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Sample records for children aged 1-4

  1. Screening for developmental delay among children aged 1-4 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rachel; Kenny, Meghan; Bennett, Teresa; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Sherifali, Diana; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Existing guidelines on screening children less than 5 years of age for developmental delay vary. In this systematic review, we synthesized the literature on the effectiveness and harms of screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO for relevant articles published to June 16, 2015. We identified studies that included children aged 1-4 years who were not at high risk of developmental delay, screened in a primary care setting. Randomized trials and controlled cohort studies were considered for benefits (cognitive, academic and functional outcomes); no restrictions on study design were imposed for the review of harms. Results: Two studies were included. One used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II for screening and reported significantly more referrals to early intervention in the intervention groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.54, in the intervention group with office support and RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25, in the intervention group without office support). The time to referral was 70% shorter in the intervention group with office support (rate ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48) and 64% shorter in the intervention group without office support (rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.59), compared with the control group. The other study used the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument to screen children aged 15 months at enrolment for language delay. It reported no differences between groups in academic performance outcomes at age 8 years. Interpretation: The evidence on screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years is inconclusive. Further research with longer-term outcomes is needed to inform decisions about screening and screening intervals. PMID:27226967

  2. [Epidemiological characteristics of children aged 1-4 years without timely birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine vaccination in China, 2014].

    PubMed

    Wang, F Z; Zhang, G M; Shen, L P; Liu, J H; Zheng, H; Wang, F; Miao, N; Sun, X J; Liang, X F; Cui, F Q

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of the children aged 1-4 years without timely birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB(1)) vaccination. Methods: Based on the data from 160 disease surveillance points in 31 provinces of China, two-stage cluster random sampling was used to select the target population aged 1-4 years. A standard questionnaire was used to collect the information about the birth date, gender, ethnic group, place of birth, HepB immunization history of the children selected. A blood sample (3 ml) was taken from each subject for HBsAg testing. SAS software (Version 9.4) was used in our study. We analyzed the age, gender, ethnic group, area specific distributions of the children aged 1-4 years without timely HepB(1) vaccination and the influencing factors, and the relationship between the HepB(1) vaccination time and HBsAg prevalence rate. Results: A total of 12 587 children aged 1-4 years were analyzed and the non-timely HepB(1) vaccination rate was 10.12%. The place of birth, ethnic group, urban/rural area, eastern/central/western area, age were the main influencing factor of the non-timely HepB(1) vaccination. The non-timely HepB(1) vaccination rate was higher in 3-4 years old children (11.13%) than in 1-2 years old children (8.97%), in rural area (12.05%) than in urban area (8.19%), in western area (13.41%) than in central area (9.27%) and eastern area (7.72%), in minority ethnic group (18.06%) than in Han ethnic group (8.77%) and in children born outside hospital (57.66%) than in children born in hospital (9.27%). The HBsAg prevalence rate among 1-4 years children was 0.31%. The HBsAg prevalence rate of the children with timely HepB(1) vaccination (0.25%) was lower than that of the children without timely HepB(1) vaccination (0.89%). Conclusions: In China, the HBsAg prevalence rate among 1-4 years children with HepB vaccination decreased to <0.5% and the timely HepB(1) vaccination rate reached to 90%. We should strengthen the

  3. Fat Imaging via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Young Children (Ages 1-4 Years) without Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Shearrer, Grace E.; House, Benjamin T.; Gallas, Michelle C.; Luci, Jeffrey J.; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This pilot study developed techniques to perform Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of specific fat deposition in 18 children (age 18 months to 4 years). Methods The children engaged in a series of practice tests to become acclimated to the scanner noises, reduce claustrophobia, and rehearse holding still for a set time. The practice tests assessed if the child could remain still for two minutes while watching a video, first while lying on a blanket, second, on the blanket with headphones, and third, in the mock scanner. The children who passed the three practice tests were then scanned with a 3T Siemens Skyra magnet. Abdominal fat distribution (region of interest (ROI) from the top of the ileac crest to the bottom of the ribcage) volume was measured using 2-point DIXON technique. This region was chosen to give an indication of the body composition around the liver. Results Twelve out of eighteen participants successfully completed the actual MRI scan. Chi-squared test showed no significant difference between male and female pass-fail rates. The median age of completed scans was 36 months, whereas the median age for children unable to complete a scan was 28 months. The average total trunk fat was 240.9±85.2mL and the average total VAT was 37.7±25.9mLand liver fat was not quantifiable due to physiological motion. Several strategies (modeling, videos, and incentives) were identified to improve pediatric imaging in different age ranges. Conclusion Using an age-specific and tailored protocol, we were able to successfully use MRI for fat imaging in a majority of young children. Development of such protocols enables researchers to better understand the etiology of fat deposition in young children, which can be used to aid in the prevention and treatment of adiposity. PMID:26901881

  4. Validity and reliability of the 1/4 mile run-walk test in physically active children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Castro-Piñero, Jose

    2014-11-30

    We investigated the criterion-related validity and the reliability of the 1/4 mile run-walk test (MRWT) in children and adolescents. A total of 86 children (n=42 girls) completed a maximal graded treadmill test using a gas analyzer and the 1/4MRW test. We investigated the test-retest reliability of the 1/4MRWT in a different group of children and adolescents (n=995, n=418 girls). The 1/4MRWT time, sex, and BMI significantly contributed to predict measured VO2peak (R2= 0.32). There was no systematic bias in the cross-validation group (P>0.1). The root mean sum of squared errors (RMSE) and the percentage error were 6.9 ml/kg/min and 17.7%, respectively, and the accurate prediction (i.e. the percentage of estimations within ±4.5 ml/kg/min of VO2peak) was 48.8%. The reliability analysis showed that the mean inter-trial difference ranged from 0.6 seconds in children aged 6-11 years to 1.3 seconds in adolescents aged 12-17 years (all P.

  5. Age-associated repression of type 1 inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor impairs muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Lee, Seung-Min; Bahn, Young Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kang, Moonkyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Woo, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Eunhee; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and power decrease with age, leading to impairment of mobility and metabolism in the elderly. Ca2+ signaling is crucial for myoblast differentiation as well as muscle contraction through activation of transcription factors and Ca2+-dependent kinases and phosphatases. Ca2+ channels, such as dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two-pore channel (TPC) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (ITPR), function to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis in myoblasts. Here, we observed a significant decrease in expression of type 1 IP3 receptor (ITPR1), but not types 2 and 3, in aged mice skeletal muscle and isolated myoblasts, compared with those of young mice. ITPR1 knockdown using shRNA-expressing viruses in C2C12 myoblasts and tibialis anterior muscle of mice inhibited myotube formation and muscle regeneration after injury, respectively, a typical phenotype of aged muscle. This aging phenotype was associated with repression of muscle-specific genes and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. ERK inhibition by U0126 not only induced recovery of myotube formation in old myoblasts but also facilitated muscle regeneration after injury in aged muscle. The conserved decline in ITPR1 expression in aged human skeletal muscle suggests utility as a potential therapeutic target for sarcopenia, which can be treated using ERK inhibition strategies. PMID:27658230

  6. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  7. Early Children's Literature and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…

  8. Guiding School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roden, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Explores challenges faced by caregivers working with school-age children. Suggests guidance techniques based on understanding of children's emotional, social, physical, and intellectual characteristics. Focuses on appropriate use of environment, group management and problem solving, and development of self-discipline. (BAC)

  9. Chemistry of 2,5-dihydroxy-(1,4)-benzoquinone, a key chromophore in aged cellulosics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton or linen fabrics and paper, as well as other items composed chiefly of cellulose, tend to change to a yellow or brown color as they age. The change in color is usually accompanied by increased brittleness and loss of strength, as well. A cause of these phenomena is thought to be the formation...

  10. Common Concerns of School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

    This study assessed common concerns of school-age children. Participating were 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5. Concerns were spontaneously generated by children during Phase 1 of the study, and common stressors most frequently mentioned were ranked on a 10-item rank-order task during Phase 2. In Phase 3, children completed questionnaires…

  11. Clinical relevance of trans 1,4-polyisoprene aging degradation on the longevity of root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Maniglia-Ferreira, Cláudio; Valverde, Guilherme Bönecker; Silva, João Batista Araújo; de Paula, Regina Célia Monteiro; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa Andrade; de Souza-Filho, Francisco José

    2007-01-01

    This in vivo study investigated the time of degradation of root filling material (trans 1,4-polyisoprene) retrieved from endodontically treated teeth and correlated the occurrence of degradation with the longevity of endodontics. Thirty-six root-filled teeth with different filling times (2 to 30 years) and with and without periapical lesions were selected. All teeth presented clinical indication for root canal retreatment. The association among filling time, presence of periapical lesion and root filling material degradation was investigated. Root filling samples were retrieved from the root canals using a Hedströ m file without solvent. The trans 1,4-polyisoprene was isolated by root filling solubilization in chloroform followed by filtration and centrifugation. GPC and FT-IR were the analytical techniques utilized. Degradation of trans 1,4-polyisoprene occurred with time, as a slow process. It is an oxidative process, and production of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in the residual polymer were observed. Statistically significant decrease of molar mass was observed after 5 (p=0.0001) and 15 (p=0.01) years in teeth with and without periapical lesion, respectively. Bacteria participated in polymer degradation. Gutta-percha aging was proven an important factor for the long-term success of endodontic treatment. The findings of the present study showed that, after 15 years, polymer weight loss may decrease the capacity of the filling mass to seal the root canal space and prevent re-infection, thus compromising significantly the longevity of root canal therapy.

  12. Performance of repair welds on service-aged 2-1/4Cr-1Mo girth weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, R.; Gandy, D.; Findlan, S.

    1997-11-01

    This paper discusses the results of evaluations performed on service-aged piping using both conventional postweld heat treatments and temperbead repair techniques. The two repair weldments were accomplished on two 2-1/4Cr-1Mo pipe girth weldments which were removed from a utility hot reheat piping system in the fall of 1992 after 161,000 h of operation at 1,000 F (538 C). Each repair was performed around one-half of the diameter of a pipe girth weldment, while the remaining half of the girth weldment was left in the service-aged condition. Post-repair metallurgical and mechanical test results indicated that both weld repairs produced improved remaining lives when compared to the service-aged girth weldments. Since the two ex-service weldments that were utilized in weld repairs exhibited different stress rupture strengths to start with, the performance of temper bead and postweld heat-treated (PWHT) repair could not be compared directly. It was clear, however, that life extension periods exceeding 30 yr could be achieved by temperbead repairs, with improved toughness and with no loss of stress rupture ductility, tensile strength, or yield strength. The temperbead repair improved the toughness of the service-aged weldment, while the postweld heat-treated repair lowered the HAZ toughness.

  13. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  14. Research of Fears of Preschool Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkabayeva, Aiman E.; Dakhbay, Beybitkhan D.; Oleksyuk, Z?ryana Ya.; Tykezhanova, Gulmira M.; Alshynbekova, Gulnaziya K.; Starikova, Anna Ye.

    2016-01-01

    One of the symptoms of neurosis at preschool age children is fear. In our opinion, research in this area will help to solve a number of problems of children of preschool age, including difficulties of acceptance on themselves in the new social roles in relation from kindergarten transition to school adjustment problems and a number of other…

  15. Day Care for School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diffendal, Elizabeth

    This booklet examines four aspects of day care services for school-age children: (1) national availability and trends, (2) parents' views, (3) program planning, and (4) recommended program models. A nationwide survey of 58 day care programs enrolling school-age children was conducted, and the general findings are presented. Information on parents'…

  16. NWA 7034 Martian breccia: Ar/Ar ages of ca. 1.2 to 1.4 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. E.; Mark, D. F.; Cassata, W.; Lee, M. R.; Smith, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    NWA 7034 and its paired stones are some of the oldest and most diverse of the Martian meteorites. They are complex polymict breccias of impact, igneous, and sedimentary clasts set in a dark grey matrix [1; 2]. The rock also contains angular mineral fragments, including K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, and pyroxene [1; 2]. Mineral fragments are often > 1 mm wide, and clasts can be > 1 cm. This diverse breccia assemblage indicates formation via repeated impact events, supported by Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and U-Pb ages ranging from 1.3 to 4.4 Ga [1, 2, and references therein]. In this study we investigate the distribution of ages yielded by Ar/Ar, with nine aliquots analyzed to date, and additional analyses planned. In order to analyze only single phases, chips of matrix/clasts were restricted to visibly monomict fragments < 1 mm diameter, while mineral separates were analyzed as single crystals. Cosmogenic Ar corrections are from [3]. Analyses were undertaken at SUERC and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the results pooled. The bulk of aliquots (n = 8) yielded ages of ca. 1.2-1.4 Ga indicating a major thermal event occurred at around the same time as crystallization of the Nakhlite group of meteorites. Select step ages are considerably older (> 2 Ga), supporting results of other chronometers that much older material is present in this sample. These results also demonstrate that some older fragments retained Ar during breccia formation. [1] Wittmann A. et al. (2015) Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 50, 326-352. [2] Santos A. R. et al. (2015) GCA, 157, 56-85. [3] Cassata W. S., and Borg L. E. (2015) 46th LPSC, Abstract #2742.

  17. School-age children development

    MedlinePlus

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. School-age child development describes the expected physical, emotional, and mental abilities ... to 2 hours a day. Images School age child development References Feigelman S. Middle childhood. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman ...

  18. Families with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  19. Aging Parents & Dilemmas of Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger; And Others

    After an opening series of vignettes which describe the frustrations of adults who care for aging and infirm parents, this pamphlet addresses the issue of aging parents and the dilemmas they pose for their children. In particular, it describes a model entitled "As Parents Grow Older" (APGO) that originated as a service for families of…

  20. Auditory Sensitivity in School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trehub, Sandra E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Obtained thresholds for octave-band noises with center frequencies of 0.4, 1, 2, 4, and 10 kHz and 1/3-octave band noises centered at 10 and 20 kHz from children aged 6 to 16 years. Compared results with findings for infants, preschool children, and adults. Continuing sensitivity improvements were evident from infancy well into the school years.…

  1. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  2. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  3. Epigenetic age analysis of children who seem to evade aging.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard F; Liu, Jia Sophie; Peters, Brock A; Ritz, Beate R; Wu, Timothy; Ophoff, Roel A; Horvath, Steve

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported the unusual case of a teenage girl stricken with multifocal developmental dysfunctions whose physical development was dramatically delayed resulting in her appearing to be a toddler or at best a preschooler, even unto the occasion of her death at the age of 20 years. Her life-long physician felt that the disorder was unique in the world and that future treatments for age-related diseases might emerge from its study. The objectives of our research were to determine if other such cases exist, and if so, whether aging is actually slowed. Of seven children characterized by dramatically slow developmental rates, five also had associated disorders displayed by the first case. All of the identified subjects were female. To objectively measure the age of blood tissue from these subjects, we used a highly accurate biomarker of aging known as "epigenetic clock" based on DNA methylation levels. No statistically significant differences in chronological and epigenetic ages were detected in any of the newly discovered cases.

  4. The Development of Logico-Mathematical Knowledge in a Block-Building Activity at Ages 1-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamii, Constance; Miyakawa, Yoko; Kato, Yasuhiko

    2004-01-01

    To study the developmental interrelationships among various aspects of logico-mathematical knowledge, 80 one- to 4-year-olds were individually asked to build "something tall" with 20 blocks. Percentages of new and significant behaviors increased with age and were analyzed in terms of the development of logico-mathematical relationships. It was…

  5. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  6. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  7. Assessing attachment in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, Patricia; Kozlowska, Kasia; Landini, Andrea

    2010-04-01

    The School-age Assessment of Attachment (SAA) is a newly developed clinical tool to identify pattern of attachment using the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment and adaptation (DMM). Seven picture cards were used to elicit fantasy stories and recalled episodes. The transcribed discourse was analyzed to yield one of 13 DMM attachment classifications, together with possible unresolved traumas and losses, and modifiers (depression and intrusions). In this article, we outline the steps necessary to validate an assessment tool, describe the development of the SAA, and report data from a preliminary clinical study testing the SAA's reliability, validity, and utility. Concurrent construct, familial, and discriminant validity were evaluated in terms of mental health status and exposure to danger on a sample of 5-12-year-old children, drawn from clinical ( n = 51) and normative (n = 40) populations. The SAA (a) differentiated children referred for psychiatric diagnosis from those in the normative population; (b) accounted for 31% of the variance (46% when family variables were added); (c) identified risk children in the normative sample; and (d) suggested risk factors associated with children's psychiatric disorder.

  8. Home drowning among preschool age Mexican children.

    PubMed Central

    Celis, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of drowning by different bodies of water in and near the home for children aged 1 to 4 years. SETTING: The Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico. METHODS: A population case-control study. Cases (n=33) were children 1 to 4 years old who drowned at their home; controls (n=200) were a random sample of the general population. RESULTS: The risk of drowning for children whose parents reported having a water well at home was almost seven times that of children in homes without a water well (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2 to 20.5). Risk ratio estimates for other bodies of water were: swimming pools (OR=5.8, 95% CI=0.9 to 37.5), water barrel (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.0 to 5.6), underground cistern (OR=2.1, 95% CI=0.8 to 5.2), and a basin front (courtyard pool to store water) of 35 or more litres (OR=1.8, 95% CI=0.8 to 4.4). CONCLUSION: Drowning at home is frequent in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, but the causes are different from those reported in developed countries. Accordingly, the preventive strategies must also be different. Images PMID:9493619

  9. Federal Expenditures on Elementary-Age Children in 2008 (Ages 6 through 11)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vericker, Tracy C.; Macomber, Jennifer; Isaacs, Julia; Kent, Adam; Bringewatt, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a first-time analysis of the nation's current investments in elementary-age children, defined as children ages 6 through 11. The authors consider over 100 federal programs through which the federal government allocates money to children, and subsequently estimate the amount spent on six- to eleven-year-old children. This…

  10. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  11. Age Banding and Its Impact on Children and Their Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Claire; Maynard, Sally

    2012-01-01

    The study described here investigates the thoughts and opinions of young readers related to age banding on children's books. Emphasizing the views of children themselves, rather than adults such as parents, librarians, teachers and authors, the research involved a series of three focus groups involving children aged 11-13 years. The discussions…

  12. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  13. Birds, Bats, and Butterflies. A Leaflet for Adults Who Want To Share Nature with Children. No. 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Mark K., Ed.

    This series of leaflets provides information about nature education in outdoor settings. Each issue begins with an account of a personal experience with children in nature. Following the personal narrative is a section titled, "A Nature Primer," which provides scientific information about a topic in nature. The next section, "Ready,…

  14. Families with school-age children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  15. What Do Children Know about Their Futures: Do Children's Expectations Predict Outcomes in Middle Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallerod, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Are children's statements about their futures related to outcomes in middle age? In 1966 almost 13,500 children ages 12-13 were asked whether they thought their futures would be worse, similar or better as compared to others of their own age. It was shown that children with low, and surprisingly high, expectations did suffer from increased…

  16. Evaluation of dental age in protein energy malnutrition children

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Patil, Kavitha; Munoli, Karishma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of dental age is very essential for a dental practitioner in planning treatment and it is a supplementary source of information for Pediatrician, Orthopedician and Endocrinologist. There are few studies in the literature about the comparison of dental with chronological age in protein energy malnutrition children (PEM). Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare dental age and chronological age in PEM children. Aims and Objective: To determine and compare dental age and chronological age in PEM children. Methods: A total of 100 PEM children within the age range of 6–12 years were selected. Chronological age was recorded using date of birth. Dental age was assessed by Demirjian's method using orthopantomogram. Comparison of two ages was done using the unpaired Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Dental age was retarded compared to chronological age, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The correlations between two ages were positive in both sexes. Conclusion: Dental age was delayed in our sample of 100 PEM children. Dental age can be considered as variable for diagnosing growth retardation in PEM children. Further studies are required to support our findings. PMID:26538919

  17. Children and Sports: Choices for All Ages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children's health Children's sports promote fitness, but not all children thrive in formal leagues. Help your child ... might become discouraged. Beware of a win-at-all-costs attitude. Overall, be positive and encouraging. Emphasize ...

  18. Sentence Comprehension in Postinstitutionalized School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized (PI) children. The authors compared the performance of these PI children with that of an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. They hypothesized that PI…

  19. The Loved Ones: Aging Parents and Their Favorite Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, Joan; And Others

    Despite the cultural norm that parents should love their children equally, parents do differ in their preferential treatment toward their children. To obtain information about the characteristics of the loved ones and the loving ones in parent child relationships among aging parents and adult children, 124 couples (in which the men graduated from…

  20. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  1. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  2. The Special Value of Children's Age-Mixed Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the normal social play of children involves kids of various ages. Our human and great-ape ancestors most likely lived in small groups with low birth rates, which made play with others of nearly the same age rare. Consequently, the evolutionary functions of children's social play are best understood by examining…

  3. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  4. Expository Language Skills of Young School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerveld, Marleen F.; Moran, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated the expository language skills of young school-age children with the ultimate aim of obtaining normative data for clinical practice. Specifically, this study examined (a) the level of expository language performance of 6- and 7-year-old children with typical development and (b) age-related differences between…

  5. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  6. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school students…

  7. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  8. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  9. Age and Gender Effects on Coping in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Petermann, Franz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate age and gender effects of children's and adolescents' coping with common stressors in 3 age groups (late childhood, early, and middle adolescence). Furthermore, age and developmental differences in situation-specific coping with 2 stress domains were examined. N = 1,123 participants (ages 8 to 13 years)…

  10. Elevated cortisol during play is associated with age and social engagement in children with autism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The hallmark characteristic of autism is impaired reciprocal social interaction. While children find social interaction stress-reducing, many children with autism may find social interaction stress-inducing. The current study was designed to examine stress responsivity as measured by cortisol by comparing children with autism to neurotypical peers during an ecologically valid 20-minute playground paradigm. Methods The experiment involved sets of three children: a child with autism, a neurotypical child, and a confederate. Participants included 45 prepubescent males between 8 and 12 years of age (21 with autism and 24 neurotypical children). Results Children with autism showed fewer initiations (χ²(1) = 4.03, P = 0.044), rejected initiations from others more (χ²(1) = 7.10, P = 0.008) and spent less time interacting during motor (F(1,43) = 16.7, P = 0.0002) and cooperative (F(1,43) = 14.78, P = 0.0004) play. Repeated measures analysis of the cortisol values revealed a significant model (χ²(4) = 22.76, P < 0.0005) that included time of measurement, diagnosis and age as main effects and an interaction between diagnosis and age. Thus, as age increased among children with autism, they experienced enhanced cortisol levels while age did not modify expected cortisol levels for typical children. Stress responsivity was associated with more peripheral equipment play for motor (χ²(3) = 12.3, P = 0.006) and cooperative (χ²(3) = 8.24, P = 0.04) play as well as reduced nonverbal social skills during motor (χ²(1) = 5.52, P = 0.018) and cooperative play (χ²(1) = 4.53, P = 0.033). Conclusions Overall, children with autism engaged in fewer social overtures and spent less time interacting than typically developing peers during play. The peer interaction paradigm resulted in significantly higher levels of cortisol in many children with autism. Distinct patterns emerged within the autism group based on developmental (older), biological (cortisol responder) and

  11. National Council of Organizations for Children and Youth Bicentennial Conference on Children (Washington, D. C., February 1-4, 1976). Conference Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Organizations for Children and Youth, Washington, DC.

    This summary of the National Council of Organizations for Children and Youth (NCOCY) Bicentennial Conference on Children contains the text of the major addresses presented at the conference and summary reports of the conference discussion groups. The major topics discussed were family income support, child health, child care, and legislation…

  12. Preschool Age Children's Views about Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocyigit, Sezai

    2014-01-01

    Starting primary education is one of the most important changes that children encounter in early childhood. Moreover, especially within the last twenty years, as an outcome of the idea that children are active learners, listening to children's ideas about their learning, lives, and experiences has gained importance. In this sense, this study is…

  13. Automated bone age assessment of older children using the radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, Han K.

    2008-03-01

    The Digital Hand Atlas in Assessment of Skeletal Development is a large-scale Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) project for automating the process of grading Skeletal Development of children from 0-18 years of age. It includes a complete collection of 1,400 normal hand X-rays of children between the ages of 0-18 years of age. Bone Age Assessment is used as an index of skeletal development for detection of growth pathologies that can be related to endocrine, malnutrition and other disease types. Previous work at the Image Processing and Informatics Lab (IPILab) allowed the bone age CAD algorithm to accurately assess bone age of children from 1 to 16 (male) or 14 (female) years of age using the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones. At the older ages (16(male) or 14(female) -19 years of age) the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones are fully developed and do not provide well-defined features for accurate bone age assessment. Therefore integration of the Radius Bone as a region of interest (ROI) is greatly needed and will significantly improve the ability to accurately assess the bone age of older children. Preliminary studies show that an integrated Bone Age CAD that utilizes the Phalanges, Carpal Bones and Radius forms a robust method for automatic bone age assessment throughout the entire age range (1-19 years of age).

  14. Impact of age on the survival of pediatric leukemia: an analysis of 15083 children in the SEER database

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peng; Kang, Meiyun; Zhang, Xuejie; Lu, Qin; Fang, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Age at diagnosis is a key factor for predicting the prognosis of pediatric leukemia especially regarding the survivorship assessment. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of this prognostic factor such as age in children with pediatric leukemia. METHODS In this study, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program-registered children with leukemia during 1988-2013 were analyzed. All patients were divided into five groups according to the age at the time of diagnosis (<1, 1-4, 5-9, 10-15, >15 years old). Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression models were used to evaluate leukemia survival outcomes and risk factors. RESULTS There was significant variability in pediatric leukemia survival by age at diagnosis including ALL, AML and CML subtypes. According to the survival curves in each group, survival rate were peaked among children diagnosed at 1–4 years and steadily declined among those diagnosed at older ages in children with ALL. Infants (<1 year) had the lowest survivorship in children with either ALL or AML. However, children (1-4 years) harbored the worst prognosis suffering from CML. A stratified analysis of the effect of age at diagnosis was validated as independent predictors for the prognosis of pediatric leukemia. CONCLUSIONS Age at diagnosis remained to be a crucial determinant of the survival variability of pediatric leukemia patients. PMID:27590519

  15. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Abir; Salem, Nidhal Haj; Mougou, Meryam; Maatouk, Fethi; Chadly, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia). Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years). Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age. PMID:27051223

  16. Age and learning environment: Are children implicit second language learners?

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study crosses instruction condition with age, teaching forty children aged 5;3 to 7;11 and forty adults an artificial mini-language under implicit or explicit training conditions. Participants produced novel sentences and judged sentence grammaticality equally well in either condition, but both children and adults in the explicit training condition developed greater awareness of the mini-language's structures - and greater awareness was associated with better performance for both age groups. Results show that explicit instruction affects children and adults in the same way, supporting the hypothesis that age differences in implicit vs. explicit L2 learning are not exclusively caused by maturation, but also influenced by instruction.

  17. Reading and Coherent Motion Perception in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-01-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium…

  18. Interpersonal Problem Solving in Preschool Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Arthur J.; Siegel, Lawrence J.

    This study was designed as a partial replication and extension of the research on interpersonal problem solving in preschool children by Shure and Spivack. Fifteen well-adjusted and 14 impulsive children from Head Start Centers were administered the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving test (PIPS) under either incentive or no incentive…

  19. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  20. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  1. Sentence Completion to Assess Children's Views about Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Pruski, Linda A.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Lee, Shuko; Plaetke, Rosemarie

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Sentence completion exercises require students to give open-ended responses to prompts. The first purpose of this article is to describe the method of sentence completion to assess middle-school children's attitudes and beliefs about aging. The second purpose is to describe the patterns of characteristics that children associate with…

  2. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  3. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; Smidts, Diana P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether very preterm ([less than or equal to] 30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50 children (27 boys and 23 girls) born very…

  4. Language Development in Preschool-Age Children Adopted from China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jenny A.; Pollock, Karen E.; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C.; Wang, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However,…

  5. [Stress in school-age children].

    PubMed

    Plourde, R G

    1994-10-01

    In April 1988, following preliminary research, Notre Dame Elementary School in Edmunston, N.B. initiated a pilot project entitled Management of Children's Stress. Using a three-dimensional process, parents, teachers and students collaborated to empower all students enrolled at the school to effectively manage their day-to-day stress. To prepare, the children, parents and teachers participated in nine- and 15-hour education sessions, respectively. Various techniques, including deep breathing exercises, stretching, relaxation techniques and listening to music, were considered. Visualization, maximizing the mind's potential to envision relaxing images, became the preferred technique. In addition to complementing other relaxation techniques used by the children, visualization facilitated their learning; developed and improved their concentration, motivation and self-confidence; gave them a positive self-image; and reduced health problems. The project has surpassed all expectations. In March 1993, it became part of a Quality of Life Education Project at the school.

  6. Assisting adoptive families: children adopted at older ages.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ellen; Krebs, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the adoption experience can help health care providers develop sensitivity to the special tasks of adopted children and their families. Children who are adopted at older ages may face particular challenges. Age at adoptive placement, the burden of loss, pre-adoptive experiences, and the challenge of attachment are all significant issues in older-child adoption. Pediatric nurses demonstrate sensitivity and support to adopted children and their families by using appropriate language about adoption; understanding the significance of missing health information; providing appropriate referrals as needed; and displaying an open, caring attitude.

  7. Age Assessment in Children: A Novel Cameriere’s Stratagem

    PubMed Central

    Attiguppe, Prabhakar Ramasetty; Yavagal, Chandrashekar; Mythri, P

    2016-01-01

    Aim Age is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of a person, especially in children. Age estimation plays an important part in treatment planning, forensic dentistry, legal issues, and paleodemographic research. The present study was an attempt to estimate the chronological age in children of Davangere population by using Cameriere’s India specific formula. Materials and methods This was a retrospective observational study to estimate the chronological age in children of Davangere population. A total of 150 panoramic radiographs of patients aged between 6 and 15 years, including both sexes, were selected. Age was calculated by measuring open apices of seven right or left mandibular teeth using Adobe Photoshop software. Results Statistical analysis was performed to derive a regression equation for estimation of age, which showed that, of the variables X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, s, N0, the variables N0 and X4 were statistically noteworthy. Hence, these two variables were used to derive the linear regression formula: Age = 10.522 + 0.712(N0) - 5.040(X4). The model was found to be statistically significant, F(2, 147) = 207.96, p < 0.001, and accounted for approximately 74% of the variance of age (R2 = 0.739, adjusted R2 = 0.735). Conclusion Cameriere’s method can be used for age assessment in children for forensic as well as legal contexts and based on these variables a reliable age estimation equation could be proposed specifically for Davangere population. How to cite this article Attiguppe PR, Yavagal C, Maganti R, Mythri P. Age Assessment in Children: A Novel Cameriere’s Stratagem. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):330-334. PMID:28127165

  8. Experiential Environmental Education for Primary Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Heather

    Environmental education is defined as a cross-curricular theme in the national curriculum (NC) of England and Wales. Environmental education may be experiential in and outside the classroom; outside, the environment may act as a stimulus for creative writing, investigative fieldwork, or sensory activities. Young children learn best by doing.…

  9. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

  10. Neurobehaviour of school age children born to diabetic mothers

    PubMed Central

    Ornoy, A; Ratzon, N; Greenbaum, C; Peretz, E; Soriano, D; Dulitzky, M

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To study the neurobehavioural effects that diabetes during pregnancy might have on children by school age.
METHODS—The neurobehavioural function of 57 school age children born to 48, well controlled diabetic mothers was compared with 57control children matched for age, birth order, and parental socioeconomic status, using several cognitive, behavioural, sensory and motor neurological tests.
RESULTS—The IQ scores of the index group children were similar to those of control children (117.7±13.4 vs 118.5±10.1). There were no differences between the groups in various sensory motor functions. However, the index group children performed less well than the controls on indices of fine and gross motor functions, as observed on the Bruininks-Oseretzky test of motor proficiency. The scores of children born to diabetic mothers were higher than controls on the Touwen and Prechtl neurological examination. They also performed worse in the Pollack tapper test which is designed to detect minor neurological deficits, inattention, and hyperactivity. The index children had higher scores on the Conners abbreviated parent-teacher questionnaire which measures hyperactivity and inattention. There was a negative correlation between the performance of the index group children on various neurodevelopmental and behavioural tests and the severity of hyperglycaemia, as assessed by blood glycosylated haemoglobin and acetonuria.
CONCLUSIONS—Diabetes during pregnancy adversely affects some fine neurological functions in children at school age, but not their cognitive scores. These effects are not correlated with the degree of glycaemic control.

