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Sample records for children including children

  1. Including All Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Rud; Turnbull, Ann

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the ways in which families and children with developmental disabilities can attain "full citizenship" with a creed of positive contribution, great expectations, friendships, choices, and strengths. (BB)

  2. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  3. Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had…

  4. Including Children with Cochlear Implants in General Education Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stith, Joanna L.; Drasgow, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Cochlear implants can provide partial hearing to individuals with substantial hearing loss. Because of improvements in early identification and intervention, more children with cochlear implants will be included in elementary school general education classrooms. Thus, general education teachers should be prepared for teaching children with…

  5. Schools for All Children: Recommendations for Including Kentucky's Poor and Minority Children in School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuley, Sandra

    Restructuring of Kentucky's public schools is required if poor and minority children are to be included in school reform. The responsibility for creating schools that serve all children falls to both the state and local school districts. A state level initiative must be combined with local district effort. This report provides recommendations for…

  6. Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

    2006-01-01

    These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

  7. The Director's Toolbox for Including Children with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Linda; Goldberg, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Directors of early childhood programs are the "frontline" for parents seeking admission for their children with identified special needs. In addition, developmental and behavioral issues that emerge after a child is enrolled in a program quickly come to the director's attention. Determining who can be included at a site, how to prepare the…

  8. Context Influences Preschool Children's Decisions to Include a Peer with a Physical Disability in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Karen E.; Hong, Soo-Young; Tu, Huifang

    2008-01-01

    Understanding children's decisions to include a child with a disability in activities is an important component of the social environment of children with disabilities. We examined preschool children's understanding of the motor and social competence of hypothetical children with a physical disability, children's decisions to include or exclude a…

  9. 25 CFR 20.401 - What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly,...

  10. 25 CFR 20.401 - What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly,...

  11. 25 CFR 20.401 - What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly,...

  12. 25 CFR 20.401 - What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly,...

  13. 25 CFR 20.401 - What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly,...

  14. Including Children with Chronic Health Conditions: Nebulizers in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Ellie

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Transition-to-Kindergarten program in Brookline, Massachusetts, in which two children with asthma and potentially life-threatening food allergies were helped to stay healthy and fit into the classroom. (BB)

  15. Food Insecurity in U.S. Households That Include Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonik, Rajan; Parish, Susan L.; Ghosh, Subharati; Igdalsky, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined food insecurity in households including children with disabilities, analyzing data from the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, which included 24,729 households with children, 3,948 of which had children with disabilities. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of…

  16. Endocarditis - children

    MedlinePlus

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  17. An Initial Look at the Quality of Life of Malaysian Families That Include Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…

  18. Educators' Challenges of Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mainstream Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Thomson, Nicole; Scott, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Although children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are increasingly being placed within mainstream classes, little is known about the challenges that teachers encounter with including them as full participants in the class. This qualitative study draws on a purposive sample of 13 educators who have experience teaching children with ASD within…

  19. Child Care Teachers' Perspectives on Including Children with Challenging Behavior in Child Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…

  20. Young Children's Decisions to Include Peers with Physical Disabilities in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Karen E.; Hong, Soo-Young

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined factors related to preschool children's reasoning about including a hypothetical peer with a physical disability in different play activities. They hypothesized that children's inclusion decisions would be influenced by features of the physical environment, attention to issues of fairness and equity, and individual child…

  1. Including Young Children With "New" Chronic Illnesses in an Early Childhood Education Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauvre, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Presents suggestions for successfully including young children with "new" life-threatening, chronic illnesses -- various types of cancer, heart, liver, and kidney diseases -- in early childhood education classes. (BB)

  2. Mansonella, including a Potential New Species, as Common Parasites in Children in Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Mourembou, Gaël; Fenollar, Florence; Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard; Ndjoyi Mbiguino, Angelique; Maghendji Nzondo, Sydney; Matsiegui, Pierre Blaise; Zoleko Manego, Rella; Ehounoud, Cyrille Herve Bile; Bittar, Fadi; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Background Like other tropical African countries, Gabon is afflicted by many parasitic diseases, including filariases such as loiasis and mansonellosis. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of these two filarial diseases in febrile and afebrile children using quantitative real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled with sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA from blood specimens of 1,418 Gabonese children (1,258 febrile and 160 afebrile) were analyzed. Overall, filarial DNA was detected in 95 (6.7%) children, including 67 positive for M. perstans (4.7%), which was the most common. M. perstans was detected in 61/1,258 febrile children (4.8%) and 6/160 afebrile children (3.8%, P = 0.6). Its prevalence increased statistically with age: 3.5%, 7.7% and 10.6% in children aged ≤5, 6–10 and 11–15 years, respectively. M. perstans prevalence was significantly higher in Koulamoutou and Lastourville (12% and 10.5%, respectively) than in Franceville and Fougamou (2.6% and 2.4%, respectively). Loa loa was detected in seven febrile children including one co-infection with M. perstans. Finally, 21 filarial DNA positive were negative for M. perstans and Loa loa, but ITS sequencing could be performed for 12 and allowed the identification of a potential new species of Mansonella provisionally called “DEUX”. Mansonella sp. “DEUX” was detected only in febrile children. Conclusions/Significance Further study should be performed to characterize Mansonella sp. “DEUX” and evaluate the clinical significance of mansonellosis in humans. PMID:26484866

  3. Children's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...

  4. Including Children with Special Educational Needs in Mainstream Classrooms: Implications for Pedagogy from a Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Wearmouth, Janice

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the outcomes of the first in a series of three systematic literature reviews in inclusive education. The aims include establishing what research has been undertaken in the area of effective pedagogical approaches to enable children with special educational needs to be included in mainstream classrooms, synthesising themes in…

  5. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Procedures for Special Educational Programs (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determined individually, based upon the preschool child's or child's performance, behavior, and needs when... (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children and Children With Disabilities (3-21 years Inclusive) B... DISABILITIES AND THEIR FAMILIES, AND SPECIAL EDUCATION CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES WITHIN THE SECTION 6...

  6. [The comparative effectiveness of framycetin included in combined therapy of adenoiditis in the children].

    PubMed

    Soldatskiĭ, Iu L; Denisova, O A; Ivanenko, A M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of framycetin included in combined therapy of adenoiditis in the children. The study involved 67 children at the mean age of 6.9±2.7 years. Group 1 was comprised of 35 children given framycetin as topical therapy, the patients of group 2 were treated by the endonasal administration of a 2% silver proteinate solution. It was shown that the use of framycetin as a component of combined therapy of adenoiditis enhances the effectiveness of the treatment and compliance to therapy in comparison with the same parameters in the case of the application of traditional topical antibacterial preparations. PMID:25588492

  7. Four Stories, Four Children, One Special Need: To Be Warmly Included.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano-Nagurski, Lisa; Bakley, Sue; Kulak, Alisa; Blasi, Mary Jane; Priestley, Lori

    1998-01-01

    Contains four articles: (1) "And the Walls Came Tumbling Down: Including Children Who Are Differently Abled in Typical Early Childhood Educational Settings"; (2) "On Teasing, Taunting, and 'I Can Do It by Myself'"; (3) "A Teacher's Responsibility--To Be Enthusiastic about Teaching Fast and Slow Learners Alike"; (4) "A Child with Severe Hearing…

  8. Widening the Circle: Including Children with Disabilities in Preschool Programs. Early Childhood Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Samuel L., Ed.

    Based on a groundbreaking 5-year research study conducted by the Early Childhood Research Institute on Inclusion, this book explores the barriers to and influences on inclusive education settings for young children. Topics covered include individualized instruction, family perceptions of inclusion, and cultural and linguistic diversity. The…

  9. Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Doreen; And Others

    This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

  10. Children Helping Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougher, Jean

    2006-01-01

    In a summer program for school-agers 6 to 12 years old, the children devise a meaningful, real-life experience to alleviate the midsummer doldrums and hope to "make the world a better place." They collect, repair, and paint old children's bicycles to present, along with new helmets, to children at a nearby homeless shelter. In this article, the…

  11. [Mitochondrial diseases in children including Leigh syndrome--biochemical and molecular background].

    PubMed

    Pronicka, Ewa; Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Dorota; Pronicki, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases in children are more frequently caused by mutations in nuclear DNA then in mtDNA. Special clinical phenotypes are associated with the mutations in SURF1 gene, in SCO2 gene and with mtDNA depletion syndromes. Leigh syndrome is the most common clinical presentation of various mitochondrial disorders during childhood. Elevation of lactate in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine is a simple biochemical marker of mitochondrial disorders but its specificity and sensitivity are low. Biochemical investigation of muscle biopsy and search for mitochondrial mutations remain a gold standard in the diagnosis. The standarized diagnostic criteria to establish level of diagnostic certainty (possible, probable, definite) are proposed to be used in practice; these include clinical features, neuroimaging and muscle biopsy investigations. Further research directions to improve our understanding of mitochondrial pathologies in children are suggested.

  12. White potatoes, including french fries, contribute shortfall nutrients to children's and adolescents' diets.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Marjorie R; Keast, Debra R

    2011-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that white potatoes (WP), oven-baked fries (OBF), and french fries (FF) contribute important nutrients within energy needs to children's and adolescents' diets, secondary analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 was conducted. Potato content of survey foods was determined using US Department of Agriculture recipe databases (Standard Reference (SR)-Link files). Nutrient content of potatoes was determined by linking SR codes to US Department of Agriculture food composition data. Daily nutrient intakes from potatoes were determined by applying the composition database to respondent's recall data. Sample-weighted data were analyzed; t tests assessed differences between age and sex groups. Results indicated that approximately 35% of children and adolescents consumed WP + FF + OBF; 18% consumed FF. Intakes were lower in children compared with adolescents (P < .01). Among adolescents, more boys than girls consumed FF (P < .05); boys ate larger amounts of WP + FF + OBF (134 g/d) and FF (100 g/d) (P < .01). Both WP + FF + OBF and FF provided 9% to 12% of total daily energy (but was within energy requirements in the highest consumers); 8% to 15% of daily fat (>75% monounsaturated fatty acids + polyunsaturated fatty acids); ≥ 10% dietary fiber, vitamin B(6), and potassium; 5% or greater thiamin, niacin, vitamin K, phosphorus, magnesium, and copper; and less than 5% sodium intake, for all sex -age groups. The combination WP + FF + OBF provided 5% or greater vitamin C for all sex-age groups and 5% or greater vitamin E and iron for most groups; FF provided 5% or greater vitamin E intakes for all. These cross-sectional data show that WP, including FF, provided shortfall nutrients within energy requirements to children and adolescents and, when consumed in moderate amounts, can be part of healthful diets.

  13. Including Children with Special Educational Needs in Physical Education: Has Entitlement and Accessibility Been Realised?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickerman, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…

  14. Including Children with Autism in Social and Imaginary Play with Typical Peers: Integrated Play Groups Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfberg, Pamela; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; DeWitt, Mila

    2012-01-01

    Peer-play experiences are a vital part of children's socialization, development, and culture. Children with autism face distinct challenges in social and imaginary play, which place them at high risk for being excluded by peers. Without explicit support, they are likely to remain isolated from peers and the consistent interactive play that…

  15. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    PubMed

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  16. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal

    PubMed Central

    Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Mucchetti, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468–478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5–8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent–child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84–96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70 % of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement. PMID:25475363

  17. Playing Together: Ideas for Adapting Materials to Include All Children in Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Five charts list toys, playground equipment, and other materials found in most child care settings that promote social, emotional, perceptual, sensory, cognitive, and physical development and that can be used, with little or no modification, by children with disabilities. (MDM)

  18. Implementing Randomized Controlled Trials in Preschool Settings That Include Young Children with Disabilities: Considering the Context of Strain and Bovey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, developments related to conducting randomized controlled trials in authentic preschool settings that include young children with disabilities are discussed in relation to the Strain and Bovey study.

  19. The Impact of Disability on the Lives of Children; Cross-Sectional Data Including 8,900 Children with Disabilities and 898,834 Children without Disabilities across 30 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kuper, Hannah; Monteath-van Dok, Adrienne; Wing, Kevin; Danquah, Lisa; Evans, Jenny; Zuurmond, Maria; Gallinetti, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with disabilities are widely believed to be less likely to attend school or access health care, and more vulnerable to poverty. There is currently little large-scale or internationally comparable evidence to support these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of disability on the lives of children sponsored by Plan International across 30 countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey including 907,734 children aged 0–17 participating in the Plan International Sponsorship Programme across 30 countries in 2012. Parents/guardians were interviewed using standardised questionnaires including information on: age, sex, health, education, poverty, and water and sanitation facilities. Disability was assessed through a single question and information was collected on type of impairment. The dataset included 8,900 children with reported disabilities across 30 countries. The prevalence of disability ranged from 0.4%–3.0% and was higher in boys than girls in 22 of the 30 countries assessed – generally in the range of 1.3–1.4 fold higher. Children with disabilities were much less likely to attend formal education in comparison to children without disabilities in each of the 30 countries, with age-sex adjusted odds ratios exceeding 10 for nearly half of the countries. This relationship varied by impairment type. Among those attending school, children with disabilities were at a lower level of schooling for their age compared to children without disabilities. Children with disabilities were more likely to report experiencing a serious illness in the last 12 months, except in Niger. There was no clear relationship between disability and poverty. Conclusions Children with disabilities are at risk of not fulfilling their educational potential and are more vulnerable to serious illness. This exclusion is likely to have a long-term deleterious impact on their lives unless services are adapted to promote their

  20. Lifestyle Interventions Including Nutrition, Exercise, and Supplements for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children.

    PubMed

    Africa, Jonathan A; Newton, Kimberly P; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease among children. Lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise, are frequently recommended. Children with NAFLD have a distinct physiology that is different from obesity alone and has the potential to influence lifestyle treatments. Studies of diet alone in the treatment of pediatric NAFLD have focused on sugar and carbohydrate, but did not indicate any one dietary approach that was superior to another. For children who are obese and have NAFLD, weight loss may have a beneficial effect regardless of the diet used. Exercise is widely believed to improve NAFLD because a sedentary lifestyle, poor aerobic fitness, and low muscle mass are all risk factors for NAFLD. However, there have been no randomized controlled trials of exercise as a treatment for children with NAFLD. Studies of the combination of diet and exercise suggest a potential for improvement in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and/or magnetic resonance imaging liver fat fraction with intervention. There is also enthusiasm for the use of dietary supplements; however, studies in children have shown inconsistent effects of vitamin E, fish oil, and probiotics. This review presents the available data from studies of lifestyle intervention and dietary supplements published to date and highlights challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the evidence base for the treatment of pediatric NAFLD. PMID:27041377

  1. Lifestyle Interventions Including Nutrition, Exercise, and Supplements for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children.

    PubMed

    Africa, Jonathan A; Newton, Kimberly P; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease among children. Lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise, are frequently recommended. Children with NAFLD have a distinct physiology that is different from obesity alone and has the potential to influence lifestyle treatments. Studies of diet alone in the treatment of pediatric NAFLD have focused on sugar and carbohydrate, but did not indicate any one dietary approach that was superior to another. For children who are obese and have NAFLD, weight loss may have a beneficial effect regardless of the diet used. Exercise is widely believed to improve NAFLD because a sedentary lifestyle, poor aerobic fitness, and low muscle mass are all risk factors for NAFLD. However, there have been no randomized controlled trials of exercise as a treatment for children with NAFLD. Studies of the combination of diet and exercise suggest a potential for improvement in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and/or magnetic resonance imaging liver fat fraction with intervention. There is also enthusiasm for the use of dietary supplements; however, studies in children have shown inconsistent effects of vitamin E, fish oil, and probiotics. This review presents the available data from studies of lifestyle intervention and dietary supplements published to date and highlights challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the evidence base for the treatment of pediatric NAFLD.

  2. Maintaining the Thread: Including Young Children with Chronic Illness in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, Shiona

    2004-01-01

    Young children with chronic illness who attend our early childhood facilities and schools have very special needs. They are more likely to encounter academic challenges and to have peer and emotional difficulties than are their healthy peers. As well, their families are frequently undergoing intense stress. The challenge to educators is to ensure…

  3. English Learning Support Assistants' Experiences of Including Children with Special Educational Needs in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickerman, Philip; Blundell, Milly

    2012-01-01

    According to Blatchford, learning support assistants (LSA) in schools within England comprise of a quarter of their workforce. In recent years, the inclusion of children with special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream school settings has seen significant rises. Furthermore, the English government has raised expectations on the amount of…

  4. Including Exceptional Children in a Christian Learning Community: New Narratives in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangunan Camota Contreras, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Research Topic: The majority of Christian schools in the United States exclude children who have disabilities from their learning communities. This study examines the practices of 11 Christian schools throughout the United States, through conversations with a top leader in each school, that provide access to and/or inclusion in their schools.…

  5. Including Children with Special Needs: Are You and Your Early Childhood Program Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amy; McCathren, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a checklist designed to help preschool and kindergarten administrators and teachers build confidence in their ability to be inclusive and to increase their awareness of the needs of children with disabilities. Teachers can use the checklist to prepare for the inclusion of a child with a disability. "Identifying potential…

  6. Electric current perception of the general population including children and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N; Schroettner, J; Cech, R

    2005-01-01

    Although the 50 Hz electric current perception threshold is a key parameter for limiting electric touch currents in electrical technology and for limiting indirect effects of external electromagnetic fields, the data available mainly reflect men's perception ability; with only sparse data for women and almost none for children or the elderly. Measurements with 240 children aged 9 - 16 years, and 123 elderly people, allow this gap of knowledge to be filled. Taking into account the demographic age distribution, it was possible to generate a probability distribution representing the perception ability of the overall general population, and thus to provide a more established basis for deriving safety limits. The results show that the existing limit values for electric touch currents are considerably too high if compared with results derived from the new data with the same criteria. On the other hand, it appeared that children do not exhibit such a high sensitivity to electricity as assumed to date. Therefore, former rule-of-thumb estimates to account for higher sensitivities of children lie on the safe side. The presented assessment of the general population's electric current perception ability should stimulate a critical review of the existing regulations.

  7. Comparison of Behavioral Profiles for Anxiety-Related Comorbidities including ADHD and Selective Mutism in Children

    PubMed Central

    Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D.; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma

    2013-01-01

    Background Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. Methods In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ≥ 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46 and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups, respectively). Results Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (p < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problem social behaviors than either the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (p < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Conclusions Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. PMID:23526795

  8. Anti-reflux surgery - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toupet fundoplication - children; Thal fundoplication - children; Hiatal hernia repair - children; Endoluminal fundoplication - children ... surgery may be done several ways, including: Open repair: The surgeon will make a large cut in ...

  9. Places for Children - Children's Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In their everyday lives, children largely stay within and relate to three settings - their homes, schools and recreational institutions. These environments have been created by adults and designated by them as "places for children". A more differentiated picture of children's spatial culture emerges when children discuss and take photographs of…

  10. Children Teaching Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Pia

    2007-01-01

    This study describes children's awareness of what it means to teach a game to a peer where the act of teaching becomes expression of the child's possible awareness. Awareness is defined as the attention to different aspects of the teaching process shown by the teaching child, sometimes through their own verbal reflection. This implies an…

  11. Raising Our Children's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette-Dudman, Deborah; LaCure, Jeffrey R.

    There are 3.2 million children in the United States living with their grandparents or other kin, a 40 percent increase since 1980. This exploding sociological trend with far-reaching implications for our future spans every segment of our society--rich and poor, black and white, Asian and Hispanic, urban and suburban. Based on interviews with…

  12. Children Solve Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bono, Edward

    A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

  13. Clinical observations of odontomas in Japanese children: 39 cases including one recurrent case.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, M; Otsuka, Y; Noda, T

    2005-01-01

    Retrospective investigations of odontomas in Japanese children and one recurrent case were carried out. Thirty-nine cases of odontoma in 38 children were treated in the Paediatric Dentistry Clinic of Niigata University Dental Hospital between September 1979 and December 2002. The patients consisted of 23 males and 15 females and their ages ranged from 1 year 2 months to 14 years old. The chief complaints were delayed tooth eruption in 19 cases (five: primary teeth, 14: permanent teeth), retention of primary teeth in 11, incidentally found on the radiographic examination in eight cases, and swelling of the jaw in one case. Thirty-four cases (87%) were associated with tooth eruption disturbances. The most frequently affected region was the maxillary anterior region. Treatment consisted of surgical removal of odontomas in all cases, after which if the impacted teeth did not erupt, exposure of the crown and/or orthodontic traction was performed. Pathological diagnoses were compound odontoma in 30 cases, complex odontoma (n = 7), and compound and complex odontoma (n = 2). A retrospective study of the radiographs revealed the developing process of odontomas in four cases and odontoma disturbed tooth eruption since the early uncalcified developing stage. A recurrent case was a boy aged 6 years 5 months in whom the first surgical removal of odontoma was performed at the age of 1 year 8 months. Recurrence of an odontoma is very rare, but in very young children odontomas are in the early developing stages, containing uncalcified portions, so it is important to perform periodical observations until the succedaneous teeth erupt.

  14. Association of Hypercholesterolemia Incidence With Antiretroviral Treatment, Including Protease Inhibitors, Among Perinatally HIV-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Williams, Paige L.; Seage, George R.; Crain, Marilyn; Oleske, James; Farley, John

    2011-01-01

    Context Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with hypercholesterolemia in HIV-infected children. Few longitudinal studies have been conducted to examine this association, however. Objective To evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for development of hypercholesterolemia in a large pediatric study. Design Prospective cohort study (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219C). Participants A total of 2122 perinatally HIV-infected children free of hypercholesterolemia at entry. Outcome Development of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥220 mg/dL at 2 consecutive visits). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate risk factors. Results Thirteen percent of children had hypercholesterolemia at entry, and an additional 13% developed hypercholesterolemia during follow-up for an incidence rate of 3.4 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0 to 3.9). After adjustment for age, boosted protease inhibitor (PI) use (hazard ratio [HR] = 13.9, 95% CI: 6.73 to 28.6), nonboosted PI use (HR = 8.65, 95% CI: 4.19 to 17.9), and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor use (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.71) were associated with increased risk of hypercholesterolemia, and higher viral load was protective (>50,000 vs. ≤400 copies/mL; HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.90). Self-reported adherent subjects had higher risk. Conclusions PIs were significant risk factors for hypercholesterolemia. Higher viral load was protective and may reflect non-adherence. Further follow-up is critical to evaluate long-term consequences of chronic PI exposure and hypercholesterolemia. PMID:18209684

  15. [Including children with cerebral palsy in the school --role of the school health team].

    PubMed

    Baixinho, Cristina Lavareda

    2008-01-01

    It's dificult to elaborate a program of intervention/inclusion that can act as a standart for children with special learning disabilities, since their necessities are of their own; their resources, in mostof the situations, show disparity; and the problem presents different connotations for each family group. On the other hand, schools are organized differently, they have their physical conditions that more or less facilitate the mobility. They rarely manifest the ideal conditions; staff may or not be educated to work with and for these children; their acceptance and receptivity depend not only on training but also on the correct management of individual and collective expectations (closely influenced by the organizational culture of each establishment, the working experience of their professionals), among other factors. School health teams have different dynamics, with more or less liberty of intervention among the educative community, but assume a master role in this inclusion, since they have areas of knowledge of their own and because their intervention is due to the team spirit and cooperation. For these motives, any possibility of intervention must be personalized to the child and the family, with clear objectives that are real and feasible, elaborated as a partnership: school, family, teacher of special learning disabilities and the school health team.

  16. Adult Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on adult children. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the…

  17. Wednesday's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Katherine

    1986-01-01

    The author of "Jacob Have I Loved" and "Come Sing, Jimmy Jo" describes the characters in books she has written who are like "Wednesday's children"--full of woe. Discusses dealing with tragedy in children's books. (EL)

  18. Asthma - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children. It is a leading cause of missed school days and hospital visits for children. An allergic reaction ... how to let your child take medicine during school hours. (You may ... every day to prevent asthma symptoms. Your child should take ...

  19. Urinary tract infection - children

    MedlinePlus

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...

  20. Soviet Children's Books: Expanding Children's Views of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Roberta

    1984-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that supports the premise that children should read literature written for children in other countries to increase their knowledge and understanding of other cultures. Includes a bibliography of Russian children's literature. (AEA)

  1. Exploring the Social Impact of Being a Typical Peer Model for Included Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Jill; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Kasari, Connie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the social impact of being a typical peer model as part of a social skills intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were drawn from a randomized-controlled-treatment trial that examined the effects of targeted interventions on the social networks of 60 elementary-aged children with ASD.…

  2. A Tool to Record and Support the Early Development of Children Including Those with Special Educational Needs or Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mengoni, Silvana E.; Oates, John

    2014-01-01

    Early intervention is key for children with special educational needs or disabilities (SEND), and therefore early assessment is crucial. Information from parents about children's current ability and their developmental history can make valid and useful contributions to developmental assessments. Parental input is also important in early…

  3. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Are Minimally Verbal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…

  4. Including Children with Intellectual Disabilities/Special Educational Needs into National Child Health Surveys: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Judith; Wishart, Jennifer; Currie, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Background: The language, format and length of typical national health survey questionnaires may make them inaccessible to many school-aged children with an intellectual disability. Materials and Methods: Using the standard delivery protocol, the WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Questionnaire, currently in use in 43 countries,…

  5. iStimulation: Apple iPad Use with Children Who Are Visually Impaired, Including Those with Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaña, Laura V.; Ouimet, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Since its creation in the early 1980s, Light Box, a product developed by the American Printing House for the Blind (APH) that is designed for working on functional vision tasks with children who have visual impairments or multiple disabilities, has been an effective tool to help teach children with visual impairments to locate and track items…

  6. Including Children with ASD in Regular Kindergarten and First Grade Classrooms: Teacher Attitudes, Child Progress and Classroom Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeating, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    The enrollment of children with ASD in public school settings has escalated in conjunction with the increased incidence of the diagnosis (Yeargin-Allsopp et al., 2003). Characteristics associated with ASD can present unique challenges for both children and teachers in the classroom. According to many researchers, positive teacher attitudes are one…

  7. Children Worldwide, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the three journal issues comprising volume 19 (1992) of "Children Worldwide" focuses on a specific theme. Issue 1 contains six articles about refugee children, including essays about a community self-help approach in Pakistan, unaccompanied minors in Hong Kong, and refugee families raising children in a new culture; guidelines for working…

  8. Children for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawes, Hugh, Ed.; Scotchmer, Christine, Ed.

    This book is designed for those who work with children and who believe that children, in schools and as family members, need to be considered partners in spreading health messages as well as benefiting from them. It contains the messages included in "Facts for Life," a handbook that presents practical, low-cost ways of protecting children's lives…

  9. Bullying among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Janis R.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that teachers have differing views toward children who bully. Addresses characteristics of bullies and their victims, incidences of bullying among children, the effects of bullying on children, and recommendations for teachers' support, including school-wide, classroom, and individual interventions. (DLH)

  10. Snowflake Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child & Youth Services, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Taking account of the needs and views of children is problematic, particularly in Ireland where children have been "owned" by their parents and social policy has been directed at the family rather than the individual child. The 1980s and 1990s may be said to be the decades where abuse, in its many forms, reared its head and Irish society was…

  11. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  12. Hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy including lower extremities (HABIT-ILE) for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Gordon, Andrew M

    2014-11-01

    Hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy and constrained-induced movement therapy have shown evidence of effectiveness in improvement of upper extremity use in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The effectiveness of interventions that are based on intensive practice of activities that combine UE and LE functions has not been reported. We propose that bimanual UE activities that simultaneously require trunk and LE postural adaptations uniquely address motor control limitations of children with unilateral spastic CP. The aim of this perspective is to present such an approach Hand Arm Bimanual Intensive Therapy Including Lower Extremities (HABIT-ILE). HABIT-ILE is unique in selection of tasks and activities that require simultaneous control and coordination of UE and LE movements. It is a motor-learning-based approach using problem solving and highly structured practice. During the intervention, activities and tasks are progressively graded toward more complex bimanual coordination for the UE and increasing demands of the LE. HABIT-ILE is provided in small groups for 90 hr using a camp model. Future research (randomized controlled trial) is needed to determine the effectiveness of HABIT-ILE. PMID:25271469

  13. Having Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... and plans for having children during your regular medical visits with your health care provider. These discussions ( ...

