials, evaluating the process of implementation of a complex intervention is important, yet process evaluation methods are rarely reported. The WAVES study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of an obesity prevention intervention programme targeting children aged 6-7 years, delivered by teachers in primary schools across the West Midlands, UK. The intervention promoted activities encouraging physical activity and healthy eating. This paper presents the methods used to assess implementation of the intervention. Previous literature was used to identify the dimensions of intervention process and implementation to be assessed, including adherence, exposure, quality of delivery, participant responsiveness, context, and programme differentiation. Multiple methods and tools were developed to capture information on all these dimensions. These included observations, logbooks, qualitative evaluation, questionnaires and research team reflection. Data collection posed several challenges, predominantly when relying on teachers to complete paperwork, which they saw as burdensome on top of their teaching responsibilities. However, the use of multiple methods helped to ensure data on each dimension, where possible, was collected using more than one method. This also allowed for triangulation of the findings when several data sources on any one dimension were available. We have reported a comprehensive approach to the assessment of the implementation and processes of a complex childhood obesity prevention intervention within a cluster randomised controlled trial. These approaches can be transferred and adapted for use in other complex intervention trials. ISRCTN97000586.

  2. A systematic analysis of childhood obesity prevention interventions targeting Hispanic children: lessons learned from the previous decade.

    PubMed

    Branscum, P; Sharma, M

    2011-05-01

    Hispanic children suffer from the highest overall rates of prevalence for overweight and obesity in the US. In the last decade some interventions for prevention of childhood obesity have been developed and tailored to target this subgroup. The purpose of this review is to systematically analyze and summarize findings for health education and promotion interventions aimed at the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity among primarily Hispanic children. A systematic review of PubMed, CINAHL, and ERIC was done for the time period 2000 to May 2010. A posteriori effect size for the primary outcome of each intervention was calculated using G*Power. A total of nine interventions were located; five randomized controlled trials and four were either quasi-experimental or pilot studies. Among these studies, only four had significant findings, and calculated effect sizes (Cohen's f) ranged from small to medium with the highest f = 0.26. Interventions were more likely to be successful when participants were at higher risk for obesity, a parental component was included, the intervention contained theoretical underpinnings, the intervention was delivered by a dedicated staff, the intervention served older children and the intervention was longer in duration. More interventions need to be developed for Hispanic children. Future interventions should also develop and utilize culturally appropriate and sensitive materials and approaches. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  3. Clinical aspects of obesity in childhood and adolescence--diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Kiess, W; Reich, A; Müller, G; Meyer, K; Galler, A; Bennek, J; Kratzsch, J

    2001-05-01

    The level of fatness at which morbidity increases is determined on an acturial basis. Direct measurements of body fat content, eg hydrodensitometry, bioimpedance or DEXA, are useful tools in scientific studies. However, body mass index (BMI) is easy to calculate and is frequently used to define obesity clinically. An increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease in adults has been found in subjects whose BMI had been greater than the 75th percentile as adolescents. Childhood obesity seems to increase the risk of subsequent morbidity whether or not obesity persists into adulthood. The genetic basis of childhood obesity has been elucidated to some extent through the discovery of leptin, the ob gene product, and the increasing knowledge on the role of neuropeptides such as POMC, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the melanocyte concentrating hormone receptors (MC4R). Environmental/exogenous factors contribute to the development of a high degree of body fatness early in life. Twin studies suggest that approximately 50% of the tendency toward obesity is inherited. There are numerous disorders including a number of endocrine disorders (Cushing's syndrome, hypothyroidism, etc) and genetic syndromes (Prader-Labhard-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome etc) that can present with obesity. A simple diagnostic algorithm allows for the differentiation between primary or secondary obesity. Among the most common sequelae of primary childhood obesity are hypertension, dyslipidemia and psychosocial problems. Therapeutic strategies include psychological and family therapy, lifestyle/behavior modification and nutrition education. The role of regular exercise and exercise programs is emphasized. Surgical procedures and drugs used as treatments for adult obesity are still not recommended for children and adolescents with obesity. As obesity is the most common chronic disorder in the industrialized societies, its impact on individual lives as well as on health economics has to be

  4. [Obesity in childhood].

    PubMed

    Shcherbakova, M Iu; Poriagina, G I; Kovaleva, E A

    2010-01-01

    In this article presented modern data on the definition of obesity in childhood and its prevalence. Were reflected the basic diagnostic criteria for obesity and metabolic syndrome. Were analyzed genetic changes, hormonal factors, influence lifestyle of modern man as the reasons of the obesity. Are also was considered data on the relation of obesity and its complications such as cardiovascular, metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Was reflected the views of various specialists (cardiologists, endocrinologists, gastroenterologists, pediatricians) to the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Were presented modern data on the approaches to the treatment of obesity in children.

  5. Actions necessary to prevent childhood obesity: creating the climate for change.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a public health epidemic, and currently a battle exists over how to frame and address this problem. This paper explores how public policy approaches can be employed to address obesity. We present the argument that obesity should be viewed as the consequence of a "toxic environment" rather than the result of the population failing to take enough "personal responsibility." In order to make progress in decreasing the prevalence of obesity, we must shift our view of obesity away from the medical model (which focuses on the individual) to a public health model (which focuses on the population). At the same time, we must be sensitive to the problem of weight bias. Potential obstacles to taking a public policy approach are identified, as well as suggestions on how to overcome them.

  6. Japanese Lifestyle during Childhood Prevents the Future Development of Obesity among Japanese-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Shiwa, Mami; Yoneda, Masayasu; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Oki, Kenji; Yamane, Kiminori; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a Japanese lifestyle during childhood could protect against the future development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases by comparing native Japanese with Japanese-Americans in whom genetic factors are the same. Methods Study subjects were 516 native Japanese and 781 Japanese-Americans who underwent medical examinations between 2007 and 2010. Japanese-Americans were divided into 444 first-generation immigrants (JA-1), who were born in Japan, and 337 second- or later-generation descendants (JA-2), who were born in the United States. The JA-2 group was then divided into the kibei subgroup (N = 79), who had moved to Japan before the age of 18 years and later returned to the United States, and the non-kibei subgroup (N = 258), who had never lived in Japan. Results The JA-2 group had the highest percentages of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes compared with native Japanese and JA-1. Furthermore, among JA-2, the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the kibei subgroup was significantly lower than that in the non-kibei subgroup. The prevalence of diabetes in the kibei subgroup also tended to be lower than in the non-kibei subgroup. Conclusions The prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases differed with residence in Japan during childhood among Japanese-Americans. These findings indicate the possibility that Japanese lifestyle during childhood could reduce the future risks for obesity-associated metabolic diseases. PMID:25807391

  7. The cost of a primary care-based childhood obesity prevention intervention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background United States pediatric guidelines recommend that childhood obesity counseling be conducted in the primary care setting. Primary care-based interventions can be effective in improving health behaviors, but also costly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost of a primary care-based obesity prevention intervention targeting children between the ages of two and six years who are at elevated risk for obesity, measured against usual care. Methods High Five for Kids was a cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial that aimed to modify children’s nutrition and TV viewing habits through a motivational interviewing intervention. We assessed visit-related costs from a societal perspective, including provider-incurred direct medical costs, provider-incurred equipment costs, parent time costs and parent out-of-pocket costs, in 2011 dollars for the intervention (n = 253) and usual care (n = 192) groups. We conducted a net cost analysis using both societal and health plan costing perspectives and conducted one-way sensitivity and uncertainty analyses on results. Results The total costs for the intervention group and usual care groups in the first year of the intervention were $65,643 (95% CI [$64,522, $66,842]) and $12,192 (95% CI [$11,393, $13,174]). The mean costs for the intervention and usual care groups were $259 (95% CI [$255, $264]) and $63 (95% CI [$59, $69]) per child, respectively, for a incremental difference of $196 (95% CI [$191, $202]) per child. Children in the intervention group attended a mean of 2.4 of a possible 4 in-person visits and received 0.45 of a possible 2 counseling phone calls. Provider-incurred costs were the primary driver of cost estimates in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions High Five for Kids was a resource-intensive intervention. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention relative to other pediatric obesity interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier

  8. The relationship between school-level characteristics and implementation fidelity of a coordinated school health childhood obesity prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Alyssa M; King, Mindy H; Sovinski, Danielle; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Curtailing childhood obesity is a public health imperative. Although multicomponent school-based programs reduce obesity among children, less is known about the implementation fidelity of these interventions. This study examines process evaluation findings for the Healthy, Energetic Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic, Schools (HEROES) Initiative, a tri-state school-based childhood obesity prevention intervention based on the coordinated school health (CSH) model. Site visits were conducted that included key stakeholder interviews, observation, and document review. Scores were given for 8 domains, and a total implementation score was calculated. Two-way analyses of variance were conducted to examine the relationship of 4 school-level characteristics: elementary vs. middle/high schools, public vs. private schools, district vs. building level implementation, and socioeconomic status on each implementation area. Overall, schools had high fidelity scores, although some domains were implemented more successfully than others. Three school-level characteristics were associated with 1 or more domains, with elementary schools and schools implementing at the building level consistently having higher implementation scores than their counterparts. Process evaluation findings provide insight into successes and challenges schools implementing the CSH approach may encounter. Although preliminary, these findings on school-level characteristics establish a new area of research related to school-based childhood obesity prevention programs' implementation fidelity. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to childhood obesity prevention among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Cyril, Sheila; Nicholson, Jan M; Agho, Kingsley; Polonsky, Michael; Renzaho, Andre M

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity is rising among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups who show poor engagement in obesity prevention initiatives. We examined the barriers and facilitators to the engagement of CALD communities in obesity prevention initiatives. We used the nominal group technique to collect data from 39 participants from Vietnamese, Burmese, African, Afghani and Indian origins living in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Data analysis revealed ranked priorities for barriers and facilitators for CALD community engagement in obesity prevention initiatives. CALD parents identified key barriers as being: competing priorities in the post-migration settlement phase; language, cultural and program accessibility barriers; low levels of food and health literacy; junk food advertisement targeting children; and lack of mandatory weight checks for schoolchildren. Key facilitators emerged as: bicultural playgroup leaders; ethnic community groups; and school-based healthy lunch box initiatives. This study has identified several policy recommendations including: the implementation of robust food taxation policies; consistent control of food advertising targeting children; improving CALD health literacy using bicultural workers; and matching health promotional materials with CALD community literacy levels. Implications for Public Health: These recommendations can directly influence public health policy to improve the engagement of CALD communities in obesity prevention services and ultimately reduce the widening obesity disparities in Australia. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Understanding and preventing childhood obesity and related disorders--IDEFICS: a European multilevel epidemiological approach.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, W; Bammann, K; de Henauw, S; Halford, J; Palou, A; Pigeot, I; Siani, A; Sjöström, M

    2006-05-01

    The environment of children has drastically changed in Europe during the last decades as reflected in unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle. Nutrition obviously plays a part in the development of overweight in childhood. However, dietary factors and physical activity are also involved in the development of metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and postural deformities like scoliosis, effects related in part to excessive weight gain. To stop the resulting epidemic of diet- and lifestyle-induced morbidity, efficient evidence-based approaches are needed. These issues are the focus of IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants), a five-year project proposed under the sixth EU framework. The IDEFICS consortium comprises 25 research centres and SMEs across Europe. The planned prospective study will identify risk profile inventories for children susceptible to any of these disorders with emphasis on obesity and its co-morbid conditions. Genetic and non-genetic factors, psychosocial factors and social settings will be considered. The project will devise tailored prevention strategies that are effective, easy to implement and that account for the needs of different social groups. Population-based studies will investigate the impact of sensory perception and provide results concerning internal and external triggers of food choices and children's consumer behaviour. The ethical implications of a "right not to know" of genetic factors will be addressed. We will propose knowledge-based guidelines on dietary and lifestyle activities for health promotion and disease prevention in children for health professionals, stakeholders and consumers.

  11. A Feasibility and Efficacy Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online Preventative Program for Childhood Obesity: Protocol for the EMPOWER Intervention.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam; Sharma, Manoj

    2012-06-21

    The home and family environment is a highly influential psychosocial antecedent of pediatric obesity. Implementation of conventional family- and home-based childhood obesity interventions is challenging for parents, often requiring them to attend multiple educational sessions. Attrition rates for traditional interventions are frequently high due to competing demands for parents' time. Under such constraints, an Internet-based intervention has the potential to modify determinants of childhood obesity while making judicious use of parents' time. Theory-based interventions offer many advantages over atheoretical interventions, including reduced intervention dosage, increased likelihood of behavioral change, and efficient resource allocation. Social cognitive theory (SCT) is a robust theoretical framework for addressing childhood obesity. SCT is a behavior change model rooted in reciprocal determinism, a causal paradigm that states that human functioning is the product of a dynamic interplay of behavioral, personal, and environmental factors. To evaluate the efficacy of the Enabling Mothers to Prevent Childhood Obesity Through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) program, an Internet-based, theory-driven intervention for preventing childhood overweight and obesity. The project goal is supported by two specific aims: (1) modification of four obesogenic protective factors related to childhood obesity (minutes engaged in physical activity, servings of fruits and vegetables consumed, servings of sugar-sweetened and sugar-free beverages consumed, and minutes engaged in screen time), and (2) reification of five maternal-mediated constructs of SCT (environment, expectations, emotional coping, self-control, and self-efficacy). We will recruit mothers with children ages 4 to 6 years from childcare centers and randomly assign them to either the theory-based (experimental) or knowledge-based (control) arm of the trial. Data for the intervention will be

  12. A Feasibility and Efficacy Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online Preventative Program for Childhood Obesity: Protocol for the EMPOWER Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Background: The home and family environment is a highly influential psychosocial antecedent of pediatric obesity. Implementation of conventional family- and home-based childhood obesity interventions is challenging for parents, often requiring them to attend multiple educational sessions. Attrition rates for traditional interventions are frequently high due to competing demands for parents’ time. Under such constraints, an Internet-based intervention has the potential to modify determinants of childhood obesity while making judicious use of parents’ time. Theory-based interventions offer many advantages over atheoretical interventions, including reduced intervention dosage, increased likelihood of behavioral change, and efficient resource allocation. Social cognitive theory (SCT) is a robust theoretical framework for addressing childhood obesity. SCT is a behavior change model rooted in reciprocal determinism, a causal paradigm that states that human functioning is the product of a dynamic interplay of behavioral, personal, and environmental factors. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of the Enabling Mothers to Prevent Childhood Obesity Through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) program, an Internet-based, theory-driven intervention for preventing childhood overweight and obesity. The project goal is supported by two specific aims: (1) modification of four obesogenic protective factors related to childhood obesity (minutes engaged in physical activity, servings of fruits and vegetables consumed, servings of sugar-sweetened and sugar-free beverages consumed, and minutes engaged in screen time), and (2) reification of five maternal-mediated constructs of SCT (environment, expectations, emotional coping, self-control, and self-efficacy). Methods: We will recruit mothers with children ages 4 to 6 years from childcare centers and randomly assign them to either the theory-based (experimental) or knowledge-based (control) arm of the trial. Data

  13. The views of stakeholders on the role of the primary school in preventing childhood obesity: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Clarke, J; Fletcher, B; Lancashire, E; Pallan, M; Adab, P

    2013-12-01

    Schools are increasingly recognized as an ideal setting for interventions to tackle childhood obesity. A better understanding of the views of key stakeholders would help to engage schools and inform the feasibility of such interventions in practice. This meta-synthesis of 18 qualitative studies explores the views of parents, school staff, school governors, school nurses and students on the role of the primary school in preventing childhood obesity. Six categories emerged: 'School as a key setting'; 'What schools should be doing to promote healthy eating (HE)'; 'What schools should be doing to promote physical activity (PA)'; 'General barriers'; 'Barriers to promoting HE at school'; and 'Barriers to promoting PA at school'. Thirty-seven finer-level themes emerged within these categories. Stakeholders agreed on the key role of the primary school as a setting for obesity prevention, the importance of schools providing and promoting opportunities for HE and PA, and the need for schools to work with parents. Some perceived barriers could be overcome at school level, e.g. using unhealthy foods as rewards/fundraisers or withholding PA for bad behaviour. Leadership and guidance from government were considered to be needed to counteract other observed barriers, particularly regarding school canteens, support for parents and time for PA. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  14. Children, Teachers, and Families Working Together to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegelin, Dolores A.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity rates for children, adolescents, and adults continue to escalate in the United States and globally. Educators, health specialists, psychologists, and sociologists are studying the complex problems related to early obesity. Like other health problems, prevention and early detection are the most effective strategies. The causes and…

  15. Children, Teachers, and Families Working Together to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegelin, Dolores A.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity rates for children, adolescents, and adults continue to escalate in the United States and globally. Educators, health specialists, psychologists, and sociologists are studying the complex problems related to early obesity. Like other health problems, prevention and early detection are the most effective strategies. The causes and…

  16. [Economical costs and consequences of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Cortés, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is some concern because the generations born in the last decades of the 20th century could have lower longevity than the previous ones as a result of the diseases caused by obesity. Mexico has the highest index of prevalence of childhood obesity, and it has increased very fast. It is fundamental to generate healthcare models focused on obese patients, and oriented to the prevention of complications. Implementing preventive actions since childhood must be the priority. Health education in childhood obesity will be the only realistic way to solve the problem.

  17. Age-related consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zaepfel, Alysia; Bjornstad, Petter; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2014-01-01

    The severity and frequency of childhood obesity has increased significantly over the past three to four decades. The health effects of increased body mass index as a child may significantly impact obese youth as they age. However, many of the long-term outcomes of childhood obesity have yet to be studied. This article examines the currently available longitudinal data evaluating the effects of childhood obesity on adult outcomes. Consequences of obesity include an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and its associated retinal and renal complications, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, asthma, orthopedic complications, psychiatric disease, and increased rates of cancer, among others. These disorders can start as early as childhood, and such early onset increases the likelihood of early morbidity and mortality. Being obese as a child also increases the likelihood of being obese as an adult, and obesity in adulthood also leads to obesity-related complications. This review outlines the evidence for childhood obesity as a predictor of adult obesity and obesity-related disorders, thereby emphasizing the importance of early intervention to prevent the onset of obesity in childhood.

  18. Early Childhood Education and Health Working in Partnership: The Critical Role Early Childhood Educators Can Play in Childhood Obesity Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Morris, Heather; Cox, Rachael; Baur, Louise; Wolfenden, Luke; Huang, Terry T. K.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's interest in popular culture is linked to many determinants of obesity development including branded energy-dense foods and sedentary play using digital technologies. In addition, highly packaged foods and throwaway toys reinforce unsustainable environmental habits encouraged by immersive marketing systems. Interrupting the…

  19. Interventions for Preventing Childhood Obesity with Smartphones and Wearable Device: A Protocol for a Non-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hye Jung; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Ok Hyun; Choi, Mona; Oh, Myungju; Nam, Jihyun; Sung, Eunju

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a critical health issue, both currently and for the foreseeable future. To prevent obesity, behavior changes are essential. Smartphones can be a good tool, as the number of child smartphone users is rapidly increasing. We have developed a mobile platform system named “HAPPY ME,” which is a smartphone application coupled with a wearable device, designed to improve healthy behaviors to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention among children 10–12 years of age using HAPPY ME. Methods: A total of 1000 participants, all fifth and sixth graders from four schools, were assigned to either control or intervention groups by school. Students in the intervention group used HAPPY ME. The study comprises a safety test, a 12-week efficacy test, and a six-month follow-up test to determine the long-term effects of preventive intervention via the integrated service platform. The integrated service platform aims to facilitate child-parent-school participation, involving the child-parent mobile application, a child-teacher mobile web, and a school website. Primary outcome measures are behavioral changes, including healthy eating, increased physical activity, and fitness. Secondary outcome measures are changes in anthropometric parameters (body weight, height, body mass index z-score, and waist circumference), body mass index (BMI) percentiles (obesity rate), and psychological perceptions among participants. Conclusions: The results of this study will offer evidence of the effectiveness of a mobile platform service with a multi-component intervention program based on a comprehensive approach. PMID:28208839

  20. Obesity prevention in children.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity continues to be unacceptably high and of public health concern in Europe. During childhood and adolescence, environmental factors are the main drivers of obesity development. Obesity is caused by a chronic energy imbalance involving both dietary intake and physical activity patterns. Several risk factors are influencing obesity development, even starting in the prenatal period. From birth, along life, mainly diet and physical activity/inactivity are the most important drivers on top of genetic susceptibility. The first years of life can therefore be crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and on later overweight and obesity. Schools are an attractive and popular setting for implementing interventions for children. Interventions including a community component are considered to be the most effective. Obesity control will require policy interventions to improve the environments that promote poor dietary intake and physical inactivity rather than individually focused interventions. More solid institutional and health policies are needed together with more effective interventions to obtain evident changes for the prevention of excess adiposity among children.

  1. Community Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Barriers to Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Families, Massachusetts 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Emmeline; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Blaine, Rachel E.; Giannetti, Mary; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The etiology of childhood obesity is multidimensional and includes individual, familial, organizational, and societal factors. Policymakers and researchers are promoting social–ecological approaches to obesity prevention that encompass multiple community sectors. Programs that successfully engage low-income families in making healthy choices are greatly needed, yet little is known about the extent to which stakeholders understand the complexity of barriers encountered by families. The objective of this study was to contextually frame barriers faced by low-income families reported by community stakeholders by using the Family Ecological Model (FEM). Methods From 2012 through 2013, we conducted semistructured interviews with 39 stakeholders from 2 communities in Massachusetts that were participating in a multisector intervention for childhood obesity prevention. Stakeholders represented schools; afterschool programs; health care; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; and early care and education. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and summarized. Results Stakeholder reports of the barriers experienced by low-income families had a strong degree of overlap with FEM and reflected awareness of the broader contextual factors (eg, availability of community resources, family culture, education) and social and emotional dynamics within families (eg, parent knowledge, social norms, distrust of health care providers, chronic life stressors) that could affect family adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors. Furthermore, results illustrated a level of consistency in stakeholder awareness across multiple community sectors. Conclusion The congruity of stakeholder perspectives with those of low-income parents as summarized in FEM and across community sectors illustrates potential for synergizing the efforts necessary for multisector, multilevel community interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity. PMID

  2. Community stakeholders' perceptions of barriers to childhood obesity prevention in low-income families, Massachusetts 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Claudia; Chuang, Emmeline; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Blaine, Rachel E; Giannetti, Mary; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K

    2015-03-26

    The etiology of childhood obesity is multidimensional and includes individual, familial, organizational, and societal factors. Policymakers and researchers are promoting social-ecological approaches to obesity prevention that encompass multiple community sectors. Programs that successfully engage low-income families in making healthy choices are greatly needed, yet little is known about the extent to which stakeholders understand the complexity of barriers encountered by families. The objective of this study was to contextually frame barriers faced by low-income families reported by community stakeholders by using the Family Ecological Model (FEM). From 2012 through 2013, we conducted semistructured interviews with 39 stakeholders from 2 communities in Massachusetts that were participating in a multisector intervention for childhood obesity prevention. Stakeholders represented schools; afterschool programs; health care; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; and early care and education. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and summarized. Stakeholder reports of the barriers experienced by low-income families had a strong degree of overlap with FEM and reflected awareness of the broader contextual factors (eg, availability of community resources, family culture, education) and social and emotional dynamics within families (eg, parent knowledge, social norms, distrust of health care providers, chronic life stressors) that could affect family adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors. Furthermore, results illustrated a level of consistency in stakeholder awareness across multiple community sectors. The congruity of stakeholder perspectives with those of low-income parents as summarized in FEM and across community sectors illustrates potential for synergizing the efforts necessary for multisector, multilevel community interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity.

  3. Development and Feasibility of a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program for Rural Families: Application of the Social Cognitive Theory

    PubMed Central

    Knol, Linda L; Myers, Harriet H; Black, Sheila; Robinson, Darlene; Awololo, Yawah; Clark, Debra; Parker, Carson L; Douglas, Joy W; Higginbotham, John C

    2016-01-01

    Background Effective childhood obesity prevention programs for preschool children are limited in number and focus on changes in the child care environment rather than the home environment. Purpose The purpose of this project was to develop and test the feasibility of a home environment obesity prevention program that incorporates mindful eating strategies and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs. Home Sweet Home is specifically designed for rural parents and grandparents of preschool-age children. Methods HSH was developed using community-based participatory research practices and constructs from the SCT. Three community-based education sessions were delivered. Pre- and post-intervention data were collected from 47 grandparents and mothers.F Results Three of the four selected behavioral outcomes improved between pre- and post-intervention. The number of hours engaged in sedentary behaviors and intake of “red light” foods decreased while three of four mindful eating scores increased. Graduates of the program were able to decrease the number of “red light” foods available in their homes. Discussion Improvements in mindful eating and several key behaviors were observed after a three week mindful eating/home environment intervention. Translation to Health Education Practice Health educators should incorporate mindful eating strategies and use the SCT when designing childhood obesity prevention programs. PMID:28392882

  4. Development and Feasibility of a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program for Rural Families: Application of the Social Cognitive Theory.

    PubMed

    Knol, Linda L; Myers, Harriet H; Black, Sheila; Robinson, Darlene; Awololo, Yawah; Clark, Debra; Parker, Carson L; Douglas, Joy W; Higginbotham, John C

    2016-01-01

    Effective childhood obesity prevention programs for preschool children are limited in number and focus on changes in the child care environment rather than the home environment. The purpose of this project was to develop and test the feasibility of a home environment obesity prevention program that incorporates mindful eating strategies and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs. Home Sweet Home is specifically designed for rural parents and grandparents of preschool-age children. HSH was developed using community-based participatory research practices and constructs from the SCT. Three community-based education sessions were delivered. Pre- and post-intervention data were collected from 47 grandparents and mothers.F. Three of the four selected behavioral outcomes improved between pre- and post-intervention. The number of hours engaged in sedentary behaviors and intake of "red light" foods decreased while three of four mindful eating scores increased. Graduates of the program were able to decrease the number of "red light" foods available in their homes. Improvements in mindful eating and several key behaviors were observed after a three week mindful eating/home environment intervention. Health educators should incorporate mindful eating strategies and use the SCT when designing childhood obesity prevention programs.