 PMID:9828733

  11. Age Differences in Children's Strategies for Influencing Parents' Purchases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuehrer, Ann; And Others

    The specific purposes of this study were to examine (1) age differences in the sophistication of influence strategies children use to affect parents' consumption decisions, and (2) whether or not parents differentially reinforce such strategies according to the child's age. Data were gathered by observing the interactions of 145 parent-child dyads…

  12. The Coming of Age in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Carol; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Briefly discusses the concept of ageism, the stereotyping of groups of people on the basis of age, and lists resources including books, articles and organizations which can be used to combat ageism. (BR)

  13. Behavior management for preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Williford, Amanda P; Shelton, Terri L

    2014-10-01

    This article summarizes behavior management strategies for preschool children who are at high risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder that have found to be effective in improving child behavior. Both parent and teacher training programs are reviewed, as these have been backed by substantial research evidence. In addition, multimodal treatments that include some combination of parent training, teacher training, and social skills training are also reviewed. Interventions emphasize the need for a strong adult-child relationship combined with proactive behavior management strategies to improve child behavior.

  14. Maine Department of Education Regulation 180: Early Intervention and Special Education for Children Age Birth to under Age Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

    This document contains regulations governing the administration of the Childfind system for children age birth to under age 6, the provision of early intervention services to eligible children birth through two with disabilities and their families, and the provision of special education and related services to eligible children age 3 to under 6…

  15. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf.

    PubMed

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools.

  16. Childhood Depression in School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Sandra M.

    At any one time, between 2 percent and 17 percent of the school-age population in the United States experiences moderate to severe depression. Too often, depression goes unrecognized, damaging self-esteem, ruining academic achievement, and disrupting families. This paper discusses childhood depression and treatment. Following an introduction…

  17. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    PubMed

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.

  18. Dental age estimation in Brazilian HIV children using Willems' method.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rafael Boschetti; da Silva Assunção, Luciana Reichert; Franco, Ademir; Zaroni, Fábio Marzullo; Holderbaum, Rejane Maria; Fernandes, Ângela

    2015-12-01

    The notification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Brazilian children was first reported in 1984. Since that time more than 21 thousand children became infected. Approximately 99.6% of the children aged less than 13 years old are vertically infected. In this context, most of the children are abandoned after birth, or lose their relatives in a near future, growing with uncertain identification. The present study aims to estimate the dental age of Brazilian HIV patients in face of healthy patients paired by age and gender. The sample consisted of 160 panoramic radiographs of male (n: 80) and female (n: 80) patients aged between 4 and 15 years (mean age: 8.88 years), divided into HIV (n: 80) and control (n: 80) groups. The sample was analyzed by three trained examiners, using Willems' method, 2001. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to test intra- and inter-examiner agreement, and Student paired t-test was used to determine the age association between HIV and control groups. Intra-examiner (ICC: from 0.993 to 0.997) and inter-examiner (ICC: from 0.991 to 0.995) agreement tests indicated high reproducibility of the method between the examiners (P<0.01). Willems' method revealed discrete statistical overestimation in HIV (2.86 months; P=0.019) and control (1.90 months; P=0.039) groups. However, stratified analysis by gender indicate that overestimation were only concentrated in male HIV (3.85 months; P=0.001) and control (2.86 months; P=0.022) patients. The significant statistical differences are not clinically relevant once only few months of discrepancy are detected applying Willems' method in a Brazilian HIV sample, making this method highly recommended for dental age estimation of both HIV and healthy children with unknown age.

  19. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  20. Language development in preschool-age children adopted from China.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jenny A; Pollock, Karen E; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C; Wang, Paul P

    2005-02-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However, the vast majority scored within or well above the average range on 2 or more measures. Contrary to other reports on the language development of internationally adopted children, the results suggest that "second first language" acquisition proceeds rapidly in the majority of preschool-age children adopted as infants and toddlers. For the children in the sample who scored below average, results indicated that they were among the children who had been exposed to English for the least amount of time. The results of this study demonstrate both the robustness of the language system in the majority of adopted children from China as well as slower growth in a small subset of lower performers in the 1st years after adoption.

  1. Epidemiology of enuresis among school-age children in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hansakunachai, Tippawan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Sombuntham, Tasnawat; Kotchabhakdi, Nittaya

    2005-10-01

    Enuresis is a very common developmental problem in young children. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of enuresis in school-age children, to determine the factors associated with nocturnal enuresis, and to evaluate the parental strategies for managing enuresis. A randomly selected cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in eight elementary schools in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 3453 parents of children aged 5 through 15 years completed the questionnaires. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 70%. The prevalence of enuresis was 4.2% and that of nocturnal enuresis was 3.9%. The prevalence declined with increasing age from 10%, 5.3%, 3%, and 1.2% at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, respectively. There was no enuretic child at ages 13 through 15 years. The prevalence of bed-wetting was slightly more frequent in females than males. Nocturnal enuresis was also found to be significantly associated with the history of encopresis and positive family history of enuresis. There was no significant associated with parental education, birth order, socioeconomic status, diaper use, toilet training, and behavioral and school problems. Behavioral techniques mostly used by parents for management of their children with bed-wetting were ensuring that the child voids before bedtime (72.9%), waking the child up at night to void (61.8%), and evening water intake restriction (28.5%). The overall prevalence rate of nocturnal enuresis in Bangkok school-age children is lower than that of many previous studies reported from other countries. The significant differences in the prevalence reported by other countries' studies attributed to the criteria selection for ranges of age, definition of enuresis, genetic predisposition, and traditional and cultural background.

  2. Premature aging and immune senescence in HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Gianesin, Ketty; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Zanchetta, Marisa; Del Bianco, Paola; Petrara, Maria Raffaella; Freguja, Riccardo; Rampon, Osvalda; Fortuny, Clàudia; Camós, Mireia; Mozzo, Elena; Giaquinto, Carlo; De Rossi, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Several pieces of evidence indicate that HIV-infected adults undergo premature aging. The effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure on the aging process of HIV-infected children may be more deleterious since their immune system coevolves from birth with HIV. Design: Seventy-one HIV-infected (HIV+), 65 HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and 56 HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, all aged 0–5 years, were studied for biological aging and immune senescence. Methods: Telomere length and T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels were quantified in peripheral blood cells by real-time PCR. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were analysed for differentiation, senescence, and activation/exhaustion markers by flow cytometry. Results: Telomere lengths were significantly shorter in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (overall, P < 0.001 adjusted for age); HIV+ ART-naive (42%) children had shorter telomere length compared with children on ART (P = 0.003 adjusted for age). T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels and CD8+ recent thymic emigrant cells (CD45RA+CD31+) were significantly lower in the HIV+ than in control groups (overall, P = 0.025 and P = 0.005, respectively). Percentages of senescent (CD28−CD57+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+), and exhausted (PD1+) CD8+ cells were significantly higher in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Within the CD4+ cell subset, the percentage of senescent cells did not differ between HIV+ and controls, but programmed cell death receptor-1 expression was upregulated in the former. Conclusions: HIV-infected children exhibit premature biological aging with accelerated immune senescence, which particularly affects the CD8+ cell subset. HIV infection per se seems to influence the aging process, rather than exposure to ART for prophylaxis or treatment. PMID:26990630

  3. Some Educational Benefits of Freely Chosen Age Mixing among Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jay; Gray, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Observation of 200 children ages 4 to 19 attending a Massachusetts nongraded alternative school disclosed substantial age mixing. Younger children used older children to develop skills and acquire knowledge. Age mixing encouraged opportunities for creativity, helped match abilities, and fostered older children's sense of responsibility for younger…

  4. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section... infants under age 1, such higher income standard up to 185 percent FPL, if any, as the State...

  5. [Influence of pedagogy on vigilance in school age children].

    PubMed

    Zaczyk-Martin, C; Nuttens, M C; Hautekeete, M; Salomez, J L; Lequien, P

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between vigilance and pedagogy was studied in 3 middle classes of primary school (children aged between 8 and 9 yrs). Three different types of pedagogy, belonging to 3 major pedagogic currents were evaluated: the pedagogy of Maria Montessori, the traditional one and the so-called "open" pedagogy. The vigilance of children was tested with the psychometric test of Zazzo. The rate of performance of the test was significantly different according to the nature of pedagogy after adjustment of the only 2 confusing factors between the 3 schools: the age of the children and the degree of the mother. This difference was in favor of the pedagogy of Maria Montessori compared with the 2 others. It was observed on the results to the tests but also on learning.

  6. Life threat and posttraumatic stress in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Pynoos, R S; Frederick, C; Nader, K; Arroyo, W; Steinberg, A; Eth, S; Nunez, F; Fairbanks, L

    1987-12-01

    One hundred fifty-nine children (14.5% of the student body) were sampled after a fatal sniper attack on their elementary school playground. Systematic self-reports of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were obtained by use of a child PTSD Reaction Index. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences by exposure but not by sex, ethnicity, or age. Additional analyses were conducted of individual item response, overall severity of PTSD reaction, symptom grouping, and previous life events. The results provide strong evidence that acute PTSD symptoms occur in school-age children with a notable correlation between proximity to the violence and type and number of PTSD symptoms. Sampling at approximately one month after the trauma provided adequate delineation among exposure groups. The symptom profile of highly exposed children lends validity to the diagnosis of acute PTSD in childhood.

  7. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2009 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Lim, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  8. Hearing-Impaired Children under Age 6: 1977 and 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildroth, Arthur

    1986-01-01

    A review of annual survey data revealed that hearing impaired children under age 6 reported in 1984, when compared to those reported in 1977, tended to be younger; had higher percentages of heredity, meningitis, and prematurity as causes of hearing loss; and were more likely to have additional handicaps. (CL)

  9. The Impact of Parental Death on Middle Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney Z.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the impact of the loss of a parent on middle-aged children. A lifelong process of anticipatory orphanhood is suggested as helping to prepare for the impact of a parent's death. Reaction involves the dialectic between the persistence and breaking of the bond and between finitude and personal growth. (JAC)

  10. Age-related radiological imaging in children with acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Mohammad; Mastin, Suzanne T; Richard, George A

    2002-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) using clinical and laboratory parameters is often difficult in children. The aims of this retrospective study were twofold. Firstly, to correlate the clinical and laboratory manifestations of APN with the results of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan in different age groups. Secondly, to compare the DMSA renal scan, renal ultrasonography (RUS), and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in patients with clinical APN. The DMSA renal scan was utilized as the gold standard for renal involvement. We determined the sensitivity of these tests in febrile urinary tract infections (UTI) in three age groups: group I less than 2 years; group II 2-8 years; group III older than 8 years. During the period January 1992 through December 1998, 222 children presented with a febrile UTI. All patients had a DMSA renal scan, 208 had contrast VCUG, and 163 had RUS. The clinical and laboratory manifestation of pyelonephritis correlated better with a positive DMSA renal scan in the older children than in the younger children; 85% of the DMSA renal scans were positive in group III; 69% in group II; 48% in group I (P<0.001). Vesicoureteral reflux detected by contrast VCUG was more prevalent in the younger age groups. Although high grades of reflux (grade IV-V) correlated better with a positive DMSA renal scan, it did not reach a level of statistical significance (P>0.05). RUS did not correlate with a positive DMSA renal scan in any age group.

  11. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  12. School Readiness of Moderately Preterm Children at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Giovanna; Morales, M. Regina; Anzalone, Germana

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the preschool readiness of moderately preterm children and, in particular, the likely presence of learning disabilities at preschool age. Its theoretical model detects linguistic comprehension and expression; memory-related metacognition and cognition skills; orientation and motor coordination skills; premathematics and…

  13. How Elementary-Age Children Read Polysyllabic Polymorphemic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Devin M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers of English appear to favor phonograms over grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) to read unknown words. For polysyllabic polymorphemic (PSPM) words, the morphophonemic nature of English means elementary-age children may focus on roots and affixes. Does developing readers' PSPM word reading accuracy relate to the morphological…

  14. [Constrictive pericarditis in children under 2 years of age].

    PubMed

    Silva, Lia; Anjos, Rui; Martins, Fernando Maymone; Telo, Margarida

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of constrictive pericarditis, in children under 2 years of age, of non-tuberculosis aetiology, diagnosed from June 97 to May 98 are reported. This entity is rare in paediatrics and it may progress to severe condition. Surgical treatment has a low risk and is generally associated with good prognosis. Aetiology, clinic presentation, differential diagnosis with restrictive cardiomyopathy and treatment are discussed.

  15. Teacher-Student Relationship and Peer Disliking and Liking across Grades 1-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Im, Myung H.

    2016-01-01

    Between-child and within-child effects of teacher-student warmth and conflict on children's peer-nominated disliking and liking across Grades 1-4 (ages 6-10) were investigated in a sample of 746 ethnically diverse and academically at-risk children in Texas. Multilevel modeling controlled for time-invariant between-child differences while modeling…

  16. Social Information Processing in Elementary-School Aged Children with ADHD: Medication Effects and Comparisons with Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.

    2009-01-01

    Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…

  17. Vulnerability of children: more than a question of age.

    PubMed

    Hutton, David

    2010-11-01

    The vulnerability of children in disasters is well-established. Children are at greater risk of the impacts of disasters because of both their age and level of physiological, anatomical, cognitive and emotional development. Frequently overlooked, however, is the influence of other social and health determinants. This article highlights the importance of family and household income in determining the ability of children to withstand the shocks of catastrophic events. Children raised in lower income families are made disadvantaged in multiple ways; by poor living and neighbourhood conditions, less stable home environments, as well as lower levels of education and health care. During disasters, lower income families and children suffer disproportionately, both because they are frequently the hardest hit but also because they have fewer resources with which to cope. The article emphasises not only the importance of understanding the vulnerability of children within a broader family context, but a continuing requirement for public health and emergency planners to integrate more fully the diverse needs of children and families into emergency preparedness policies and plans.

  18. Linguistic Masking Release in School-Age Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed if 6- to 8-year-old children benefit from a language mismatch between target and masker speech for sentence recognition in a 2-talker masker. Method English sentence recognition was evaluated for English monolingual children (ages 6–8 years, n = 15) and adults (n = 15) in an English 2-talker and a Spanish 2-talker masker. A regression analysis with subject as a random variable was used to test the fixed effect of listener group and masker language and the interaction of these two effects. Results Thresholds were approximately 5 dB higher for children than for adults in both maskers. However, children and adults benefited to the same degree from a mismatch between the target and masker language with approximately 3 dB lower thresholds in the Spanish than the English masker. Conclusions Results suggest that children are able to take advantage of linguistic differences between English and Spanish speech maskers to the same degree as adults. Yet, overall worse performance for children may indicate general cognitive immaturity compared with adults, perhaps causing children to be less efficient when combining glimpses of degraded speech information into a meaningful sentence. PMID:26974870

  19. Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA) experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature (< -2.0 SD) and a growth velocity < 25th percentile for their age, and should continue until final height (a growth velocity below 2 cm/year or a bone age of > 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys) is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group

  20. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  1. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  2. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children under 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Luna, R; Alter-Molchadsky, N; Cardenas-Cardos, R; Martínez-Guerra, G

    1996-05-01

    This is a retrospective study of 55 children under the age of 2 years diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). They were classified according to age and organ function and dysfunction following Lahey's criteria. The studied population was divided into four groups by age of diagnosis (0-6, 7-12, 13-18, and 19-24 months). Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in outcome between age groups, although the population under 6 months had a 81.3% fatality rate. The presence of organ dysfunction was a major cause of death in all age groups, being statistically significant in outcome (P > 0.005) compared with patients without organ dysfunction. The presence of thrombocytopenia and/or respiratory dysfunction was also highly associated with a fatal outcome. In the surviving population, no second malignancies have been reported. The late secondary effects of therapy include endocrine, orofacial, and osseous pathologies.

  3. [Clinical diagnostics of ADHD in preschool-aged children].

    PubMed

    Merkt, Julia; Petermann, Franz

    2015-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence and has many negative consequences for both the child and the family. Early identification of children with ADHD would be helpful for the prevention of long-term consequences. This review appraises questionnaires and clinical interviews that can be used for the diagnosis of ADHD in preschool-aged children (3-5 years). We compare and discuss both German and international methods. The role of questionnaires and clinical interviews in the diagnostic process of ADHD is discussed.

  4. Multitasking During Degraded Speech Recognition in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Ward, Kristina M; Brehm, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children's multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children's accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children's dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children's proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition.

  5. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable.

  6. Age at implantation and auditory memory in cochlear implanted children.

    PubMed

    Mikic, B; Miric, D; Nikolic-Mikic, M; Ostojic, S; Asanovic, M

    2014-05-01

    Early cochlear implantation, before the age of 3 years, provides the best outcome regarding listening, speech, cognition an memory due to maximal central nervous system plasticity. Intensive postoperative training improves not only auditory performance and language, but affects auditory memory as well. The aim of this study was to discover if the age at implantation affects auditory memory function in cochlear implanted children. A total of 50 cochlear implanted children aged 4 to 8 years were enrolled in this study: early implanted (1-3y) n = 27 and late implanted (4-6y) n = 23. Two types of memory tests were used: Immediate Verbal Memory Test and Forward and Backward Digit Span Test. Early implanted children performed better on both verbal and numeric tasks of auditory memory. The difference was statistically significant, especially on the complex tasks. Early cochlear implantation, before the age of 3 years, significantly improve auditory memory and contribute to better cognitive and education outcomes.

  7. Infant temperament and anxious symptoms in school age children.

    PubMed

    Kagan, J; Snidman, N; Zentner, M; Peterson, E

    1999-01-01

    A group of 164 children from different infant temperament categories were seen at 7 years of age for a laboratory battery that included behavioral and physiological measurements. The major results indicated that children who had been classified as high reactive infants at 4 months of age, compared with infants classified as low reactive, (a) were more vulnerable to the development of anxious symptoms at age 7 years, (b) were more subdued in their interactions with a female examiner, (c) made fewer errors on a task requiring inhibition of a reflex, and (d) were more reflective. Further, the high reactives who developed anxious symptoms differed from the high reactives without anxious symptoms with respect to fearful behavior in the second year and, at age 7 years, higher diastolic blood pressure, a narrower facial skeleton, and greater magnitude of cooling of the temperature of the fingertips to cognitive challenge. Finally, variation in magnitude of interference to fearful or aggressive pictures on a modified Stroop procedure failed to differentiate anxious from nonanxious or high from low reactive children.

  8. Upper Airway Vibration Perception in School-Aged Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Ignacio E.; Kim, Ji Young; Cornaglia, Mary Anne; Traylor, Joel; Samuel, George J.; McDonough, Joseph M.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Children with the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have impaired upper airway two-point discrimination compared to controls. In addition, blunted vibration threshold detection (VT) in the palate has been recognized in adults with OSA, but has not been studied in children. Both findings are indicative of a defect in the afferent limb of the upper airway dilator reflex that could prevent upper airway dilation secondary to airway loading, resulting in airway collapse. We hypothesized that children with OSA have impaired palate VT compared to controls, and that this improves after OSA treatment. Methods: Case-control study. Children with OSA and healthy non-snoring controls underwent polysomnography and palate VT measurements. Children with OSA were retested after adenotonsillectomy. Results: 29 children with OSA (median [interquartile range] age = 9.5 [7.5–12.6] years, obstructive apnea-hypopnea index [OAHI] = 11.3 [5.7–19.5] events/h, BMI z = 1.8 [1.3–2.1]) and 32 controls (age = 11.2 [9.3–13.5] years, P = 0.1; OAHI = 0.5 [0.1–0.7] events/h, P < 0.001; BMI z = 1 [0.3–1.7], P = 0.004) were tested. OSA palate VT (1.0 [0.8–1.5] vibration units) was similar to that of controls (1 [0.8–1.3], P = 0.37). 20 children with OSA were retested 4.4 (3.2–7.1) months after treatment. OAHI decreased from 13.1 (5.8–19) to 0.6 (0.2–2.5) events per hour (P < 0.001) postoperatively, but palate VT did not change (before = 1 [0.7–1.5], after = 1.2 [0.8–1.4], P = 0.37). Conclusions: Children with OSA and controls have similar palate VT. Unlike in adults, palate VT does not seem to be affected by childhood OSA. Citation: Tapia IE, Kim JY, Cornaglia MA, Traylor J, Samuel GJ, McDonough JM, Marcus CL. Upper airway vibration perception in school-aged children with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2016;39(9):1647–1652. PMID:27253764

  9. Lipreading in School-Age Children: The Roles of Age, Hearing Status, and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Hale, Sandra; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study addressed three research questions: Does lipreading improve between the ages of 7 and 14 years? Does hearing loss affect the development of lipreading? How do individual differences in lipreading relate to other abilities? Method: Forty children with normal hearing (NH) and 24 with hearing loss (HL) were tested using 4…

  10. Advancing Age, Advantaged Youth: Parental Age and the Transmission of Resources to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala Carr; Carini, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we identify parental age as influential in the parental provision of economic resources, social capital and cultural capital to adolescents, as well as in parental educational expectations for their children. At the bivariate level, the relationship is curvilinear, suggesting that…

  11. Reading and coherent motion perception in school age children.

    PubMed

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-07-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium difficulty reading level. The coherent motion perception threshold is determined according to the adaptive psychophysical protocol based on a four-alternative, forced-choice procedure. Three different dot velocities: 2, 5, and 8 deg/s were used for both assemblies of coherent or randomly moving dots. Reading rate score test results exhibit a wide dispersion across all age groups, so much so that the outlier data overlap, for both the 8 and 18-year-old student-participant age groups. Latvian children's reading fluency developmental trajectories reach maturation at 12-13 years of age. After the age of 13, reading rate scores increase slowly; however, the linear regression slope is different from zero and positive: F(1, 827) = 45.3; p < 0.0001. One hundred eighty-one student-participants having results below the 10th percentile were classified as weak readers in our study group. The reading fluency developmental trajectory of this particular group of student-participants does not exhibit any statistically significant saturation until the age of 18 years old. Coherent motion detection thresholds decrease with age and do not reach saturation. Tests with slower moving dots (2 deg/s) yield results that exhibit significant differences between strong and weak readers.

  12. Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children.

    PubMed

    Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake

    2014-09-01

    We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood.

  13. OTC Cough and Cold Products: Not for Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cold Products: Not For Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... and cold products for infants and children under 2 years of age? A. FDA strongly recommends that ...

  14. Tacrolimus ointment: utilization patterns in children under age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Housman, Tamara Salam; Norton, Amy B; Feldman, Steven R; Fleischer, Alan B; Simpson, Eric L; Hanifin, Jon M; Antaya, Richard J

    2004-07-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common eczematous skin condition; as many as 10-17 percent of all children are affected, and 35-60 percent of affected patients manifest symptoms manifest during the first year of life. Treatment principles for AD in young children involve conservative measures such as avoidance of hot water and environmental irritants, combined with liberal use of emollients after bathing. Low potency topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the current standard of therapy for AD in young children, reserving mid- and high-potency TCS for severe disease. However, complications of long-term use of TCS include skin atrophy, stria formation, telangiectasia, hypopigmentation, secondary infections, steroid acne, allergic contact dermatitis, and miliaria. The pediatric population is also at increased risk for systemic absorption because of their high ratio of skin surface to body mass. Systemic absorption may result in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression and ultimately growth retardation. Although most topical and systemic corticosteroids are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in children less than 2 years of age, conservative treatment often fails in this age group and frequently patients are treated with TCS, antibiotics, and antihistamines.

  15. Age-related differences in perceptuomotor procedural learning in children.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Caroline; Catale, Corinne; Schmitz, Xavier; Quertemont, Etienne; Meulemans, Thierry

    2013-10-01

    Procedural learning is generally considered to proceed in a series of phases, with cognitive resources playing an important role during the initial step. From a developmental perspective, little is known about the development of procedural learning or the role played by explicit cognitive processes during learning. The main objectives of this study were (a) to determine whether procedural learning performance improves with age by comparing groups of 7-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults and (b) to investigate the role played by executive functions during the acquisition in these three age groups. The 76 participants were assessed on a computerized adaptation of the mirror tracing paradigm. Results revealed that the youngest children had more difficulty in adapting to the task (they were slower and committed more errors at the beginning of the learning process) than 10-year-olds, but despite this age effect observed at the outset, all children improved performance across trials and transferred their skill to a different figure as well as adults. Correlational analyses showed that inhibition abilities play a key role in the performance of 10-year-olds and adults at the beginning of the learning but not in that of 7-year-olds. Overall, our results suggest that the age-related differences observed in our procedural learning task are at least partly due to the differential involvement of inhibition abilities, which may facilitate learning (so long as they are sufficiently developed) during the initial steps of the learning process; however, they would not be a necessary condition for skill learning to occur.

  16. Optimizing Population Screening of Bullying in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…

  17. Touch Inventory for Elementary-School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Royeen, C B; Fortune, J C

    1990-02-01

    The syndrome of tactile defensiveness, first described by Ayres in 1964, has undergone continued study as well as related theory development. No standardized assessment for tactile defensiveness, however, currently exists. This paper presents a 26-item screening scale, the Touch Inventory for Elementary-School-Aged Children (TIE), as well as its psychometric characteristics. Normative data and precautions for proper use of the TIE are also given.

  18. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  19. Sleep Patterns of School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 32 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared to those of 32 typically developing age- and gender-matched children, using parent survey and one week of diary and actigraphic monitoring. Parents of children with AS/HFA more commonly reported that their children had difficulty…

  20. "Minimal" High-Frequency Hearing Loss and School-Age Children: Speech Recognition in a Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carole E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study 12 children (ages 6-14) with minimal high frequency hearing loss, 12 typical children, and 12 typical young adults (ages 18-28) found the typical children had higher consonant identification scores in quiet than the children with hearing loss, but the performances did not differ in noise. Vowel identification scores did not differ in noise…

  1. Speaking Rate Characteristics of Elementary-School-Aged Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Kenneth J.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. Method: 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter…

  2. Age and Ethnic Variation in Children's Thinking about the Nature of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2004-01-01

    A content analysis of interviews with an ethnically diverse group of 202 children aged 6 to 10 describes what children think racism is, and examines associations between age, ethnicity, and children's thinking about racism. Children's narratives capture many dimensions of racism, including stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and ethnic…

  3. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age 19. (a) Basis. This... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section... standard is the higher of— (i) 133 percent FPL for the applicable family size; or (ii) For infants...

  4. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age 19. (a) Basis. This... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section... standard is the higher of— (i) 133 percent FPL for the applicable family size; or (ii) For infants...

  5. The Effects of Age, Gender and Language on Children's Singing Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Literature on children's singing development is largely skewed towards findings based on English-speaking children. The present study aims to fill the gap in research through an investigation of the effects of age, gender and language on the singing competency of Cantonese-speaking children. One hundred and twenty children aged 7 and 9 years…

  6. Media Use in School-Aged Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    This policy statement focuses on children and adolescents 5 through 18 years of age. Research suggests both benefits and risks of media use for the health of children and teenagers. Benefits include exposure to new ideas and knowledge acquisition, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health-promotion messages and information. Risks include negative health effects on weight and sleep; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. Parents face challenges in monitoring their children's and their own media use and in serving as positive role models. In this new era, evidence regarding healthy media use does not support a one-size-fits-all approach. Parents and pediatricians can work together to develop a Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that considers their children's developmental stages to individualize an appropriate balance for media time and consistent rules about media use, to mentor their children, to set boundaries for accessing content and displaying personal information, and to implement open family communication about media.

  7. 1,4-Dibromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dibromobenzene ; CASRN 106 - 37 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  8. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 106 - 46 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  9. 1,4-Dioxane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 005 - F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,4 - Dioxane ( CAS No . 123 - 91 - 1 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 2010 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been rev

  10. 1,4-Dithiane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dithiane ; CASRN 505 - 29 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  11. 36 CFR 1280.6 - Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conduct on NARA Property? General Information on Using Nara Facilities § 1280.6 Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities? Children under the age of 14 will be admitted to NARA facilities only if... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can children under the age...

  12. Socioemotional Correlates of Creative Potential in Preschool Age Children: Thinking beyond Student Academic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Marissa L.; Wright, Cheryl; Brehl, Beverly; Black, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of creative potential in preschool children, with a focus on children's social behavior. Ninety-four preschool-aged children, their mothers, and teachers participated in the study. Mothers completed a questionnaire measure of children's shyness, and teachers reported on children's levels of shyness, prosocial…

  13. Preparing Books for Children from Birth to Age Six: The Approach of Appropriateness for the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çer, Ekran

    2016-01-01

    Children's books must primarily be appropriate for children so that they could be a significant stimulus in children's lives. In other words, it is essential that the concepts child reality, literary criteria and artist sensitivity be reflected in books in order to create children's books. From birth to age 6, the fact that children's books are…

  14. Rehabilitation of socially withdrawn preschool children through mixed-age and same-age socialization.

    PubMed

    Furman, W; Rahe, D F; Hartup, W W

    1979-12-01

    24 socially withdrawn preschool children were located through classroom observations and assigned to 3 conditions: (a) socialization with a younger child during 10 play sessions, (b) socialization with an age mate during a similar series of sessions, and (c) no treatment. The socialization sessions, particularly those with a younger partner, were found to increase the sociability of the withdrawn children in their classrooms. Significant increases occurred mainly in the rate with which positive social reinforcement was emitted. Generally, the results support a leadership deficit theory of social isolation. Possible mechanisms responsible for the observed changes are discussed.

  15. Age and sex differences in object control skills by children ages 5 to 14.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Stephen A; Angell, Rose M; Mason, Craig A

    2012-02-01

    Object control skills provide children the tools to be physically active-a major societal priority. At the fundamental movement level, object control skills form the foundation of further sports skill development. The purpose of this study was to examine children's (ages 5 to 14 years, Grades K-8) development of four key object control skills: catching, throwing, kicking, and striking. 186 children were tested on selected items from the Object Control Subtest of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, using a cross-sectional and correlational design. As anticipated, significant differences were found for age on all four skills. These improvements were characterized by early, rapid gains at ages 9 to 10, beyond which development occurred at a slower rate for catching, throwing, and kicking; striking development continued at a steady rate to age 14 years. Contrary to previous findings, no overall sex differences were found for catching or kicking. Overall sex differences favoring boys were observed for throwing and striking. Implications for evolutionary contributions to throwing and striking were discussed.

  16. Psychomotor development in Argentinean children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Pascucci, María Cecilia; Krupitzky, Sara; Kelmansky, Diana; Bianco, Ana; Martínez, Elena; Tibaldi, Fabián; Cameron, Noel

    2002-01-01

    In Argentina, there is no information on ages of attainment of developmental milestones and very few data about environmental factors that influence them. A national survey on the psychomotor development of children under 6 years of age was carried out with the help of 129 paediatricians. Logistic regression was applied to a final sample of 3573 healthy, normal children in order to estimate selected centiles (25th, 50th, 75th and 90th), together with their respective confidence intervals, of the ages of attainment of 78 developmental items belonging to the following areas: personal-social (18 items), fine motor (19), language (18) and gross motor (23). The 50th centile obtained for each of the 43 comparable items was compared with those obtained in previously standardised tests: DDST, Denver II, Bayley and Chilean scales. Neither significant nor systematic differences were found between our results and those described in the tests used for comparison. Multiple logistic regressions showed that social class, maternal education and sex (female) were associated with earlier attainment of some selected developmental items, achieved at ages later than 1 year. Selected items achieved before the first year of life were not affected by any of the independent environmental variables studied. The information is useful in helping paediatricians in their daily practice for surveillance of development, as baseline information for epidemiological studies on development in our country and for cross-cultural analysis.