  14. Children's Bureau

    MedlinePlus

    ... Initiatives & Issues For the Press Focus Areas Adoption Child Abuse & Neglect Child Welfare Services Foster Care Guardianship Tribes ... of children and families through programs that reduce child abuse and neglect, increase the number of adoptions, and ...

  15. Children and ESL: Integrating Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Pat, Ed.; Enright, D. Scott, Ed.

    Seven essays address aspects of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction for children, seen from a variety of perspectives: research, teaching, and ethnography. They include: "Introduction: Children and ESL" (D. Scott Enright, Pat Rigg); "ESL Teachers as Language Advocates for Children" (Courtney Cazden); "ESL Children's Writing: What We've…

  16. Children's Choices: Teaching with Books Children Like.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roser, Nancy, Ed.; Frith, Margaret, Ed.

    Supplementing Children's Choices--a list of children's literature that children grades K-8 found most enjoyable, published annually in "The Reading Teacher" journal--this collection of articles provides suggestions for effective use of children's favorite books in the classroom. In addition to providing an extensive bibliography of Children's…

  17. Gifted Children and Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.

    2011-01-01

    Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…

  18. Children and media.

    PubMed

    Patankar, M

    1989-01-01

    Program developers in India's mass media are turning to the discipline of child development to increase their sensitivity to the special needs and capacities of child audiences. Children are particularly susceptible to having their thoughts, feelings, values, and behavior influenced by media programming. In India, radio is the medium with the greatest opportunity to communicate with children and programming for young people includes educational material, variety programs, quiz shows, drama, and live programs in which children participate. The 1st Children's Film Festival was held in India in 1952 and India participates in the International Center of Films for Children and Young People. Television enjoys popularity among children, illiterates, and the poor, but its potential to create social awareness, change behaviors, and raise the standard of living of the Indian people has not been fully realized. Drama is less able to reach large numbers of children, but offers children the opportunity to participate directly in the portrayal of different characters and emotions. Recently, the tradition of puppetry has been rivived and integrated into India's school curriculum. Finally, India is taking steps to expand the number of books available to children and the Government has established 2 trusts to support the publication of children's literature. Regardless of the form of media, it is important for parents to play a role in ensuring the appropriateness of the programming for the child and processing its content.

  19. Retarded Children at Camp with Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Norman; Peters, Edward N.

    1969-01-01

    Statistical analysis of data from written forms and scales (designed to measure children's behavior in groups), observations, and interviews indicated that many educalble mentally retarded children can participate successfully in camp activities with normal children. (DR)

  20. Children's workforce strategy.

    PubMed

    2005-08-01

    The Green Paper, Every child matters, recognised the crucial importance of the children's workforce to improving outcomes for children and young people. The Children's Workforce Strategy sets out the government's vision of a world-class children's workforce which is increasingly competent and confident, inspiring trust and respect from parents and carers as well as from children and young people themselves. The document sets out four major strategic challenges: to recruit more high quality staff into the children's workforce; to retain people in the workforce including by offering better development and career progression; to strengthen interagency and multi-disciplinary working; and to promote stronger leadership and management. The strategy builds on work already in hand and on existing good practice. It puts forward proposals to tackle each of the strategic challenges with action nationally and locally.

  1. Interprofessional Collaboration as a Means of Including Children at Risk: An Analysis of Norwegian Educational Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesjedal, Elisabeth; Hetland, Hilde; Iversen, Anette Christine; Manger, Terje

    2015-01-01

    Issues concerning interprofessional collaboration (IPC) for children at risk have become a priority globally as well as in Norway. By international standards, the Norwegian educational system is regarded as inclusive and collaborative in terms of the external services that support schools and pupils. However, a debate continues on how to best…

  2. Development and Internal Validation of a Predictive Model Including Pulse Oximetry for Hospitalization of Under-Five Children in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Raihana, Shahreen; Dunsmuir, Dustin; Huda, Tanvir; Zhou, Guohai; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-ur; Garde, Ainara; Moinuddin, Md; Karlen, Walter; Dumont, Guy A.; Kissoon, Niranjan; El Arifeen, Shams; Larson, Charles; Ansermino, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background The reduction in the deaths of millions of children who die from infectious diseases requires early initiation of treatment and improved access to care available in health facilities. A major challenge is the lack of objective evidence to guide front line health workers in the community to recognize critical illness in children earlier in their course. Methods We undertook a prospective observational study of children less than 5 years of age presenting at the outpatient or emergency department of a rural tertiary care hospital between October 2012 and April 2013. Study physicians collected clinical signs and symptoms from the facility records, and with a mobile application performed recordings of oxygen saturation, heart rate and respiratory rate. Facility physicians decided the need for hospital admission without knowledge of the oxygen saturation. Multiple logistic predictive models were tested. Findings Twenty-five percent of the 3374 assessed children, with a median (interquartile range) age of 1.02 (0.42–2.24), were admitted to hospital. We were unable to contact 20% of subjects after their visit. A logistic regression model using continuous oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, temperature and age combined with dichotomous signs of chest indrawing, lethargy, irritability and symptoms of cough, diarrhea and fast or difficult breathing predicted admission to hospital with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 (95% confidence interval -CI: 0.87 to 0.90). At a risk threshold of 25% for admission, the sensitivity was 77% (95% CI: 74% to 80%), specificity was 87% (95% CI: 86% to 88%), positive predictive value was 70% (95% CI: 67% to 73%) and negative predictive value was 91% (95% CI: 90% to 92%). Conclusion A model using oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and temperature in combination with readily obtained clinical signs and symptoms predicted the need for hospitalization of critically ill children. External validation of

  3. A Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Bacteraemia in Bangladeshi Children with Severe Malnutrition and Pneumonia Including an Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Graham, Stephen M.; Duke, Trevor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; La Vincente, Sophie; Banu, Sayera; Raqib, Rubhana; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. Methods We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years) with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. Results 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4%) children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396) of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16%) additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24–94) and 92% (95% CI: 87–95) respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. Conclusion and Significance TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes. PMID:24695758

  4. When Children Have Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... about options available to them, from abortion to adoption. Special support systems, including consultation with a child ... keep the infant or give it up for adoption. There may be times when the pregnant teenager's ...

  5. SCHOOLS FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCLAUGHLEN, HUGH W.

    THE HISTORY OF SUMMER SCHOOLS FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN IN NEW JERSEY IS BRIEFLY PRESENTED. DURING 16 YEARS OF OPERATION, THE SCHOOLS HAVE BEEN CONDUCTED FOR OVER 2,000 CHILDREN. SPECIAL SERVICES INCLUDE CARE OF PUPILS FROM 2 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE, HOT LUNCHES, DENTAL CARE, HEALTH SERVICES, AND A NURSE ON DUTY AT ALL TIMES. ALL TEACHERS, FULLY CERTIFIED,…

  6. Sexuality and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  7. Alaska's Children, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of the "Alaska's Children" provide information on the activities of the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and other Head Start activities. Legal and policy changes affecting the education of young children in Alaska are also discussed. The Spring 1997 issue includes articles on brain development and the "I Am Your…

  8. Concerts for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suthers, Louie

    2008-01-01

    Concerts designed to introduce young children to music and live performance are staged by a variety of organisations and ensembles across Australia. Shows featuring a wide range of performers are advertised for young children. Such concerts include Babies' Proms, Family Concerts by symphony orchestras, Play School Concerts, performances by…

  9. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  10. Nutrition and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

  11. The Punishment of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslova, T. F.; Smagina, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of punishment including violence are perceived, first and foremost, as in the nature of family relations. The authors' survey focused on children's interaction with their parents, and the risk of violence is clearly present. Russian sociological research on violence against children within families shows a lack of consensus on what…

  12. Licensing of Children's Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, Jake

    The purpose of licensing is to provide protection in circumstances in which people are vulnerable and to mandate that positive services will be provided. The common denominator of human vulnerability in licensed children's services is the fact that the children are in the care of someone other than their families. Licensed services include family…

  13. Assertiveness with 'Special' Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Shelley K.; Stillman-Powell, Patricia

    The author examines issues related to adult assertiveness in controlling and setting limits for handicapped children. Reasons for adults not wishing to be in charge include feelings of guilt, lack of consistency in enforcing rules, and a sense of sympathy for special children. Assertiveness is distinguished from aggressiveness, and suggestions for…

  14. Mapping with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Warash, Bobbi Gibson

    Techniques for encouraging young children to discover the purpose and use of maps are discussed. Motor activity and topological studies form a base from which the teacher and children can build a mapping program of progressive sophistication. Concepts important to mapping include boundaries, regions, exteriors, interiors, holes, order, point of…

  15. Children's Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerskog, Gunnar; Soderlund, Jan

    1980-07-01

    There is a common opinion among eye specialists and opticians that children's glasses often are not shaped for optimal fitting. A fundamental reason for this is the lack of data for the shaping of the bows, with the result that most children's glasses are reduced copies of adult's glasses. This report describes a photogrammetric method for collection of primary data for manufac-turing bows for children. An ordinary amateur camera was equipped with a stereo-adapter. With a few arrangements, such as projecting a pattern on the face and keeping the hair away from the ears, 600 children were photographed. A calibration photograph was exposed at the beginning and end of each film or when the equipment had been transported or otherwise disturbed. The photographs were measured in a stereocomparator and the coordinates analytically corrected for distortion. After determination of model coordinates the requested geometric information, such as pupillar distance, eye-ear distance, location of the bridge of the nose etc, was calculated. The shapes of average noses were presented as profile plots.

  16. Lonely Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Janis R.

    1993-01-01

    Lonely children experience feelings of sadness, malaise, boredom, and alienation. Loneliness has immediate and long-term consequences and may be attributed to many different causes. Teachers can learn to recognize signs of loneliness and use a variety of approaches in the classroom to help the child feel better and work through the experience.…

  17. Wild Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotman, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author, a Forest School Leader with Shropshire Wildlife Trust, shows how nature is the best teacher. She describes a new approach to out-of-classroom learning during which qualified leaders use simple challenges and achievable tasks to encourage child-initiated learning in the great outdoors. At Forest School, children are…

  18. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    PubMed

    Della Lucia, Ceres M; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C; Santos, Laura Luiza M; Cardoso, Leandro M; Martino, Hércia S D; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice(®) (UR(®))) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2-6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR(®) added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR(®) on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464

  19. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    PubMed Central

    Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464

  20. Gestures in Prelinguistic Turkish Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toret, Gokhan; Acarlar, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gesture use in Turkish children with autism, Down syndrome, and typically developing children. Participants included 30 children in three groups: Ten children with Down syndrome, ten children with autism between 24-60 months of age, and ten typically developing children between 12-18 months of age.…

  1. Children's Stereotypes of Overweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…

  2. Helping Young Children Manage Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the common symptoms of stress exhibited by young children including: (1) social or behavioral; (2) physical; (3) emotional; (4) cognitive; and (5) language. Addresses causes of stress, which typically represent change, fear, or loss in children. Offers strategies for easing children's stress including muscle relaxation, deep breathing,…

  3. Victimization of children.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, D; Dziuba-Leatherman, J

    1994-03-01

    Children suffer more victimizations than do adults, including more conventional crimes, more family violence, and some forms virtually unique to children, such as family abduction. On the basis of national statistics, these victimizations can be grouped into three broad categories: the pandemic, such as sibling assault, affecting most children; the acute, such as physical abuse, affecting a fractional but significant percentage; and the extraordinary, such as homicide, affecting a very small group. They can also be differentiated by the degree to which they result from the unique dependency status of children. A field called the victimology of childhood should be defined that adopts a developmental approach to understanding children's vulnerability to different types of victimizations and their different effects.

  4. Re-injecting Spontaneity and Balance in Family Life: Parents Perspectives on Recreation in Families that Include Children with Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mactavish, J. B.; Schleien, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Grounded in the naturalistic paradigm, a mixed-method research design (survey questionnaire, n=65; and interview, n=16) was used to explore the nature and benefits of, and constraints to, family recreation in families that included children with developmental disability. Statistical analyses were conducted on the quantitative data, while key theme…

  5. Preservice Early Childhood Educators' and Elementary Teachers' Perspectives on Including Young Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Elaine B.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Burbidge, Julie; Minnes, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study reports on the perspectives of 143 preservice early childhood educators (ECE) and 208 elementary teacher candidates (TC) on teaching children with developmental disabilities and delays (DDD) in inclusive classrooms. A questionnaire was administered which included items on demographic characteristics, experience, knowledge,…

  6. Continuing Spanish in Grade Four: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Fourth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the second volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fourteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, (2) Review Unit 2, (3) Special Unit A--"Cristobal Colon," (4) Review Unit 3, (5)…

  7. Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Nora E.; And Others

    This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

  8. Beginning Spanish in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Third-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the first in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fifteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of Spaniards. They include: (1) Greetings, Identifications, and Farewells, (2) Some Classroom Objects and Instructions, (3) Colors, (4) More…

  9. Continuing Spanish in Grade Five: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Fifth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the third volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Nine basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, ("Cristobal Colon"), (2) Review Unit 2, (3) "Un Accidente,""La Navidad," and…

  10. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  11. Children of Immigrants: A Statistical Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmelech, Yuval; McCaskie, Katie; Lennon, Mary Clare; Lu, Hsein-Hen

    This report describes demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the children of immigrants, focusing on their economic status. Major findings include the following: (1) immigrant children are more likely to be poor than native-born children; (2) among children whose parents work full-time, immigrant children are at a greater risk of living…

  12. Afghanistan Children in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Save the Children, Westport, CT.

    This report provides information on the well-being of children in Afghanistan, details the work of the Save the Children organization in helping Afghan children and families, and discusses what is currently needed to meet the urgent health and safety needs of Afghan children. It is noted that 25 percent of children die before their fifth birthday,…

  13. Psychotropic Medications for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordoba, Oscar A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the clinical conditions and medications used with children who have emotional and behavioral problems including hyperactivity, enuresis, anxiety, depression, mental retardation, and Tourette's Syndrome. Discusses the role of the social worker, ethical issues, and training needs. (JAC)

  14. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...

  15. Children with Brittle Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Special help given to children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta (brittle bone disease) is described, including adapted equipment to allow for writing and use of a classroom assistant to aid participation in a regular classroom. (CL)

  16. Self-Reported Health Experiences of Children Living with Congenital Heart Defects: Including Patient-Reported Outcomes in a National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tadic, Valerija; Hogan, Ailbhe; Bull, Catherine; Rahi, Jugnoo Sangeeta; Dezateux, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding children’s views about living with congenital heart defects (CHDs) is fundamental to supporting their successful participation in daily life, school and peer relationships. As an adjunct to a health and quality of life outcomes questionnaire, we asked school-age children who survived infant heart procedures to describe their experiences of living with CHDs. Methods In a UK-wide cohort study, children aged 10 to 14 years with CHDs self-completed postal questionnaires that included an open question about having a ‘heart problem’. We compared the characteristics of children with more and less severe cardiac diagnoses and, through collaborative inductive content analysis, investigated the subjective experiences and coping strategies described by children in both clinical severity groups. Results Text and/or drawings were returned by 436 children (246 boys [56%], mean age 12.1 years [SD 1.0; range 10–14]); 313 had less severe (LS) and 123 more severe (MS) cardiac diagnoses. At the most recent hospital visit, a higher proportion of the MS group were underweight (more than two standard deviations below the mean for age) or cyanosed (underweight: MS 20.0%, LS 9.9%; cyanosed: MS 26.2%, LS 3.5%). Children in the MS group described concerns about social isolation and feeling ‘different’, whereas children with less severe diagnoses often characterised their CHD as ‘not a big thing’. Some coping strategies were common to both severity groups, including managing health information to avoid social exclusion, however only children in the LS group considered their CHD ‘in the past’ or experienced a sense of survivorship. Conclusions Children’s reported experiences were not dependent on their cardiac diagnosis, although there were clear qualitative differences by clinical severity group. Children’s concerns emphasised social participation and our findings imply a need to shift the clinical focus from monitoring cardiac function to

  17. Urinary levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including bisphenols, bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers, benzophenones, parabens, and triclosan in obese and non-obese Indian children.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jingchuan; Wu, Qian; Sakthivel, Sivasubramanian; Pavithran, Praveen V; Vasukutty, Jayakumar R; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has been recognized as a major global public health concern. In particular, childhood obesity is a major risk factor for other health issues, such as type 2 diabetes, in later stages of life. A few earlier studies have associated exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with childhood obesity. There is limited information, however, on exposure to EDCs and childhood obesity in India. In this study, urinary levels of 26 EDCs were determined in 49 obese and 27 non-obese Indian children. Eleven EDCs, including 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (BPA), 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol (BPS), methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), propyl paraben (PrP), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB), triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP3), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and bisphenol A bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE·2H2O) were found in >70% of urine samples. No significant associations were found between childhood obesity and most target chemicals studied, except for 3,4-DHB, which showed a significant positive association. Urinary concentrations of 3,4-DHB were higher in obese children than in non-obese children, independent of age, sex, family income, parent education, physical activity, and urinary creatinine. Urinary concentrations of several EDCs were higher in Indian children than the concentrations reported for children in the USA and China. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report urinary concentrations of several EDCs in Indian children.

  18. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  19. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  20. The Status of Children 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapper, Kurt J.; And Others

    This report includes information conerning demographic trends affecting children over the past few years, the status of children as determined by critical normative data pertaining to their health, education, welfare and the identification and targeting of programs and services to meet the needs of children. Section I covers demographic trends in…

  1. Quechua Children's Theory of Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Penelope G.; Olson, David R.

    Three different theory of mind tasks were conducted with 4- to 8-year-old Quechua peasant children in the Peruvian Andes. The study investigated the ways in which children in preliterate cultures think and the possibility that they think differently than children in literate cultures. The tasks included: (1) a false-belief task, which tested the…

  2. The Immigrant Children of Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Augustina H.

    2010-01-01

    In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina displaced the largest number of public school children ever affected by any disaster. Approximately 370,000 children, including 15,000 Latino/Hispanic children from Louisiana, were scattered throughout the 48 U.S. states (Landrieu, 2010; Louisiana Department of Education, 2004). Although much of the media…

  3. Children and grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... children as they grieve. Let them tell their stories and listen. This is one way for kids to deal with grief. Give children time to grieve. Avoid telling children to return to normal activities without the ...

  4. Hepatitis A - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... hepatitis A. Children can get hepatitis A at day care center from other children or from child care ... treatment with immunoglobulin therapy. If your child attends day care: Make sure the children and staff at the ...

  5. Asthma in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...

  6. Treating Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  7. Scheduled Follow-Up Referrals and Simple Prevention Kits Including Counseling to Improve Post-Discharge Outcomes Among Children in Uganda: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Matthew O; Kumbakumba, Elias; Larson, Charles P; Moschovis, Peter P; Barigye, Celestine; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Ndamira, Andrew; English, Lacey; Kissoon, Niranjan; Zhou, Guohai; Ansermino, J Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Recurrent illness following hospital discharge is a major contributor to childhood mortality in resource-poor countries. Yet post-discharge care is largely ignored by health care workers and policy makers due to a lack of resources to identify children with recurrent illness and a lack of cohesive systems to provide care. The purpose of this proof-of-concept study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a bundle of interventions at discharge to improve health outcomes during the vulnerable post-discharge period. Methods: The study was conducted between December 2014 and April 2015. Eligible children were between ages 6 months and 5 years who were admitted with a suspected or proven infectious disease to one of two hospitals in Mbarara, Uganda. A bundle of interventions was provided at the time of discharge. This bundle included post-discharge referrals for follow-up visits and a discharge kit. The post-discharge referral was to ensure follow-up with a nearby health care provider on days 2, 7, and 14 following discharge. The discharge kit included brief educational counseling along with simple preventive items as incentives (soap, a mosquito net, and oral rehydration salts) to reinforce the education. The primary study outcome was the number of post-discharge referral visits completed. Secondary study outcomes included satisfaction with the intervention, rates of readmission after 60 days, and post-discharge mortality rates. In addition, outcomes were compared with a historical control group, enrolled using the same inclusion criteria and outcome-ascertainment methods. Results: During the study, 216 children were admitted, of whom 14 died during hospitalization. Of the 202 children discharged, 85% completed at least 1 of the 3 follow-up referral visits, with 48% completing all 3 visits. Within 60 days after discharge, 22 children were readmitted at least once and 5 children (2.5%) died. Twelve (43%) readmissions occurred during a scheduled follow

  8. Open rhinoplasty in children.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Simon C R; den Herder, Cindy; Shandilya, Munish; Nolst Trenité, Gilbert J

    2007-11-01

    Septorhinoplasty in children carries the risk of growth disturbance of the nose and premaxilla. The open or external approach has the advantage that the cartilaginous nasal skeleton remains intact. This open approach enables the surgeon to excise dermoid cysts and to realign lower lateral cartilages (unilateral cleft) without disturbing the integrity of the cartilaginous skeleton. In our experience, absolute indications for open rhinoplasty in children include dermoid cyst, cleft lip nose, and septal abscess. Relative indications include septal deviations causing severe nasal airway obstruction and or progressive distortion of the nose. In this article, we discuss the indications, advantages, disadvantages, and operative technique of open rhinoplasty in children. Our indications for open rhinoplasty in children and some selected cases are illustrated. PMID:18085500

  9. Anti-reflux surgery - children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Fundoplication - children - discharge; Nissen fundoplication - children - discharge; Belsey (Mark IV) fundoplication - children - discharge; Toupet fundoplication - children - discharge; Thal fundoplication - ...

  10. City Children in African Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A descriptive study identified titles and features of children's books set in an African city. Data were collected from various reviews of children's literature for titles published since 1980. In addition, the Cooperative Children's Book Center's log list of acquired titles for Africa from 1990 to 1996 was reviewed. Results showed that authors…

  11. Pilot evaluation of physical and psychological effects of a physical trek programme including a dog sledding expedition in children and teenagers with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vallet, Clothilde; André, Nicolas; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Verschuur, Arnauld; Michel, Gérard; Sotteau, Frédéric; Martha, Cécile; Grélot, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To evaluate the feasibility and to measure the effects of a six-week-long adapted physical activity programme (APAP), including 5 days of intense dog sledding, on the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents treated for cancer. Methods Eleven children and teenagers (4 girls, 7 boys; mean age 14.3 ± 2.9 years) participated in this monocentric pilot programme of adapted physical activities from February 2013 to March 2013. Seven were still on treatment. The programme lasted 6 weeks. A series of physical tests and psychological questionnaires were carried out before and after the programme. Results All children and teenagers completed the full programme. An improvement in all physical and psychological parameters was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed for global self-esteem (6.2 ± 2.1 to 7.7 ± 1.8; p = 0.02), perceived sport competence (5.3 ± 3.2 to 7.4 ± 2; p = 0.02) and perceived physical strength (5.6 ± 2.5 to 7.1 ± 1.8; p = 0.001). Regarding physical tests, the physical training led to statistically significant improvement for sit-ups (13.8 ± 2.6 to 21.75 ± 5.4; p = 0.01), muscle tone (76 ± 23.7 to 100 ± 22.9; p = 0.01), and resting heart rate (96.1 ± 3.2 to 91.6 ± 4.5; p = 0.03). Conclusion This programme is feasible in children and adolescents even during their oncologic treatment. During the 6-week programme, children and adolescents improved their physical and psychological health, and the putative benefits of the APAP are discussed. A larger randomised trial started in 2014. PMID:26284122

  12. Matching preschool children's and teachers' cognitive styles.

    PubMed

    Saracho, O N; Spodek, B

    1994-04-01

    The study examined the significance of matching the cognitive styles of 3-, 4-, and 5-yr.-old preschool children and their teachers. 150 female teachers and their children were administered several instruments to measure cognitive style, intelligence, and the teachers' assessment of their classroom children. They included the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Articulation of the Body-concept Scale, and Teachers' Ranking Form. Analysis indicated that teachers assessed their matched and mismatched children's relative standing on a standardized test differently by age. For 3-yr.-olds, field-dependent teachers underestimated their mismatched children more than their other children, while field-independent teachers underestimated their matched children more. Teachers of 4-yr.-old children overestimated all children. For 5-yr.-olds, field-dependent teachers assessed their mismatched children more negatively than their matched children, while field-independent teachers assessed their mismatched children more positively than the field-dependent teachers.