  5. Assessing implementation of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention strategies in schools.

    PubMed

    Totura, Christine M W; Figueroa, Holly Lewis; Wharton, Christopher; Marsiglia, Flavio F

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that schools can play a key role in obesity prevention by implementing evidence-based strategies promoting student health. This study explores school climate factors underlying implementation of evidence-based health and wellness policies and practices in Kindergarten-8th grade programs in the Southwestern United States. Utilizing a participatory research survey approach conducted in December 2011 with school health professionals (N = 62) and a multiple regression design, a moderated predictive model of implementation climate (i.e., attitudes and beliefs about prevention, school commitment to prevention, barriers, and stakeholder collaboration) was tested. Barriers to obesity prevention efforts, such as lack of resources, support, or strategy clarity, hinder implementation of healthy food policies despite strong school commitment to prevention. Along with the commitment to prevention, stakeholder collaboration predicts physical education strategies, specifically reducing restricted access to physical education as a punishment for student misconduct. Obesity prevention strategy implementation relies on the supportiveness and structure of school climates. Barriers to prevention can impede efforts despite school commitment toward prevention, while stakeholder collaboration can enhance the likelihood that practices are in place.

  6. Assessing implementation of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention strategies in schools

    PubMed Central

    Totura, Christine M.W.; Figueroa, Holly Lewis; Wharton, Christopher; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research suggests that schools can play a key role in obesity prevention by implementing evidence-based strategies promoting student health. This study explores school climate factors underlying implementation of evidence-based health and wellness policies and practices in Kindergarten–8th grade programs in the Southwestern United States. Method Utilizing a participatory research survey approach conducted in December 2011 with school health professionals (N = 62) and a multiple regression design, a moderated predictive model of implementation climate (i.e., attitudes and beliefs about prevention, school commitment to prevention, barriers, and stakeholder collaboration) was tested. Results Barriers to obesity prevention efforts, such as lack of resources, support, or strategy clarity, hinder implementation of healthy food policies despite strong school commitment to prevention. Along with the commitment to prevention, stakeholder collaboration predicts physical education strategies, specifically reducing restricted access to physical education as a punishment for student misconduct. Conclusion Obesity prevention strategy implementation relies on the supportiveness and structure of school climates. Barriers to prevention can impede efforts despite school commitment toward prevention, while stakeholder collaboration can enhance the likelihood that practices are in place. PMID:26844091

  7. Economic and other barriers to adopting recommendations to prevent childhood obesity: results of a focus group study with parents.

    PubMed

    Sonneville, Kendrin R; La Pelle, Nancy; Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Prosser, Lisa A

    2009-12-21

    Parents are integral to the implementation of obesity prevention and management recommendations for children. Exploration of barriers to and facilitators of parental decisions to adopt obesity prevention recommendations will inform future efforts to reduce childhood obesity. We conducted 4 focus groups (2 English, 2 Spanish) among a total of 19 parents of overweight (BMI >or= 85th percentile) children aged 5-17 years. The main discussion focused on 7 common obesity prevention recommendations: reducing television (TV) watching, removing TV from child's bedroom, increasing physically active games, participating in community or school-based athletics, walking to school, walking more in general, and eating less fast food. Parents were asked to discuss what factors would make each recommendation more difficult (barriers) or easier (facilitators) to follow. Participants were also asked about the relative importance of economic (time and dollar costs/savings) barriers and facilitators if these were not brought into the discussion unprompted. Parents identified many barriers but few facilitators to adopting obesity prevention recommendations for their children. Members of all groups identified economic barriers (time and dollar costs) among a variety of pertinent barriers, although the discussion of dollar costs often required prompting. Parents cited other barriers including child preference, difficulty with changing habits, lack of information, lack of transportation, difficulty with monitoring child behavior, need for assistance from family members, parity with other family members, and neighborhood walking safety. Facilitators identified included access to physical activity programs, availability of alternatives to fast food and TV which are acceptable to the child, enlisting outside support, dietary information, involving the child, setting limits, making behavior changes gradually, and parental change in shopping behaviors and own eating behaviors. Parents identify

  8. Louisiana (LA) Health: design and methods for a childhood obesity prevention program in rural schools.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald A; Champagne, Catherine M; Harsha, David; Han, Hongmei; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert; Stewart, Tiffany M; Ryan, Donna H

    2008-09-01

    There is a worldwide epidemic of obesity with far-reaching consequences for the health of our nation. Prevention of obesity, especially in children, has been deemed by public health policy makers to be one of the most important objectives for our country. This prevention project, called Louisiana (LA) Health, will test whether modification of environmental and behavioral factors can prevent inappropriate weight gain in children from rural parishes of Louisiana who are enrolled in the fourth to sixth grades during Year 1. The primary aim of the LA Health project is to test the efficacy of two school-based approaches for obesity prevention: primary prevention alone and a combination of primary and secondary prevention which will be compared to a no-intervention control group using a cluster randomization research design, with 17 school clusters randomly assigned to the three treatment arms. The study will span 3 years and will provide critical tests of strategies that: 1) modify the child's environment as a primary prevention strategy and 2) provide health behavior modification via classroom instruction and internet counseling as a secondary prevention strategy. The study will also recruit a similar sample of students to measure changes in body weight relative to height, gender, and age over the same three-year period.

  9. Louisiana (LA) Health: Design and Methods for a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program in Rural Schools

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Donald A.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Harsha, David; Han, Hongmei; Martin, Corby K.; Newton, Robert; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Ryan, Donna H.

    2008-01-01

    There is a worldwide epidemic of obesity with far-reaching consequences for the health of our nation. Prevention of obesity, especially in children, has been deemed by public health policy makers to be one of the most important objectives for our country. This prevention project, called Louisiana (LA) Health, will test whether modification of environmental and behavioral factors can prevent inappropriate weight gain in children from rural parishes of Louisiana who are enrolled in the fourth to sixth grades during Year 1. The primary aim of the LA Health project is to test the efficacy of two school-based approaches for obesity prevention: primary prevention alone and a combination of primary and secondary prevention which will be compared to a no-intervention control group using a cluster randomization research design, with 17 school clusters randomly assigned to the three treatment arms. The study will span three years and will provide critical tests of strategies that: 1) modify the child’s environment as a primary prevention strategy and 2) provide health behavior modification via classroom instruction and internet counseling as a secondary prevention strategy. The study will also recruit a similar sample of students to measure changes in body weight relative to height, gender, and age over the same three-year period. PMID:18448393

  10. [Childhood obesity and general medicine].

    PubMed

    Cailliez, Eric; Fanello, Serge; Gérard, Solène; Pietri, Maéva

    2012-01-01

    The results of a 2009-2010 survey of general practitioners in Maine-et-Loire show that their practices have improved over the last few years with regard to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. However, the recommendations of the French national health authority and the French national nutrition and health programme are not sufficiently applied and doctors face numerous difficulties, including a lack of parental involvement.

  11. The Effect of Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Li; Wu, Yang; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Wilson, Renee F.; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim We aimed to assess the effects of childhood obesity prevention programs on blood lipids in high-income countries. Methods We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL®, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library up to April 22, 2013 for relevant randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments published in English. Studies were included if they implemented diet and/or physical activity intervention(s) with ≥ one year follow up (or ≥ six months for school-based intervention studies) in 2 to 18 years old, and were excluded if they targeted only overweight/obese children, or those with a pre-existing medical condition. Results Seventeen studies were finally included. For total cholesterol, the pooled intervention effect was −0.97 mg/dL (95% CI: −3.26, 1.32; P=0.408); for low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), −6.06 mg/dL (95% CI: −11.09, −1.02; P=0.018); for high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), 1.87 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.39, 3.34; P=0.013); and for triglycerides, −1.95 mg/dL (95% CI: −4.94, 1.04; P=0.202). Most interventions (70%) showed similar significant or no effects on adiposity- and lipids outcomes: 15% interventions improved both adiposity- and lipids outcomes; 55% had no significant effects on either. Conclusions Childhood obesity prevention programs had a significant desirable effect on LDL-C and HDL-C. Two-thirds of interventions showed similar significant or no effects in adiposity- and lipids outcomes. Assessing lipids outcomes provide additional useful information on obesity prevention program benefits. PMID:25263653

  12. Hard truths and a new strategy for addressing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Bilger, Marcel

    2012-04-01

    We debunk three likely misperceptions about childhood obesity: (1) the epidemic thereof is caused by poverty, (2) information campaigns alone would be effective at reducing childhood obesity rates, and (3) obesity-reducing interventions would necessarily save money. We then discuss policies that could be effective at reducing childhood obesity rates and propose a tax/subsidy strategy that would provide the right incentives for governments, schools, and households to make appropriate investments in obesity prevention efforts.

  13. Parents' beliefs about appropriate infant size, growth and feeding behaviour: implications for the prevention of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A number of risk factors are associated with the development of childhood obesity which can be identified during infancy. These include infant feeding practices, parental response to infant temperament and parental perception of infant growth and appetite. Parental beliefs and understanding are crucial determinants of infant feeding behaviour; therefore any intervention would need to take account of their views. This study aimed to explore UK parents' beliefs concerning their infant's size, growth and feeding behaviour and parental receptiveness to early intervention aimed at reducing the risk of childhood obesity. Method Six focus groups were undertaken in a range of different demographic localities, with parents of infants less than one year of age. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results 38 parents (n = 36 female, n = 2 male), age range 19-45 years (mean 30.1 years, SD 6.28) participated in the focus groups. 12/38 were overweight (BMI 25-29.99) and 8/38 obese (BMI >30). Five main themes were identified. These were a) parental concern about breast milk, infant contentment and growth; b) the belief that the main cause of infant distress is hunger is widespread and drives inappropriate feeding; c) rationalisation for infants' larger size; d) parental uncertainty about identifying and managing infants at risk of obesity and e) intentions and behaviour in relation to a healthy lifestyle. Conclusions There are a number of barriers to early intervention with parents of infants at risk of developing obesity. Parents are receptive to prevention prior to weaning and need better support with best practice in infant feeding. In particular, this should focus on helping them understand the physiology of breast feeding, how to differentiate between infant distress caused by hunger and other causes and the timing of weaning. Some parents also need guidance about how

  14. A brief eHealth tool delivered in primary care to help parents prevent childhood obesity: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Byrne, J L S; Cameron Wild, T; Maximova, K; Browne, N E; Holt, N L; Cave, A J; Martz, P; Ellendt, C; Ball, G D C

    2016-11-10

    To determine the feasibility and preliminary impact of an electronic health (eHealth) screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) delivered in primary care to help parents prevent childhood obesity. Parents of children (5-17 years) were recruited from a primary care clinic. Children's measured height and weight were entered into the SBIRT on a study-designated tablet. The SBIRT screened for children's weight status, block randomized parents to one of four brief interventions or an eHealth control and provided parents with a menu of optional obesity prevention resources. Feasibility was determined by parents' interest in, and uptake of, the SBIRT. Preliminary impact was based on parents' concern about children's weight status and intention to change lifestyle behaviours post-SBIRT. Parents (n = 226) of children (9.9 ± 3.4 years) were primarily biological mothers (87.6%) and Caucasian (70.4%). The proportion of participants recruited (84.3%) along with parents who selected optional resources within the SBIRT (85.8%) supported feasibility. Secondary outcomes did not vary across groups, but non-Caucasian parents classified as inaccurate estimators of children's weight status reported higher levels of concern and intention to change post-SBIRT. Our innovative, eHealth SBIRT was feasible in primary care and has the potential to encourage parents of unhealthy weight children towards preventative action. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  15. Feasibility and acceptability of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention: results from the healthy homes, healthy families pilot study.

    PubMed

    Keita, Akilah Dulin; Risica, Patricia M; Drenner, Kelli L; Adams, Ingrid; Gorham, Gemma; Gans, Kim M

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention designed to empower low-income racially/ethnically diverse parents to modify their children's health behaviors. We used a prospective design with pre-/posttest evaluation of 50 parent-child pairs (children aged 2 to 5 years) to examine potential changes in dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors among children at baseline and four-month follow-up. 39 (78%) parent-child pairs completed evaluation data at 4-month follow-up. Vegetable intake among children significantly increased at follow-up (0.54 cups at 4 months compared to 0.28 cups at baseline, P = 0.001) and ounces of fruit juice decreased at follow-up (11.9 ounces at 4 months compared to 16.0 ounces at baseline, P = 0.036). Sedentary behaviors also improved. Children significantly decreased time spent watching TV on weekdays (P < 0.01) and also reduced weekend TV time. In addition, the number of homes with TV sets in the child's bedroom also decreased (P < 0.0013). The findings indicate that a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention is feasible, acceptable and demonstrates short-term effects on dietary and sedentary behaviors of low-income racially/ethnically diverse children.

  16. Feasibility and Acceptability of an Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention: Results from the Healthy Homes, Healthy Families Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gorham, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention designed to empower low-income racially/ethnically diverse parents to modify their children's health behaviors. Methods. We used a prospective design with pre-/posttest evaluation of 50 parent-child pairs (children aged 2 to 5 years) to examine potential changes in dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors among children at baseline and four-month follow-up. Results. 39 (78%) parent-child pairs completed evaluation data at 4-month follow-up. Vegetable intake among children significantly increased at follow-up (0.54 cups at 4 months compared to 0.28 cups at baseline, P = 0.001) and ounces of fruit juice decreased at follow-up (11.9 ounces at 4 months compared to 16.0 ounces at baseline, P = 0.036). Sedentary behaviors also improved. Children significantly decreased time spent watching TV on weekdays (P < 0.01) and also reduced weekend TV time. In addition, the number of homes with TV sets in the child's bedroom also decreased (P < 0.0013). Conclusions. The findings indicate that a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention is feasible, acceptable and demonstrates short-term effects on dietary and sedentary behaviors of low-income racially/ethnically diverse children. PMID:25405026

  17. Tools and resources for preventing childhood obesity in primary care: A method of evaluation and preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    Avis, Jillian L S; Komarnicki, Angela; Farmer, Anna P; Holt, Nicholas L; Perez, Arnaldo; Spence, Nicholas; Ball, Geoff D C

    2016-05-01

    To pilot-test a mixed methods approach to evaluate tools and resources (TRs) that healthcare providers (HCPs) use for preventing childhood obesity in primary care, and report a preliminary descriptive assessment of commonly-used TRs. This mixed methods study included individual, semi-structured interviews with purposefully-sampled HCPs in Alberta, Canada; interviews were digitally recorded and analyzed thematically (phase I). Two independent reviewers used three assessment checklists to evaluate commonly-used TRs (phase II). HCPs provided feedback on our coding scheme and checklist data (phase III). Three themes described how HCPs (n=19) used TRs: purpose of use (e.g., clinical support), logistical factors (e.g., accessibility), and decision to use (e.g., suitability). The latter theme overlapped with constructs of suitability on the checklists. Overall, participants used 15 TRs, most of which scored 'average' on the checklists. Phases I and II provided unique insights on the evaluation of TRs used for preventing childhood obesity. Criteria on the checklists overlapped with HCPs' perceptions of TR suitability, but did not reflect logistical factors that influenced their use of TRs. Developers of TRs should collaborate with HCPs to ensure that subjective and objective criteria are used to optimize TR suitability in the primary care setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Review of Primary Care-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Olson-Bullis, Barbara A.; Bredeson, Dani M.; Hayes, Marcia G.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Effective obesity prevention and treatment interventions targeting children and their families are needed to help curb the obesity epidemic. Pediatric primary care is a promising setting for these interventions, and a growing number of studies are set in this context. This review aims to identify randomized controlled trials of pediatric primary care-based obesity interventions. A literature search of 3 databases retrieved 2947 publications, of which 2899 publications were excluded after abstract (n=2722) and full-text review (n=177). Forty-eight publications, representing 31 studies, were included in the review. Eight studies demonstrated a significant intervention effect on child weight outcomes (e.g., BMI z-score, weight-for-length percentile). Effective interventions were mainly treatment interventions, and tended to focus on multiple behaviors, contain weight management components, and include monitoring of weight-related behaviors (e.g., dietary intake, physical activity, or sedentary behaviors). Overall, results demonstrate modest support for the efficacy of obesity treatment interventions set in primary care. PMID:26213643

  19. A Review of Primary Care-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Interventions.

    PubMed

    Seburg, Elisabeth M; Olson-Bullis, Barbara A; Bredeson, Dani M; Hayes, Marcia G; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2015-06-01

    Effective obesity prevention and treatment interventions targeting children and their families are needed to help curb the obesity epidemic. Pediatric primary care is a promising setting for these interventions, and a growing number of studies are set in this context. This review aims to identify randomized controlled trials of pediatric primary care-based obesity interventions. A literature search of 3 databases retrieved 2947 publications, of which 2899 publications were excluded after abstract (n=2722) and full-text review (n=177). Forty-eight publications, representing 31 studies, were included in the review. Eight studies demonstrated a significant intervention effect on child weight outcomes (e.g., BMI z-score, weight-for-length percentile). Effective interventions were mainly treatment interventions, and tended to focus on multiple behaviors, contain weight management components, and include monitoring of weight-related behaviors (e.g., dietary intake, physical activity, or sedentary behaviors). Overall, results demonstrate modest support for the efficacy of obesity treatment interventions set in primary care.

  20. Expanding the Role of Primary Care in the Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Review of Clinic- and Community-Based Recommendations and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Margaret B.; Briefel, Ronette R.; Orfield, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Although pediatric providers have traditionally assessed and treated childhood obesity and associated health-related conditions in the clinic setting, there is a recognized need to expand the provider role. We reviewed the literature published from 2005 to 2012 to (1) provide examples of the spectrum of roles that primary care providers can play in the successful treatment and prevention of childhood obesity in both clinic and community settings and (2) synthesize the evidence of important characteristics, factors, or strategies in successful community-based models. The review identified 96 articles that provide evidence of how primary care providers can successfully prevent and treat childhood obesity by coordinating efforts within the primary care setting and through linkages to obesity prevention and treatment resources within the community. By aligning the most promising interventions with recommendations published over the past decade by the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and other health organizations, we present nine areas in which providers can promote the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity through efforts in clinical and community settings: weight status assessment and monitoring, healthy lifestyle promotion, treatment, clinician skill development, clinic infrastructure development, community program referrals, community health education, multisector community initiatives, and policy advocacy. PMID:23710345

  1. Childhood Obesity Prevention in Childcare Settings: the Potential of Policy and Environmental Change Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Laura; Breck, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Current obesity rates in young children are a serious public health concern; developing and implementing obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings is a promising avenue to address this issue. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on environmental and policy change interventions for this setting. Improving access to and quality of outdoor play spaces and implementing the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) are two promising environmental change strategies in this setting. Laws at the local, state, and federal level have also been implemented; New York City and Delaware are two jurisdictions that have passed policies and provided preliminary evidence of the potential of policy interventions to change child outcomes. A combination of programmatic, environmental, and policy change strategies will likely be most effective in maximizing the potential of childcare settings to promote healthy weight in children.

  2. [Recommendations of the Spanish Paediatric Endocrinology Society Working Group on Obesity on eating habits for the prevention of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in childhood].

    PubMed

    Palomo Atance, E; Bahíllo Curieses, P; Bueno Lozano, G; Feliu Rovira, A; Gil-Campos, M; Lechuga-Sancho, A M; Ruiz Cano, R; Vela Desojo, A

    2016-03-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease and early mortality. This paper summarises the currently available evidence on the implications of dietary factors on the development and prevention of obesity in paediatric patients. Evidence-based recommendations are: promote the consumption of slowly absorbed carbohydrates and reduce those with a high-glycaemic-index, avoid intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Fat may provide up to 30-35% of the daily energy intake and saturated fat should provide no more than 10% of daily energy intake; reduce cholesterol intake, avoid formula milk with a high protein content during the first year; promote higher fibre content in the diet, reduce sodium intake, and have at least four meals a day, avoiding regular consumption of fast food and snacks.

  3. Application of social cognitive theory in predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors in overweight and obese Iranian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bagherniya, Mohammad; Sharma, Manoj; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use social cognitive theory to predict overweight and obesity behaviors in adolescent girls in Iran. Valid and reliable questionnaires about nutritional and physical activity regarding social cognitive theory constructs (self-efficacy, social support, outcome expectations, and outcome expectancies), dietary habits, and physical activity were filled by 172 overweight and obese girl adolescents. The mean age and body mass index were 13.4 ± 0.6 years and 28.2 ± 3.6 kg/m(2), respectively. Body mass index was significantly related to hours of television viewing (p = .003) and grams of junk food (p = .001). None of the social cognitive theory constructs were found to be significant predictors for servings of fruits and vegetables, grams of junk foods, minutes of physical activity, and hours of sedentary behaviors. In future, more culturally appropriate models need to be developed in Iran that can explain and predict prevention behaviors of obesity in Iranian adolescents.

  4. Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    James, Janet; Thomas, Peter; Cavan, David; Kerr, David

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine if a school based educational programme aimed at reducing consumption of carbonated drinks can prevent excessive weight gain in children. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Six primary schools in southwest England. Participants 644 children aged 7-11 years. Intervention Focused educational programme on nutrition over one school year. Main outcome measures Drink consumption and number of overweight and obese children. Results Consumption of carbonated drinks over three days decreased by 0.6 glasses (average glass size 250 ml) in the intervention group but increased by 0.2 glasses in the control group (mean difference 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.1 to 1.3). At 12 months the percentage of overweight and obese children increased in the control group by 7.5%, compared with a decrease in the intervention group of 0.2% (mean difference 7.7%, 2.2% to 13.1%). Conclusion A targeted, school based education programme produced a modest reduction in the number of carbonated drinks consumed, which was associated with a reduction in the number of overweight and obese children. PMID:15107313

  5. Childhood obesity, parental duties of care and strategies for intervention.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Elise Jane

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasingly serious issue which causes significant health problems among children. There are numerous causes of childhood obesity. However, the ultimate responsibility for the problems and costs associated with an obese child should be attributed to that child's parents. Parents owe a duty of care to their child and, when their child is obese, have arguably breached that duty. However, if parents were required to pay their child damages, this would arguably be problematic and of little utility. Rather, intervention strategies should be implemented which seek to treat and prevent childhood obesity and to address the identified causes of childhood obesity.

  6. Testing an Integrated Model of Program Implementation: the Food, Health & Choices School-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention Process Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Burgermaster, Marissa; Gray, Heewon Lee; Tipton, Elizabeth; Contento, Isobel; Koch, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex, worldwide problem. Significant resources are invested in its prevention, and high-quality evaluations of these efforts are important. Conducting trials in school settings is complicated, making process evaluations useful for explaining results. Intervention fidelity has been demonstrated to influence outcomes, but others have suggested that other aspects of implementation, including participant responsiveness, should be examined more systematically. During Food, Health & Choices (FHC), a school-based childhood obesity prevention trial designed to test a curriculum and wellness policy taught by trained FHC instructors to fifth grade students in 20 schools during 2012-2013, we assessed relationships among facilitator behaviors (i.e., fidelity and teacher interest); participant behaviors (i.e., student satisfaction and recall); and program outcomes (i.e., energy balance-related behaviors) using hierarchical linear models, controlling for student, class, and school characteristics. We found positive relationships between student satisfaction and recall and program outcomes, but not fidelity and program outcomes. We also found relationships between teacher interest and fidelity when teachers participated in implementation. Finally, we found a significant interaction between fidelity and satisfaction on behavioral outcomes. These findings suggest that individual students in the same class responded differently to the same intervention. They also suggest the importance of teacher buy-in for successful intervention implementation. Future studies should examine how facilitator and participant behaviors together are related to both outcomes and implementation. Assessing multiple aspects of implementation using models that account for contextual influences on behavioral outcomes is an important step forward for prevention intervention process evaluations.

  7. Preventing childhood obesity in early care and education settings: lessons from two intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Benjamin Neelon, S E; Østbye, T; Hales, D; Vaughn, A; Ward, D S

    2016-05-01

    Obesity prevention in young children is a public health priority. In the USA, nearly 10% of children less than 5 years of age are obese, and most attend some form of out-of-home child care. While a number of interventions have been conducted in early care and education settings, few have targeted the youngest children in care or the less formal types of child care like family child care homes. Additionally, only two previous studies provided recommendations to help inform future interventions. This paper presents lessons learned from two distinct intervention studies in early care and education settings to help guide researchers and public health professionals interested in implementing and evaluating similar interventions. We highlight two studies: one targeting children ages 4 to 24 months in child care centres and the other intervening in children 18 months to 4 years in family child care homes. We include lessons from our pilot studies and the ongoing larger trials. To date, our experiences suggest that an intervention should have a firm basis in behaviour change theory; an advisory group should help evaluate intervention materials and plan for delivery; and realistic recruitment goals should recognize economic challenges of the business of child care. A flexible data collection approach and realistic sample size calculations are needed because of high rates of child (and sometimes facility) turnover. An intervention that is relatively easy to implement is more likely to appeal to a wide variety of early care and education providers. Interventions to prevent obesity in early care and education have the potential to reach large numbers of children. It is important to consider the unique features and similarities of centres and family child care homes and take advantage of lessons learned from current studies in order to develop effective, evidence-based interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Assessing implementation fidelity and adaptation in a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-12-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed fidelity and adaptation of activity settings, targets and strategies implemented in the second year of four communities. Implementation integrity reflected fidelity and adaptation to local context, whereas efforts resulting in significant deviations from the original plan were deemed to lack fidelity and integrity. Staff implemented 284 strategies in 205 projects. Results show that 68.3 and 2.1% of strategies were implemented with fidelity or adapted, respectively. Overall, 70.4% of all strategies were implemented with integrity. Staff experienced barriers with 29.6% of strategies. Chi-square analyses show statistically significant associations between implementation integrity and strategy type, intervention and behavioural targets. These relationships are weak to modest. The strongest relationship was found between implementation integrity and proximal target. Staff experienced implementation barriers at the coalition, policy, organization, interpersonal and community levels. The greatest range of barriers was encountered working with organizations. To overcome these barriers, staff took greater ownership, invested more time, persisted and allocated more financial resources. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Using the Intervention Mapping Protocol to develop an online video intervention for parents to prevent childhood obesity: Movie Models.