  17. Alterations in neural connectivity in preterm children at school age.

    PubMed

    Gozzo, Yeisid; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Katz, Karol H; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Schneider, Karen C; Peterson, Bradley S; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Makuch, Robert W; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2009-11-01

    Converging data suggest recovery from injury in the preterm brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that cerebral connectivity involving Wernicke's area and other important cortical language regions would differ between preterm (PT) and term (T) control school age children during performance of an auditory language task. Fifty-four PT children (600-1250 g birth weight) and 24 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments including: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC-III), the Peabody Individual Achievement Test - Revised (PIAT-R) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R) at 8 years of age. Neural activity was assessed for language processing and the data were evaluated for connectivity and correlations to cognitive outcomes. We found that PT subjects scored significantly lower on all components of the WISC-III (p<0.009), the PIAT-R Reading Comprehension test (p=0.013), and the PPVT-R (p=0.001) compared to term subjects. Connectivity analyses revealed significantly stronger neural circuits in PT children between Wernicke's area and the right inferior frontal gyrus (R IFG, Broca's area homologue) and both the left and the right supramarginal gyri (SMG) components of the inferior parietal lobules (page differently than T controls; these alterations may represent a delay in maturation of neural networks or the engagement of alternate circuits for language processing.

  18. Alterations in neural connectivity in preterm children at school age

    PubMed Central

    Gozzo, Yeisid; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Katz, Karol H.; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Schneider, Karen C.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Makuch, Robert W.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Converging data suggest recovery from injury in the preterm brain. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that cerebral connectivity involving Wernicke’s area and other important cortical language regions would differ between preterm (PT) and term (T) control school age children during performance of an auditory language task. Fifty-four PT children (600 – 1250 g birth weight) and 24 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments including: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC - III), the Peabody Individual Achievement Test - Revised (PIAT-R) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT- R) at 8 years of age. Neural activity was assessed for language processing and the data were evaluated for connectivity and correlations to cognitive outcomes. We found PT subjects scored significantly lower on all components of the WISC - III (p < 0.009), the PIAT- R reading comprehension test (p = 0.013), and the PPVT-R (p = 0.001) compared to term subjects. Connectivity analyses revealed significantly stronger neural circuits in PT children between Wernicke’s area and the right inferior frontal gyrus (R IFG, Broca’s area homologue) and both the left and the right supramarginal gyri (SMG) components of the inferior parietal lobules (p ≤ 0.02 for all). We conclude that PT subjects employ neural systems for auditory language function at school age differently than T controls; these alterations may represent a delay in maturation of neural networks or the engagement of alternate circuits for language processing. PMID:19560547

  19. Performance of weld repairs on service-aged 2{1/4}Cr-1Mo girth weldments utilizing conventional postweld heat treatment and temper-bead repair techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gandy, D.W.; Viswanathan, R.; Findlan, S.J.

    1996-06-01

    Weld repair of service-damaged piping and header girth weldments has generated considerable interest within the fossil power plant arena over the past few years. The interest has stemmed in part from recent revisions to the National Board Inspection Code regarding welding repair of Cr-Mo steels and from the fact that many domestic utility power plants are nearing the end of their projected design life. EPRI is addressing a number of concerns expressed by utilities surrounding weld repair under a joint EPRI/utility program RP3484-01. The program is focused on procuring service-aged piping and header girth weldments, quantifying the level of damage associated with those weldments, performing weld repairs within the girth weldment region, testing the repair weldment mechanically and metallurgically, and comparing the increase or decrease in remaining life associated with the weld repair. This paper discusses four industry case histories along with two piping girth weld repairs performed under the EPRI program: (1) a repair performed with conventional postweld heat treatment and (2) a repair performed employing temper-bead welding repair technology.

  20. Dental age assessment of Western Saudi children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alshihri, Amin M.; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the London Atlas of Human Tooth Development and Eruption for age estimation in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents (aged 2–20 years), for forensic odontology application. Materials and methods This cross-sectional survey analyzed orthopantomograms (OPGs) of the complete dentition (including root development) to estimate the deviation from chronological age. Each OPG was de-identified and analyzed individually and classified into age-groups by the lead author, using the methods of the Atlas of Tooth Development. Results OPGs from a total of 252 patients [110 (44%) males, 142 (56%) females] aged 2–20 years (24–240 months) were examined in this study. The average estimated and chronological ages of subjects differed significantly p < 0.001 (143 ± 55.4 vs. 145 ± 57.9 months). Most (65.5%) estimates were within 12 months of subjects’ chronological ages; 19% overestimated and 15.5% underestimated age by >12 months. Conclusion This study, conducted in a sub-population of different origin than the UK sample used for the development of the London Atlas, identified variation in age estimates that may have significant impacts on results. The establishment of a composite international repository of atlas-based data for diverse ethnic sub-populations would be of great value to clinicians across the globe. PMID:26236126

  1. Fluency remediation in dyslexic children: does age make a difference?

    PubMed

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Brenbati, Federica; Donini, Roberta

    2008-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether older dyslexic children may obtain fewer gains on fluency and accuracy with respect to their younger peers after specific remediation.Changes in accuracy and fluency of a group of children with a diagnosis of dyslexia attending third and fourth grades were compared with those obtained by a group of children attending the sixth, seventh or eighth grade in two different treatments, one based on the Balance model (Bakker) and the second based on the automatization of syllable recognition (sublexical).Among all comparisons between the gains in accuracy and fluency obtained by the two groups, only the younger group in the sublexical treatment obtained a statistically significant gain with respect to their older peers' accuracy in reading words.These outcomes suggest that, at least for the chronological ages and types of treatments considered in this study, older children with dyslexia may obtain comparable gains to their younger peers, suggesting that 'it is never too late' to remediate reading fluency and accuracy.

  2. Relations between Working Memory and Emergent Writing among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskyn, Maureen; Tzoneva, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of the working memory system that underlies age differences of young, preschool-aged children. Measures of working memory, short-term memory, articulation speed, general intelligence, and writing were administered to 166 Canadian preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years. Findings generally support the hypothesis…

  3. Bone Age Assessment of Children using a Digital Hand Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Sayre, James; Pospiech-Kurkowska, Sylwia; Huang, H.K

    2007-01-01

    We have developed an automated method to assess bone age of children using a digital hand atlas. The hand Atlas consists of two components. The first component is a database which is comprised of a collection of 1,400 digitized left hand radiographs from evenly distributed normally developed children of Caucasian (CA), Asian (AS), African-American (AA) and Hispanic (HI) origin, male (M) and female (F), ranged from 1 to 18 year old; and relevant patient demographic data along with pediatric radiologists' readings of each radiograph. This data is separate into eight categories: CAM, CAF, AAM, AAF, HIM, HIF, ASM, and ASF. In addition, CAM, AAM, HIM, and ASM are combined as one male category; and CAF, AAF, HIF, and ASF are combined as one female category. The male and female are further combined as the F & M category. The second component is a computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) module to assess a child bone age based on the collected data. The CAD method is derived from features extracted from seven regions of interest (ROIs): the carpal bone ROI, and six phanlangeal PROIs. The PROIs are six areas including the distal and middle regions of three middle fingers. These features were used to train the eleven category fuzzy classifiers: one for each race and gender, one for the female, one male, and one F & M, to assess the bone age of a child. The digital hand atlas is being integrated with a PACS for validation of clinical use. PMID:17387000

  4. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2014-11-07

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4-15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  5. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  6. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Nutritional Status in School-age Children from Rural Communities in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children's health. Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. Methodology A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height-for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Results Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7–14 years, mean 9.76±1.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children >10 years of age were generally more infected than 7–10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (p<0.001). Stunting was observed in 5.6% of children and it was associated with increasing age. Also, 2.2% of studied children were thin, 1.3% underweight and 2.2% had anemia. Moderate-to-heavy infections and polyparasitism were significantly associated with decreased values in WAZ and marginally associated with decreased values in HAZ. Conclusions STH infections remain a public health concern in Honduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite

  7. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  8. School-Age Children of Fathers with Substance Use Disorder: Are They a High Risk Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental substance use and the increased risk among school-age children to developing psychosocial problems. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 from urban areas in Israel. The following variables were assessed by four self-report questionnaires administered to the children: …

  9. Writing and Drawing Performance of School Age Children: Is There Any Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonoti, Fotini; Vlachos, Filippos; Metallidou, Panagiota

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate possible relationships between writing and drawing performance of school-aged children, in order to compare the two skills at the within-individual level. The sample consisted of 182 right- and left-handed children, aged 8 to 12 years. Children were examined by the Greek adaptation of the Luria-Nebraska…

  10. Children's Expressive Drawing Strategies: The Effects of Mood, Age and Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misalidi, Plousia; Bonoti, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether the impact of mood state on children's choice of expressive strategies (literal and non-literal content and abstract) varies as a function of mood valence, age and topic to be drawn. The sample (N?=?96) consisted of four groups of children aged 5, 7, 9 and 11years, respectively. Half of the children in each…

  11. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  12. Syllable-Timed Speech Treatment for School-Age Children Who Stutter: A Phase I Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Cheryl; O'Brian, Sue; Harrison, Elisabeth; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical trial determined the outcomes of a simple syllable-timed speech (STS) treatment for school-age children who stutter. Method: Participants were 10 children, ages 6-11 years, who stutter. Treatment involved training the children and their parents to use STS at near normal speech rates. The technique was practiced in the clinic…

  13. Recognition of Facial Expressions of Mixed Emotions in School-Age Children Exposed to Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aims at investigating the effects of terrorism on children's ability to recognize emotions. A sample of 101 exposed and 102 nonexposed children (mean age = 11 years), balanced for age and gender, were assessed 20 months after a terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia. Two trials controlled for children's ability to match a facial…

  14. Functional Decline in Children Undergoing Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy after Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bruce A.; Johnson, Barbara A.; Shuckra, Amy L.; D'Astous, Jacques L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare function and gait in a group of children older than most children who received selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) with age- and function-matched peers who received either orthopedic surgery or no surgical intervention. Method: A retrospective study examined ambulatory children with diplegic cerebral palsy, aged between 10 years and…

  15. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  16. Development of Non-Verbal Intellectual Capacity in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…

  17. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups.

  18. Humor processing in children: influence of temperament, age and IQ.

    PubMed

    Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-11-01

    Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection

  19. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...

  20. Semantic Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Children: Effects of Age and Language Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Li; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Fiestas, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study examines semantic development in 60 Spanish-English bilingual children, ages 7 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months, who differed orthogonally in age (younger, older) and language experience (HEE: higher English experience, HSE: higher Spanish experience). Children produced three associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents. Older children produced more semantic responses and code-switched more often from Spanish to English than younger children. Within each group, children demonstrated better performance in the more frequently used than the less used language. The HEE children outperformed the HSE children in English and the HSE children outperformed the HEE children in Spanish. These effects of age and language experience are consistent with predictions of the Revised Hierarchical Model of bilingual lexical organization. PMID:23163772

  1. Semantic development in Spanish-English bilingual children: effects of age and language experience.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Li; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D; Fiestas, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study examines semantic development in 60 Spanish-English bilingual children, ages 7 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months, who differed orthogonally in age (younger, older) and language experience (higher English experience [HEE], higher Spanish experience [HSE]). Children produced 3 associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents. Older children produced more semantic responses and code switched more often from Spanish to English than younger children. Within each group, children demonstrated better performance in the more frequently used than the less used language. The HEE children outperformed the HSE children in English and the HSE children outperformed the HEE children in Spanish. These effects of age and language experience are consistent with predictions of the revised hierarchical model of bilingual lexical organization.

  2. Re-Examining the Associations between Family Backgrounds and Children's Cognitive Developments in Early Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Yu-Kang; Law, Graham R.

    2010-01-01

    A recent English study found that children from poor families who did well in cognitive tests at age three are expected to be overtaken in the cognitive test by the age of seven by children from rich families who did poorly in cognitive tests at age three. The conclusion was that family background seems to have a dominant influence on a child's…

  3. 78 FR 9765 - Assigning New Social Security Numbers (SSN) for Children Age 13 and Under

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION Assigning New Social Security Numbers (SSN) for Children Age 13 and Under AGENCY: Social Security... assigning new SSNs to children age 13 and under. We are requesting information from the public to ensure... an SSN for a child age 13 and under. DATES: To ensure that your comments are considered, we...

  4. Young Children: Active Learners in a Technological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, June L., Ed.; Shade, Daniel D., Ed.

    This book addresses the issues of appropriate use of computers with young children and how children and early childhood educators interact with the computer in early childhood settings. Part 1, "Young Children as Active Learners," contains chapter 1: "Listen to the Children: Observing Young Children's Discoveries with the…

  5. Diverse Family Types and Out-Of-School Learning Time of Young School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    =Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological parent families. In all four cases, however, the differentials are explained by the presence of siblings age 18+, lower levels of family income, or younger maternal age. PMID:21532970

  6. Children's moral judgments and moral emotions following exclusion of children with disabilities: relations with inclusive education, age, and contact intensity.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-03-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N=351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about social exclusion of children with disabilities. Children also reported on their level of sympathy towards children with disabilities and their contact intensity with children with disabilities. Overall, children condemned disability-based exclusion, attributed few positive emotions to excluder targets, and expressed high sympathy for children with disabilities, independent of age and educational setting. However, younger children from inclusive classrooms exhibited more moral judgments and moral emotions than younger children from noninclusive classrooms. Moreover, children who expressed high sympathy towards children with disabilities were more likely to report frequent contact with children with disabilities. The findings extend existing research on social exclusion by examining disability-based exclusion and are discussed with respect to developmental research on social and moral judgments and emotions following children's inclusion and exclusion decisions.

  7. Etiology of Acute Otitis Media in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Melissa K.; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Cohen, Robert; Madhi, Shabir A.; Rosenblüt, Andrés; Macias Parra, Mercedes; Al-Mazrou, Khalid; Grevers, Gerhard; Lopez, Pio; Naranjo, Laura; Pumarola, Felix; Sonsuwan, Nuntigar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is an important cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. However, the relative importance of the well-known otopathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu), remains unclear because of a limited number of tympanocentesis-based studies that vary significantly in populations sampled, case definitions and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of results from 10 AOM etiology studies of similar design, the protocols of which were derived from a common protocol and conducted in children 3 months to 5 years of age in different countries. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for within-study correlations. Results: The majority, 55.5% (95% confidence interval: 47.0%–65.7%) of 1124 AOM episodes, were bacterial pathogen positive: 29.1% (24.8%–34.1%) yielded Hflu and 23.6% (19.0%–29.2%) Spn. Proportions of Hflu and Spn were higher and lower, respectively, in heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine–vaccinated children. Hflu and Spn were each isolated from 20% to 35% of children in every 1-year age range. Hflu was less likely to be isolated from first (vs. subsequent) episodes [relative risk (RR): 0.71 (0.60–0.84)]. Spn was more often isolated from sporadic (vs. recurrent) cases [RR: 0.76 (0.61–0.97)]; the opposite was true for Hflu [RR: 1.4 (1.00–1.96)]. Spn cases were more likely to present with severe (vs. mild) symptoms [RR: 1.42 (1.01–2.01)] and Hflu cases with severe tympanic membrane inflammation [RR: 1.35 (1.06–1.71)]. Conclusions: Spn and Hflu remain the leading otopathogens in all populations examined. While associated with overlapping symptoms and severity, they exhibit some differences in their likelihood to cause disease in specific subpopulations. PMID:27918383

  8. Parental Predictors of Children's Shame and Guilt at Age 6 in a Multimethod, Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Parisette-Sparks, Alyssa; Bufferd, Sara J; Klein, Daniel N

    2015-11-04

    Shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that begin to develop early in life and are associated with various forms of psychopathology. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to these emotions in young children. Specifically, no longitudinal studies to date have examined a range of parent factors that shape the expression of children's shame and guilt. The current multimethod, longitudinal study sought to determine whether parenting style, parental psychopathology, and parents' marital satisfaction assessed when children were age 3 predict expressions of shame and guilt in children at age 6. A large community sample of families (N = 446; 87.4% Caucasian) with 3-year-old children (45.7% female) was recruited through commercial mailing lists. Parent variables were assessed when children were age 3 with mother- and father-report questionnaires and a diagnostic interview. Children's expressions of shame and guilt were observed in the laboratory at age 6. Fathers', but not mothers', history of depression and permissive parenting assessed when children were age 3 predicted children's expressions of shame and guilt when children were age 6; parents' marital dissatisfaction also predicted children's shame and guilt. These findings suggest that parents, and fathers in particular, contribute to expressions of self-conscious emotions in children. These data on emotional development may be useful for better characterizing the risk and developmental pathways of psychopathology.

  9. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  10. The Effects of the Parenting Styles on Social Skills of Children Aged 5-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kol, Suat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the parenting styles on social skills of children aged 5-6. The problem sentence of the research is; Do the parenting styles' have any effects on social skills of children aged 5-6?. The sub-problems of the research are in the form as; Does the social skills of children aged 5-6 differs from…

  11. Cortisol Function Among Early School-aged Homeless Children

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, J. J.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Herbers, Janette E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Masten, Ann S.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Homelessness represents a context of extreme poverty and risk for child development. This study compared the relative influence of two classes of risk in the context of homelessness. Levels of socioeconomic resource-related risk and negative lifetime events were examined with respect to morning cortisol levels and cortisol response to a set of cognitive tasks. Participants were 66 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years staying in an emergency shelter for families. Adversities largely reflecting family level negative life events predicted higher levels of morning cortisol and differences in initial level and change over the course of the session of cognitive tasks. In contrast, a socioeconomic cumulative risk score was not associated with morning or session-related differences in cortisol. PMID:20022181

  12. Behavior Management for School Aged Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Haack, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Behavior management treatments are the most commonly used nonpharmacological approaches for treating ADHD and associated impairments. This review focuses on behavioral parent training interventions for school age children in the home setting and adjunctive treatments developed to extend effects across settings. The underlying theoretical basis and content of these interventions are described. Empirical support includes numerous randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses showing positive effects of these interventions on child compliance, ADHD symptoms and impairments, parent-child interactions, parenting and parenting stress. These studies support categorization of behavior management treatment as a well-established, evidence-based treatment for ADHD. Factors for consideration in clinical decision-making and future directions for research are provided. PMID:25220083

  13. Humor and competence in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Masten, A S

    1986-04-01

    Multiple aspects of humor were evaluated in children between the ages of 10 and 14 and related to several areas of competence manifested at school. Humor measures assessed appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production, while competence measures included teacher ratings of classroom behavior, peer reputation, and achievement. Humor was related to competence in several ways consistent with previous theory and research: (1) through the manifestation of intellectual ability both in humor behaviors and in competent functioning; (2) through the role of mastery motivation enhancing both types of functioning; and (3) through peer relations, resulting from the effects of humor on peer acceptance or the effects of peer relations on humor behaviors. Ideas for further research relating humor to social competence, social cognition, and mastery motivation are discussed.

  14. Reflective Functioning in Parents of School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Jessica L.; St. John, H. Kate; Cho, Evelyn; Suchman, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Parental reflective functioning (RF) has garnered tremendous support as a predictor of secure attachment in infancy, though little work has examined RF among parents of older children. In this study, we used a high-risk community sample of parent–child dyads (N = 117) to explore whether parental RF comprises self- and child-focused factors, whether parental RF is associated with parent and child attachment security, and whether parental RF mediates the association between parent and child attachment security. Results suggested that parental RF can be characterized as having both self- and child-focused components, and that child-focused parental RF is associated with child but not parent attachment security. Further, child-focused parental RF indirectly mediates the association between parent attachment avoidance and child attachment security. These findings extend previous work on parental RF to parents of school-age children and, in so doing, inform developmental models of attachment relationships in middle childhood. Discussion focuses on the importance of these findings in informing theory, prevention, clinical practice, and policy. PMID:26618938

  15. Multitasking During Degraded Speech Recognition in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kristina M.; Brehm, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children’s multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children’s accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children’s dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children’s proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition. PMID:28105890

  16. How race and age experiences shape young children's face processing abilities.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Luo, Lizhu; Pisacane, Antonella; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang

    2014-04-01

    Despite recent advances in research on race and age biases, the question of how race and age experiences combine to affect young children's face perception remains unexplored. To fill this gap, the current study tested two ethnicities of 3-year-old children using a combined cross-race/cross-age design. Caucasian children with and without older siblings and Mainland Chinese children without older siblings were tested for their ability to discriminate adult and child Caucasian faces as well as adult and child Asian faces in both upright and inverted orientations. Children of both ethnicities manifested an own-race bias, which was confined to adult faces, and an adult face bias, which was confined to own-race faces. Likewise, sibling experience affected Caucasian children's processing of own-race child faces, but this effect did not generalize to other-race faces. Results suggest that race and age information are represented at the same hierarchical level in young children's memory.

  17. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  18. Pattern of malignancies in children <15 years of age reported in Hadhramout Cancer Registry, Yemen between 2002 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jawass, Mazin A.; Al-Ezzi, Jalil I.; Gouth, Hanan S. Bin; Bahwal, Saleh A.; Bamatraf, Fawzia F.; Ba’amer, Abubakir A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the patterns of childhood cancers in Hadhramout Sector, Yemen between January 2002 and December 2014. Methods: This descriptive retrospective study was based on secondary data from Hadhramout Cancer Registry, Hadhramout, Yemen. All Yemeni children under age of 15 years, who were diagnosed with cancer were included. The International Childhood Cancer Classification system was used to categorize cancer types. Results: A total of 406 childhood cancers of both gender <15 years of age were reported. These represented 8.5% of all cases registered. The mean age was 7.34 ± 4.18 years. There were 240 males (59.1%) and 166 females (40.9%) with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Calculated incidence of cancer in children in this population is 1.9 per 100,000. The predominant age group was 5-9 years (35%) followed by 10-14 years (33.7%), and 0-4 years group (31%). The most common group of malignancies were hematological malignancies accounting for 47% of cases, followed by nervous system malignancies (15%). The most frequently reported cancer types were lymphoma (24%), leukemia (23%), carcinoma (13.1%), and central nervous system (CNS) tumors (11.6%). Conclusions: There is a lower frequency of childhood cancer in Hadhramout Sector when compared with developed countries. The most common cancers among children were lymphoma, leukemia, carcinoma, and CNS tumors. PMID:27146613

  19. Evaluation of dental and bone age in iron-deficient anemic children of South India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Haridas, Harish; Hunsigi, Prahlad; Farooq, Umar; Erugula, Sridhar R.; Ealla, Kranti K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Dental and bone age is very essential for the dental practitioner in planning treatments and is an extra source of information for the pediatrician, orthopedician, and endocrinologist. There are few published data regarding collation between dental age, bone age, and chronological age in iron-deficiency anemic children. This study has been undertaken to evaluate and compare dental age, bone age, and chronological age in children with iron-deficiency anemia. Materials and Methods: One hundred iron-deficiency anemic children were selected in the age group of 8–14 years. Chronological age of the child was recorded by asking birth date from parents or checking school records. Dental age was calculated by Demirjians method and bone age was evaluated using Bjork, Grave, and Brown's method. Unpaired student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were the two statistical tests applied to compare dental, bone, and chronological age. Results: Dental and bone age was significantly lower (P < 0.001) compared to chronological age. The correlation between the three ages was positive in both sexes. Conclusion: Dental and bone age retardation was a significant feature in our sample of 100 iron-deficient anemic children. Bone age and dental age are valuable parameters in assessing the overall growth of the child. Further studies are required to corroborate our findings. PMID:27891309

  20. Age-related changes in long-term average spectra of children's voices.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, Desmond; Welch, Graham Frederick

    2008-11-01

    This paper forms part of a larger study into the nature of singing development in children. The focus here is on an investigation of age-related changes in long-term average spectra (LTAS). Three hundred and twenty children in age groups 4-11 years learned a song. Each child was then digitally recorded singing alone. LTAS curves were calculated from the recordings of each voice and perceived age was estimated by a panel of independent judges. Progressive statistically significant changes were observed in the LTAS as a function of increasing age of the children. These took the form of increases in spectral energy in all frequencies below 5.75 kHz, with concomitant reductions of energy in frequency regions above this point. Increases with age were also found in overall intensity levels of the vocal products. Four experienced listeners audited the voice samples and made estimates of the children's ages. The level of accuracy of age-estimates was remarkably high for children in the youngest age groups, but was reduced with voice samples from older children. Maturation and developing competence of the vocal system, both in growth of lung capacity and at a laryngeal level, are implicated in the generation of age-related spectral changes. Perceived child singer age appears to be less closely related to spectral characteristics (as defined within LTAS) with increasing age of children.

  1. Child, Household, and Caregiver Characteristics Associated with Hospitalization for Influenza Among Children 6–59 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Young children are at increased risk of severe outcomes from influenza illness, including hospitalization. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for influenza-associated hospitalizations among children in US Emerging Infections Program sites. Methods: Cases were children 6–59 months of age hospitalized for laboratory-confirmed influenza infections during 2005–2008. Age- and zip-code-matched controls were enrolled. Data on child, caregiver and household characteristics were collected from parents and medical records. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for hospitalization. Results: We enrolled 290 (64%) of 454 eligible cases and 1089 (49%) of 2204 eligible controls. Risk for influenza hospitalization increased with maternal age <26 years [odds ratio (OR): 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–2.9]; household income below the poverty threshold (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4–3.6); smoking by >50% of household members (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4–6.6); lack of household influenza vaccination (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.5) and presence of chronic illnesses, including hematologic/oncologic (OR: 11.8, 95% CI: 4.5–31.0), pulmonary (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9–4.4) and neurologic (OR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6–9.2) conditions. Full influenza immunization decreased the risk among children 6–23 months of age (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.9) but not among those 24–59 months of age (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 0.8–3.0; P value for difference = 0.01). Conclusions: Chronic illnesses, young maternal age, poverty, household smoking and lack of household influenza vaccination increased the risk of influenza hospitalization. These characteristics may help providers to identify young children who are at greatest risk for severe outcomes from influenza illness. PMID:24642518

  2. Age-related parenting stress differences in mothers of children with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Macias, Michelle M; Saylor, Conway F; Rowe, Brandy P; Bell, Nancy L

    2003-12-01

    This study examined whether ages of child and parent were risk factors for general parenting stress and disability-specific stress in families of children with spina bifida. Parents of 64 children with spina bifida completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory, and measures of family support and resources. Scores of families with children under 6 years (preschool) versus 6- to 12-yr.-old children (school age) were compared, as were scores of mothers above or below Age 35. Parents of school-aged children reported significantly higher stress on the Concerns for the Child domain of the Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory. Mothers over 35 tended to report higher stress in the Concerns for the Child and Medical/Legal Concerns domains of the Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory. No associations with medical severity, socioeconomic status, family resources, or family support were detected. As the children age and disability-related differences become more apparent, the same level of functioning and severity of disability may be associated with additional parenting stress. Older mothers and those with school-age children may need more resources than current social support systems typically provide.

  3. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Dierckx, Floriane; Vanden Berghe, Lola; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2015-05-01

    The use of kinematics is recommended to quantitatively evaluate upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. Ninety-three healthy children, aged 3-12 years, participated in this study. Twenty-eight kinematic indices were computed from four tasks. Each task was performed with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-four of the 28 indices showed an improvement during childhood. Indeed, older children showed better upper limb movements. This study was the first to use a robotic device to show the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children.

  4. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  5. Psychiatric Outcomes at Age Seven for Very Preterm Children: Rates and Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treyvaud, Karli; Ure, Alexandra; Doyle, Lex W.; Lee, Katherine J.; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Uncertainty remains about the rate of specific psychiatric disorders and associated predictive factors for very preterm (VPT) children. The aims of this study were to document rates of psychiatric disorders in VPT children aged 7 years compared with term born children, and to examine potential predictive factors for psychiatric…

  6. Age of Entry to Kindergarten and Children's Academic Achievement and Socioemotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Education and Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Research Findings: Data on more than 900 children participating in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were analyzed to examine the effect of age of entry to kindergarten on children's functioning in early elementary school. Children's academic achievement and socioemotional development were…

  7. Primary School Attendance and Completion among Lower Secondary School Age Children in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    At the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000, governments pledged to achieve education for all by 2015. However, if current enrollment trends continue, the number of out-of-school children could increase from current levels. Greater focus is needed on lower secondary school age (13-16 years) children. These children are not included estimates of…

  8. Early Characteristics of Children with ASD Who Demonstrate Optimal Progress between Age Two and Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Emily; Barton, Marianne; Robins, Diana L.; Abrams, Danielle N.; Fein, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Although for many children, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability, a subset of children with ASD lose their diagnosis and show typical cognitive and adaptive abilities. The ages at which this transition can occur is not known, but it sometimes occurs quite early. Participants in the current study were 207 children with an ASD at…

  9. Evaluation of the Teaching of English to German Children of Pre-School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid-Schonbein, Gisela

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some reasons offered for the ease with which young children learn a second language. Children of kindergarten age can learn language in a playlike atmosphere in groups no larger than 10-12 children. Pronunciation is the outstanding skill, but comprehension and active speaking also show favorable results. (PJM)

  10. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  11. The Effects of Multi-Age Grouping on Young Children and Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Melanie K.; Green, Virginia P.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on the effects of multiage groupings (MAGs) in the primary grades supports their use and argues that children in MAGs perform as well academically as children in single-age groupings (SAGs) and develop better self-concept and school attitudes than children in SAGs. Expresses concerns over lack of training and support for…

  12. Determinants of After-School Programming for School-Age Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Joy P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the child and family characteristics that predict enrollment in after-school programming for school-age children of immigrant and nonimmigrant families. Although much is known about the beneficial effects of after-school programming for children and youths, the literature focused on immigrant children--the…

  13. An Examination of Dysfunctional Latency Age Children of Alcoholic Parents and Problems in Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehouse, Ellen R.; Richards, Tarpley

    1982-01-01

    Describes how parental functions essential to children's growth and development are damaged or destroyed by alcoholism and examines interpersonal problems of latency age children of alcoholic parents. Also describes therapist's problems in working with such children and offers recommendations for helping them work through faulty relationship…

  14. Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children with SLI: Semantic, Phonological, and Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Melinda; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current understanding of how children with specific language impairment (SLI) organize their mental lexicons. The study examined semantic and phonological priming in children with and without SLI. Method: Thirteen children (7;0-11;3 [years;months]) with SLI and 13 age-matched children…

  15. School-Age Follow-Up of Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Iyenger, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to examine differences in speech/language and written language skills between children with suspected childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and children with other speech-sound disorders at school age. Method: Ten children (7 males and 3 females) who were clinically diagnosed with CAS (CAS group) were…

  16. The Acquisition of Accusative Object Clitics by IA Children from China: Evidence of Early Age Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delcenserie, Audrey; Genesee, Fred

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared the performance of twenty-seven French-speaking internationally adopted (IA) children from China to that of twenty-seven monolingual non-adopted French-speaking children (CTL) matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status on a Clitic Elicitation task. The IA children omitted significantly more accusative object…

  17. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  18. Children's Books--1979. A List of Books for Preschool Through Junior High School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Virginia, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography is the sixteenth in a series of annual guides to current children's books. The 266 titles have been chosen as the best of about 2,000 children's books published in 1979, and are listed to help public and school librarians find useful and enjoyable works for children of preschool through junior high school ages. The…

  19. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  20. Expressed Emotion Displayed by the Mothers of Inhibited and Uninhibited Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raishevich, Natoshia; Kennedy, Susan J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, the Five Minute Speech Sample was used to assess the association between parent attitudes and children's behavioral inhibition in mothers of 120 behaviorally inhibited (BI) and 37 behaviorally uninhibited preschool-aged children. Mothers of BI children demonstrated significantly higher levels of emotional over-involvement…

  1. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of a cigarette smoking environment on children of elementary school age. Physical effects were looked for, as were differences between children from smoking homes and non-smoking homes, and male subjects and female subjects. A total of 103 children were divided into two groups, Group…

  2. Grammatical Differentiation between Speech and Writing in Children Aged 8 to 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera, Katharine

    Data from a language development project at the Polytechnic of Wales were used to compare the speech and writing of 48 monolingual English-speaking children. The 48 children came from three groups, aged 8, 10, and 12. For the collection of spoken data, the children, divided into groups of three, were tape recorded while they made a construction…

  3. Dichotic Listening in Children: Age-Related Changes in Direction and Magnitude of Ear Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncrieff, Deborah W.