  13. Children with Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Mark A.; Chung, Paul J.; Vestal, Katherine D.

    2011-01-01

    All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a range…

  14. Children: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stief, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    A product of a year-long Governors' Campaign for Children initiative of the National Governors' Association (NGA), this report uses examples from several states in the NGA to describe the state of children and their needs. The Governors' Campaign for Children has sought to: (1) increase public awareness of the needs of young children; (2) simplify…

  15. Children and Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgeon, Wendy

    1996-01-01

    Adults should introduce children to philosophy very young. By reading and discussing philosophic themes, children's natural philosophic talents turn toward real life issues. Parents can help children develop more reflective responses to life by playing thinking games, listening to children's comments, exploring philosophic questions when reading…

  16. Facilitating Children's Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riely, Marsha

    2003-01-01

    A program of education and support is essential for children and their parent or adult caregivers when the children have experienced the death of a significant person. Children need guidance on how to deal with their profound feelings of grief. The purpose of this article is to give school nurses the ability to help children face the strange new…

  17. Children's Collective Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Jackie; And Others

    This children's collective manual describes a training program for parents and teachers of preschool children which is designed to encourage cooperative, community-oriented styles of group interaction in black preschool children. Developed by the Children's Collective of the Coordinated Child Care Council of South Los Angeles, the program is based…

  18. Vietnam in Childrens' Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    Twenty-five nonfiction and 18 fiction and folklore listings are included in this bulletin on Vietnam in childrens' books. Slides, filmstrips, and film listings are also included. Each listing is accompanied by a brief annotation. Subjects include customs and culture, the country and the people, Ho Chi Min, the Vietnamese revolution, Vietnamese…

  19. Overactive bladder in children.

    PubMed

    Franco, Israel

    2016-09-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a ubiquitous syndrome that is defined by urinary urgency with, or without urinary incontinence. OAB is observed in all parts of the world, with a prevalence of 5-12% in children (5-10 years of age) and a prevalence of 0.5% in older adolescents (16-18 years of age). Published data indicate that around a third of children with OAB are likely to become adults with similar complaints. Studies in children and in adults with OAB indicate that these individuals are more likely to also have anxiety, depression and attention deficit problems, and that appropriate treatment of these comorbidities can often improve the patient's OAB symptoms. Furthermore, data from twin studies and familial surveys seem to indicate a genetic component of OAB. Pharmacological treatments of OAB in children have improved in the past 5 years, moving beyond anticholinergic agents and including the off-label use of α-blockers, β3-agonists and intravesical botulinum toxin. Use of several different electrical stimulation techniques is also effective, both as first-line treatments, and for patients with treatment-refractory symptoms. Overall the outlook of children with OAB seems to be improving, with a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Treatment modalities that target the source of the underlying problem, especially in children, are likely to provide the best patient outcomes.

  20. Overactive bladder in children.

    PubMed

    Franco, Israel

    2016-09-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a ubiquitous syndrome that is defined by urinary urgency with, or without urinary incontinence. OAB is observed in all parts of the world, with a prevalence of 5-12% in children (5-10 years of age) and a prevalence of 0.5% in older adolescents (16-18 years of age). Published data indicate that around a third of children with OAB are likely to become adults with similar complaints. Studies in children and in adults with OAB indicate that these individuals are more likely to also have anxiety, depression and attention deficit problems, and that appropriate treatment of these comorbidities can often improve the patient's OAB symptoms. Furthermore, data from twin studies and familial surveys seem to indicate a genetic component of OAB. Pharmacological treatments of OAB in children have improved in the past 5 years, moving beyond anticholinergic agents and including the off-label use of α-blockers, β3-agonists and intravesical botulinum toxin. Use of several different electrical stimulation techniques is also effective, both as first-line treatments, and for patients with treatment-refractory symptoms. Overall the outlook of children with OAB seems to be improving, with a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Treatment modalities that target the source of the underlying problem, especially in children, are likely to provide the best patient outcomes. PMID:27530266

  1. The fecal virome of South and Central American children with diarrhea includes small circular DNA viral genomes of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Phan, Tung Gia; da Costa, Antonio Charlys; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Bucardo-Rivera, Filemon; Nordgren, Johan; O'Ryan, Miguel; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Viral metagenomics of feces collected from 58 Peruvian children with unexplained diarrhea revealed several small circular ssDNA genomes. Two genomes related to sequences previously reported in feces from chimpanzees and other mammals and recently named smacoviruses were characterized and then detected by PCR in 1.7 % (1/58) and 19 % (11/58) of diarrheal samples, respectively. Another three genomes from a distinct small circular ssDNA viral group provisionally called pecoviruses encoded Cap and Rep proteins with <35 % identity to those in related genomes reported in human, seal, porcine and dromedary feces. Pecovirus DNA was detected in 15.5 % (9/58), 5.9 % (3/51) and 3 % (3/100) of fecal samples from unexplained diarrhea in Peru, Nicaragua and Chile, respectively. Feces containing these ssDNA genomes also contained known human enteric viral pathogens. The cellular origins of these circular ssDNA viruses, whether human cells, ingested plants, animals or fungal foods, or residents of the gut microbiome, are currently unknown. PMID:26780893

  2. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective.

  3. Torture in children.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level. PMID:19920326

  4. Torture in children.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level.

  5. Comparison of breath gases, including acetone, with blood glucose and blood ketones in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Blaikie, Tom P J; Edge, Julie A; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Daniel; Megson, Clare; Peverall, Rob; Richmond, Graham; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

    2014-11-25

    Previous studies have suggested that breath gases may be related to simultaneous blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to investigate these relationships in children and young people with type 1 diabetes in order to assess the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes management. Gases were collected in breath bags and measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose and ketone levels taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 113 subjects (59 male, age 7 years 11 months-18 years 3 months) with type 1 diabetes. The patients were well-controlled with relatively low concentrations of the blood ketone measured (β hydroxybutyrate, 0-0.4 mmol l(-1)). Breath acetone levels were found to increase with blood β hydroxybutyrate levels and a significant relationship was found between the two (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = 0.364, p < 10(-4)). A weak positive relationship was found between blood glucose and breath acetone (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.1), but led to the conclusion that single breath measurements of acetone do not provide a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort. This result suggests a potential to develop breath gas analysis to provide an alternative to blood testing for ketone measurement, for example to assist with the management of type 1 diabetes.

  6. Young Children. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational, cognitive, and brain research with implications for early childhood educators, including those who work with limited-English-proficient, minority, and economically disadvantaged children. "Coming to Grips with Reading Instruction at the Early Grades" (Christie L. Goodman) reports…

  7. Experiences of Daycare Children of Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Overland, Klara; Brown, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that children of divorce are at risk of adjustment problems and school problems. In previous studies of young children of divorce, most often parents or teachers have supplied data. In this study, we explore the children's own feelings and experiences through Q methodology with visual images. The study includes 17 children of…

  8. Children's Rights under Siege in Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Describes the problem of police violence against street children in Guatemala. Includes details of cases, the problems of street children, and the work of Covenant House in trying to help and protect children. Argues that only education about human rights can obtain and preserve rights for children. (DK)

  9. Agenda for Children: 2006 Year in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agenda for Children, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of Agenda for Children is to make Louisiana a state in which all children can thrive. This means that the basic needs of children and families must be met--including an adequate family income, safe housing, nutritious food, and accessible health care. It also means that children must be nurtured, well taught, and protected from harm,…

  10. Germ Smart: Children's Activities in Disease Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Judith K.

    This booklet is part of the "Children's Activity Series," a set of four supplemental teaching resources that promote awareness about health, family life, and cultural diversity for children in kindergarten through third grade. Nine activities are included in this booklet to help children be "germ smart" help children in kindergarten through third…

  11. Everything You Need To Know (But Were Afraid to Ask Kids) about the Information Highway (Including Some Suggestions & Ideas that Your Children May Not Even Know--Yet!).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Merle; Alden, Sally Bowman, Ed.

    The information highway is an exciting place for children and families to visit, explore, and learn together. This book teaches parents basic knowledge about the Information Highway and how to use it with children. The following topics are covered in this book: (1) What is the Information Highway? (2) What is Telecommunications?; (3) Why You &…

  12. Trichotillomania in Children

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Nisha Suyien; Novak, Jeroen; Iorizzo, Matilde; Grimalt, Ramon; Oranje, Arnold P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichotillomania is an often underdiagnosed condition. Little is known about trichotillomania in childhood. We aimed to analyze the characteristics of children with trichotillomania to increase information on this condition. Methods A retrospective study of an electronic database was performed in a tertiary children's hospital. Information from patients with trichotillomania was systematically classified under the categories ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘when’, ‘where’, ‘why’, and ‘how’. Results A total of 33 patients had a diagnosis of trichotillomania (28 females, 5 males; peak age between 3 and 4 years). Scalp involvement was most common and nail biting was observed in 5 patients. Only 51.5% of patients had parents who noticed their child's hairpulling. Hair on or under the bed was the most common clue suggesting that hairpulling occurred. Triggering factors identified in 16 children included physical appearance, family-related issues, school-related issues, and concurrent illness. The noninvasive hair pull test was negative in all children. There was a high non-follow-up rate, and treatment outcomes varied. Conclusion A set of 6 specific questions, based on the ‘5Ws and 1H’ principle, facilitates the gathering of important information on children with unexplained nonscarring hair loss and helps clinicians be cognizant of possible outcomes of trichotillomania. This will be especially useful to clinicians who are not familiar with this elusive condition. PMID:27172263

  13. [Trampoline injuries in children].

    PubMed

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  14. Primary thrombocytosis in children

    PubMed Central

    Kucine, Nicole; Chastain, Katherine M.; Mahler, Michelle B.; Bussel, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms are uncommon disorders in children, for which we have limited understanding of the pathogenesis and optimal management. JAK2 and MPL mutations, while common drivers of myeloproliferative neoplasms in adult patients, are not clearly linked to pediatric disease. Management and clinical outcomes in adults have been well delineated with defined recommendations for risk stratification and treatment. This is not the case for pediatric patients, for whom there is neither a standard approach to workup nor any consensus regarding management. This review will discuss thrombocytosis in children, including causes of thrombocytosis in children, the limited knowledge we have regarding pediatric primary thrombocytosis, and our thoughts on potential risk stratification and management, and future questions to be answered by laboratory research and collaborative clinical study. PMID:24688110

  15. Vegetarian diets and children.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A

    1995-08-01

    Although the general health and development of vegan and vegetarian children seem to be normal, there may be subtle differences compared with omnivores. They are at increased risk of iron deficiency, and impaired psychomotor development associated with iron deficiency has been reported in macrobiotic infants. Fortunately, this impairment is not permanent, and follow-up studies have reported higher-than-average intelligence quotients among older macrobiotic children. Several other hazards of vegetarian diets have been identified, including vitamin B12 deficiency, rickets, and a bulky diet that can restrict energy intake in the first few years of life; however, these pitfalls can be avoided easily, and children can be successfully reared on vegetarian diets.

  16. Children's word fluency strategies.

    PubMed

    Tallberg, I M; Carlsson, S; Lieberman, M

    2011-02-01

    Two word fluency tasks, the FAS letter fluency task and the "animal" semantic fluency task, were administered to 130 healthy Swedish-speaking children between 6 and 15 years of age. The main aim was to gather normative data on these word fluency tasks for Swedish-speaking children. Another purpose was to examine the switching and clustering strategies used, along with the occurrence of erroneous responses, in relation to demographic data and number of words retrieved. Both phonological and semantic analyses of switching and clustering were conducted. Higher age was found to be related to a more effective use of phonological and semantic switching and clustering strategies. The reference data resulting from this study may be of clinical value in examinations of children with various diagnoses, including language impairment.

  17. Children's Classics. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Alice M.

    "Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…

  18. Children's Books. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Kate

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 10 children's books, published or reissued 1988-93, about daily life, traditional culture, and schooling among Taos Pueblo, Zuni Pueblo, Navajo, Inuit, Guatemalan, and other Native peoples, as well as tales from Native American oral tradition, the life of a buffalo, and Cherokee and Athapascan historical fiction. Includes grade range and…

  19. Bibliographies of Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Janet Stoeger, Comp.

    This annotated guide is designed to provide assistance in the identification of resources useful in locating books about various subjects related to children or appropriate for various grade levels. The 17 sections include entries for 86 books and articles in and about the following areas: general subjects/all grade levels; best book lists;…

  20. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  1. Media Violence and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groebel, Jo

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  2. Action for Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranly, Donald P.

    The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…

  3. Cervical Discitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Scheuerman, Oded; Landau, Daniel; Schwarz, Michael; Hoffer, Vered; Marcus, Nufar; Hoffnung, Liat Ashkenazi; Levy, Itzhak

    2015-07-01

    Cervical discitis, though rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of torticollis, neck pain and neurodevelopmental regression in motor skills in children and infants. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic method of choice. Treatment should be conservative with antibiotics only. The aim of this study was to describe the 10-year experience of a tertiary pediatric medical center with cervical discitis. PMID:25886786

  4. Children's Programming Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberland County Public Library and Information Center, Fayetteville, NC.

    Suggestions for establishing children's library programs in the Cumberland County, North Carolina, library system include descriptions of types of audiences, types of programs, and elements of programs. Selection guidelines for topics and materials cover the following areas: (1) art projects; (2) costumes; (3) creative dramatics; (4) drawing; (5)…

  5. Developing Children's Literary Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Chew Fong

    2012-01-01

    The Malay literary materials and resources for early childhood in Malaysia are still in the infant stage and have not been expanded to include the main references or developed into big book form. The children literature in our market is not published based on educational philosophy and research, but it is produced based on profit. The process of…

  6. Sports Injuries in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Timothy N.

    1991-01-01

    A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…

  7. 1991 Children's Book Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Annual (SLMA), 1991

    1991-01-01

    Lists the winners of the 1991 children's book awards, including the Newbery Award (Jerry Spinelli); the Caldecott Award (David Macaulay); the Coretta Scott King Award (Mildred Taylor, author; Leo and Diane Dillon, illustrators); and the Mildred L. Batchelder Award (Rafik Shami, author; translated from Arabic by Rika Lesser). (LRW)

  8. Books for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Joan M.

    1993-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes 27 children's books, 15 of which are fiction, and 12 nonfiction. Of the nonfiction books, three discuss historical topics and nine cover nature-related topics such as rainforests, the ocean floor, snakes and other animals, and rural farm life. (SM)

  9. Children in the Junkyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Malka

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role of playgrounds that use discarded items or "junk" as an integral part of kindergarten classes in an Israeli kibbutz. Suggests that play in the junkyard, by including the whole person--muscles and senses, emotion and intellect, individual growth and social interaction--can offer the experiential foundations on which children can…

  10. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ambartsumyan, Lusine

    2014-01-01

    The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835

  11. Children's hospice care.

    PubMed

    Armstrong-Dailey, A

    1990-01-01

    Facing the inevitable death of a child is a difficult reality for many parents and health care providers as well. Children's Hospice International offers a variety of information and education services to support the provision of children's hospice care.

  12. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media ... Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen ...

  13. Medicine safety and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicine is made to look and taste like candy. Children are curious and attracted to medicine. Most ... like you. DO NOT call medicine or vitamins candy. Children like candy and will get into medicine ...

  14. Children and Firearms

    MedlinePlus

    ... day on TV, in movies, and through computer games. Most involve firearms. Children often imitate what they ... movies and videos, and/or playing violent video games. Parents should help protect their children from the ...

  15. Physical Activity and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  16. Medicines and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication has been studied for its effects on children. It also tells you what ages have been ... counter products haven't actually been studied in children for effectiveness, safety, or dosing. When you give ...

  17. Tonsillectomies and children

    MedlinePlus

    Children and tonsillectomies ... many parents wonder if it is wise for children to have the tonsils taken out. Tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has any of the following: Difficulty swallowing Obstructed ...

  18. Treating Children as Individuals

    MedlinePlus

    ... learn along with their children, parents' actions, conversational style, and displays of emotion will change with each new youngster. Not only do parents change their style as they gain experience raising children, but each ...

  19. Children with Learning Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... learning disorder. Children with learning disorders can have intelligence in the normal but the specific learning disorder ... make teachers and parents concerned about their general intelligence. Often, these children may try very hard to ...

  20. Children's Theatre in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillai, Janet

    1985-01-01

    The author, an instructor from 1979-83 at the Children's Theatre Program of the Komplex Budaya Negara (National Cultural Complex), describes how children's theatre has evolved to achieve a distinct Malaysian identity by drawing from traditional theatre forms. (PD)

  1. Children and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Susan Miller

    1991-01-01

    Presents a newsletter that discusses methods parents can use to handle sexual questions or behavior in young children. An accompanying letter to parents addresses young children's sexual behavior and ways parents can respond to this behavior. (GH)

  2. Parents for children.

    PubMed

    Jepson, A M

    1981-06-27

    Parents for Children is a specialist adoption agency set up to find homes for children with special needs--that is, those with physical, mental, and emotional handicaps; older children; and sibling groups. Of the first 38 children placed, one child died and six placements broke down, although four children were later re-placed. Almost all the children referred to the agency had been in care for most of their lives. A full assessment of each child is necessary before placement, but in several cases the medical assessment in care had been inadequate. Many of the prospective parents themselves had serious medical conditions. The agency has proved that homes can be found for children in need, but there have been problems and parents require advice and support in the management of the children after placement. PMID:6454456

  3. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Cancer.gov

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  4. Written for Children: An Outline of English Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, John Rowe

    Children's prose literature in Britain is surveyed from the 17th century to the present. The main stream of this development is exemplified by an examination of the lives and works of such authors as (1) John Newbery, whose books for children include "Goody Two-Shoes" (1766), (2) Mrs. Sherwood, whose didactic books contain a moral lesson in every…

  5. Leadership in Children's Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the different contexts for leadership in children's services with a particular focus on integrated working. It reviews contemporary theories that appear to offer relevant frameworks for thinking about children's service leadership. It is argued that children's services require leadership at all levels to enable a dynamic,…

  6. Colorado Children's Budget 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Children's Budget is a comprehensive report on funding for children's services in Colorado. This report provides a six- year funding history for more than 50 programs funded with state, local, and federal dollars. The Colorado Children's Budget analyzes reductions in programs and services during the economic downturn. The data in the…

  7. Literature for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The 15 articles in this journal issue deal with children's literature. Among the topics and titles discussed are (1) Virginia Hamilton's books, (2) the new realism in children's literature, (3) gender bias in children's books, (4) teaching "Where the Wild Things Are" to adults, (5) language use in "Alice in Wonderland," (6) "Mom, the Wolf Man and…

  8. Children's Theories of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  9. Children and Hypertension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Denise

    1983-01-01

    Since children as young as seven years old can suffer from hypertension, all children should have blood pressure checked during physical examinations. Guidelines for testing children's blood pressure are presented along with suggestions about what schools and parents can do to help deal with the problem. (PP)

  10. Bad Air For Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  11. Integrating Refugee Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vershok, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Notes that the Moscow Center for the Integration and Education of Refugee Children attempts to provide real schooling for refugee children displaced from the Chechen Republic. Suggests main task was to prepare the children for regular school, and to help them adapt to both their new school and their new home, Moscow. Hopes this experience may help…

  12. Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

  13. Children, Technology, and Flowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druin, Allison

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that as technology becomes more pervasive, it is important to ask why it can be important for children, discussing: how today's technologies offer new ways for children to socialize, how technology can empower children, and how new technologies create learning opportunities that support the "messiness" of being a child, the interactive…

  14. The Games Children Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy; Rasinski, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The games that children play are not just for fun-they often lead to important skill development. Likewise, word games are fun opportunities for parents and children to spend time together and for children to learn a lot about sounds and words. In this Family Involvement column, the authors describe 12 easy-to-implement word games that parents and…

  15. Children in Jail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Thomas J.

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter presents a series of life studies of children in jail, along with a brief discussion of prison reform. The purpose of the life studies is to allow jailed children or children who have been in jail to speak for themselves of the conditions of jail and the…

  16. Cushing's Syndrome in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Cushing’s Syndrome in Children by Meg Keil, MS, CRNP How is Cushing’s syndrome (CS) in children different than in adults? · CS in children is rare. An estimated ... child or adolescent during this period. Editor’s Note: Meg Keil,MS, CRNP is a nurse practitioner at ...

  17. Bereavement Support for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auman, Mary Jo

    2007-01-01

    The death of a parent is one of the most significant and stressful events children can encounter. Surviving children may experience psychiatric problems and social dysfunction during their childhood and possibly throughout their adult lives. Children surviving a sibling's death may develop behavioral problems, because no one can fill the emptiness…

  18. Children's Rights: Monitoring Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhellen, Eugeen, Ed.; Spiesschaert, Frans, Ed.

    A number of research seminars were organized to clarify the fundamental principles underlying local, regional, and international efforts to establish a structure for monitoring and promoting children's rights. This book contains papers presented at these seminars by experts on child advocacy, promotion of children's interests by children, and…

  19. Ptosis - infants and children

    MedlinePlus

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  20. Children Talking about Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Sarah G.; Naylor, Alice Phoebe

    In an effort to demonstrate how quality literature can engage children in reflective thinking about stories, themselves, and the world, this book suggests children's literature worthy of discussion, shows how interactions work, and encourages adults to bond with children. The book begins with a chapter on how to use the book and a chapter on the…

  1. Children Writing Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the author reveals the creative force of children's narrative imagination and shows how this develops through childhood. He provides a new and powerful understanding of the significance of narrative for children's intellectual growth and for learning and teaching. The book explores a series of real stories written by children between…

  2. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  3. Children's Play and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Discusses adverse effects of FCC deregulation of children's television programming on children's play behavior. Discusses the difference between play and imitation, the role of high quality dramatic play in healthy child development, the popularity of war play, and use of toys to increase dramatic play. Considers ways to help children gain control…

  4. Parental Smoking Affects Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

  5. Children Experience Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonsdale, Bernard J.; Mackintosh, Helen K.

    This book is intended (1) as a supplementary text in college courses in children's literature, (2) as a source of information for educators involved in curriculum development programs in the field of children's literature, (3) as a reference guide for schools and community libraries, and (4) as an aid to parents in guiding their children's…

  6. Bone Health in Children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents and caregivers have many concerns about their childrens physical and emotional well-being when they are trying to raise healthy children. Parental concern for the potential development of osteoporosis when their children become elderly is probably not a priority during childhood. Yet, just a...

  7. Children's Literature. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Francelia, Ed.; Brockman, Bennett A., Ed.

    This volume applies critical literary standards to the field of children's literature in a long-range effort to improve its quality and teaching. Contributors and editors represent international scholarship in all of the humanities, as well as in the specific area of children's literature. Articles span topics from European children's literature…

  8. Exercise and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Thomas W.

    This book paints a broad picture of the role of exercise in children's health and provides information for the physician and other health care providers on healthful forms of physical activity for children. The book is divided into three parts: (1) "Developmental Exercise Physiology: The Physiological Basis of Physical Fitness in Children"; (2)…

  9. Young Children's Partitioning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Kathy; Nason, Rod

    2000-01-01

    Studies knowledge of young children's partitioning strategies by setting out not only to identify new partitioning strategies, but also to develop taxonomy for classifying young children's partitioning strategies in terms of their abilities. Provides taxonomy utilizing children's informal partitioning strategies as the foundation upon which to…

  10. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…

  11. Children and the Nintendo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Suzanne M.

    The four reports contained in this document examine the effects of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), which entered the lives of many children in the United States in 1986. The first report discusses a study of children's interaction with the game hardware. The study of fourth- and fifth-grade students indicated that children's interaction…

  12. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  13. Children's Books in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuivasmaki, Riitta

    1984-01-01

    Discusses influence of Finnish Institute for Children's Literature (SNI) on writing, illustrating, translating, and marketing of children's books in Finland, and notes efforts of Finnish Section of International Board on Books for Young People to make children's literature and connected research better known to public. Publications of SNI are…

  14. TEACHING BILINGUAL CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno County Schools, CA.

    THE PROBLEM INVOLVED WITH TEACHING BILINGUAL CHILDREN IS THEIR POSITION IN TWO WORLDS, THOSE OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH. TO HELP THESE CHILDREN, ACTIVITIES AND METHODS ARE PRESENTED, INTENDED FOR USE WITH CHILDREN FROM KINDERGARTEN THROUGH EIGHTH GRADE. IN KINDERGARTEN, ONE OF THE PRACTICES THAT THE TEACHER OF THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING CLASS SHOULD PUT…

  15. Helping Children Understand Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allers, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Children of divorced parents may bring many problems along when they come to school. Teachers can recognize these troubles and help children learn to handle them. They may be able to help children better understand their feelings about their parents' divorce. (CJ)

  16. Children & Books. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Zena; And Others

    Designed for classes in children's literature in English and education departments and in library schools, the emphases in this book are on understanding children and their needs, on perspectives and background, on criteria and types of literature, and on artists and authors. The first part provides an overview of children's needs and interests,…

  17. Counseling with Exceptional Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarver-Behring, Shari; Spagna, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    Children and adolescents with disabilities are an extremely heterogeneous group of diverse learners, each with unique learning strengths and needs. Often misunderstood and frequently less served by the counseling profession, these children and adolescents need counseling services just as much as, if not more than, other children. Federal…

  18. Children, Cameras, and Challenging Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Michael P.; Holcomb, Derek R.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a second-grade classroom activity in which children took photographs of their school while focusing on common themes generated by their teacher. Includes discussion of materials and costs for the activity, children's expectations, parental help, class sessions involved (instructions, taking pictures, developing photographs, sharing…

  19. Children's Experience of Public Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsley, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Children and young people regard the external physical environment as important for their needs. Their use of space varies according to age and circumstance and includes designated play and leisure facilities as well as other informal areas within their neighbourhoods. However, children have little influence over the development of public space as…

  20. Children in the States, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrejack, Kate, Comp.; Judge, Amy, Comp.; Simons, Janet, Comp.