    PubMed

    De Lepeleere, Sara; Verloigne, Maïté; Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-08-08

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity caused by an unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) is a prominent public health concern. Parenting practices may contribute to healthy behaviour change in children, but well-researched examples are limited. The aim of this study is to describe the systematic development of an intervention for parents to prevent childhood overweight/obesity through the improvement of parenting practices. The six steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP), a theory- and evidence-based tool to develop health-related interventions, were used as a framework to develop the 'Movie Models' programme. In Step 1, a needs assessment was performed to better understand the health problem of overweight/obesity in children and its association with diet, PA and SB. In Step 2, the programme goal (increasing the adoption of effective parenting practices) was sub-divided into performance objectives. Change objectives, which specify explicit actions required to accomplish the performance objectives, were also identified. Step 3 included the selection of theoretical methods (e.g. 'modelling' and 'images'), which were then translated into the practical strategy of online parenting videos. Step 4 comprised the development of a final intervention framework, and Step 5 included the planning of programme adoption and implementation. The final phase, Step 6, included the development of an effect- and process-evaluation plan. The IMP was used to structure the development of 'Movie Models', an intervention targeting specific parenting practices related to children's healthy diet, PA, SB, and parental self-efficacy. A clear framework for process analyses is offered, which aims to increase the potential effectiveness of an intervention and can be useful for those developing health promotion programmes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. The Relationship between School-Level Characteristics and Implementation Fidelity of a Coordinated School Health Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Alyssa M.; King, Mindy H.; Sovinski, Danielle; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Curtailing childhood obesity is a public health imperative. Although multicomponent school-based programs reduce obesity among children, less is known about the implementation fidelity of these interventions. This study examines process evaluation findings for the Healthy, Energetic Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic, Schools (HEROES)…

  11. The Relationship between School-Level Characteristics and Implementation Fidelity of a Coordinated School Health Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Alyssa M.; King, Mindy H.; Sovinski, Danielle; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Curtailing childhood obesity is a public health imperative. Although multicomponent school-based programs reduce obesity among children, less is known about the implementation fidelity of these interventions. This study examines process evaluation findings for the Healthy, Energetic Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic, Schools (HEROES)…

  12. Evidence of the Adoption and Implementation of a Statewide Childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative in the New York State WIC Program: The "NY Fit WIC" Process Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekhobo, Jackson P.; Egglefield, Katherine; Edmunds, Lynn S.; Shackman, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluations are critical in determining whether outcome evaluations are warranted. This study assessed the extent to which a childhood obesity prevention initiative, "NY Fit WIC", was adopted and implemented by the New York State Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Process data came from…

  13. A Youth Mentor-Led Nutritional Intervention in Urban Recreation Centers: A Promising Strategy for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Priscila M.; Steeves, Elizabeth A.; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Trude, Angela C.; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M. J.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers…

  14. Evidence of the Adoption and Implementation of a Statewide Childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative in the New York State WIC Program: The "NY Fit WIC" Process Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekhobo, Jackson P.; Egglefield, Katherine; Edmunds, Lynn S.; Shackman, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluations are critical in determining whether outcome evaluations are warranted. This study assessed the extent to which a childhood obesity prevention initiative, "NY Fit WIC", was adopted and implemented by the New York State Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Process data came from…

  15. A Youth Mentor-Led Nutritional Intervention in Urban Recreation Centers: A Promising Strategy for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Priscila M.; Steeves, Elizabeth A.; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Trude, Angela C.; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M. J.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers…

  16. Walking to school in Japan and childhood obesity prevention: new lessons from an old policy.

    PubMed

    Mori, Nagisa; Armada, Francisco; Willcox, D Craig

    2012-11-01

    We analyzed the Japan's walking-to-school practice implemented in 1953 for lessons useful to other cities and countries. We reviewed background documents (gray literature, online government information, local policy documents, and regulations) for existing regulations in several urban settings. We also contacted boards of education. Each municipality has a board of education in charge of public schools, which considers the geography, climate, and the transport situation to determine the method of commuting. Because there is high availability of schools in urban areas and most are located within walking range of the children's homes, walking is the most common method. There are different safety initiatives depending on the district's characteristics. Parents, school staff, and local volunteers are involved in supervision. The walk-to-school practice has helped combat childhood obesity by providing regular physical activity. Recommendations to cities promoting walking to school are (1) base interventions on the existing network of schools and adapt the provision to other local organizations, (2) establish safety measures, and (3) respond specifically to local characteristics. Besides the well-established safety interventions, the policy's success may also be associated with Japan's low crime rate.

  17. Walking to School in Japan and Childhood Obesity Prevention: New Lessons From an Old Policy

    PubMed Central

    Armada, Francisco; Willcox, D. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed the Japan’s walking-to-school practice implemented in 1953 for lessons useful to other cities and countries. Methods. We reviewed background documents (gray literature, online government information, local policy documents, and regulations) for existing regulations in several urban settings. We also contacted boards of education. Results. Each municipality has a board of education in charge of public schools, which considers the geography, climate, and the transport situation to determine the method of commuting. Because there is high availability of schools in urban areas and most are located within walking range of the children’s homes, walking is the most common method. There are different safety initiatives depending on the district’s characteristics. Parents, school staff, and local volunteers are involved in supervision. Conclusions. The walk-to-school practice has helped combat childhood obesity by providing regular physical activity. Recommendations to cities promoting walking to school are (1) base interventions on the existing network of schools and adapt the provision to other local organizations, (2) establish safety measures, and (3) respond specifically to local characteristics. Besides the well-established safety interventions, the policy’s success may also be associated with Japan’s low crime rate. PMID:22994195

  18. Parental Perceptions of the Schools' Role in Addressing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Maureen; Polivka, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    As childhood obesity has increased, schools have struggled with their role in this epidemic. Parents with a school-age child in a suburban latchkey program were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity, body mass index, and the school's role in prevention and treatment of obesity. More than 80% of participants identified…

  19. Parental Perceptions of the Schools' Role in Addressing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Maureen; Polivka, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    As childhood obesity has increased, schools have struggled with their role in this epidemic. Parents with a school-age child in a suburban latchkey program were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity, body mass index, and the school's role in prevention and treatment of obesity. More than 80% of participants identified…

  20. Research to practice: application of an evidence-building framework to a childhood obesity prevention initiative in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Rissel, Chris; Laws, Rachel; St George, Alexis; Hector, Debra; Milat, Andrew J; Baur, Louise A

    2012-04-01

    Building evidence-based health promotion programs involves a number of steps. This paper aims to develop a set of criteria for assessing the evidence available according to a five-stage evidence-building framework, and apply these criteria to current child obesity prevention programs in NSW to determine the usefulness of the framework in identifying gaps in evidence and opportunities for future research and evaluation. A set of scoring criteria were developed for application within the five stages of an 'evidence-building' framework: problem definition, solution generation, intervention testing (efficacy), intervention replication, and dissemination research. The research evidence surrounding the 10 childhood obesity prevention programs planned for state-wide implementation in the New South Wales Healthy Children Initiative (HCI) was identified and examined using these criteria within the framework. The evidence for the component programs of the HCI is at different stages of development. While problem definition and, to a lesser extent, solution generation was thoroughly addressed across all programs, there were a number of evidence gaps, indicating research opportunities for efficacy testing and intervention replication across a variety of settings and populations. The five-stage evidence-building framework helped identify important research and evaluation opportunities that could improve health promotion practice in NSW. More work is needed to determine the validity and reliability of the criteria for rating the extent and quality of the evidence for each stage.

  1. Childhood Obesity Prevention: Compelling Challenge of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Luba Zuk; Petty, Karen

    2008-01-01

    There has been a worldwide increase in the prevalence of children who are obese that is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions. These obese children have associated significant co-morbidities. In the past 30 years the proportion of children in the United States who are obese or overweight has tripled; 15%, or approximately nine million, are obese.…

  2. Childhood Obesity Prevention: Compelling Challenge of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Luba Zuk; Petty, Karen

    2008-01-01

    There has been a worldwide increase in the prevalence of children who are obese that is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions. These obese children have associated significant co-morbidities. In the past 30 years the proportion of children in the United States who are obese or overweight has tripled; 15%, or approximately nine million, are obese.…

  3. Childhood sexual abuse and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, T B; Sarwer, D B

    2004-08-01

    The causes of the current obesity epidemic are multifactorial and include genetic, environmental, and individual factors. One potential risk factor may be the experience of childhood sexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse is remarkably common and is thought to affect up to one-third of women and one-eighth of men. A history of childhood sexual abuse is associated with numerous psychological sequelae including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, somatization, and eating disorders. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult obesity. These studies suggest at least a modest relationship between the two. Potential explanations for the relationship have focused on the role of disordered eating, particularly binge eating, as well as the possible "adaptive function" of obesity in childhood sexual abuse survivors. Nevertheless, additional research on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and obesity is clearly needed, not only to address the outstanding empirical issues but also to guide clinical care.

  4. Learning from state surveillance of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Longjohn, Matt; Sheon, Amy R; Card-Higginson, Paula; Nader, Philip R; Mason, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Data on childhood obesity collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention helped reveal the nation's epidemic of overweight and obese children. But more information is needed. Collecting body mass index (BMI)-the widely accepted measurement of childhood weight status-at the state and local levels can be instrumental in identifying and tracking obesity trends, designing interventions to help overweight children, and guiding broader policy solutions. Approximately thirty states have enacted or proposed BMI surveillance laws and regulations. Arkansas stands out as the state with the highest-quality surveillance data. Innovative strategies being pursued in a number of other states should be explored for broader dissemination.

  5. [Childhood obesity and dyslipidemia].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita Angélica; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels H

    2014-01-01

    Screening and treatment of plasma lipid abnormalities secondary to obesity are among the interventions that should be implemented in children who are overweight or obese, in order to prevent a cardiovascular event. Dyslipidemias are a group of asymptomatic diseases that are commonly caused by abnormal levels of lipoproteins in blood; they are a comorbidity that is commonly related to obesity, without considering the age of the patient. Among dyslipidemias, hypertriglyceridemia has the highest prevalence. The etiology of the dyslipidemia should be identified; it allows the proper selection of therapy for the patients and their family. The goal is the prevention of cardiovascular complications. Reduced caloric intake and a structured physical activity plan should be considered for initial treatment for all the overweight and obese patients. For adherence to treatment to be successful, the participation of the primary care physician and a multidisciplinary team is required. With treatment, the risks and complications can be reduced. The participation of a specialist in handling the pediatric obese patient with dyslipidemia should be limited to severe cases or those at risk for having pancreatitis.

  6. [Obesity in childhood--diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Widhalm, K

    1985-01-01

    Obesity during childhood represents one of the most common nutritional disorders in industrialized countries. The duration of obesity in childhood correlates well with the probability to become an obese adult. Diagnosis of obesity requires reference weight for height tables and the measurement of skinfolds with the caliper technique. Using this method a differentiation between overweight and overnutrition can easily be performed also in an outpatient clinic. For therapeutic purpose a longterm dietary regime with a hypocaloric nutrition has to be reached. Some other dietary regimes ("Protein-modified fast" and "very low calorie diets") are presented and their clinical practicability discussed. The earlier treatment starts for obese children and adolescents the higher is the likelihood for longterm-success. It is emphasized that even pediatricians should focus their interest on prevention of obesity by means of prudent diet education.

  7. Wayfinding the Live 5-2-1-0 Initiative—At the Intersection between Systems Thinking and Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Amed, Shazhan; Shea, Stephanie; Pinkney, Susan; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is complex and requires a ‘systems approach’ that collectively engages across multiple community settings. Sustainable Childhood Obesity Prevention through Community Engagement (SCOPE) has implemented Live 5-2-1-0—a multi-sector, multi-component childhood obesity prevention initiative informed by systems thinking and participatory research via an innovative knowledge translation (KT) model (RE-FRAME). This paper describes the protocol for implementing and evaluating RE-FRAME in two ‘existing’ (>2 years of implementation) and two ‘new’ Live 5-2-1-0 communities to understand how to facilitate and sustain systems/community-level change. In this mixed-methods study, RE-FRAME was implemented via online resources, webinars, a backbone organization (SCOPE) coordinating the initiative, and a linking system supporting KT. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected using surveys and stakeholder interviews, analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics, respectively. Existing communities described the consistency of Live 5-2-1-0 and extensive local partnerships/champions as catalysts for synergistic community-wide action; new communities felt that the simplicity of the message combined with the transfer of experiential learning would inform their own strategies and policies/programs to broadly disseminate Live 5-2-1-0. RE-FRAME effectively guided the refinement of the initiative and provided a framework upon which evaluation results described how to implement a community-based systems approach to childhood obesity prevention. PMID:27338432

  8. Wayfinding the Live 5-2-1-0 Initiative-At the Intersection between Systems Thinking and Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Amed, Shazhan; Shea, Stephanie; Pinkney, Susan; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2016-06-21

    Childhood obesity is complex and requires a 'systems approach' that collectively engages across multiple community settings. Sustainable Childhood Obesity Prevention through Community Engagement (SCOPE) has implemented Live 5-2-1-0-a multi-sector, multi-component childhood obesity prevention initiative informed by systems thinking and participatory research via an innovative knowledge translation (KT) model (RE-FRAME). This paper describes the protocol for implementing and evaluating RE-FRAME in two 'existing' (>2 years of implementation) and two 'new' Live 5-2-1-0 communities to understand how to facilitate and sustain systems/community-level change. In this mixed-methods study, RE-FRAME was implemented via online resources, webinars, a backbone organization (SCOPE) coordinating the initiative, and a linking system supporting KT. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected using surveys and stakeholder interviews, analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics, respectively. Existing communities described the consistency of Live 5-2-1-0 and extensive local partnerships/champions as catalysts for synergistic community-wide action; new communities felt that the simplicity of the message combined with the transfer of experiential learning would inform their own strategies and policies/programs to broadly disseminate Live 5-2-1-0. RE-FRAME effectively guided the refinement of the initiative and provided a framework upon which evaluation results described how to implement a community-based systems approach to childhood obesity prevention.

  9. Childhood obesity prevention and control in city recreation centres and family homes: the MOVE/me Muevo Project.

    PubMed

    Elder, J P; Crespo, N C; Corder, K; Ayala, G X; Slymen, D J; Lopez, N V; Moody, J S; McKenzie, T L

    2014-06-01

    Interventions to prevent and control childhood obesity have shown mixed results in terms of short- and long-term changes. 'MOVE/me Muevo' was a 2-year family- and recreation centre-based randomized controlled trial to promote healthy eating and physical activity among 5- to 8-year-old children. It was hypothesized that children in the intervention group would demonstrate lower post-intervention body mass index (BMI) values and improved obesity-related behaviours compared with the control group children. Thirty recreation centres in San Diego County, California, were randomized to an intervention or control condition. Five hundred forty-one families were enrolled and children's BMI, diet, physical activity and other health indicators were tracked from baseline to 2 years post-baseline. Analyses followed an intent-to-treat approach using mixed-effects models. No significant intervention effects were observed for the primary outcomes of child's or parent's BMI and child's waist circumference. Moderator analyses, however, showed that girls (but not boys) in the intervention condition reduced their BMI. At the 2-year follow-up, intervention condition parents reported that their children were consuming fewer high-fat foods and sugary beverages. Favourable implementation fidelity and high retention rates support the feasibility of this intervention in a large metropolitan area; however, interventions of greater intensity may be needed to achieve effects on child's BMI. Also, further research is needed to develop gender-specific intervention strategies so that both genders may benefit from such efforts. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  10. The genetics of childhood obesity and interaction with dietary macronutrients.

    PubMed

    Garver, William S; Newman, Sara B; Gonzales-Pacheco, Diana M; Castillo, Joseph J; Jelinek, David; Heidenreich, Randall A; Orlando, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    The genes contributing to childhood obesity are categorized into three different types based on distinct genetic and phenotypic characteristics. These types of childhood obesity are represented by rare monogenic forms of syndromic or non-syndromic childhood obesity, and common polygenic childhood obesity. In some cases, genetic susceptibility to these forms of childhood obesity may result from different variations of the same gene. Although the prevalence for rare monogenic forms of childhood obesity has not increased in recent times, the prevalence of common childhood obesity has increased in the United States and developing countries throughout the world during the past few decades. A number of recent genome-wide association studies and mouse model studies have established the identification of susceptibility genes contributing to common childhood obesity. Accumulating evidence suggests that this type of childhood obesity represents a complex metabolic disease resulting from an interaction with environmental factors, including dietary macronutrients. The objective of this article is to provide a review on the origins, mechanisms, and health consequences of obesity susceptibility genes and interaction with dietary macronutrients that predispose to childhood obesity. It is proposed that increased knowledge of these obesity susceptibility genes and interaction with dietary macronutrients will provide valuable insight for individual, family, and community preventative lifestyle intervention, and eventually targeted nutritional and medicinal therapies.

  11. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  12. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  13. A systematic review of controlled trials of interventions to prevent childhood obesity and overweight: a realistic synthesis of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Connelly, J B; Duaso, M J; Butler, G

    2007-07-01

    Preventing childhood overweight and obesity has become a major public health issue in developed and developing countries. Systematic reviews of this topic have not provided practice-relevant guidance because of the generally low quality of research and the heterogeneity of reported effectiveness. To present practice-relevant guidance on interventions to reduce at least one measure of adiposity in child populations that do or do not contain overweight or obese children. Systematic review of eligible randomized, controlled trials or controlled trials using a novel approach to synthesizing the trial results through application of descriptive epidemiological and realistic evaluation concepts. Eligible trials involved at least 30 participants, lasted at least 12 weeks and involved non-clinical child populations. Twenty-eight eligible trials were identified to 30 April 2006. Eleven trials were effective and 17 were ineffective in reducing adiposity. Blind to outcome, the main factor distinguishing effective from ineffective trials was the provision of moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity in the former on a relatively 'compulsory' rather than 'voluntary' basis. By using a novel approach to synthesizing trials, a decisive role for the 'compulsory' provision of aerobic physical activity has been demonstrated. Further research is required to identify how such activity can be sustained and transformed into a personally chosen behaviour by children and over the life course.

  14. A randomized controlled trial to prevent childhood obesity through early childhood feeding and parenting guidance: Rationale and design of study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early and rapid growth in infants is strongly associated with early development and persistence of obesity in young children. Substantial research has linked child obesity/overweight to increased risks for serious health outcomes, which include adverse physical, psychological, behavioral, or social ...

  15. Prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jennifer S; Lee, Tiffany A; Lu, Michael C

    2007-09-01

    To review the scientific evidence for prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity, and discuss its implications for MCH research, practice, and policy. A systematic review of observational studies examining the relationship between prenatal exposures and childhood overweight and obesity was conducted using MOOSE guidelines. The review included literature posted on PubMed and MDConsult and published between January 1975 and December 2005. Prenatal exposures to maternal diabetes, malnutrition, and cigarette smoking were examined, and primary study outcome was childhood overweight or obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) for children ages 5 to 21. Four of six included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal diabetes found higher prevalence of childhood overweight or obesity among offspring of diabetic mothers, with the highest quality study reporting an odds ratio of adolescent overweight of 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9). The Dutch famine study found that exposure to maternal malnutrition in early, but not late, gestation was associated with increased odds of childhood obesity (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.4). All eight included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking showed significantly increased odds of childhood overweight and obesity, with most odds ratios clustering around 1.5 to 2.0. The biological mechanisms mediating these relationships are unknown but may be partially related to programming of insulin, leptin, and glucocorticoid resistance in utero. Our review supports prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity. MCH research, practice, and policy need to consider the prenatal period a window of opportunity for obesity prevention.

  16. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. [Randomized controlled school based interventions to prevent childhood obesity: systematic review from 2006 to 2009].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Morales, M E; Bacardí-Gascón, M; Jiménez-Cruz, A; Armendáriz-Anguiano, A

    2009-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has increased to epidemic levels. Several authors have suggested that school is the best place for effective prevention programs. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the evidence of randomized controlled trials concerning long-term (equal to or more than 9 months) observations at schools and published in the database of MEDLINE/Pubmed from January 1st of 2006 to February 28 of 2009. Ten studies were analyzed. Overall, regarding the design, the intervention components, target population age, intervention periods, educational techniques, cultural characteristics of the population, and outcome measures were heterogeneous. The results were modest. The outcomes showed a positive impact on lifestyle as intakes of fruits and vegetables increased, consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages decreased, and sedentary behaviors and adiposity were reduced. Generally, there were no significant reductions for BMI. These results warrant more strategies to achieve parental involvement, reduction of dropouts, and additional studies assessing different educational systems and cultural environments, including those in Latin America. Longer follow-up periods are also required.

  18. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  19. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  20. A Pilot Study To Explore How Low-Income Mothers of Different Ethnic/Racial Backgrounds Perceive and Implement Recommended Childhood Obesity Prevention Messages

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Mothers often serve as the “gatekeepers” of food and the eating experience for young children in the home. Children of different ethnic/racial groups have different obesity prevalence rates, but little is known about how mothers of these groups interpret or implement common childhood obesity prevention messages. The purpose of this mixed methods pilot study was to explore comprehension and implementation of common childhood obesity prevention messages and to identify feeding styles among low-income mothers of young children. Methods White, black, and Hispanic low-income mothers (n=30) of children ages 3–10 were recruited from Indiana. Mothers were interviewed individually regarding the perception and implementation of eight commonly used nutrition and/or physical activity messages. Other outcomes included the results of the Caregiver Feeding Styles Questionnaire and self-reported weight of mothers and child(ren). Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis to find common themes among the different ethnic/racial groups. Results Childhood obesity prevention messages were often interpreted or implemented differently among the different ethnic/racial groups. For example, white mothers cited control as a means to manage a child's weight more often compared to the other racial/ethnic groups, whereas black and Hispanic mothers reported catering to a child's preference more frequently compared to white mothers. Conclusion The pilot study provides evidence that it may be prudent to tailor nutrition messages to mothers of different ethnic/racial backgrounds during nutrition education. PMID:23679199

  1. A pilot study to explore how low-income mothers of different ethnic/racial backgrounds perceive and implement recommended childhood obesity prevention messages.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-06-01

    Mothers often serve as the "gatekeepers" of food and the eating experience for young children in the home. Children of different ethnic/racial groups have different obesity prevalence rates, but little is known about how mothers of these groups interpret or implement common childhood obesity prevention messages. The purpose of this mixed methods pilot study was to explore comprehension and implementation of common childhood obesity prevention messages and to identify feeding styles among low-income mothers of young children. White, black, and Hispanic low-income mothers (n=30) of children ages 3-10 were recruited from Indiana. Mothers were interviewed individually regarding the perception and implementation of eight commonly used nutrition and/or physical activity messages. Other outcomes included the results of the Caregiver Feeding Styles Questionnaire and self-reported weight of mothers and child(ren). Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis to find common themes among the different ethnic/racial groups. Childhood obesity prevention messages were often interpreted or implemented differently among the different ethnic/racial groups. For example, white mothers cited control as a means to manage a child's weight more often compared to the other racial/ethnic groups, whereas black and Hispanic mothers reported catering to a child's preference more frequently compared to white mothers. The pilot study provides evidence that it may be prudent to tailor nutrition messages to mothers of different ethnic/racial backgrounds during nutrition education.

  2. Working With Parents to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Protocol for a Primary Care-Based eHealth Study.

    PubMed

    Avis, Jillian Ls; Cave, Andrew L; Donaldson, Stephanie; Ellendt, Carol; Holt, Nicholas L; Jelinski, Susan; Martz, Patricia; Maximova, Katerina; Padwal, Raj; Wild, T Cameron; Ball, Geoff Dc

    2015-03-25

    Parents play a central role in preventing childhood obesity. There is a need for innovative, scalable, and evidence-based interventions designed to enhance parents' motivation to support and sustain healthy lifestyle behaviors in their children, which can facilitate obesity prevention. (1) Develop an online screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) eHealth tool to enhance parents' concern for, and motivation to, support children's healthy lifestyle behaviors, (2) refine the SBIRT eHealth tool by assessing end-user acceptability, satisfaction, and usability through focus groups, and (3) determine feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of the refined SBIRT eHealth tool through a randomized controlled trial. This is a three-phase, multi-method study that includes SBIRT eHealth tool development (Phase I), refinement (Phase II), and testing (Phase III). Phase I: Theoretical underpinnings of the SBIRT tool, entitled the Resource Information Program for Parents on Lifestyle and Education (RIPPLE), will be informed by concepts applied within existing interventions, and content will be based on literature regarding healthy lifestyle behaviors in children. The SBIRT platform will be developed in partnership between our research team and a third-party intervention development company. Phase II: Focus groups with parents, as well as health care professionals, researchers, and trainees in pediatrics (n=30), will explore intervention-related perceptions and preferences. Qualitative data from the focus groups will inform refinements to the aesthetics, content, structure, and function of the SBIRT. Phase III: Parents (n=200) of children-boys and girls, 5 to 17 years old-will be recruited from a primary care pediatric clinic while they await their children's clinical appointment. Parents will be randomly assigned to one of five groups-four intervention groups and one control group-as they complete the SBIRT. The randomization function is built into the

  3. Childhood Obesity and the Right to Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the committee on the CRC), the Special Rapporteur on the right to health, and the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights. It suggests how their engagement might be strengthened. It concludes that the final report of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity could provide the committee on the CRC with a more systematic basis for advising and assessing preventive measures taken by states. Moreover, while the interim report envisages a central role for states in childhood obesity prevention, it pays inadequate attention to their obligations under international human rights law. It is hoped that this will be remedied in the final report through the adoption of a child-centered approach inspired by the rights to health and play, and the general principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). PMID:27781014

  4. Keeping Kids Moving: How Equitable Transportation Policy Can Prevent Childhood Obesity--What It Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The nation faces an obesity crisis, especially among low-income children and children of color. Today, nearly one-third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and physical inactivity is a leading cause of this epidemic. Equitable transportation policy that fosters healthy, opportunity-rich communities has a critical role to play in…

  5. Application of the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop Keys, a family child care home intervention to prevent early childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Mann, Courtney M; Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Long Vidal, Lenita J; Omar, Sakinah; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J; Østbye, Truls

    2015-12-10

    Many families rely on child care outside the home, making these settings important influences on child development. Nearly 1.5 million children in the U.S. spend time in family child care homes (FCCHs), where providers care for children in their own residences. There is some evidence that children in FCCHs are heavier than those cared for in centers. However, few interventions have targeted FCCHs for obesity prevention. This paper will describe the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) framework to the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention for FCCHs Following the IM protocol, six steps were completed in the planning and development of an intervention targeting FCCHs: needs assessment, formulation of change objectives matrices, selection of theory-based methods and strategies, creation of intervention components and materials, adoption and implementation planning, and evaluation planning Application of the IM process resulted in the creation of the Keys to Healthy Family Child Care Homes program (Keys), which includes three modules: Healthy You, Healthy Home, and Healthy Business. Delivery of each module includes a workshop, educational binder and tool-kit resources, and four coaching contacts. Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory helped guide development of change objective matrices, selection of behavior change strategies, and identification of outcome measures. The Keys program is currently being evaluated through a cluster-randomized controlled trial The IM process, while time-consuming, enabled rigorous and systematic development of intervention components that are directly tied to behavior change theory and may increase the potential for behavior change within the FCCHs.