    2011-01-01

    Children between the ages of 5 and 12 years were tested with dichotic listening tests utilizing single syllable words and random presentations of digits. They produced a higher prevalence of left ear dominance than expected, especially among right-handed children when tested with words. Whether more children demonstrate the LEA because of right…

  4. Speech Rhythm of Monolingual and Bilingual Children at age 2;6: Cantonese and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Peggy P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have showed that at age 3;0, monolingual children acquiring rhythmically different languages display distinct rhythmic patterns while the speech rhythm patterns of the languages of bilingual children are more similar. It is unclear whether the same observations can be found for younger children, at 2;6. This study compared five…

  5. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  6. Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Birnbaum, Rena; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Rosenbaum, Peter; Poulin, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize participation in leisure activities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and identify determinants of greater involvement. Ninety-five children of school age (9y 7mo [SD 2y 1mo]) with CP were recruited, and participation was evaluated with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment in a…

  7. The Effects of a Second-Grade Social Studies Curriculum Infused with Positive Aging Concepts on Children's Attitudes towards Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembacher, Diane; Cruise, Mary J.

    2006-01-01

    As the number of elderly people in our society increases, it becomes especially important for children to develop positive attitudes towards elders and towards their own aging. The American Association for Health Education has recommended the infusion of positive aging concepts in the K-12 curriculum. This qualitative study investigated the…

  8. Age-related Changes in Children's Understanding Effort and Ability: Implications for Attribution Theory and Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Folmer, Amy S.; Cole, David A.; Sigal, Amanda B.; Benbow, Lovisa D.; Satterwhite, Lindsay F.; Swygert, Katherine E.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Building upon Nicholls' (1978) work, we examined developmental changes in children's understanding of effort and ability when faced with a negative outcome. In a sample of 166 children and adolescents (ages 5 to 15), younger children conflated the meaning of effort and ability, explaining that smart students work hard; whereas older children understood effort and ability to be reciprocally related constructs, explaining that smart students do not have to work as hard. Understanding the reciprocal relation between effort and ability was correlated with age. Age-related changes in the meaning and correlates of effort and ability were also examined. Developmental implications for attribution theory and achievement motivation are discussed. PMID:18067917

  9. Efficacy and effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Coelingh, Kathleen; Olajide, Ifedapo Rosemary; MacDonald, Peter; Yogev, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of high efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from randomized controlled trials is strong for children 2-6 years of age, but fewer data exist for older school-age children. We reviewed the published data on efficacy and effectiveness of LAIV in children ≥5 years. QUOSA (Elsevier database) was searched for articles published from January 1990 to June 2014 that included 'FluMist', 'LAIV', 'CAIV', 'cold adapted influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated cold adapted' or 'flu mist'. Studies evaluated included randomized controlled trials, effectiveness and indirect protection studies. This review demonstrates that LAIV has considerable efficacy and effectiveness in school-age children.

  10. Sleep and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time…

  11. Effects of age on children's intake of large and self-selected food portions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: Whether developmental periods exist in which children become particularly sensitive to environmental influences on eating is unclear. This research evaluated the effects of age on intake of large and self-selected portions among children 2 to 9 years of age. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURE...

  12. Mood Symptoms and Emotional Responsiveness to Threat in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Sbarra, David A.; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical accounts of depression underscore its relation to negative emotional experiences; yet few empirical studies examine emotional experiences in adults with depression, with even less work on depression and emotion in children. Using a nonclinical sample of school-aged children (n = 89) ages 8 to 12, this study evaluated whether greater mood…

  13. Correlation between Food Schemes and Children Nutrient Status at the Toddler's Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnaningsih, Tri; Lestari, Indah

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient in the meal is very important, especially for the children at the toddler's age. The aim of this research was to know the correlation between the food schemes with the children nutrient status at the toddler's age (1-3 years). The research design was cross sectional. The population for this research was all of the mothers and the…

  14. Sex, Age and Racial Differences in Elementary Children's Perception of Elderly Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, Boyne

    Research has shown that small children and other people view old age and the elderly very negatively. Unless parents and teachers begin to initiate changes in thinking, old age will be a tragedy for most of today's youth. In this study, 67 second graders and 59 sixth graders in Mississippi responded to a modified Children's Attitude toward the…

  15. Classroom Age Composition and Rates of Change in School Readiness for Children Enrolled in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Elizabeth R.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite policy and theoretical support for mixed-age classrooms in early childhood, research examining associations between age-mixing and children's outcomes is inconclusive and warrants further investigation, particularly in preschools serving children who are at risk for poor adjustment to formal schooling. One recent study conducted in…

  16. Motor Coordination and Social-Emotional Behaviour in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piek, Jan P.; Bradbury, Greer S.; Elsley, Sharon C.; Tate, Lucinda

    2008-01-01

    School-age children with movement problems such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are known to have social and emotional difficulties. However, little research has investigated younger children to determine whether these problems emerge at school age or are present earlier. The aim of the current study was to investigate the…

  17. School-Age Children Talk about Chess: Does Knowledge Drive Syntactic Complexity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing…

  18. Early Histories of School-Aged Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loe, Irene M.; Balestrino, Maria D.; Phelps, Randall A.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Chaves-Gnecco, Diego; Paradise, Jack L.; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2008-01-01

    In a prospective study of developmental outcomes in relation to early-life otitis media, behavioral, cognitive, and language measures were administered to a large, diverse sample of children at 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9-11 years of age (N = 741). At 9-11 years of age, 9% of the children were categorized as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

  19. Wheezing, Sleeping, and Worrying: The Hidden Risks of Asthma and Obesity in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Everhart, Robin S.; Wildenger, Leah

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the co-occurrence of asthma and obesity in a sample of 193 children (mean age = 7.76 years). Specifically, this study was interested in delineating the associated comorbidities of internalizing symptoms and sleep disruptions among younger (younger than 7 years) and older elementary age children with asthma who were…

  20. Children's Response to First Dental Visit as a Function of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Console, Cara M.; Chambliss, Catherine A.

    This study was designed to identify the age at which children who are between 1 and 8 years old display the least anxiety during their first dental visit. Parents completed a survey that asked for the child's gender, age at first dental visit, and general reaction to the first visit. Children's reactions were classified as resistant, anxious,…

  1. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…

  2. A Twin-Study of Sleep Difficulties in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Alice M.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines frequency, overlap, and genetic and environmental influences on sleep difficulties, which are understudied in school-aged children. The Sleep Self Report and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were completed by 300 twin pairs (aged 8 years) and their parents. Child report suggested more frequent sleep problems than…

  3. Maturation of Visual and Auditory Temporal Processing in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Piers; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine development of sensitivity to auditory and visual temporal processes in children and the association with standardized measures of auditory processing and communication. Methods: Normative data on tests of visual and auditory processing were collected on 18 adults and 98 children aged 6-10 years of age. Auditory processes…

  4. Can Mild Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Affect Developmental Abilities in Younger School-Age Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ðokovic, Sanja; Gligorovic, Milica; Ostojic, Sanja; Dimic, Nadežda; Radic-Šestic, Marina; Slavnic, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    The research study was conducted for the purpose of examining the influence of mild bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (MBSNHL) on developmental abilities of younger school-age children. The sample encompassed 144 children with MBSNHL, aged 7.5-11 (M = 8.85). MBSNHL (20-40 dB HL) was identified by pure tone audiometry. The control group…

  5. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  6. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  7. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  8. Sleep Problems in Chinese School-Aged Children with a Parent-Reported History of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shenghui; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Shenghu; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to survey the prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and to assess its associations with sleep problems among urban school-aged children in China. Method: A random sample of 20,152 school-aged children participated in a cross-sectional survey in eight cities of China. A parent-administered questionnaire and the…

  9. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  10. Communication Profile of Primary School-Aged Children with Foetal Growth Restriction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…

  11. Are Children of Young Mothers Disadvantaged because of Their Mother's Age or Family Background?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Ruth N. Lopez

    2003-01-01

    Data from national sample of 3- to 16-year-olds show that lower test scores and increased behavior problems of children of younger mothers resulted from family background rather than maternal age. For nonfirstborns, maternal age at first birth, not at child's birth, influenced test scores. Disadvantage of children born to younger mothers was…

  12. The Education of Immigrant Children: The Impact of Age at Arrival. MASRC Working Paper Number 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Arturo

    The family reunification provision in U.S. immigration laws allows foreign-born children of immigrants to enter the United States and attend American schools. The total number of school years completed by immigrant children, however, is affected by their age at arrival. Age at arrival also affects the percentage of schooling that is attained in…

  13. Semantic Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Children: Effects of Age and Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Fiestas, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study examines semantic development in 60 Spanish-English bilingual children, ages 7 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months, who differed orthogonally in age (younger, older) and language experience (higher English experience [HEE], higher Spanish experience [HSE]). Children produced 3 associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents. Older…

  14. Verbal Working Memory and Story Retelling in School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined verbal working memory and language ability in 15 school-age children with autism using 3 verbal working memory tasks and 1 story recall task. Method: Three measures of verbal working memory--nonword repetition, memory for digits span, and sentence imitation--were given to children with autism and age-matched controls.…

  15. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility... FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY, RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN HEAD START § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  16. Hemodynamic responses to laboratory stressors in children and adolescents: the influences of age, race, and gender.

    PubMed

    Allen, M T; Matthews, K A

    1997-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were threefold: (a) to compare the patterns of hemodynamic responding of children and adolescents during behavioral challenges, (b) to examine whether previously reported cardiovascular reactivity differences between Black and White children are dependent on pubertal status, and (c) to assess whether gender differences in hemodynamic response reported for adults is similar in children. One hundred fifty-nine children (ages 8-10 years) and adolescents (ages 15-17 years), equally divided along gender and racial lines, participated in a laboratory protocol consisting of a reaction time task, a mirror tracing task, a cold forehead challenge, and a stress interview. Results indicated that adolescents responded with greater beta-adrenergic activation than did children and that gender differences in reactivity often reported for adults emerged more clearly in the adolescents than in the children. This study failed to replicate prior findings of greater vasoconstrictive responses in Black children as compared with White children.

  17. Sleep patterns of school-age children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2006-07-01

    Sleep patterns of 32 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared to those of 32 typically developing age- and gender-matched children, using parent survey and one week of diary and actigraphic monitoring. Parents of children with AS/HFA more commonly reported that their children had difficulty falling asleep. One week of sleep recording with diary and actigraphy confirmed that children in the AS/HFA group spent a longer time awake in bed before falling asleep than children in the control group, possibly because the children in the AS/HFA group had earlier bedtimes. Other essential aspects of sleep patterns coincided between the groups. The sleep patterns of children with AS and HFA did not differ.

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant tetravalent dengue vaccine in children and adolescents ages 9-16 years in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Gustavo H; Garbes, Pedro; Noriega, Fernando; Izoton de Sadovsky, Ana Daniela; Rodrigues, Patricia Marques; Giuberti, Camila; Dietze, Reynaldo

    2013-12-01

    Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue disease vaccine (CYD-TDV) was evaluated in children/adolescents in Brazil. In this observer-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II single-center study, children/adolescents (ages 9-16 years) were randomized to receive CYD-TDV or placebo at 0, 6, and 12 months. Immunogenicity was assessed using a 50% plaque neutralization test. Overall, 150 participants were enrolled (CYD-TDV: N = 100; placebo: N = 50). Injection site pain and headache were the most common solicited injection site and systemic reactions. Unsolicited adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs were similar between groups. No serious AEs were vaccine-related. Geometric mean titers against all dengue virus serotypes increased with CYD-TDV vaccination and were 267, 544, 741, and 432 1/dil for serotypes 1-4, respectively, after dose 3, representing a mean fold increase from baseline of 5, 6, 6, and 20, respectively. CYD-TDV vaccination elicited a neutralizing antibody response against serotypes 1-4 and was well-tolerated in children/adolescents in a dengue-endemic region.

  19. Age dependent hypergastrinaemia in children with Helicobacter pylori gastritis--evidence of early acquisition of infection.

    PubMed Central

    McCallion, W A; Ardill, J E; Bamford, K B; Potts, S R; Boston, V E

    1995-01-01

    Acute Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis causes achlorhydria, a powerful stimulus to gastrin secretion. If H pylori infection is acquired primarily in early childhood, then the degree of hypergastrinaemia in seropositive children should be age dependent. Anti-Helicobacter antibodies and fasting gastrin concentrations were measured in 439 children aged 4 to 13 years attending hospital for routine day case surgery not connected with any gastrointestinal disorder. Thirty per cent were seropositive for H pylori. There was an inverse relationship between the fasting gastrin concentration and age; the mean fasting gastrin in children aged 4-5 years, 155 ng/l, was significantly higher than that seen in children aged 12-13 years, 90 ng/l. The more noticeable hypergastrinaemia seen in young children with H pylori associated gastritis may reflect achlorhydria associated with acute H pylori infection and suggests that this is primarily acquired in early childhood. PMID:7672676

  20. Measures of Overweight Status in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Identifying and intervening with overweight children may decrease their likelihood of developing heart disease later in life. This secondary analysis of 58 children in the 3rd grade examined the prevalence of overweight children, methods for measuring overweight status, and the relationship among these measures and other risk factors for heart…

  1. Elementary Age Children and Remote Sensing: Research from Project Omega.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses remote sensing technology use in teaching elementary school students about science and social studies. Reviews findings dealing with the use of remote sensing and considering children's abilities, teacher training, computer applications, gifted children, and sex-related differences. Concludes that children as young as grade three can…

  2. Teaching Prelinguistic Communication Skills to School Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Jessica Hetlinger

    2008-01-01

    Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching (PMT) is an intervention designed to teach young children to initiate nonverbal communication using vocalizations, gestures, and eye-gaze. Children are taught through social routines in their natural environment. Techniques include contriving an environment in which the children will be motivated to communicate and…

  3. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  4. Tobacco Talk: Educating Young Children about Tobacco. Suggestions for Teachers, Parents, and Other Care Providers of Children to Age 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Carol

    This book provides adults with specific suggestions and advice for talking with children about the health and social hazards of tobacco use. The first two chapters provide background information and general principles for talking about tobacco with children up to the age of 10. Each of the following five chapters focuses on one topic about tobacco…

  5. Comparison of TW1 and TW2 skeletal age differences in American black and white and in Mexican children 6-13 years of age.

    PubMed

    Malina, R M; Little, B B

    1981-01-01

    Differences in Tanner-Whitehouse (TW) skeletal ages as derived from the original (TW1) and revised (TW2) systems were compared in three ethnically different samples of children 6-13 years of age: mixed longitudinal samples of American White and Black children for Philadelphia, and a cross-sectional samples of Mexican children from Oaxaca in southern Mexico. TW2 skeletal ages are, on average, consistently lower than TW1 skeletal ages. Within a given chronological age and sex group, the differences are similar in terms of means and variation about the means in better-off children, both black and White in Philadelphia and in disadvantaged Mexican children.

  6. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  7. Children under the age of two are more likely to watch inappropriate background media than older children

    PubMed Central

    Tomopoulos, Suzy; Brockmeyer Cates, Carolyn; Dreyer, Benard P; Fierman, Arthur H; Berkule, Samantha B; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    Aim To establish whether young children watched foreground electronic media or background media that was not aimed at them or was inappropriate for their age. Methods We performed a longitudinal analysis of mother-infant dyads participating in a larger parenting study. The primary dependent variable was maternal reports of watching habits from media diaries at six, 14, 24 and 36 months. Independent variables were child age, programme content and whether the programme was turned on specifically for the child. Results We analysed 3,570 programme exposures in 527 children, mostly from television. Children were significantly more likely to actually watch programmes if they were older, if the content was coded as “educational-young child” or if the parent tuned on the programme specifically so the child could watch it. Children under the age of two were more likely than older children to watch background media that featured age-inappropriate content or had not been turned on for them to watch (30% versus 16% of programmes; AOR = 2.19, [95%CI 1.82-2.65]). Conclusions Young children under the age of two frequently watch background media that has age-inappropriate content or has not been turned on for them to watch. PMID:24812713

  8. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Either an Occult or Missed Fracture of an Extremity in Pediatric-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Moon; Lee, Young-Hwan; Suh, Kyung-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Objective To report and assess the usefulness of ultrasound (US) findings for occult fractures of growing bones. Materials and Methods For six years, US scans were performed in children younger than 15 years who were referred with trauma-related local pain and swelling of the extremities. As a routine US examination, the soft tissue, bones, and adjacent joints were examined in the area of discomfort, in addition to the asymptomatic contralateral extremity for comparison. Twenty-five occult fractures in 25 children (age range, five months-15 years; average age, 7.7 years) were confirmed by initial and follow-up radiograms, additional imaging studies, and clinical observation longer than three weeks. Results The most common site of occult fractures was the elbow (n = 9, 36%), followed by the knee (n = 7, 28%), ischium (n = 4, 16%), distal fibula (n = 3, 12%), proximal femur (n = 1, 4%), and humeral shaft (n = 1, 4%). On the retrograde review of the routine radiographs, 13 out of the 25 cases showed no bone abnormalities except for various soft tissue swelling. For the US findings, cortical discontinuity (direct sign of a fracture) was clearly visualized in 23 cases (92%) and was questionable in two (8%). As auxiliary US findings (indirect signs of a fracture), step-off deformities, tiny avulsed bone fragments, double-line appearance of cortical margins, and diffuse irregularity of the bone surfaces were identified. Conclusion Performing US for soft tissue and bone surfaces with pain and swelling, with or without trauma history in the extremities, is important for diagnosing occult or missed fractures of immature bones in pediatric-aged children. PMID:20046499

  9. Individual differences in children's emotion understanding: effects of age and language.

    PubMed

    Pons, Francisco; Lawson, Joanne; Harris, Paul L; de Rosnay, Marc

    2003-09-01

    Over the last two decades, it has been established that children's emotion understanding changes as they develop. Recent studies have also begun to address individual differences in children's emotion understanding. The first goal of this study was to examine the development of these individual differences across a wide age range with a test assessing nine different components of emotion understanding. The second goal was to examine the relation between language ability and individual differences in emotion understanding. Eighty children ranging in age from 4 to 11 years were tested. Children displayed a clear improvement with age in both their emotion understanding and language ability. In each age group, there were clear individual differences in emotion understanding and language ability. Age and language ability together explained 72% of emotion understanding variance; 20% of this variance was explained by age alone and 27% by language ability alone. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.

  10. Towards a richer understanding of school-age children's experiences of domestic violence: the voices of children and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Swanston, Jennifer; Bowyer, Laura; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children are exposed to domestic violence. How children negotiate and make sense of living with domestic violence is still under-researched. This study sought to capture the dual-perspectives of school-aged children and their mothers, to develop a richer understanding of children's experiences of domestic violence, using a community-based sample. A qualitative research design was employed, with interpretative phenomenological analysis used to interpret the data. Five school-aged children and three of their mothers participated in the study. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the children's perspective: domestic violence through the eyes of children; and learning from children's experiences. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the mothers' perspective: reflecting on the child in the context of domestic violence; and learning from mothers: insights, support and services. The crucial importance of the mother-child relationship in shaping children's experience of domestic violence was illustrated in both the perspectives; a finding which may have important implications for the development of interventions. It was also evident that children as young as eight were able to powerfully articulate their experiences of domestic violence.

  11. Distribution of blood pressure & correlates of hypertension in school children aged 5-14 years from North east India

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Prasanta Kr.; Devi, Utpala; Biswas, Dipankar; Kalita, Hem Ch.; Sharma, Meenakshi; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Elevated blood pressure (BP) in the young predicts serious cardiovascular events in the adults. High prevalence of adult hypertension reported from Assam, North East (NE) India may be linked with elevated blood pressure in the childhood. The present study was an attempt to describe the distribution of BP and correlates of hypertension in children aged 5-14 yr. Methods: A total of 10,003 school children from 99 schools of Dibrugarh district, Assam, NE India, were surveyed by stratified random cluster method. Blood pressure, demographic and anthropometric information were recorded. Blood pressure was categorized in to normal, prehypertension, stage I and stage II hypertension. Results: Girls had significantly higher (104.2 ± 12.0 vs. 103.2 ± 11.6 mm Hg, P<0.001) mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) than boys. Both SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) revealed significant correlation with age, height, weight and BMI in overall and in gender specific analysis. Hypertension was found in 7.6 per cent school children (Boys: 7.3%, Girls: 7.8%). In multivariable analysis older age (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 2.82-3.91), children from tea garden community (OR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.08-1.55) and other community (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.18-1.73) and overweight (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1) were independently associated with hypertension. Interpretation & conclusions: Mean blood pressure in the young school children of 5-14 yr was high. A programme comprising screening, early detection and health promotion through school health programmes may help prevent future complications of hypertension. PMID:26458345

  12. Effect of age on the risk of Fever and seizures following immunization with measles-containing vaccines in children.

    PubMed

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Fireman, Bruce; Lewis, Edwin; Nordin, James; Naleway, Allison; Jacobsen, Steven J; Jackson, Lisa A; Tse, Alison; Belongia, Edward A; Hambidge, Simon J; Weintraub, Eric; Baxter, Roger; Klein, Nicola P

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE The first dose of live attenuated measles-containing vaccines is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures 7 to 10 days following immunization among 12- to 23-month-old children. The combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of febrile seizures 7 to 10 days following immunization compared with the separately administered measles, mumps, and rubella and varicella vaccines. It is unknown whether the magnitude of these increased risks depends on age at immunization. OBJECTIVE To examine the potential modifying effect of age on the risk of fever and seizures following immunization with measles-containing vaccines. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study at 8 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites of a total of 840,348 children 12 to 23 months of age who had received a measles-containing vaccine from 2001 through 2011. EXPOSURES Any measles-containing vaccines and measles-containing vaccines by type. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Fever and seizure events occurring during a 42-day postimmunization observation period. RESULTS In the analysis of any measles-containing vaccines, the increased risk of seizures during the 7- to 10-day risk interval, using the remainder of the observation period as the control interval, was significantly greater among older children (relative risk, 6.5; 95% CI, 5.3-8.1; attributable risk, 9.5 excess cases per 10,000 doses; 95% CI, 7.6-11.5) than among younger children (relative risk, 3.4; 95% CI, 3.0-3.9; attributable risk = 4.0 excess cases per 10,000 doses; 95% CI, 3.4-4.6). The relative risk of postimmunization fever was significantly greater among older children than among younger children; however, its attributable risk was not. In the analysis of vaccine type, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine was associated with a 1.4-fold increase in the risk of fever and 2-fold increase in the risk of seizures compared with measles, mumps, and

  13. Nutritional status survey of children with autism and typically developing children aged 4-6 years in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caihong; Xia, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Nannan; Zhao, Dong; Wu, Lijie

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disability that may affect nutritional management of children with autism. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of children with autism with that of typically developing children (aged 4-6 years) in China. Nutritional status was assessed by means of nutritional data, anthropometric data, biochemical assessment, physical examination for nutrient deficiencies and providing a questionnaire to parents. A total of fifty-three children with autism and fifty-three typically developing children were enrolled in this study. The parents were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding the eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms of their children. They were also asked to provide a 3 d food diary. Children with autism exhibited several abnormalities in terms of eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms. The levels of vitamins A and B6, Zn and Ca intakes were <80 % of the dietary reference intakes in both groups. In addition, the proportions of vitamin C and Ca intake deficiencies in the autism group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum Zn level was less than the normal reference range in both the groups. Serum Ca, vitamin A and folate levels in children with autism were significantly lower when compared with children without autism. According to the anthropometric data, the mean BMI, weight-for-height Z-score (Z WH) and BMI for age Z-score (Z BMIA) of children with autism were significantly higher than those of the typically developing children. Thus, nutritional inadequacies were observed in children with autism and typically developing children in China, which were, however, more pronounced among children with autism.

  14. Behavior problems of clinic children: relation to parental marital status, age and sex of child.

    PubMed

    Brady, C P; Bray, J H; Zeeb, L

    1986-07-01

    Behavior problems of 703 children seen in a clinical setting were examined for interactions between and effects of family type (i.e., parental marital status) and age and sex of child. Significant differences were found based on family type, with children of separated, divorced, and remarried parents having more problems. Expected interactions between marital status and age and sex of child were not obtained, although results support prior research with regard to the effects of age and sex.

  15. Longitudinal posturography and rotational testing in children 3-9 years of age: Normative data

    PubMed Central

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L.; Mandel, Ellen M.; Sparto, Patrick J; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Fall, Patricia A.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To obtain normative longitudinal vestibulo-ocular and balance test data in children from ages 3 to 9 with normal middle-ear status. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort Setting Tertiary care pediatric hospital Subjects and Methods Three-year-old children were entered and tested yearly. Subjects underwent earth vertical axis rotation testing using sinusoidal and constant velocity stimuli and performed the Sensory Organization Test. Results One hundred forty-eight children were entered and usable data were collected on 127 children. A linear increase in the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as children aged was found, without a change in the phase of the response. An age-related linear increase in Equilibrium Scores, indicating reduced postural sway, was also observed. Conclusion These normative data can be used in the evaluation of dizziness and balance disorders in children. PMID:20416461

  16. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children--impact of age and performance.

    PubMed

    Mürner-Lavanchy, I; Ritter, B C; Spencer-Smith, M M; Perrig, W J; Schroth, G; Steinlin, M; Everts, R

    2014-07-01

    Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7-12 years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years.

  17. Factors Related to Emotional Responses in School-aged Children Who Have Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Veronica García

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was performed to answer the following questions (a) What factors contribute to the emotional responses of school-age children who have asthma? (b) What are the potential gaps in the literature regarding the emotional responses of school-age children (ages 6–12) who have asthma? (c) Are children with a lower socioeconomic status (SES) and those who are minorities represented in the literature proportionate to their prevalence? Two main focus areas regarding emotional responses were identified: (a) factors related to children who have asthma and (b) factors related to caregivers of children who have asthma. Internalizing disorders were reported consistently for children and caregivers of children who have asthma. Negative consequences of asthma for children included panic and asthma attacks, missed school days, and behavioral problems. Issues for caregivers included higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, asthma management deficits, and lower caregiver warmth and involvement. Gaps in the literature included separated studies for children ages 6–12, a lack of a standardized method to define SES, studies that were of a more experimental nature, and studies of minority children and caregivers commensurate with their asthma prevalence. PMID:22757594

  18. Vision screening in children: Is 7-9 years of age a threshold for visual impairment?

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Yusuf Haydar; Tekin, Murat; Uludag, Aysegul; Arikan, Sedat; Sahin, Erkan Melih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of decreased visual acuity, strabismus, and spectacle wear in children aged 5 to 13 years. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in primary education schools. A total of 1938 participants, including 940 females (48.5%) and 998 males (51.5%) with a mean age 8.96 ± 2.31 (5-13 years old), were screened. The comparisons were performed with gender, age, and age groups. The children attended to vision screening were assigned to three age groups as 5-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-13 years. Results: The prevalence of the parameters was detected as decreased visual acuity 12.4%, strabismus 2.2%, and spectacle wear 6.9%. The prevalence of decreased visual acuity was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.013, p < 0.001). The prevalence of spectacle wear was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.019, p < 0.001). There was a visual acuity decrease in 33 of 106 (31.1%) children despite wearing own spectacle. There was no significant difference among three age groups for strabismus. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of decreased visual acuity, as well as the higher frequency of spectacle wear in children at ages of 7-9 years old may point out a threshold for visual impairment. PMID:27882020

  19. Preschool age children of divorce: transitional phenomena and the mourning process.

    PubMed

    Stirtzinger, R; Cholvat, L

    1990-08-01

    The role of the family home as an attachment object was investigated in 57 preschool age children coping with the stress of a parental divorce. Results indicated that preschool age children of divorce exhibited an increased level of attachment to the family home as compared with children matched for age and socioeconomic status from intact family units who moved away from the family home. In addition, preschool age children who moved from the family home but show a high attachment to it demonstrate better behaviour adjustment than both the groups of children of divorce who showed low attachment after moving from the family home and the group who remained living in the family home after divorce (p less than .05).

  20. Focus of Attention in Children's Motor Learning: Examining the Role of Age and Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Brocken, J E A; Kal, E C; van der Kamp, J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relative effectiveness of different attentional focus instructions on motor learning in primary school children. In addition, we explored whether the effect of attentional focus on motor learning was influenced by children's age and verbal working memory capacity. Novice 8-9-year old children (n = 30) and 11-12-year-old children (n = 30) practiced a golf putting task. For each age group, half the participants received instructions to focus (internally) on the swing of their arm, while the other half was instructed to focus (externally) on the swing of the club. Children's verbal working memory capacity was assessed with the Automated Working Memory Assessment. Consistent with many reports on adult's motor learning, children in the external groups demonstrated greater improvements in putting accuracy than children who practiced with an internal focus. This effect was similar across age groups. Verbal working memory capacity was not found to be predictive of motor learning, neither for children in the internal focus groups nor for children in the external focus groups. In conclusion, primary school children's motor learning is enhanced by external focus instructions compared to internal focus instructions. The purported modulatory roles of children's working memory, attentional capacity, or focus preferences require further investigation.

  1. Feeding practices and nutritional status of children under two years of age.

    PubMed

    Khan, M I; Hoque, M A; Mollah, A H; Islam, M N; Latif, S A; Hossain, M A

    2011-10-01

    A descriptive cross sectional study was done in the department of Pediatrics Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess breast feeding pattern, complementary feeding pattern, types of complementary foods and also to assess the nutritional status and to detect any relationship with the nutritional status and the feeding practices. Mothers with their children aged less than 2 years were included and very sick children, mother less children, handicapped children were excluded. Four hundred (400) consecutive children were enrolled from eight upazillas of Mymensingh district who were selected randomly. Out of 400 children, 214 children (53.5%) were male and 186 children (47.5%) were female and M:F was 1.2:1. Exclusive breastfeeding rate was 41.5%. Pre-lacteal feeding rate were 30.7% and most common pre-lacteal foods were honey and sugar water. Colostrum was given in 69.3% children. Breast feeding continued at the time of interview was 58.1%. Complementary feeding started in time in 35.8%, early weaning in 44.5% children. Type of complementary food was mainly luta (rice powder mixed with boiled water and sugar only) in 38.8% and khichuri (rice, pulses, soybean oil) in 19.5%. Bottle feeding rate was 31.30%. Around 43% children were underweight and 10.25% children were severely underweight and common in between 12 to 23 months of age group. Around 29% children were stunted among 11.25% were severely stunted. About 13.5% children were wasted and among them 2.5% were severely wasted. Stunting prevalent over the age of 9 months and wasting started after 6 months of age. Malnutrition was common in partially breast fed and early weaning with carbohydrate rich food.

  2. [The organization and quality of specialized hospital care of early age children].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the quality of specialized hospital care of early age children based on the materials of 568 records of hospital patients in the Republican children hospital of Makhachkala. The important imperfections are detected. About 30% of patients suffered from untimely and insufficient treatment. The untimely consultations took place in case of 15.6% of patients. About 22% of patients didn't receive a whole course of treatment needed. The comprehensive treatment of children was not applied in fullness at the discharge from the hospital in 14% of patients. The guidelines to enhance the quality of specialized hospital care of early age children are developed.