    This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) national rankings in population and family characteristics; (2) health and disabilities (including children lacking health…

  1. Children in the States, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) population and family characteristics (including number of children under age 18 and age 5, percentage of population under age…

  2. Children in the States, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Amy, Comp.

    This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) child health, including uninsured children, low birth weight babies, infant deaths, and immunizations; (2) child care and early…

  3. KIDMONEY: Children as Big Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Shelly

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how marketers are targeting children as a consumer segment. Highlights include advertising budgets and media, how children spend their money, the more influential role of the child in the family, in-school marketing, controversial advertising on Channel One, marketing on the Internet, and parental control. (AEF)

  4. Children in an Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendov, Blagovest

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes the main themes and presents recommendations of the international conference, "Children in an Information Age: Tomorrow's Problems Today," that was held in Bulgaria in 1985. Topics discussed include computer training for children; the need for well designed research; the teacher-computer relationship; artificial intelligence; and reform…

  5. Sex Stereotypes in Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Julia

    The problem of sex stereotyping in children's literature has been around for as long as the genre itself, but it was brought to the forefront because of the women's movement in the 1970s. From the 1700s, critics were aware of the problems that arose from children's literature and its portrayal of characters and ideas, including "Cinderella" and…

  6. Movement Education For Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Maida L., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet explores why movement education is important for preschool children, what activities to include in a program, how and where to conduct a program, and criteria that can help to structure the program environment. The first section presents a rationale for the use of movement education for helping preschool children to develop…

  7. Exploring Fractal Geometry with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacc, Nancy Nesbitt

    1999-01-01

    Heightens the awareness of elementary school teachers, teacher educators, and teacher-education researchers of possible applications of fractal geometry with children and, subsequently, initiates discussion about the appropriateness of including this new mathematics in the elementary curriculum. Presents activities for exploring children's…

  8. Cancer in children.

    PubMed

    Hsu, E Y

    1992-02-01

    Cancer is a relatively unusual disease entity in children. However, its diagnosis often proves devastating for the families of afflicted youngsters. The types of cancer seen in children are very different from those found in adults. Primarily, they include leukemias, lymphomas and brain tumors. In most cases, the cause(s) of these cancers is unknown. Standard treatment modalities include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Treatment is generally provided by a multidisciplinary team which deals with attempts to eradicate cancer and provides support when there are complications of disease and treatment. The team also pays attention to the psychosocial needs of the child and the entire family unit. With recent improvements in cancer therapy, many children are now considered to be "cures." Treatment is tailored to the different subgroups of each disease entity in order to improve response. Research on the etiology of cancer and the treatment of patients with resistant disease is continuously being carried out by cooperative groups. Attention is being directed at the long-term complications occurring in the increasing number of children who have been cured of this still devastating disease.

  9. Improved survival of children with advanced neuroblastoma treated by intensified therapy including myeloablative chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation: a retrospective analysis from the Tohoku Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, M; Watanabe, A; Kikuta, A; Takano, T; Ito, E; Shimizu, T; Tsuchiya, S; Iinuma, K; Konno, T; Ohi, R; Hayashi, Y

    2001-10-01

    In the hospitals of the Tohoku Neuroblastoma Study Group (TNBSG), treatment for children with advanced neuroblastoma (NB) was intensified in the mid-1990's with the introduction of myeloablative therapy (MT) with stem cell transplantation (SCT) including the use of autologous peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In this report, we examined whether the intensified therapy improved the outcome of children with advanced NB (age> 12 months) who were diagnosed between 1991 and 1997. Patients were 36 children (23 boys and 13 girls) with an average age of 3.4 years (range; 1 to 14 years). Six of them had stage III disease, and the other 30 had stage IV. They were treated initially with induction chemotherapy, surgery, and post-operative chemoradiotherapy, after which 17 of them continued further chemotherapy and the other 19 received MT/SCT (18 with PBSCT and 1 with BMT). Progression-free survival (PFS) rate at seven years from diagnosis was 43.5% for all patients, 66.7% for stage III patients and 38.2% for stage IV patients. The difference between stage III and IV patients was not significant. Among the 30 patients with stage IV disease, PFS at seven years was significantly higher in the 19 patients who received MT/SCT (55.6%) than in the 11 patients who did not receive it (12.5%). There was no difference in clinical and biological risk factors between these two groups, except for the proportion of patients with favorable response to initial therapy (36% and 80% for patients without and with MT/SCT, respectively). Furthermore, the proportion of patients with N-myc amplification was significantly higher in patients with progressive disease (PD) after MT/SCT than in those in CR after MT/SCT. The results of this retrospective study of children with advanced NB suggest that therapy intensification involving MT/SCT might result in lengthened survival time for patients with stage IV disease, and that post-transplant PD remains a risk for

  10. Do Integrated Children's Services Improve Children's Outcomes?: Evidence from England's Children's Trust Pathfinders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Margaret; Bachmann, Max O.; Jones, Natalia R.; Reading, Richard; Thoburn, June; Husbands, Chris; Shreeve, Ann; Watson, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-five children's trust pathfinders, local cross-sector partnerships, were introduced across England in 2003 to promote greater integration in children's services. Using administrative performance data, this paper tracks yearly trends in child service outputs and child well-being outcomes from 1997 to 2004 in these local areas, including the…

  11. Russia's Unwanted Children: A Cultural Anthropological Study of Marginalized Children in Moscow and St. Petersburg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creuziger, Clementine G. K.

    1997-01-01

    Studied the plight of marginalized children in urban Russia, including orphans, children with some family ties living in group homes, and street children. Found that changing public views toward these groups since WWII have led to a deterioration in lifestyle for these children, further contributing to criminal activity and poverty in urban areas.…

  12. Children's "euthanasia" in Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Susan; Shields, Linda; O'Donnell, Alison J

    2009-12-01

    Children with disabilities were killed during the Nazi era, often by nurses. Some nurses killed children, saying that they were under orders. Propaganda about the need for "racial purity" was all pervasive and influenced much of the population, including nurses. The German people accepted the "mercy" killing of children with disabilities. We describe the children's "euthanasia" program, explore the influence of propaganda, ask why it was acceptable to kill children, and provide historical context demonstrating "slippery slopes" which can lead to abrogation of ethical principles. Discussion of such history is essential as the ethical principles which were breached are still the cornerstone of nursing practice today. Only by openly discussing past wrongs can we attempt to ensure that they do not happen again. Archival documents from Germany and Israel, including trial depositions and transcripts, provided material, supplemented by secondary classic sources.

  13. Farm accidents in children.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D.; Bishop, C.; Sibert, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the problem of accidental injury to children on farms. DESIGN--Prospective county based study of children presenting to accident and emergency departments over 12 months with injuries sustained in a farm setting and nationwide review of fatal childhood farm accidents over the four years April 1986 to March 1990. SETTING--Accident and emergency departments in Aberystwyth, Carmarthen, Haverfordwest, and Llanelli and fatal accidents in England, Scotland, and Wales notified to the Health and Safety Executive register. SUBJECTS--Children aged under 16. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Death or injury after farm related accidents. RESULTS--65 accidents were recorded, including 18 fractures. Nine accidents necessitated admission to hospital for a mean of two (range one to four) days. 13 incidents were related to tractors and other machinery; 24 were due to falls. None of these incidents were reported under the statutory notification scheme. 33 deaths were notified, eight related to tractors and allied machinery and 10 related to falling objects. CONCLUSIONS--Although safety is improving, the farm remains a dangerous environment for children. Enforcement of existing safety legislation with significant penalties and targeting of safety education will help reduce accident rates further. PMID:1638192

  14. Exploring the Realities of Television with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morison, Patricia; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Examines first- , third- , and sixth-grade children's abilities to discriminate between the reality and fantasy of television programs. Lengthy clinical interviews were conducted with each of 36 children, including viewing and discussion of 12 videotaped program segments. (SW)

  15. Kids Speaking Up for Kids: Advocacy by Children, for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zygmunt-Fillwalk, Eva; Staley, Lynn; Kumar, Rashmi; Lin, Cecilia Lingfen; Moore, Catherine; Salakaya, Manana; Szecsi, Tunde

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a project called "Kids Speaking Up for Kids: Advocacy by Children, for Children". The project was simple in scope. The authors sought to collect stories of child advocacy--ways in which children were working on behalf of other children. They also sought to collect and profile children's voices and vision and so they issued a…

  16. Pain syndromes in children.

    PubMed

    Malleson, Pete; Clinch, Jacqui

    2003-09-01

    This review discusses the recent literature on pain conditions in children that should be of interest to rheumatologists. The focus of the review is therefore on musculoskeletal pains in children, particularly chronic or recurrent musculoskeletal pain. Articles that have a broader focus on pain are discussed when these are likely to be of general interest to rheumatologists. Chronic or recurrent pain in childhood is common and can be caused by a wide variety of conditions, several of which are discussed here. The importance of being able to measure pain in children has been emphasized repeatedly in the recent literature. With increased understanding of how to evaluate pain in children has come the recognition that pain in children is multifactorial and that even when there are obvious "organic" causes of the pain (such as arthritis), psychosocial factors are critical in how pain is perceived, and they influence the extent to which pain leads to dysfunction. There is also increasing evidence that cognitive-behavioral therapies are effective in managing chronic pain in children. The frequency of back pain in children is increasingly recognized, and the role of children's work and play, carrying heavy backpacks, and sitting for long periods of time at computers in causing back pain is of interest. The studies reviewed here add to an increasingly rich and informative literature on musculoskeletal and other chronic pain in children, and they help emphasize the importance of proper evaluation and management of pain in children. PMID:12960483

  17. Pancreatitis - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... perform lab tests to check the release of pancreatic enzymes. These include tests to check the: Blood amylase level Blood lipase level Urine amylase level Other blood tests ... the pancreas include: Ultrasound of the abdomen (most common) CT ...

  18. Priorities for children and young people - opportunities and challenges for children and young people's nurses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population. PMID:27214410

  19. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  20. Visual Perception and Recall of School-Age Navajo, Hopi, Jicarilla Apache, and Caucasian Children of the Southwest including Results from a Pilot Study Among Eskimos and Athabascan School-Age Children of North Alaska. Monograph #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Laurel LeMieux

    The study determined if a significant difference was demonstrated between American Indians and Caucasians on visual perception and recall tasks associated with cognitive function. It was hypothesized that a significant difference existed between scores obtained by Indian children enrolled in reservation schools and that of Caucasian children…

  1. Key Facts about Children in Utah. Children and Families at Risk: A Status Report of Our Children, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah Children, Salt Lake City.

    The Utah KIDS COUNT program provides information about child well-being to enhance discussions on securing better futures for children. Indicators of children's quality of life are chosen to reflect a range of influences on children, conditions across developmental stages, and comparisons across time. Ten indicators examined included: (1) low…

  2. Recreational Reading for Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangieri, John N.; Isaacs, Carolyn W.

    1983-01-01

    A bibliography lists approximately 100 works (1974-82) of fiction, biography, poetry, fantasy/science fiction, picture books, and mystery/adventure for gifted elementary children's recreational reading. Citations include information on author, approximate grade level, and publisher. (CL)

  3. School-age children development

    MedlinePlus

    ... to deal with failure or frustration without losing self-esteem. There are many causes of school failure, including: ... to deal with failure or frustration without losing self-esteem. SAFETY Safety is important for school-age children. ...

  4. Clinical trials in children

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Pathma D; Craig, Jonathan C; Caldwell, Patrina HY

    2015-01-01

    Safety and efficacy data on many medicines used in children are surprisingly scarce. As a result children are sometimes given ineffective medicines or medicines with unknown harmful side effects. Better and more relevant clinical trials in children are needed to increase our knowledge of the effects of medicines and to prevent the delayed or non-use of beneficial therapies. Clinical trials provide reliable evidence of treatment effects by rigorous controlled testing of interventions on human subjects. Paediatric trials are more challenging to conduct than trials in adults because of the paucity of funding, uniqueness of children and particular ethical concerns. Although current regulations and initiatives are improving the scope, quantity and quality of trials in children, there are still deficiencies that need to be addressed to accelerate radically equitable access to evidence-based therapies in children. PMID:24325152

  5. Culture and children's cosmology.

    PubMed

    Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A

    2004-06-01

    In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England Though Australia and England have a close cultural affinity, there are differences in children's early exposure to cosmological concepts. Australian children who have early instruction in this domain were nearly always significantly in advance of their English counterparts. In general, they most often produced responses compatible with a conception of a round earth on which people can live all over without falling off. We consider coherence and fragmentation in children's knowledge in terms of the timing of culturally transmitted information, and in relation to questioning methods used in previous research that may have underestimated children's competence.

  6. Prevention of varicella: recommendations for use of varicella vaccines in children, including a recommendation for a routine 2-dose varicella immunization schedule.

    PubMed

    2007-07-01

    National varicella immunization coverage using the current 1-dose immunization strategy has increased among vaccine-eligible children 19 through 35 months of age from 27% in 1997 to 88% by 2005. These high immunization rates have resulted in a 71% to 84% decrease in the reported number of varicella cases, an 88% decrease in varicella-related hospitalizations, a 59% decrease in varicella-related ambulatory care visits, and a 92% decrease in varicella-related deaths in 1- to 4-year-old children when compared with data from the prevaccine era. Despite this significant decrease, the number of reported cases of varicella has remained relatively constant during the past 5 to 6 years. Since vaccine effectiveness for prevention of disease of any severity has been 80% to 85%, a large number of cases of varicella continue to occur among people who already have received the vaccine (breakthrough varicella), and outbreaks of varicella have been reported among highly immunized populations of schoolchildren. The peak age-specific incidence has shifted from 3- to 6-year-old children in the prevaccine era to 9- to 11-year-old children in the postvaccine era for cases in both immunized and unimmunized children during these outbreaks. Outbreaks of varicella are likely to continue with the current 1-dose immunization strategy. After administration of 2 doses of varicella vaccine in children, the immune response is markedly enhanced, with > 99% of children achieving an antibody concentration (determined by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) of > or = 5 U/mL (an approximate correlate of protection) and a marked increase in geometric mean antibody titers after the second vaccine dose. The estimated vaccine efficacy over a 10-year observation period of 2 doses for prevention of any varicella disease is 98% (compared with 94% for 1 dose), with 100% efficacy for prevention of severe disease. Recipients of 2 doses of varicella vaccine are 3.3-fold less likely to have

  7. Philippines: street children, children at risk.

    PubMed

    Tantoco, F G

    1993-01-01

    Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro

  8. Philippines: street children, children at risk.

    PubMed

    Tantoco, F G

    1993-01-01

    Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro

  9. Tuberculosis in children.

    PubMed

    Marais, Ben J; Schaaf, H Simon

    2014-09-01

    Many clinicians regard tuberculosis as an adult pulmonary disease, but tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of disease, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, and death in young children from TB-endemic countries, especially in areas affected by poverty, social disruption, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This article reviews the disease burden and the natural history of disease in children with TB. It also provides guidance regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of TB in children. PMID:25037105

  10. Contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, M; Forsyth, A

    1989-02-01

    125 children under the age of 12 years were patch tested over a period of 7 years. 60 (48%) of the children had 1 or more positive (+ve) reactions, of which 92% (55/60) were considered relevant. The most common allergens were metals (35 + ves), fragrances (24 + ves) and rubber compounds (11 + ves). 40 of the children were also tested for contact urticaria against food additives and fragrances, of whom 20 were positive (benzoic acid 14, cinnamaldehyde 12).

  11. Social Information Processing in Elementary-School Aged Children with ADHD: Medication Effects and Comparisons with Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.

    2009-01-01

    Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…

  12. Hydrocephalus in children.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Limbrick, David D; Warf, Benjamin C

    2016-02-20

    Hydrocephalus is a common disorder of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) physiology resulting in abnormal expansion of the cerebral ventricles. Infants commonly present with progressive macrocephaly whereas children older than 2 years generally present with signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension. The classic understanding of hydrocephalus as the result of obstruction to bulk flow of CSF is evolving to models that incorporate dysfunctional cerebral pulsations, brain compliance, and newly characterised water-transport mechanisms. Hydrocephalus has many causes. Congenital hydrocephalus, most commonly involving aqueduct stenosis, has been linked to genes that regulate brain growth and development. Hydrocephalus can also be acquired, mostly from pathological processes that affect ventricular outflow, subarachnoid space function, or cerebral venous compliance. Treatment options include shunt and endoscopic approaches, which should be individualised to the child. The long-term outcome for children that have received treatment for hydrocephalus varies. Advances in brain imaging, technology, and understanding of the pathophysiology should ultimately lead to improved treatment of the disorder.

  13. [Acute fever in children].

    PubMed

    Gras-Le Guen, Christèle; Launay, Élise

    2015-05-01

    Fever in children is a very common symptom associated most of the time with a viral infection. However, in 7% of children, fever without source is the first symptom of a serious bacterial infection such as pneumonia, meningitis, pyelonephritis or bacteremia. The key point in clinical examination of these children is the early identification of toxic signs. Because SBI prevalence is higher in very young children (1-3 month-aged), they required a specific management with some systematic complementary investigations and a broad indication of probabilistic antibiotherapy treatment.

  14. Cutaneous tuberculosis in children.

    PubMed

    Sethuraman, Gomathy; Ramesh, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that accounts for 1% to 2% of cases. Childhood skin tuberculosis represents 18% to 82% of all cutaneous tuberculosis cases. Scrofuloderma and lupus vulgaris are the two most common clinical forms in children. An increase in the number of tuberculids, especially lichen scrofulosorum, has been observed in the last several years. Cutaneous tuberculosis in children can be severe and have a protracted course. Multiplicity of lesions and multifocal disseminated involvement in scrofuloderma and lupus vulgaris is common. Scrofuloderma progressing to gummatous lesions (scrofulous gumma) is mostly described in children. Morbidities and deformities are more severe in children.

  15. Massive Transfusion in Children.

    PubMed

    Karam, Oliver; Tucci, Marisa

    2016-10-01

    Massive transfusions occur frequently in pediatric trauma patients, among some children undergoing surgery, or in children with critical illness. Over the last years, many authors have studied different aspects of massive transfusions, starting with an operative definition. Some information is available on transfusion strategies and adjunctive treatments. Areas that require additional investigation include: studies to assess which children benefit from transfusion protocols based on fixed ratios of blood components vs transfusion strategies based on biophysical parameters and laboratory tests; whether goal-directed therapies that are personalized to the recipient will improve outcomes; or which laboratory tests best define the risk of bleeding and what clinical indicators should prompt the start and stop of massive transfusion protocols. In addition, critical issues that require further study include transfusion support with whole blood vs reconstituted whole blood prepared from packed red blood cells, plasma, and platelets; and the generation of high quality evidence that would lead to treatments which decrease adverse consequences of transfusion and improve outcomes.

  16. Young Children, National Tragedy, and Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMath, Joan S.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that, rather than exposing young children to media coverage of national tragedies and disasters, caregivers should read aloud to children from picture books that convey stability, calmness, and reassurance. Includes tips for helping children cope with tragedy, guidelines for selecting books, and an annotated list of 25 books that can help…

  17. Families, Managed Care, & Children's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue of a bulletin on family support and children's mental health focuses on managed care and the impact on children who are in need of mental health services. Articles include: "Private Sector Managed Care and Children's Mental Health" (Ira S. Lourie and others); "Just What Is Managed Care?" (Chris Koyanagi); "Managed Behavioral…

  18. Administration for Children and Families: Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Head Start program. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act), $1 billion will be provided to the Office of Head Start to promote the school readiness of low-income children, including children on federally-recognized reservations and children of migratory farm workers, by enhancing…

  19. Take Our Children to Work Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Hundreds of children participated in the annual Take Our Children to Work Day at Stennis Space Center on July 29. During the day, children of Stennis employees received a tour of facilities and took part in various activities, including demonstrations in cryogenics and robotics.

  20. Concerned Parents Speak Out On Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcus, F. Earle

    Research investigated parents' opinions about children's television (TV). Questionnaire respondents were mainly parents of children ages 2-6; mothers outnumbered fathers 9:1. Results included the findings that children watched TV an average of three hours a day; this varied little throughout the country and between those viewing Public…

  1. The Paradox of Children and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Ricca, Elena Giachin; Pelloni, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Empirical analyses of the determinants of life satisfaction routinely include the number of children as one of the socio demographic controls, without explicitly considering that, for a given household income, more children imply a lower level of income per family member. The variable "number of children" then often attracts a negative or…

  2. Mental Models of School for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kildan, A. Oguzhan; Kurnaz, Mehmet Altan; Ahi, Berat

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine mental models of 334 pre-school children concerning school. Children in the city center of Kastamonu in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey were included. Content analysis was conducted on pictures drawn by the children, and the models were split into two groups, scientific and nonscientific. The…

  3. Children in the States Data Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This data book from the Children's Defense Fund includes statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the states and the United States as a whole. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) population and family characteristics (number of children under age 18 and age 6, number of…

  4. Children's Sensitivity to Expression in Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Andrew S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents three studies of children's ability to create and detect expressions of emotion in drawings. Compared to younger children, older children used more strategies, experimented with line and color, and were more likely to explore themes of death, aging, and illness. Includes sample drawings and statistical tables. (MJP)

  5. Speak Out for Children, 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, David L., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    "Speak Out for Children" is the quarterly newsletter of the Children's Rights Council, Inc. (CRC), a children's rights and family preservation advocacy group. The feature articles for these four issues track the progress of the access/visitation grants included in the welfare reform legislation; the grants are to help establish and administer…

  6. Issues in Children's Mental Health. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Margaret L.

    This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mental health in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mental health problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…

  7. Children's media policy.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy B

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents

  8. Children's media policy.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy B

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents

  9. Examining Children's Models of Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

  10. Television and children's executive function.

    PubMed

    Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected.

  11. The Effectiveness of Combining Tangible Symbols with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Teach Requesting Skills to Children with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Emad

    2009-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication program (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Although PECS has been effectively used to teach functional requesting skills for children with autism, mental retardation, visual impairment, and physical disabilities (e.g., Anderson, Moore, & Bourne, 2007; Chambers &…

  12. [Young children, toddlers and school age children].

    PubMed

    Heller-Rouassant, Solange; Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia

    2016-09-01

    Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life. Its relationship with some diseases has not been confirmed, and milk consumption is associated with iron deficiency. The use of low-fat cow's milk instead of regular milk in young children remains controversial and its introduction is not advised before 2 to 4 years of age. PMID:27603883

  13. Psychiatric Morbidity Among Street Children in Duhok

    PubMed Central

    Taib, Nezar Ismet; Ahmad, Abdulbaghi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Due, in part, to family constraints in dealing with the economical burden of raising a family, a wave of street children is sweeping the developing world. Such children are prone to both somatic and mental illnesses. This is the first ever study that has been conducted to explore the psychopathology among street children in the Duhok Governorate. METHODS The study was conducted between March 2004 and May 2005 in Duhok City among street children who attended the Zewa Center—the only center for street children in the region at the time of the study. Among a total of 107 eligible children, 100 agreed to participate (93% response rate). A modified family map (genogram) was used to obtain demographic data from the children and their caregivers through semi-structured interviews. In addition, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID) structured interviews were conducted with the children. RESULTS The study found that 98% of children worked on the street because of the economic need and pressure on their families. There was high rate of parental illiteracy (90% of fathers and 95% of mothers), and 61% of respondents were shown to have at least one psychiatric disorder. A high percentage (57%) of these children suffered from anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorders (29%). Ten percent had depression, and 5% had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. CONCLUSION Street children in Duhok seem to be working children due to their families’ needs. PMID:24653656

  14. Studies in children.

    PubMed

    Perera, Frederica P; Edwards, Susan C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter first discusses the urgent need for prevention of childhood diseases that impose a huge and growing burden on families and society. It provides a review of recent research in this area to illustrate both the strengths and limitations of molecular epidemiology in drawing needed links between environmental exposures and illness in children. For illustration, three of the major diseases in children are discussed: asthma, cancer and developmental disorders. All three impose significant difficulties, have increased in recent decades, and are thought to be caused in substantial part by environmental factors, such as toxic exposures due to lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking and diet), pollutants in the workplace, ambient air, water and the food supply. These exogenous exposures can interact with "host" factors, such as genetic susceptibility and nutritional deficits, to cause disease. Molecular epidemiology has provided valuable new insights into the magnitude and diversity of exposures beginning in utero, the unique susceptibility of the young, and the adverse preclinical and clinical effects resulting from the interactions between these factors. However, molecular epidemiology also faces certain constraints and challenges that are specific to studies of the very young, including ethical issues, technical issues due to the limited amount of biological specimens that can be obtained, and communication of results to parents and communities. These challenges are particularly apparent when incorporating the newer epigenetic and "omic" techniques and biomarkers into studies of children's diseases.

  15. Cough in children.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Adelaida; Ruiz de Valbuena, Marta; Máiz, Luis

    2014-07-01

    Cough during childhood is very common, and is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in daily pediatric practice. The causes differ from those in adults, and specific pediatric guidelines should be followed for correct diagnosis and treatment. The most common cause of cough in children is viral infection producing "normal cough", but all children with persistent cough, i.e. a cough lasting more than 4-8weeks or "chronic cough", must be carefully evaluated in other to rule out specific causes that may include the entire pediatric pulmonology spectrum. The treatment of cough should be based on the etiology. Around 80% of cases can be diagnosed using an optimal approach, and treatment will be effective in 90% of them. In some cases of "nonspecific chronic cough", in which no underlying condition can be found, empirical treatment based on the cough characteristics may be useful. There is no scientific evidence to justify the use of over-the-counter cough remedies (anti-tussives, mucolytics and/or antihistamines), as they could have potentially serious side effects, and thus should not be prescribed in children. PMID:24507905

  16. Studies in children.

    PubMed

    Perera, Frederica P; Edwards, Susan C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter first discusses the urgent need for prevention of childhood diseases that impose a huge and growing burden on families and society. It provides a review of recent research in this area to illustrate both the strengths and limitations of molecular epidemiology in drawing needed links between environmental exposures and illness in children. For illustration, three of the major diseases in children are discussed: asthma, cancer and developmental disorders. All three impose significant difficulties, have increased in recent decades, and are thought to be caused in substantial part by environmental factors, such as toxic exposures due to lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking and diet), pollutants in the workplace, ambient air, water and the food supply. These exogenous exposures can interact with "host" factors, such as genetic susceptibility and nutritional deficits, to cause disease. Molecular epidemiology has provided valuable new insights into the magnitude and diversity of exposures beginning in utero, the unique susceptibility of the young, and the adverse preclinical and clinical effects resulting from the interactions between these factors. However, molecular epidemiology also faces certain constraints and challenges that are specific to studies of the very young, including ethical issues, technical issues due to the limited amount of biological specimens that can be obtained, and communication of results to parents and communities. These challenges are particularly apparent when incorporating the newer epigenetic and "omic" techniques and biomarkers into studies of children's diseases. PMID:22997878

  17. Cough in children.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Adelaida; Ruiz de Valbuena, Marta; Máiz, Luis

    2014-07-01

    Cough during childhood is very common, and is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in daily pediatric practice. The causes differ from those in adults, and specific pediatric guidelines should be followed for correct diagnosis and treatment. The most common cause of cough in children is viral infection producing "normal cough", but all children with persistent cough, i.e. a cough lasting more than 4-8weeks or "chronic cough", must be carefully evaluated in other to rule out specific causes that may include the entire pediatric pulmonology spectrum. The treatment of cough should be based on the etiology. Around 80% of cases can be diagnosed using an optimal approach, and treatment will be effective in 90% of them. In some cases of "nonspecific chronic cough", in which no underlying condition can be found, empirical treatment based on the cough characteristics may be useful. There is no scientific evidence to justify the use of over-the-counter cough remedies (anti-tussives, mucolytics and/or antihistamines), as they could have potentially serious side effects, and thus should not be prescribed in children.