  6. [Research advances in association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Lin; Wan, Chao-Min

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, more and more studies have noted the close association between gut microbiota and the development and progression of obesity. Gut microbiota may act on obesity by increasing energy intake, affecting the secretion of intestinal hormones, inducing chronic systemic inflammation, and producing insulin resistance. This article reviews the association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota, as well as possible mechanisms, in an attempt to provide a reference for the etiology, prevention and treatment of childhood obesity.

  7. Involving Cultural Institutions in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity: The Boston Children's Museum's "GoKids" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuross, Emily; Folta, Sara

    2010-01-01

    In the United States the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is growing at an alarming rate. The solution to this complex problem will require involvement from a wide variety of institutions if it is to be successful. Children's museums could potentially be one of the institutions that provide support to families by offering fun,…

  8. Involving Cultural Institutions in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity: The Boston Children's Museum's "GoKids" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuross, Emily; Folta, Sara

    2010-01-01

    In the United States the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is growing at an alarming rate. The solution to this complex problem will require involvement from a wide variety of institutions if it is to be successful. Children's museums could potentially be one of the institutions that provide support to families by offering fun,…

  9. School lunch, policy, and environment are determinants for preventing childhood obesity: Evidence from a two-year nationwide prospective study.

    PubMed

    Liou, Yiing Mei; Yang, Ya-Lan; Wang, Ting-Yao; Huang, Chiu-Mieh

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of the school lunches related factors on student obesity rates. In this 2-year prospective census, we collected data on the obesity rate in 2007 and 2008 and school lunch data for 2007 from the Student Health Examination and School Health Profile Database. We used geographic information system software to collect spatial environmental data. Hierarchical regression was used to analysis data. A total of 2208 elementary and junior high schools, excluding offshore islands in Taiwan were collected. The highest obesity rate (13.5%) was observed at a school in which one school meal cost less than US$ 0.83 in 2008. The obesity rates in schools that employed dietitians were lower than in schools that did not (p<0.001 in 2007, 2008). School lunches and childhood obesity exert a greater effect on boys than on girls.

  10. Ecological influences of early childhood obesity: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Boonpleng, Wannaporn; Park, Chang Gi; Gallo, Agatha M; Corte, Colleen; McCreary, Linda; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to determine the contributing factors for early childhood overweight/obesity within the contexts of the child's home, school, and community, and to determine how much each of the ecological contexts contributes to childhood overweight/obesity. The framework was developed from Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Data for 2,100 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, were used in a series of multilevel modeling analyses. There was significant variation in childhood overweight/obesity by school and community. The majority of variation in childhood overweight/obesity was explained by the child and family factors in addition to school and community factors. Explained variance of childhood overweight/obesity at the school level was 27% and at the community level, 2%. The variance composition at children's family level alone was 71%. Therefore, overweight/obesity prevention efforts should focus primarily on child, family, and school factors and then community factors, to be more effective.

  11. Markets and Childhood Obesity Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In…

  12. Psychosocial aspects of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    De Niet, J E; Naiman, D I

    2011-12-01

    Rates of childhood obesity are increasing at alarming rates worldwide. This is especially alarming as obesity is associated with many physical and psychological consequences. A great number of studies indicate that obese children have an impaired psychological well-being (e.g., depression, self-esteem, and quality of life) compared to their non-overweight peers. There has been an overwhelming amount of research conducted in this area over the past few decades, and as such, this paper provides a summarized overview of the vast trove of available information on the psychosocial aspects of childhood obesity. In this paper we provide a summarized overview of: 1) psychosocial aspects that contribute to the onset of childhood obesity; 2) psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity; and 3) familial-based lifestyle behavior modification interventions for treating childhood obesity and its treatment success. Although it seems obvious that obese children and adolescents would likely be at higher risk for psychological problems, the mediating factors in the relationship between psychological problems and obesity are still not well established. Obesity is a complex disorder with an equally complex etiology, and is thus associated with complex behaviors and outcomes that make it difficult to study in children. It has been indicated that family-based lifestyle interventions can improve psychological well-being in obese children; however, not all children profit from these interventions. Interventions aimed at improving treatment results need further investigation. For example, interventions targeted specifically at groups that tend to be less successful in weight-loss programs and interventions providing long-term support to these individuals are recommended.

  13. Childhood Obesity and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…

  14. Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2007-01-01

    According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

  15. Too Much Tube Time? Television Viewing and Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Tiffany M.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2007-01-01

    The rates of overweight in infancy and childhood are rapidly growing. One contributor to the rising tide of childhood obesity, and a target included in many obesity prevention and intervention programs, is television (TV) use. This article examines the amount of media to which young children are exposed, and considers the evidence for the…

  16. Too Much Tube Time? Television Viewing and Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Tiffany M.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2007-01-01

    The rates of overweight in infancy and childhood are rapidly growing. One contributor to the rising tide of childhood obesity, and a target included in many obesity prevention and intervention programs, is television (TV) use. This article examines the amount of media to which young children are exposed, and considers the evidence for the…

  17. Childhood obesity prevention and control in city recreation centers and family homes: the MOVE/me Muevo Project

    PubMed Central

    Elder, John P.; Crespo, Noe C.; Corder, Kirsten; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Slymen, Donald J.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Moody, Jamie S.; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Interventions to prevent and control childhood obesity have shown mixed results in terms of short- and long-term changes. Objectives “MOVE/me Muevo” was a two-year family- and recreation center-based randomized controlled trial to promote healthy eating and physical activity among 5-8 year old children. It was hypothesized that children in the intervention group would demonstrate lower post-intervention BMI values and improve obesity-related behaviors compared to control group children. Methods Thirty recreation centers in San Diego County, California were randomized to an intervention or control condition. Five hundred and forty-one families were enrolled and children’s body mass index (BMI), diet, physical activity and other health indicators were tracked from baseline to two years post-baseline. Analyses followed an intent-to-treat approach using mixed effects models. Results No significant intervention effects were observed for the primary outcomes of child or parent BMI and child waist circumference. Moderator analyses however showed girls (but not boys) in the intervention condition reduced their BMI. At the two-year follow-up, intervention condition parents reported that their children were consuming fewer high-fat foods and sugary beverages. Conclusions Favorable implementation fidelity and high retention rates support the feasibility of this intervention in a large metropolitan area; however, interventions of greater intensity may be needed to achieve effects on child’s BMI. Also, further research is needed to develop gender-specific intervention strategies so that both genders may benefit from such efforts. PMID:23754782

  18. Healthy caregivers-healthy children (HC2) phase 2: Integrating culturally sensitive childhood obesity prevention strategies into childcare center policies.

    PubMed

    Messiah, Sarah E; Lebron, Cynthia; Moise, Rhoda; Sunil Mathew, M; Sardinas, Krystal; Chang, Catherina; Palenzuela, Joanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Shelnutt, Karla P; Spector, Rachel; Altare, Fiorella; Natale, Ruby

    2017-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children, most states lack childcare center (CCC) nutrition and physical activity policies. The Healthy Caregivers, Healthy Children (HC) Phase 2 project is examining the relationship between the CCC nutrition and physical activity environment and child dietary intake/physical activity patterns and body mass index (BMI). A total of 24 "Quality Counts" (Miami Dade County, Florida's Quality Rating Improvement System [QRIS)]) CCCs serving low resource families with ≥50 2-to-5year olds attending have been randomized to either intervention (n=12) or control (n=12). The HC2 intervention arm CCCs receive implementation of a daily curricula for (1) teachers/parents; (2) children; (3) snack, beverage, physical activity, and screen time policies; and (4) technical assistance with menu modifications. Control arm schools receive an attention control safety curriculum. HC2 is delivered once a month in year 1, quarterly in year 2 and will be disseminated throughout the Quality Counts network in year 3. Primary outcome measures include the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation tool (EPAO), standardized dietary intake and physical activity patterns surveys, and child BMI. The 'Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM)' framework will guide the interpretation of outcome measures. CCCs are in need of evidence-based standardized nutrition and physical activity policies. The intersection of RE-AIM and early childhood obesity prevention in the childcare setting could generate robust and new information to the field about potential barriers, facilitators, adoption, and sustainability in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A process evaluation of a social cognitive theory-based childhood obesity prevention intervention: the Comics for Health program.

    PubMed

    Branscum, Paul; Sharma, Manoj; Wang, Lihshing Leigh; Wilson, Bradley; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana

    2013-03-01

    Process evaluations are an often overlooked yet essential component of health promotion interventions. This study reports the results of a comprehensive process evaluation for the "Comics for Health" program, a childhood obesity prevention intervention implemented at 12 after-school programs. Qualitative and quantitative process data were collected using surveys, field notes, and open-item questionnaires, which assessed program fidelity, dose delivered, dose received, reach, recruitment, and context. Triangulation of methods was also employed to better understand how the program was implemented and received by the facilitator, staff members, and children in the program. Results indicated that program implementation had an almost perfect rate of fidelity with most lessons recording 100% tasks completed. Lessons were implemented in their intended order and lasted approximately 30 minutes as planned. After-school staff members reported that the program was well received by children, and this program should be replicated in the future. Attendance records showed that a majority of the children attended each lesson on the initial day of delivery (70.4%) and informal make-up lessons were implemented to compensate for the other children. Finally, several known sources of contamination were found such as past and concurrent exposure to similar health promotion interventions, which could potentially influence study outcomes. These findings will be used to help explain the results of this intervention and make recommendations for future intervention efforts.

  20. Childhood obesity for pediatric gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jeannie S; Barlow, Sarah E; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P; Xanthakos, Stavra A

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology.

  1. Childhood Obesity for Pediatric Gastroenterologists

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jeannie S.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology. PMID:23282941

  2. Maternal obesity and childhood wheezing and asthma.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Franca; Popovic, Maja

    2017-03-01

    Obesity represents one of the major public health problems worldwide, with an increased prevalence also among women of reproductive age. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are important risk factors for a number of maternal and foetal/neonatal complications. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the most recent evidence regarding the associations between pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and wheezing and asthma in childhood. Potential mechanisms, mediators and confounding factors involved in these associations are also discussed. Despite the relatively large body of studies examining these associations and taking into account main confounders and potential mediators, the causal relationship between maternal obesity and wheezing and asthma in childhood is still uncertain. This uncertainty is not trivial, as any prevention strategy aimed at reducing the burden of these conditions would necessarily imply better understanding of the factors that are in the causal chain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Active Hours Afterschool: Childhood Obesity Prevention & Afterschool Programs. Issue Brief No. 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The obesity crisis in America is ubiquitous and irrefutable, and it's hitting youth so hard that health experts warn that this generation of children will be the first to have a shorter life expectancy than their parents. Tackling and reversing this epidemic will require a comprehensive and sustained effort in every community in America. The…

  4. Invisible seams: Preventing childhood obesity through an improved obstetrics-pediatrics care continuum.

    PubMed

    Moscetti, Craig W; Pronk, Nicolaas P

    2017-03-01

    Progress in altering the current obesity epidemic among children and adolescents remains elusive. Evidence continues to underscore the challenges of altering weight status as children age. Further, weight loss interventions among children and adults alike tend to demonstrate efficacy in the short-term, however individuals tend to slowly revert back to their original weight status over time. New understanding of obesity's early origins suggests the need to rethink current approaches, particularly within healthcare. Instead of a predominant focus on "mid-flight course corrections," healthcare should consider the "take-off" time period for health trajectories. This means improved support and promotion of healthy behaviors before and after birth, and with both the mother and infant. To meet the challenge, greater continuity will be required across obstetrics and pediatrics, which often operate independently, focused on different clinical outcomes. Likewise, there is an urgent need to remedy a significant skills gap within both practices. Through its connection with almost every new mother, healthcare plays a unique and vital role in maternal and child health outcomes. A more seamless obstetrics-pediatrics care continuum could better address the early origins of obesity, factors that we are coming to learn have life-long consequences.

  5. The IDEFICS intervention trial to prevent childhood obesity: Design and study methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the major research dimensions of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study involved the development, implementation and evaluation of a setting-based community-oriented intervention program for primary prevention...

  6. Hormones and cytokines in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Nur; Erdur, Baris; Aydin, Adem

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is a growing worldwide health problem affecting both adults and children. Effective prevention and treatment modalities can be achieved by understanding the pathogenesis of obesity better. This review addresses some of the issues related to the hormones and cytokines taking part in the pathogenesis of obesity, energy balance and inflammation. We reviewed current literature on this broad subject especially concentrating on the functions of the hormones and cytokines taking part in the pathogenesis of the childhood obesity. Using the key words obesity, children, hormones, cytokines publications and cross references were evaluated from PubMed database between 1957 and 2009. In children, leptin and ghrelin are two hormones which have major influence on energy balance. Leptin is responsible from long term regulation of energy balance and ghrelin functions as an appetite stimulatory signal. In contrast to ghrelin, obestatin acts as an anorexigenic hormone by suppressing food intake. Adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are the key regulators of inflammation in obesity. Increased TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels but decreased levels of adiponectin and IL-10 are associated with increased inflammation, tissue injury and complications of obesity. Development, pathogenesis and complications of childhood obesity consist of complex mechanisms including numerous cytokines and hormones. New treatment modalities depend on understanding these complex mechanisms.

  7. Analyzing Screening Policies for Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Wein, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the health and economic costs of childhood obesity, coupled with studies suggesting the benefits of comprehensive (dietary, physical activity and behavioral counseling) intervention, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended childhood screening and intervention for obesity beginning at age six. Using a longitudinal data set consisting of the body mass index of 3164 children up to age 18 and another longitudinal data set containing the body mass index at ages 18 and 40 and the presence or absence of disease (hypertension and diabetes) at age 40 for 747 people, we formulate and numerically solve – separately for boys and girls – a dynamic programming problem for the optimal biennial (i.e., at ages 2, 4, …, 16) obesity screening thresholds. Unlike most screening problem formulations, we take a societal viewpoint, where the state of the system at each age is the population-wide probability density function of the body mass index. Compared to the biennial version of the task force’s recommendation, the screening thresholds derived from the dynamic program achieve a relative reduction in disease prevalence of 3% at the same screening (and treatment) cost, or – due to the flatness of the disease vs. screening tradeoff curve – achieves the same disease prevalence at a 28% relative reduction in cost. Compared to the task force’s policy, which uses the 95th percentile of body mass index (from cross-sectional growth charts tabulated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) as the screening threshold for each age, the dynamic programming policy treats mostly 16 year olds (including many who are not obese) and very few males under 14 years old. While our results suggest that adult hypertension and diabetes are minimized by focusing childhood obesity screening and treatment on older adolescents, the shortcomings in the available data and the narrowness of the medical outcomes considered prevent us from making a

  8. Childhood obesity. Treatment options.

    PubMed

    Steinbeck, Katharine

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing and is associated with morbidity, both medical and psychosocial. Obesity is unlikely to resolve spontaneously. It is important that health professionals can assess obesity and initiate an action plan. The evidence base for what works best in the management of child and adolescent overweight and obesity is limited. It is uncertain whether protocols from clinical research trials can be translated into primary care. Dietary change, with an emphasis on lower fat intake and smaller portion size, should be commenced. There should be an increase in physical activity and a decrease in sedentary behaviours, combined with behavioural change and parental involvement. These are the elements of a lifestyle intervention. In the severely obese adolescent with obesity-related co-morbidity, the use of very low-energy diets and anti-obesity agents could be considered. Bariatric surgery may be indicated in carefully selected, older, severely obese adolescents.

  9. A quasi-experimental study to mobilize rural low-income communities to assess and improve the ecological environment to prevent childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Peters, Paula; Gold, Abby; Abbott, Angela; Contreras, Dawn; Keim, Ann; Oscarson, Renee; Procter, Sandra; Remig, Valentina; Smathers, Carol; Mobley, Amy R

    2016-05-04

    The Ecological Model of Childhood Overweight focuses on characteristics that could affect a child's weight status in relation to the multiple environments surrounding that child. A community coaching approach allows community groups to identify their own strengths, priorities and identity. Little to no research currently exists related to community-based efforts inclusive of community coaching in creating environmental change to prevent childhood obesity particularly in rural communities. A quasi-experimental study will be conducted with low-income, rural communities (n = 14) in the North Central region of the United States to mobilize capacity in communities to create and sustain an environment of healthy eating and physical activity to prevent childhood obesity. Two rural communities within seven Midwestern states (IN, KS, MI, OH, ND, SD, WI) will be randomly assigned to serve as an intervention or comparison community. Coalitions will complete assessments of their communities, choose from evidence-based approaches, and implement nutrition and physical activity interventions each year to prevent childhood obesity with emphasis on policy, system or environmental changes over four years. Only intervention coalitions will receive community coaching from a trained coach. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, annually and project end using previously validated instruments and include coalition self-assessments, parental perceptions regarding the built environment, community, neighborhood, and early childhood environments, self-reflections from coaches and project staff, ripple effect mapping with coalitions and, final interviews of key stakeholders and coaches. A mixed-methods analysis approach will be used to evaluate if Community Coaching enhances community capacity to create and sustain an environment to support healthy eating and physical activity for young children. ANOVA or corresponding non-parametric tests will be used to analyze quantitative data

  10. The Role of Urbanization in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pirgon, Özgür; Aslan, Nagehan

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is becoming the most frequently diagnosed chronic disease in many countries affecting all age groups and specifically the pediatric population. To date, most approaches have focused on changing the behavior of individuals with respect to diet and exercise. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may be achieved by changes in lifestyle through a variety of interventions targeting the urban environment, physical activity, time spent watching television and playing computer games and consumption of carbonated drinks. However, as yet, these strategies seem to have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. In this article, we aimed to discuss the effect of rapid urbanization on childhood obesity and to suggest solutions to this problem. PMID:26831548

  11. Early childhood nutrition in an American Indian community: educational strategy for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoffhines, Heather; Whaley, Kelleigh Dean; Blackett, Piers R; Palumbo, Karen; Campbell-Sternloff, Dana; Glore, Stephen; Lee, Elisa T

    2014-02-01

    Prevailing infant and toddler feeding practices in an American Indian community were assessed to explore the feasibility of improvement by implementation of a maternal education program. A survey of prevailing nutritional practice was the basis for design of an instruction program on infant nutrition for mothers during pregnancy. Follow-up assessments provided information on feasibility, and requirements for an effective program. Failure to sustain breast-feeding, low fruit and vegetable intake, low fiber intake, consumption of sweetened beverages, low milk consumption and low vitamin D intake were identified as persisting problems. We conclude that infant and toddler feeding practices are comparable to national trends, but suboptimal and conducive to promoting early obesity and diabetes in a susceptible community. A successful education-based intervention strategy beginning in pregnancy appears feasible if psychosocial, environmental, and economic barriers can be addressed.

  12. Childhood obesity in Europe: a growing concern.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, M B

    2001-02-01

    Estimation of the prevalence and secular trends in paediatric obesity in Europe is impeded by methodological problems in the definition of obesity and the paucity of data sets that mirror the demographic, cultural and socioeconomic composition of the European population. The available prevalence data show that paediatric obesity is increasing throughout Europe but the patterns vary with time, age, sex and geographical region. The highest rates of obesity are observed in eastern and southern European countries. Even within countries there may be marked variability in the rates of obesity. It is unclear whether these trends are a simple consequence of an overall increase in fatness in Europe or whether there may be sub-groups of children who, at certain ages, are either particularly susceptible to environmental challenges or are selectively exposed to such challenges. In addition to the general increase in adiposity in European youth, there is also evidence of an increasing degree of obesity, particularly in older children and adolescents. No definite conclusions can be made about the respective contribution of energy intake and physical activity to the increasing prevalence of obesity. Changing demographic and social circumstances are linked to childhood obesity but it is highly unlikely that these interact in similar ways in the genesis of obesity in different individuals and population groups. In conclusion, the limited understanding of the variability in susceptibility to obesity in European youth provides powerful justification for the development of preventive strategies which are population based rather than selectively targeted at high-risk children.

  13. CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMCALS

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent rates of obesity and overweight are continuing to increase in much of the world. Risk factors such as diet composition, excess caloric intake, decreased exercise, genetics, and the built environment are active areas of etiologic research. The obesogen hypothesis, which postulates that pre- and peri- natal chemical exposure can contribute to risk of childhood and adolescent obesity, remains relatively under-examined. This review surveys numerous classes of chemicals for which this hypothesis has been explored. We focus on human data where they exist and also discuss the findings of rodent and cell culture studies. Organochlorine chemicals as well as several classes of chemicals that are PPAR agonists are identified as possible risk factors for obesity. Recommendations for future epidemiologic and experimental research on the chemical origins of obesity are also given. PMID:21259261

  14. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  15. Process and impact evaluation of the Romp & Chomp obesity prevention intervention in early childhood settings: lessons learned from implementation in preschools and long day care settings.

    PubMed

    de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Bell, Andrew C; Kremer, Peter; Park, Janet; Demajo, Lisa; Smith, Michael; Sharp, Sharon; Nichols, Melanie; Carpenter, Lauren; Boak, Rachel; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-06-01

    The Romp & Chomp controlled trial, which aimed to prevent obesity in preschool Australian children, was recently found to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and improve children's dietary patterns. The intervention focused on capacity building and policy implementation within various early childhood settings. This paper reports on the process and impact evaluation of this trial and the lessons learned from this complex community intervention. Process data was collected throughout and audits capturing nutrition and physical activity-related environments and practices were completed postintervention by directors of Long Day Care (LDC) centers (n = 10) and preschools (n = 41) in intervention and comparison (n = 161 LDC and n = 347 preschool) groups. The environmental audits demonstrated positive impacts in both settings on policy, nutrition, physical activity opportunities, and staff capacity and practices, although results varied across settings and were more substantial in the preschool settings. Important lessons were learned in relation to implementation of such community-based interventions, including the significant barriers to implementing health-promotion interventions in early childhood settings, lack of engagement of for-profit LDC centers in the evaluation, and an inability to attribute direct intervention impacts when the intervention components were delivered as part of a health-promotion package integrated with other programs. These results provide confidence that obesity prevention interventions in children's settings can be effective; however, significant efforts must be directed toward developing context-specific strategies that invest in policies, capacity building, staff support, and parent engagement. Recognition by funders and reviewers of the difficulties involved in implementing and evaluating such complex interventions is also critical to strengthening the evidence base on the effectiveness of such public health

  16. Lessons learned from the implementation of a provincial breastfeeding policy in Nova Scotia, Canada and the implications for childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Sara F L; Sim, Sarah Meaghan; Hemmens, Erin; Price, Sheri L

    2012-04-01

    Healthy public policy plays a central role in creating environments that are supportive of health. Breastfeeding, widely supported as the optimal mode for infant feeding, is a critical factor in promoting infant health. In 2005, the Canadian province of Nova Scotia introduced a provincial breastfeeding policy. This paper describes the process and outcomes of an evaluation into the implementation of the policy. This evaluation comprised focus groups held with members of provincial and district level breastfeeding committees who were tasked with promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in their districts. Five key themes were identified, which were an unsupportive culture of breastfeeding; the need for strong leadership; the challenges in engaging physicians in dialogue around breastfeeding; lack of understanding around the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes; and breastfeeding as a way to address childhood obesity. Recommendations for other jurisdictions include the need for a policy, the value of leadership, the need to integrate policy with other initiatives across sectors and the importance of coordination and support at multiple levels. Finally, promotion of breastfeeding offers a population-based strategy for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic and should form a core component of any broader strategies or policies for childhood obesity prevention.

  17. Lessons Learned from the Implementation of a Provincial Breastfeeding Policy in Nova Scotia, Canada and the Implications for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Sara F. L.; Sim, Sarah Meaghan; Hemmens, Erin; Price, Sheri L.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy public policy plays a central role in creating environments that are supportive of health. Breastfeeding, widely supported as the optimal mode for infant feeding, is a critical factor in promoting infant health. In 2005, the Canadian province of Nova Scotia introduced a provincial breastfeeding policy. This paper describes the process and outcomes of an evaluation into the implementation of the policy. This evaluation comprised focus groups held with members of provincial and district level breastfeeding committees who were tasked with promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in their districts. Five key themes were identified, which were an unsupportive culture of breastfeeding; the need for strong leadership; the challenges in engaging physicians in dialogue around breastfeeding; lack of understanding around the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes; and breastfeeding as a way to address childhood obesity. Recommendations for other jurisdictions include the need for a policy, the value of leadership, the need to integrate policy with other initiatives across sectors and the importance of coordination and support at multiple levels. Finally, promotion of breastfeeding offers a population-based strategy for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic and should form a core component of any broader strategies or policies for childhood obesity prevention. PMID:22690194

  18. Breastfeeding Reduces Childhood Obesity Risks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Collins, Candice; Ratliff, Melanie; Xie, Bin; Wang, Youfa

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of breastfeeding and its duration on the development of childhood obesity from 24 months through grade 6. U.S. longitudinal data collected from 1234 children were analyzed using logistic regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE). Child height and weight were measured six times at ages of 24 months, 36 months, 54 months, grade 1, grade 3, and grade 6. During the early 1990s, prevalence of breastfeeding was low in the United States, 60% and 48% at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Nonsmoking, white, married mothers with both parents in the household, and with income above the poverty line, were more likely to breastfeed at 1 month of age of their babies. Obesity rate of the children increased with age from 24 months to grade 6. Logistic regression showed that breastfeeding at month 1 was associated with 53% (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-0.73) and 47% (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.78) decreased risks for childhood obesity at grades 1 and 6, respectively. GEE analysis showed that breastfeeding at 1 month reduced risk for childhood obesity by 36% (95% CI: 0.47-0.88) from ages 24 months through grade 6. Regarding breastfeeding duration, more than 6 months (vs. never) was associated with a decreased risk for childhood obesity by 42% (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36-0.94). Breastfeeding at 1 month and more than 6 months reduced the risk of childhood obesity. Rate of breastfeeding was low in the United States in the 1990s, which may have had long-term implications on children.