  3. Enacting Dialogue: The Impact of Promoting Philosophy for Children on the Literate Thinking of Identified Poor Readers, Aged 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Philip; Lyle, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Philosophy for Children in Schools Project (P4CISP) is a research project to monitor and evaluate the impact of Philosophy for Children (P4C) on classroom practices. In this paper the impact of P4C on the thinking skills of four children aged 10 is examined. Standardised tests indicated the children had below-average reading ages. The pupils…

  4. Reliability and Validity of Age Band 1 of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellinoudis, Theodoros; Evaggelinou, Christina; Kourtessis, Thomas; Konstantinidou, Zoe; Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine specific aspects of the reliability and validity of age band 1 of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2) (Henderson, Sugden, & Barnett, 2007) in Greek preschool children. One hundred and eighty-three children participated in the study; the children ranged in age from 36 to…

  5. The Children's Report of Sleep Patterns (CRSP): A Self-Report Measure of Sleep for School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Avis, Kristin T.; Biggs, Sarah; Reynolds, Amy C.; Crabtree, Valerie McLaughlin; Bevans, Katherine B.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: (1) Present preliminary psychometrics for the Children's Report of Sleep Patterns (CRSP), a three-module measure of Sleep Patterns, Sleep Hygiene, and Sleep Disturbance; and (2) explore whether the CRSP provides information about a child's sleep above and beyond parental report. Methods: A multi-method, multi-reporter approach was used to validate the CRSP with 456 children aged 8-12 years (inclusive). Participants were recruited from pediatricians' offices, sleep clinics/laboratories, children's hospitals, schools, and the general population. Participants completed measures of sleep habits, sleep hygiene, anxiety, and sleepiness, with actigraphy and polysomnography used to provide objective measures of child sleep. Results: The CRSP demonstrated good reliability and validity. Differences in sleep hygiene and sleep disturbances were found for children presenting to a sleep clinic/laboratory (vs. community population); for younger children (vs. older children); and for children who slept less than 8 hours or had a sleep onset later than 22:00 on actigraphy. Further, significant associations were found between the CRSP and child-reported anxiety or sleepiness. Notably, approximately 40% of parents were not aware of child reported difficulties with sleep onset latency, night wakings, or poor sleep quality. Conclusions: The three modules of the CRSP can be used together or independently, providing a reliable and valid self-report measure of sleep patterns, sleep hygiene, and sleep disturbances for children ages 8-12 years. Children not only provide valid information about their sleep, but may provide information that would not be otherwise captured in both clinical and research settings if relying solely on parental report. Citation: Meltzer LJ; Avis KT; Biggs S; Reynolds AC; Crab-tree VM; Bevans KB. The Children's Report of Sleep Patterns (CRSP): a self-report measure of sleep for school-aged children. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(3):235-245. PMID

  6. Accuracy of dental age estimation in Venezuelan children: comparison of Demirjian and Willems methods.

    PubMed

    Medina, Aída C; Blanco, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    Dental age is a somatic maturity indicator with importance in clinical and forensic dentistry. The purpose of this study is to compare the applicability of the Demirjian and Willems methods for dental age estimation in a group of Venezuelan children. Panoramic radiographs of 238 Venezuelan children aged 5-13 years were used to assess dental age using the methods described by Demirjian and Willems. Children with unclear panoramic radiographs, dental agenesis, and premature loss of primary teeth were excluded. Mean differences between dental age and chronological age by gender and age groups were estimated (ANOVA, Student tests p = 0.05). For the Demirjian method, the mean difference between dental age and chronological age was 0.62 +/- 0.93 years, statistically significant. The mean overestimation was lower for females than for males (females 0.56 +/- 0.96 years, males 0.67 +/- 0.93 years). For the Willems method, the mean difference between dental age and chronological age was 0.15 +/- 0.97 years, not statistically significant. Accuracy was significantly different between genders, performing best for females (females 0.01 +/- 0.96 years, males 0.29 +/- 0.96 years). The Willems method for age estimation was found to be more accurate than the Demirjian method in this sample of Venezuelan children.

  7. Ability Profiles in Children with Autism: Influence of Age and IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2003-01-01

    Psychological data were analyzed for 164 individuals (ages 3-15) with autism (IQs 14-143). Verbal IQ lagged behind nonverbal during the preschool years, but by school age the gap had closed. For school-age children with low IQs, math, spelling, and writing scores were consistent with IQ and reading was above IQ. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  8. Effects of Age and Ritalin Dosage on the Mother-Child Interactions of Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Observed the mother-child interactions of three age groups of hyperactive children (N=54) during free play and task settings using two dose levels of Ritalin. Results indicated that the interactions of hyperactive boys with their mothers improve with age, and that Ritalin produces further improvements regardless of age examined. (LLL)

  9. Age of First Words Predicts Cognitive Ability and Adaptive Skills in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Jessica; Chlebowski, Colby; Fein, Deborah A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Acquiring useful language by age 5 has been identified as a strong predictor of positive outcomes in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examined the relationship between age of language acquisition and later functioning in children with ASD (n = 119). First word acquisition at a range of ages was probed for its…

  10. Age and Learning Environment: Are Children Implicit Second Language Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study…

  11. Inclusion of School-Age Children with Disabilities in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, Sharon A.; Kolchenko, Kateryna

    2007-01-01

    For many years, children with developmental problems, sensory disorders, brain dysfunction, and complex disorders have remained at the margins of the Ukrainian regular education system or have been excluded from it. In 2004, 1.8 percent of the children in Ukraine were registered as having disabilities. In this article, the authors describe the…

  12. Assessment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of school children are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). These children may be referred for assessments for a variety of reasons, including to assess for intellectual impairments, eligibility for support, or to monitor progress. Characteristics of ASD, such as social communication difficulties, as well as common…

  13. The Use of Antidepressants in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kelly; Nguyen, Bich; Liu, Nianci; Watkins, Melissa; Reutzel, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 5% of the pediatric population suffers from depression. Children suffering from depression should be treated first with some type of psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, and/or education. Pharmacotherapy (medications) should be used only as a last resort for those children suffering from severe, chronic, or recurring depression. The…

  14. Fluency Remediation in Dyslexic Children: Does Age Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Brenbati, Federica; Donini, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether older dyslexic children may obtain fewer gains on fluency and accuracy with respect to their younger peers after specific remediation. Changes in accuracy and fluency of a group of children with a diagnosis of dyslexia attending third and fourth grades were compared with those obtained by a group of…

  15. What's Hot? Real Science for Primary Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Nicky

    2006-01-01

    Science enquiry activities set in an industrial context are motivating for children and teachers. In this article, the author describes Children Challenging Industry (CCI) project, an initiative developed and coordinated by the Chemical Industry Education Centre at the University of York, and now running in four northern regions of England (Humber…

  16. Low Rates of Treatment Failure in Children Aged 2–59 Months Treated for Severe Pneumonia: A Multisite Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Matthew P.; Thea, Donald M.; Sadruddin, Salim; Bari, Abdul; Bonawitz, Rachael; Hazir, Tabish; Bin Nisar, Yasir; Qazi, Shamim A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite advances in childhood pneumonia management, it remains a major killer of children worldwide. We sought to estimate global treatment failure rates in children aged 2–59 months with World Health Organization–defined severe pneumonia. Methods. We pooled data from 4 severe pneumonia studies conducted during 1999–2009 using similar methodologies. We defined treatment failure by day 6 as death, danger signs (inability to drink, convulsions, abnormally sleepy), fever (≥38°C) and lower chest indrawing (LCI; days 2–3), LCI (day 6), or antibiotic change. Results. Among 6398 cases of severe pneumonia from 10 countries, 564 (cluster adjusted: 8.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9%–11.5%) failed treatment by day 6. The most common reasons for clinical failure were persistence of fever and LCI or LCI or fever alone (75% of failures). Seventeen (0.3%) children died. Danger signs were uncommon (<1%). Infants 6–11 months and 2–5 months were 2- and 3.5-fold more likely, respectively, to fail treatment (adjusted OR [AOR], 1.8 [95% CI, 1.4–2.3] and AOR, 3.5 [95% CI, 2.8–4.3]) as children aged 12–59 months. Failure was increased 7-fold (AOR, 7.2 [95% CI, 5.0–10.5]) when comparing infants 2–5 months with very fast breathing to children 12–59 months with normal breathing. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that severe pneumonia case management with antibiotics at health facilities or in the community is associated with few serious morbidities or deaths across diverse geographic settings and support moves to shift management of severe pneumonia with oral antibiotics to outpatients in the community. PMID:23264361

  17. Homocysteine and nitric oxide are related to blood pressure and vascular function in small-for-gestational-age children.

    PubMed

    Franco, Maria C P; Higa, Elisa M S; D'Almeida, Vânia; de Sousa, Fernanda G; Sawaya, Ana L; Fortes, Zuleica B; Sesso, Ricardo

    2007-08-01

    Leptin, homocysteine (Hcy), and C-reactive protein are risk factors potentially useful in predicting future cardiac events. These plasma biomarkers may participate in the regulation of cardiovascular function through an NO-dependent mechanism. Our purpose was to investigate whether alterations in C-reactive protein, Hcy, leptin, and NO are present in small-for-gestational-age children and to determine whether the levels of these plasma biomarkers are associated with birth weight, vascular function, and blood pressure. Concentrations of leptin, Hcy, C-reactive protein, and NO were measured in 69 children (36 boys and 33 girls; ages 8 to 13 years). Leptin (means difference: 1.4 ng/mL; 95% CI: 0.4 to 2.4) and Hcy (means difference: 0.9 micromol/L; 95% CI: 0.3 to 1.5) levels were significantly elevated in children born small for gestational age compared with those with appropriate birth weight. Nevertheless, NO (means difference: 342.9 micromol; 95% CI: 124.2 to 561.6) concentration was significantly reduced in small birth weight children, and the levels of C-reactive protein remained unchanged. There was a significant association between the circulating levels of both NO and Hcy with vascular function, as well as with blood pressure levels, in our population. Because both Hcy and NO are associated with a risk of cardiovascular disease, it is possible that part of the association of low birth weight with elevated risk for vascular and metabolic disease in later life is mediated by perturbation in pathways for these biomarkers.

  18. Early Characteristics of Children with ASD Who Demonstrate Optimal Progress Between Age Two and Four.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Emily; Barton, Marianne; Robins, Diana L; Abrams, Danielle N; Fein, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Although for many children, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability, a subset of children with ASD lose their diagnosis and show typical cognitive and adaptive abilities. The ages at which this transition can occur is not known, but it sometimes occurs quite early. Participants in the current study were 207 children with an ASD at age two who were reevaluated at age four. Eighty-three percent retained an ASD diagnosis at reevaluation and 9 % showed "optimal progress": clear ASD at age two but not at age four, and average cognition, language, communication and social skills at age four. Early child-level factors predicted optimal progress: diagnosis of PDD-NOS, fewer repetitive behaviors, less severe symptomatology and stronger adaptive skills.

  19. Perception of speech sounds in school-age children with speech sound disorders

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Irwin, Julia R.; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System (Rvachew, 1994), which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers’ ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-age children with residual speech errors (RSE). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-age children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-age children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided. PMID:26458198

  20. Perception of Speech Sounds in School-Aged Children with Speech Sound Disorders.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Irwin, Julia R; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-11-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System, which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers' ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-aged children with residual speech errors (RSEs). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-aged children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-aged children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided.

  1. Working memory in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-08-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks, but worse in block recall task and variant-visual-patterns test; (b) children with AS took longer time in most conditions of n-back tasks, and showed larger effects of task load. These findings indicated imbalance of working memory development in AS children: they had advantage in the phonological loop storing, but disadvantage in the visuospatial sketchpad storing, and partial deficit in central executive.

  2. Effects of age, dysphoria, and emotion-focusing on autobiographical memory specificity in children.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Dalgleish, Tim; Drummond, Lyndsey E; Dritschel, Barbara; Astell, Arlene

    2006-04-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is strongly associated with depression in adults and appears to reflect a stable cognitive bias. However, it is not known whether this bias exists in children or what factors contribute to its development. We examined the roles of age, dysphoria, and a new variable, emotion-focusing (EF), on the production of specific autobiographical memory (AM) in children, using the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 ). Results show that older children are more specific than younger children, irrespective of cue valence. Dysphoria was linked to less specific retrieval of positive memories in children. A three-way interaction between age, valence, and dysphoria was also found, such that older dysphoric children demonstrated a difficulty in retrieving specific negative memories. In addition, emotion-focusing was associated with specific AM recall, especially to negative cues. Results are discussed with reference to the development of depressogenic biases.

  3. Age or Experience? The Influence of Age at Implantation and Social and Linguistic Environment on Language Development in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szagun, Gisela; Stumper, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the influence of social environmental variables and age at implantation on language development in children with cochlear implants. Method: Participants were 25 children with cochlear implants and their parents. Age at implantation ranged from 6 months to 42 months (M[subscript age] = 20.4 months, SD = 22.0…

  4. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  5. New renal scarring in children who at age 3 and 4 years had had normal scans with dimercaptosuccinic acid: follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, S. J.; Coulthard, M. G.; Lambert, H. J.; Keir, M. J.; Matthews, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine up to what age children remain at risk of developing a new renal scar from a urinary tract infection. DESIGN: Follow up study. Families of children who had normal ultrasound scans and scanning with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) after referral with a urinary tract infection when aged 3 (209) or 4 (220) were invited to bring the children for repeat scans 2-11 years later. A history of infections since the original scan was obtained for children not having a repeat scan. SETTING: Teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: Children from three health districts in whom a normal scan had been obtained at age 3-4 years in 1985-1992 because of a urinary tract infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Frequency of new renal scars in each age group. RESULTS: In each group, about 97% of children either had repeat scanning (over 80%) or were confidently believed by their general practitioner or parent not to have had another urinary infection. The rate of further infections since the original scan was similar in the 3 and 4 year old groups (48/176 (27%)) and 55/179 (31%)). Few children in either group known to have had further urinary infections did not have repeat scanning (3/209 (1.4%) and 4/220 (1.8%)). In the 3 year old group, 2.4% (5/209) had one or more new kidney scars at repeat scanning (one sided 95% confidence interval up to 5.0%), whereas none of the 4 year olds did (one sided 95% confidence interval up to 1.4%). The children who developed scars were all aged under 3.4 years when scanned originally. CONCLUSIONS: Children with a urinary tract infection but unscarred kidneys after the third birthday have about a 1 in 40 risk of developing a scar subsequently, but after the fourth birthday the risk is either very low or zero. Thus the need for urinary surveillance is much reduced in a large number of children. PMID:9361538

  6. Age-related differences in brain electrical activity during extended continuous face recognition in younger children, older children and adults.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, Jan W; Glimmerveen, Johanna C; Franken, Ingmar H A; Martens, Vanessa E G; de Bruin, Eveline A

    2011-09-01

    To examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9 years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12 years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30 faces was shown randomly six times interspersed with distracter faces. The children were required to make old vs. new decisions. Older children responded faster than younger children, but younger children exhibited a steeper decrease in latencies across the five repetitions. Older children exhibited better accuracy for new faces, but there were no age differences in recognition accuracy for repeated faces. For the N2, N400 and late positive complex (LPC), we analyzed the old/new effects (repetition 1 vs. new presentation) and the extended repetition effects (repetitions 1 through 5). Compared to older children, younger children exhibited larger frontocentral N2 and N400 old/new effects. For extended face repetitions, negativity of the N2 and N400 decreased in a linear fashion in both age groups. For the LPC, an ERP component thought to reflect recollection, no significant old/new or extended repetition effects were found. Employing the same face recognition paradigm in 20 adults (Study 2), we found a significant N400 old/new effect at lateral frontal sites and a significant LPC repetition effect at parietal sites, with LPC amplitudes increasing linearly with the number of repetitions. This study clearly demonstrates differential developmental courses for the N400 and LPC pertaining to recognition memory for faces. It is concluded that face recognition in children is mediated by early and probably more automatic than conscious recognition processes. In adults, the LPC extended repetition effect indicates that adult face recognition memory is related to a conscious and graded recollection process rather than to an automatic recognition process.

  7. Renal transplantation in children less than 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoni, G; Malekzadeh, M H; Pennisi, A J; Ettenger, R B; Uittenbogaart, C H; Fine, R N

    1980-01-01

    19 young children (less than 5 years old) have received 31 renal transplants from 4 live relatives and 27 cadaver donors. The 2-year allograft survival rate for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from the 4 live donors was 75 +/- 22% while for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from 15 cadaver donors was 26 +/- 11%. 10 children are currently surviving with functioning allographs (7 cadavers and 3 live relatives); 4 have died and 5 are undergoing dialysis after the loss of at least one allograft. Despite the poor allograft survival rate the fact that 7 children are surviving with cadaver allografts indicates that the lack of a living related donor should not prevent transplants in young children. PMID:7002060

  8. Digital Games for Young Children Ages Three to Six: From Research to Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Debra A.; Fisk, Maria Chesley; Biely, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Young children ages 3 to 6 play a wide range of digital games, which are now available on large screens, handheld screens, electronic learning systems, and electronic toys, and their time spent with games is growing. This article examines effects of digital games and how they could be designed to best serve children's needs. A small body of…

  9. Grammaticality Judgments in Children: The Role of Age, Working Memory and Phonological Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of age, working memory span and phonological ability in the mastery of ten different grammatical constructions. Six- through eleven-year-old children (n = 68) and adults (n = 19) performed a grammaticality judgment task as well as tests of working memory capacity and receptive phonological ability. Children showed…

  10. An Exploratory Study of Aggression in School-Age Children: Underlying Factors and Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…

  11. Gastric emptying scintigraphy results in children are affected by age, anthropometric factors, and study duration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...

  12. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  13. Knowledge and Morality of School-Age Children and Adolescents Regarding Environmental Issues and Moral Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…

  14. Latchkey Children and School-Age Child Care: A Background Briefing. Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dale B.

    This background briefing paper synthesizes current thinking and practice on the issue of latchkey children and school-age child care (SACC). The paper defines the problem of latchkey children; reviews related literature and programmatic responses to the problem; reports responses of four southern states; and points out implications for policy…

  15. Screen-Related Sedentary Behaviours of School-Aged Children: Principals' and Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Meizi; Piche, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To solicit school principals' and teachers' perspectives on children's screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. Method: In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six…

  16. The Effects of Age at Arrival and Enclave Schools on the Academic Performance of Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Kalena E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between age at arrival and immigrant-receiving high schools (i.e., enclave schools) on the academic performance of first- and second-generation immigrant children using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). The CILS survey was conducted in two major immigrant-receiving cities in the…

  17. Examination of the Social Behavior of 4 Age Old Preschool Children According to Teacher Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amca, Dervise; Kivanç Öztug, Emine

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to compare the social behavior of children according to the teacher interviews. Screening model method has been used at this research which is one of the descriptive research methods. The study group of this research was created totally 691 children, from the age group of 4, which were observed at least 8 weeks…

  18. Factors Associated with Screen Time among School-Age Children in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Sung, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics with screen time among school-age children in Korea. This study employed a nonexperimental, cross-sectional study design. A total of 370 children attending four elementary schools participated in the study. Self-report…

  19. Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method: Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS; Samuelsson et al., 2005). The ILTS includes 1,045…

  20. Educational Interventions for Visual-Motor Deficiencies That Affect Handwriting in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikowski, Timothy J.

    This practicum was designed to remediate handwriting skills in school-aged children who displayed visual-motor deficiencies that affect mechanical skills. Practicum goals were to: (1) identify and diagnose children with handwriting delays; (2) involve school and parent interaction by involving them with pre- and post-program assessment; (3)…

  1. Developing Physiologic Stress Profiles for School-Age Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Aishah Y.; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Physiologic reactivity profiles were generated for 9 school-age children with a history of stuttering. Utilizing salivary sampling, stress biomarkers cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in response to normal daily stressors. Children with a history of stuttering were characterized as high or low autonomic reactors when compared to…

  2. Children as Knowledge Brokers of Playground Games and Rhymes in the New Media Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on data from a project on children's playground games and rhymes in the new media age. One objective of the project was to examine the relationship between traditional playground games and children's media cultures. As part of the project, two ethnographic studies of primary playgrounds took place in two schools, one in the…

  3. Concepts of Health and Sickness of Preschool and School Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Ellen

    An investigation was made of children's factual knowledge of health-related concepts and the cognitive implications of their answers to questionnaire items such as "What makes a person sick?", "What is medicine?", and "Do you know what a germ is?" Participants were 80 healthy children between approximately 3 and 15 years of age. An additional 61…

  4. Children's Books, 1976: A List of Books for Preschool through Junior High School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Virginia, Comp.

    Thirteenth in the series of annual guides to current children's books published by the Library of Congress, this guide lists titles chosen from the best of some 2,200 children's books published in 1976. Ranging in subject from Easter eggs and "Yankee Doodle" to vitamins and ecology--by way of Africa, computer-age mixups, suicidal lemmings, ancient…

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in School-Aged Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Heuvel, E.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Method: Twelve monolingual…

  6. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  7. Variability in Outcome for Children with an ASD Diagnosis at Age 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lauren M.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the variability in outcomes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at age 2. Research is needed to understand the children whose symptoms--or diagnoses--change over time. The objectives of this study were to examine the behavioral and diagnostic outcomes of a carefully defined sample of…

  8. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge from Age 4 to 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An Early Math Trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from age 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math…

  9. Age of Parental Concern, Diagnosis, and Service Initiation among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Colpe, Lisa J.; Pringle, Beverly A.; Kogan, Michael D.; Rice, Catherine; Blumberg, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require substantial support to address the core symptoms of ASD and co-occurring behavioral/developmental conditions. This study explores the early diagnostic experiences of school-aged children with ASD using survey data from a large probability-based national sample. Multivariate linear regressions…

  10. Differential Profiles of Risk of Self-Harm among Clinically Referred Primary School Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelkovska, Anne; Houghton, Stephen; Hopkins, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Risk of self-harm among clinic referred children aged 6- to 12-years-old was investigated using the recently developed Self-Harm Risk Assessment for Children (SHRAC) instrument which comprises six factors: Affect traits; verbalizing of self-harm; socialization; dissociation; self-directing; and self-appraisal. The SHRAC was completed by the…

  11. Prediction of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: Examination of Maternal and Paternal Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about risk factors for anxiety in young children. The current study investigated the value of a set of theoretically derived risk factors to predict symptoms of anxiety in a sample of preschool-aged children. Methods: Mothers (n = 632) and fathers (n = 249) completed questionnaires twice, 12 months apart. Measures were…

  12. Construction of Graphic Symbol Sequences by Preschool-Aged Children: Learning, Training, and Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poupart, Annick; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The use of augmentative and alternative communication systems based on graphic symbols requires children to learn to combine symbols to convey utterances. The current study investigated how children without disabilities aged 4 to 6 years (n = 74) performed on a simple sentence (subject-verb and subject-verb-object) transposition task (i.e., spoken…

  13. Children's Attitudes toward Older Adults and Aging: A Synthesis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Cara N.; Ricketts, Kristina G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves as a summation of literature on children's attitudes toward older adults and aging. Research indicates that the vast amount of information available provides varying levels of understanding toward children's actual views of older adults. Differences between measurements, settings, and procedures stand as barriers in…

  14. An Analysis of Personal Event Narratives Produced by School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Kristina M.; Ward-Lonergan, Jeannene M.

    This study compared and analyzed the language capabilities of 10 school-age children raised in either single parent homes resulting from divorce or in two parent families. More specifically, it compared the context and complexity of oral personal event narratives produced by both groups of children. The study also investigated the usefulness and…

  15. A feasibility study of wearable activity monitors for pre-adolescent school-age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding physical activity is the key to fighting childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using certian wearable devices to measure physical activity among children. A qualitative study was conducted with 25 children aged 7 to 10 yearsto assess acceptabi...

  16. A feasibility study of wearable activity monitors for pre-adolescent school-aged children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding physical activity is key in the fight against childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using certain wearable devices to measure physical activity among children. A qualitative study was conducted with 25 children aged 7 to 10 years to assess ac...

  17. Ambivalence in the Relationship of Adult Children to Aging Parents and In-Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, Andrea E.; Shuey, Kim M.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates ambivalence in adult children's relationships with their aging parents and in-laws. Focuses on factors predicting adult children's ambivalence toward parents and in-laws within a gendered kinship structure that shapes these relations. Concludes that ambivalence is a useful concept for representing the complexity of parent-child…

  18. Age at Assessment a Critical Factor When Monitoring Early Communicative Skills in Children with Galactosaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Fiona M.; DeJonge, Shannon M.; Coman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Sub-optimal language development is associated with the metabolic disorder galactosaemia (GAL). Some children with GAL are identified with language impairment from the initial stages of language learning, but a subset of children may exhibit disrupted developmental gains in speech and language skill after a period of age-appropriate skill…

  19. Age of Word Acquisition Effects in Treatment of Children with Phonological Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of the age of acquisition (AoA) of words were examined in the clinical treatment of 10 preschool children with phonological delays. Using a single-subject multiple-baseline experimental design, children were enrolled in one of four conditions that varied the AoA of the treated words (early vs. late acquired) relative to their…

  20. Children's Media Comprehension: The Relationship between Media Platform, Executive Functioning Abilities, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menkes, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Children's media comprehension was compared for material presented on television, computer, or touchscreen tablet. One hundred and thirty-two children were equally distributed across 12 groups defined by age (4- or 6-years-olds), gender, and the three media platforms. Executive functioning as measured by attentional control, cognitive…

  1. Preschool Age Children, Divorce and Adjustment: A Case Study in Greek Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…

  2. Culture and diet among Chinese American children aged 9–13 years: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years in community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX using constructs fro...

  3. Impact of Contact on the Development of Children's Positive Stereotyping about Aging Language Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong See, Sheree T.; Nicoladis, Elena

    2010-01-01

    This study examined young children's (M = 38 months) beliefs about the aging of language competence using a modified mutual exclusivity paradigm (cf. Markman, 1990). Children were shown pairs of objects (familiar and unfamiliar) and were asked by a younger and older experimenter to point to the object in the pair to which a novel non-word…

  4. How Children Aged Seven to Twelve Organize the Opening Sequence in a Map Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Using the methods of conversation analysis, the opening sequences of a map task in the interactions of sixteen children aged seven to twelve were analyzed. The analytical concerns driving the study were who started, how they started, and how children dealt with differential access to information and the identification of phases within the opening.…

  5. Age Effects of Reported Child Maltreatment in a Canadian Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Diane C.

    2005-01-01

    The general purpose of this study was to examine the proportions of children and adolescents identified with behavioral, emotional and cognitive clinical findings and disabilities. Data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) were used in this study. Participants in this study included 7672 children aged 0 to 15…

  6. Psychiatric Disorders among Children with Cerebral Palsy at School Starting Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorgaas, H. M.; Hysing, M.; Elgen, I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present population study was to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the impact of comorbid conditions. A cohort of children with CP born 2001-2003, and living in the Western Health Region of Norway were evaluated at school starting age. Parents were interviewed with the…

  7. Talker Familiarity and Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers' voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German-English…

  8. Speech Disfluency in School-Age Children's Conversational and Narrative Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Logan, Kenneth J.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to (a) compare the speech fluency of school-age children who do and do not stutter (CWS and CWNS, respectively) within 2 standard diagnostic speaking contexts (conversation and narration) while also controlling for speaking topic, and (b) examine the extent to which children's performance on such discourse tasks is…

  9. Young Children's Learning of Novel Digital Interfaces: How Technology Experience, Age, and Design Come into Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilutz, Shuli

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at the relationship between age, technology experience, and design factors in determining young children's comprehension of novel digital interfaces. In Experiment 1, 35 preschoolers played three games that varied in complexity and familiarity. Parental questionnaires were used to assess children's previous technology experience.…

  10. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  11. An Exploration of the Participation of Kindergarten-Aged Hong Kong Children in Extra Curricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Eva Yi Hung; Cheng, Doris Pui Wah

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a mixed-methods research design to investigate the extra curricular participation of kindergarten-aged Hong Kong children, based on reports provided by 1260 parents, and parents' perceptions of their children's extra curricular participation, through nine individual interviews. The results of the survey indicated that…

  12. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Charisse L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  13. Dietary Diversity as a Correlate of Undernutrition among School-Age Children in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall…

  14. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  15. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  16. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  17. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  18. Quantitative versus Qualitative Dimensions of Prosocial Development: Age-Related Contributors to Children's Donating Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Cheri L.; Hudson, Lynne M.

    1985-01-01

    Sixty second-, fourth-, and sixth-grade children were given opportunities to donate money to other children in order to establish age-related differences and demand characteristics contributing to variability in donating behavior. Discussion focuses on necessity of incorporating both qualitative and quantitative dimensions in general models of the…

  19. Neurocognitive and Behavioral Outcomes of Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at Age Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Zachary E.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Malesa, Elizabeth E.; Lee, Evon Batey; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Newsom, Cassandra R.; Crittendon, Julie; Stone, Wendy L.

    2012-01-01

    Later-born siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are at increased risk for ASD as well as qualitatively similar traits not meeting clinical cutoffs for the disorder. This study examined age five neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes of 39 younger siblings of children with ASD (Sibs-ASD) and 22 younger siblings of typically…

  20. E-Safety and Web 2.0 for Children Aged 11-16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharples, M.; Graber, R.; Harrison, C.; Logan, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a survey and interviews with children aged 11-16 years, teachers and parents on their attitudes to e-safety in relation to social networking and media creation (Web 2.0) and their practices at school and at home. The results showed that 74% of the children surveyed have used social network (SN) sites and that a…

  1. The Relationship between Attractiveness and Social Participation in Preschool Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory J.

    A total of 42 middle-class preschool children (23 boys and 19 girls) ranging in age from 33 to 68 months were studied to determine whether facial attractiveness was related to level of social participation (i.e., the degree to which children played near and interacted with each other). According to a time-sampling procedure, each child was…

  2. Inside the Mind of a Child: Selecting Literature Appropriate to the Developmental Age of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocklin, Joanne

    Important reasons exist for differences among the various genres in children's literature, related to the emotional and intellectual development of the reader. The themes presented in good children's fiction are always the same ones, no matter what the age: the need for love, the importance of close attachments, the fear of abandonment and…

  3. Mexican Immigrant Fathers' and Mothers' Engagement with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Ziarat; Shipman, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    This study examined mothers' and fathers' reports of their time spent in their school-age children's care and academic work and the relationships between socioeconomic status and social support variables with fathers' time spent in children's care and academic work within two-parent Mexican immigrant families. Mother and father dyads from 79…

  4. Children's Recognition of Fairness and Others' Welfare in a Resource Allocation Task: Age Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzo, Michael T.; Elenbaas, Laura; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns,…

  5. Height and age adjustment for cross sectional studies of lung function in children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, S; Rona, R J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No standard exists for the adjustment of lung function for height and age in children. Multiple regression should not be used on untransformed data because, for example, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), though normally distributed for height, age, and sex, has increasing standard deviation. A solution to the conflict is proposed. METHODS: Spirometry on representative samples of children aged 6.5 to 11.99 years in primary schools in England. After exclusion of children who did not provide two repeatable blows 910 white English boys and 722 girls had data on FEV1 and height. Means and standard deviations of FEV1 divided by height were plotted to determine whether logarithmic transformation of FEV1 was appropriate. Multiple regression was used to give predicted FEV1 for height and age on the transformed scale; back transformation gave predicted values in litres. Other lung function measures were analysed, and data on inner city children, children from ethnic minority groups, and Scottish children were described. RESULTS: After logarithmic (ln) transformation of FEV1 standard deviation was constant. The ratios of actual and predicted values of FEV1 were normally distributed in boys and girls. From the means and standard deviations of these distributions, and the predicted values, centiles and standard deviation scores can be calculated. CONCLUSION: The method described is valid because the assumption of stable variance for multiple regression was satisfied on the log scale and the variation of ratios of actual to predicted values on the original scale was well described by a normal distribution. The adoption of the method will lead to uniformity and greater ease of comparison of research findings. PMID:1440464

  6. Day Care for School-Age Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unco, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report provides some perspectives on existing school-age child care and proposes some alternative school-age care program models which maximize the use of community resources and, thus, reduce potentially high costs. Chapters One and Two examine the current school-age "child care" services both nationally and in Region X (Oregon, Washington…

  7. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  8. Motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C; Lemmink, K A P M; Hartman, E

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of children with visual impairments (VI) aged 7 to 10 years on different types of motor skills. Furthermore, the association between the degree of the VI and motor performance was examined. The motor performance of 48 children with VI (32 males, 16 females; mean age 8y 10mo [SD 1y 1mo]) was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Their performance was compared with 48 children without VI (33 males, 15 females; mean age 8y 9mo [SD 1y 1mo]). Children with VI showed the poorest performance compared with peers without VI on unimanual speed, eye-hand coordination, catching, static balance, and dynamic balance while moving slowly. There was no significant difference between children with moderate and severe VI, except for bimanual coordination in 7- to 8-year-olds and eye-hand coordination in both the 7- to 8-year-olds and 9- to 10-year-olds, favouring the children with moderate VI. The poor performance compared with children without VI is related to vision, but the degree of the VI does not appear to relate to motor performance, except when associated with bimanual and eye-hand coordination. For children with VI, it seems very important to adjust the environmental context and task to enhance motor performance.