  18. Dengue in children.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Lilly M; de Groot, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and increasing incidence. The vast majority of dengue cases are children less than 15 years of age. Dengue causes a spectrum of illness from mild fever to severe disease with plasma leakage and shock. Infants and children with secondary heterologous dengue infections are most at risk for severe dengue disease. Laboratory diagnosis of dengue can be established within five days of disease onset by direct detection of viral components in serum. After day five, serologic diagnosis provides indirect evidence of dengue. Currently, no effective antiviral agents are available to treat dengue infection. Therefore, treatment remains supportive, with emphasis on close hematological monitoring, recognition of warning signs of severe disease and fluid-replacement therapy and/or blood transfusions when required. Development of a dengue vaccine is considered a high public health priority. A safe and efficacious dengue vaccine would also be important for travelers. This review highlights the current understanding of dengue in children, including its clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnostic tests, management and prevention.

  19. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk in school children.

    PubMed

    Sporisević, Lutvo; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Bajraktarević, Adnan; Jahić, Elmedina

    2009-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is a pathological condition that begins in early childhood, but clinically the disease manifests in older age. The aim of work was to determine frequency of atherosclerosis risk factors in healthy school children. Cross-sectional study included 214 children in mean age 10,99+/-2,52 years, within range 7 to 15 years. Patients body mass index, blood pressure, lipid status, dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary habits have been evaluated. Cardiovascular risk factors are significantly present in children (P<0,05) i.e. one cardiovascular risk factor is present in 47/214 (21,96%) children, two risk factors had 25/214 (11,68%) children, while 17/214 (7,94%) children had three or more cardiovascular risk factors. Obesity was present in 20/214 (9,34%) children, while overweight was present in 23/214 (10,74%) children. Hypertension was present in 10/214 (4,67%) children, and it was significantly present (p<0,05) in obese and overweight children. Total cholesterol was increased in 17/214 (7,94%) children, LDL-cholesterol was increased in 11/214 (5,14%) [corrected], increased triglycerides had 4/214 (1,86%) children, while decreased HDL-cholesterol was found in (3/214, 1,40%) children. Unhealthy dietary habits were present in 45/214 (21,02%) children, 42/214 (19,62%) children is physically inactive, while sedentary habits were shown in 39/214 (18,22%) children. Research shows that a large number within study group has one or more cardiovascular risk factors that can lead to premature atherosclerosis. Using massive screening of cardiovascular risk factors, along with adequate physical activity, healthy dietary habits, reduced sedentary habits, doctors and teacher's education, parents and children can reduce premature clinical sequels in atherosclerotic process.

  20. Dental Health Evaluation of Children in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Begzati, Agim; Meqa, Kastriot; Siegenthaler, David; Berisha, Merita; Mautsch, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess caries prevalence of preschool and school children in Kosovo. Methods: The assessment, which was carried out between 2002 and 2005, included measurements of early childhood caries, deft and DMFT. Results: In total, 1,237 preschool and 2,556 school children were examined. The mean deft of preschool children was 5.9, and the mean DMFT of school children aged 12 was 5.8. The caries prevalence for 2- to 6-year-old preschool children was 91.2%, and the prevalence for 7- to 14-year-old school children was 94.4%. The prevalence of early childhood caries was 17.6%, with a mean deft of 10.6. Conclusions: All data assessed showed the very poor oral health status of children in Kosovo. Interviews with children and teachers indicated poor knowledge regarding oral health. Significant measures must be taken to improve this situation. PMID:21228954

  1. Acute hepatic failure among hospitalized Thai children.

    PubMed

    Poovorawan, Yong; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Boudville, Irving; Liu, Yanfang; Hutagalung, Yanee; Bock, Hans L

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based study from June 2002 to December 2006 of Thai children aged 1-15 years with acute hepatic failure (AHF) to determine the causes and outcomes. Eleven children were included in the study. Hepatitis B virus was the cause of AHF in one child, infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome was the cause in 1 child, Wilson's disease was the cause in 1 child and dengue fever was suspected to be the cause in 2 children. In 6 children the cause of AHF was unknown. Jaundice was reported in 9 of 11 children. Ten of 11 children had mild to moderate encephalopathy on admission. Five of 11 children died due to AHF. No liver transplantations were performed among the children in this study. Further studies into the relationship between dengue infection and AHF are needed.

  2. Thoracotomies in children.

    PubMed

    Findik, Gokturk; Gezer, Suat; Sirmali, Mehmet; Turut, Hasan; Aydogdu, Koray; Tastepe, Irfan; Karaoglanoglu, Nurettin; Kaya, Sadi

    2008-06-01

    Thoracotomies in children have been less extensively studied, as the incidence of diseases necessitating thoracotomies is low in the pediatric age group. This study reviews childhood thoracic diseases, thoracotomy approaches, indications, and complications. Surgical procedures and complications of a total of 196 children below 16 years of age who underwent thoracotomy for various reasons at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Ataturk Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Training and Research Hospital, between January 2000 and December 2004, were reviewed in this study. Out of the 196 patients, 77 were female (39%) and 119 (61%) were male. The most commonly encountered indications for surgery were hydatid cyst (35%), bronchiectasis (25%), chronic nonspecific pleuritis (13%), chest wall deformities (10%), and mediastinal cystic formations and masses (10%). The other indications included tuberculosis (3%), aspergilloma (0.5%), fibrohyalinized cyst (0.5%), resection of trachea (0.5%), bronchogenic cyst (0.5%), inflammatory pseudo-tumor (0.5%), sequestration (1%), lipoblastoma (0.5%), and eosinophilic granuloma (1%). Out of the 196 patients, 176 underwent lateral thoracotomy and 20 patients with a chest wall deformity underwent midsternal incision. Complications were seen in 35 patients (18%): atelectasia and secretory retention (54%), wound infection (17%), hemorrhage (3%), chylothorax (3%), intrathoracic space (3%), and postoperative extended air leakage (20%). The mean hospital stay was 15 days and we did not encounter any mortality. The physiology and anatomy of the respiratory system and especially the respiratory control mechanism in pediatric patients vary from those of the adults, resulting in a more morbid course after thoracic surgery in children. Despite severe postoperative pain, posterolateral thoracotomy is the preferred approach in adults because of an advanced intrathoracic exposure and easy manipulation. On the other hand, lower pain threshold and the

  3. Vitreous surgery in children.

    PubMed

    Aznabayev, M T; Aznabayev, R A; Kazakbayev, A G; Iskandarov, R H

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the results of research on the surgical treatment of children with various vitreous diseases. Vitrectomy was performed on 44 eyes in children, from four months to fifteen years of age, suffering from the following diseases: lensectomy complications as vitreocorneal adhesions or immersion of lens mass into the vitreous; persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), trauma consequences, uveitis and eyeball subatrophy. Preoperational examination included measurement of visual acuity, biomicroscopy, direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, tonography, ultrasonography and electrophysiological examinations. Vitreotome 'ocutome' was used to perform the operations. A transcyliar approach was used in all but 14 cases, for which the operations were performed by limbal incision. Improvement of visual functions was noted in 28 eyes (63.3%), and relatively good visual function was achieved in 7 eyes (16.9%). Visual acuity remained unchanged in 6 eyes (13.6%) because of severe amblyopia, although the transparency of optic zone was restored and the fundus did become visible. IN 10 (22.7%) of the children visual acuity could not be measured because of too young an age. One day after surgery a cellular suspension in the vitreous was observed in many eyes. This however, resolved within 3 days. Intraocular pressure usually returned during the first week after surgery. Hypotonia remained for 1-2 months after subtotal vitrectomy. The transcyliar extraction of pathological vitreous in children is generally a less traumatic and more convenient means of intravitreal manipulation, but 2 cases of intraoperational hemophthalmia suggested that iridiocyclitis is a contraindication for transcyliar approach. Transcorneal extraction is a less traumatic surgical method in such cases. PMID:7835175

  4. Ethical Research with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Research with children is occurring within a climate of mounting international interest in listening to and consulting with children in ways that are respectful of them as competent informants of their own experience. This interest has occurred within "new times" of heightened accountability, regulation and surveillance of research. This climate…

  5. Vulnerable Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willms, J. Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Findings from two studies indicate that the nature of Canadian children's environments within their families, schools, neighborhoods, and communities has very strong effects on children's development and the prevalence of childhood vulnerability. Rather than stemming primarily from poverty, childhood vulnerability may arise from the environments…

  6. SPEECH HANDICAPPED SCHOOL CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, WENDELL; AND OTHERS

    THIS BOOK IS DESIGNED PRIMARILY FOR STUDENTS WHO ARE BEING TRAINED TO WORK WITH SPEECH HANDICAPPED SCHOOL CHILDREN, EITHER AS SPEECH CORRECTIONISTS OR AS CLASSROOM TEACHERS. THE BOOK DEALS WITH FOUR MAJOR QUESTIONS--(1) WHAT KINDS OF SPEECH DISORDERS ARE FOUND AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN, (2) WHAT ARE THE PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS,…

  7. Children's Social Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of recent developmental research on themes related to children's social identities. Initially, consideration is given to the capacity for social categorization, following which attention is given to children's developing conceptions of social identities, their identification with social groups, and the…

  8. Children's Divorce Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Gary S.; Bleck, Robert T.

    1977-01-01

    Elementary school counselors can implement a specific strategy to meet the needs of the children of divorce by using many of the techniques already in use. The activities used in the Children's Divorce Groups are ones that have been skillfully developed by counselors familiar with the developmental model of counseling. (Author/PC)

  9. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  10. Colorado Children's Budget 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Colorado Children's Budget 2011" tallies up Colorado's public investments during FY 2007-08 through FY 2011-12 for programs and services that enhance the well-being of children across four domains--Early Childhood, K-12 Education, Health, and Other Supports. It is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested…

  11. Foster Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Lederman, Cindy S.

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in foster care are a vulnerable population. They are at risk for abuse, neglect, and permanent separation from birth parents and have a greater incidence of emotional and behavioral difficulties. This is not surprising because these children are abused, neglected, or abandoned by the very people who are supposed to love and care…

  12. Children As People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiering, Alvin; And Others

    This 35-minute, black and white, 16mm, sound film was made at the Fayerweather Street School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and narrated by John Holt. It is designed to show what happens in a school in which children are free to move about, to talk, and to plan and direct their own work. The film shows children of different ages engaged in…

  13. Problems of Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Marigold

    Previous approaches to the learning problems of American Indian children are viewed as inadequate. An alternative is suggested which emphasizes the problem solution strategies which these children bring to the school situation. Solutions were analyzed in terms of: (1) their probability; (2) their efficiency at permitting a present problem to be…

  14. Aplauso! Hispanic Children's Theater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Joe, Ed.

    This collection contains eight children's plays in English, Spanish, and bilingual formats. Intended participants and audiences range from preschool children to young adults; most scripts encourage audience participation. Most authors are Americans of Latin American descent or birth, and characters in the plays come from Mexican, Puerto Rican, and…

  15. FY 1991 Children's Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Coalition for Children and Families, East Lansing.

    Addressed to advocates and decision makers, this agenda identifies state services in Michigan that will be most vital to the state's children and families in fiscal year 1991. Initial contents provide general policy recommendations of the Michigan Coalition for Children and Families. Policy recommendations for the programs of the departments of…

  16. Children and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, David, Ed.; And Others

    This volume documents the rise in violence in our communities and explores its impact on children's physical, psychological, and social development. Focal themes are: the necessity for better information about the kinds of violence to which children are exposed, the necessity of beginning to build intervention strategies aimed at violence, and the…

  17. Teaching Bilingual Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackledge, Adrian, Ed.

    Contributors from Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, and the United States describe how primary-age children in these anglophone countries are learning in the language of their home. The book demonstrates that monolingual schooling in a multicultural society fails to meet the needs of bilingual children. It argues that linguistic minorities…

  18. Investigating Children's Mathematics Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohi; Autry, Mary Murray; Fox, Jill; Williams, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 244 children (average age: 61 months) and their parents from the Dallas and Fort Worth (DFW) metroplex area in Texas were surveyed to investigate children's mathematics readiness. This study was conducted as part of a project funded by a local child care council, composed of business, civic, and education leaders in the community. The…

  19. Seeing Children's Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb

    2012-01-01

    A group of toddlers was offered long, colorful, translucent tubes to enjoy and explore. As always, they amazed adults with the many ideas they used to investigate and learn with them. The tubes are long and the children marveled at how they could easily lift these objects up taller than their bodies. At the center of the children's explorations…

  20. Repeated Infections in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause of an infection, such as being in day-care centers. Children in day-care centers give infections to each other. They drool ... winter, you could move your child out of day care, where so many other children would have colds. ...

  1. Children of Disrupted Families

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Bonnie E.

    1991-01-01

    While some children cope well with divorce, children of divorced parents are at increased risk for suicide, low self-esteem, affective disorders, and general distress. Useful intervention from the family physician usually begins with educating parents about what to expect and about the importance of open communication, co-operation between parents, and consistent discipline. PMID:21228993

  2. Dance for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauman, Lilo S.

    1983-01-01

    Dance for preschool children can be a vehicle for self-expression and for learning, but teachers must present material in the form of play. Ideas for teaching dance to three- to five-year-old children, such as the proper way to jump and skip, are presented, along with a sample lesson. (PP)

  3. Children as Art Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2011-01-01

    A goal of art learning is always independence, for everyone to become their own art teacher. Teaching for artistic independence can never start too early. As art teachers, children acquire confidence in their art, and in coming to school as artists. Children should be considered artists in residence and visiting artists in schools. It makes sense…

  4. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes about the…

  5. Assessing Children's Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Valerie

    1987-01-01

    Less is known about how children read connected text in silent reading, and the range of reading strategies used in an ordinary primary school classroom, than about the reading of single words, oral reading and reading by skilled adults. This paper describes and evaluates a method of testing children's silent reading in which they are their own…

  6. Measuring Children's Curiosity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, George

    A study to develop a technique for measuring the curiosity of young children and to determine whether three treatments affected the subjects as hypothesized is presented. The Appalachia Educational Laboratory's Preschool Education Program sought to stimulate curiosity in its 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old subjects. One third of the children received only…

  7. Culture and Children's Cosmology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a close…

  8. Raising Healthy Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Carol; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    1997-01-01

    Notes that teaching social and emotional skills can have a long-term positive effect on academic achievement. The University of Washington's Raising Healthy Children Project tries to reduce children's risk of developing problems in adolescence by providing interventions that bond students to family and school. The program features staff…

  9. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Forum, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The theme of this issue of a journal designed to focus on the prevention of various kinds of substance abuse is "children of alcoholics" (CoAs). The lead article, "Children of Chemical Dependency: Respecting Complexities and Building on Strengths," by Pamela Woll, examines chemically dependent family systems. The article begins by offering two…

  10. Children, Pesticides and Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Alison

    1998-01-01

    Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.…

  11. Facial paralysis in children.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sashank; Redett, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Facial paralysis can have devastating physical and psychosocial consequences. These are particularly severe in children in whom loss of emotional expressiveness can impair social development and integration. The etiologies of facial paralysis, prospects for spontaneous recovery, and functions requiring restoration differ in children as compared with adults. Here we review contemporary management of facial paralysis with a focus on special considerations for pediatric patients.

  12. Teaching Our Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, George H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…

  13. Children's Books about Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Patricia Pearl

    Created to promote a mutual understanding and acceptance among various faiths and cultures throughout the world, this book is an annotated bibliography of religious children's books. It has almost 700 critical evaluations of books with distinct religious themes for children from preschool to middle school. Chapters are: (1) "Religion"; (2) "God";…

  14. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the state if…

  15. World of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Magda Cordell; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This bulletin takes a broad view of children in history, their current problems and needs throughout the world, and directions to be taken for fulfilling those needs. The world population of children under age 15 is projected to increase by 500 million to 1.9 billion in the year 2000. Despite the bonds created by global communications, large…

  16. Colorado Children's Budget 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Cuciti, Peggy L.; Baker, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget 2012" examines the state's commitment to investing in the well-being of children. It tallies up Colorado's actual and planned investment during the past five years (Fiscal Year (FY) 2008-2009 through FY 2012-2013) on programs and services in four areas: Early Childhood Learning and Development, K-12 Education,…

  17. Children and Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Delores

    1983-01-01

    Activities and teaching methods for involving children (especially young children) in literature are presented in order to establish positive attitudes towards reading. Ideas are provided for use with wordless books, patterned or repetitive books, books organized around a theme, and picture books. The activities, each related to specific…

  18. Being Real for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    1995-01-01

    Because ready role models for today's children are media-created superheroes and celebrities of television and film, children need real-life role models who guide them into realistic personal and social pathways. As principal adult contacts, teachers can be such role models. Specific strategies for encouraging teachers in this role are presented.…

  19. Children as Authors Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Intended for teachers, librarians, and administrators, this handbook explores the possibilities of implementing a "Children as Authors" project by using collaborative and integrative teaching strategies to motivate elementary school children to write. After describing the project and explaining its benefits, the handbook explores ways teachers and…

  20. Champions of Children. Administrators . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert

    Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…

  1. Counseling Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    This guide on counseling abused children was written to help counselors meet the needs of children and adolescents and to provide ways of working with the child's family. Chapter 1 presents an overview of child maltreatment by identifying types of maltreatment (neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, and emotional abuse or neglect)…

  2. Children and Marital Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Arland

    1977-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between early childbearing and marital instability. Women with large families and those with no children were the most likely to experience disruption. The lowest dissolution rates were found for those with moderate numbers of children. (Author)

  3. The Children's Advertising Battle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKie, Alexander

    A number of relevant issues surround the arguments of both opponents and proponents of the Federal Trade Commission's proposals to ban or control certain advertising during children's television programs. Groups against regulatory action point out that parents, not children, are the consumers and have a right to free choice in their purchases.…

  4. Emphysematous Pyelonephritis in Children.

    PubMed

    Ambaram, Priya R; Kala, Udai K; Petersen, Karen L

    2016-10-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a severe necrotizing infection of the kidneys characterized by gas formation within the parenchyma, the collecting system or the perinephric tissue. To our knowledge, there have only been 4 cases of this condition reported in children. We report 2 additional cases in children managed at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa. PMID:27622688

  5. Assessing Kindergarten Children's Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Connie

    1990-01-01

    Discusses: (1) development and use of the Lamme/Green Scale of Children's Development in Composition; and (2) scales of spelling development as a guide for teachers and parents to use in assessment of kindergartners' and other young children's progress in compositional writing. (BB)

  6. War, Terrorism, and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRanieri, Joseph T.; Clements, Paul T.; Clark, Kathleen; Kuhn, Douglas Wolcik; Manno, Martin S.

    2004-01-01

    Many caregivers are encountering the issue of communicating with children and adolescents about current world events, specifically war and terrorism. As health care providers, it is important to raise awareness of how children may understand, interpret, and respond to related fears and concerns. Although honesty and reassurance are clearly the…

  7. Teaching Educationally Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arena, John I., Ed.; And Others

    Describing methods for helping children with normal intelligence who manifest learning, perceptual, and/or behavior disorders as a result of minimal neurological or brain dysfunction, the compilation contains 22 papers. Articles are grouped into six categories: identifying the children, motor development, basic considerations, adapting the…

  8. Children's Participation in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig

    2012-01-01

    In (post) modern society children are seen as active subjects and participants who have a legitimate basis in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child. As a consequence of this, children are able to play an active role in the planning of/and participation in both education and research in their own preschool settings. This article…

  9. Teaching Children of Catastrophe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Teaching children who are victims of Katrina is not a multicultural education issue per se. However, there are some intersections between the victims of Katrina and the educational responses to them, and some of the primary constituent groups and issues that multicultural education represents and intends to serve. These are children of color and…

  10. Children's Advertising Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY.

    These guidelines have been developed for the use of advertisers and advertising agencies and for the self-regulatory mechanism which these groups have established, the National Advertising Division, to help ensure that advertising directed to children is truthful, accurate, and fair to children's perceptions. Preliminary sections set forth basic…

  11. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  12. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children.  Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...

  13. How Safe Are Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benke, Mary Schaefer

    1988-01-01

    Debates whether children are more susceptible to asbestos-related disease than adults. Addresses the issue of low-level exposure and disease. Discusses the regulatory measures taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Congress to protect children from the potential threat of asbestos exposure. (CW)

  14. Fungal mastoiditis in immunocompromised children.

    PubMed

    Slack, C L; Watson, D W; Abzug, M J; Shaw, C; Chan, K H

    1999-01-01

    The immunocompromised host is subject to a variety of opportunistic infections. Mycotic infections, including invasive fungal sinusitis, are a dreaded complication in immune deficient children. Fungal mastoiditis has rarely been described in this population. Our experience with 2 cases of fungal mastoiditis in immunocompromised children is reviewed. Case histories describing aggressive medical management with and without surgical intervention and a review of the literature are presented. PMID:9932592

  15. Superficial fungal infections in children.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Danielle M; Smidt, Aimee C

    2014-04-01

    Superficial fungal infections can involve the hair, skin, and nails. Most affected children are healthy, although immunosuppression is a risk factor for more severe presentation. Causative organisms typically are members of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton genera (dermatophytes), can be acquired from other infected humans, animals, or soil, and illicit a host inflammatory response. Nondermatophyte infections include pityriasis versicolor. In this article, the most common clinical presentations, diagnostic recommendations, and treatment algorithms for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte mycoses in children and adolescents are described.

  16. Bone marrow transplant – children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow - children - discharge; Stem cell transplant - children - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant -children - discharge; Reduced intensity, non-myeloablative transplant - children - discharge; Mini transplant - children - discharge; Allogenic bone ...

  17. The health of children.

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, P G; Schor, E L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the concept of child health and the measurement of child health status in order to help guide the evaluation of the effectiveness of medical, social, and policy programs. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunities for research on children's health status and quality of care abound. Comprehensive and functional definitions create problems of measurement, but investigators are making progress in measuring children's health status both generically and for specific chronic health conditions. RECOMMENDATIONS: Measures of child health need to be developed, improved, tested, and made user-friendly for clinical and policy research. The relationship between health status and a variety of social programs for children and families needs study. The impact of changes in healthcare organization and financing must be investigated, especially for children from vulnerable subgroups. Determining the value and effectiveness of preventive services is a pressing issue. It is crucial to understand better the link among quality of care; other factors biological, family, and social; and children's health status. PMID:9776947

  18. Children's theories of motivation.

    PubMed

    Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C

    2011-09-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation.

  19. Recurrent wheezing in children

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Michele; Piacentini, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent wheezing have a significant morbidity and it’s estimated that about one third of school-age children manifest the symptom during the first 5 years of life. Proper identification of children at risk of developing asthma at school age may predict long-term outcomes and improve treatment and preventive approach, but the possibility to identify these children at preschool age remains limited. For many years authors focused their studies to identify early children with recurrent wheezing at risk to develop asthma at school age. Different phenotypes have been proposed for a more precise characterization and a personalized plan of treatment. The main criticism concerns the inability to define stable phenotypes with the risk of overestimating or underestimating the characteristics of symptoms in these children. The aim of this review is to report the recent developments on the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent paediatric wheezing. PMID:26835404

  20. Lyme disease in children.

    PubMed

    Sood, Sunil K

    2015-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of Lyme disease in children is similar to that in adults with a few clinically relevant exceptions. The use of doxycycline as an initial empiric choice is to be avoided for children 8 years old and younger. Children may present with insidious onset of elevated intracranial pressure during acute disseminated Lyme disease; prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is important to prevent loss of vision. Children who acquire Lyme disease have an excellent prognosis even when they present with the late disseminated manifestation of Lyme arthritis. Guidance on the judicious use of serologic tests is provided. Pediatricians and family practitioners should be familiar with the prevention and management of tick bites, which are common in children.

  1. Children's theories of motivation.

    PubMed

    Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C

    2011-09-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation. PMID:21513944

  2. Status of Oregon's Children: 1998 County Data Book. Special Focus: Children's Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children First for Oregon, Portland.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Oregon's children, focusing on children's health care. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being including: (1) children's insurance coverage; (2) health care access; (3) health outcomes, including immunization rates and early prenatal care; (4) juvenile…

  3. Children's Rights and Children's Voices in Contested Custody and Visitation Cases in Sweden and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pranzo, Diane

    2013-01-01

    These research notes look at the differing ways in which the basis for including a criterion regarding children's opinions in disputed custody and visitation processes, in the US as compared with Sweden, impacts on the role and place that children's opinions and wishes will have on the process. Sweden's rationale for including children's…

  4. Children's learning of science through literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelly, James B.

    This study examined the effects of picture books belonging to different literary genres on the learning of science by primary grade students. These genres included modern fantasy, fiction, and nonfiction. The students were exposed to two topics through books, butterflies and snails. The study focused on the effects of those books on children's expressions of (a) knowledge, (b) erroneous information, (c) creative ideas, and (d) the support required to elicit information and ideas from the children. Sixty-one children from three kindergarten and three second grade participated. Children were designated by their teachers as being high or low with respect to academic achievement. These categories allowed measurement of interactions between literary genres, grade levels, and academic achievement levels. Children first learned about butterflies, and then about snails. For each topic, children were interviewed about their knowledge and questions of the topic. Teachers engaged their classes with a book about the topic. The children were re-interviewed about their knowledge and questions about the topic. No class encountered the same genre of book twice. Comparisons of the children's prior knowledge of butterflies and snails indicated that the children possessed significantly more knowledge about butterflies than about snails. Literary genre had one significant effect on children's learning about snails. Contrary to expectations, children who encountered nonfiction produced significantly more creative expressions about snails than children who encountered faction or modern fantasy. No significant effects for literary genre were demonstrated with respect to children's learning about butterflies. The outcomes of the study indicated that nonfiction had its strongest impact on the learning of science when children have a relatively small fund of knowledge about a topic. This study has implications for future research. The inclusion of a larger number of students, classes, and

  5. Children in Our Midst: Voices of Farmworkers' Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Irene, Ed.

    For many years, farmworkers in Zimbabwe have been a marginalized and neglected community. This book describes the lives of hired farmworkers' children in their own words. Over 850 children aged 10-17 were interviewed or wrote essays in English or Shona. Nearly all the children were in elementary school in grades 4-7. Many farm children undergo…

  6. As If Children Matter: Perspectives on Children, Rights and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeher Inst., North York (Ontario).