  19. Predicting adult obesity from childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, M; Llewellyn, A; Owen, C G; Woolacott, N

    2016-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index (BMI) to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Study quality was assessed. Studies were pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis methods. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. BMI was the only measure of obesity reported in any study, with 200,777 participants followed up. Obese children and adolescents were around five times more likely to be obese in adulthood than those who were not obese. Around 55% of obese children go on to be obese in adolescence, around 80% of obese adolescents will still be obese in adulthood and around 70% will be obese over age 30. Therefore, action to reduce and prevent obesity in these adolescents is needed. However, 70% of obese adults were not obese in childhood or adolescence, so targeting obesity reduction solely at obese or overweight children needs to be considered carefully as this may not substantially reduce the overall burden of adult obesity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. Increased coagulation in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Yildiz Dallar; Alioglu, Bulent; Simşek, Enver; Tapci, Ayse Esra; Ozen, Cınar

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to explore the relation between childhood obesity and procoagulant and anticoagulant systems. Fifty-one obese children and 32 normal-weighted children with similar age and gender distribution and between ages of 5 and 16 years were recruited to the study. Antropometric measures of all subjects, existence of any accompanying disease, and medication histories had been recorded. Full blood count, procoagulant, and anticoagulant coagulation tests were run for all subjects. When hematologic variables of obese children were compared with those of healthy controls, it was found that average erythrocyte hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte distribution width, and platelet count of obese children are significantly higher than healthy control group. It was also found that fibrinogen, thrombin time, factor (F) VIII, FIX, FX, and von Willebrand factor levels of obese children are higher than healthy control group. By contrast, antithrombin levels of obese children are found to be lower. In our study, we found that there is a procoagulant increase in the coagulation system activity of obese children compared to non-obese healthy children, whereas there is a significant decrease in anticoagulant system. These changes occurred in obese patients, especially higher levels of plasma procoagulant factors such as fibrinogen, FVIII, FIX, and von Willebrand factor, lead us to think that there is an activity in these patients at endothelial level. Further studies are needed on endothelial activity of obese children.

  1. Childhood dental caries and childhood obesity. Different problems with overlapping causes.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Kaitlin A; Palmer, Carole A

    2012-02-01

    To review and summarize the current literature on the issues contributing to the increased prevalence of childhood obesity and dental caries and to provide direction and guidelines for dental practitioners as well as other health professionals for interventions that may help stem the tide of both conditions. Through a review of the recent literature, the most recent research on the nutritional issues in common to both childhood caries and childhood obesity are reported, as well as clinical interventions which are considered appropriate in dental practice. Factors contributing to both childhood caries and childhood obesity are psychosocial as well as nutritional. Family patterns, lifestyle issues, and school-based issues all play a role. The literature shows that many of the same issues contribute to both childhood caries and childhood obesity, and that it is within the scope of responsibility of dental practitioners to provide guidance for the prevention and reduction of both.

  2. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention.

    PubMed

    Verbestel, Vera; De Henauw, Stefaan; Maes, Lea; Haerens, Leen; Mårild, Staffan; Eiben, Gabriele; Lissner, Lauren; Moreno, Luis A; Frauca, Natalia Lascorz; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Kovács, Eva; Konstabel, Kenn; Tornaritis, Michael; Gallois, Katharina; Hassel, Holger; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. The intervention mapping protocol (IMP) was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to the intervention mapping heuristic. The

  3. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. Methods The intervention mapping protocol (IMP) was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. Results The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. Conclusions The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to

  4. Disorders of childhood growth and development: childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Robert; Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity in the United States is estimated at 17%, or 12 million children ages 2 to 19 years. Obesity is a multifactorial condition with syndromic and nonsyndromic variants. Genetic, social, ethnic, endocrinologic, and behavioral issues are all potential etiologic factors. Preventive efforts should begin with monitoring from birth and include breastfeeding until age 6 months, avoiding juices, and promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and adequate exercise. Childhood obesity is diagnosed based on body mass index; a child is considered overweight at the 85th to 95th percentiles and obese at or above the 95th percentile. After obesity is diagnosed, testing should include blood pressure levels, fasting lipid profile, diabetes screening, and liver function tests. The physician should obtain a detailed history of the physical activity level and food intake and assess possible complications of obesity, including depression and hypertension, annually. Lifestyle interventions with family involvement are the mainstay of management, with pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery considered for adolescents only if intensive lifestyle modifications have failed and in the presence of comorbidities. Intervention by multiple disciplines (ie, medicine, nutrition, psychology) is recommended, and family physicians are encouraged to become more involved in encouraging physical activity and improved nutrition for children. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  5. Childhood Obesity: Immune Response and Nutritional Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is characterized by a low-grade inflammation status depending on the multicellular release of cytokines, adipokines, and reactive oxygen species. In particular, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory T regulatory cells and inflammatory T helper 17 cells seems to sustain such a phlogistic condition. Alterations of gut microbiota since childhood also contribute to the maintenance of inflammation. Therefore, besides preventive measures and caloric restrictions, dietary intake of natural products endowed with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may represent a valid interventional approach for preventing and/or attenuating the pathological consequences of obesity. In this regard, the use of prebiotics, probiotics, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and melatonin in human clinical trials will be described. PMID:25759691

  6. Childhood obesity: immune response and nutritional approaches.

    PubMed

    Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is characterized by a low-grade inflammation status depending on the multicellular release of cytokines, adipokines, and reactive oxygen species. In particular, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory T regulatory cells and inflammatory T helper 17 cells seems to sustain such a phlogistic condition. Alterations of gut microbiota since childhood also contribute to the maintenance of inflammation. Therefore, besides preventive measures and caloric restrictions, dietary intake of natural products endowed with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may represent a valid interventional approach for preventing and/or attenuating the pathological consequences of obesity. In this regard, the use of prebiotics, probiotics, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and melatonin in human clinical trials will be described.

  7. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... no one is to blame for your child’s obesity. Children gain excess weight for a variety of reasons. ... uncommon, they account for very few cases of obesity. More likely, your child’s excess weight is associated with poor eating and ...

  8. Childhood Obesity Demands New Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satter, Ellyn

    1991-01-01

    Health professionals suggest creating achievable goals in childhood obesity. The article recommends correcting factors that distort normal growth and providing positive eating and exercise management to slow weight gain. Rather than trying for weight loss, children must learn positive lifelong eating and exercise patterns and attitudes toward self…

  9. Childhood obesity: a simple equation with complex variables.

    PubMed

    Strock, Gregory A; Cottrell, Erika R; Abang, Anthony E; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Hannon, Tamara S

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is rising rapidly, as are the associated medical complications, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. This has significant medical and socioeconomic implications. The definition of obesity in adults is based on body mass index (BMI), which has been correlated with morbidity and mortality. Similarly, the definition of childhood obesity is currently based on BMI; however, there are currently no data to relate morbidity and mortality to BMI values in children. The known and potential causes of childhood obesity are many, but they can be categorized as genetic, endocrine, prenatal/early life, physical activity, diet, and socioeconomic. These factors influence the basic equation: energy input = energy output. Imbalances in this equation can result in obesity. Here we present a review of recent literature and highlight the etiologies, certain complications, and potential prevention and treatment strategies of childhood obesity.

  10. Participatory Action Research in the Implementing Process of Evidence-Based Intervention to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Project Design of the “Healthy Future” Study

    PubMed Central

    Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design of the developmental project Healthy Future that aims to implement a new evidence-based program for the prevention of childhood obesity and collaboration and sharing of work between specialist and community health care professionals in parts of a county in western Norway. Methods. Comprehensive participatory planning and evaluation (CPPE) process as an action-oriented research approach was chosen, using mixed data sources, mixed methods, and triangulation. Discussion. A bottom-up approach might decrease the barriers when new evidence-based childhood prevention interventions are going to be implemented. It is crucial not only to build partnership and shared understanding, motivation, and vision, but also to consider the frames of the organizations, such as competencies, and time to carry out the interventions at the right level of health care service and adapt to the overweight children and their families needs. Conclusion. The developmental process of new health care programs is complex and multileveled and requires a framework to guide the process. By CPPE approach evidence-based health care practice can be delivered based on research, user knowledge, and provider knowledge in the field of childhood overweight and obesity in a certain context. PMID:23956843

  11. Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Must, A; Strauss, R S

    1999-03-01

    This report reviews the risks and consequences associated with childhood and adolescent obesity. Although no consensus definition of childhood obesity exists, the various measures encountered in the literature are moderately well correlated. The paper is organized in three parts. The first section reviews childhood obesity sequelae that occur during childhood. These short-term risks, for orthopedic, neurological, pulmonary, gasteroenterological, and endocrine conditions, although largely limited to severely overweight children, are becoming more common as the prevalence of severe overweight rises. The social burden of pediatric obesity, especially during middle childhood and adolescence, may have lasting effects on self-esteem, body image and economic mobility. The second section examines the intermediate consequences, such as the development of cardiovascular risk factors and persistence of obesity into adulthood. These mid-range effects of early obesity presage later adult disease and premature mortality. In the final section, the small body of research on the long-term morbidity and mortality associated with childhood obesity is reviewed. These studies suggest that risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality is elevated among those who were overweight during childhood. The high prevalence and dramatic secular trend toward increasing childhood obesity suggest that without aggressive approaches to prevention and treatment, the attendant health and social consequences will be both substantial and long-lasting.

  12. Epidemiology of childhood obesity in Europe.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, B

    2000-09-01

    At present, estimation of the prevalence and secular trends in paediatric obesity in Europe is severely hampered by methodological problems in the definition of obesity and the paucity of data sets that mirror the demographic, cultural and socioeconomic composition of the European population. The available cross-sectional data, however imperfect, suggest that there are complex patterns in prevalence which vary with time, age, sex and geographical region. Overall, the prevalence of obesity in young children is relatively low compared to adolescents. Gender differences in prevalence are inconsistent. The highest rates of obesity are observed in eastern and southern European countries and even within countries there may be marked variability in the rates of obesity. It is not clear whether the trends in paediatric obesity are a simple consequence of an overall increase in fatness in Europe or whether there may be sub-groups of children who, at certain ages, are either particularly susceptible to environmental challenges or are selectively exposed to such challenges. The respective contributions of dietary energy intake and patterns of physical activity to the aetiology of childhood obesity present a confused and confusing picture. Changing demographic and social circumstances throughout Europe are linked to childhood obesity but it is highly unlikely that these interact in similar ways in the genesis of obesity in different individuals and population groups. At present, our limited understanding of the variability in susceptibility to obesity in European children and adolescents provides powerful justification for the development of preventive strategies which are population based rather than selectively targeted at high-risk children.

  13. Prevention of childhood obesity: recruiting strategies via local paediatricians and study protocol for a telephone-based counselling programme.

    PubMed

    Markert, Jana; Alff, Franziska; Zschaler, Silke; Gausche, Ruth; Kiess, Wieland; Blüher, Susann

    2013-12-01

    Prevention research has to elucidate how families with overweight children can be convinced to participate in obesity intervention trials. Here we describe the detailed recruitment process for a telephone-based obesity prevention programme for families with overweight children and present participation rates, the study design and a socio-demographic description of participating families. Overweight (BMI > 90th percentile) children and adolescents 4-17 years of age were screened via the German paediatrician network CrescNet. The prevention programme (multiple computer aided telephone counselling interviews) was suggested to eligible families via local paediatricians. Participating families were compared anthropometrically and socio-demographically to the entire screening population and to micro-census data, a representative national survey. The screening process assessed 4005 candidates for eligibility. Paediatricians reported having suggested programme participation to 3387 candidates (referred to as 100%). 427 candidates (12.6%) returned a written consent for programme participation. 303 candidates (9.0%) started the intervention. The study population (n = 303) included more obese (45.6% vs. 33.2%; p < 0.001) and fewer overweight participants (40.4% vs. 55.2%; p < 0.001) than the entire screening population. Compared to the micro-census, families with adolescents (8.2% vs. 16.9%; p < 0.001) and single parents (16.0% vs. 23.3%; p < 0.005) were underrepresented in the study population, whereas families living in rural areas were overrepresented (58.7% vs. 50.2%; p < 0.005). Although 84.6% of the paediatricians forwarded the suggestion for programme participation to eligible families, participation rates for this low-threshold; telephone-based obesity intervention remained very low. "Hard-to-engage groups" for effective obesity prevention seem to include single parents, as well as parents of adolescents. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity

  14. Using School Staff Members to Implement a Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention in Low-Income School Districts: the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD Project), 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Franckle, Rebecca L.; Ganter, Claudia; Falbe, Jennifer; Giles, Catherine; Criss, Shaniece; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Land, Thomas; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Chuang, Emmeline; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although evidence-based interventions to prevent childhood obesity in school settings exist, few studies have identified factors that enhance school districts’ capacity to undertake such efforts. We describe the implementation of a school-based intervention using classroom lessons based on existing “Eat Well and Keep Moving” and “Planet Health” behavior change interventions and schoolwide activities to target 5,144 children in 4th through 7th grade in 2 low-income school districts. Methods The intervention was part of the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) project, a multisector community-based intervention implemented from 2012 through 2014. Using mixed methods, we operationalized key implementation outcomes, including acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, feasibility, implementation fidelity, perceived implementation cost, reach, and sustainability. Results MA-CORD was adopted in 2 school districts that were facing resource limitations and competing priorities. Although strong leadership support existed in both communities at baseline, one district’s staff reported less schoolwide readiness and commitment. Consequently, fewer teachers reported engaging in training, teaching lessons, or planning to sustain the lessons after MA-CORD. Interviews showed that principal and superintendent turnover, statewide testing, and teacher burnout limited implementation; passionate wellness champions in schools appeared to offset implementation barriers. Conclusion Future interventions should assess adoption readiness at both leadership and staff levels, offer curriculum training sessions during school hours, use school nurses or health teachers as wellness champions to support teachers, and offer incentives such as staff stipends or play equipment to encourage school participation and sustained intervention activities. PMID:28084989

  15. Childhood obesity prevention in rural settings: background, rationale, and study design of '4-Health,' a parent-only intervention.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Wesley C; Martz, Jill; Eldridge, Galen; Bailey, Sandra J; Benke, Carrie; Paul, Lynn

    2012-04-02

    Childhood obesity in rural communities is a serious but understudied problem. The current experiment aims to assess a wide range of obesity risk factors among rural youth and to offer an 8-month intervention program for parents to reduce obesity risk in their preteen child. A two-group, repeated measures design is used to assess the effectiveness of the 4-Health intervention program. Assessments include anthropometric measures, child self-evaluations, parent self-evaluations, and parent evaluations of child. County Extension agents from 21 rural Montana counties recruit approximately 150 parent-child dyads and counties are semi-randomly assigned to the active intervention group (4-Health Educational Program) or a "best-practices" (Healthy Living Information) control group. This study will shed light on the effectiveness of this parent-only intervention strategy in reducing obesity risk factors among rural preteens. The 4-Health program is designed to provide information and skills development for busy rural parents that will increase healthy lifestyles of their preteen children and improve the parents' ability to intervene effectively in the lives of their families during this critical developmental period. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01510587.

  16. Adipokines in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Ángel; Barrios, Vicente; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents during the past decades, in addition to mounting evidence indicating that obesity is associated with an increased incidence of comorbidities and the risk of premature death, resulting in a high economical impact, has stimulated obesity-focused research. These studies have highlightened the prominent endocrine activity of adipose tissue, which is exerted through the synthesis and secretion of a wide variety of peptides and cytokines, called adipokines. In the present review, we have summarized the current knowledge and most relevant studies of adipokine dynamics and actions in children, focusing on the control of energy homeostasis, metabolic regulation (particularly, carbohydrate metabolism), and inflammation. The particularities of adipose secretion and actions in healthy children, from birth to adolescence, and the modifications induced by early-onset obesity are highlighted.

  17. Preventing Obesity through Schools

    PubMed Central

    Nihiser, Allison; Merlo, Caitlin; Lee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    PRÉCIS This paper describes highlights from the Weight of the Nation™ 2012 Schools Track. Included is a summary of 16 presentations. Presenters shared key actions for obesity prevention through schools. The information provided at the Weight of the Nation™ can help school health practitioners access tools, apply evidence-based strategies, and model real-world examples to successfully start obesity prevention initiatives in their jurisdiction. PMID:24446995

  18. Study protocol: effects of the THAO-child health intervention program on the prevention of childhood obesity - the POIBC study.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Santiago F; Casas, Rafael; Palomo, Vanessa Taylor; Martin Pujol, Anna; Fíto, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut

    2014-08-29

    The speeding increase and the high prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious problem for Public Health. Community Based Interventions has been developed to combat against the childhood obesity epidemic. However little is known on the efficacy of these programs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the effect of community based intervention on changes in lifestyle and surrogate measures of adiposity. Parallel intervention study including two thousand 2249 children aged 8 to 10 years ( 4th and 5th grade of elementary school) from 4 Spanish towns. The THAO-Child Health Program, a community based intervention, were implemented in 2 towns. Body weight, height, and waist circumferences were measured. Children recorded their dietary intake on a computer-based 24h recall. All children also completed validated computer based questionnaires to estimate physical activity, diet quality, eating behaviors, and quality of life and sleep. Additionally, parental diet quality and physical activity were assessed by validated questionnaires. This study will provide insight in the efficacy of the THAO-Child Health Program to promote a healthy lifestyle. Additionally it will evaluate if lifestyle changes are accompanied by favorable weight management. Trial Registration Number ISRCTN68403446.

  19. Study protocol: effects of the THAO-child health intervention program on the prevention of childhood obesity - The POIBC study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The speeding increase and the high prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious problem for Public Health. Community Based Interventions has been developed to combat against the childhood obesity epidemic. However little is known on the efficacy of these programs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the effect of community based intervention on changes in lifestyle and surrogate measures of adiposity. Methods/design Parallel intervention study including two thousand 2249 children aged 8 to 10 years ( 4th and 5th grade of elementary school) from 4 Spanish towns. The THAO-Child Health Program, a community based intervention, were implemented in 2 towns. Body weight, height, and waist circumferences were measured. Children recorded their dietary intake on a computer-based 24h recall. All children also completed validated computer based questionnaires to estimate physical activity, diet quality, eating behaviors, and quality of life and sleep. Additionally, parental diet quality and physical activity were assessed by validated questionnaires. Discussion This study will provide insight in the efficacy of the THAO-Child Health Program to promote a healthy lifestyle. Additionally it will evaluate if lifestyle changes are accompanied by favorable weight management. Trial registration Trial Registration Number ISRCTN68403446 PMID:25174356

  20. Evaluation of a comprehensive intervention with a behavioural modification strategy for childhood obesity prevention: a nonrandomized cluster controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-jing; Lau, Wing-chung Patrick; Wang, Hai-jun; Ma, Jun

    2015-12-03

    With regard to the global childhood obesity epidemic, it is imperative that effective lifestyle interventions are devised to combat childhood obesity. This paper describes the development and implementation of a comprehensive (a combination of diet and physical activity (PA)), social cognitive behaviour modification intervention using accelerometry and a dietary diary to tackle child overweight and obesity. The comprehensive intervention effect was evaluated in a comparison with diet only, PA only and a no-treatment control group. A pilot study was conducted with a non-randomized cluster design. Four hundred thirty-eight overweight and obese children aged 7-12 years from ten primary schools in Beijing were recruited to receive a one-year intervention. Participants were allocated into one of four groups: the comprehensive intervention group; the PA only group (Happy 10 program); the diet only group (nutrition education program); and a control group. The effects of intervention on adiposity, blood pressure, and biochemical indicators were assessed by examining 2-way interactions (time × intervention) in linear mixed models. Means and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the adjusted changes between post-intervention and baseline relative to changes in the control group were calculated and reported as effect sizes. The percentage of body fat in the comprehensive intervention group showed a significant relative decrease (adjusted change: -1.01 %, 95 % CI: (-1.81, -0.20) %) compared with the PA only, diet only or control groups (P < 0.001). Systolic blood pressure significantly decreased in the comprehensive intervention group (adjusted change: -4.37 mmHg, 95 % CI: (-8.42, -0.33) mmHg), as did diastolic blood pressure (adjusted change: -5.50 mmHg, 95 % CI (-8.81, -2.19) mmHg) (P < 0.05). Compared with the other two intervention groups and the control group, positive adjusted changes in fasting glucose in the comprehensive group were found, although not for

  1. Designing and implementing a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent obesity in early childhood: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    Manios, Y; Androutsos, O; Katsarou, C; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Geyer, C; Moreno, L; Koletzko, B; De Bourdeaudhuij, I

    2014-08-01

    The development of the ToyBox-intervention was based on the outcomes of the preliminary phase of the ToyBox-study, aiming to identify young children's key behaviours and their determinants related to early childhood obesity. The ToyBox-intervention is a multi-component, kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention with a cluster-randomized design, focusing on the promotion of water consumption, healthy snacking, physical activity and the reduction/ breaking up of sedentary time in preschool children and their families. The intervention was implemented during the academic year 2012-2013 in six European countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain. Standardized protocols, methods, tools and material were used in all countries for the implementation of the intervention, as well as for the process, impact, outcome evaluation and the assessment of its cost-effectiveness. A total sample of 7,056 preschool children and their parents/caregivers, stratified by socioeconomic level, provided data during baseline measurements and participated in the intervention. The results of the ToyBox-study are expected to provide a better insight on behaviours associated with early childhood obesity and their determinants and identify effective strategies for its prevention. The aim of the current paper is to describe the design of the ToyBox-intervention and present the characteristics of the study sample as assessed at baseline, prior to the implementation of the intervention. © 2014 World Obesity.

  2. Parental perceptions of the schools' role in addressing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Maureen; Polivka, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    As childhood obesity has increased, schools have struggled with their role in this epidemic. Parents with a school-age child in a suburban latchkey program were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity, body mass index, and the school's role in prevention and treatment of obesity. More than 80% of participants identified inactivity, poor eating behavior, lack of parental control in what children eat, and eating too much as the main causes of childhood obesity. Parents preferred receiving information about their child's body mass index from the school via a letter from the school nurse. Participants agreed that physical education classes, as well as units on nutrition and weight control, should be present in schools. Parents also supported eliminating junk food machines and offering special low-calorie meals. By supporting these strategies, parents indicated that schools should have a role in childhood obesity. School nurses can advocate for parental preferences in their school district.

  3. Games and childhood obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

  4. Childhood obesity prevention through a community-based cluster randomized controlled physical activity intervention among schools in China: The health legacy project of the 2nd world summer youth olympic games (YOG-obesity study).

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Xu, F; Ye, Q; Tse, L A; Xue, H; Tan, Z; Leslie, E; Owen, N; Wang, Y

    2017-10-05

    Childhood obesity has been becoming a worldwide public health problem. We conducted a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention program aiming at childhood obesity prevention in general student population in Nanjing of China, the host city of the 2nd World Summer Youth Olympic Games (YOG-Obesity study). This was a cluster randomized controlled intervention study. Participants were the 4th (Mean age±s.e.: 9.0±0.01) and 7th (Mean age±s.e.: 12.0±0.01) grade students (Mean age±s.e.: 10.5±0.02) from 48 schools and randomly allocated (1:1) to intervention or control groups at school level. Routine health education was provided to all schools, while the intervention schools additionally received an one-year tailored multi-component PA intervention program, including classroom curricula, school environment support, family involvement and fun programs/events. The primary outcome measures were changes in body mass index, obesity occurrence and PA. Overall, 9858 (97.7%) of the 10091 enrolled students completed the follow-up survey. Compared with the baseline, PA level increased by 33.13 min/week (SE 10.86) in the intervention group but decreased by 1.76 min/week (SE 11.53) in the control group (P=0.028). After adjustment for potential confounders, compared with the control group, the intervention group were more likely to have increased time of PA (adj.OR=1.15, 95%CI=1.06-1.25), but had a smaller increase in mean BMI (0.22 [SE 0.02] vs 0.46 [0.02], P=0.01) and BMI z-score (0.07 [0.01] vs 0.16 [0.01], P=0.01), and were less likely to be obese (adj.OR=0.7, 95%CI=0.6, 0.9) at study end. The intervention group had fewer new events of obesity/overweight but a larger proportion of formerly overweight/obese students having normal weight by study end. This large community-based PA intervention was feasible and effective in promoting physical activity and preventing obesity among the general student population in a large city in China. Experiences from this study

  5. Development and pilot testing a social cognitive theory-based intervention to prevent childhood obesity among elementary students in rural Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Canavera, Megan; Sharma, Manoj; Murnan, Judy

    The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot test a social cognitive theory-based intervention for children to prevent childhood obesity. Focus groups were conducted with 5th grade students and their parents on the behaviors of physical activity, watching television, and eating habits, specifically fruit and vegetable intake and water consumption. Results from the focus groups were used to develop a 12-week program which was pilot tested in 5th grade physical education classes. The 12-week intervention was conducted with 122 students at a rural elementary school in Kentucky. Significant findings from the intervention were the increase in expectations for drinking water (p=0.049), increase in expectations for watching television (p=0.002), and increase in the number of glasses of water consumed (p=0.022) from pre-test to post-test. Recommendations have been offered for future obesity reduction programs that can be implemented in the elementary schools.

  6. Childhood obesity and the media.

    PubMed

    Hingle, Melanie; Kunkel, Dale

    2012-06-01

    This article assesses the role played by media in contributing to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. Electronic media use, often referred to as screen time, is significantly correlated with child adiposity. Although the causal mechanism that accounts for this relationship is unclear, it is well established that reducing screen time improves weight status. Media advertising for unhealthy foods contributes to obesity by influencing children's food preferences, requests, and diet. Industry efforts have failed to improve the nutritional quality of foods marketed on television to children, leading public health advocates to recommend government restrictions on child-targeted advertisements for unhealthy foods.