  9. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

  10. Age of Entry to Kindergarten and Children's Academic Achievement and Socioemotional Development.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    RESEARCH FINDINGS: Data on more than 900 children participating in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were analyzed to examine the effect of age of entry to kindergarten on children's functioning in early elementary school. Children's academic achievement and socioemotional development were measured repeatedly from the age of 54 months through 3rd grade. With family background factors and experience in child care in the first 54 months of life controlled, hierarchical linear modeling (growth curve) analysis revealed that children who entered kindergarten at younger ages had higher (estimated) scores in kindergarten on the Woodcock-Johnson (W-J) Letter-Word Recognition subtest but received lower ratings from kindergarten teachers on Language and Literacy and Mathematical Thinking scales. Furthermore, children who entered kindergarten at older ages evinced greater increases over time on 4 W-J subtests (i.e., Letter-Word Recognition, Applied Problems, Memory for Sentences, Picture Vocabulary) and outperformed children who started kindergarten at younger ages on 2 W-J subtests in 3rd grade (i.e., Applied Problems, Picture Vocabulary). Age of entry proved unrelated to socioemotional functioning. PRACTICE: The fact that age-of-entry effects were small in magnitude and dwarfed by other aspects of children's family and child care experiences suggests that age at starting school should not be regarded as a major determinant of children's school achievement, but that it may merit consideration in context with other probably more important factors (e.g., child's behavior and abilities).

  11. Motor Skill Performance of School-Age Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, S.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Hartman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of children with visual impairments (VI) aged 7 to 10 years on different types of motor skills. Furthermore, the association between the degree of the VI and motor performance was examined. The motor performance of 48 children with VI (32 males, 16 females; mean age 8y 10mo [SD 1y 1mo]) was…

  12. Development of Daily Activities in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Schie, Petra; Dallmeijer, Annet; Jongmans, Marian; Lindeman, Eline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the course of capabilities in self-care, mobility, and social function in school-age children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate associations with CP-, child-, and family-characteristics. A clinic-based sample of children with CP (n = 116; 76 males, 40 females; mean age 6 y 3 mo, SD 12 mo) was…

  13. Methods of Engaging Preschool-age Children in Science Practices During Astronomy Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Providing preschool children with science learning experiences may improve their later science literacy. Further, research shows that children are capable of engaging in the same kinds of scientific reasoning as adults. An initial step towards increasing the opportunities for children to engage in science is to improve our understanding of how to support children's engagement in the practices of science in astronomy. To this end, the My Sky Tonight project is developing and evaluating astronomy activities for informal science educators to use with young children. I have gathered video of a series of astronomy workshops that engaged preschool-age children with My Sky Tonight-developed activities. This paper describes features of these museum-based astronomy activities that supported young children in evidence-based science practices.

  14. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    PubMed

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  15. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age

    PubMed Central

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L.; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001–2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9–10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952

  16. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Kippler, Maria; El Arifeen, Shams; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Moore, Sophie E.; Vahter, Marie

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young children

  17. Transient Elastography-Based Liver Stiffness Age-Dependently Increases in Children

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhara, Daisuke; Cho, Yuki; Shintaku, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Pediatric use of liver transient elastography (TE) is attractive for its non-invasiveness, but reference values have not been established. We aimed to determine reference values for TE in children. Methods In pediatric patients (1 to 18 years), TE (FibroScan®) with an M probe was used for both liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and measurement of hepatic fat deposition by using a controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). The patients were divided into three relevant age groups: preschoolers (1 to 5 years), elementary school children (6 to 11 years), and adolescents (12 to 18 years). Overweight or obese patients or those with known liver disease, elevated serum liver enzymes, or hepatic echogenic abnormality were excluded from the study. Results Among 139 children, 123 (88.5%; 62 male; median age, 11.7 years; age range, 1.3 to 17.2 years) were successfully subjected to M-probe TE without anesthesia. Median LSM increased with age: it was 3.4 kPa (2.3 to 4.6 kPa, 5th to 95th percentiles) at ages 1 to 5 years; 3.8 (2.5 to 6.1) kPa at ages 6 to 11; and 4.1 (3.3 to 7.9) kPa at ages 12 to 18 (P = 0.001). Median CAP was not age dependent: it was 183 (112 to 242) for ages 1 to 18 years. Conclusions M-probe TE is suitable in a wide age range of children from age 1 year up. In children without evidence of liver disease, LSM has an age-dependent increase, whereas CAP does not differ between ages 1 and 18. PMID:27861607

  18. [Regularities of the egocentric spatial memory development in children aged 24-60 months].

    PubMed

    Dashniani, M G; Chkhikivishvili, N Ts; Naneĭshvili, T L; Burdzhanadze, M A; Maglakelidze, G A

    2009-09-01

    In order to assess development of the egocentric system of the spatial short-term memory in children (n=66) of different ages (24-60 months) the Inverted Delayed Reaction test has been used. It was found that in the children aged 24-36 months regularities of performance of the Inverted Delayed Reaction test significantly differ in conditions of different loads onto the mechanisms of dead reckoning; the children aged 36-60 months do not show sensitivity to different loads. In children aged 42+/-4 months functional elimination of any of the sensory system (visual, kinesthetic, vestibular) during rotation significantly deteriorated results of the Inverted Delayed Reaction test performance, while in children aged 60+/-4 months number of correct responses decreased if two or three sensory systems were eliminated simultaneously. The data obtained permit to conclude that the Inverted Delayed Reaction test is sufficiently sensitive for evaluation development of the egocentric spatial memory system in children and that formation of the dead reckoning mechanisms starts in an age of 24 months and in the period of 24-60 months its further upgrading does occur.

  19. Supportive parenting mediates neighborhood socioeconomic disparities in children's antisocial behavior from ages 5 to 12.

    PubMed

    Odgers, Candice L; Caspi, Avshalom; Russell, Michael A; Sampson, Robert J; Arseneault, Louise; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-08-01

    We report a graded relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and children's antisocial behavior that (a) can be observed at school entry, (b) widens across childhood, (c) remains after controlling for family-level SES and risk, and (d) is completely mediated by maternal warmth and parental monitoring (defined throughout as supportive parenting). The children were participants in the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study (N = 2,232), which prospectively tracked the development of children and their neighborhoods across childhood. Direct and independent effects of neighborhood-level SES on children's antisocial behavior were observed as early as age 5, and the gap between children living in deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods widened as children approached adolescence. By age 12, the effect of neighborhood SES on children's antisocial behavior was as large as the effect observed for our most robust predictor of antisocial behavior: sex (Cohen d = 0.51 when comparing children growing up in deprived vs. more affluent neighborhoods in comparison to Cohen d = 0.53 when comparing antisocial behavior among boys vs. girls). However, these relatively large differences in children's levels and rate of change in antisocial behavior across deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods were completely mediated by supportive parenting practices. The implications of our findings for studying and reducing socioeconomic disparities in antisocial behavior among children are discussed.

  20. Psychiatric disorders among children with cerebral palsy at school starting age.

    PubMed

    Bjorgaas, H M; Hysing, M; Elgen, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present population study was to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the impact of comorbid conditions. A cohort of children with CP born 2001-2003, and living in the Western Health Region of Norway were evaluated at school starting age. Parents were interviewed with the diagnostic instrument Kiddie-SADS, to find the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Sixty-seven children participated, 43 boys, with mean age 88 months (SD 6,8 months). Most children had spastic CP, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I and II were found in 2/3 of the group. We found the diagnostic instrument appropriate for GMFCS levels I-IV. Child psychiatric disorders were found in 57% of the children, including 28 children meeting criteria for an attention deficit disorder, which was the most common. Communication problem was significantly associated with having a psychiatric disorder, whereas intellectual disability, type of CP and functional level did not account for significant differences. Subthreshold symptoms were found in 33 children, and 42 children (75%) met criteria for either psychiatric disorder, or mental health symptoms. One in four (14 children) were considered well-functioning from a mental health point of view. We conclude with a recommendation for early psychiatric evaluation of all children with CP.

  1. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  2. Neurodevelopmental outcome at early school age of children born to mothers with gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ornoy, A; Wolf, A; Ratzon, N; Greenbaum, C; Dulitzky, M

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To study the metabolic derangements in the second half of pregnancy caused by gestational diabetes, on the long term development of children.
METHODS—The neuropsychological function of 32 school age children born to 32 mothers with well controlled gestational diabetes and 57 control children matched by age, birth order, and parental socioeconomic status was studied.
RESULTS—There were no differences in head circumference and height, but the children born to diabetic mothers were heavier. The verbal IQ scores of index children below the age of 9 years were lower than those of control children. No differences were found between the groups in various sensory and motor functions and in the Touwen and Prechtl neurological test. The young index group children performed less well than controls in fine and gross motor functions, as observed on the Bruininks-Oseretzky test of motor proficiency. The scores of young children born to mothers with gestational diabetes were also lower than controls on the Pollack tapper test, and there were more index group children who scored abnormally on the parents' Conners questionnaire. No correlation was found between the performance of the index group children on various neurodevelopmental tests and the severity of perinatal complications. The differences tended to disappear with age.
CONCLUSIONS—Gestational diabetes, as a result of the metabolic abnormalities in the second half of pregnancy, induces long term minor neurological deficits which are more pronounced in younger children. There does not seem to be any direct relation between the appearance of congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental outcome.

 PMID:10375355

  3. The Oportunidades program increases the linear growth of children enrolled at young ages in urban Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; García-Guerra, Armando; García, Raquel; Dominguez, Clara; Rivera, Juan; Neufeld, Lynnette M

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of Mexico's conditional cash transfer program, Oportunidades, on the growth of children <24 mo of age living in urban areas. Beneficiary families received cash transfers, a fortified food (targeted to pregnant and lactating women, children 6-23 mo, and children with low weight 2-4 y), and curative health services, among other benefits. Program benefits were conditional on preventative health care utilization and attendance of health and nutrition education sessions. We estimated the impact of the program after 2 y of operation in a panel of 432 children <24 mo of age at baseline (2002). We used difference-in-difference propensity score matching, which takes into account nonrandom program participation and the effects of unobserved fixed characteristics on outcomes. All models controlled for child age, sex, baseline anthropometry, and maternal height. Anthropometric Z-scores were calculated using the new WHO growth reference standards. There was no overall association between program participation and growth in children 6 to 24 mo of age. Children in intervention families younger than 6 mo of age at baseline grew 1.5 cm (P < 0.05) more than children in comparison families, corresponding to 0.41 height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) (P < 0.05). They also gained an additional 0.76 kg (P < 0.01) or 0.47 weight-for-height Z-scores (P < 0.05). Children living in the poorest intervention households tended (0.05 < P < 0.10) to be taller than comparison children (0.9 cm, 0.27 HAZ). Oportunidades, with its strong nutrition component, is an effective tool to improve the growth of infants in poor urban households.

  4. The development of children ages 6 to 14.

    PubMed

    Eccles, J S

    1999-01-01

    The years between 6 and 14--middle childhood and early adolescence--are a time of important developmental advances that establish children's sense of identity. During these years, children make strides toward adulthood by becoming competent, independent, self-aware, and involved in the world beyond their families. Biological and cognitive changes transform children's bodies and minds. Social relationships and roles change dramatically as children enter school, join programs, and become involved with peers and adults outside their families. During middle childhood, children develop a sense of self-esteem and individuality, comparing themselves with their peers. They come to expect they will succeed or fail at different tasks. They may develop an orientation toward achievement that will color their response to school and other challenges for many years. In early adolescence, the tumultuous physical and social changes that accompany puberty, the desire for autonomy and distance from the family, and the transition from elementary school to middle school or junior high can all cause problems for young people. When adolescents are in settings (in school, at home, or in community programs) that are not attuned to their needs and emerging independence, they can lose confidence in themselves and slip into negative behavior patterns such as truancy and school dropout. This article examines the developmental changes that characterize the years from 6 to 14, and it highlights ways in which the organization of programs, schools, and family life can better support positive outcomes for youths.

  5. The understanding of word definitions in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Marinellie, Sally A

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated children's understanding of unfamiliar noun and verb definitions in tasks that were manipulated for syntactic and semantic properties of definitions. The study was also designed to examine the relation between understanding word definitions and the skills of syntactic awareness and making inferences. A total of 117 children over three upper elementary grades (3, 4, 5) participated in the study. The definitional tasks were presented in multiple choice format, with each definition followed by four context sentences. In the syntactic/semantic condition, which included nouns and verbs, the context sentences were manipulated for syntactic and semantic properties. In the semantic condition, which included only nouns, the context sentences were manipulated only for semantics. All children also completed a syntactic awareness task and a making inferences task. Results indicated that children did not make significant grade improvements in the semantic task, but did so in the syntactic/semantic task, suggesting the dependence of syntactic cues on definitional understanding. Findings further suggested that inferencing and syntactic awareness are important to children's ability in understanding a definition for an unfamiliar word and to integrating that meaning into a context sentence.

  6. The applicability of Willems' method for age estimation in southern Turkish children: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Onat Altan, Halenur; Altan, Ahmet; Bilgiç, Fundagül; Akıncı Sözer, Özlem; Damlar, İbrahim

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the applicability and accuracy of Willems' method for assessing southern Turkish children and to analyze the practicability of this method in different age groups for both genders. Panoramic radiographs of 756 children (378 females, 378 males) aged between 5 and 14.99 years were examined by one observer. This retrospective study involved a contemporary southern Turkish population. The chronological ages of the subjects were divided into 10 groups. These 10 groups consisted of children of the following ages 5 and 14.99. Relationships between continuous variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The paired t-test was used to compare all data according to gender and age groups. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant for all statistical data. According to the results, a very high correlation was found for both girls (r(2) = 0.946) and for boys (r(2) = 0.940). Dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) were consistent for girls in the four age groups (5-5.99, 6-6.99, 12-12.99, and 14-14.99) and for boys in the three age groups (5-5.99,13-13.99, 14-14.99). The maturity score of Willems' Belgian samples of the DA was applicable to seven groups of the southern Turkish children. The present study reports that Willems' method is more accurate for girls than for boys.

  7. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge

    PubMed Central

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-01-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children. PMID:25145389

  8. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge.

    PubMed

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-11-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children.

  9. The Relationship Between Children's Age and Disclosures of Sexual Abuse During Forensic Interviews.

    PubMed

    Leach, Chelsea; Powell, Martine B; Sharman, Stefanie J; Anglim, Jeromy

    2017-02-01

    Children's disclosures of sexual abuse during forensic interviews are fundamental to the investigation of cases. Research examining the relationship between age and disclosure has shown mixed results; the aim of the current study was to clarify and extend our knowledge by modeling linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of age on disclosure. Child sexual abuse reports made by children, their caregivers, or mandated reporters over a 12-month period to police in one state of Australia were examined. Of the 527 children (age range 3-16 years) offered a forensic interview, 81% disclosed abuse during it. The other 19% did not disclose or refused the interview. Age had both linear and quadratic effects, whereby disclosure increased with age until 11 years, after which disclosure decreased with age to 16 years. The effect of age on disclosure was moderated by five variables: abuse severity, the child-suspect relationship, suspects' violence histories, delay of report to police, and children's previous disclosures. Particular groups of children had lower likelihoods of disclosing abuse in forensic interviews than others, such as adolescents who alleged abuse against suspects with histories of violent offending. By identifying these groups, targeted strategies may be developed to help increase their disclosure rates.

  10. [Bolsa Família: food and nutrition insecurity of children under five years of age].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Flávia; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha; da Costa, Islandia Bezerra; Almeida, Claudia Choma Bettega; Matuda, Nívea da Silva

    2014-05-01

    This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of the population base conducted in the town of Colombo in the state of Paraná. The objectives were to identify the prevalence of food insecurity in families that are beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program and the factors related to this condition, and describe the nutritional status of children under five years of age. Analyses of association were performed using Fisher's exact test. The sample included 442 families, of which 168 have children under five years of age. The Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale was applied to evaluate food insecurity and the nutritional status of the 199 children evaluated was determined by the height-for-age, weight-for-age and body mass-for-age indices in accordance with the WHO reference values for 2006. The prevalence of food insecurity was 81.6%. Overweight and stunting among children coexisted. Food insecurity was found to be associated with the height-for-age index among children under two years of age. The per capita income and food deficits influenced the situation of food insecurity significantly.

  11. Rotavirus Vaccination Coverage among Children Aged 2-59 Months: A Report from Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing; Wang, Ming; Xu, Jianxiong; Zhang, Chunhuan; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Wei; Fu, Chuanxi

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to estimate the Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccination coverage (VC) and timeliness among children aged 2 to 59 months in Guangzhou, China. Methods An electronic system-based VC survey was conducted using stratified cluster random sampling. Results We reported an overall Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine coverage of 25.3% among children aged 2-59 months (2-8 months, 2.6%) in Guangzhou, China. Conclusion Great efforts should be taken to increase LLR VC in eligible children in Guangzhou, China. PMID:23840828

  12. Biopsychosocial consequences of sweetened drink consumption in children 0-6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Saalfield, Sarah; Jackson-Allen, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    North American children consume an extraordinary amount of sweetened drinks--sodas, juice drinks, and "ades." Health care providers, educators, and parents have long been concerned about the effects sweetened drink consumption (SDC) has on the bodies and minds of children. This review of the literature will examine the current evidence regarding the factors contributing to excess SDC, and the health consequences of SDC consumption in children, especially infants and children under 6 years of age, with the goal of informing clinical pediatric nursing, future research, and policy development aimed at reversing the long-standing trend of rising SDC.

  13. Handwriting performance in preterm children compared with term peers at age 6 to 7 years.

    PubMed

    Feder, Katya P; Majnemer, Annette; Bourbonnais, Daniel; Platt, Robert; Blayney, Marc; Synnes, Anne

    2005-03-01

    Preterm infants are at high risk for developmental impairments at school age. However, the impact of these impairments on important life skills, such as handwriting, is unknown. Forty-eight first-grade children (27 males, 21 females; mean age 6y 7mo, SD 3.9mo; range 6y 1mo to 7y 3mo) born preterm (birthweight < 1250g; gestational age < 34wks), without major physical or cognitive disabilities, were matched to 69 healthy, term control children (32 males, 37 females; mean age 6y 10mo, SD 3.6mo; range 6y 3mo to 7y 4mo) by sex and school class. All children were assessed using the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting-Manuscript and several sensorimotor measures. Preterm children demonstrated significantly lower legibility and slower speed scores (p < 0.01) compared with control children for most of the handwriting tasks. Factors associated with legibility were visual perception and eye-hand coordination (r < 0.50; p < 0.05) and sex (r < 0.12; p = 0.01). In-hand manipulation and finger identification (r < 0.43; p < 0.01) were significantly correlated with slow handwriting speeds. Behaviour difficulties associated with hyperactivity and poor attention (Connors Abbreviated Symptoms Questionnaire) had a confounding influence on both legibility and speed. These findings may help guide early identification efforts and medical/therapeutic interventions for preterm children.

  14. Predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes at preschool age for children with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Wang, Tien-Ni; Wang, Lan-Wan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight children without major impairment at 5 years of age, as well as to identify the contribution of early neurodevelopmental assessment to preterm children's later developmental outcomes. The participants in this study included 126 children who were prematurely born with very low birth weight. Outcomes of the childrens' later development were measured in tests that factored cognitive function, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. The results indicated that more than 50% of full-scale intelligence and 30% of both motor performance and adaptive behavior at the age of 5 can be explained by four predictors. The four predictors include preterm children's medical complications at birth, maternal education, early motor assessments, and cognitive assessments. Adding each test score obtained in early ages provides additional information to predict children's cognitive, motor, and adaptive behavior at 5 years of age. Manifold assessments conducted in multiple time periods strengthen the predictive values of later developmental outcomes. In addition, the findings of this study indicate that very low birth weight children tend to have lower adaptive behavior at 5 years old. With regard to our findings, we believe that having adaptive function is a reflection of a child's overall integrated abilities. Further study is warranted to increase understanding of this topic, as well as to be able to predict adaptive strengths and weakness and pinpoint limiting factors that may be useful for targeting behaviors in intervention.

  15. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language.

  16. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD.

  17. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls.

    PubMed

    Bogliotti, C; Serniclaes, W; Messaoud-Galusi, S; Sprenger-Charolles, L

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of chronological age and reading level controls. Children identified and discriminated /do-to/ syllables along a voice onset time (VOT) continuum. Results showed that children with dyslexia discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs less accurately than did chronological age and reading level controls and also showed higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic contrasts. These results suggest that children with dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic units rather than phonemic units. The origin of allophonic perception in the course of perceptual development and its implication for reading acquisition are discussed.

  18. Determinants of reliability in psychiatric surveys of children aged 6-12.

    PubMed

    Fallon, T; Schwab-Stone, M

    1994-11-01

    The reliability of young children's self reports of psychiatric information is a concern of epidemiologists and clinicians alike. This paper explores the determinants of test-retest reliability in a sample of children from the general population using reliability coefficients constructed from a kappa statistic. Age, cognitive ability, and gender are related to consistency of reports in a test-retest paradigm. Controlling for age, cognitive ability and gender, children report more reliably on observable behaviors, and less reliably on questions involving unspecified time, reflections of one's own thoughts, and comparison of themselves with others. The reliability of reports of emotions lies between these two extremes. Surprisingly, sentence length of up to 40 words and psychiatric impairment of the child as measured by the Child Global Assessment Scale did not influence reliability. As might be expected, parents' reports of their children are more reliable than their children's reports.

  19. The prevalence of asthma in children of elementary school age in western New York.

    PubMed

    Lwebuga-Mukasa, J S; Dunn-Georgiou, E

    2000-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of caregiver-reported asthma in children 4 to 13 years old in metropolitan western New York State, surveys were conducted during 1997-1999 in the Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Iroquois, and Gowanda school systems. Questionnaires (3,889) were sent to the homes of elementary school children in nine schools in western New York. The caregivers were asked to complete a 13-item questionnaire for the child. Of the questionnaires, 60.5% (2,353/3,889) were completed. Of all children, 18% had physician-diagnosed asthma. Of children diagnosed with asthma, 86% were taking medication. Symptoms were consistent with suspected undiagnosed asthma for 13% of the children. Buffalo had the highest rate of diagnosed asthma (20%) for the age group. Gowanda had a prevalence of 18%, Iroquois 16%, and Niagara Falls 15%. Variations were observed in asthma prevalence rates among different racial/ethnic groups. In general, boys had a significantly (P = .001) increased odds of being asthmatic compared with girls. Overall, African-Americans and Hispanic/Latino children had significantly (P = .012 and P = .005, respectively) higher asthma prevalence rates, two to five times those of their Caucasian peers. In Gowanda, the prevalence of diagnosed asthma among Native American children was 23%, compared to 15% among Caucasian children. Of diagnosed Native American children, 71% were female. In Gowanda, a significant association (P = .007) of asthma among children in split-grade classes was observed compared to nonsplit grades. Of Native American children in split grades, 60% were diagnosed asthmatics. These observations reveal a high prevalence of asthma in the age group of 4 to 13 year olds in western New York. Local variations in potential triggers of asthma need to be considered when advising asthmatics. The results suggest that some grades have a disproportionate amount of children with asthma. The implications of asthma for children's early education need to be examined

  20. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  1. Who Uses Services for School Age Children: Evidence from the National Evaluation of the Children's Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Tiziana; Plewis, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The UK government has made integration of services for children a priority with the target being a better and more integrated provision of preventative services under the various schemes such as the Children's Fund and Sure Start. This article gathers evidence from the National Evaluation of the Children Fund with the aim of analysing the…

  2. Television Commercial Preferences of Children Aged 3-6 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtsever Kilicgun, Muge

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: When children watch television, they are exposed to commercial advertisements whose general purpose is to make a positive impression on viewers about a commodity or service in order to drive the sales of that commodity or service. Due to their voiced and moving images, their setup and characters, and their being short and…

  3. [THERAPY OF TRANSIENT LACTASE INSUFFICIENCY OF CHILDREN IN PECTORAL AGE].

    PubMed

    Marushko, Yu V; Iovitsa, T V

    2015-01-01

    Thus, we have discovered that the children of the first half-year of life have different degrees of severity of transient lactase insufficiency basing on the results of hydrogen respiratory test. It was set that the starting dose of enzyme lactase must depend on the degree of severity of displays of transient lactase insufficiency, taking into account the indexes of hydrogen respiratory test.

  4. The Understanding of Word Definitions in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated children's understanding of unfamiliar noun and verb definitions in tasks that were manipulated for syntactic and semantic properties of definitions. The study was also designed to examine the relation between understanding word definitions and the skills of syntactic awareness and making inferences. A total of 117 children…

  5. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related…

  6. Calcium absorption and vitamin D status in school age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D) in adults may enhance calcium absorption (Ca-Abs). There are few similar pediatric data. We evaluated the relationship between 25-D and Ca-Abs by pooling data from 439 Ca-Abs measurements over a 15-yr period at our center in 251 healthy children 4.9 to 16....

  7. "On the Move": Primary Age Children in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Philip; Hayden, Mary

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this article is the experience of the growing numbers of children who, as one of the consequences of increasing globalisation, move between cultures internationally as a result of their parents' occupations. Beginning with a review of research relating to transition, the article goes on to describe a study at an international school…

  8. Metacomprehension and School-Aged Children's Reading: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ann Jaffe

    Several research studies were reviewed to formulate a definition of metacomprehension in elementary school children. Although much additional research is needed, the one conclusion evident from the review is that metacomprehension is not a unitary phenomenon. It encompasses several kinds of abilities and degrees of awareness that may appear at…

  9. Classification Behavior in Children Thirty-Six Months of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimada, Shoko; Sano, Ryogoro

    The purposes of this study were to examine the development of classification ability in 36 month olds and to clarify the positive relationship between classification ability and general cognitive development. Subjects, 16 Japanese children (8 males, 8 females), were individually tested by the use of 12 colored pictures of animals and vehicles.…

  10. Development: Ages & Stages--Helping Children Manage Fears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2004-01-01

    By watching, listening, and offering gentle reassurance, you can help young children work through their fears. Sudden noises, movement, or unfamiliar people often frighten babies. After 12 months of nurturing experiences with familiar teachers and routines, a baby is more prepared and less easily startled. Preschoolers have a variety of fears such…

  11. International Implications of Lead Poisoning in School Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    The United States and the World Health Organization have worked to decrease lead exposure in children, but despite these efforts lead poisoning continues to exist in industrialized and developing countries. Prevention is the only way to preclude the health, academic and behavioral problems that occur due to the effects of lead. Public awareness…

  12. School Mobility and School-Age Children's Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Archambault, Isabelle; Leventhal, Tama; Dion, Eric; Anderson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how nonpromotional school changes, a potentially major event for children, were associated with 3 forms of social maladjustment: isolation/withdrawal, affiliation with maladjusted peers, and aggression toward peers. Given that school mobility frequently co-occurs with family transitions, the moderating role of these transitions…

  13. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  14. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  15. Occupational Therapy for School-Aged Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…

  16. School-Age Children with Disabilities: Technology Implications for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P., Jr.; VanBievliet, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Focuses on the provision of technology to children with disabilities and examines school-subsidized provision of assistive devices and related services. Reviews federal technology legislation and grants to states, school technology teams, role of the elementary school counselor, various ethical considerations, and selection of appropriate…

  17. Excess weight gain in elementary school-aged Hispanic children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current data was collected as part of a 6-year longitudinal study in which elementary schools from a southeast Texas school district were provided with resources to encourage children to make healthier choices. The objective of the current study was to evaluate children’s change in body mass ind...

  18. Overflowing Every Idea of Age, Very Young Children as Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesen, Nina

    2013-01-01

    In this article I explore if and how very young children can be the educators of their early childhood educators. I describe and discuss a story constructed from a fieldwork done in one early childhood setting in Norway. The story is read with Levinas and his concepts Said and Saying. Further I discuss if and how this might be understood as…

  19. Communication Attitudes of Japanese School-Age Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E. Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version…

  20. Behavioral Problems in Turkish Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ural, Ozana; Kanlikilicer, Pinar

    2010-01-01

    To diagnose behavioral problems in preschool children, and to look for an appropriate solution, is vital to prevent the problem from becoming permanent and insoluble. Teachers, working in preschool education institutions, need some instruments to diagnose behavioral problems of their students in order to help them and their parents. In this study,…

  1. Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    de Bie, Henrica M. A.; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Ouwendijk, Mieke; Oostrom, Kim J.; Wilke, Marko; Boersma, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Study Design 18 children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 34 SGA born children (18 with and 16 without postnatal catch-up growth) participated in this study. All children were between 4 and 7 years old. Cognitive functioning was assessed by IQ and memory testing (Digit/Word Span and Location Learning). A newly developed fMRI picture encoding task was completed by all children in order to assess brain regions involved in memory processes. Results Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that SGA children had IQ’s within the normal range but lower than in AGA and poorer performances across measures of memory. Using fMRI, we observed memory related activity in posterior parahippocampal gyrus as well as the hippocampus proper. Additionally, activation was seen bilaterally in the prefrontal gyrus. Children born SGA showed less activation in the left parahippocampal region compared to AGA. Conclusions This is the first fMRI study demonstrating different brain activation patterns in 4-7 year old children born SGA, suggesting that intrauterine growth restriction continues to affect neural functioning in children later-on. PMID:26132815

  2. Kindergarten Entrance Age and Children's Achievement: Impacts of State Policies, Family Background, and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Todd E.; Lubotsky, Darren H.

    2009-01-01

    We present evidence that the positive relationship between kindergarten entrance age and school achievement primarily reflects skill accumulation prior to kindergarten, rather than a heightened ability to learn in school among older children. The association between achievement test scores and entrance age appears during the first months of…

  3. The Assessment of Metacognition in Children Aged 4-16 Years: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoine, Louise; Higgins, Steve; Wall, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of methods that have been used to measure or assess metacognition in children aged 4-16 years over a 20-year period (1992-2012). It includes an overview of the types of tool and methods used linked with the ages of the participants targeted and how metacognition and associated concepts are…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Language and Speech in Children Who Were Internationally Adopted at Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The author followed 56 internationally adopted children during the first 3 years after adoption to determine how and when they reached age-expected language proficiency in Standard American English. The influence of age of adoption was measured, along with the relationship between early and later language and speech outcomes. Method:…

  5. Age-Related Variation in Health Service Use and Associated Expenditures among Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cidav, Zuleyha; Lawer, Lindsay; Marcus, Steven C.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences by age in service use and associated expenditures during 2005 for Medicaid-enrolled children with autism spectrum disorders. Aging was associated with significantly higher use and costs for restrictive, institution-based care and lower use and costs for community-based therapeutic services. Total expenditures…

  6. Support to Aging Parents and Grown Children in Black and White Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; VanderDrift, Laura E.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Black and White middle-aged adults typically are in a pivot position of providing support to generations above and below. Racial differences in support to each generation in the family remain unclear, however. Different factors may account for racial differences in support of grown children versus aging parents. Design and Methods:…

  7. Posttraumatic Symptoms and Thought Control Strategies among Aging Hidden Jewish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fohn, Adeline; Grynberg, Delphine; Luminet, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the coping strategies of 51 aging hidden children (28 women and 23 men) 65 years after the Holocaust. Results indicated a positive relation between age and PTSD symptoms that was fully mediated by sense of danger and education. Regression analyses showed that…

  8. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  9. The Physical Activity Levels of Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…

  10. Excess body mass is associated with T cell differentiation indicative of immune aging in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity has been associated with accelerated biological ageing and immunosenescence. As the prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing, we wanted to determine if associations between obesity and immunosenescence would manifest in children. We studied 123 Mexican American adolescents aged 10–14 (m...