    This collection of 16 papers attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of children in the nations of the Americas. The collection's five sections examine children's rights, perspectives of five parents from five different nations, children with disabilities in the legal system, promoting the rights of children through social…

  7. Nutritional Intake in Children with Disabilities Compared to Typical Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raddish, Michele; And Others

    Using interviews with parents and guardians, and the child where appropriate, this study compared feeding problems of children with disabilities in Kentucky with a sample of typical children. Subjects were 50 children ages 3-5; 25 children were without disabilities. In addition to interviews, data were collected from case records, medical…

  8. Health Insurance for Children. The Future for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" focuses on efforts to provide publicly funded health insurance to low-income children in the United States through Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The articles summarize current knowledge and research about which children are uninsured and why, discuss ways to improve…

  9. Policy Lessons from Children's Allowances for Children's Savings Accounts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curley, Jami; Sherraden, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Examines the history and current structure of "children's allowances" (cash grants from the government to families with children) around the world and particularly in the United States, to provide a framework for children's savings accounts--long-term savings and asset accumulation for all children. Considers public policy directions for these…

  10. Home Mechanical Ventilation in Children.

    PubMed

    Preutthipan, Aroonwan

    2015-09-01

    The number of children dependent on home mechanical ventilation has been reported to be increasing in many countries around the world. Home mechanical ventilation has been well accepted as a standard treatment of children with chronic respiratory failure. Some children may need mechanical ventilation as a lifelong therapy. To send mechanically ventilated children back home may be more difficult than adults. However, relatively better outcomes have been demonstrated in children. Children could be safely ventilated at home if they are selected and managed properly. Conditions requiring home ventilation include increased respiratory load from airway or lung pathologies, ventilatory muscle weakness and failure of neurologic control of ventilation. Home mechanical ventilation should be considered when the patient develops progressive respiratory failure or intractable failure to wean mechanical ventilation. Polysomnography or overnight pulse oximetry plus capnometry are used to detect nocturnal hypoventilation in early stage of respiratory failure. Ventilator strategy including non-invasive and invasive approach should be individualized for each patient. The author strongly believes that parents and family members are able to take care of their child at home if they are trained and educated effectively. A good team work with dedicated members is the key factor of success. PMID:26223874

  11. Emergency department overcrowding and children.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Mark A; Mace, Sharon; Brown, Kathleen; Finkler, Joseph; Hernandez, Dennis; Krug, Steven E; Schamban, Neil

    2007-07-01

    Emergency department (ED) overcrowding has been a serious issue on the national agenda for the past 2 decades and is rapidly becoming an increasingly significant problem for children. The goal of this report is to focus on the issues of overcrowding that directly impact children. Our findings reveal that although overcrowding seems to affect children in ways similar to those of adults, there are several important ways in which they differ. Recent reports document that more than 90% of academic emergency medicine EDs are overcrowded. Although inner-city, urban, and university hospitals have historically been the first to feel the brunt of overcrowding, community and suburban EDs are now also being affected. The overwhelming majority of children (92%) are seen in general community EDs, with only a minority (less than 10%) treated in dedicated pediatric EDs. With the exception of patients older than 65 years, children have higher visit rates than any other age group. Children may be at particularly increased risk for medical errors because of their inherent variability in size and the need for age-specific and weight-based dosing. We strongly recommend that pediatric issues be actively included in all future aspects of research and policy planning issues related to ED overcrowding. These include the development of triage protocols, clinical guidelines, research proposals, and computerized data monitoring systems. PMID:17666940

  12. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  13. Functional Nausea in Children.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Katja; Di Lorenzo, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Chronic nausea is a highly prevalent, bothersome, and difficult-to-treat symptom among adolescents. When chronic nausea presents as the predominant symptom and is not associated with any underlying disease, it may be considered a functional gastrointestinal disorder and named "functional nausea." The clinical features of functional nausea and its association with comorbid conditions provide clues to the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. These may include gastrointestinal motor and sensory disturbances, autonomic imbalance, altered central nervous system pathways, or a combination of these. This review summarizes the current knowledge on mechanisms and treatment strategies for chronic, functional nausea in children.

  14. Hypnosis for treatment of pain in children

    PubMed Central

    Rogovik, Alex L.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2007-01-01

    QUESTION Many children suffer from chronic and painful illnesses. Hypnosis was found to be effective for analgesia in adults. Is it effective for managing pain in children? ANSWER Children can be easier to hypnotize than adults. Studies have shown clinical hypnosis and self-hypnosis to be effective as adjunct treatments for children in pain. Examples include painful medical procedures, such as bone marrow aspiration and lumbar puncture in pediatric cancer patients, postoperative pain and anxiety in children undergoing surgery, and chronic headache. PMID:17872743

  15. The National Children's Study and the children of Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; Cronk, Christine E; Leuthner, Steven R; Hewitt, Jeanne B; Durkin, Maureen S; McElroy, Jane A; Anderson, Henry A; Landrigan, Philip J

    2006-03-01

    Prospective, multi-year epidemiologic studies such as the Framingham Heart Study and the Nurses' Health Study have proven highly effective in identifying risk factors for chronic illness and in guiding disease prevention. Now, in order to identify environmental risk factors for chronic disease in children, the US Congress authorized a National Children's Study as part of the Children's Health Act of 2000. Enrollment of a nationally representative cohort of 100,000 children will begin in 2008, with follow-up to continue through age 21. Environmental assessment and examination of biomarkers collected at specified intervals during pregnancy and childhood will be a major component of the Study. Recruitment at 105 sites across the United States is planned, and will begin at 7 Vanguard Centers in 2008, including Waukesha County, Wis. The National Children's Study will provide information on preventable risk factors for such chronic diseases as asthma, certain birth defects, neurobehavioral syndromes, and obesity. In addition, the National Children's Study will provide training in pediatric environmental health for the next generation of researchers and practitioners.

  16. Correlates of Victimization in Hong Kong Children's Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tom, Shelley R.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Xu, Yiyuan

    2010-01-01

    This study reports two separate cross-sectional investigations that focus on bully/victim problems among Hong Kong school children. Study 1 included 1361 children (670 boys, 691 girls; mean age = 12.6 years) and Study 2 included 288 children (153 boys, 135 girls; mean age = 9.6 years). Children's social and academic functioning was assessed with…

  17. Special Features in Children's Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karjalainen, Merja

    In a study of features that seem to be typical of children's conversations, 10 Finnish preschool children's conversations were videotaped and audiotaped over a period of 10 hours. The children were taped in conversation, play, fairy tale, and eating situations. Among the findings are that all children enjoy playing with language, but some initiate…

  18. The Status of Children 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapper, Kurt J.; Ohms, JoAnne S.

    This second biennial report on children presents information pertaining to children, discusses the implications and use of such information in planning for children, describes certain historical trends affecting children, and provides updates of statistics and significant expansions on many topics covered in the 1975 report. Part A examines basic…

  19. Children's Explanations of Family Resemblances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horobin, Karen D.

    Four studies investigated children's explanations for family resemblance and species-typical characteristics, under different conditions of biological parentage and rearing environment. Participating were 226 children between 3 and 11 years. Children Children were presented with a number of different tasks, some involving people and some domestic…

  20. Environmental Design for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    The special issue of the journal, Children in Contemporary Society, contains 17 brief articles on environmental design for young handicapped and normal children. Articles have the following titles: "Introduction", "Environmental Design and Architecture", "Why Is Environmental Design Important to Young Children", "Children's Hospital National…

  1. Children's Judgments of Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.

    1994-01-01

    Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older…

  2. Using Art with Vulnerable Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Stevi; Visser, John

    2009-01-01

    Refugee children are often admitted into schools having experienced traumatic events. The impact of trauma on children has been well documented and these children frequently have complex needs. The Devon Behaviour Support Team (BST) has offered Art Workshops to schools to support children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties and…

  3. Children's Death Concepts and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.

    1980-01-01

    Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…

  4. Television by Children in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Carla W.

    There are two categories of children's television in Kenya: television "for" children, most of which is imported, and television "by" children, all of which is produced in Kenya. Most of the television by children is produced and broadcast by Voice of Kenya television, much of it made up of programs growing out of extra-curricular activities at…

  5. Cohabitation and Children's Family Instability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly Raley, R.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This study estimates how much children's family instability is missed when we do not count transitions into and out of cohabitation, and examines early life course trajectories of children to see whether children who experience maternal cohabitation face more family instability than children who do not. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of…

  6. Seeing Children's Pleasure with Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…

  7. Children and Books. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Zena; Arbuthnot, May Hill

    This book, designed primarily for use in classes in children's literature in English and education departments and in library schools, colleges, and universities, provides an extensive survey of children's books. Part one, "Knowing Children and Books," examines children's needs, provides guidelines for book selection, and traces history and trends…

  8. Psychological essentialism in children.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Susan A

    2004-09-01

    Psychological essentialism is the idea that certain categories, such as "lion" or "female", have an underlying reality that cannot be observed directly. Where does this idea come from? This article reviews recent evidence suggesting that psychological essentialism is an early cognitive bias. Young children look beyond the obvious in many converging ways: when learning words, generalizing knowledge to new category members, reasoning about the insides of things, contemplating the role of nature versus nurture, and constructing causal explanations. These findings argue against the standard view of children as concrete thinkers, instead claiming that children have an early tendency to search for hidden, non-obvious features. PMID:15350241

  9. Children and war.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    2003-04-01

    Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The

  10. Children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, D I; Blume, S B

    1986-08-01

    One of every eight American children is the child of a parent who has a past or present drinking problem. Children of alcoholic parents are at great risk. They are significantly more likely to develop addiction problems and a variety of mental health disorders. They live in homes with high levels of stress. Poor communication, permissiveness, undersocialization, neglect, and violence are common and can be truly devastating. Because of the stigma and denial associated with chemical dependency, these children often suffer in silence, unidentified and unassisted.

  11. Vulnerable Children; Three Studies of Children in Conflict: Accident Involved Children, Sexually Assualted Children and Children with Asthma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lindy

    Three retrospective studies related children's socially inappropriate behavior to needs for approval and self assurance. Four girls and 16 boys (a sex difference of p=.006) involved in road accidents, aged 5 to 15, who were consecutively admitted to a hospital for arm and leg fractures were matched with controls. The accident children shared a…

  12. Impact of trauma on children.

    PubMed

    Lubit, Roy; Rovine, Deborah; DeFrancisci, Lea; Eth, Spencer

    2003-03-01

    Millions of children are affected by physical and sexual abuse, natural and technological disasters, transportation accidents, invasive medical procedures, exposure to community violence, violence in the home, assault, and terrorism. Unfortunately, the emotional impact of exposure to trauma on children is often unappreciated and therefore untreated, and yet the impact of exposures to disaster and violence is profound and long-lasting. This article first briefly discusses the epidemiology of trauma in children, and then reviews the psychiatric and neurodevelopmental impact of trauma on children as well as the effects of trauma on children's emotional development. Trauma in children can lead to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder as well as to a variety of other psychiatric disorders, including depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic attacks, borderline personality disorder, and substance abuse in adult survivors of trauma. Research has found that early exposure to stress and trauma causes physical effects on neurodevelopment which may lead to changes in the individual's long-term response to stress and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. Exposure to trauma also affects children's ability to regulate, identify, and express emotions, and may have a negative effect on the individual's core identity and ability to relate to others. The authors also discuss what has been learned, based on recent experiences such as the World Trade Center catastrophe, about the role of television viewing in increasing the effects of traumatic events. The last section of the article provides guidance concerning the identification and clinical treatment of children and adolescents who are having emotional problems as a result of exposure to trauma.

  13. Addressing Passive Smoking in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Sasha G.; Kuijlaars, Jennifer S.; Mesters, Ilse; Muris, Jean W. M.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Dompeling, Edward; Feron, Frans J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS) in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. Aim To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians) regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS) in children. Methods All physicians (n = 720) representing the three health professions in Limburg, the Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. Results The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11%) of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. Conclusions Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, the Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed. PMID:24809443

  14. Identifying methamphetamine exposure in children

    PubMed Central

    Castaneto, Marisol S.; Barnes, Allan J.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K.; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing.1 The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Method 91 children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation (CAARE) Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis (UCD) Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine and hair were 6.9%, 22.1% and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n=5) and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Conclusion Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine, or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. PMID:24263642

  15. Children's response to air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Thomas F; Schwartz, Joel

    2008-01-01

    It is important to focus on children with respect to air pollution because (1) their lungs are not completely developed, (2) they can have greater exposures than adults, and (3) those exposures can deliver higher doses of different composition that may remain in the lung for greater duration. The undeveloped lung is more vulnerable to assault and less able to fully repair itself when injury disrupts morphogenesis. Children spend more time outside, where concentrations of combustion-generated air pollution are generally higher. Children have higher baseline ventilation rates and are more physically active than adults, thus exposing their lungs to more air pollution. Nasal breathing in adults reduces some pollution concentrations, but children are more typically mouth-breathers--suggesting that the composition of the exposure mixture at the alveolar level may be different. Finally, higher ventilation rates and mouth-breathing may pull air pollutants deeper into children's lungs, thereby making clearance slower and more difficult. Children also have immature immune systems, which plays a significant role in asthma. The observed consequences of early life exposure to adverse levels of air pollutants include diminished lung function and increased susceptibility to acute respiratory illness and asthma. Exposure to diesel exhaust, in particular, is an area of concern for multiple endpoints, and deserves further research. PMID:18097949

  16. Children's Literature on Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, James

    Children's literature is simple discussion of complicated issues. Neutron stars are discussed in several children's books. Using libraries in Chicago, I will review children's books on neutron stars and compare the literature to literature from scientific discussions of neutron stars on sites like the Chandra site, Hubble Space Telescope site and NASA site. The result will be a discussion of problems and issues involved in discussion of neutron stars. Do children's books leave material out? Do children's books discuss recent observations? Do children's books discuss anything discredited or wrong? How many children's books are in resources like World Cat, the Library of Congress catalog, and the Chicago Public Library catalog? Could children's books be useful to present some of your findings or observations or projects? Children's books are useful for both children and scientist as they present simplified discussion of topics, although sometimes issues are simplified too much.

  17. Teaching children to like and eat vegetables.

    PubMed

    Wadhera, Devina; Capaldi Phillips, Elizabeth D; Wilkie, Lynn M

    2015-10-01

    Higher vegetable intake has been related to lower risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, several cancers and obesity. Yet children consume fewer than the recommended servings of fruits and vegetables set forth by the USDA. Exposure to vegetables has successfully improved children's liking for and consumption of vegetables particularly for children younger than two years. In contrast, associative conditioning seems necessary for older children, especially with bitter vegetables. We review studies using both exposure and associative conditioning to teach children to like vegetables, including flavor-flavor learning and flavor-calorie learning. Recognizing these different processes helps reconcile discrepant literature and may provide techniques for increasing preferences for vegetables in children. Associative conditioning and exposure can be used by parents and others to enhance children's liking for and consumption of vegetables.

  18. Astronomy Outreach for Special Needs Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2008-06-01

    While there are many outreach programs for the public and for children, there are few programs for special needs children. I describe a NASA-STScI-IDEAS funded outreach program I created for children using a telescope (including remote and robotic observations), hands-on astronomy demonstrations (often with edible ingredients). The target audience is seriously ill children with special medical needs and their families who are staying at the Long Island Ronald McDonald House in conjunction the children's surgery and medical treatments at local hospitals. These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. A related program for hospitalized children has been started at the Hagedorn Pediatric Inpatient Center at Winthrop University Hospital.

  19. "Children are sexually innocent": Iranian parents' understanding of children's sexuality.

    PubMed

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Abolghasemi, Naria; Smith, Thomas G

    2014-04-01

    Sexuality education (SE) is hotly contested in the West and there is much abstinence-only education; however, it remains controversial in a variety of contexts, including in Iran. The lack of consensus about children's SE in Muslim societies obliges us to explore different aspects of this topic systematically. The qualitative research presented here was about how Iranian parents perceived children's sexuality. Data from parents of 26 children were collected during four focus group sessions. Informants were selected from Area 5 in West Tehran. This area included 72 primary schools for girls and 82 for boys. The sessions were facilitated by using a semi-structured focus group guide. Content analysis was adopted using combined free and analytical coding to reduce data, to extract meanings, and to categorize domains. One of the three main domains identified, family management of child sexuality, is comprised of the following: (1) understanding of child sexuality, (2) family rules, (3) parent-child interactions, and (4) opposite sex interactions. Parental misinformation, accumulated myths, and ignorance about children's sexual development were evident. Strict family rules and a lack of consistent policy and instruction for SE were also identified. Parents said they were neither well-prepared nor competent to educate their children about sexuality. In fact, a majority of mothers raised "incompetence" as an important determinant in their own parent-child interactions. Societal changes as well as children's socialization patterns have forced parents to accept their children's opposite sex friendships as a reality. Results suggest a community need for developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive SE for schools and parental use.

  20. Hypothalamic obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Bereket, A; Kiess, W; Lustig, R H; Muller, H L; Goldstone, A P; Weiss, R; Yavuz, Y; Hochberg, Z

    2012-09-01

    Hypothalamic obesity is an intractable form of obesity syndrome that was initially described in patients with hypothalamic tumours and surgical damage. However, this definition is now expanded to include obesity developing after a variety of insults, including intracranial infections, infiltrations, trauma, vascular problems and hydrocephalus, in addition to acquired or congenital functional defects in central energy homeostasis in children with the so-called common obesity. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying hypothalamic obesity are complex and multifactorial. Weight gain results from damage to the ventromedial hypothalamus, which leads, variously, to hyperphagia, a low-resting metabolic rate; autonomic imbalance; growth hormone-, gonadotropins and thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency; hypomobility; and insomnia. Hypothalamic obesity did not receive enough attention, as evidenced by rarity of studies in this group of patients. A satellite symposium was held during the European Congress of Obesity in May 2011, in Istanbul, Turkey, to discuss recent developments and concepts regarding pathophysiology and management of hypothalamic obesity in children. An international group of leading researchers presented certain aspects of the problem. This paper summarizes the highlights of this symposium. Understanding the central role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of feeding and energy metabolism will help us gain insights into the pathogenesis and management of common obesity.

  1. Coeliac disease in children.

    PubMed

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Kirkham, Emily Natasha; Pidgeon, Sarah; Sandmann, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disorder caused by ingestion of gluten. The condition presents classically with gastrointestinal signs including diarrhoea, bloating, weight loss and abdominal pain, but presentations can include extra-intestinal symptoms such as iron-deficiency anaemia, faltering growth, delayed puberty and mouth ulcers. Some children are at higher risk of developing coeliac disease, for example those with a strong family history, certain genetic disorders and other autoimmune conditions. If coeliac disease is suspected, serological screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase titres should be performed and the diagnosis may be confirmed by small bowel biopsy while the child remains on a normal (gluten-containing) diet. Modified European guidelines recommend that symptomatic children with anti-tissue transglutaminase titres more than ten times the upper limit of normal, and positive human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 status, do not require small bowel biopsy for diagnosis of coeliac disease. Management of the disease involves strict adherence to a lifelong gluten-free diet, which should lead to resolution of symptoms and prevention of long-term complications. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the varied presentations of coeliac disease to ensure timely screening and early initiation of a gluten-free diet.

  2. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    outcomes including physical birth defects, low birth weight, and fetal death, although the data are less robust than for cancer and neurodevelopmental effects. Children's exposures to pesticides should be limited as much as possible.

  3. Micronutrient deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Bhan, M K; Sommerfelt, H; Strand, T

    2001-05-01

    Malnutrition increases morbidity and mortality and affects physical growth and development, some of these effects resulting from specific micronutrient deficiencies. While public health efforts must be targeted to improve dietary intakes in children through breast feeding and appropriate complementary feeding, there is a need for additional measures to increase the intake of certain micronutrients. Food-based approaches are regarded as the long-term strategy for improving nutrition, but for certain micronutrients, supplementation, be it to the general population or to high risk groups or as an adjunct to treatment must also be considered. Our understanding of the prevalence and consequences of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiency in children and pregnant women has advanced considerably while there is still a need to generate more knowledge pertaining to many other micronutrients, including zinc, selenium and many of the B-vitamins. For iron and vitamin A, the challenge is to improve the delivery to target populations. For disease prevention and growth promotion, the need to deliver safe but effective amounts of micronutrients such as zinc to children and women of fertile age can be determined only after data on deficiency prevalence becomes available and the studies on mortality reduction following supplementation are completed. Individual or multiple micronutrients must be used as an adjunct to treatment of common infectious diseases and malnutrition only if the gains are substantial and the safety window sufficiently wide. The available data for zinc are promising with regard to the prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia. It should be emphasized that there must be no displacement of important treatment such as ORS in acute diarrhea by adjunct therapy such as zinc. Credible policy making requires description of not only the clinical effects but also the underlying biological mechanisms. As findings of experimental studies are not always feasible to extrapolate to

  4. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    outcomes including physical birth defects, low birth weight, and fetal death, although the data are less robust than for cancer and neurodevelopmental effects. Children's exposures to pesticides should be limited as much as possible. PMID:23184105

  5. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  6. How Children Learn To Write: Supporting and Developing Children's Writing in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Dorothy

    This book outlines the processes involved when children learn to write, and it shows how certain strategies can improve children's progress in writing. Dealing with the age range 3-13, the book addresses issues of the gender gap, children with English as an additional language, and left-handedness. It includes ideas for assessment of writing. It…

  7. Raising Our Voices for Children. Association for Children of New Jersey Annual Report, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Children of New Jersey, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Through research and policy advocacy, the Association for Children of New Jersey (ACNJ) works to change state policies and improve programs for children, and advocates to bring together many more voices on behalf of children. The annual report reviews 2006 accomplishments, including: (1) More state funding for preschool ensure that more children…

  8. Agenda for Action: Policy Directions for Children with Disabilities and Families. Children and Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Michael

    In response to the development of a National Children's Agenda (NCA) to improve the well-being of Canada's children, this document presents specific policy goals to ensure the inclusion of children with disabilities and their families in the NCA. These goals include: (1) establishing inclusive values, rights and approaches for healthy child…

  9. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung

    2004-01-01

    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  10. Detecting Children's Lies: Are Parents Accurate Judges of Their Own Children's Lies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…

  11. Exercise and activity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... basketball and most other organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing) Younger children cannot stick with ... biking. Group sports are another option, such as soccer, football, basketball, karate, or tennis. Choose an exercise ...

  12. [Acute pancreatitis in children].

    PubMed

    Rottier, B L; Holl, R A; Draaisma, J M

    1998-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is probably commoner in children than was previously thought. In children it is most commonly associated with trauma or viral infection. The presentation may be subtler than in adults, requiring a high index of suspicion in the clinician. In three children, two boys aged 4 and 10 and a girl of 15 years, acute pancreatitis was suspected because of the findings at ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed when the disease recurred (the boy aged 4), apathy and immobility without dehydration or other obvious causes (the boy aged 10), and severe abdominal pain in combination with vomiting (the girl). All three patients had severely increased (urinary) amylase levels. Most often, acute pancreatitis in children tends to be a self-limiting disease which responds well to conservative treatment.

  13. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children.

    PubMed

    Demarco, Romano T

    2011-01-01

    The surgical management of pediatric stone disease has evolved significantly over the last three decades. Prior to the introduction of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the 1980s, open lithotomy was the lone therapy for children with upper tract calculi. Since then, SWL has been the procedure of choice in most pediatric centers for children with large renal calculi. While other therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) were also being advanced around the same time, PNL was generally seen as a suitable therapy in adults because of the concerns for damage in the developing kidney. However, recent advances in endoscopic instrumentation and renal access techniques have led to an increase in its use in the pediatric population, particularly in those children with large upper tract stones. This paper is a review of the literature focusing on the indications, techniques, results, and complications of PNL in children with renal calculi.

  14. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children. PMID:19674349

  15. Vesicoureteric reflux in children.

    PubMed

    Tullus, Kjell

    2015-01-24

    Vesicoureteric reflux is defined as the retrograde passage of urine from the bladder into one or both ureters and often up to the kidneys, and mainly affects babies and infants. In severe cases dilatation of the ureter, renal pelvis, and calyces might be seen. Traditionally it was thought that only a low percentage of children have vesicoureteric reflux, but studies have suggested as many as 25-40% are affected. Guidelines recommend that the number of investigations for vesicoureteric reflux in children who have had a febrile urinary tract infection be reduced, but this approach is controversial. The recommendations also suggest that prophylactic antibiotics and surgery should be avoided in children with non-severe vesicoureteric reflux. In this Seminar I present data on the management of children with vesicoureteric reflux and give suggestions on how to navigate this difficult area. PMID:25164069

  16. Mycotoxicoses in children.

    PubMed

    Peraica, Maja; Richter, Darko; Rašić, Dubravka

    2014-12-01

    Mycotoxicoses are acute and chronic poisonings caused by mould toxins called mycotoxins. Although acute mycotoxicoses, caused by high mycotoxin levels in food are rare nowadays, they need to be described in order to inform physicians and other health care workers about their symptoms. Children are more sensitive to mycotoxins because of their lower body mass, higher metabolic rate, and underdeveloped organ functions and detoxication mechanisms. Some mycotoxicoses appear only in children, and some are more pronounced in children than in adults. Acute mycotoxicoses in children are reported poorly, mostly because they occur in the tropical regions with poor healthcare coverage. In developed countries healthcare authorities are more concerned about child exposure to low levels of mycotoxins with immunotoxic, genotoxic or carcinogenic properties.