  7. Primary prevention of childhood obesity through counselling sessions at Swedish child health centres: design, methods and baseline sample characteristics of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Döring, Nora; Hansson, Lena M; Andersson, Elina Scheers; Bohman, Benjamin; Westin, Maria; Magnusson, Margaretha; Larsson, Christel; Sundblom, Elinor; Willmer, Mikaela; Blennow, Margareta; Heitmann, Berit L; Forsberg, Lars; Wallin, Sanna; Tynelius, Per; Ghaderi, Ata; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-04-09

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern in Sweden. Children with overweight and obesity run a high risk of becoming obese as adults, and are likely to develop comorbidities. Despite the immense demand, there is still a lack of evidence-based comprehensive prevention programmes targeting pre-school children and their families in primary health care settings. The aims are to describe the design and methodology of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised controlled trial, assess the relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire, and describe the baseline characteristics of the eligible young children and their mothers. The PRIMROSE trial targets first-time parents and their children at Swedish child health centres (CHC) in eight counties in Sweden. Randomisation is conducted at the CHC unit level. CHC nurses employed at the participating CHC received training in carrying out the intervention alongside their provision of regular services. The intervention programme, starting when the child is 8-9 months of age and ending at age 4, is based on social cognitive theory and employs motivational interviewing. Primary outcomes are children's body mass index and waist circumference at four years. Secondary outcomes are children's and mothers' eating habits (assessed by a food frequency questionnaire), and children's and mothers' physical activity (measured by accelerometer and a validated questionnaire), and mothers' body mass index and waist circumference. The on-going population-based PRIMROSE trial, which targets childhood obesity, is embedded in the regular national (routine) preventive child health services that are available free-of-charge to all young families in Sweden. Of the participants (n = 1369), 489 intervention and 550 control mothers (75.9%) responded to the validated physical activity and food frequency questionnaire at baseline (i.e., before the first intervention session, or, for children in the control group, before they reached 10 months of age). The

  8. Primary prevention of childhood obesity through counselling sessions at Swedish child health centres: design, methods and baseline sample characteristics of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a growing concern in Sweden. Children with overweight and obesity run a high risk of becoming obese as adults, and are likely to develop comorbidities. Despite the immense demand, there is still a lack of evidence-based comprehensive prevention programmes targeting pre-school children and their families in primary health care settings. The aims are to describe the design and methodology of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised controlled trial, assess the relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire, and describe the baseline characteristics of the eligible young children and their mothers. Methods/Design The PRIMROSE trial targets first-time parents and their children at Swedish child health centres (CHC) in eight counties in Sweden. Randomisation is conducted at the CHC unit level. CHC nurses employed at the participating CHC received training in carrying out the intervention alongside their provision of regular services. The intervention programme, starting when the child is 8-9 months of age and ending at age 4, is based on social cognitive theory and employs motivational interviewing. Primary outcomes are children’s body mass index and waist circumference at four years. Secondary outcomes are children’s and mothers’ eating habits (assessed by a food frequency questionnaire), and children’s and mothers’ physical activity (measured by accelerometer and a validated questionnaire), and mothers’ body mass index and waist circumference. Discussion The on-going population-based PRIMROSE trial, which targets childhood obesity, is embedded in the regular national (routine) preventive child health services that are available free-of-charge to all young families in Sweden. Of the participants (n = 1369), 489 intervention and 550 control mothers (75.9%) responded to the validated physical activity and food frequency questionnaire at baseline (i.e., before the first intervention session, or, for children in the control

  9. Childhood obesity: a pandemic of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Malecka-Tendera, E; Mazur, A

    2006-06-01

    The researchers and clinicians need to gain a better understanding of the social and environmental contexts by which childhood obesity is becoming a growing problem of twenty-first century and develop more efficacious methods of prevention and treatment. Summary of the actions and achievements of the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) since its foundation in 1991 until the 16th anniversary. Review of the sessions of the 16th ECOG workshop devoted to epidemiology, prevention, risk factors, comorbidities and treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity. Meta-analysis of epidemiological data on childhood obesity in Europe underscores an urgent need of preventive actions in which general practitioners may play an important role. Media should get actively involved in promotion of healthy lifestyle. Metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetes type 2 and sleep apnoea syndrome are becoming more common in obese adolescents. In morbid obesity with severe comorbidities, more aggressive ways of treatment may be considered. European Childhood Obesity Group members should get actively involved into targeted prevention and intervention project to promote healthy lifestyle and successful weight control.

  10. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota?

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Marina; Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota. PMID:25546278

  11. Childhood obesity: a societal problem to solve.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M B; Puhl, R

    2003-02-01

    In contrast to other threats to American children's health, the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity are considered the responsibility of individual children and their parents. This pressure exists in the context of the societal stigmatization of overweight children and the powerful environmental inducements aimed directly at children to eat nutritionally poor foods. Parents of overweight children are left in the difficult position of fearing the social and health consequences of their child's obesity, and fighting a losing battle against the omnipotent presence of the media and constant exposure to unhealthy foods. This paper brings together several literatures to provide a comprehensive examination of the major challenges facing obese children and their families. In particular, this paper documents the extent of stigmatization towards overweight children and reviews evidence of the conflicting advice given to parents about how to help children develop healthful eating in the face of biological and learned food preferences. We conclude with a call for a shift in thinking about the role of our society in the aetiology, treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

  12. Childhood obesity in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Steven; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-07-03

    New Zealand has an unacceptably high rate of childhood obesity at 11 percent of children. The cause is due to an over consumption of food particularly in the form of junk food. To reverse this serious problem an all-of-society approach with leadership from the government is going to be required. The consequence of ignoring the problem will threaten the future viability of the health service.

  13. Childhood Obesity – 2010: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joan C.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kimm, Sue Y.S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly over the past 3 decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from this, the elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us only limited lessons on how to prevent or reverse obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need to be re-assessed and better quantified, on a population level, given the more sedentary life of children today. For individual treatment, the currently recommended calorie prescriptions may be too conservative given the evolving insight on the “energy gap.” Whilst quality of research in both prevention and treatment has improved, there is still a need for high-quality multi-centre trials with long-term follow-up. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches that aim to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake need to continue. Most recently, the spiralling increase in obesity prevalence may be abating for children. Thus, even greater efforts need to be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244

  14. Stay Smart: Lost Weight--Childhood Obesity and Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosa-Postl, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Prevention is the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic levels of childhood obesity. Current statistics show that obesity has more than doubled for preschool children aged 2-5 years and adolescents aged 12-19 years, and it has more than tripled for children aged 6-11 years. It is generally recognized that nutrition education for the…

  15. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.

    2015-01-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…

  16. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.

    2015-01-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…

  17. Childhood obesity: current literature, policy and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Ben-Sefer, E; Ben-Natan, M; Ehrenfeld, M

    2009-06-01

    In most of the industrialized world, a childhood obesity epidemic is evident, with the numbers rising each year. To discuss the current literature in relation to childhood obesity and to provide health practitioners, especially nurses, with the fundamental knowledge that is imperative in the recognition of children who are at risk and thereby tailor appropriate interventions. Databases that were accessed for current literature included CINAHL, Science Direct and ProQuest. Keywords used in the search included obesity, childhood, health, relevant national statistics, policy and health risks. The literature was confined to the past 10 years with emphasis on the past 5 years. The 50 most pertinent papers from a variety of countries were chosen, and 35 papers that represented key areas of relevance were selected as the basis of this article. This selection of papers dictated the key areas of discussion such as the acknowledged factors in childhood obesity. Although childhood obesity may be related to specific cultural and national circumstances, universal themes emerged from the literature review. These include social factors, exercise, advertising, public policy and the importance of partnerships in policy. Any country that has a high rate or increasing rate of childhood obesity must acknowledge core factors that contribute to this serious health problem. Furthermore, public policy and community partnerships that include all health professionals have a responsibility in the prevention of childhood obesity. This can be implemented through education, research and advocacy of all nurses involved with children and families.

  18. [Impact of strength training exercise on secondary prevention of childhood obesity; an intervention within the school system].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Fabián; Díaz, Erik; Lera, Lydia; Meza, Jorge; Salas, Isabel; Rojas, Pamela; Atalah, Eduardo; Burrows, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    The physical exercise is an important therapeutic tool to prevent and treat obesity, as well as reducing metabolic alterations and the risk of non-communicable diseases. To evaluate the impact of a strength training exercise intervention within the school system, this includes muscular strength exercise, dietary education and psychological support in obese children. We worked with 120 obese schoolchildren, between 8 and 13 years, recruited from 3 schools. Group 1 (n = 60) participated in the intervention, which included physical exercise, dietary education, and psychological support, for 3 months. Group 2 (n = 60) received only the educational intervention and psychological support for the first 3 months, and then received the exercise intervention from months 3 to 6. Participants were evaluated for BMI, waist circumference, body fat, presence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. At 3 months, there were significant differences between the groups for change in BMI z-score, waist circumference, and body fat as well as prevalence of metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and fasting hyperglycemia. In group 1, these parameters decreased and increased, in group 2. From months 3 to 6, Group 2 showed a significant decrease in abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, and hypertriglyceridemia, while Group 1 showed a significant increase in high blood pressure and no change in other cardiovascular risk factors. This study demonstrates the positive impact of a strength training physical exercise program on reduction of body fat, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. This study supports the use of exercise as a treatment for obesity and its comorbidities in schoolchildren. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources & Publications Reports Prevention Strategies & Guidelines Fact Sheets Social Media Tools Get Email Updates To receive email updates ... the affordability of healthy food options, peer and social supports, marketing and promotion, and policies that determine how a ...

  20. Two-year follow-up of a primary care-based intervention to prevent and manage childhood obesity: the High Five for Kids study.

    PubMed

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Taveras, Elsie M; Gortmaker, Steven L; Hohman, Katherine H; Horan, Christine M; Kleinman, Ken P; Mitchell, Kathleen; Price, Sarah; Prosser, Lisa A; Gillman, Matthew W

    2017-06-01

    The obesity epidemic has spared no age group, even young infants. Most childhood obesity is incident by the age of 5 years, making prevention in preschool years a priority. To examine 2-year changes in age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores and obesity-related behaviours among 441 of the 475 originally recruited participants in High Five for Kids, a cluster randomized controlled trial in 10 paediatric practices. The intervention included a more intensive 1-year intervention period (four in-person visits and two phone calls) followed by a less intensive 1-year maintenance period (two in-person visits) among children who were overweight or obese and age 2-6 years at enrolment. The five intervention practices restructured care to manage these children including motivational interviewing and educational modules targeting television viewing and intakes of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. After 2 years, compared with usual care, intervention participants had similar changes in BMI z-scores (-0.04 units; 95% CI -0.14, 0.06), television viewing (-0.20 h/d; -0.49 to 0.09) and intakes of fast food (-0.09 servings/week; -0.34 to 0.17) and sugar-sweetened beverages (-0.26 servings/day; -0.67 to 0.14). High Five for Kids, a primarily clinical-based intervention, did not affect BMI z-scores or obesity-related behaviours after 2 years. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  1. Epidemiology of Childhood Obesity in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically worldwide and is increasing not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. This increase may lead to an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases throughout the lifespan. In Korean children and adolescents, the prevalence of obesity increased from 6.8% in 1998 to 10.0% in 2013. Obesity is a state that more commonly influences children and adolescents of lower socioeconomic status (SES) than those with a higher SES. However, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents decreased from 1998 to 2012. According to the Diabetes Fact Sheet of the Korean Diabetes Association, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among children aged 18 years or younger was 153.5 per 100,000 in 2006 and 205.0 per 100,000 in 2013. Obesity is a complex disease influenced by many interacting factors, such as adipocytokines, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, adenovirus 36 infection, birth weight, lifestyle, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Obesity in youth can adversely impact practically every organ system and lead to serious consequences, such as metabolic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cardiovascular, and psychosocial complications. Therefore, coordinated efforts by governments, organizations, communities, and individuals are needed to prevent and treat childhood obesity. In particular, a long-term policy to improve the social environment will also be necessary. PMID:27834078

  2. Early intervention of multiple home visits to prevent childhood obesity in a disadvantaged population: a home-based randomised controlled trial (Healthy Beginnings Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Li Ming; Baur, Louise A; Rissel, Chris; Wardle, Karen; Alperstein, Garth; Simpson, Judy M

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that a proportion of children as young as two years are already overweight. This indicates that obesity prevention programs that commence as early as possible and are family-focused are needed. This Healthy Beginnings Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a home visiting intervention in preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. The intervention will be conducted over the first two years of life to increase healthy feeding behaviours and physical activity, decrease physical inactivity, enhance parent-child interaction, and hence reduce overweight and obesity among children at 2 and 5 years of age in the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of Sydney, Australia. Methods/design This RCT will be conducted with a consecutive sample of 782 first time mothers with their newborn children. Pregnant women who are expecting their first child, and who are between weeks 24 and 34 of their pregnancy, will be invited to participate in the trial at the antenatal clinic. Informed consent will be obtained and participants will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or the control group. The allocation will be concealed by sequentially numbered, sealed opaque envelopes containing a computer generated random number. The intervention comprises eight home visits from a specially trained community nurse over two years and pro-active telephone support between the visits. Main outcomes include a) duration of breastfeeding measured at 6 and 12 months, b) introduction of solids measured at 4 and 6 months, c) nutrition, physical activity and television viewing measured at 24 months, and d) overweight/obesity status at age 2 and 5 years. Discussion The results of this trial will ascertain whether the home based early intervention is effective in preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. If proved to be effective, it will result in a series of

  3. Socioeconomic Inequality in Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and overweight in children aged 10 to 12 yr old. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on 2506 children aged 10 to 12 yr old in the city of Sanandaj, western Iran in 2015. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Considering household situation and assets, socioeconomic status (SES) of the subjects was determined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Concentration Index was used to measure inequality and Oaxaca decomposition was used to determine the share of different determinants of inequality. The prevalence of overweight was 24.1% (95% CI: 22.4, 25.7). 11.5% (95% CI: 10.0, 12.0) were obese. The concentration index for overweight and obesity, respectively, was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.15), and 0.07 (95% CI:0.00, 0.14) which indicated inequality and a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight in higher SES. The results of Oaxaca decomposition suggested that socioeconomic factors accounted for 75.8% of existing inequalities. Residential area and mother education were the most important causes of inequality. To reduce inequalities in childhood obesity, mother education must be promoted and special attention must be paid to residential areas and children gender.

  4. Metabolic endotoxaemia in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Varma, Madhusudhan C; Kusminski, Christine M; Azharian, Sahar; Gilardini, Luisa; Kumar, Sudhesh; Invitti, Cecilia; McTernan, Philip G

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation considered as a precursor to metabolic disease; however, the underlying mechanisms for this remain unclear. Studies in adults have implicated gut derived gram-negative bacterial fragments known as lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin, activating the inflammatory response, whilst the importance in childhood obesity is unclear. The aim of this research is to understand the relationship between circulating endotoxin in childhood obesity, and its' association with inflammatory and cardiovascular (CV) injury biomarkers. Fasted blood was obtained from children with varying degrees of obesity (age: 13.9 ± 2.3Yr; BMI: 35.1 ± 5.2 Kg/m(2); n = 60). Multiplex CVD biomarker immunoassays were used to determine systemic levels of inflammatory and vascular injury biomarkers, such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-) 1β, 6, 8 and 10, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type-1 (sICAM-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as endotoxin levels. Endotoxin levels demonstrated a significant and positive correlation with the markers for inflammation, vascular injury and atherogenesis (TNF-α: r(2) = 0.077, p < 0.05; PAI-1: r(2) = 0.215, p < 0.01; sICAM-1: r(2) = 0.159, p < 0.01; MMP-9: r(2) = 0.159, p < 0.01; MPO: r(2) = 0.07, p < 0.05; VEGF: r(2) = 0.161, p < 0.01). Males demonstrated significantly higher circulating endotoxin than females (Males: 9.63 ± 5.34 EU/ml; p = 0.004; Females: 5.56 ± 4.06 EU/ml; n = 60) in these BMI and age-matched cohorts. The present study demonstrates for the first time a significant association between circulating endotoxin and biomarkers of metabolic risk in children as young as 11 years. Thus, endotoxin-mediated sub-clinical inflammation during childhood obesity may be a

  5. Obstacles and Enablers on the Way towards Integrated Physical Activity Policies for Childhood Obesity Prevention: An Exploration of Local Policy Officials' Views

    PubMed Central

    Habraken, Jolanda M.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Albertine J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Limited physical activity (PA) is a risk factor for childhood obesity. In Netherlands, as in many other countries worldwide, local policy officials bear responsibility for integrated PA policies, involving both health and nonhealth domains. In practice, its development seems hampered. We explore which obstacles local policy officials perceive in their effort. Methods. Fifteen semistructured interviews were held with policy officials from health and nonhealth policy domains, working at strategic, tactic, and operational level, in three relatively large municipalities. Questions focused on exploring perceived barriers for integrated PA policies. The interviews were deductively coded by applying the Behavior Change Ball framework. Findings. Childhood obesity prevention appeared on the governmental agenda and all officials understood the multicausal nature. However, operational officials had not yet developed a tradition to develop integrated PA policies due to insufficient boundary-spanning skills and structural and cultural differences between the domains. Tactical level officials did not sufficiently support intersectoral collaboration and strategic level officials mainly focused on public-private partnerships. Conclusion. Developing integrated PA policies is a bottom-up innovation process that needs to be supported by governmental leaders through better guiding organizational processes leading to such policies. Operational level officials can assist in this by making progress in intersectoral collaboration visible. PMID:27668255

  6. Obstacles and Enablers on the Way towards Integrated Physical Activity Policies for Childhood Obesity Prevention: An Exploration of Local Policy Officials' Views.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Habraken, Jolanda M; Kremers, Stef P J; Jansen, Maria W J; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Albertine J

    Background. Limited physical activity (PA) is a risk factor for childhood obesity. In Netherlands, as in many other countries worldwide, local policy officials bear responsibility for integrated PA policies, involving both health and nonhealth domains. In practice, its development seems hampered. We explore which obstacles local policy officials perceive in their effort. Methods. Fifteen semistructured interviews were held with policy officials from health and nonhealth policy domains, working at strategic, tactic, and operational level, in three relatively large municipalities. Questions focused on exploring perceived barriers for integrated PA policies. The interviews were deductively coded by applying the Behavior Change Ball framework. Findings. Childhood obesity prevention appeared on the governmental agenda and all officials understood the multicausal nature. However, operational officials had not yet developed a tradition to develop integrated PA policies due to insufficient boundary-spanning skills and structural and cultural differences between the domains. Tactical level officials did not sufficiently support intersectoral collaboration and strategic level officials mainly focused on public-private partnerships. Conclusion. Developing integrated PA policies is a bottom-up innovation process that needs to be supported by governmental leaders through better guiding organizational processes leading to such policies. Operational level officials can assist in this by making progress in intersectoral collaboration visible.

  7. Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, L J; Langley-Evans, S C; McMullen, S

    2010-01-01

    Although the relationship between adult obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been shown, the relationship with childhood obesity remains unclear. Given the evidence of tracking of body mass index (BMI) from childhood to adulthood, this systematic review investigated the independent relationship between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk. To investigate the association between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk, and whether the associations observed are independent of adult BMI. Electronic databases were searched from inception until July 2008 for studies investigating the association between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk. Two investigators independently reviewed studies for eligibility according to inclusion/exclusion criteria, extracted the data and assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Positive associations between childhood BMI and adult blood pressure or carotid intima-media thickness were generally attenuated once adjusted for adult BMI. Associations between childhood BMI and CVD morbidity/mortality had not been adjusted and do not provide evidence of an independent relationship. Negative associations between childhood BMI and blood pressure were observed in several adjusted data sets. Little evidence was found to suggest that childhood obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD risk. Instead, the data suggest that relationships observed are dependent on the tracking of BMI from childhood to adulthood. Importantly, evidence suggests that risk of raised blood pressure is highest in those who are at the lower end of the BMI scale in childhood and overweight in adulthood. The findings challenge the widely accepted view that the presence of childhood obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD and that this period should be a priority for public health intervention. Although interventions during childhood may be important in prevention of adult obesity, it is important to avoid the potential for negative consequences when the timing

  8. Physician practices related to use of BMI-for-age and counseling for childhood obesity prevention: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Screening for obesity and providing appropriate obesity-related counseling in the clinical setting are important strategies to prevent and control childhood obesity. The purpose of this study is to document pediatricians (PEDs) and general practitioners (GPs) with pediatric patients use of BMI-for-age to screen for obesity, confidence in explaining BMI, access to referral clinics, and characteristics associated with screening and counseling to children and their caregivers. Methods The authors used 2008 DocStyles survey data to examine these practices at every well child visit for children aged two years and older. Counseling topics included: physical activity, TV viewing time, energy dense foods, fruits and vegetables, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in proportions and logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with screening and counseling. Results The final analytic sample included 250 PEDs and 621 GPs. Prevalence of using BMI-for-age to screen for obesity at every well child visit was higher for PEDs than GPs (50% vs. 22%, χ2 = 67.0, p ≤ 0.01); more PEDs reported being very/somewhat confident in explaining BMI (94% vs. GPs, 87%, p < 0.01); more PEDs reported access to a pediatric obesity specialty clinic for referral (PEDs = 65% vs. GPs = 42%, χ2 = 37.5, p ≤ 0.0001). In general, PEDs reported higher counseling prevalence than GPs. There were significant differences in the following topics: TV viewing (PEDs, 79% vs. GPs, 61%, χ2 = 19.1, p ≤ 0.0001); fruit and vegetable consumption (PEDs, 87% vs. GPs, 78%, χ2 = 6.4, p ≤ 0.01). The only characteristics associated with use of BMI for GPs were being female (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.5-3.5) and serving mostly non-white patients (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-2.9); there were no significant associations for PEDs. Conclusions The findings for use of BMI-for-age, counseling habits, and access to a pediatric obesity specialty clinic leave room

  9. Physician practices related to use of BMI-for-age and counseling for childhood obesity prevention: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wethington, Holly R; Sherry, Bettylou; Polhamus, Barbara

    2011-08-03

    Screening for obesity and providing appropriate obesity-related counseling in the clinical setting are important strategies to prevent and control childhood obesity. The purpose of this study is to document pediatricians (PEDs) and general practitioners (GPs) with pediatric patients use of BMI-for-age to screen for obesity, confidence in explaining BMI, access to referral clinics, and characteristics associated with screening and counseling to children and their caregivers. The authors used 2008 DocStyles survey data to examine these practices at every well child visit for children aged two years and older. Counseling topics included: physical activity, TV viewing time, energy dense foods, fruits and vegetables, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in proportions and logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with screening and counseling. The final analytic sample included 250 PEDs and 621 GPs. Prevalence of using BMI-for-age to screen for obesity at every well child visit was higher for PEDs than GPs (50% vs. 22%, χ2 = 67.0, p ≤ 0.01); more PEDs reported being very/somewhat confident in explaining BMI (94% vs. GPs, 87%, p < 0.01); more PEDs reported access to a pediatric obesity specialty clinic for referral (PEDs = 65% vs. GPs = 42%, χ2 = 37.5, p ≤ 0.0001).In general, PEDs reported higher counseling prevalence than GPs. There were significant differences in the following topics: TV viewing (PEDs, 79% vs. GPs, 61%, χ2 = 19.1, p ≤ 0.0001); fruit and vegetable consumption (PEDs, 87% vs. GPs, 78%, χ2 = 6.4, p ≤ 0.01). The only characteristics associated with use of BMI for GPs were being female (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.5-3.5) and serving mostly non-white patients (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-2.9); there were no significant associations for PEDs. The findings for use of BMI-for-age, counseling habits, and access to a pediatric obesity specialty clinic leave room for improvement. More research is needed

  10. "Couch-potatoeism" and childhood obesity: The inverse causality hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Fröberg, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The bulk of cross-sectional studies suggests that lower levels of physical activity are associated with childhood obesity. Although this has led to the general understanding that "couch-potatoes" are fat on account of their inactive lifestyles, cross-sectional studies do not imply causality. On the contrary, the contribution of physical activity to obesity during childhood is currently unclear, and lately, studies have suggested that "couch-potatoeism" could be the result of obesity rather than its cause. Coupled with evidence suggesting that interventions have had little effect on children's physical activity levels as well as on obesity, this inverse causality challenges the role of physical activity in childhood obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Life Course Impact of School-Based Promotion of Healthy Eating and Active Living to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Kuhle, Stefan; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools) is a comprehensive school health program that is proven feasible and effective in preventing obesity among school aged children. To support decision making on expanding this program, evidence on its long-term health and economic impacts is particularly critical. In the present study we estimate the life course impact of the APPLE Schools programs in terms of future body weights and avoided health care costs. Method We modeled growth rates of body mass index (BMI) using longitudinal data from the National Population Health Survey collected between 1996–2008. These growth rate characteristics were used to project BMI trajectories for students that attended APPLE Schools and for students who attended control schools (141 randomly selected schools) in the Canadian province of Alberta. Results Throughout the life course, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was 1.2% to 2.8% (1.7 on average) less among students attending APPLE Schools relative to their peers attending control schools. The life course prevalence of obesity was 0.4% to 1.4% (0.8% on average) less among APPLE Schools students. If the APPLE Schools program were to be scaled up, the potential cost savings would be $33 to 82 million per year for the province of Alberta, or $150 to 330 million per year for Canada. Conclusions These projected health and economic benefits seem to support broader implementation of school-based health promotion programs. PMID:25025581

  12. Childhood Obesity Incidence in the United States: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Solveig A.; Naryan, K.M. Venkat; Kramer, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: This systematic review synthesizes the literature on incidence of obesity during childhood. Methods: We searched PubMed, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and used the Web of Science tool in June 2015. Studies were included if they were published in English, presented results from primary or secondary analyses, used data about children in the US, provided obesity incidence data on children 0 to 18 years born after 1970, and did not pertain to clinically defined populations (disease, medication use, etc.). Author(s), study year, study design, location, sample size, age, and obesity incidence estimates were abstracted. Results: Nineteen studies were included, three of which used nationally representative data. The median study-specific annual obesity incidences among studies using U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts were 4.0%, 3.2%, and 1.8% for preschool (2.0–4.9 years), school aged (5.0–12.9 years), and adolescence (13.0–18.0 years), respectively. This pattern of declining obesity incidence with age was consistent between and within studies. Conclusions: Studies of childhood obesity in the US indicate declining incidence with age. Childhood obesity prevention efforts should be targeted to ages before obesity onset. Longitudinal data and consistent obesity definitions that correlate with long-term morbidity are needed to better characterize the life history of obesity. PMID:26618249

  13. The extended Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend) Program: a cluster-randomized controlled trial of an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen J; Hesketh, Kylie D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Ball, Kylie; McCallum, Zoë; Lynch, John; Crawford, David A

    2016-02-18

    Understanding how we can prevent childhood obesity in scalable and sustainable ways is imperative. Early RCT interventions focused on the first two years of life have shown promise however, differences in Body Mass Index between intervention and control groups diminish once the interventions cease. Innovative and cost-effective strategies seeking to continue to support parents to engender appropriate energy balance behaviours in young children need to be explored. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Extend Program builds on the early outcomes of the Melbourne InFANT Program. This cluster randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an extended (33 versus 15 month) and enhanced (use of web-based materials, and Facebook® engagement), version of the original Melbourne InFANT Program intervention in a new cohort. Outcomes at 36 months of age will be compared against the control group. This trial will provide important information regarding capacity and opportunities to maximize early childhood intervention effectiveness over the first three years of life. This study continues to build the evidence base regarding the design of cost-effective, scalable interventions to promote protective energy balance behaviors in early childhood, and in turn, promote improved child weight and health across the life course. ACTRN12611000386932. Registered 13 April 2011.