  11. Children's Books, 1975: A List of Books for Preschool Through Junior High School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Virginia, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists 200 titles of books for children, preschool through junior high school age. The information accompanying each title includes bibliographic information, the Library of Congress card number, a description of the book, and the appropriate age level. Entries are listed according to nine categories: picture and…

  12. School-Age Children in Immigrant Families: Challenges and Opportunities for America's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Donald J.; Denton, Nancy A.; Macartney, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: By the year 2030, when the baby boom generation born between 1946 and 1964 will be in the retirement ages, 72% of the elderly will be non-Hispanic Whites, compared with 56% for working-age adults, and 50% for children. As the predominantly White baby boomers reach retirement, they will increasingly depend for economic support…

  13. The Effects of Age, Object, and Cultural/Religious Background on Children's Concepts of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candy-Gibbs, Sandra E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined concepts of death in 114 children. Significant cultural/religious background differences were found for concepts of irreversibility, universality, and inevitability. Age effects were found for universality and inevitability. Understanding of causation of death was significantly influenced by the child's age and background. (NRB)

  14. Middle-School-Age Outcomes in Children with Very Low Birthweight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Minich, Nori M.; Hack, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Compared outcomes of middle-school-age children born at very low (less than 750-g) or low birthweights (750 to 1,499-g) and full-term. Found that the very-low-weight group fared less well at school age than the low weight and term groups on cognitive functioning, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. Those without neurosensory disorders…

  15. Effects of Age and Visual-Motor Skills on Preschool Children's Computer-Game Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strein, William

    1987-01-01

    The relationship of both age and visual-motor skills to performance on an arcade-like video game was studied with 16 preschool children. While age was positively related to performance, no significant relationship was found for the visual-motor skills variable. (Author/CB)

  16. The Development of Fundamental Movement Skills by Children Aged Six to Nine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Jung; Yang, Shu-Chu

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to elucidate any differences which may exist in the FMSs of children between the ages of six and nine. Purposive sampling was used to recruit a total of 485 participants (244 boys and 241 girls) in Chiayi City and Chiayi County. All of the participants were between the ages of six and nine and had no…

  17. Developmental Level and Psychopathology: Comparing Children with Developmental Delays to Chronological and Mental Age Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Barbara; Neece, Cameron L.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at heightened risk for developing clinically significant behavioral and emotional difficulties as compared to children with typical development (TD). However, nearly all studies comparing psychopathology in youth with DD employ TD control groups of the same chronological age (CA). It is unclear, then, whether the heightened symptomology found in age-matched children with DD is beyond what would be expected given their developmental level. The present study assessed rates of behavior problems and mental disorder in 35 children with DD at age 9 years. These were compared with rates from 35 children with TD matched for CA at age 9 and also earlier rates for these same children at age 6, when matched for mental age (MA). Children with DD had significantly more behavior problems in 7 of the 17 scales of the CBCL when compared to TD children matched for CA, and 6 of 17 scales when compared to the MA-matched group. Rates of meeting DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric disorder were significantly higher in the DD group than both the CA- and MA-matched TD groups for three and four, respectively, of the seven diagnoses examined. Descriptively, the mean ratings for all variables assessed were higher for the DD group than both TD comparison groups, with the exception of the Anxious/Depressed scale of the CBCL. These findings validate the heightened risk for clinically significant behavior problems and mental disorders in youth with DD above and beyond their developmental functioning. PMID:25498740

  18. Other age groups than children need to be considered as carriers of Streptococcal pneumoniae serotypes.

    PubMed

    Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2016-10-02

    We need to raise the issue that focus on children as the only carriage group for pneumococci is not optimal; we need to consider that other age groups might also be carriers of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in unvaccinated age groups. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have successfully removed IPD from vaccinated children. Studies have shown an effect of PCV reducing the pneumococcal carriage of PCV serotypes in children. The status for several countries having used PCV for many years is that they do not see PCV serotypes neither carried nor as a cause of IPD in children. PCV vaccination of children has shown a herd protection effect in unvaccinated groups as a reduction in IPD cases caused by PCV serotypes. However, not all PCV serotypes have disappeared as the cause of IPD in the unvaccinated age groups. The author therefore believes that if we are to see PCV serotypes disappear as a cause of IPD in unvaccinated age groups, we need to perform further carriage studies to examine carriage in other age groups. Alternatively, all age groups should be vaccinated against pneumococci to eliminate IPD caused by PCV serotypes from possible hidden carriers.

  19. A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study of Anaphylaxis Triggers by Age in Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So-Yeon; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Min, Taek Ki; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Pyun, Bok Yang; Kwon, Ji-Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Yu, Jinho; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung-Won; Song, Tae Won; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Hyung Young; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Yong Ju; Lee, Hae Ran; Kim, Hye-Young; Ahn, Youngmin; Yum, Hye Yung; Suh, Dong In; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin-Tack; Kim, Jeong Hee; Park, Yong Mean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although anaphylaxis is recognized as an important, life-threatening condition, data are limited regarding its triggers in different age groups. We aimed to identify anaphylaxis triggers by age in Korean children. Methods We performed a retrospective review of medical records for children diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2009 and 2013 in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Results A total of 991 cases (mean age=5.89±5.24) were reported, with 63.9% involving patients younger than 6 years of age and 66% involving male children. Food was the most common anaphylaxis trigger (74.7%), followed by drugs and radiocontrast media (10.7%), idiopathic factors (9.2%), and exercise (3.6%). The most common food allergen was milk (28.4%), followed by egg white (13.6%), walnut (8.0%), wheat (7.2%), buckwheat (6.5%), and peanut (6.2%). Milk and seafood were the most common anaphylaxis triggers in young and older children, respectively. Drug-triggered anaphylaxis was observed more frequently with increasing age, with antibiotics (34.9%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17.9%) being the most common causes. Conclusions The most common anaphylaxis trigger in Korean children was food. Data on these triggers show that their relative frequency may vary by age. PMID:27582405

  20. Elementary school-aged children's reports of their health: a cognitive interviewing study.

    PubMed

    Rebok, G; Riley, A; Forrest, C; Starfield, B; Green, B; Robertson, J; Tambor, E

    2001-01-01

    There are no standard methods for assessing the quality of young children's perceptions of their health and well-being and their ability to comprehend the tasks involved in reporting their health. This research involved three cross-sectional studies using cognitive interviews of 5-11-year-old children (N = 114) to determine their ability to respond to various presentations of pictorially illustrated questions about their health. The samples had a predominance of children in the 5-7-year-old range and families of lower and middle socio-economic status. The research questions in Study 1 involved children's ability to convert their health experiences into scaled responses and relate them to illustrated items (n = 35); Study 2 focused on the type of response format most effectively used by children (n = 19); and Study 3 involved testing children's understanding of health-related terms and use of a specific recall period (n = 60). The results of Study 1 showed that children identified with the cartoon drawing of a child depicted in the illustrated items, typically responding that the child was at or near their own age and of the same gender, with no differences related to race. Study 2 results indicated that children responded effectively to circles of graduated sizes to indicate their response and preferred them to same-size circles or a visual analogue scale. Tests of three-, four-, and five-point response formats demonstrated that children could use them all without confusion. In Study 3, expected age-related differences in understanding were obtained. In fact, the 5-year-old children were unable to understand a sufficient number of items to adequately describe their health. Virtually all children 8 years of age and older were able to fully understand the key terms and presentation of items, used the full five-point range of response options, and accurately used a 4-week recall period. Six- and seven-year-olds were more likely than older children to use only the

  1. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method: Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a…

  2. How is This Child Feeling? Preschool-Aged Children's Ability to Recognize Emotion in Faces and Body Poses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: The study examined children's recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children ("N" = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills…

  3. Development of the Conversation Participation Rating Scale: Intervention Planning Implications for Two School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timler, Geralyn R.; Boone, William J.; Bergmann, Amelia A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: School-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have pervasive challenges in social interactions with peers. This study examined the feasibility of eliciting children's perceptions of their conversation participation with peers for the purposes of assessment and intervention planning. Methods: Two school-age children with ASD…

  4. Demographic, Environmental, Access, and Attitude Factors that Influence Walking to School by Elementary School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Ariel; Vogt, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Walking to school has been identified as an activity that contributes to children's daily exercise requirements. The purpose of this study was to better understand factors that influence walking to school by elementary school-aged children. Methods: A sample of 1,897 elementary school-aged children (84% response rate; 3rd-5th graders)…

  5. Characteristics of preschool and school-age children with imaginary companions.

    PubMed

    Bouldin, P; Pratt, C

    1999-12-01

    The authors investigated the prevalence and characteristics of children who experience or who have experienced imaginary companions. For the study, a self-administered questionnaire that sought information regarding the characteristics of children with and without imaginary companions was completed by 478 parents of children within the age range of 3 to 9.5 years. A significantly larger number of children with imaginary companions were reported to be first-born children, to be very imaginative, to incorporate myth in their play, and to explain events as magical. Overall, these results are interpreted to indicate that birth order, combined with characteristics such as imaginativeness and a predisposition to engage in fantasy, characterizes children with imaginary companions.

  6. Physical Activity of Preschool-Aged Latino Children in Farmworker Families

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Zapata Roblyer, Martha I.; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A.; Ip, Edward H.; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe time spent in sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by children in Latino farmworker families; and delineate sources of variation in sedentary and MVPA. Method Data were from mother-child dyads (N = 248) in Latino farmworker households in North Carolina. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers; mothers described their children’s characteristics and their physical and social environments. Results Children spent 6.2 hours/day sedentary (Median=369 minutes), and 6.0 minutes/day in MVPA. Children in Head Start spent more time sedentary, whereas children living where dogs roam freely were less sedentary. Children whose mothers limited screen time spent 2 more minutes in MVPA. Conclusions Preschool-aged Latino children in farmworker families are sedentary, engaging in very little MVPA. PMID:24933141

  7. Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschool-Age Children: How Fathers Spend Time with Their Children in Different Family Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halme, Nina; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how fathers (n = 263) spent time with their preschool-age children and to compare it in different family structures. Data were gathered by structured questionnaires. The instrument included five categories of variables for the time spent: the quantity of time, physical activities, fathers' attitude towards…

  8. "Math Talk" in Families of Preschool-Aged Children: Frequency and Relations to Children's Early Math Skills across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susperreguy Jorquera, Maria Ines

    2013-01-01

    Early math skills are the strongest predictors of later math achievement in school. This two-wave study addressed three research questions about the role of families in fostering these skills in preschool-aged children. First, how do families talk about math at home? Second, how do these conversations vary across families with different…

  9. Point Vowel Duration in Children with Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants at 4 and 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandam, Mark; Ide-Helvie, Dana; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the developmental aspects of the duration of point vowels in children with normal hearing compared with those with hearing aids and cochlear implants at 4 and 5 years of age. Younger children produced longer vowels than older children, and children with hearing loss (HL) produced longer and more variable vowels than their…

  10. Epidemiology of Soil-Transmitted Helminth and Intestinal Protozoan Infections in Preschool-Aged Children in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aiemjoy, Kristen; Gebresillasie, Sintayehu; Stoller, Nicole E; Shiferaw, Ayalew; Tadesse, Zerihun; Chanyalew, Melsew; Aragie, Solomon; Callahan, Kelly; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2017-02-06

    Intestinal parasites are important contributors to global morbidity and mortality and are the second most common cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional survey describes the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa in preschool children 0-5 years of age in seven communities in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and investigates associations between infection, household water and sanitation characteristics, and child growth. Stool samples were collected from children 0-5 years of age, 1 g of sample was preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and examined for intestinal helminth eggs and protozoa cysts ether-concentration method. A total of 212 samples were collected from 255 randomly selected children. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm were 10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.6-15.1), 1.4% (95% CI = 0-3.0), and 0% (95% CI = 0-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of the pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar were 10.4% (95% CI = 6.2-14.6) and 3.3% (95% CI = 0.09-5.7), respectively. Children with A. lumbricoides infections had lower height-for-age z-scores compared with those without, but were not more likely to have stunting. Compared with those without G. lamblia, children with G. lamblia infections had lower weight-for-age and weight-for-height z-scores and were more than five times as likely to meet the z-score definition for wasting (PR = 5.42, 95% CI = 2.97-9.89). This article adds to a growing body of research on child growth and intestinal parasitic infections and has implications for their treatment and prevention in preschool-aged children.

  11. The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement for young children in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, R; Edmonston, B; Hye, A

    1991-01-01

    The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement in 1981 among 679 children aged 22-59 months in Companyganj, Bangladesh, is examined. The age limits were established to represent the most vulnerable age group; age information 22 months was unavailable. Calibrated scales were used for measurement. Weight was measured within 100 g, and height and arm circumference within .1 cm. Age error was calculated as actual age minus reported age. Weight for age (WA) and height for age (HA) were also calculated for actual and reported age. The Polish standard was used to calculate arm circumference for age (ACA). This rural area revealed findings different from those previously reported for the Matlab area. Systematic and random error was higher in Companyganj. Interviewer bias needs to be investigated as 1 possible explanation for the differences. There was a difference of 4.1 months between the best and worst interviewer. Although child's sex and mother's age were associated with age error in the Matlab study, child's sex was found to be insignificant. The Matlab study included children 0-14 years, which may explain the difference. The nutritional status of children influenced different interviewers, and literate and illiterate mothers report ages differently. The reasons given are the varying expectations of both the interviewers and the mothers of normal growth patterns by age. A malnourished child might be underestimated and a well-nourished child overestimated. The illiterate mother may be influenced by the opinions of the interviewer or not know the child's actual birth date, and then understate the age. The results are that there was age overreporting for each age group. The standard deviation of the age error reveals random error. The standard error increases with age. The systematic error and random error are significantly higher than in comparable Matlab data. In the analysis of nutritional status, mother's education, and interviewer, nutritional status was

  12. Changes in reading strategies in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Sanabria Díaz, Gretel; Torres, María del Rosario; Iglesias, Jorge; Mosquera, Raysil; Reigosa, Vivian; Santos, Elsa; Lage, Agustín; Estévez, Nancy; Galán, Lidice

    2009-11-01

    Learning to read is one of the most important cognitive milestones in the human social environment. One of the most accepted models explaining such process is the Double-Route Cascaded Model. It suggests the existence of two reading strategies: lexical and sublexical. In the Spanish language there are some contradictions about how these strategies are applied for reading. In addition, there are only a few studies dealing with the analysis of shifts between them, achieving a fluent reading process. In this paper we use a reading task including words and pseudowords for characterizing the cost of shifting between reading strategies in children with developmental dyslexia and normal controls. Our results suggest the presence of both strategies in these two experimental groups. In controls, both strategies become more efficient in correspondence to the increased exposition to written material. However, in children with developmental dyslexia only the lexical strategy exhibits such improvement. Their also point to a low cost for shifting between strategies in controls and a much more significant one in children with developmental dyslexia, differentiating subgroups with distinct shifting patterns.

  13. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  14. Auditory scene analysis in school-aged children with developmental language disorders.

    PubMed

    Sussman, E; Steinschneider, M; Lee, W; Lawson, K

    2015-02-01

    Natural sound environments are dynamic, with overlapping acoustic input originating from simultaneously active sources. A key function of the auditory system is to integrate sensory inputs that belong together and segregate those that come from different sources. We hypothesized that this skill is impaired in individuals with phonological processing difficulties. There is considerable disagreement about whether phonological impairments observed in children with developmental language disorders can be attributed to specific linguistic deficits or to more general acoustic processing deficits. However, most tests of general auditory abilities have been conducted with a single set of sounds. We assessed the ability of school-aged children (7-15 years) to parse complex auditory non-speech input, and determined whether the presence of phonological processing impairments was associated with stream perception performance. A key finding was that children with language impairments did not show the same developmental trajectory for stream perception as typically developing children. In addition, children with language impairments required larger frequency separations between sounds to hear distinct streams compared to age-matched peers. Furthermore, phonological processing ability was a significant predictor of stream perception measures, but only in the older age groups. No such association was found in the youngest children. These results indicate that children with language impairments have difficulty parsing speech streams, or identifying individual sound events when there are competing sound sources. We conclude that language group differences may in part reflect fundamental maturational disparities in the analysis of complex auditory scenes.

  15. How well can children recognize speech features in spectrograms? Comparisons by age and hearing status.

    PubMed

    Ertmer, David J

    2004-06-01

    Real-time spectrographic displays (SDs) have been used in speech training for more than 30 years with adults and children who have severe and profound hearing impairments. Despite positive outcomes from treatment studies, concerns remain that the complex and abstract nature of spectrograms may make these speech training aids unsuitable for use with children. This investigation examined how well children with normal hearing sensitivity and children with impaired hearing can recognize spectrographic cues for vowels and consonants, and the ages at which these visual cues are distinguished. Sixty children (30 with normal hearing sensitivity, 30 with hearing impairments) in 3 age groups (6-7, 8-9, and 10-11 years) were familiarized with the spectrographic characteristics of selected vowels and consonants. The children were then tested on their ability to select a match for a model spectrogram from among 3 choices. Overall scores indicated that spectrographic cues were recognized with greater-than-chance accuracy by all age groups. Formant contrasts were recognized with greater accuracy than consonant manner contrasts. Children with normal hearing sensitivity and those with hearing impairment performed equally well.

  16. Linguistic Constraints on Children's Overt Marking of BE by Dialect and Age

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Joseph; Oetting, Janna B.; Moland, Christy Wynn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Overt marking of BE in nonmainstream adult dialects of English is influenced by a number of linguistic constraints, including the structure's person, number, tense, contractibility, and grammatical function. In the current study, we examined the effects of these constraints on overt marking of BE in children as a function of their nonmainstream English dialect and age. Methods The data were language samples from 62 children, aged four to six years; 24 spoke African American English (AAE) and 38 spoke Southern White English (SWE). Analyses included analysis of variance and logistic regression. Results Rates of overt marking varied by the children's dialect but not their age. Although the person, number, tense, and grammatical function of BE influenced the children's rates of marking, the nature and magnitude of the influence differed by the children's dialect. For AAE-speaking children, contractibility also influenced their marking of BE. Conclusions Consistent with the adult literature, the AAE- and SWE-speaking children marked BE in ways that differed from each other and from what has been documented for child speakers of Mainstream American English. These findings show stability in the use of BE in AAE and SWE that spans different generations and different dialect communities. PMID:23275400

  17. Auditory scene analysis in school-aged children with developmental language disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, E.; Steinschneider, M.; Lee, W.; Lawson, K.

    2014-01-01

    Natural sound environments are dynamic, with overlapping acoustic input originating from simultaneously active sources. A key function of the auditory system is to integrate sensory inputs that belong together and segregate those that come from different sources. We hypothesized that this skill is impaired in individuals with phonological processing difficulties. There is considerable disagreement about whether phonological impairments observed in children with developmental language disorders can be attributed to specific linguistic deficits or to more general acoustic processing deficits. However, most tests of general auditory abilities have been conducted with a single set of sounds. We assessed the ability of school-aged children (7–15 years) to parse complex auditory non-speech input, and determined whether the presence of phonological processing impairments was associated with stream perception performance. A key finding was that children with language impairments did not show the same developmental trajectory for stream perception as typically developing children. In addition, children with language impairments required larger frequency separations between sounds to hear distinct streams compared to age-matched peers. Furthermore, phonological processing ability was a significant predictor of stream perception measures, but only in the older age groups. No such association was found in the youngest children. These results indicate that children with language impairments have difficulty parsing speech streams, or identifying individual sound events when there are competing sound sources. We conclude that language group differences may in part reflect fundamental maturational disparities in the analysis of complex auditory scenes. PMID:24548430

  18. Nutritional status and growth parameters of school-age Roma children in the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Spiroski, Igor; Dimitrovska, Zlatanka; Gjorgjev, Dragan; Mikik, Vladimir; Efremova-Stefanoska, Vesna; Naunova-Spiroska, Daniela; Kendrovski, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Main objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of school age Roma children in Macedonia in order to detect precursors of possible health risks at an early age. The study was designed as a comparative case control study. Study group consisted of 229 Roma school children from the 1st and 272 from the 5th grade residing in different towns in Macedonia. The control group was recruited from other than Roma ethnic background and consisted of 283 children attending 1st and 356 children attending 5th grade. Every participant was measured for his/hers body height and weight. The t-test and Chi square (Chi2) were applied to test statistical significance of variables. The WHO's AnthroPlus software was applied to assess growth parameters and population at risk. There were significant differences in values of the body weight (p = 0.001) and height (p = 0.001) between Roma and non-Roma children attending the 1st grade of primary school. Weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age indexes of the 1st grade children significantly differred in in the same intervals of SD (> or = -2SD and < -1SD; > or = -1SD and median; > +1SD and < or = +2SD; between Roma and non-Roma 5th graders. Anthropometric parameters of nutritional status of Roma children in Macedonia are significantly different than those of their non-Roma peers. Their health risks are predominantly related to underweight. The parameters related to health risks of overweight or obesity are lower in Roma than in non-Roma children.

  19. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weight< 1500 g. Their motor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity.

  20. Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Garza, Cutberto; de Onis, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    The development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by 2 contemporaneous events, the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the WHO. If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues need to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and the definition of optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group of experts in growth and development and representatives from international organizations concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, based on available data, we cannot rule out that observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents must include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications.

  1. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs), in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004) or 2005 (cohort 2005) in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004) to 51% (cohort 2005) in the studied regions (p < 0.001). More than half of the vaccinated children of cohort 2004 and two third of cohort 2005 were immunised at the recommended age 11 to 14 months. The level of vaccination coverage of cohort 2004 was significantly associated with the delay in introduction of cost coverage since the recommendation of varicella vaccination (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from

  2. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Centile Curves and Distributions by Age of Hospitalized Critically Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Eytan, Danny; Goodwin, Andrew J.; Greer, Robert; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie; Laussen, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) form the basis for monitoring the physiological state of patients. Although norms have been published for healthy and hospitalized children, little is known about their distributions in critically ill children. The objective of this study was to report the distributions of these basic physiological variables in hospitalized critically ill children. Continuous data from bedside monitors were collected and stored at 5-s intervals from 3,677 subjects aged 0–18 years admitted over a period of 30 months to the pediatric and cardiac intensive care units at a large quaternary children’s hospital. Approximately 1.13 billion values served to estimate age-specific distributions for these two basic physiological variables: HR and intra-arterial BP. Centile curves were derived from the sample distributions and compared to common reference ranges. Properties such as kurtosis and skewness of these distributions are described. In comparison to previously published reference ranges, we show that children in these settings exhibit markedly higher HRs than their healthy counterparts or children hospitalized on in-patient wards. We also compared commonly used published estimates of hypotension in children (e.g., the PALS guidelines) to the values we derived from critically ill children. This is a first study reporting the distributions of basic physiological variables in children in the pediatric intensive care settings, and the percentiles derived may serve as useful references for bedside clinicians and clinical trials. PMID:28367430

  3. Association between intersection characteristics and perceived crash risk among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gain; Park, Yuna; Kim, Jeongseob; Cho, Gi-Hyoug

    2016-12-01

    This research examined how environmental attributes near intersections influence the perceived crash risk among school-aged children, which provides information on the potential risks of pedestrian crashes that can guide the development of proactive countermeasures. In a sample of 799 children aged 10-12 years old in Korea, the environmental attributes of intersections perceived as having a high risk of producing crashes near elementary schools were investigated using standard negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial models.The results showed that a higher number of student crossings, a wider road width, the presence of crosswalks, student-friendly facilities at the intersection, and four-way intersections were significant and positively associated with perceived crash risk among school-aged children. The findings related to building characteristics indicated that a higher number of entrances at an intersection increased the perceived crash risk while higher visibility at the intersection reduced the perception of risk. Associations with traffic-calming measures were weak,suggesting that the measures used in the study areas were not effective in reducing the perceived crash risk. The results of a police-reported crash model showed that school-aged children have a relatively accurate perception of crash risk and that the perceived crash risk of school-aged children may provide valuable information on the intersection characteristics in need of attention near school sites.

  4. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in children and adolescents: Effects of sex and age

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Evans, Subhadra; Lung, Kirsten C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Naliboff, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) refers to the diminution of perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus following application of a conditioning stimulus to a remote area of the body, and is thought to reflect the descending inhibition of nociceptive signals. Studying CPM in children may inform interventions to enhance central pain inhibition within a developmental framework. We assessed CPM in 133 healthy children (mean age = 13 years; 52.6% girls) and tested the effects of sex and age. Participants were exposed to four trials of a pressure test stimulus before, during, and after the application of a cold water conditioning stimulus. CPM was documented by a reduction in pressure pain ratings during cold water administration. Older children (12–17 years) exhibited greater CPM than younger (8–11 years) children. No sex differences in CPM were found. Lower heart rate variability (HRV) at baseline and after pain induction was associated with less CPM controlling for child age. The findings of greater CPM in the older age cohort suggest a developmental improvement in central pain inhibitory mechanisms. The results highlight the need to examine developmental and contributory factors in central pain inhibitory mechanisms in children to guide effective, age appropriate, pain interventions. PMID:23541066

  5. [A comparative study of the perceptual and motor performance at school age of preterm and full term children].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Catarina, Patrícia Wendling; Barbosa, Vanêssa Maziero; Mancini, Marisa Cota; Paixão, Maria Lúcia

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the perceptualmotor performance in school age children who were born preterm and full term. Two groups of children, ages 5 to 7, participated in this study. Group I had 35 children, from low-income families, born up to the 34 week of gestation and/or weight bellow 1500 g. Group II had 35 full-term children, matched by age, gender and socioeconomic status to the children in Group I. Children were tested on the Bender gestalt, the motor accuracy test and on balance and postural responses measures. The preterm group obtained significantly lower scores in the majority of the tests. These besides reinforcing the importance of the follow-up of preterm children up to school age, also indicate the need to stimulate the fine motor and postural control Devment, even among preterm children who do not show evidence of neurological impairment.

  6. 34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... children with disabilities aged three through five on reservations served by elementary schools and secondary schools for Indian children operated or funded by the Department of the Interior. The amount...

  7. 34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... children with disabilities aged three through five on reservations served by elementary schools and secondary schools for Indian children operated or funded by the Department of the Interior. The amount...

  8. 34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... children with disabilities aged three through five on reservations served by elementary schools and secondary schools for Indian children operated or funded by the Department of the Interior. The amount...

  9. Assessment of Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Children Aged 1 to 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Filho, Roberto Pecoits

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI) on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2) were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%); males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%); males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%); males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243). CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004). Conclusions CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years. PMID:26959401

  10. Age-Dependent Seroprevalence of JCV Antibody in Children.

    PubMed

    Hennes, Eva Maria; Kornek, Barbara; Huppke, Peter; Reindl, Markus; Rostasy, Kevin; Berger, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an opportunistic central nervous system infection, caused by the John Cunningham virus (JCV). PML may occur during treatment with immunosuppressive agents or monoclonal antibodies such as natalizumab. The JCV seroprevalence increases with age with a seropositivity of 60% in the adult human population. In this study, we analyzed sera from 109 pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) patients (mean age 14 years) as well as sera from 162 patients with a wide range of suspected neurologic disorders (mean age 6.3 years). Our results showed a considerably lower seroprevalence for JCV in our pediatric cohort with 33.3% and equal distribution in both subgroups, compared with reported seropositivity in adult population. This could result in a lower risk for drug-induced PML in pediatric patients compared with adult patients and can influence the indication for natalizumab therapy in pediatric MS patients.

  11. The development of global motion discrimination in school aged children.

    PubMed

    Bogfjellmo, Lotte-Guri; Bex, Peter J; Falkenberg, Helle K

    2014-02-25

    Global motion perception matures during childhood and involves the detection of local directional signals that are integrated across space. We examine the maturation of local directional selectivity and global motion integration with an equivalent noise paradigm applied to direction discrimination. One hundred and three observers (6-17 years) identified the global direction of motion in a 2AFC task. The 8° central stimuli consisted of 100 dots of 10% Michelson contrast moving 2.8°/s or 9.8°/s. Local directional selectivity and global sampling efficiency were estimated from direction discrimination thresholds as a function of external directional noise, speed, and age. Direction discrimination thresholds improved gradually until the age of 14 years (linear regression, p < 0.05) for both speeds. This improvement was associated with a gradual increase in sampling efficiency (linear regression, p < 0.05), with no significant change in internal noise. Direction sensitivity was lower for dots moving at 2.8°/s than at 9.8°/s for all ages (paired t test, p < 0.05) and is mainly due to lower sampling efficiency. Global motion perception improves gradually during development and matures by age 14. There was no change in internal noise after the age of 6, suggesting that local direction selectivity is mature by that age. The improvement in global motion perception is underpinned by a steady increase in the efficiency with which direction signals are pooled, suggesting that global motion pooling processes mature for longer and later than local motion processing.

  12. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  13. Children view own-age faces qualitatively differently to other-age faces

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Peter J.; Willis, Susan F. L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Like most own-group biases in face recognition, the own-age bias (OAB) is thought to be based either on perceptual expertise or socio-cognitive motivational mechanisms [Wolff, N., Kemter, K., Schweinberger, S. R., & Wiese, H. (2013). What drives social in-group biases in face recognition memory? ERP evidence from the own-gender bias. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. doi:10.1093/scan/nst024]. The present study employed a recognition paradigm with eye-tracking in order to assess whether participants actively viewed faces of their own-age differently to that of other-age faces. The results indicated a significant OAB (superior recognition for own-age relative to other-age faces), provided that they were upright, indicative of expertise being employed for the recognition of own-age faces. However, the eye-tracking results indicate that viewing other-age faces was qualitatively different to the viewing of own-age faces, with more nose fixations for other-age faces. These results are interpreted as supporting the socio-cognitive model of the OAB. PMID:27499848

  14. The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan

    2014-09-03

    Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration.

  15. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children.

  16. Children With Disability Are More at Risk of Violence Victimization: Evidence From a Study of School-Aged Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  18. Age-Related Maturation of Wave V Latency of Auditory Brainstem Response in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bist, Sampan Singh; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a noninvasive measurement of a stimulus-locked, synchronous electrical event. ABR provides information concerning the functional integrity of brainstem nuclei. Age is a key factor in the interpretation of ABR peak latency among different age groups. Progressively with time it follows a "maturation pattern" during which latencies decrease. Wave V is very prominent and reliable for detection of threshold in children. The present study was performed to see the effect of age related auditory maturation on ABR wave V latency in children. Subjects and Methods The study involved 80 subjects ranging in age from birth to 12 years. The subjects were divided equally into eight age groups. ABR were elicited by an acoustic click stimuli, brainstem responses collected through electrode and recorded at the same time. Latency of wave V was acknowledged. Results Wave V latency decreased rapidly in early childhood, became slower after 3 years of age and completely matured by 12 years of age. There was no significant difference in latency of wave V between the ears with age. Conclusions There is a distinct maturation pattern of wave V latency in ABR for both ears. ABR is a reliable test to assess the functional maturation of wave V in children. PMID:27626083

  19. Teacher-Student Relationship and Peer Disliking and Liking Across Grades 1-4.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jan N; Im, Myung H

    2016-01-01

    Between-child and within-child effects of teacher-student warmth and conflict on children's peer-nominated disliking and liking across Grades 1-4 (ages 6-10) were investigated in a sample of 746 ethnically diverse and academically at-risk children in Texas. Multilevel modeling controlled for time-invariant between-child differences while modeling the effect of time-varying teacher-student relationship (TSR) warmth and conflict on children's peer relatedness. Teachers reported on warmth and conflict. Peers reported on liking and disliking. Above between-child effects of average levels of teacher warmth and conflict on initial level and rate of change in liking and disliking and classroom teacher support, year-to-year changes in TSR conflict and warmth predicted intraindividual change in children's peer disliking but not peer liking.