  17. Glasses for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... a little closer to the front of the classroom may be an alternative. • Hyperopia (far-sighted) – Most ... others may voice concern about difficulties in the classroom. Most children who have difficulty with reading do ...

  18. Bathroom safety - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000154.htm Bathroom safety - children To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. To prevent accidents in the bathroom, never leave your child alone in the bathroom. ...

  19. Television and Children's Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman

    1985-01-01

    Television can be a source of knowledge and information or it can cause negative behavior. Parents can help their children understand the difference between fantasy and reality on television and help make television viewing a positive event. (DF)

  20. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  1. Obesity in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercise choices. Food may be used as a reward or to comfort a child. These learned habits ... your child is not athletic, find ways to motivate your child to be more active. Encourage children ...

  2. Fecal Incontinence in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Find a Doctor Join eNewsletter Sidebar × MOBILE MENU About Us What is Incontinence? Prevalence Causes of Incontinence Fecal Incontinence in Children Reporter's Guide to Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of ...

  3. Cough in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract infections, such as the common cold. Healthy preschool children in day care can have up to ... meeting Browse your conditions Check pollen counts Continuing education center Find an allergist / immunologist Journals Login / My ...

  4. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the same age. The child will have normal intelligence in most cases. In older children, puberty may ... hormones cause the body to make. Tests can measure these growth factors. Accurate growth hormone deficiency testing ...

  5. Flight (Children's Books).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Susan; Reid, Rebecca; Sylvan, Anne; Woolard, Linda; Freeman, Evelyn B.

    1997-01-01

    Presents brief annotations of 43 children's books, grouped around the theme of flight: flights of imagination, flights across time and around the globe, flights of adventure, and nature's flight. (SR)

  6. Kidney Stones in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nephrology American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: ...

  7. Children's Hypervideo Neurosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferullo, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    Excessive television viewing in the formative years can complicate, if not paralyze, children's psychological development and educational achievement. It distorts their perceptions of reality and it causes them to be overactive, overanxious, and inattentive. (Author/SJL)

  8. Detecting Deception in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; White, John B.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the ability of adult observers to detect deception in children through nonverbal facial and body movement cues. Results indicate distinctly differing developmental trends for girls and boys, depending on whether the face or body was being rated. (JMF)

  9. Traveling with children

    MedlinePlus

    ... to munch on). If you call ahead, some airlines may be able to prepare special kid's meals. ... with children. Check with them. Remember to ask airlines, train, or bus companies and hotels for guidance ...

  10. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  11. Sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Hoban, Timothy F

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep disorders such as insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are common in both children and adults, the clinical features and treatments for these conditions differ considerably between these two populations. Whereas an adult with obstructive sleep apnea typically presents with a history of obesity, snoring, and prominent daytime somnolence, a child with the condition is more likely to present with normal body weight, tonsillar hypertrophy, and inattentiveness during school classes. The adult with suspected sleep apnea almost always undergoes a baseline polysomnogram and proceeds to treatment only if this test confirms the diagnosis, while many children with suspected sleep apnea are treated empirically with adenotonsillectomy without ever receiving a sleep study to verify the diagnosis. This article reviews sleep disorders in children, with a particular focus on age-related changes in sleep, conditions that primarily affect children, and disorders for which clinical manifestations and treatment differ substantially from the adult population. PMID:20146688

  12. Hypertensive crisis in children.

    PubMed

    Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gastón

    2012-05-01

    Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children.

  13. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children.

  14. Chronic cough in children.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Johana B Castro; Pine, Harold S

    2013-08-01

    The management of chronic cough, a common complaint in children, is challenging for most health care professionals. Millions of dollars are spent every year on unnecessary testing and treatment. A rational approach based on a detailed interview and a thorough physical examination guides further intervention and management. Inexpensive and simple homemade syrups based on dark honey have proved to be an effective measure when dealing with cough in children. PMID:23905830

  15. Pharmacovigilance for children's sake.

    PubMed

    Star, Kristina; Edwards, I Ralph

    2014-02-01

    Child age-specific information on efficacy and risk of medicines can be limited for healthcare professionals and patients. It is therefore very important to make the best use of a risk planned approach to the pharmacological treatment of children. This means pharmacovigilance in the broadest sense of gaining the best data from the use of medicines in clinical practice. We consider issues that complicate safe medication use in paediatric care, as well as current progress and provide suggestions for building knowledge within paediatric pharmacovigilance to be used to minimise patient harm. The continuous development in children constitutes a challenge to prescribing and administering age-suitable doses for individual children. Children are not only different from adults but differ vastly within their own age group. Physical growth during childhood is apparent to the eye, but less obvious is the ongoing maturation of organ function important for drug disposition and action. Systematic issues such as medication errors, off-label use and the lack of age-suitable formulations are considerable obstacles for safe medication use in paediatrics. The recognition of emerging adverse drug reactions could be more challenging in developing children. Initiatives to improve the situation have been made by the WHO and regulators in the USA and EU. Age-specific changes in physiology, pharmacology and psychology, as well as systematic issues specific for children need to be considered in the work of assessing spontaneous reports in children. Pharmacovigilance needs to broaden its aims considerably beyond merely capturing new associations between drugs and events, and encompass careful collection on patient characteristics and circumstances around the reported adverse drug reaction to provide essential information that will give clues on how to prevent harm to children.

  16. Pharmacovigilance for children's sake.

    PubMed

    Star, Kristina; Edwards, I Ralph

    2014-02-01

    Child age-specific information on efficacy and risk of medicines can be limited for healthcare professionals and patients. It is therefore very important to make the best use of a risk planned approach to the pharmacological treatment of children. This means pharmacovigilance in the broadest sense of gaining the best data from the use of medicines in clinical practice. We consider issues that complicate safe medication use in paediatric care, as well as current progress and provide suggestions for building knowledge within paediatric pharmacovigilance to be used to minimise patient harm. The continuous development in children constitutes a challenge to prescribing and administering age-suitable doses for individual children. Children are not only different from adults but differ vastly within their own age group. Physical growth during childhood is apparent to the eye, but less obvious is the ongoing maturation of organ function important for drug disposition and action. Systematic issues such as medication errors, off-label use and the lack of age-suitable formulations are considerable obstacles for safe medication use in paediatrics. The recognition of emerging adverse drug reactions could be more challenging in developing children. Initiatives to improve the situation have been made by the WHO and regulators in the USA and EU. Age-specific changes in physiology, pharmacology and psychology, as well as systematic issues specific for children need to be considered in the work of assessing spontaneous reports in children. Pharmacovigilance needs to broaden its aims considerably beyond merely capturing new associations between drugs and events, and encompass careful collection on patient characteristics and circumstances around the reported adverse drug reaction to provide essential information that will give clues on how to prevent harm to children. PMID:24446277

  17. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. PMID:25869185

  18. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children.

  19. Children as service users of a children's centre.

    PubMed

    James, Joan

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish what is important to pre-school children as service users of a children's centre. This research was conducted as part of a range of service users' perspectives in one inner city children's centre. This study shows that young children as service users are capable of contributing their views. The participants enjoyed private spaces. Nature and the environment were important to these children, as was watching their friends playing happily A mosaic approach was used in this qualitative study of five children aged three to four years. The mosaic approach uses observation and interviewing with participatory use of cameras by the children. It is a strengths-based approach, which extends to all children irrespective of ability and background. If adults are to understand children they need to look for opportunities for their voices to be heard.

  20. Children's recognition of pride.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Darren J; Janis, Rebecca; Flom, Ross

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine when children identify their own experience as one of pride after they complete a difficult and competitive task (i.e., race a confederate in building a tower of blocks). A sample of 144 children between 3 and 6 years of age participated in one of three conditions. Children were told to try to build a tower of blocks taller than a confederate's tower (exceed standard) or tried and failed to build a tower of blocks taller than the confederate's tower (fail standard), or children were asked to build a tower of blocks alongside a confederate (no standard). Results revealed a developmental progression of recognizing pride in which children first began showing nonverbal behaviors that were reliably coded as conveying pride at around 4 years of age. Children began to apply the label/term "pride" to a photograph conveying pride in another peer at around 4 years of age and recognized their own experience as one of pride following a competitive task at around 5 years of age. PMID:25951088

  1. Children's recognition of pride.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Darren J; Janis, Rebecca; Flom, Ross

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine when children identify their own experience as one of pride after they complete a difficult and competitive task (i.e., race a confederate in building a tower of blocks). A sample of 144 children between 3 and 6 years of age participated in one of three conditions. Children were told to try to build a tower of blocks taller than a confederate's tower (exceed standard) or tried and failed to build a tower of blocks taller than the confederate's tower (fail standard), or children were asked to build a tower of blocks alongside a confederate (no standard). Results revealed a developmental progression of recognizing pride in which children first began showing nonverbal behaviors that were reliably coded as conveying pride at around 4 years of age. Children began to apply the label/term "pride" to a photograph conveying pride in another peer at around 4 years of age and recognized their own experience as one of pride following a competitive task at around 5 years of age.

  2. Outcast England. How Schools Exclude Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Jenny; And Others

    The number of black children "excluded" each month from schools in England and Wales is greatly out of proportion to their relative enrollment. Exclusion includes suspension for a fixed or indefinite term or expulsion from a particular school, and can include in-school exclusions of isolation. The term "black children" is taken to include various…

  3. Children's Books: Awards and Prizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Margaret, Comp.

    This document is a compilation of honors awarded in the children's book field by organizations, schools, universities, publishers, and newspapers. Major international and foreign awards of English speaking countries are included. The awards are arranged alphabetically. Each award entry includes a brief history of the award and a list of all…

  4. Preschool Children's Informal Division Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins-Knabe, Belinda

    The purpose of this study was to examine the division procedures of preschool children to determine whether such procedures involved one-to-one correspondence. Large and small numerosity trials were included so that the amount of effort and ease of using other procedures would vary. Odd and even number trials were included to determine whether…

  5. Hydrocephalus in children.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Limbrick, David D; Warf, Benjamin C

    2016-02-20

    Hydrocephalus is a common disorder of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) physiology resulting in abnormal expansion of the cerebral ventricles. Infants commonly present with progressive macrocephaly whereas children older than 2 years generally present with signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension. The classic understanding of hydrocephalus as the result of obstruction to bulk flow of CSF is evolving to models that incorporate dysfunctional cerebral pulsations, brain compliance, and newly characterised water-transport mechanisms. Hydrocephalus has many causes. Congenital hydrocephalus, most commonly involving aqueduct stenosis, has been linked to genes that regulate brain growth and development. Hydrocephalus can also be acquired, mostly from pathological processes that affect ventricular outflow, subarachnoid space function, or cerebral venous compliance. Treatment options include shunt and endoscopic approaches, which should be individualised to the child. The long-term outcome for children that have received treatment for hydrocephalus varies. Advances in brain imaging, technology, and understanding of the pathophysiology should ultimately lead to improved treatment of the disorder. PMID:26256071

  6. Neuropathic pain in children.

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard F; Wiener, Suzanne; Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP), due to a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system, is not well documented or researched in children. NP is a clinical diagnosis that can be difficult, especially in younger children. Nevertheless, it is important to recognise NP, as pain mechanisms and consequently management and prognosis differ from other types of long-term pain. NP is common in adult pain clinics but many of the underlying disease states in which it occurs are infrequently or never encountered in paediatric practice. However, NP in childhood has been reported, even in the very young in certain clinical situations. Causes of NP include traumatic injury, complex regional pain syndrome type II, cancer and chemotherapy, chronic infection, neurological and metabolic disease, and inherited sensory nerve dysfunction. The clinical and laboratory study of traumatic peripheral nerve injury has revealed important age-related differences in clinical presentation and prognosis. It is clear that mechanisms operating during development can profoundly modify the consequences of nerve damage and NP. Clinically, diagnosis, assessment and treatment of NP are based on methods and evidence derived from data in adults. Improvements in the understanding and management of NP are likely to come from developmentally appropriate improvements in the clarity and consistency of diagnosis and systematic, well-researched approaches to treatment.

  7. Mesenteric cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Chung, M A; Brandt, M L; St-Vil, D; Yazbeck, S

    1991-11-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare intraabdominal lesions of childhood that may vary in presentation from an asymptomatic mass to an acute abdomen. From 1970 to 1990, 15 children were diagnosed and treated for mesenteric cysts at Ste Justine Hospital in Montreal. The ages ranged from birth to 18 years (average age, 6 years). There were 9 boys and 6 girls. Ten patients required emergency surgery and five underwent elective surgery. The main presenting symptom was abdominal pain. Ten patients had preoperative ultrasounds that were diagnostic for a cystic mass in all patients. The second most frequent preoperative diagnosis was appendicitis. The cysts were located in the small bowel mesentery in 5 cases, the base of the mesentery with retroperitoneal extension in 4 cases, the transverse mesocolon in 4 cases, and the gastrocolic ligament in 2 cases. Operative procedures performed included complete cyst excision (9 patients), complete excision with intestinal resection (5 patients), and drainage of the cyst (1 patient). The only recurrence in this series occurred after drainage. One other patient had recurrence of a mesenteric cyst following resection performed elsewhere. Mesenteric cysts are rare in children, are usually symptomatic, and are most commonly misdiagnosed as acute appendicitis. Accurate preoperative diagnosis is possible with current ultrasonographic imaging techniques. Complete cyst resection is the procedure of choice and results in an excellent outcome.

  8. Self Representation in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the roles of mental age, social interaction, and communication in self-representation abilities, typically-developing children were compared with children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Typically-developing children (TD, n = 66) and children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, n = 20), including subgroups of autistic disorder…

  9. Families of Children with Mental Retardation: Effective Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    This paper discuses the findings of a research study that compared 191 families of children with spina bifida and 145 families of children with mental retardation. Findings include: (1) mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD) perceived that they experienced more poor health/mood problems than the mothers of children with Spina…

  10. Possibilities and Quandaries for Young Children's Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Concepts of children's citizenship are highly contested. Contemporary policy and rhetoric increasingly includes the concept of citizenship in relation to children, yet there is considerable ambiguity as to what children's citizenship actually means. Unlike other marginalized groups, it is not children claiming citizenship rights…

  11. Connecting Children's eCulture to Curriculum: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverick, Deanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits of including "children's eCulture" in school curricula. "Children's eCulture" is the culture of children as it relates to electronics and technology. Integrating children's eCulture into formal learning experiences allows teachers to promote multiple literacies in their students. The article will describe the…

  12. Make Kids Count: The State of Arizona's Children, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgins, Elizabeth; Naimark, Dana Wolfe

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends between 1990 and 1998 in the well-being of Arizona's children. The statistical portrait is based on several indicators of well-being, including: (1) children in poverty; (2) babies born at risk; (3) children in families receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF); (4) children in…

  13. Effects of Misleading Postevent Information on Children's Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz-Kenney, Beth M.; Buford, Katherine B.

    This study examined the influence of misleading information on children's memory of a real-life event. After participating in a play session, 10 three-year-old children and 10 six-year-old children heard a narrative that included inaccurate information about the play session. The children were then presented with items from the play session (event…

  14. Children's Voice. Volume 15, Number 5, September/October 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Steven S., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    By publishing a diverse range of views on a wide array of topics, "Children's Voice" seeks to encourage public discussion and debate among those who are committed to helping children and families. "Children's Voice" is published bimonthly by the Child Welfare League of America. This issue of "Children's Voice" includes: (1) Defining Family:…

  15. Parental Communication of Trauma among Children of Holocaust Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorscher, Nechama; Cohen, Lisa J.

    The effect of parental Holocaust trauma on children's Jewish identity and Holocaust-related ideation was investigated through comparison of children of survivors with children of American Jews. The role of possible mediating factors, (the quality of parental communication style) was also assessed. Subjects included 40 adult children of Jewish…

  16. Sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Ward, Teresa; Mason, Thornton B A

    2002-12-01

    Sleep disorders are common in childhood, and may affect multiple aspects of a child's life and the lives of other family members. A sleep disorder assessment should begin with detailed sleep history and a review of interrelated health issues. Factors contributing to disturbed sleep may be discovered or confirmed by a thorough physical examination. Thereafter, appropriate ancillary testing can provide support for a specific clinical diagnosis. The spectrum of childhood sleep disorders includes OSA, narcolepsy, RLS/PLMD, sleep onset association disorder, and parasomnias. Diagnosing sleep disorders in children remains a challenge; however, a multidisciplinary approach may provide an opportunity for productive collaboration and, thereby, more effective patient management. Centers treating pediatric sleep disorders may include providers from a variety of disciplines in pediatric healthcare, such as child psychology, pulmonology, neurology, psychiatry, nursing, and otolaryngology. Over the last decade, research in pediatric sleep disorders has expanded greatly, paralleled by an increased awareness of the importance of adequate, restorative sleep in childhood. PMID:12587368

  17. A Comparison of Coping Strategies Used by Parents of Children with Disabilities and Parents of Children without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paster, Angela; Brandwein, David; Walsh, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether coping strategies differ in parents of children with disabilities and parents of children without disabilities. Participants consisted of 112 parents, including 50 parents of children with disabilities and 62 parents of children without disabilities. It was hypothesized that coping strategies…

  18. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  19. Subtypes of Aggression in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Medication Effects and Comparison with Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Corkum, Penny V.; Jacques, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    We examined aggressive behavior in 6- to 12-year-old children, including 20 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on stimulant medication, 19 children with ADHD on placebo (n = 19), and 32 controls. Children completed a laboratory provocation task designed to measure hostile, instrumental, reactive, and proactive…

  20. Common visual problems in children with disability

    PubMed Central

    Salt, Alison; Sargent, Jenefer

    2014-01-01

    Children with disability are at a substantially higher risk of visual impairment (VI) (10.5% compared with 0.16%) but also of ocular disorders of all types, including refractive errors and strabismus. The aetiology of VI in children with disability reflects that of the general population and includes cerebral VI, optic atrophy, as well as primary visual disorders such as retinal dystrophies and structural eye anomalies. VI and other potentially correctable ocular disorders may not be recognised without careful assessment and are frequently unidentified in children with complex needs. Although assessment may be more challenging than in other children, identifying these potential additional barriers to learning and development may be critical. There is a need to develop clearer guidelines, referral pathways and closer working between all professionals involved in the care of children with disability and visual disorders to improve our focus on the assessment of vision and outcomes for children with disability. PMID:25165073

  1. Gardening with Children: My Summers at Beanstalk Children's Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoecklin, Vicki L.

    2009-01-01

    There has been increased interest in recent years on gardening with children and a variety of programs have been started to support different types of programmatic goals. Goals of gardening programs include environmental stewardship, personal growth/social skills, an integrated learning environment, nutrition/health, science education, practical…

  2. Social Adjustment and Personality Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Merrill; And Others

    This book describes a series of studies included in a 5-year program of research on the social adjustment of school children in the third through sixth grades. The sample consists of a total of 40,000 children from Texas and Minnesota, including a small subsample of 5,000 used in a 4-year longitudinal study. Peer acceptance-rejection scores…

  3. Research You Can Use: Marketing to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines marketing literature for profit-oriented organizations and discusses how those principles can be applied to public library services for children. Topics addressed include children as a source of revenue; market research; product development; promotion; retailing; and implications for public libraries, including population trends and…

  4. Deception of children in research.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this article is to draw attention to an under-recognised but ethically important phenomenon involving the deception of children in research. The type of deception we are referring to is not planned deception that is part of the research design. Instead it is deception that occurs in individual cases where parents ask researchers not to reveal something about the research to their child. Our focus is children who do not have ultimate decisional authority--children around the ages of 7-14 years old who may have the cognitive capacity to understand but not to consent for themselves; children whose agreement is required but not sufficient to authorise research. We provide three illustrative scenarios for analysis. Then, we identify circumstances in which non-disclosure might be justified and set out reasons why providing information to non-competent children is ethically required. On this basis, we argue that non-planned deception requested by parents is very unlikely to be ethically acceptable. Finally, we recommend that guidelines should (a) require researchers to consider what to do if parents do not want to disclose information to a child and (b) clarify that the most ethical response is to simply not include that child in the research.

  5. Anaesthesia and recently vaccinated children.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, J H; Roberton, D M

    1996-01-01

    Most countries have active vaccination programmes for children aged two months and older. It is likely that many children presenting for medical procedures which require general anaesthesia have been vaccinated recently. Although there is no evidence suggesting increased risks associated with anaesthetizing recently vaccinated children there are many theoretical reasons why this situation needs critical assessment and review. After vaccination there is local swelling and pain at the site of the injection and the most common side effects seen are fever, malaise, headache, rash and myalgia which may last from one day to three weeks. Anaesthesia, stress and trauma are known to suppress the immune system. It is suggested that if possible, children should not be subjected to anaesthesia for elective procedures within two to three weeks after vaccination. Urgent procedures should be managed according to anaesthetic principles which will minimize the effect of anaesthesia on the physiological system affected by the immunization process at the time. Paediatric anaesthesia risk management programmes should include vaccination data to enable the risks of anaesthesia in recently vaccinated children to be analysed.

  6. Children's knowledge and beliefs about medicines.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Omar Thanoon; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Abdullah, Anna Christina

    2015-03-01

    Minor illnesses in children are often cured at home with over the counter medicines. Even though there is a wide use of medicines among children, they rarely receive medical advice about their medications from doctors or pharmacists. The aim of this study is to evaluate children's beliefs about medicines as well as to explain what children know about medicines. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from four primary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. The target population of this research was schoolchildren of 11 and 12 years old regardless of their gender and social status. A self-administration questionnaire was used to obtain the data from schoolchildren and their parents. After including all schoolchildren in grades five and six, the total sample size was 1000 children in addition to 1000 parents. This study found that most children have inadequate knowledge and false beliefs about the efficacy of medicines. Children's beliefs about the efficacy of medicines were affected by their age group, gender and race (p < .05). Females, older children and Chinese were more knowledgeable about the efficacy of medicines. Furthermore, the socio-economic status, parents' education level and parents' occupation influenced children's beliefs about medicines (p < .001). This study showed that children have misconception about medicines. The need for medicine education should be implemented to get more knowledgeable users of medicines in future. However, the role of health-care professional should be increased in terms of medicine education.

  7. Diabetic neuropathy in children.

    PubMed

    Mah, Jean K; Pacaud, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide burden of diabetes and its complications in children continues to increase due to the rise in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although overt diabetic neuropathy is rarely present in children and adolescents with diabetes, subclinical diabetic neuropathy has been estimated to occur in approximately half of all children with type 1 diabetes with a duration of 5 years or longer and up to 25% of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed diabetes have abnormal findings on nerve conduction studies. The present review on the state of pediatric diabetic neuropathy covers the definition, prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, risk factors, and possible treatment approaches specific to children and adolescents with diabetes. It also highlights the many unknowns in this field. Nonetheless, new emerging interventions that can either prevent or delay the progression of diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications may become available in the near future. Until specific interventions for diabetic neuropathy are available for use in children, it will be hard to justify screening for neuropathy other than through clinical assessment. Meanwhile, the search for quicker, easily administered, and quantifiable tests for diabetic neuropathy and efforts to establish valid pediatric norms for well-established measures used in adults will need to continue.

  8. Micafungin use in children.

    PubMed

    Emiroglu, Melike

    2011-09-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are one of the major reasons for morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised children. The majority of IFIs are caused by Candida and Aspergillus species. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy is essential for favorable outcome. Micafungin is a member of the echinocandins, a novel class of antifungal agents that target the biosynthesis of β-1,3-D-glucan, a key fungal cell wall component. It has concentration-dependent fungicidal activity against Candida species and fungistatic activity against Aspergillus species. Although optimal dosing of micafungin in children has not been established, the recommended dosage in children is 2 mg/kg/day (100 mg/day if >40 kg bodyweight) for invasive candidiasis, 1 mg/kg/day (50 mg/day if >40 kg bodyweight) for the prophylaxis of Candida infections in patients with anticipated prolonged and severe neutropenia or in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Micafungin has a favorable safety and drug-drug interaction profile. The most common adverse effects in children are diarrhea, epistaxis, abdominal pain, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills, elevation of alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase values, hypokalemia, thrombocytopenia, mucositis, and rash. Because of its different mechanisms of action, micafungin shows promise as part of the prophylactic and therapeutic management of IFIs, but larger prospective and comparative trials are needed for widespread use in children. PMID:21905789

  9. Epilepsy in children.

    PubMed

    Arnold, S T; Dodson, W E

    1996-12-01

    Childhood epilepsies comprise a broad range of disorders which vary from benign to progressive and disabling. Accurate diagnosis of epilepsy type and determination of aetiology, when possible, are essential for appropriate treatment. The most common seizure type encountered in children is febrile seizures. These represent a benign condition which is not, in fact, epilepsy and usually does not require antiepileptic medication. When partial seizures occur in childhood, benign syndromes with spontaneous remission, such as rolandic epilepsy, must be distinguished from symptomatic epilepsies which may be refractory to medical management. Complex partial seizures in young children may appear different than in adults. The adverse effect profiles and dosing regimens of antiepileptic drugs in children are also different than in adults, and influence the choice of treatment. Epilepsy surgery should be considered for some children with intractible partial seizures. Generalized epilepsies also have a broader spectrum in children. The idiopathic generalized absence epilepsies are usually easy to control with medication. They range from childhood absence epilepsy which tends to remit in adolescence to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy which is a lifelong condition. In contrast, the seizures of West syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome are difficult to control, and treatment involves therapeutic modalities rarely used in adults such as ACTH and the ketogenic diet. Many childhood epilepsy syndromes have a familial predisposition, and the genetic bases for several disorders have been described.

  10. Fusobacterium infections in children

    PubMed Central

    Arane, Karen; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Question A 2-year-old patient in my practice with acute otitis media that has progressed to mastoiditis with a high fever returns with positive culture results for Fusobacterium. What should I do next? Answer Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic bacteria. Although Fusobacterium infections are rare, they can become severe if not treated promptly. Appropriate treatment is combination antibiotic therapy consisting of a β-lactam (penicillin, cephalosporin) and an anaerobic antimicrobial agent (metronidazole, clindamycin). At times surgical involvement is required for mastoiditis such as drainage of abscesses or insertion of a ventilation tube. Delayed treatment of an infection caused by Fusobacterium can lead to serious complications, including Lemierre syndrome. Children should be seen in a hospital for close monitoring. PMID:27737977

  11. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  12. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status.

  13. Metabolic syndrome in children (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yue-E; Zhang, Chong-Lin; Zhen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and increased blood pressure. The prevalence of MetS is on the increase worldwide owing to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. The risk of prevalence of MetS greatly increases during adulthood for those children exposed to cardiometabolic risk factors in their early lives. MetS has also been associated with liver fat accumulation in children. Elevated levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase have been associated with liver fat accumulation. The present review aimed to expand knowledge on the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors responsible for the widespread occurrence of metabolic disease in children. PMID:27698739

  14. Metabolic syndrome in children (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yue-E; Zhang, Chong-Lin; Zhen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and increased blood pressure. The prevalence of MetS is on the increase worldwide owing to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. The risk of prevalence of MetS greatly increases during adulthood for those children exposed to cardiometabolic risk factors in their early lives. MetS has also been associated with liver fat accumulation in children. Elevated levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase have been associated with liver fat accumulation. The present review aimed to expand knowledge on the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors responsible for the widespread occurrence of metabolic disease in children.

  15. Improving Educational Opportunities for Low-Income Children. Hearing on Examining Proposals to Improve Educational Opportunities for Low-Income Children, Including Provisions of S. 847, to Provide Scholarship Assistance for District of Columbia Elementary and Secondary School Students, Hearing of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources met to hear two panels of witnesses discuss improving educational opportunities for low-income children, including provisions of Senate 847, to provide scholarship assistance for District of Columbia elementary and secondary school students. Opening remarks by Senators Coats, Lieberman, Reed, and…

  16. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  17. Children of Exiles and Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Ana

    1979-01-01

    Calls attention to problems faced by children of exiles and immigrants as they attend school in places other than their countries of origin. Major problems include problems communicating in the language of the host country, culture shock, inability to readjust patterns of behavior, and inability to preserve an authentic model of their original…

  18. Helping Children with Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgington, Ruth; And Others

    Intended for parents helping their children with reading disabilities, the book describes specific activities in eight areas. The eight areas include general suggestions for the study period, hand and eye coordination activities, phonics training, ear training, reading, relaxation activities, muscle memory, writing, and spelling. Thirteen…

  19. Fact Sheet: Vulnerable Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…

  20. Preschool Curriculum for Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley-Saur, Cheryl

    The curriculum guide for use with preschool handicapped children provides 28 activity units as well as general teaching suggestions. An initial section covers ideas for adapting activities to specific handicapping conditions including the visually impaired, hearing impaired, physically handicapped, and mentally disabled. Subsections also cover…

  1. Promoting Creativity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses creativity in young children and what teachers can do to support and promote it. Topics addressed in the paper include: (1) teacher interest in promoting creativity; (2) defining creativity; (3) creativity in the socioemotional domain; (4) the relationship between creativity and empathy for others; (4) bibliotherapy; (5)…

  2. Czech Children's Drawing of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Zuhal; Kubiatko, Milan; Topal, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    Do world children draw nature pictures in a certain way? Range of mountains in the background, a sun, couple clouds, a river rising from mountains. Is this type of drawing universal in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper? The sample size from Czech Republic included 33 participants from two kindergartens. They were 5 and 6…

  3. Ecological Stewardship and Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHardy, Roberta J.; Blanchard, Pamela B.; de Wet, Catharina F.

    2009-01-01

    In even the earliest studies of giftedness in young children (Burks, Jensen, & Terman, 1930; Hollingworth, 1926), researchers noted distinct character traits among gifted students, which included global awareness, sensitivity to complex issues, and a tendency to worry about injustice and dangers that often are beyond a child's control. Dabrowski…

  4. Creative Interventions with Traumatized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malchiodi, Cathy A., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Rich with case material and artwork samples, this volume demonstrates a range of creative approaches for facilitating children's emotional reparation and recovery from trauma. Contributors include experienced practitioners of play, art, music, movement and drama therapies, bibliotherapy, and integrative therapies, who describe step-by-step…

  5. The Environment: Our Children's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Articles collected in this issue of UNICEF News deal with different aspects of the theme of the child and its environment. Specifically, topics covered include (1) awareness of the kind of world our children will inherit; (2) the survival of an urban child; (3) the survival of a Sahelian rural child as a working member of his farming community;…

  6. PROVIDING EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POTTS, ALFRED M.; REDBIRD, HELEN M.

    SINCE 1955 THE COLORADO STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION HAS OPERATED A PROGRAM OF SUMMER SCHOOLS FOR THE CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. IN 1957 A 3-YEAR STUDY WAS FOUNDED TO INVESTIGATE "THE IMPROVEMENT OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION TO MEET THE NEEDS OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS." HEREIN ARE INCLUDED DISCUSSIONS OF THE PROBLEMS…

  7. Children, Pediatricians, and Polluted Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    Explored are children's vulnerability and the pediatrician's role in relation to the problems posed by air pollution. Research is noted to have included a search of biomedical literature over the past 10 years; attendance at medical meetings; conferences with air pollution researchers, environmental protection administrators, and specialists in…

  8. Teaching Young Children Self-Regulation through Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Patricia M.

    2007-01-01

    Today's emphasis on using children's literature as a tool to teach reading and writing sub-skills distracts teachers' attention from looking to children's books for their historical role in helping children navigate the intellectual, social, and emotional terrains of childhood. This article argues, first, that early childhood educators must remain…

  9. Making Playgrounds Fit for Children and Children Fit for Playgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutterby, John A.; Frost, Joe L.

    2002-01-01

    Warns about a potential epidemic of obesity among children in the United States and urges early childhood practitioners to provide outdoor play that increases children's physical activity, muscle strength, and coordination. Maintains that playgrounds should offer a variety of equipment that challenges children at different ability levels. Asserts…

  10. Conflict Strategies: Parents with Children and Children with Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockenberg, Susan; Lourie, Andrea

    A study investigated whether parents' use of power-assertive or negotiating strategies to resolve conflicts with children predicted children's psychosocial adjustment and use of comparable strategies with peers. The study also determined whether children's behavior with mothers at 2 years of age predicted their behavior with peers at age 6. The…

  11. A call to improve the validity of criterion-based content analysis (CBCA): Results from a field-based study including 60 children's statements of sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Welle, Ida; Berclaz, Michel; Lacasa, Marie-Josée; Niveau, Gérard

    2016-10-01

    The growing awareness of sexually-abused children has led to a major shift: previously considered untrustworthy, children are now regarded as competent in providing medico-legal evidence. Professionals undertaking the challenging task of assessing the child's credibility need to rely upon approved evaluation methods. The Criteria-Based Content Analysis is a tool developed to assess the truthfulness of a child's verbal statement. This field-based study explores its validity and its limitations. Three independent experts rated the verbatim statements of 60 real-life alleged victims of sexual abuse. The CBCA scoring and final assessment of credibility were linked to the outcomes: confirmed or unconfirmed allegation of sexual abuse. Inter-rater reliability coefficient was 0.74. The average overall accuracy rate corresponding to confirmed and unconfirmed cases was 75%. Among the confirmed allegations, the accuracy rate reached 90%, whereas the probability of discriminating the true negative cases within the unconfirmed cases was lower than chance level. Of all the 19 criteria, items 6 "Reproduction of conversation" and 12 "Accounts of subjective mental state" were the strongest predictors of genuine accounts. A significant association between age and CBCA scores was noted, the effect of age on CBCA scores was strongest in the unconfirmed cases. Although some may argue that the validity of the CBCA is reasonably acceptable, results from this field study are less convincing. Increasing the diagnostic accuracy of the CBCA by adding new criteria, so as to raise the percentage of correct classifications in the confirmed accounts as well as in the unconfirmed accounts, would represent a major improvement. PMID:27570234

  12. A call to improve the validity of criterion-based content analysis (CBCA): Results from a field-based study including 60 children's statements of sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Welle, Ida; Berclaz, Michel; Lacasa, Marie-Josée; Niveau, Gérard

    2016-10-01

    The growing awareness of sexually-abused children has led to a major shift: previously considered untrustworthy, children are now regarded as competent in providing medico-legal evidence. Professionals undertaking the challenging task of assessing the child's credibility need to rely upon approved evaluation methods. The Criteria-Based Content Analysis is a tool developed to assess the truthfulness of a child's verbal statement. This field-based study explores its validity and its limitations. Three independent experts rated the verbatim statements of 60 real-life alleged victims of sexual abuse. The CBCA scoring and final assessment of credibility were linked to the outcomes: confirmed or unconfirmed allegation of sexual abuse. Inter-rater reliability coefficient was 0.74. The average overall accuracy rate corresponding to confirmed and unconfirmed cases was 75%. Among the confirmed allegations, the accuracy rate reached 90%, whereas the probability of discriminating the true negative cases within the unconfirmed cases was lower than chance level. Of all the 19 criteria, items 6 "Reproduction of conversation" and 12 "Accounts of subjective mental state" were the strongest predictors of genuine accounts. A significant association between age and CBCA scores was noted, the effect of age on CBCA scores was strongest in the unconfirmed cases. Although some may argue that the validity of the CBCA is reasonably acceptable, results from this field study are less convincing. Increasing the diagnostic accuracy of the CBCA by adding new criteria, so as to raise the percentage of correct classifications in the confirmed accounts as well as in the unconfirmed accounts, would represent a major improvement.

  13. Rhinosinusitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Sukhbir K.

    2012-01-01

    Rhinosinusitis is the inflammation of the mucous membranes of nose and paranasal sinus(es). 5–13% of upper respiratory tract infections in children complicate into acute rhinosinusitis. Though not life threatening, it profoundly affects child's school performance and sleep pattern. If untreated, it could progress to chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The pathogens involved in perpetuation of CRS consist of multidrug-resistant mixed microflora. CRS is challenging to manage and could further extend to cause eye or intracranial complications. In children, CRS diagnosis is often either missed or incomprehensive. Due to this, morbidity and strain on healthcare budget are tremendous. Flexible fiberoptic endoscopy has revolutionized management of CRS. Its utility in children is being increasingly recognized. Optimal management entails specific appropriate antimicrobials as well as treatment of underlying causes. The aim is to normalize sinus anatomy and physiology and regain normal mucociliary function and clearance. PMID:23762621

  14. Help for Crippled Children

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy have nervous system defects which lead to muscular spasticity and loss of coordination. Many of these children have great difficulty walking because certain muscles are in a constant state of contraction. Surgical techniques can lengthen muscles or tendons to improve the child's walking pattern, but it is vital to diagnose accurately the particular spasticity problem of each patient; the individual muscles causing the handicap vary greatly from child to child. It is difficult by physical examination alone to determine precisely which muscle groups are most involved. Biotelemetry has provided a solution. For the past two years, the Children's Hospital at Standord, assisted by NASA and the Stanford Biomedical Application Team, has been applying biotelemetry to the cerebral palsy problem.

  15. Allergies in children

    PubMed Central

    Chad, Zave

    2001-01-01

    Allergic diseases in children have increased significantly in recent years and now affect up to 35% of children. They are a major cause of morbidity in children. Although there is a genetic predisposition, it is the exposure to environmental allergens, irritants and infections that will determine the sensitization to different dietary and inhalant allergens. As the genetic and environmental factors that act on an immature cellular immune system are better elucidated and their roles established, the implementation of more enduring preventive efforts will be developed. However, at present, the best approach to the child at high risk for the development of allergies is to institute dietary and environmental control measures early to decrease sensitization, and to recognize and appropriately treat the evolving signs and symptoms of allergic disease. PMID:20084126

  16. Vegetarian diets and children.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Reddy, S

    1994-05-01

    The diets and growth of children reared on vegetarian diets are reviewed. Excessive bulk combined with low energy density can be a problem for children aged < or = 5 y and can lead to imparied growth. Diets that have a high content of phytate and other modifiers of mineral absorption are associated with an increased prevalence of rickets and iron-deficiency anemia. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is a real hazard in unsupplemented or unfortified vegan and vegetarian diets. It is suggested that vegans and vegetarians should use oils with a low ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid in view of the recently recognized role of docosahexaenoic acid in visual functioning. If known pitfalls are avoided, the growth and development of children reared on both vegan and vegetarian diets appears normal.

  17. [Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in children].

    PubMed

    Cubelić, Sandra; Misak, Zrinjka; Gasparov, Slavko; Kolacek, Sanja

    2004-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) occurs not only in adults but also in children. NASH is diagnosed in obese children with increased aminotranspherases, characteristic ultrasonography and typical percutneous liver biopsy (fat vacuoles in hepatocytes, different stages of inflammation with or without liver fibrosis) when other possible causes of steatosis are excluded. It is important to diagnose NASH and start the treatment as early as possible in order to prevent irreversible liver damage. The first line therapy consists of reduction of body weight by low-calorie diet and exercising. Ursodeoxycholic acid has been used as adjuvant therapy mainly in adults, and vitamin E also in children. We presented 5 cases with NASH (2 girls, 3 boys; age 11-15 years). All were obese and had increased transaminases, and ultrasonography and liver biopsy typical for NASH. With low-calorie diet in all our patients BMI declined, symptoms vanished and transaminases decreased (in two patients transaminases normalized).

  18. Total colonoscopy in children.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C. B.; Laage, N. J.; Campbell, C. A.; Douglas, J. R.; Walker-Smith, J. A.; Booth, I. W.; Harries, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-three total colonoscopies were performed on 115 children with ages ranging from 3 months to 16 years. The major indications were suspected inflammatory bowel disease and unexplained rectal bleeding. Ninety-seven per cent of all procedures were carried out with sedation only. Adult colonoscopes were used in most of the patients but in babies and small children paediatric instruments were preferable. Total colonoscopy was possible in all patients with a patent colon. The terminal ileum was examined in 63 patients. Endoscopic snare polypectomy was successfully carried out in 8 children and multiple haemangiomas were electrocoagulated in one. Total colonoscopy in this paediatric series proved to be at least as easy, rapid, well-tolerated, and safe as in adults. In selected patients as single colonoscopy can give an accurate diagnosis with biopsy proof and sometimes the opportunity for definitive treatment. PMID:7065694

  19. War, terrorism, and children.

    PubMed

    DeRanieri, Joseph T; Clements, Paul T; Clark, Kathleen; Kuhn, Douglas Wolcik; Manno, Martin S

    2004-04-01

    Many caregivers are encountering the issue of communicating with children and adolescents about current world events, specifically war and terrorism. As health care providers, it is important to raise awareness of how children may understand, interpret, and respond to related fears and concerns. Although honesty and reassurance are clearly the best approach, it is important to provide information that is developmentally appropriate. Providing education and guidance can reduce stress and enhance understanding of the chaotic events confronting our nation. It also provides a platform for communication and exploration should additional terrorist attacks or acts of war occur. It is important to examine how to approach children and adolescents to communicate with them about these sensitive issues.

  20. Tourette's Syndrome in Children.

    PubMed

    Swain, James E.; Leckman, James F.

    2003-07-01

    This paper will provide a review of the Tourette's syndrome (TS) in children, focusing on treatment options, including a drug-by-drug evaluation of available pharmacologic agents and other treatments. Despite increasing knowledge of the neurophysiologic basis of the tics of TS, ideal and universally effective treatments do not yet exist. Affected children may present a wide variety of phenotypes, which are best managed in a case-by-case manner, with the well-informed patient and family weighing the risks and benefits of interventions together with a knowledgeable and committed clinician. The clinician treating TS will encounter a wide range of tic severity, comorbidity, adherence to treatment, and treatment response. The clinician's most important task is to identify the main sources of distress and impairment, and set priorities for their management. Common treatment may involve education and reassurance, psychosocial and school interventions, and choices from an array of pharmacologic agents. Decisions regarding treatment ought to be made collaboratively with the clinician and family, after a careful discussion of symptom extent and severity, psychosocial impact, desired outcome, and realistic treatment expectations and side effects. Given the waxing and waning course of tics in TS, clinicians often monitor each patient for several weeks before starting a somatic treatment, based on a judgement that even when tics are at their best, they are severe enough to warrant pharmacotherapy. With children for whom the decision has been taken to target tics with medication, the authors recommend beginning with guanfacine or clonidine, especially when there are any hyperactivity symptoms. The next choice would be a low-dose neuroleptic. Patience and close ongoing monitoring of efficacy and side effects is necessary, whenever a clinical trial of medications is undertaken, to achieve an acceptable balance between tic control and side effects. Treatments should be targeted at

  1. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... many reasons for slow growth and below-average height in children. At times, slow growth is normal ... same age Signs of GHD • Slowed growth in height in infants, children, or adolescents (teenagers) • A young- ...

  2. Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  3. Triple-Packaged Children's Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierini, Paul Francis

    1984-01-01

    Describes Holy Names College's Children's Theatre program for children in underprivileged areas. The program consists of a "What-to-Look-for-in-a-Play" demonstration, the production itself, and creative dramatics sessions arising from the demonstration and production. (DMM)

  4. Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions and Answers about Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents This publication defines scoliosis and provides information about ... it is diagnosed and treated in children and adolescents. You may be interested in contacting one or ...

  5. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... At low doses, these medicines can be excellent pain relievers for some children. A fearful, anxious, or depressed child however should be fully assessed by a psychiatrist or psychologist. Some psychological treatments that help children cope with functional abdominal pain ...

  6. Pain in Children: Assessment and Nonpharmacological Management

    PubMed Central

    Srouji, Rasha; Ratnapalan, Savithiri; Schneeweiss, Suzan

    2010-01-01

    Pain perception in children is complex, and is often difficult to assess. In addition, pain management in children is not always optimized in various healthcare settings, including emergency departments. A review of pain assessment scales that can be used in children across all ages, and a discussion of the importance of pain in control and distraction techniques during painful procedures are presented. Age specific nonpharmacological interventions used to manage pain in children are most effective when adapted to the developmental level of the child. Distraction techniques are often provided by nurses, parents or child life specialists and help in pain alleviation during procedures. PMID:20706640

  7. Children's judgements of social withdrawal behaviours.

    PubMed

    Watling, Dawn

    2015-06-01

    Ding et al. (Brit. J. Dev. Psychol., 2015; 33, 159-173) demonstrated that Chinese children discriminate between the three subtypes of social withdrawal: Shyness, unsociability, and social avoidance. This commentary on the Ding et al.'s paper highlights the need to further explore the following: (1) children's understanding of the implications of being shy, unsociable, or socially avoidant, including assessing these which we know are associated with outcomes for socially withdrawn children; (2) what additional subtypes might exist naturally within the Chinese culture; and (3) consider the implications of social withdrawal on children's developing social skills.

  8. Children describe life after Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Coffman, S

    1994-01-01

    Hurricane Andrew, which devastated the south Florida coast in August 1992, left over 250,000 people homeless with multiple health and social problems. This nursing study explored the experiences of 17 children, ages 5 through 12, who lived in the geographic area of storm damage. Common experiences described by the children included remembering the storm, dealing with after-effects, and reestablishing a new life. In general, children described a sense of strangeness, articulated as "life is weird" after the hurricane. In addition to stressful responses, many positive reactions were described by children in the study, revealing that the disaster also had a maturing effect.

  9. DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN, PART 3: MODELLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was used to model dietary exposure of young children. Parameters included pesticide residue on food before handling, surface pesticide loading, transfer efficiencies and children's activity patterns. Three components of dietary pesticide exposure were includ...

  10. Optics and children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Ayres de Campos, J.; Lira, Madalena; Franco, Sandra; Vazquez-Dorrio, José B.

    2011-01-01

    Light and Optics are subjects that "naturally" attracts the interest and sympathy of children even from very early ages. In this communication, we present a serie of experiments and support material designed in this hands-on perspective, to be used to introduce the study of light and optics to kindergarten and early basic school students. Our hands-on investigative approach leads the students, aged 4 to 10 years, to observe the experiment and discover themselves, in a critical and active way, different aspects of light and optics. Preparing funny eye catching situations and experiments predispose the children to work, effectively, enjoying themselves while building up their self-confidence.

  11. Children, ADHD, and Citizenship

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Elizabeth F.

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a subject of controversy, for a host of reasons. This paper seeks to explore the manner in which children's interests may be subsumed to those of parents, teachers, and society as a whole in the course of diagnosis, treatment, and labeling, utilizing a framework for children's citizenship proposed by Elizabeth Cohen. Additionally, the paper explores aspects of discipline associated with the diagnosis, as well as distributional pathologies resulting from the application of the diagnosis in potentially biased ways. PMID:19251776

  12. [Acute mastoiditis in children].

    PubMed

    Kajosaari, Lauri; Sinkkonen, Saku T; Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Jero, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Acute mastoiditis in children develops when acute otitis media (AOM) spreads into the mastoid air cells inside the temporal bone. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings of AOM with simultaneous signs of infection in the mastoid area. The most common pathogen causing acute mastoiditis in children is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Intravenous antimicrobial medication, tympanostomy and microbial sample are the cornerstones of the treatment. If a complication of mastoiditis is suspected, imaging studies are needed, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging. The most common complication of acute mastoiditis is a subperiosteal abscess. PMID:24660384

  13. Evalulation of thalidomide children.

    PubMed

    Ruffing, L

    1977-01-01

    All children suffering from thalidomide embryopathy should undergo a careful clinical and radiographic follow-up examination. This frequently detects hidden defects, especially of the spine and hip joints. It is clear that defects are frequently present, though unsuspected by the clinical examination. A special problem which needs further investigation is the alteration of the knee joints, which has also often been overlooked; Early osteoarthritis is expected to occur in the future. There is an urgent need for additional study of the general functional capacity and also the manual efficiency of the children under consideration for their occupational integration. We shall be engaged with this problem in future studies.

  14. Subdural empyema in children.

    PubMed

    Hendaus, Mohammed A

    2013-08-14

    Subdural Empyema in infants and children might be life threatening if not managed properly. A search of the Pub Med database was carried out using a combination of the following terms: Subdural empyema, children, and management. Neurosurgical textbooks were reviewed as well. The prevalence, etiology, clinical features, investigations and management of SDE are reviewed in this article. Conservative management with antibiotics and follow up imaging is recommended if there are no focal deficits, change in mental status or if the patient is responding well to antibiotics. Alternatively, craniotomy is warranted in addition to antibiotics therapy. The surgeon might opt for burr holes in case the patient is frail or in septic shock.

  15. Acute sinusitis in children.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2013-04-01

    Acute rhinosinusitis is a common illness in children. Viral upper respiratory tract infection is the most common presentation of rhinosinusitis. Most children resolve the infection spontaneously and only a small proportion develops a secondary bacterial infection. The proper choice of antibiotic therapy depends on the likely infecting pathogens, bacterial antibiotic resistance, and pharmacologic profiles of antibiotics. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is currently recommended as the empiric treatment in those requiring antimicrobial therapy. Isolation of the causative agents should be considered in those who failed the initial treatment. In addition to antibiotics, adjuvant therapies and surgery may be used in the management of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

  16. Herpes zoster in children.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Nathan; Goodman, Seth; Peterson, Michael; Peterson, Warren

    2016-08-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) in immunocompetent children is quite uncommon. Initial exposure to the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may be from a wild-type or vaccine-related strain. Either strain may cause a latent infection and subsequent eruption of HZ. We present a case of HZ in a 15-month-old boy after receiving the varicella vaccination at 12 months of age. A review of the literature regarding the incidence, clinical characteristics, and diagnosis of HZ in children also is provided. PMID:27622252

  17. Abnormal shyness in children.

    PubMed

    Asendorpf, J B

    1993-10-01

    Recent nonclinical studies of children who do not often interact with their peers have identified at least three different kinds of solitude: temperamental shyness, social-evaluative shyness, and unsociability. These kinds of solitude can be clearly distinguished from social nonacceptance. The evidence for the different faces of children's solitude and their situational, age, and cultural specificity is reviewed, and potential implications for clinical child psychology are discussed. Clinical practitioners can profit from a recognition of the multifaceted nature of solitude in childhood. PMID:8245133

  18. Social attachments in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Sigman, M; Mundy, P

    1989-01-01

    Social responses of young autistic children to separation from and reunion with their caregivers did not differ from the social responses to similar situations of young mentally retarded nonautistic children. Most autistic children directed more social behaviors to their caregivers than to strangers and increased their preferential behavior after separation. Individual differences in social responses were not associated with the level of representational skills shown by the autistic children.

  19. Children's and parents' posttraumatic stress reactions after the 2004 tsunami.

    PubMed

    Dyb, Grete; Jensen, Tine K; Nygaard, Egil

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the association between parents' and children's posttraumatic stress reactions after the tsunami disaster in Southeast Asia in 2004. Parents of 319 Norwegian children and adolescents aged 6-18 years reported on children's exposure to the tsunami and children's immediate subjective responses. The Child Stress Disorder Checklist was used to measure children's posttraumatic stress reactions 6-8 months after the tsunami, and the Impact of Event Scale Revised measured parental PTSD. Results indicated that parents' posttraumatic stress reactions significantly predicted PTSD reactions in their children. The strongest association was found for parental intrusive reactions and hyperarousal. Highly exposed children seemed to be more vulnerable to parental distress compared to children with lower levels of exposure. The study demonstrates that parental distress can endure and worsen the impact of a disaster in children. In assessments of trauma-related consequences and in therapeutic work with children clinicians need to expand the focus to include their parents and family.

  20. Astronomy Outreach Activities for Special Needs Children and Their Families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2008-11-01

    While there are outreach programs for the public and for children, there are few programs for special needs children. Here I describe two NASA-IDEAS/STScI funded outreach programs I created for special needs children using telescope observations (including remote observations) and hands-on astronomy activities. The target audience is seriously ill children and their families who are staying at the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island in conjunction the children's medical treatments or children hospitalized at the Children's Medical Center at Winthrop University Hospital. These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. I have also conducted a similar program in camps for special needs children. These programs should be expanded so that special needs children and their families are part of the IYA2009 activities.