  14. Childhood Obesity and Schools: Evidence from the National Survey of Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ji; Hooker, Neal H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The international prevalence of childhood obesity and obesity-related diseases has received increasing attention. Applying data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we explore relationships between childhood obesity and school type, National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) eligibility,…

  15. Childhood Obesity and Schools: Evidence from the National Survey of Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ji; Hooker, Neal H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The international prevalence of childhood obesity and obesity-related diseases has received increasing attention. Applying data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we explore relationships between childhood obesity and school type, National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) eligibility,…

  16. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

  17. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

  18. Evaluating the implementation and impact of policy, practice, and environmental changes to prevent childhood obesity in 49 diverse communities.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Laura K; Kemner, Allison L; Donaldson, Kate; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess and understand the intervention reach, dose, and impact of policy, practice, and environmental changes implemented by the 49 Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC) community partnerships across the United States and in Puerto Rico. These partnerships planned and implemented healthy eating and active living policy, system, and environmental interventions to support healthier communities for children and families, with special emphasis on reaching children at highest risk for obesity. Using a mixed-methods, participatory evaluation design, investigators analyzed multiple qualitative and quantitative data sources collected during the HKHC initiative from 2009 to 2014. Evaluators used an inductive approach to develop indicators to assess intervention reach, dose, and impact for 6 cross-site strategies, including corner stores, farmers' markets, child care nutrition standards, child care physical activity standards, active transportation, and parks and play spaces. Across HKHC community partnerships, 4261 policy, practice, or environmental changes occurred in 1536 intervention settings. Several trends emerged from the data related to how different levels of intervention (ie, community-level, setting-level, and within-setting), the size and access to intervention settings, the stage of implementation, and the sociodemographic composition of the intervention settings play important roles in the way policy, practice, and environmental changes "count" toward intervention reach, dose, and impact. This exploratory analysis provided a method and typology for increasing understanding in the field related to the reach, dose, and impact of policy, practice, and environmental changes promoting healthy eating and active living in order to reduce childhood overweight and obesity.

  19. Effects of parent-only childhood obesity prevention programs on BMIz and body image in rural preteens.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Galen; Paul, Lynn; Bailey, Sandra J; Ashe, Carrie Benke; Martz, Jill; Lynch, Wesley

    2016-03-01

    This experiment compared body image (BI) and BMI changes resulting from two parent-only obesity prevention interventions aimed at 8-12 year olds. Parents in the experimental intervention attended ten face-to-face educational sessions, while parents in the minimal (control) intervention received similar mailed information. Parent-child dyads (N=150) were semi-randomly assigned to intervention groups. Children were assessed before, after, and 6 months following the interventions; children did not attend experimental intervention sessions. Child BI assessments included weight and size perception, weight management goals, body esteem, and appearance attitudes. Significant effects included small decreases in BMIz scores and overweight dissatisfaction, as well as improvements in aspects of body esteem and appearance attitudes. Some BI effects were gender-specific. Decreases in overweight dissatisfaction were greater following the experimental treatment. Neither treatment reduced body size misperception. Thus, parent-only obesity prevention interventions can reduce body weight and body image concerns among rural preteens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Markets and childhood obesity policy.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In particular, energy-dense foods, such as those containing fats and sugars, became relatively cheaper than less energy-dense foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Second, rising wages increased the "opportunity costs" of food preparation for college graduates, encouraging them to spend less time preparing meals. Third, technological changes created incentives to use prepackaged food rather than to prepare foods. Several economic rationales justify government intervention in markets to address these problems. First, because free markets generally under-provide information, the government may intervene to provide consumers with nutrition information they need. Second, because society bears the soaring costs of obesity, the government may intervene to lower the costs to taxpayers. Third, because children are not what economists call "rational consumers"--they cannot evaluate information critically and weigh the future consequences of their actions-the government may step in to help them make better choices. The government can easily disseminate information to consumers directly, but formulating policies to address the other two rationales is more difficult. In the absence of ideal policies to combat obesity, the government must turn to "second-best" policies. For example, it could protect children from advertisements for "junk food." It could implement taxes and subsidies that discourage the consumption of unhealthful foods or encourage physical activity. It could require schools to remove vending machines for soda and candy. From the economic perspective, policymakers should evaluate these options on the basis of cost

  1. Results of a multi-level intervention to prevent and control childhood obesity among Latino children: the Aventuras Para Niños Study.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Noe C; Elder, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Slymen, Donald J; Campbell, Nadia R; Sallis, James F; McKenzie, Thomas L; Baquero, Barbara; Arredondo, Elva M

    2012-02-01

    Community-based interventions are needed to reduce the burden of childhood obesity. To evaluate the impact of a multi-level promotora-based (Community Health Advisor) intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity and prevent excess weight gain among Latino children. Thirteen elementary schools were randomized to one of four intervention conditions: individual/family level (Family-only), school/community level (Community-only), combined (Family + Community), or a measurement-only condition. Participants were 808 Latino parents and their children enrolled in kindergarten through 2(nd) grade. Measures included parent and child body mass index (BMI) and a self-administered parent survey that assessed several parent and child behaviors. There were no significant intervention effects on children's BMI z-score. The family intervention changed several obesity-related child behaviors (e.g., fruit/vegetable consumption) and these were mediated by changes in parenting variables (e.g., parent monitoring). A promotora-based behavioral intervention was efficacious at changing parental factors and child obesity-related health behaviors.

  2. Results of a Multi-level Intervention to Prevent and Control Childhood Obesity among Latino Children: The Aventuras Para Niños Study

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Noe C.; Elder, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Campbell, Nadia R.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Slymen, Donald J.; Baquero, Barbara; Sallis, James F.; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based behavioral interventions are needed to reduce the burden of childhood obesity. Purpose This study evaluated the impact of a multi-level promotora-based (Community Health Advisor) intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity (PA) and prevent excess weight gain among Latino children. Methods Thirteen elementary schools were randomized to one of four intervention conditions: individual and family level (Fam-only), school and community level (Comm-only), combined Fam+Comm intervention, or a measurement-only condition. Participants were 808 Latino parents and their children enrolled in kindergarten through 2nd grade. Measures included parent and child BMI and a self-administered parent survey that assessed several parent and child behaviors. Results There were no intervention effects on children's BMI z-score. The Fam-only and Fam+Comm interventions changed several obesity-related child behaviors and these were mediated by changes in parenting variables. Discussion A promotora-based behavioral intervention was efficacious at changing parental factors and child obesity-related health behaviors. PMID:22215470

  3. [Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Nitzko, Sina

    2010-01-01

    Firstly, essential developmental aspects of the focused periods of life, namely childhood and adolescence, are discussed. Furthermore, different issues of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence are highlighted. Besides the definition and the assessment, possibilities of classification and epidemiological aspects are of interest. Physical and psychiatric consequences, which can be associated with obesity are also presented. In the context of a model of multifactorial genesis of obesity, different causing and maintaining factors are described. In addition to genetic and biological risk factors, the significance of several psychosocial factors is illustrated. Finally, the focus is on the therapy of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

  4. Using intervention mapping to develop a culturally appropriate intervention to prevent childhood obesity: the HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. Methods IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identification of desired outcomes and change objectives following identification of barriers to behaviour change mapped alongside psychological determinants (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy, intention); 3) Selection of theory-based methods and practical applications to address barriers to behaviour change (e.g., strategies for responsive feeding); 4) Design of the intervention by developing evidence-based interactive activities and resources (e.g., visual aids to show babies stomach size). The activities were integrated into an existing parenting programme; 5) Adoption and implementation: parenting practitioners were trained by healthcare professionals to deliver the programme within Children Centres. Results HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) is aimed at overweight and obese pregnant women (BMI > 25); consists of 12 × 2.5 hr. sessions (6 ante-natal from 24 weeks; 6 postnatal up to 9 months); it addresses mother’s diet and physical activity, breast or bottle feeding, infant diet and parental feeding practices, and infant physical activity. Conclusion We have demonstrated that IM is a feasible and helpful method for providing an evidence based and theoretical structure to a complex health behaviour change intervention. The next stage will be to assess the impact of the intervention on behaviour change and clinical factors associated with childhood obesity. The HAPPY programme is currently being tested as part of a randomised controlled feasibility

  5. Using intervention mapping to develop a culturally appropriate intervention to prevent childhood obesity: the HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Natalie J; Sahota, Pinki; Sargent, Judith; Barber, Sally; Loach, Jackie; Louch, Gemma; Wright, John

    2013-12-28

    Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identification of desired outcomes and change objectives following identification of barriers to behaviour change mapped alongside psychological determinants (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy, intention); 3) Selection of theory-based methods and practical applications to address barriers to behaviour change (e.g., strategies for responsive feeding); 4) Design of the intervention by developing evidence-based interactive activities and resources (e.g., visual aids to show babies stomach size). The activities were integrated into an existing parenting programme; 5) Adoption and implementation: parenting practitioners were trained by healthcare professionals to deliver the programme within Children Centres. HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) is aimed at overweight and obese pregnant women (BMI > 25); consists of 12 × 2.5 hr. sessions (6 ante-natal from 24 weeks; 6 postnatal up to 9 months); it addresses mother's diet and physical activity, breast or bottle feeding, infant diet and parental feeding practices, and infant physical activity. We have demonstrated that IM is a feasible and helpful method for providing an evidence based and theoretical structure to a complex health behaviour change intervention. The next stage will be to assess the impact of the intervention on behaviour change and clinical factors associated with childhood obesity. The HAPPY programme is currently being tested as part of a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

  6. Pediatric obesity: Causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shumei; Xue, Ying

    2016-01-01

    , and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins, are known to affect body weight. These molecules serve as potential targets for the pharmacological manipulation of obesity. Sibutramine and orlistat are primariliy used for the treatment of adult obesity, which produces modest weight loss, of 3-8% compared to placebo. For children and obese adolescents, metformin is used in the case of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Octreotide is used for hypothalamic obesity. Bariatric surgery is performed for the treatment of severe childhood obesity. The causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity are described in the present review.

  7. Pediatric obesity: Causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    XU, SHUMEI; XUE, YING

    2016-01-01

    , and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins, are known to affect body weight. These molecules serve as potential targets for the pharmacological manipulation of obesity. Sibutramine and orlistat are primariliy used for the treatment of adult obesity, which produces modest weight loss, of 3–8% compared to placebo. For children and obese adolescents, metformin is used in the case of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Octreotide is used for hypothalamic obesity. Bariatric surgery is performed for the treatment of severe childhood obesity. The causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity are described in the present review. PMID:26834850

  8. Salud America! Developing a National Latino Childhood Obesity Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J; Green, Lawrence W; Ottoson, Judith

    2011-06-01

    U.S. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, with one third of children overweight or obese. Latino children have some of the highest obesity rates, a concern because they are part of the youngest and fastest-growing U.S. minority group. Unfortunately, scarce research data on Latinos hinders the development and implementation of evidence-based, culturally appropriate childhood obesity interventions. In response, the Salud America! network conducted a national Delphi survey among researchers and stakeholders to identify research priorities to address Latino childhood obesity and compare differences by occupation and race or ethnicity. The resulting first-ever National Latino Childhood Obesity Research Agenda provides a framework to stimulate research and collaboration among investigators, providers, and communities, and inform policy makers about the epidemic's seriousness and specific needs for priority funding. The agenda ranks family as the main ecological level to prevent Latino childhood obesity--followed by community, school, society, and individual-and ranks top research priorities in each level.

  9. Mexican American Mothers' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity: A Theory-Guided Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Erica T.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to increase, disproportionately affecting Mexican American children. The aims of this review are to (a) assess the literature regarding Mexican American mothers' knowledge and perceptions of childhood obesity, prevention, and their role in prevention; (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of the research…

  10. Mexican American Mothers' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity: A Theory-Guided Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Erica T.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to increase, disproportionately affecting Mexican American children. The aims of this review are to (a) assess the literature regarding Mexican American mothers' knowledge and perceptions of childhood obesity, prevention, and their role in prevention; (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of the research…

  11. The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers are only gradually becoming aware of the gravity of the risk that overweight and obesity pose for children's health. In this article Stephen Daniels documents the heavy toll that the obesity epidemic is taking on the health of the nation's children. He discusses both the immediate risks associated with childhood obesity and the…

  12. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  13. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  14. The consequences of childhood overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    Researchers are only gradually becoming aware of the gravity of the risk that overweight and obesity pose for children's health. In this article Stephen Daniels documents the heavy toll that the obesity epidemic is taking on the health of the nation's children. He discusses both the immediate risks associated with childhood obesity and the longer-term risk that obese children and adolescents will become obese adults and suffer other health problems as a result. Daniels notes that many obesity-related health conditions once thought applicable only to adults are now being seen in children and with increasing frequency. Examples include high blood pressure, early symptoms of hardening of the arteries, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary disorder, and disordered breathing during sleep. He systematically surveys the body's systems, showing how obesity in adulthood can damage each and how childhood obesity exacerbates the damage. He explains that obesity can harm the cardiovascular system and that being overweight during childhood can accelerate the development of heart disease. The processes that lead to a heart attack or stroke start in childhood and often take decades to progress to the point of overt disease. Obesity in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood may accelerate these processes. Daniels shows how much the same generalization applies to other obesity-related disorders-metabolic, digestive, respiratory, skeletal, and psychosocial-that are appearing in children either for the first time or with greater severity or prevalence. Daniels notes that the possibility has even been raised that the increasing prevalence and severity of childhood obesity may reverse the modern era's steady increase in life expectancy, with today's youth on average living less healthy and ultimately shorter lives than their parents-the first such reversal in lifespan in modern history. Such a possibility, he concludes, makes obesity in children an

  15. Obesity in the childhood: a link to adult hypertension.

    PubMed

    Virdis, A; Ghiadoni, L; Masi, S; Versari, D; Daghini, E; Giannarelli, C; Salvetti, A; Taddei, S

    2009-01-01

    The rapid increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide represents a serious health hazard. Obesity predisposes to increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, renal failure. Direct mechanisms link visceral adiposity and the atherosclerosis process through the action of adipose-derived proinflammatory cytokines. In particular, hypertension can be considered the most important cardiovascular risk factor linking obesity to the development of cardiovascular disease. Obesity among children and adolescents has also reaching epidemic proportions in the industrialized world. Childhood obesity strongly predisposes to cardiovascular adult mortality. Recent reports documented a tracking of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood and obesity occurring in young age plays a crucial pathogenic role. Indeed, fighting overweight and obesity in the pediatric and adolescent age may prevent the occurrence of adults with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The main strategies for prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in childhood, which need to involve community, school and family, are the promotion of lifestyle interventions, including as a correct dietary approach, rich in fruit and vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and physical activity.

  16. Obesity in childhood and adolescence, genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Memedi, Rexhep; Tasic, Velibor; Nikolic, Erieta; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Gucev, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. The etiology is complex, but most often idiopathic. Hormonal, syndromic and medication-induced obesity are well investigated. Genetic causes are increasingly described. Novel technologies such as whole exome sequencing identify ever more candidate genes influencing or causing obesity. All insights into the complex problem of obesity in a team approach to treatment: diet, psychology, medications and surgery. We briefly review epidemiology, etiology, consequences and treatment approaches in childhood and adolescent obesity, with special emphasis on emerging knowledge of its genetics.

  17. Paediatric Obesity Research in Early Childhood and the Primary Care Setting: The TARGet Kids! Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Morinis, Julia; Maguire, Jonathon; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian W.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Birken, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and development of a primary care research network in Canada—TARGet Kids!—to develop and translate an evidence-base on effective screening and prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:22690197

  18. Paediatric obesity research in early childhood and the primary care setting: the TARGet Kids! research network.

    PubMed

    Morinis, Julia; Maguire, Jonathon; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian W; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2012-04-01

    Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and development of a primary care research network in Canada--TARGet Kids!--to develop and translate an evidence-base on effective screening and prevention of childhood obesity.

  19. [National epidemiological survey on childhood obesity, 2006].

    PubMed

    Ding, Zong-yi

    2008-03-01

    ) BMI at 1 month after birth was higher than 16.5, then increased to the top of 17.8 at 1 year of age and decreased to the bottom of 15.7 at 5.5 years of age and increased a little since then. It was never higher than 18 of diagnosis point of obesity during the preschool age period. (3) The adiposity rebound age was 5.5 years of age in this study and delayed half a year as compared with that seen in 1999. The adiposity rebound ratio at first half year after birth (ARR1) was 0.56 and 0.97 at second half year after birth (ARR2) which is an acceptable level according to the cut-off point made by NTFCOC and lower than the level obtained 10 years ago. (4) The pseudo-overweight phenomenon can be seen in the western regions which was derived from linear growth retardation and showed that both the malnutrition and obesity are a health problem in the poverty and maintain area of the western regions.(5) The 12.9% of obese children who's blood pressure was higher than 95th percentile of reference value and 17.2% of them had a waist/hip ratio higher than 1.0 which is a warning point for the risk factor of CHD made by the NTFCOC. (6) The data showed that all the reference population and it's cut-off point for BMI, adiposity rebound age/ratio, waist/hip ratio etc. made by NTFCOC is valuable, reliable and practicable. The prevalence of childhood obesity and high blood pressure in obese children has been increased sharply during the recent 10 years, which is a out of control and a severe hazard to obese children. The early prevention and management of childhood obesity is urgently needed.

  20. Biological, environmental, and social influences on childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M Karen

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased globally over the past three decades, with evidence of recent leveling off in developed countries. Reduction in the, currently high, prevalence of obesity will require a full understanding of the biological and social pathways to obesity in order to develop appropriately targeted prevention strategies in early life. Determinants of childhood obesity include individual level factors, including biological, social, and behavioral risks, acting within the influence of the child's family environment, which is, in turn, imbedded in the context of the community environment. These influences act across childhood, with suggestions of early critical periods of biological and behavioral plasticity. There is evidence of sex and gender differences in the responses of boys and girls to their environments. The evidence that determinants of childhood obesity act at many levels and at different stages of childhood is of policy relevance to those planning early health promotion and primary prevention programs as it suggests the need to address the individual, the family, the physical environment, the social environment, and social policy. The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize current, and emerging, literature in a multilevel, life course framework.

  1. The Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program (ECHO): an ecologically-based intervention delivered by home visitors for newborns and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Michelle M; Wiley, James; Wang, Zhu; Grant, Autherene; Gorin, Amy A

    2015-06-24

    Obesity is a major problem in the United States, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged Latino and Black children. Effective interventions that can be disseminated to large numbers of at-risk children and their families are needed. The goals of the Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program (ECHO) are to examine the 12-month efficacy of a primary obesity prevention program targeting the first year of life that is delivered by home visitors and that engages mothers as agents of change to modify their own behavior and their infant's behavior through education and skill-building around nutrition, physical activity, and wellness, and then "echoes" her training with linkages to neighborhood programs and resources. Six family centers located in low-income neighborhoods in Hartford, CT were randomized into control and intervention neighborhoods. Fifty-seven mothers were recruited either prenatally or shortly after delivery into the Nurturing Families Network home visitation program; 27 lived in a control neighborhood and received the standard home visitation program and 30 lived in an intervention neighborhood and received both the standard home visitation program and the ECHO intervention. The intervention increases maternal skills in goal-setting, stimulus control and problem-solving, engages family members to support changes, links mothers to neighborhood resources and is embedded in the standard home visitation program. ECHO targets include breastfeeding, solids, juice and sugar-sweetened beverages, routines for sleep and responding to infant cues, television/screen time, and maternal diet and physical activity. We hypothesize that infants in ECHO will have been breastfed longer and exclusively, will have delayed introduction of solids and juice, have longer sleep duration, decreased television/screen time and a lower weight for length z-score at 12 months, and their mothers will have greater fruit and vegetable consumption and higher levels of physical

  2. Improving Childhood Obesity Treatment Using New Technologies: The ETIOBE System

    PubMed Central

    Baños, Rosa. M; Cebolla, Ausias; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Oliver, Elia; Zaragoza, Irene; Alcaniz, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem in western culture. Sedentary lifestyles and an “obesogenic environment” are the main influences on children leading to an increase in obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe an e-health platform for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity called ETIOBE. This e-health platform is an e-therapy system for the treatment of obesity, aimed at improving treatment adherence and promoting the mechanisms of self-control in patients, to obtain weight loss maintenance and to prevent relapse by establishing healthy lifestyle habits. ETIOBE is composed of three different applications, the Clinician Support System (CSS), the Home Support System (HSS) and the Mobile Support System (MSS). The use of new Information and Communication (ICT) technologies can help clinicians to improve the effectiveness of weight loss treatments, especially in the case of children, and to achieve designated treatment goals. PMID:21559232

  3. Time2bHealthy - An online childhood obesity prevention program for preschool-aged children: A randomised controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Hammersley, Megan L; Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D

    2017-10-01

    The use of parent-focused internet-based programs for the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity has shown promise but there is an acknowledged gap in parent-focused interventions which target the early childhood stage. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of Time2bHealthy - an online healthy lifestyle program for parents of preschool-aged children. The program will be evaluated using a two-arm, parallel, randomised controlled design. The 11-week program is underpinned by Social Cognitive Theory and consists of interactive modules on healthy eating, physical activity, screen-time and sleep. The intervention also involves elements of social media, where participants share discuss ideas and experiences and they can interact and obtain information with experts. Time2bHealthy is being compared to a comparison condition. Outcomes include change in BMI (primary outcome), dietary intake, physical activity, sleep, child feeding, parental role-modelling and parent self-efficacy. Process evaluation data, such as adherence and engagement with the online forums, will also be collected. Time2bHealthy is the first randomised controlled trial to our knowledge to assess the efficacy of an online parent-focussed healthy lifestyle program for preschool-aged children in changing body mass index. Early childhood is a crucial time for establishing healthy lifestyle behaviours and parents play an important role. This study therefore fills an important gap in the literature. If found to be efficacious, Time2bHealthy has potential for broad-reach access and translation into primary health care services. The study is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (12616000119493). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of an implementation optimisation intervention aimed at increasing parent engagement in HENRY, a childhood obesity prevention programme - the Optimising Family Engagement in HENRY (OFTEN) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Maria; Burton, Wendy; Cundill, Bonnie; Farrin, Amanda J; Nixon, Jane; Stevens, June; Roberts, Kim; Foy, Robbie; Rutter, Harry; Hartley, Suzanne; Tubeuf, Sandy; Collinson, Michelle; Brown, Julia

    2017-01-24

    Family-based interventions to prevent childhood obesity depend upon parents' taking action to improve diet and other lifestyle behaviours in their families. Programmes that attract and retain high numbers of parents provide an enhanced opportunity to improve public health and are also likely to be more cost-effective than those that do not. We have developed a theory-informed optimisation intervention to promote parent engagement within an existing childhood obesity prevention group programme, HENRY (Health Exercise Nutrition for the Really Young). Here, we describe a proposal to evaluate the effectiveness of this optimisation intervention in regard to the engagement of parents and cost-effectiveness. The Optimising Family Engagement in HENRY (OFTEN) trial is a cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted across 24 local authorities (approximately 144 children's centres) which currently deliver HENRY programmes. The primary outcome will be parental enrolment and attendance at the HENRY programme, assessed using routinely collected process data. Cost-effectiveness will be presented in terms of primary outcomes using acceptability curves and through eliciting the willingness to pay for the optimisation from HENRY commissioners. Secondary outcomes include the longitudinal impact of the optimisation, parent-reported infant intake of fruits and vegetables (as a proxy to compliance) and other parent-reported family habits and lifestyle. This innovative trial will provide evidence on the implementation of a theory-informed optimisation intervention to promote parent engagement in HENRY, a community-based childhood obesity prevention programme. The findings will be generalisable to other interventions delivered to parents in other community-based environments. This research meets the expressed needs of commissioners, children's centres and parents to optimise the potential impact that HENRY has on obesity prevention. A subsequent cluster randomised controlled pilot

  5. Mexican American mothers' perceptions of childhood obesity: a theory-guided systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Erica T

    2012-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to increase, disproportionately affecting Mexican American children. The aims of this review are to (a) assess the literature regarding Mexican American mothers' knowledge and perceptions of childhood obesity, prevention, and their role in prevention; (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of the research conducted on mothers' perceptions of childhood obesity; and (c) make recommendations for future research on parental perceptions of childhood obesity. Four databases were searched for relevant articles and 22 studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Social cognitive theory was used to sort findings across studies. Major findings included the following: (a) barriers to childhood obesity prevention included lack of education regarding prevention and role modeling, (b) only 23% of studies explicitly used a theoretical framework to guide their study, and (c) most studies used heterogeneous groups to examine perceptions. Implications for future research and practice are presented.

  6. Food Away from Home and Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Mancino, Lisa; Todd, Jessica E; Guthrie, Joanne; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a number of serious health risks that can persist into adulthood. While trends in food away from home and fast-food consumption have paralleled trends in childhood obesity, it is important to identify whether this is a causal relationship. This paper reviews recent literature in this area to summarize if there is a consensus in research findings. We group the literature into two areas - consumption of and access to food away from home (FAFH). While no consensus findings have been reached in either area, the evidence of an association between FAFH consumption and childhood obesity has gained strength. Further, there is evidence that FAFH meals add calories to children's diets. The literature on the role of FAFH access and childhood obesity has continued producing mixed results.

  7. A cluster randomised school-based lifestyle intervention programme for the prevention of childhood obesity and related early cardiovascular disease (JuvenTUM 3).

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Monika; Hanssen, Henner; Lammel, Christoph; Haller, Bernhard; Halle, Martin

    2011-04-22

    arteriolar and venular diameters in the retinal microcirculation using a non-mydriatric vessel analyser. A questionnaire is filled out to determine daily physical activity, motivational factors, dietary habits, quality of life (KINDL-R) and socio-economic data. Physical fitness is assessed by a six-item test battery. Our study aims to provide a feasible long-term intervention strategy to re-establish childhood health and to prevent obesity-related cardiovascular dysfunction in children. NCT00988754.

  8. [What are the determinants of childhood obesity? : A literature review as part of the project "Nationwide Monitoring of Childhood Obesity Determinants"].

    PubMed

    Zeiher, Johannes; Varnaccia, Gianni; Jordan, Susanne; Lange, Cornelia

    2016-11-01

    Obesity can impair health even in childhood and unfold negative health consequences through an individual's lifespan. In Germany, to date, a systematic and periodically updated synopsis of the multifaceted determinants of childhood obesity is lacking. In this paper, we present the results of a systematic literature review on childhood obesity determinants, which was conducted over the course of the implementation of nationwide monitoring. The review was carried out in three steps. Initially, a search for etiological models of childhood obesity was conducted. Based on these results, a systematic review of reviews on childhood obesity determinants was carried out. Finally, the results were verified by taking international guidelines on childhood obesity into account. In total, 21 etiological models, 75 reviews and 7 guidelines were identified. Over 60 determinants were extracted from these publications and were summarized into the following categories: nutritional behavior, physical activity behavior, sleeping pattern, biological determinants and diseases, prenatal and early childhood determinants, psycho-social determinants, food environment, moveability/walkability, setting and social environment, health promotion and prevention, socioeconomic, demographic, and sociocultural determinants. This review demonstrates the complex patterns of childhood obesity determinants in correspondence with a socio-ecological approach. The review will form the basis for the monitoring-system "Nationwide Monitoring of Childhood Obesity Determinants", which will be implemented at the Robert Koch Institute by the end of 2017.

  9. Primordial Prevention of Cardiometabolic Risk in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Tanrikulu, Meryem A; Agirbasli, Mehmet; Berenson, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Fetal life and childhood are important in the development of cardiometabolic risk and later clinical disease of atherosclerosis, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Molecular and environmental conditions leading to cardiometabolic risk in early life bring us a challenge to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies to reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk in children and later disease. It is important that prevention strategies begin at an early age to reduce future CV morbidity and mortality. Pioneering work from longitudinal studies such as Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS), the Finnish Youth Study and other programs provide an awareness of the need for public and health services to begin primordial prevention. The impending CV risk beginning in childhood has a significant socioeconomic burden. Directions to achieve primordial prevention of cardiometabolic risk in children have been developed by prior longitudinal studies. Based on those studies that show risk factors in childhood as precursors of adult CV risk, implementation of primordial prevention will have effects at broad levels. Considering the epidemic of obesity, the high prevalence of hypertension and cardiometabolic risk, prevention early in life is valuable. Comprehensive health education, such as 'Health Ahead/Heart Smart', for all elementary school age children is one approach to begin primordial prevention and can be included in public education beginning in kindergarten along with the traditional education subject matter.

  10. Role modeling as an early childhood obesity prevention strategy: effect of parents and teachers on preschool children's healthy lifestyle habits.

    PubMed

    Natale, Ruby A; Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan; Arheart, Kris L

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a child care center-based parent and teacher healthy lifestyle role-modeling program on child nutrition and physical activity outcomes. Child care centers (N = 28) serving low-income families were randomized to intervention or control arms. Intervention centers (N = 12) implemented (1) menu modifications, (2) a child's healthy lifestyle curriculum, and (3) an adult (teacher- and parent-focused) healthy lifestyle role-modeling curriculum. Control centers (N = 16) received an attention control safety curriculum. Nutrition and physical activity data were collected at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the school year. Exploratory factor analysis identified positive and negative nutrition and physical activity practices by children, parents, and teachers. Intervention parents' baseline (β = .52, p < .0001) and school year consumption (β = .47, p < .0001) of fruits/vegetables significantly increased their children's consumption of fruits/vegetables from T1 to T2. Intervention parents significantly influenced a decrease in children's junk food consumption (β = -.04, p < .05), whereas control parents significantly influenced an increase in their children's junk food consumption (β = .60, p < .001) from T1 to T2. Control children showed a significant increase in junk food consumption (β = .11, p = .01) and sedentary behavior (β = .09, p < .005) from T1 to T2. Teachers did not significantly influence preschool-age children's nutrition or physical activity patterns from T1 to T2. Parent nutrition and physical activity patterns significantly influence their preschool-age children's consumption of fruits/vegetables, junk food, and level of sedentary behavior. Future obesity prevention intervention efforts targeting this age group should include parents as healthy lifestyle role models for their children.

  11. Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Patricia M.; Butcher, Kristin F.

    2006-01-01

    The increase in childhood obesity over the past several decades, together with the associated health problems and costs, is raising grave concern among health care professionals, policy experts, children's advocates, and parents. Patricia Anderson and Kristin Butcher document trends in children's obesity and examine the possible underlying causes…

  12. Is Childhood Obesity Related to TV Addiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, David

    1988-01-01

    Excessive television viewing is associated with obesity in children because it decreases time spent on physical activity, and promotes overeating of snacks and high calorie foods. Childhood obesity demands physicians' concern because of the physical and psychological damage which follows its victims into adulthood. (IAH)

  13. "Let's Move!" to End Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obama, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates in America have tripled in the last three decades. Almost one in three children are considered overweight or obese. Pediatricians are now treating children for adult diseases like type II diabetes and hypertension. All parents want the best for their children. They want children to succeed in school, fulfill their dreams,…

  14. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth graders. Unlike previous studies, we address…

  15. Childhood Obesity: A School-Based Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Charlotte

    This model of an eight-week childhood obesity program for intermediate elementary through junior high school students addresses the social, psychological, and physical penalties often incurred by obese children. The materials detail the program format in terms of: (1) a daily food log; (2) a discussion of proper nutrition; (3) a contract for…

  16. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth graders. Unlike previous studies, we address…

  17. Is Childhood Obesity Related to TV Addiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, David

    1988-01-01

    Excessive television viewing is associated with obesity in children because it decreases time spent on physical activity, and promotes overeating of snacks and high calorie foods. Childhood obesity demands physicians' concern because of the physical and psychological damage which follows its victims into adulthood. (IAH)

  18. Childhood Obesity: A School-Based Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Charlotte

    This model of an eight-week childhood obesity program for intermediate elementary through junior high school students addresses the social, psychological, and physical penalties often incurred by obese children. The materials detail the program format in terms of: (1) a daily food log; (2) a discussion of proper nutrition; (3) a contract for…

  19. Economic Evaluation of Childhood Obesity Interventions: Reflections and Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Frew, Emma

    2016-08-01

    Rising levels of childhood obesity present a serious global public health problem amounting to 7 % of GDP in developed countries and affecting 14 % of children. As such, many countries are investing increasingly large quantities of resource towards treatment and prevention. Whilst it is important to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of any intervention, it is equally as important to demonstrate cost effectiveness as policy makers strive to get the best value for money from increasingly limited public resources. Economic evaluation assists with making these investment decisions and whilst it can offer considerable support in many healthcare contexts, applying it to a childhood obesity context is not straightforward. Childhood obesity is a complex disease with interventions being multi-component in nature. Furthermore, the interventions are implemented in a variety of settings such as schools, the community, and the home, and have costs and benefits that fall outside the health sector. This paper provides a reflection from a UK perspective on the application of the conventional approach to economic evaluation to childhood obesity. It offers suggestions for how evaluations should be designed to fit better within this context, and to meet the needs of local decision makers. An excellent example is the need to report costs using a micro-costing format and for benefit measurement to go beyond a health focus. This is critical as the organisation and commissioning of childhood obesity services is done from a Local Authority setting and this presents further challenges for what is the most appropriate economic evaluation approach to use. Given that adult obesity is now of epidemic proportions, the accurate assessment of childhood obesity interventions to support public health decision making is critical.

  20. [Can we stop the epidemic of childhood obesity?].

    PubMed

    Puder, J J; Kriemler, S

    2008-01-09

    Childhood obesity influences body weight in the adult and is intrinsically associated with multiple co-morbidities. In the past 20 years, the prevalence of overweight and obese school children in Switzerland has increased by three to six-fold. One out of every four to five children is overweight or obese. Thus, primary prevention is absolutely essential. Excess weight results from a positive energy balance. According to the current literature, changes in the quantity and quality of nutrition, a reduction in physical activity, an increase in sedentary lifestyles, including media consumption, as well as a reduction of sleep time are the most important external factors that promote the development of childhood obesity after infancy. Hereby, the intrauterine milieu and genetic factors also play a role. The obesity epidemic particularly affects children born to overweight parents, children with low socio-economic status, and migrants. Randomized, controlled studies aimed at medium to long-term (> or =1 year) reductions in BMI or fat tissue have mainly been school-based and sometimes involved the family as well. Unfortunately, these studies only produced unanimously negative or modest results. We believe that successful and sustainable prevention must contain 3 elements: (1) A relatively intensive and sustained modification of the individual's behavior that appropriately accounts for the multifactorial causes of childhood obesity. (2) A concurrent adaptation of external conditions that enable behavioral modifications. (3) Incorporation of socio-economic and political aspects.

  1. Elementary school principals' perceptions of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Price, J H; Desmond, S M; Stelzer, C M

    1987-11-01

    This survey assessed school principals' perceptions regarding childhood obesity and the schools' role in dealing with the problem. A randomly selected group of 300 school principals was obtained from the National Association of Elementary School Principals; 227 (76%) administrators returned the questionnaire. Fifty-one percent of the principals believed normal weight was important to child health. Although 35% believed schools were not doing enough to alleviate childhood obesity, responses suggested principals oppose schools becoming obesity treatment centers. They do not believe teachers or parents would support such programs. They perceived the school's role to be educational and referral in nature. However, they supported elimination of "junk food" machines (71%) and provision of low calorie lunches (60%). They believed school nurses play the most important role in treating childhood obesity at school.

  2. A 3-Arm randomised controlled trial of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT) to mothers with infants to prevent childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Baur, Louise A; Hayes, Alison J; Xu, Huilan; Whelan, Anna; Hua, Myna; Shaw, Miranda; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2017-01-14

    With an increasing prevalence of obesity in young children globally, there is an urgent need for the development of effective early interventions. A previous Healthy Beginnings Trial using a nurse-led home visiting program has demonstrated that providing mothers with evidence-based advice can improve maternal practice regarding obesity prevention, and can reduce Body Mass Index (BMI) in the first few years of life. However, the costs for scale-up of home visiting limit its population reach. This trial aims to determine the efficacy of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT) to mothers with infants in improving infant feeding practices and preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. We propose a 3-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) with a consecutive sample of 1056 mothers with their newborn children in New South Wales (NSW) Australia. Pregnant women who are between weeks 28 and 34 of their pregnancy will be invited to participate in the CHAT trial. Informed consent will be obtained, and after baseline data collection, participants will be randomly allocated to the telephone intervention, text messaging intervention, or the control group. The intervention comprises telephone consultations or text messages, together with 6 intervention packages being mailed at specific times from the third trimester of pregnancy until 12 months post birth. The main trial outcome measures include a) duration of breastfeeding, b) timing of introduction of solids, c) nutrition behaviours, physical activity and television viewing, and d) weight and BMI z-score at 12 and 24 months, e) cost-effectiveness, as well as f) feasibility and acceptability of the interventions. The results will ascertain whether early intervention using telephone consultation or text messaging together with staged mailed intervention resources can be feasible and effective in improving infant feeding practices, physical activity and reducing children's BMI in the early

  3. Four novel UCP3 gene variants associated with childhood obesity: effect on fatty acid oxidation and on prevention of triglyceride storage.

    PubMed

    Musa, C V; Mancini, A; Alfieri, A; Labruna, G; Valerio, G; Franzese, A; Pasanisi, F; Licenziati, M R; Sacchetti, L; Buono, P

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the study was to look for uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) gene variants in early-onset severe childhood obesity and to determine their effect on long-chain fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride storage. We identified four novel mutations in the UCP3 gene (V56M, A111V, V192I and Q252X) in 200 children with severe, early-onset obesity (body mass index-standard deviation score >2.5; onset: <4 years) living in Southern Italy. We evaluated the role of wild-type (wt) and mutant UCP3 proteins in palmitate oxidation and in triglyceride storage in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). Palmitate oxidation was ∼60% lower (P<0.05; P<0.01) and triglyceride storage was higher in HEK293 cells expressing the four UCP3 mutants than in cells expressing wt UCP3. Moreover, mutants V56M and Q252X exerted a dominant-negative effect on wt protein activity (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used in the management of hypertension, significantly (P<0.05) increased palmitate oxidation in HEK293 cells expressing wt and mutant proteins (P<0.05; P<0.01), including the dominant-negative mutants. These data indicate that protein UCP3 affects long-chain fatty acid metabolism and can prevent cytosolic triglyceride storage. Our results also suggest that telmisartan, which increases fatty acid oxidation in rat skeletal muscle, also improves UCP3 wt and mutant protein activity, including the dominant-negative UCP3 mutants.

  4. Obesity Prevention for Children with Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Carol; Hubbard, Kristie; Sikich, Linmarie; Bedford, James; Bandini, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The prevention of obesity in children with DD is a pressing public health issue, with implications for health status, independent living, and quality of life. Substantial evidence suggests that children with developmental disabilities (DD), including those with intellectual disabilities (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), have a prevalence of obesity at least as high if not higher than their typically developing peers. The paper reviews what is known about the classic and unique risk factors for childhood obesity in these groups of children, including dietary, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and family factors, as well as medication use. We use evidence from the literature to make the case that primary prevention at the individual/family, school and community levels will require tailoring of strategies and adapting existing intervention approaches. PMID:25530916

  5. A youth mentor-led nutritional intervention in urban recreation centers: a promising strategy for childhood obesity prevention in low-income neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Priscila M.; Steeves, Elizabeth A.; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Trude, Angela C.; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M. J.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    B’More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers within interventions targeting youth. This article evaluates the implementation of the BHCK intervention in recreation centers, and describes lessons learned. Sixteen youth leaders delivered bi-weekly, interactive sessions to 10- to 14-y olds. Dose, fidelity and reach are assessed, as is qualitative information regarding what worked well during sessions. Dose is operationalized as the number of interactive sessions, and taste tests, giveaways and handouts per session; fidelity as the number of youth leaders participating in the entire intervention and per session and reach as the number of interactions with the target population. Based on a priori set values, number of interactive sessions was high, and number of taste tests, giveaways and handouts was moderate to high (dose). The number of participating youth leaders was also high (fidelity). Of the 14 planned sessions, the intervention was implemented with high/moderate reach. Data suggest that working with cross-age peers is a promising nutritional intervention for recreation centers. PMID:26936480

  6. A youth mentor-led nutritional intervention in urban recreation centers: a promising strategy for childhood obesity prevention in low-income neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Sato, Priscila M; Steeves, Elizabeth A; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Trude, Angela C; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M J; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-04-01

    B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers within interventions targeting youth. This article evaluates the implementation of the BHCK intervention in recreation centers, and describes lessons learned. Sixteen youth leaders delivered bi-weekly, interactive sessions to 10- to 14-y olds. Dose, fidelity and reach are assessed, as is qualitative information regarding what worked well during sessions. Dose is operationalized as the number of interactive sessions, and taste tests, giveaways and handouts per session; fidelity as the number of youth leaders participating in the entire intervention and per session and reach as the number of interactions with the target population. Based on a priori set values, number of interactive sessions was high, and number of taste tests, giveaways and handouts was moderate to high (dose). The number of participating youth leaders was also high (fidelity). Of the 14 planned sessions, the intervention was implemented with high/moderate reach. Data suggest that working with cross-age peers is a promising nutritional intervention for recreation centers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Evidence of the adoption and implementation of a statewide childhood obesity prevention initiative in the New York State WIC Program: the NY Fit WIC process evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sekhobo, Jackson P; Egglefield, Katherine; Edmunds, Lynn S; Shackman, Gene

    2012-04-01

    Process evaluations are critical in determining whether outcome evaluations are warranted. This study assessed the extent to which a childhood obesity prevention initiative, NY Fit WIC, was adopted and implemented by the New York State Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Process data came from qualitative telephone interviews of 101 WIC local agency directors, following NY Fit WIC trainings. Activities were summarized and cross-tabulated by target level (i.e. participant, staff, agency or community) and by theoretical construct (i.e. knowledge promotion, skill building, self-efficacy or role modeling). Approximately 528 activities were reported across all WIC agencies. When activities were grouped into similar categories, 123 unique activities were identified. Agencies were more likely to implement physical activity-related activities (67%) than nutrition-related activities (33%). The majority of activities targeted WIC participants (47%) and staff (22%) and focused on skill building/self-efficacy (67%) among participants and on role modeling (61%) among staff. The involvement of all agencies shows a high level of adoption of the initiative. The diverse number of activities suggests that WIC local agencies tailored implementation to match their resources and clients' needs as planned. These results suggest that an outcome evaluation is warranted to determine whether meaningful behavioral changes occurred among WIC participants and staff.

  8. Population segmentation: an approach to reducing childhood obesity inequalities.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Hashum; Lowe, Susan

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study are threefold: (1) to investigate the relationship between socio-economic status (inequality) and childhood obesity prevalence within Birmingham local authority, (2) to identify any change in childhood obesity prevalence between deprivation quintiles and (3) to analyse individualised Birmingham National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) data using a population segmentation tool to better inform obesity prevention strategies. Data from the NCMP for Birmingham (2010/2011 and 2014/2015) were analysed using the deprivation scores from the Income Domain Affecting Children Index (IDACI 2010). The percentage of children with excess weight was calculated for each local deprivation quintile. Population segmentation was carried out using the Experian's Mosaic Public Sector 6 (MPS6) segmentation tool. Childhood obesity levels have remained static at the national and Birmingham level. For Year 6 pupils, obesity levels have increased in the most deprived deprivation quintiles for boys and girls. The most affluent quintile shows a decreasing trend of obesity prevalence for boys and girls in both year groups. For the middle quintiles, the results show fluctuating trends. This research highlighted the link in Birmingham between obesity and socio-economic factors with the gap increasing between deprivation quintiles. Obesity is a complex problem that cannot simply be addressed through targeting most deprived populations, rather through a range of effective interventions tailored for the various population segments that reside within communities. Using population segmentation enables a more nuanced understanding of the potential barriers and levers within populations on their readiness for change. The segmentation of childhood obesity data will allow utilisation of social marketing methodology that will facilitate identification of suitable methods for interventions and motivate individuals to sustain behavioural change. Sequentially, it will also inform

  9. Recruitment Evaluation of a Preschooler Obesity-Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skouteris, Helen; Hill, Briony; McCabe, Marita; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacher, Paul; Chadwick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the recruitment strategies of two recent studies that focused on the parental influences on childhood obesity during the preschool years. The first study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition?…?Do It! 2-4 obesity prevention programme and the second was a longitudinal cohort…

  10. Recruitment Evaluation of a Preschooler Obesity-Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skouteris, Helen; Hill, Briony; McCabe, Marita; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacher, Paul; Chadwick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the recruitment strategies of two recent studies that focused on the parental influences on childhood obesity during the preschool years. The first study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition?…?Do It! 2-4 obesity prevention programme and the second was a longitudinal cohort…

  11. Acceptability and applicability of an American health videogame with story for childhood obesity prevention among Hong Kong Chinese children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of "Escape from Diab" (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese ...

  12. Developing a Strategy Menu for Community-Level Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Spahr, Christopher; Wells, Alexandra; Christens, Brian D; Pollard, Ethen; LaGro, James; Morales, Alfonso; Dennis, Samuel; Hilgendorf, Amy; Meinen, Amy; Korth, Amy; Gaddis, Jennifer; Schoeller, Dale; Tomayko, Emily J; Carrel, Aaron; Adams, Alexandra

    2016-11-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex problem influenced by policies, systems, and environments across multiple settings. The prevention of childhood obesity requires changes across a range of community settings. To describe the development of an obesity prevention strategy menu that incorporates effective policy, systems, and environmental changes for reducing and preventing childhood obesity, and which offers the flexibility to consider local community needs and capacity. We describe the development of a strategy menu and some of the challenges of this process. We then elaborate on how communities will interact with the strategy menu and the development of a website to facilitate this interaction. No single discipline has all of the expertise needed to identify strategies for childhood obesity prevention. Therefore, a multidisciplinary team of researchers and practitioners reviewed evidence and organized a menu that assists communities in choosing complementary strategies tailored for efficacy in specific community settings. The strategies will eventually be part of a web-based point of access that complements the foundational relationships built between communities, researchers, and practitioners. The strategy menu is comprised of a set of effective approaches that communities can use to develop tailored, context-specific health interventions. By developing a framework to engage communities in the selection and implementation of multi-setting obesity prevention strategies, we aim to create and sustain momentum toward a long-term reduction in obesity in Wisconsin children.

  13. Childhood obesity: highlights of AMA Expert Committee recommendations.

    PubMed

    Rao, Goutham

    2008-07-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasingly serious problem; 13.9 percent of children two to five years of age, 18.8 percent of children six to 11 years of age, and 17.4 percent of adolescents 12 to 19 years of age in America are obese. Practical strategies that primary care physicians can use to tackle the problem are scarce. The American Medical Association recently convened an expert panel to address this need. Evidence about how best to manage and prevent obesity was reviewed and incorporated into a series of reports. The Expert Committee on the Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity recommends addressing the issue of weight with all children at least once a year. Family physicians are urged to assess key dietary habits (e.g., consumption of sweetened beverages), physical activity habits, readiness to change lifestyle habits, and family history of obesity and obesity-related illnesses. Laboratory testing recommendations depend on the degree of obesity and associated illnesses. For children with a body mass index between the 85th and 94th percentiles but who have no obesity-related illnesses, a fasting lipid profile should be done. Those with the same body mass index and obesity-related illnesses should also have tests for alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and fasting blood glucose levels. Measurement of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels should be added in children with a body mass index above the 95th percentile. A four-stage approach to treatment of childhood obesity is recommended. Many of these recommendations can be carried out by family physicians for treatment and prevention. These include advising families to limit consumption of sweetened beverages and fast food, limit screen time, engage in physical activity for at least 60 minutes per day, and encourage family meals on most, and preferably all, days of the week.

  14. The utility of childhood and adolescent obesity assessment in relation to adult health.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Rubinfeld, Rachel E; Bhattacharya, Jay; Robinson, Thomas N; Wise, Paul H

    2013-02-01

    High childhood obesity prevalence has raised concerns about future adult health, generating calls for obesity screening of young children. To estimate how well childhood obesity predicts adult obesity and to forecast obesity-related health of future US adults. Longitudinal statistical analyses; microsimulations combining multiple data sets. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Population Study of Income Dynamics, and National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys. The authors estimated test characteristics and predictive values of childhood body mass index to identify 2-, 5-, 10-, and 15 year-olds who will become obese adults. The authors constructed models relating childhood body mass index to obesity-related diseases through middle age stratified by sex and race. Twelve percent of 18-year-olds were obese. While screening at age 5 would miss 50% of those who become obese adults, screening at age 15 would miss 9%. The predictive value of obesity screening below age 10 was low even when maternal obesity was included as a predictor. Obesity at age 5 was a substantially worse predictor of health in middle age than was obesity at age 15. For example, the relative risk of developing diabetes as adults for obese white male 15-year-olds was 4.5 versus otherwise similar nonobese 15-year-olds. For obese 5-year-olds, the relative risk was 1.6. Main results do not include Hispanics due to sample size. Past relationships between childhood and adult obesity and health may change in the future. Early childhood obesity assessment adds limited information to later childhood assessment. Targeted later childhood approaches or universal strategies to prevent unhealthy weight gain should be considered.

  15. Childhood Obesity & Dental Disease: Common Causes, Common Solutions. Oral Health & Obesity Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…

  16. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  17. Effects of messages from a media campaign to increase public awareness of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E; McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2014-02-01

    To examine how video messages from a recent media campaign affected public attitudes about obesity prevention and weight-based stigma toward obese children. A survey-embedded experiment in May-June 2012 with nationally representative sample (N = 1,677) was conducted. Participants were randomized to view one of three messages of children recounting struggles with obesity, or to a control group. It was examined whether message exposure affected attitudes about: (1) the seriousness of childhood obesity and its consequences; (2) responsibility for addressing obesity; (3) support for prevention policies, and (4) stigma toward obese children. Participants viewing the messages attributed greater responsibility for addressing childhood obesity to the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government, compared to those in the control group. Overweight and female respondents viewing the messages reported lower weight-based stigma compared with overweight and female respondents in the control group, but messages had no effect on healthy weight and male respondents. Messages did not affect attitudes about the seriousness of childhood obesity, its consequences, or support for obesity prevention policies. It will be critical to assess on an ongoing basis how communication campaigns addressing childhood obesity shape public attitudes about obesity prevention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  18. Might video games help remedy childhood obesity?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is the most prevalent health problem among children in the United States and globally, leading to diverse health problems and staggering costs. Most child obesity prevention interventions are not working well, or not at all. Part of the problem is that the causes of child obesity are not cle...

  19. Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Danese, A; Tan, M

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a prevalent global-health problem associated with substantial morbidity, impairment and economic burden. Because most readily available forms of treatment are ineffective in the long term, it is essential to advance knowledge of obesity prevention by identifying potentially modifiable risk factors. Findings from experimental studies in non-human primates suggest that adverse childhood experiences may influence obesity risk. However, observations from human studies showed heterogeneous results. To address these inconsistencies, we performed Medline, PsycInfo and Embase searches till 1 August 2012 for articles examining the association between childhood maltreatment and obesity. We then conducted a meta-analysis of the identified studies and explored the effects of various possible sources of bias. A meta-analysis of 41 studies (190 285 participants) revealed that childhood maltreatment was associated with elevated risk of developing obesity over the life-course (odds ratio=1.36; 95% confidence interval=1.26-1.47). Results were not explained by publication bias or undue influence of individual studies. Overall, results were not significantly affected by the measures or definitions used for maltreatment or obesity, nor by confounding by childhood or adult socioeconomic status, current smoking, alcohol intake or physical activity. However, the association was not statistically significant in studies of children and adolescents, focusing on emotional neglect, or adjusting for current depression. Furthermore, the association was stronger in samples including more women and whites, but was not influenced by study quality. Child maltreatment is a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity. Future research should clarify the mechanisms through which child maltreatment affects obesity risk and explore methods to remediate this effect.

  20. Behavioural effects of a community-oriented setting-based intervention for prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. Main results from the IDEFICS study.

    PubMed

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verbestel, V; De Henauw, S; Maes, L; Huybrechts, I; Mårild, S; Eiben, G; Moreno, L A; Barba, G; Kovács, É; Konstabel, K; Tornaritis, M; Gallois, K; Hebestreit, A; Pigeot, I

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the behavioural effects, as reported by the parents of the participating boys and girls, of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) intervention. The effectiveness of the IDEFICS intervention was evaluated through a cluster-controlled trial in eight European countries (control and intervention communities in each country) including more than 16,000 children. The 2- to 9.9-year-old children in the intervention group were exposed to a culturally adapted intervention that aimed to prevent childhood obesity through the community, schools/kindergartens and family. Parents completed questionnaires to measure water, soft drink and fruit juice intake; fruit and vegetable intake; daily TV viewing and other sedentary behaviours; daily physical activity levels and strengthening of the parent-child relationships at baseline and follow-up (2 years later). Mixed models with an additional random effect for country were used to account for the clustered st