  20. Assessment of Executive Function in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isquith, Peter K.; Crawford, Jennifer S.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Gioia, Gerard A.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of the overarching self-regulatory mechanisms, or executive functions, in any age group is challenging, in part due to the complexity of this domain, in part due to their dynamic essence, and in part due to the inextricable links between these central processes and the associated domain-specific processes, such as language, motor…

  1. Daily Stressors in School-Age Children: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Milagros; Alarcón, Rafael; Blanca, María J.; Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Rosel, Jesús F.; Trianes, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational…

  2. Co-endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and Intestinal Helminths Infection in School Age Children in Rural Communities of Kwara State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adedoja, Ayodele; Tijani, Bukola Deborah; Akanbi, Ajibola A.; Ojurongbe, Taiwo A.; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A.; Ojurongbe, Olusola

    2015-01-01

    . Children who were infected with S. haematobium (RR = 1.3) and hookworm (RR = 1.4) have equal chances of being infected with P. falciparum as children with no worm infection. On the other hand children infected with Hymenolepis spp. (p<0.0001) are more likely to be infected with P. falciparum than Hymenolepis spp. uninfected children (RR = 2.0) Conclusions These findings suggest that multiple parasitic infections are common in school age children in rural communities of Kwara State Nigeria. The Hymenolepis spp. induced increase susceptibility to P. falciparum could have important consequences on how concurrent infections affect the expression or pathogenesis of these infections. PMID:26222743

  3. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    PubMed Central

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  4. The transmission of tuberculosis in schools involving children 3 to 11 years of age.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jonathan R; Mason, Brendan W; Paranjothy, Shantini; Palmer, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of tuberculosis transmission from children. We reviewed the published literature on the transmission of tuberculosis during outbreaks involving children 3 to 11 years of age and report that transmission rates among close contacts in school outbreaks are on average higher (weighted average 69.8% vs. 39.3%) if the index case is a child than an adult.

  5. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Hayes, Dayle

    2008-06-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. The health status of American children has generally improved during the past 3 decades. However, the number of children who are overweight has more than doubled among 2- to 5-year-old children and more than tripled among 6- to 11-year-old children, which has major health consequences. This increase in childhood overweight has broadened the focus of dietary guidance to address children's overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and physical activity patterns. Health promotion will help reduce diet-related risks of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This position reviews what US children are eating and explores trends in food and nutrient intakes as well as the impact of school meals on children's diets. Dietary recommendations and guidelines and the benefits of physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of healthful eating behaviors are highlighted. Specific recommendations and sources of nutrition messages to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for food and nutrition professionals

  6. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Dietary guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Thersea; Johnson, Rachel

    2004-04-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. The health status of American children has generally improved over the past three decades. However, the number of children who are overweight has more than doubled among 2- to 5-year-old children and more than tripled among 6- to 11-year-old children, which has major health consequences. This increase in childhood overweight has broadened the focus of dietary guidance to address children's over consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and physical activity patterns. Health promotion will help reduce diet-related risks of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This position paper reviews what US children are eating and explores trends in food and nutrient intakes as well as the impact of school meals on children's diets. Dietary recommendations and guidelines and the benefits of physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The American Dietetic Association works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into achievable, healthful messages. Specific recommendations to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for dietetics professionals, parents, and caregivers.

  7. [Self-reported Anxiety and Regulation Strategies in Primary School-age Children].

    PubMed

    Otto, Yvonne; Kolmorgen, Katja; Andreas, Anna; Köppe, Claudia; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the self-reported anxiety in different situations (social anxiety, cognitive fears, fears of injury) and the use of regulation strategies (problem orientation, problem avoidance and seeking social support) in a sample of N=175 primary school children (mean age 8 years 4 months). At time of recruitment we oversampled for children with internalizing symptoms. In addition, mothers rated the overall anxiety of their children. According to their mothers 14.3% of the children showed anxiety symptoms in an abnormal range which is comparable to prevalence rates of children from population samples. 19.4% of the children described themselves as being anxious in an abnormal range. The correlations between different measures of children's self-reported anxieties were low to moderate. We found no significant correlations between mothers' and children's reports. The higher children's self-reported overall and cognitive anxiety, the more frequently they reported seeking social support in frightening situations. Girls reported more frequently pm cognitive fears than boys. Regarding regulation strategies we found that boys reported more problem orientation than girls whereas girls reported more social support seeking than boys. The results are discussed and practical implications are outlined.

  8. Preparing Books for Children from Birth through Age Six: A New Children's Reality Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çer, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Works of literature for children are supposed to give prominence to the child's self. In other words, the level of the works is expected to be appropriate to the characteristics of this demographic. In works of children's literature, the prominence of adults and their worlds along with their ideological, religious, and traditional statements,…

  9. Soft tissue thickness values for black and coloured South African children aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Briers, N; Briers, T M; Becker, P J; Steyn, M

    2015-07-01

    In children, craniofacial changes due to facial growth complicate facial approximations and require specific knowledge of soft tissue thicknesses (STT). The lack of South African juvenile STT standards of particular age groups, sex and ancestry is problematic. According to forensic artists in the South African Police Service the use of African-American values to reconstruct faces of Black South African children yields poor results. In order to perform a facial approximation that presents a true reflection of the child in question, information regarding differences in facial soft tissue at different ages, sexes and ancestry groups is needed. The aims of this study were to provide data on STT of South African Black and Coloured children and to assess differences in STT with respect to age, sex and ancestry. STT was measured using cephalograms of South African children (n=388), aged 6-13 years. After digitizing the images, STT measurements were taken at ten mid-facial landmarks from each image using the iTEM measuring program. STT comparisons between groups per age, sex and ancestry were statistically analyzed. The results showed that STT differences at lower face landmarks are more pronounced in age groups per ancestry as opposed to differences per age and sex. Generally, an increase in STT was seen between 6-10 year old groups and 11-13 year old groups, regardless of ancestry and sex, at the midphiltrum, labiale inferius, pogonion, and beneath chin landmarks. This research created a reference dataset for STT of South African children of Black and Coloured ancestry per age and sex that will be useful for facial reconstruction/approximation of juvenile remains.

  10. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    PubMed

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth.

  11. Age-Specific Frequencies and Characteristics of Ovarian Cysts in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Derinöz, Okşan; Akkoyun, Esra Betül; Güçlü Pınarlı, Faruk; Bideci, Aysun

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to document ovarian cyst frequency and characteristics as well as distribution of these parameters with respect to age in children and adolescents. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 1009 girls between the ages of 5-18 years who presented to our pediatric emergency department (PED) with pelvic pain and therefore underwent pelvic ultrasound examination between June 2011 and May 2014. Results: In total, 132 of 1009 girls (13.1%) were identified as having ovarian cysts ≥1 cm in diameter. The frequency of ovarian cysts was found to be 1.8% (6/337) in children aged 5-9 years and 18.8% (126/672) in those aged 10-18 years. All the cysts detected in children aged 5-9 years were small (<3 cm) and simple with age-specific frequencies ranging between 1.5-2.7%. With the onset of adolescence, ovarian cyst frequency started to increase with age and ranged between 3.8-31.3% throughout adolescence. Age of peak ovarian cyst frequency was 15 years with a rate of 31.3%. Large ovarian cysts (>5 cm) were identified in 19 adolescents (15.1%) with most occurring during middle adolescence. Of the 19 adolescents, five were found to have cyst-related significant ovarian pathologies including cystadenoma (n=3) and ovarian torsion (n=2). Conclusion: In children aged 5-9 years, ovarian cysts were infrequent and small (<3 cm). Peak ovarian cyst frequency was detected at the age of 15 years. All patients diagnosed with cyst-related significant ovarian pathologies were adolescents having a cyst >5 cm in diameter with a complex appearance in most. PMID:28044991

  12. Age-Of Dependent Mutation Rate and Weak Children in the Penna Model in Biological Ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berntsen, K. Nikolaj

    We investigate the effect of an age-dependent mutation rate in the Penna model of ageing and then we observe that the high mortality for human babies can be reproduced by the model if one assumes babies to be weaker than adults.

  13. Levels of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds among children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 20 urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, and race/ethnicity among children aged 6-11 years. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was positively associated with the levels of selected metabolites of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, cyanide, and propylene oxide in a dose-response manner. Levels of the selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, toluene, and xylene decreased with increase in age. Levels of 1-bromopropane decreased with number of rooms in the house but the reverse was true for 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Levels of most of the 20 metabolites did not vary with gender. Non-Hispanic white children had higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA), N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) than non-Hispanic black children. Non-Hispanic white children had statistically significantly higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA), trans, trans-Muconic acid (MU), and N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC) than non-Hispanic Asian children but statistically significantly lower levels of N-Acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (BPMA) than non-Hispanic Asian children. Non-Hispanic Asian children had the lowest levels of 13 of the 20 metabolites among four major racial/ethnic groups but highest levels for three metabolites. For selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile-vinyl chloride-ethylene oxide, benzene, 1,3-butadien, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylbenzene-styrene, and toluene, children had statistically significantly higher levels than nonsmoking adults. These results demonstrate how vulnerable children are to being exposed to harmful chemicals like VOCs in their own homes.

  14. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment.

  15. Dichotic listening in children: age-related changes in direction and magnitude of ear advantage.

    PubMed

    Moncrieff, Deborah W

    2011-07-01

    Children between the ages of 5 and 12 years were tested with dichotic listening tests utilizing single syllable words and random presentations of digits. They produced a higher prevalence of left ear dominance than expected, especially among right-handed children when tested with words. Whether more children demonstrate the LEA because of right hemisphere dominance for language or because there is less stability in ear advantage direction at younger ages cannot be fully resolved by this study. When ear advantages were measured by subtracting each child's lower score from the higher score without regard to right or left direction, an age-related trend toward lower measures of ear advantage was evident. This trend was greater for dichotic words than for dichotic digits. Structural factors that may be related to these results and possible influences of attention and verbal workload on the two kinds of dichotic stimuli are discussed.

  16. Depleted iron stores and iron deficiency anemia associated with reduced ferritin and hepcidin and elevated soluble transferrin receptors in a multiethnic group of preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Hope A; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Cohen, Tamara R; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in subgroups of the Canadian population. The objective of this study was to examine iron status and anemia in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 430, 2-5 years old, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were sampled from randomly selected daycares. Anthropometry, demographics, and diet were assessed. Biochemistry included hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), ferritin index, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), and hepcidin. Iron deficiency and anemia cutoffs conformed to the World Health Organization criteria. Differences among categories were tested using mixed-model ANOVA or χ(2) tests. Children were 3.8 ± 1.0 years of age, with a body mass index z score of 0.48 ± 0.97, and 51% were white. Adjusted intakes of iron indicated <1% were at risk for deficiency. Hemoglobin was higher in white children, whereas ferritin was higher with greater age and female sex. Inflammatory markers and hepcidin did not vary with any demographic variable. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0-20.0). Three percent (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) of children had iron deficiency anemia and 12.8% (95% CI, 9.6-16.0) had unexplained anemia. Children with iron deficiency, with and without anemia, had lower plasma ferritin and hepcidin but higher sTfR, ferritin index, and IL-6, whereas those with unexplained anemia had elevated TNFα. We conclude that iron deficiency anemia is not very common in young children in Montreal. While iron deficiency without anemia is more common than iron deficiency with anemia, the correspondingly reduced circulating hepcidin would have enabled heightened absorption of dietary iron in support of erythropoiesis.

  17. Loss of control eating disorder in children age 12 years and younger: proposed research criteria.

    PubMed

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Marcus, Marsha D; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2008-08-01

    Binge eating is common in middle childhood (6-12 years) and often presents in concert with disordered eating attitudes, emotional distress, overweight and adiposity. Binge eating is also predictive of excessive weight gain and is associated with energy intake. However, few children meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for binge eating disorder, thereby making treatment recommendations a challenge. We propose criteria for a new diagnosis, Loss of Control Eating Disorder in Children age 12 years and younger, for further study. The criteria put forward are a revision of Marcus and Kalarchian's [Marcus, M.D., & Kalarchian, M.A. (2003). Binge eating in children and adolescents. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 34 Suppl, S47-S57.] provisional binge eating disorder research criteria for children 14 years and younger, and are based upon the evolving literature in children with binge and loss of control eating episodes. A rationale for the new criteria set is provided, and future research directions are proposed.

  18. Joint-Attention and the Social Phenotype of School-Aged Children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha

    2017-02-22

    The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two children with ASD and 34 controls were assessed with the Childhood Joint Attention Rating Scale (C-JARS). The C-JARS exhibited internally consistency, α = 0.88, and one factor explained 49% of the scale variance. Factor scores correctly identified between 88 and 94% of the children with ASD and 62-82% of controls. These scores were correlated with the ADOS-2, but not other parent-report symptom measures. The C-JARS appears to assess a unique dimension of the social-phenotype of children with ASD.

  19. Children's recognition of fairness and others' welfare in a resource allocation task: Age related changes.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Michael T; Elenbaas, Laura; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns, children were asked to allocate, judge, and reason about allocations of necessary (needed to avoid harm) and luxury (enjoyable to have) resources to a hardworking and a lazy character. While 3- to 5-year-olds did not differentiate between distributing luxury and necessary resources, 6- to 8-year-olds allocated luxury resources more meritoriously than necessary resources. Further, children based their allocations of necessary resources on concerns for others' welfare, rather than merit, even when one character was described as working harder. The findings revealed that, with age, children incorporated the concerns for others' welfare and merit into their conceptions of fairness in a resource allocation context, and prioritized these concerns differently depending on whether they were allocating luxury or necessary resources. Further, with age, children weighed multiple moral concerns including equality, merit, and others' welfare, when determining the fair allocation of resources. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in Wukro, northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Kassaye, T.; Receveur, O.; Johns, T.; Becklake, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out and the data were analysed for 824 (61.5%) of 1339 eligible children for whom there was complete information on biochemical vitamin A status, dietary vitamin A intake, ocular examination for xerophthalmia, and anthropometry. FINDINGS: The prevalence of xerophthalmia was 5.8%; serum retinol levels were below 0.35 mumol/l and between 0.35 and 0.70 mumol/l in 8.4% and 51.1% of the children respectively. The liver vitamin A reserve (modified relative dose response ratio > or = 0.06) was low in 41.0% of the children. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of severe vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years indicates the need to reevaluate the practice of targeting vitamin A supplementation programmes on children under 6 years of age in areas where vitamin A deficiency is endemic. PMID:11417037

  1. Prevalence of Cyclospora species and other enteric pathogens among children less than 5 years of age in Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Hoge, C W; Echeverria, P; Rajah, R; Jacobs, J; Malthouse, S; Chapman, E; Jimenez, L M; Shlim, D R

    1995-01-01

    Stools from 124 Nepalese children aged 6 to 60 months with diarrhea were examined for organisms of the coccidian genus Cyclospora and for other enteric pathogens. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Giardia Lamblia, Campylobacter species, Cyclospora species, and Cryptosporidium species were the most common pathogens identified. Cyclospora species were detected in none of 74 children < 18 months of age compared with 6 (12%) of 50 children > or = 18 months of age (P = 0.004). PMID:8576377

  2. Sleep Patterns in School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The course of sleep patterns over 2-3 years was compared between 16 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children, using 1-week actigraphy at baseline and follow-up. At baseline (mean age 11.1 years), children with AS/HFA had longer sleep latency and…

  3. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-09-03

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays.

  4. Evaluation of acute pyelonephritis with DMSA scans in children presenting after the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Ataei, Neamatollah; Madani, Abbas; Habibi, Reza; Khorasani, Mosa

    2005-10-01

    It is generally believed that infants are more susceptible to development of renal scarring after pyelonephritis than children over 5 years old. This view has led to differences in investigations and treatment according to age. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the occurrence of renal parenchymal lesion in children over 5 years admitted with a first-time symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI). Between October 2000 and April 2002, 52 children aged over 5 years who were admitted to our department with probable acute pyelonephritis (APN) and a positive urine culture were included in this study. All children received antibiotics for 14 days. During the acute phase of infection, scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and ultrasonography (US) were done. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) was performed in all children early in the course of the illness, generally within 5-7 days of hospitalization. When scintigraphy showed renal parenchymal changes, repeat scintigraphy was done after at least 3 months to assess the progression of renal abnormalities. Of the 52 children with a first-time documented pyelonephritis, cortical scintigraphy showed renal lesion in 41 children (78.8%). US was normal in all children with normal renal scintigraphy, while it detected renal abnormalities in 16 of the 41 (39 %) with abnormal scintigraphy (p <0.0001). Topographic analysis of the 165 focal lesions showed that 42.4% were localized to the upper poles, 17.5% to the middle third, and 40% to the lower poles of the kidneys. Repeat scintigraphy showed persistent lesions corresponding to those on the initial scan in nine (28.2%) of the 32 children. Renal lesions had partly regressed in 23 (71.8%) of the patients who underwent repeat scintigraphy. Vesicoureteral reflux was observed in 13.4% of kidneys and renal parenchymal abnormalities were identified in 71.4% and 72.2% of renal units, respectively, with and without reflux ( p >0.05). In

  5. Parents׳ experiences of raising pre-school aged children in an outer-Melbourne growth corridor.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Fiona Jane; Rich, Stephanie; Stockdale, Rebecca; Shelley, Julia

    2014-05-01

    There is growing concern about the outer-suburbs in Australia as healthy places to raise children. This paper aimed to explore this from the perspectives of parents raising preschool-age children in an outer-Melbourne municipality. Findings showed that parents were positive about the natural environment as well as the provision of recreation areas and generally felt their neighbourhoods were a safe place for raising children. However, car-dependency, housing estate design and limited local job opportunities all appeared to contribute to social isolation amongst families. Using the Environments for Health Framework, this paper makes suggestions to improve liveability for families in this municipality.

  6. Latency-aged children with attachment disturbances: a conjoint treatment model.

    PubMed

    Shiller, Virginia M

    2011-01-01

    Psychoanalytic theory and practice has increasingly accepted the importance of attachment relationships in psychic development. However, there have been only very limited efforts to develop psychoanalytically informed interventions for older adopted and foster children who show significant disturbances in attachment. This paper reviews theory and research that lays groundwork for a framework for conceptualizing treatment needs for attachment disordered children. Two cases of conjoint work with parents and their latency age sons are presented. The treatment cases highlight the importance of work to increase parents' reflective functioning capacities and the need to challenge children's defensively excluded early internal working models of self and caregivers.

  7. Waist circumference percentiles among Turkish children under the age of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Nihal; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Poyrazoglu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Horoz, Duygu; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Waist circumference, a proxy measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Although there are numerous studies about waist circumference percentiles in children, only a few studies cover preschool children. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific waist circumference smoothed reference curves in Turkish preschool children to determine abdominal obesity prevalence and to compare them with reference curves obtained from different countries. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 2,947 children (1,471 boys and 1,476 girls) aged 0-6 years were included in the study. The subjects were divided according to their gender. Waist circumference was measured by using a standardized procedure. The age- and gender-specific waist circumference reference curves were constructed and smoothed with LMS method. The reference values of waist circumference, including 3rd, 10th 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles, and standard deviations were given for preschool children. Waist circumference values increased with age, and there were differences between genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was calculated as 10.1 % for boys and 10.7 % for girls. Having compared our data with two other countries' data, we found that our waist circumference data were significantly lower. This is the first cross-sectional study for age- and gender-specific references of 0- to 6-year-old Turkish children. The gender- and age-specific waist circumference percentiles can be used to determine the risk of central obesity.

  8. Emergent literacy profiles of preschool-age children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Lomax, Richard G; Justice, Laura M; Breit-Smith, Allison; Skibbe, Lori E; McGinty, Anita S

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to explore the heterogeneity of emergent literacy skills among preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) through examination of profiles of performance. Fifty-nine children with SLI were assessed on a battery of emergent literacy skills (i.e., alphabet knowledge, print concepts, emergent writing, rhyme awareness) and oral language skills (i.e., receptive/expressive vocabulary and grammar). Cluster analysis techniques identified three emergent literacy profiles: (1) Highest Emergent Literacy, Strength in Alphabet Knowledge; (2) Average Emergent Literacy, Strength in Print Concepts; and (3) Lowest Emergent Literacy across Skills. After taking into account the contribution of child age, receptive and expressive language skills made a small contribution to the prediction of profile membership. The present findings, which may be characterized as exploratory given the relatively modest sample size, suggest that preschool-age children with SLI display substantial individual differences with regard to their emergent literacy skills and that these differences cannot be fully determined by children's age or oral language performance. Replication of the present findings with a larger sample of children is needed.

  9. Age-related outcomes of sleep apnea surgery in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, J S; Cohen, S R; Burstein, F D; Simms, C

    1997-05-01

    This study was designed to determine whether age at the time of surgery is an important influencing factor on outcomes following surgical correction of severe refractory obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in infants and children. Data were collected prospectively on 55 children, all with severe OSA refractory to conservative medical and surgical measures, who underwent combinations of soft-tissue and skeletal procedures aimed at relieving their airway obstruction. The study population was subdivided for analysis into three groups based on age at the time of surgery (> 36 months, > 12 to < 36 months, and < or = 12 months). Each child was assessed for clinical outcomes, polysomnography results, and complications. Children in the > 36 months group demonstrated a significant improvement in respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea index, and lowest overnight oxygen saturation postoperatively. Only RDI improved significantly in the > 12 to < 36 months group. Although there was a trend toward improvement in the respiratory indices for the children < or = 12 months of age, they had a significantly longer intensive care and hospital stay, a greater mean number of extubation attempts, and the highest surgical failure rate (29%). Other complications such as infection, atelectasis, or temporary postoperative nasopharyngeal tube dependence occurred most frequently in the > 36 months group. Surgical management of severe refractory OSA in children age < or = 12 months is more difficult and less likely to succeed. The reasons for this are discussed and recommendations for management are given.

  10. Number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years.

    PubMed

    Dos, Santos Flávia Heloisa; Da Silva, Paulo Adilson; Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Dias, Ana Luiza Ribeiro Pereira; Frigério, Michele Cândida; Dellatolas, Georges; von Aster, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Numerical cognition is based on two components - number processing and calculation. Its development is influenced by biological, cognitive, educational, and cultural factors. The objectives of the present study were to: i) assess number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years from public schools using the Zareki-R (Battery of neuropsychological tests for number processing and calculation in children, Revised; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006) in order to obtain normative data for Portuguese speakers; ii) identify how environment, age, and gender influences the development of these mathematical skills; iii) investigate the construct validity of the Zareki-R by the contrast with the Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The sample included 172 children, both genders, divided in two groups: urban (N = 119) and rural (N = 53) assessed by the Zareki-R. Rural children presented lower scores in one aspect of number processing; children aged 7-8 years demonstrated an inferior global score than older; boys presented a superior performance in both number processing and calculation. Construct validity of Zareki-R was demonstrated by high to moderate correlations with Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The Zareki-R therefore is a suitable instrument to assess the development of mathematical skills, which is influenced by factors such as environment, age, and gender.

  11. Development of interactions between sensorimotor representations in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Kagerer, Florian A; Clark, Jane E

    2014-04-01

    Reliable sensory-motor integration is a pre-requisite for optimal movement control; the functionality of this integration changes during development. Previous research has shown that motor performance of school-age children is characterized by higher variability, particularly under conditions where vision is not available, and movement planning and control is largely based on kinesthetic input. The purpose of the current study was to determine the characteristics of how kinesthetic-motor internal representations interact with visuo-motor representations during development. To this end, we induced a visuo-motor adaptation in 59 children, ranging from 5 to 12years of age, as well as in a group of adults, and measured initial directional error (IDE) and endpoint error (EPE) during a subsequent condition where visual feedback was not available, and participants had to rely on kinesthetic input. Our results show that older children (age range 9-12years) de-adapted significantly more than younger children (age range 5-8years) over the course of 36 trials in the absence of vision, suggesting that the kinesthetic-motor internal representation in the older children was utilized more efficiently to guide hand movements, and was comparable to the performance of the adults.

  12. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part II. Counseling recommendations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    School-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are establishing patterns of behavior that may last a lifetime; therefore, it is important to counsel these patients about healthy lifestyle practices during well-child examinations. Children and families should be advised to eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat or nonfat dairy products, beans, fish, and lean meats, while limiting sugar, fast food, and highly processed foods. Children should engage in at least 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games) should be limited to no more than one to two hours of quality programming daily. Most school-aged children require 11 hours of sleep per night. Decreased sleep is associated with behavioral issues, decreased concentration at school, and obesity. Children should brush their teeth twice per day with a toothpaste containing fluoride. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in this age group in the United States, and families should be counseled on traffic, water, sports, and firearm safety. Because high-risk behaviors may start in early adolescence, many experts recommend screening for tobacco, alcohol, and drug use beginning at 11 years of age. Sexually active adolescents should be counseled on protecting against sexually transmitted infections, and should be screened for these infections if indicated.

  13. Ménière's disease in children aged 4-7 years.

    PubMed

    Brantberg, Krister; Duan, Maoli; Falahat, Babak

    2012-05-01

    This is a retrospective review of clinical data and audiovestibular test results from four children in whom symptoms suggesting Ménière's disease started at 4-7 years of age. The four patients all had spontaneous recurrent attacks of (spinning) vertigo and fluctuating low frequency sensorineural hearing loss from an early age, suggesting a diagnosis of definite Ménière's disease. Presumably, due to age-related inability to communicate auditory symptoms, the children did not initially meet requirements for a diagnosis of Ménière's disease. However, by 8 years of age, all four children reported tinnitus and/or fullness in the affected ear and, thus, met the AAO criteria for Ménière's disease. Even if information on subjective auditory symptoms is missing, it is reasonable to consider young children with idiopathic spontaneous recurrent attacks of vertigo in whom audiograms reveals fluctuating low frequency hearing loss to have Ménière's disease. This report is a reminder that Ménière's disease may also occur in young children.

  14. Visual search in school-aged children with unilateral brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Netelenbos, J Bernard; Van Rooij, Louise

    2004-05-01

    In this preliminary study, visual search for targets within and beyond the initial field of view was investigated in seven school-aged children (five females, two males; mean age at testing 8 years 10 months, SD 1 year 3 months; range 6 to 10 years) with various acquired, postnatal, focal brain injuries (haematoma, haemorrhage, meningioma, neuroblastoma, and cerebral abscess) in anterior or posterior sites of the left or right hemisphere, and seven control children (matched for age and sex) were also studied. All participants attended mainstream primary schools. The children with lesions underwent surgery after diagnosis (mean age at diagnosis 5 years 4 months, SD 2 years 7 months). Group results indicated that for the overall scores on three psychometric tests of visuospatial and fine motor abilities (Southern California Figure Ground Perception Test, Visual Organization Test, and Visual-Motor Integration Test), no difference between the children with left and right lesions was present. However, children with lesions in the right hemisphere, and not in the left hemisphere, took significantly more time than the controls to locate visual targets presented within and beyond the field of view. Examination of individual data suggested that, in accordance with brain imaging research, right-sided anterior cerebral lesions sustained in early childhood might have an enduring detrimental effect on voluntary visual search performance during development. This persistent effect of early brain injury might imply that developmental plasticity of the brain does not apply to certain specific functions of particular areas of the right hemisphere.

  15. Social analogical reasoning in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing peers.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam E; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gallagher, Natalie M; Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G; Krieg, Samantha; Dudley, Katherina; Ratto, Allison; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2017-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important mechanism for social cognition in typically developing children, and recent evidence suggests that some forms of analogical reasoning may be preserved in autism spectrum disorder. An unanswered question is whether children with autism spectrum disorder can apply analogical reasoning to social information. In all, 92 children with autism spectrum disorder completed a social content analogical reasoning task presented via photographs of real-world social interactions. Autism spectrum disorder participants exhibited performance that was well above chance and was not significantly worse than age- and intelligence quotient-matched typically developing children. Investigating the relationship of social content analogical reasoning performance to age in this cross-sectional dataset indicated similar developmental trajectories in the autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children groups. These findings provide new support for intact analogical reasoning in autism spectrum disorder and have theoretical implications for analogy as a metacognitive skill that may be at least partially dissociable from general deficits in processing social content. As an initial study of social analogical reasoning in children with autism spectrum disorder, this study focused on a basic research question with limited ecological validity. Evidence that children with autism spectrum disorder can apply analogical reasoning ability to social content may have long-range applied implications for exploring how this capacity might be channeled to improve social cognition in daily life.

  16. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children.

    PubMed

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2015-05-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the United States, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he or she knows who his or her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with nonadopted children. This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 nonadopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the nonadopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher's report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se.

  17. Consonant acquisition in the Malay language: a cross-sectional study of preschool aged Malay children.

    PubMed

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Anna Christina; Lee, Lay Wah; Murugaiah, Puvaneswary

    2014-05-01

    To date, there has been little research done on phonological acquisition in the Malay language of typically developing Malay-speaking children. This study serves to fill this gap by providing a systematic description of Malay consonant acquisition in a large cohort of preschool-aged children between 4- and 6-years-old. In the study, 326 Malay-dominant speaking children were assessed using a picture naming task that elicited 53 single words containing all the primary consonants in Malay. Two main analyses were conducted to study their consonant acquisition: (1) age of customary and mastery production of consonants; and (2) consonant accuracy. Results revealed that Malay children acquired all the syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants before 4;06-years-old, with the exception of syllable-final /s/, /h/ and /l/ which were acquired after 5;06-years-old. The development of Malay consonants increased gradually from 4- to 6 years old, with female children performing better than male children. The accuracy of consonants based on manner of articulation showed that glides, affricates, nasals, and stops were higher than fricatives and liquids. In general, syllable-initial consonants were more accurate than syllable-final consonants while consonants in monosyllabic and disyllabic words were more accurate than polysyllabic words. These findings will provide significant information for speech-language pathologists for assessing Malay-speaking children and designing treatment objectives that reflect the course of phonological development in Malay.

  18. [Causes of anaemia in African children aged 5 to 10 years].

    PubMed

    Mbanya, Dora; Tagny, Claude Tayou; Akamba, Anastasie; Mekongo, Martin Ondoua; Tetanye, Ekoe

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted among two groups of 105 children in a hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon, to determine the causes of anaemia in children aged 5- 10-years-old. The study group included children presenting clinical evidence of anaemia while the control group was made of children without anaemia. Both sets of children were matched for neighbourhoods within the city of Yaoundé. Each child had a complete physical examination, full blood count, haemoglobin electrophoresis, reticulocyte counts, and stool samples examined for parasites and hemoparasites. The mean haemoglobin level was 7.77 +/- 1.54 g/dL in the study group and 12.37 +/- 1.23 in the control group. The anaemia was mainly normocytic, normochromic and regenerative in the study group, usually associated with evidence of haemolysis. Patients with homozygous sickle cell disease were found only in the study group (n = 13; 12.3%). Malaria parasites were noted in 89 children (84.7%) in the study group, compared with 34 (32.4%) in the control group (p = 0.0004). Prevalence of intestinal parasites was similar in both groups (50.8%). Protein-calorie malnutrition was rare and was not associated with anemia. We conclude that both malaria and sickle cell anaemia play an important role in anaemia in children aged 5-10 years.

  19. [Factors associated with malnutrition in children aged under five years in Lubumbashi (DRC)].

    PubMed

    Mukatay, Abdon W M; Kalenga, Prosper M K; Dramaix, Michèle; Hennart, Philippe; Schirvel, Carole; Kabamba, Lydia M; Kabyla, Benjamin I; Donnen, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional status of children is a global indicator of children's well-being and, indirectly, of the community's well-being. The first objective of this work is to assess the nutritional status of children under five years-old living in a suburb of the city of Lubumbashi, DR Congo, at the end of the 1998-2003 armed conflict. The second objective aims to identify some predictors of malnutrition. A multivariate logistic regression was applied to the results of a cross-sectional survey of 1963 children from selected households. In addition to the anthropometric variables, living conditions were also used. We observed 33.5% stunted growth and 3.8% emaciation. After logistic regression, a low maternal educational level (less than 7 years), the absence of a drinking water tap available in the house or yard, male gender, and age of children ( > 11 months) were all significantly associated with increased risk of stunted growth. Moreover, decreased appetite, diarrhea and age of children ( < 12 months) were significant predictors of emaciation. Compared to the classification of the World Health Organization, our results indicate that the prevalence of stunting is high and the prevalence of emaciation is low. Interventions against malnutrition should consider the various predictors discussed in this study in order to reduce mortality and morbidity in children and contribute to their well-being.

  20. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight.