Science.gov

Sample records for children increased efficacy

  1. Increased osteopontin levels in children undergoing venom immunotherapy may serve as a marker of clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Süleyman Tolga; Soyer, Ozge U; Sekerel, Bulent E; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Sahiner, Umit Murat; Sackesen, Cansin; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2014-01-01

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) has its effect by modulating various mediators resulting in immune tolerance. The aim of this study was to measure changes in plasma osteopontin (OPN) and serum basal tryptase (sBT) levels over the course of 1 year of VIT in children with venom allergy. Children who suffered from a large local reaction (LLR) or a systemic reaction (SR) after insect stings were included along with control subjects. Measurements were performed before the initiation of VIT and 6 and 12 months after it had been started. A total of 58 children (24 with SR, 18 with LLR and 16 control subjects) with a median age of 9.5 years (range 6.7-12.8) were enrolled. The plasma OPN levels of patients with LLR [median 1,477 ng/ml, interquartile range (IQR) 1,123-1,772] were significantly higher than patients with SR (882 ng/ml, 579-1,086; p < 0.001) and healthy control subjects (1,015 ng/ml, 815-1,203; p = 0.002). A significant increase in plasma OPN levels in children was determined after the 1-year VIT. The sBT levels of children with SR (4.1 ng/ml, 3.6-5.8) were significantly higher than children with LLR (3.1 ng/ml, 2.5-4.0) and control subjects (3.0 ng/ml, 2.9-3.8; p = 0.001). There was no significant change in the sBT levels of the patients after the 1-year VIT. The results of our study showed higher baseline levels of OPN in children with LLR compared to control subjects and children with SR. In children with SR, OPN levels were increased after the 1-year VIT. Our results may suggest a possible association between OPN and successful VIT in children. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Efficacy of increasing physical activity to reduce children's visceral fat: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saelens, Brian E; Grow, H Mollie; Stark, Lori J; Seeley, Randy J; Roehrig, Helmut

    2011-04-01

    To examine whether differentially targeting physical activity within the context of pilot family-based pediatric weight control treatment results in differential change in abdominal fat, particularly visceral fat. Twenty-nine overweight children (>85(th) body mass index [BMI] percentile) and at least one participating parent were randomly assigned to one of two family-based behavioral weight management conditions that either targeted 1) primarily dietary change (STANDARD; n = 15) or 2) dietary plus physical activity change (ADDED; n = 14). Differences at post-treatment in overall child weight status (e.g., BMI), whole-body composition (measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry), and abdominal fat (measured by waist circumference and magnetic resonance imaging) were assessed using intent-to-treat analyses, as were post-treatment parent BMI and waist circumference. Child and parent physical activity and dietary behavior changes were also evaluated. Results. At post-treatment, overall child weight status, whole-body composition, and child dietary measures did not differ by condition. Children in the ADDED condition tended to have higher physical activity and lower visceral abdominal fat at post-treatment relative to children in the STANDARD condition. Increasing physical activity may be important to optimize reductions in abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, among overweight children provided with family-based behavioral weight management treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00359957.

  3. Tailored Education to Increase Self-Efficacy for Caregivers of Children With Asthma: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Iio, Misa; Hamaguchi, Mana; Narita, Masami; Takenaka, Koji; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of a tailored education program using touch-screen computers for caregivers of young children with asthma, aged 0 to 6 years. Fifty-three caregivers (mean age, 36.54 years; 51 mothers and two fathers) were recruited during typical visits to a national children's hospital. Caregivers were assigned randomly to 28 in the tailored education or 25 in the booklet education groups. The tailored education group received messages generated by a computer program, and the researchers provided them with counseling. The booklet education group only received an educational booklet. The primary outcome variable was parental self-efficacy and its subscales (ie, medication behavior, environmental behavior, barriers to self-management, and consultation behavior). The tailored education group showed an increase in barriers to management and asthma knowledge compared with the booklet education group. Over time, caregivers' quality of life improved significantly in both groups. Tailored education programs for caregivers of asthmatic children require further educational content modifications to match the learners' characteristics more closely. This study supports the notion that the development of patient education with tailored computer programs improves parental quality of life of asthma.

  4. Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Scott; McPhee, Julia C; Schluter, Philip J; Zinn, Caryn; Smith, Richard; Schofield, Grant

    2011-11-15

    Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial results.

  5. Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. Methods The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Results Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Conclusions Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial results. PMID:22085440

  6. The effectiveness of parent management training to increase self-efficacy in parents of children with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sofronoff, Kate; Farbotko, Michelle

    2002-09-01

    This study was a trial of an intervention programme aimed to improve parental self-efficacy in the management of problem behaviours associated with Asperger syndrome. The intervention was compared across two formats, a 1 day workshop and six individual sessions, and also with a non-intervention control group. The results indicated that, compared with the control group, parents in both intervention groups reported fewer problem behaviours and increased self-efficacy following the interventions, at both 4 weeks and 3 months follow-up. The results also showed a difference in self-efficacy between mothers and fathers, with mothers reporting a significantly greater increase in self-efficacy following intervention than fathers. There was no significant difference between the workshop format and the individual sessions.

  7. The Effectiveness of Parent Management Training To Increase Self-Efficacy in Parents of Children with Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofronoff, Kate; Farbotko, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    A study compared the effectiveness of a 1-day parent workshop to improve parental self-efficacy in the management of problem behaviors associated with Asperger syndrome and six individual sessions. Parents in both intervention groups reported fewer problem behaviors compared to controls. Mothers reported a significantly greater increase in…

  8. Efficacy of low intensity, therapist-implemented Project ImPACT for increasing social communication skills in young children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke R; Wainer, Allison L; Berger, Natalie I; Walton, Katherine M

    2017-02-02

    Project ImPACT is a Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Intervention (NDBI) for young children with ASD. Preliminary research supports its feasibility and efficacy as a parent-mediated intervention; however, its efficacy as a low-intensity, therapist-implemented intervention is unclear. A single-case, multiple-baseline design evaluated the effect of 2 h per week of therapist-implemented Project ImPACT on social engagement, language, and play in nine children with ASD. Language and play skills were targeted separately for five children and together for four children. Children increased their rates of social engagement and language when language or play was the sole target and when language and play were targeted together; however, gains in play skills were evident only when they were targeted separately. This study provides support for the efficacy of the Project ImPACT when implemented by therapists at a low intensity and suggests the way in which skills are targeted can affect child learning.

  9. The FAV-S Pilot Study: Increasing Self-Efficacy and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Somali Women and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Rebecca; Hearst, Mary O.; Sherman, Shelley; Elwell, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    The 2012 FAV-S pilot study was developed as a dietary intervention program for low-income Somali mothers grounded in the health belief model. The intervention was geared toward increasing fruit and vegetable intake among participants' children. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the impact of the FAV-S program on participants' (1)…

  10. The FAV-S Pilot Study: Increasing Self-Efficacy and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Somali Women and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Rebecca; Hearst, Mary O.; Sherman, Shelley; Elwell, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    The 2012 FAV-S pilot study was developed as a dietary intervention program for low-income Somali mothers grounded in the health belief model. The intervention was geared toward increasing fruit and vegetable intake among participants' children. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the impact of the FAV-S program on participants' (1)…

  11. Increased Serum Uric Acid Levels Blunt the Antihypertensive Efficacy of Lifestyle Modifications in Children at Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Viazzi, Francesca; Rebora, Paola; Giussani, Marco; Orlando, Antonina; Stella, Andrea; Antolini, Laura; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Pontremoli, Roberto; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2016-05-01

    Primary hypertension is a growing concern in children because of the obesity epidemic largely attributable to western lifestyles. Serum uric acid is known to be influenced by dietary habits, correlates with obesity, and could represent a risk factor for hypertension. Preliminary studies in children highlighted uric acid as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. The effect of lifestyle changes (increase of physical activity and dietary modifications) on blood pressure values, weight status, and serum uric acid levels in a cohort of 248 children referred for cardiovascular risk assessment were evaluated over a mean 1.5-year follow-up. At baseline, 48% of children were obese and 50% showed blood pressure values >90th percentile. At follow-up, a significant improvement in weight class (24% obese;P<0.0001) and blood pressure category (22% >90th percentile;P<0.0001) was found. Systolic blood pressure z-score (P<0.0001), uric acid value (P=0.0056), and puberty at baseline (P=0.0048) were independently associated with higher systolic blood pressure z-score at follow-up, whereas a negative association was observed with body mass index z-score decrease during follow-up (P=0.0033). The risk of hypertension at follow-up was associated with body mass index (P=0.0025) and systolic blood pressure (P<0.0001) z-score at baseline and inversely related to delta body mass index (P=0.0002), whereas the risk of showing hypertension ≥99th percentile was more than doubled for each baseline 1 mg/dL increase of serum uric acid (P=0.0130). Uric acid is a powerful determinant of blood pressure over time, independent of lifestyle modifications. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Examining the Efficacy of Truth/Lie Discussions in Predicting and Increasing the Veracity of Children's Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Kamala; Nunez, Narina

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether 4- to 6-year-olds' ability to reason about truths and lies influenced their truth-telling behavior. Found that children's performance on truth/lie questions did not predict their truth-telling. Regardless of performance on truth/lie questions, children receiving developmentally appropriate truth/lie discussions gave more…

  13. Does Engaging in a Group-Based Intervention Increase Parental Self-efficacy in Parents of Preschool Children? A Systematic Review of the Current Literature.

    PubMed

    Wittkowski, Anja; Dowling, Hannah; Smith, Debbie M

    2016-01-01

    As the preschool years are a formative period for long-term physical and mental health, this period is recognised as an important window for early effective intervention. Parenting behaviour is a key factor to target in order to optimise child development. Group-based interventions for parents are considered efficient and cost effective methods of early intervention and have been found to improve child behaviour and adjustment. Self-efficacy is key to behaviour change and as such parental self-efficacy should be a consideration in interventions aimed at influencing parenting behaviour. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to examine the impact of group-based early interventions for parents of preschool children on parental self-efficacy. Nine databases were searched (ASSIA, CINAHL, EMBASE, Maternity and Infant Care, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, Pubmed, Science Direct and Web of Science). Studies were included if they were a randomised controlled trial of a group-based intervention for parents of preschool children and measured change in parental self-efficacy. Fifteen studies were identified. Although changes in parental self-efficacy following a group-based intervention were noted in the majority of studies reviewed, the methodological quality of the studies included in the review means these findings have to be interpreted with caution; only seven studies were rated to be methodologically adequate. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which these interventions may improve parental self-efficacy. Studies specifically examining the impact of such interventions on paternal self-efficacy are also warranted.

  14. Efficacy of sapropterin dihydrochloride in increasing phenylalanine tolerance in children with phenylketonuria: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Trefz, Friedrich K; Burton, Barbara K; Longo, Nicola; Casanova, Mercedes Martinez-Pardo; Gruskin, Daniel J; Dorenbaum, Alex; Kakkis, Emil D; Crombez, Eric A; Grange, Dorothy K; Harmatz, Paul; Lipson, Mark H; Milanowski, Andrzej; Randolph, Linda Marie; Vockley, Jerry; Whitley, Chester B; Wolff, Jon A; Bebchuk, Judith; Christ-Schmidt, Heidi; Hennermann, Julia B

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the ability of sapropterin dihydrochloride (pharmaceutical preparation of tetrahydrobiopterin) to increase phenylalanine (Phe) tolerance while maintaining adequate blood Phe control in 4- to 12-year-old children with phenylketonuria (PKU). This international, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study screened for sapropterin response among 90 enrolled subjects in Part 1. In Part 2, 46 responsive subjects with PKU were randomized (3:1) to sapropterin, 20 mg/kg/d, or placebo for 10 weeks while continuing on a Phe-restricted diet. After 3 weeks, a dietary Phe supplement was added every 2 weeks if Phe control was adequate. The mean (+/-SD) Phe supplement tolerated by the sapropterin group had increased significantly from the pretreatment amount (0 mg/kg/d) to 20.9 (+/-15.4) mg/kg/d (P < .001) at the last visit at which subjects had adequate blood Phe control (<360 micromol/L), up to week 10. Over the 10-week period, the placebo group tolerated only an additional 2.9 (+/-4.0) mg/kg/d Phe supplement; the mean difference from the sapropterin group (+/-SE) was 17.7 +/- 4.5 mg/kg/d (P < .001). No severe or serious related adverse events were observed. Sapropterin is effective in increasing Phe tolerance while maintaining blood Phe control and has an acceptable safety profile in this population of children with PKU.

  15. Assessment of stage of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and use of processes of change of low-income parents for increasing servings of fruits and vegetables to preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Deana A; Betts, Nancy M

    2009-01-01

    Use the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) to determine the proportionate stage of change of low-income parents and primary caregivers (PPC) for increasing accessibility, measured as servings served, of fruits and vegetables (FV) to their preschool-aged children and evaluate response differences for theoretical constructs. Cross-sectional, quantitative survey design consisting of staging algorithm, construct scales, and food frequency questionnaire. Rural and urban communities in a southwestern state of the United States. 238 low-income PPC enrolled in federal nutrition education programs were recruited from group nutrition education sessions. Stage of change using a staging algorithm, TTM constructs of processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy measured by multiple-item scales using Likert response, and fruit and vegetable servings served using a food frequency questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, Pearson's chi-square, analyses of variance with Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference post hoc test, and principal component function analysis. Of the surveyed PPC, 43% were in precontemplation/contemplation stages, and 29% were in the preparation stage for increasing FV accessibility (measured by servings served) to their preschool-aged children. PPC in the action/maintenance stages evidenced greater use of behavioral processes and had higher self-efficacy scores compared to PPC in precontemplation/contemplation and preparation stages. Interventions aimed at increasing FV accessibility for preschool-aged children should be tailored to meet PPCs' stage of change. Interventions targeting PPC in precontemplation/contemplation stages should use methods to share ideas for planning meals and snacks to include FV. Interventions for PPC in the preparation stage should aim to build skills in quick preparation of economical FV, address parental role modeling of FV consumption, and encourage goal setting. Learning formats providing social support may

  16. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M.; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants’ exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants. PMID:27336015

  17. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants' exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants.

  18. Efficacy of the Lunch is in the Bag intervention to increase parents' packing of healthy bag lunches for young children: a cluster-randomized trial in early care and education centers.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Briley, Margaret E; Ranjit, Nalini; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Sweitzer, Sara J; Sharma, Shreela V; Palafox, Maria Romo; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2016-01-08

    Lunches that parents pack for their young children to eat at school or the Early Care and Education (ECE) center fall short of recommended standards. Lunch is in the Bag is a multi-level behavioral nutrition intervention to increase parents' packing of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains in their children's lunches. Designed for implementation in ECE centers, the five-week long intervention is followed three months later with a one-week booster. Efficacy of Lunch is in the Bag was tested in cluster randomized trial. Participants were 633 families from 30 ECE centers (15 intervention, 15 control) across Austin, San Antonio, and Houston, Texas, USA. Primary outcomes were servings of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains observed in the children's parent-packed bag lunches. Servings of refined grains, meats/beans/eggs/nuts, dairy, chips, and sweets also were observed. Data were collected at baseline, post-intervention (6-week follow-up), pre-booster (22-weeks follow-up), and post-booster (28-week follow-up). Time-by-treatment interactions were analyzed separately for each of the food groups using multi-level models to compare changes from baseline. Analyses were adjusted for relevant demographic variables and clustering within centers and parents. The intervention effected increases from baseline to 6-week follow-up in vegetables (0.17 servings, SE = 0.04, P < 0.001) and whole grains (0.30 servings, SE = 0.13, P = 0.018). The increase in whole grains was maintained through the 28-week follow-up (0.34 servings, SE = 0.13, P = 0.009). Fruit averaged more than 1.40 servings with no differences between groups or across time. The intervention prevented increase in sweets (-0.43 servings, SE = 0.11, P < .001, at the 22-week follow-up). Parents persisted, however, in packing small amounts of vegetables (averages of 0.41 to 0.52 servings) and large amounts of sweets and chips (averages of 1.75 to 1.99 servings). The need for and positive effects

  19. How mothers' parenting styles affect their children's sexual efficacy and experience.

    PubMed

    Taris, T W; Semin, G R

    1998-03-01

    The relations among mothers' parenting styles and adolescents' sexual self-efficacy and sexual experience were examined in a sample of 253 British adolescent-mother pairs. Also explored was whether adolescents' self-efficacy would be positively or negatively related to their sexual experience. Mothers' parenting styles were expected to influence children's locus of control, based on the theory that mothers who are involved with their children and mothers who stress independence contribute to the development of an internal locus of control in their children, increasing the children's feelings of sexual self-efficacy. Structural equation modeling was used to test a longitudinal model. The results support the assumption that maternal involvement leads to higher levels of self-efficacy, whereas maternal control was associated with lower levels of self-efficacy. Sexual self-efficacy was associated with higher levels of sexual experience. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

  20. Effects of taekwondo intervention on cognitive function and academic self-efficacy in children.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Youn; Kim, Young Il; Roh, Hee Tae

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of taekwondo training on cognitive function and academic self-efficacy in children. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-five children participated in the study. Seventeen children were randomly selected to undergo taekwondo training for 16 weeks (5 times per week). As controls, 18 children received no training. Cognitive function and academic self-efficacy were measured using the Stroop Color and Word Test (Word, Color, and Color-Word) and academic self-efficacy scale (Self-confidence, Self-regulatory Efficacy, and Task Difficulty Preference), respectively. [Results] In the taekwondo group, the Color-Word and Self-confidence scores increased significantly after intervention as compared to those before intervention. [Conclusion] It is suggested that regular taekwondo training may be effective for enhancing cognitive function and academic self-efficacy in growing children.

  1. Effects of taekwondo intervention on cognitive function and academic self-efficacy in children

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Youn; Kim, Young Il; Roh, Hee Tae

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of taekwondo training on cognitive function and academic self-efficacy in children. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-five children participated in the study. Seventeen children were randomly selected to undergo taekwondo training for 16 weeks (5 times per week). As controls, 18 children received no training. Cognitive function and academic self-efficacy were measured using the Stroop Color and Word Test (Word, Color, and Color-Word) and academic self-efficacy scale (Self-confidence, Self-regulatory Efficacy, and Task Difficulty Preference), respectively. [Results] In the taekwondo group, the Color-Word and Self-confidence scores increased significantly after intervention as compared to those before intervention. [Conclusion] It is suggested that regular taekwondo training may be effective for enhancing cognitive function and academic self-efficacy in growing children. PMID:28533615

  2. Coping Efficacy and Psychological Problems of Children of Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Mehta, Paras; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Investigated models relating coping efficacy, coping efforts, and psychological problems of children of divorce. Structural equation model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping, avoiding coping, and psychological problems. Prospective longitudinal model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping and…

  3. Efficacy of EMDR in children: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Roos; Benjamin, Anja; de Roos, Carlijn; Meijer, Ann Marie; Stams, Geert Jan

    2009-11-01

    The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in children with post-traumatic stress symptoms was meta-analytically examined from the perspective of incremental efficacy. Overall post-treatment effect size for EMDR was medium and significant (d=.56). Results indicate efficacy of EMDR when effect sizes are based on comparisons between the EMDR and the non-established trauma treatment or the no-treatment control groups, and the incremental efficacy when effect sizes are based on comparisons between the EMDR and the established (CBT) trauma treatment. The discussion focuses on the future replication of EMDR findings and further research on post-traumatic stress in children.

  4. Efficacy of Attribution Retraining on Mental Health of Epileptic Children

    PubMed Central

    Pourmohamadreza Tajrishi, Masoume; Abbasi, Saeid; Najafi Fard, Tahereh; Yousefi, Saheb; Mohammadi Malek Abadi, Athar; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy affects children’s quality of life and leads to social and mental problems. Promoting the mental health of children, especially epileptic ones, and preventing problems affecting them constitute major concerns for every country. Mental health promotion requires intervention programs. Objectives: We sought to assess the efficacy of attribution retraining on the mental health of epileptic children. Patients and Methods: The present study is a semi-experimental investigation with a pretest and posttest design and includes a control group. Thirty children, comprising 17 boys and 13 girls, were selected randomly from the Iranian epilepsy association in Tehran and assigned to experimental and control groups. They answered to the general health questionnaire (Goldberg and Hiller, 1979). The experimental group participated in 11 training sessions (twice a week; 45 minutes for each session) and received attribution retraining. The data were analyzed using the multiple analysis of covariance. Results: The findings showed that the experimental group, in comparison with the control group, experienced a reduction in physical symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and depression and an increase in mental health significantly (P < 0.01) after the training sessions. There were no significant differences, however, between the two groups at 6 weeks’ follow-up. Conclusions: Attribution retraining improved mental health in the epileptic children in our study. It, therefore, seems to be an appropriate intervention for promoting the mental health of children. PMID:26568854

  5. Household Consumption of Thiamin-Fortified Fish Sauce Increases Erythrocyte Thiamin Concentrations among Rural Cambodian Women and Their Children Younger Than 5 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Kroeun, Hou; Sokhoing, Ly; Chan, Benny B; Borath, Mam; Sophonneary, Prak; Moore, Kirsten; Tong, Jeffery K T; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Kitts, David D; Green, Tim J

    2017-02-01

    To assess whether ad libitum consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce over 6 months yields higher erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate concentrations (eTDP) among women of childbearing age and their children aged 12-59 months compared with control sauce containing no thiamin. In this double-blind, randomized controlled efficacy trial, 276 nonpregnant, nonlactating women (18-45 years of age) and their families in Prey Veng, Cambodia, were randomized to receive 1 of 3 fish sauce formulations: low thiamin concentration (low, 2 g/L), high thiamin concentration (high, 8 g/L), or a control (no thiamin) fish sauce. Baseline (t = 0) and endline (t = 6 months) eTDP were measured with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Fish sauce consumption did not differ between treatment groups (P = .19). In intent-to-treat analysis, women's baseline-adjusted endline eTDP (mean; 95% CI) was higher among women in the low (259; 245-274 nmol/L) and high (257; 237-276 nmol/L) groups compared with control (184; 169-198 nmol/L; P < .001); low and high groups did not differ (P = .83). Similarly, children's baseline-adjusted eTDP was higher in the low (259; 246-271 nmol/L) and high (257; 243-270 nmol/L) groups compared with control (213; 202-224 nmol/L; P < .001). Fortified fish sauce appears to be an efficacious means of improving biochemical thiamin status in nonpregnant, nonlactating women and their children (1-5 years of age) living in rural Cambodia. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02221063. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of an Intervention Program for Attention and Reflexivity in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campeño-Martínez, Yoana; Santiago-Ramajo, Sandra; Navarro-Asencio, Enrique; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza; Santiuste Bermejo, Victor

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing evidence in recent years of the need to adapt intervention programs to the specific needs of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The main goal of this research work was to study the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve attention and reflexivity in school children with ADHD…

  7. Helping African American Children Self-Manage Asthma: The Importance of Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaul, Teri

    2011-01-01

    Background: Asthma is the leading cause of chronic illness among children in the United States, with a disproportionately higher incidence among minority children. In an attempt to increase understanding of the factors that may influence self-management of chronic disease, the study examined the relationship between self-efficacy belief and asthma…

  8. Helping African American Children Self-Manage Asthma: The Importance of Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaul, Teri

    2011-01-01

    Background: Asthma is the leading cause of chronic illness among children in the United States, with a disproportionately higher incidence among minority children. In an attempt to increase understanding of the factors that may influence self-management of chronic disease, the study examined the relationship between self-efficacy belief and asthma…

  9. Improving Clinician Self-Efficacy Does Not Increase Asthma Guideline Use by Primary Care Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Michelle M.; Tennen, Howard; Wakefield, Dorothy B.; Brazil, Kevin; Hall, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The association between changes in clinician self-efficacy and readiness to change and implementation of an asthma management program (Easy Breathing©) was examined. Methods A 36 month randomized, controlled trial was conducted involving 24 pediatric practices (88 clinicians). Randomized clinicians received interventions designed to enhance clinician self-efficacy and readiness to change which were measured at baseline and 3 years. Interventions consisted of an educational toolbox, seminars, teleconferences, mini-fellowships, opinion leader visits, clinician-specific feedback, and pay for performance. The primary outcome was program utilization (number of children enrolled in Easy Breathing/year); secondary outcomes included development of a written treatment plan and severity-appropriate therapy. Results At baseline, clinicians enrolled 149 ± 147 (mean ± SD) children/clinician/year; 84% of children had a written treatment plan and 77% of plans used severity-appropriate therapy. At baseline, higher self-efficacy scores were associated with greater program utilization (Relative Rate (RR) 1.34 (95% Confidence Interval 1.04, 1.72), p=0.04) but not treatment plan development (RR 0.63 (0.29, 1.35), p=.23) or anti-inflammatory use (RR 1.76 (0.92, 3.35), p=.09). Intervention clinicians participated in 17 interventions over 36 months. At study end, self-efficacy scores increased in intervention clinicians compared to control clinicians (p=0.01) and more clinicians were in an action stage of change (p=0.001) but these changes were not associated with changes in primary or secondary outcomes. Conclusions Self-efficacy scores correlated with program use at baseline and increased in the intervention arm but these increases were not associated with greater program-related activities. Self-efficacy may be necessary but not sufficient for behavior change. PMID:22634077

  10. The moderating effect of self-efficacy on normal-weight, overweight, and obese children's math achievement: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell

    2015-03-01

    Increased body weight is associated with decreased cognitive function in school-aged children. The role of self-efficacy in shaping the connection between children's educational achievement and obesity-related comorbidities has not been examined to date. Evidence of the predictive ability of self-efficacy in children is demonstrated in cognitive tasks, including math achievement scores. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and math achievement in normal weight, overweight, and obese children. I hypothesized that overweight and obese children with higher self-efficacy will be less affected in math achievement than otherwise comparable children with lower self-efficacy. I tested this prediction with multilevel growth modeling techniques using the ECLS-K 1998-1999 survey data, a nationally representative sample of children. Increased self-efficacy moderates the link between body weight and children's math achievement by buffering the risks that increased weight status poses to children's cognitive function. My findings indicate that self-efficacy moderates math outcomes in overweight, but not obese, children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, Self-Efficacy, and Use of Processes of Change of Low-Income Parents for Increasing Servings of Fruits and Vegetables to Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Deana A.; Betts, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Use the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) to determine the proportionate stage of change of low-income parents and primary caregivers (PPC) for increasing accessibility, measured as servings served, of fruits and vegetables (FV) to their preschool-aged children and evaluate response differences for theoretical constructs.…

  12. Assessment of Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, Self-Efficacy, and Use of Processes of Change of Low-Income Parents for Increasing Servings of Fruits and Vegetables to Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Deana A.; Betts, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Use the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) to determine the proportionate stage of change of low-income parents and primary caregivers (PPC) for increasing accessibility, measured as servings served, of fruits and vegetables (FV) to their preschool-aged children and evaluate response differences for theoretical constructs.…

  13. Examining Elementary School-Aged Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Children's self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and proxy efficacy to influence others to make fruit and vegetables (FV) available may influence their FVC. A previous investigation has demonstrated that self-efficacy for fruit consumption, self-efficacy for vegetable consumption, proxy efficacy to influence parents to make FV…

  14. Efficacy of Montessori Education in Attention Gathering Skill of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim Dogru, S. Sunay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Montessori education which is offered to upskill the attention gathering skill of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In total fifteen pre-schooler participants, six girls and nine boys who are diagnosed with ADHD (7 of the children with ADHD, 8 with only AD), joined to this…

  15. Intervention Efficacy and Intensity for Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Clinicians do not have an evidence base they can use to recommend optimum intervention intensity for preschool children who present with speech sound disorder (SSD). This study examined the effect of dose frequency on phonological performance and the efficacy of the multiple oppositions approach. Method: Fifty-four preschool children with…

  16. Efficacy of Montessori Education in Attention Gathering Skill of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim Dogru, S. Sunay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Montessori education which is offered to upskill the attention gathering skill of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In total fifteen pre-schooler participants, six girls and nine boys who are diagnosed with ADHD (7 of the children with ADHD, 8 with only AD), joined to this…

  17. Intervention Efficacy and Intensity for Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Clinicians do not have an evidence base they can use to recommend optimum intervention intensity for preschool children who present with speech sound disorder (SSD). This study examined the effect of dose frequency on phonological performance and the efficacy of the multiple oppositions approach. Method: Fifty-four preschool children with…

  18. Children's Self-Efficacy Scale: Initial Psychometric Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinelli, Selma de Cassia; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Caliatto, Susana Gakyia; Sassi, Adriana de Grecci

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development of a self-efficacy measure for elementary school children. A sample of 514 children, ages 8 to 11, enrolled in Grades 2 to 4 of public schools in Brazil was investigated. The scale included 78 descriptive items about academic situations, in which the child was required to respond on a 5-point scale, the…

  19. Raising Children's Self-Efficacy through Parental Involvement in Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Keith; Swift, Jennifer; Williams, Hefin; Van Daal, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper is a qualitative evaluation of a small-scale pilot study that attempted to generate parental involvement in children's learning. It used problem-solving mathematics homework in order to raise the children's self-efficacy, or, put another way, the child's belief that success lies in their own hands. Purpose: Homework is often…

  20. Primary School Children's Self-Efficacy for Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Laura; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The Self-Efficacy for Musical Learning questionnaire was adapted and tested with 404 primary school children, producing a robust Cronbach alpha (0.87) and confirming a single underlying factor through exploratory factor analysis. Test-retest scores showed the measure's stability over a 9-month period. Data were collected on children's prior music…

  1. Tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting young children's television viewing and associations with children's television viewing time: a longitudinal analysis over 15-months.

    PubMed

    Hnatiuk, Jill A; Salmon, Jo; Campbell, Karen J; Ridgers, Nicola D; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2015-05-30

    Mothers' self-efficacy for limiting their children's television viewing is an important correlate of this behaviour in young children. However, no studies have examined how maternal self-efficacy changes over time, which is potentially important during periods of rapid child development. This study examined tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting young children's television viewing over 15-months and associations with children's television viewing time. In 2008 and 2010, mothers (n = 404) from the Melbourne InFANT Program self-reported their self-efficacy for limiting their child's television viewing at 4- and 19-months of age. Tertiles of self-efficacy were created at each time and categorised into: persistently high, persistently low, increasing or decreasing self-efficacy. Weighted kappa and multinomial logistic regression examined tracking and demographic and behavioural predictors of change in self-efficacy. A linear regression model examined associations between tracking categories and children's television viewing time. Tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting children's television viewing was low (kappa = 0.23, p < 0.001). Mothers who had persistently high or increasing self-efficacy had children with lower television viewing time at 19-months (β = -35.5; 95 % CI = -54.4,-16.6 and β = 37.0; 95 % CI = -54.4,-19.7, respectively). Mothers of children with difficult temperaments were less likely to have persistently high self-efficacy. Mothers who met adult physical activity guidelines had 2.5 greater odds of increasing self-efficacy. Interventions to increase and maintain maternal self-efficacy for limiting children's television viewing time may result in lower rates of this behaviour amongst toddlers. Maternal and child characteristics may need to be considered when tailoring interventions.

  2. Towards increase of diagnostic efficacy in gynecologic OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, Mikhail; Panteleeva, Olga; Eliseeva, Darya; Kachalina, Olga; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Dubasova, Lyubov; Agrba, Pavel; Mikailova, Gyular; Prudnikov, Maxim; Shakhova, Natalia

    2013-06-01

    Gynecologic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) are usually performed in combination with routine diagnostic procedures: laparoscopy and colposcopy. In combination with laparoscopy OCT is employed for inspection of fallopian tubes in cases of unrecognized infertility while in colposcopy it is used to identify cervix pathologies including cancer. In this paper we discuss methods for increasing diagnostic efficacy of OCT application in these procedures. For OCT-laparoscopy we demonstrate independent criteria for pathology recognition which allow to increase accuracy of diagnostics. For OCT-colposcopy we report on application of device for controlled compression allowing to sense the elasticity of the inspected cervix area and distinguish between neoplasia and inflammatory processes.

  3. Does interprofessional simulation increase self-efficacy: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Watters, Colm; Reedy, Gabriel; Ross, Alastair; Morgan, Nicola J; Handslip, Rhodri; Jaye, Peter

    2015-01-01

    study provides evidence that simulation training enhances participants’ self-efficacy in clinical situations. It also leads to increases in their perceived abilities relating to communication/teamwork and leadership/management of clinical scenarios. Interprofessional training showed increased positive effects on self-efficacy for nurses and doctors. PMID:25586366

  4. Parenting satisfaction and efficacy among caregivers of children with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, J R; Geffken, G R; Clark, J E; Hunt, F; Fishel, P

    1994-01-01

    This study assessed parenting satisfaction and efficacy in 53 parents of children with diabetes and 39 parents of physically healthy children. In addition, the relationship between parenting self-esteem and perceptions of child behavior, child age, disease duration, and metabolic control were examined. Parents of children with diabetes reported significantly lower levels of parenting satisfaction and efficacy compared to parents of healthy children, and their negative parental cognitions are most influenced by perceptions of more internalizing child problems, shorter diabetes duration, and poorer metabolic control. Parenting self-esteem was significantly inversely correlated with both internalizing and externalizing child behavior problems for parents of healthy children. The clinical implications of poor parental cognitions and directions for future research are highlighted.

  5. [Increased efficacy of radiation protection against fission neutrons using unithiol].

    PubMed

    Grachev, S A; Sverdlov, A G; Nikanorova, N G; Timoshenko, S I

    1999-01-01

    It was found that the combination of unithiol (Sodium salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propansulfonic acid) with cystamine and AET diminished their toxicity. The optimum ratio for the antitoxic effect is 0.5 molar equivalent of unithiol per radioprotective 1.0 equivalent of thiol. Animals withstand big doses of protectors well, that gives an opportunity to use increased amounts of cystamine and AET. In the experiments with circular irradiation of male (CBA x C57B1)F1 mice weighing 18-22 g with fission neutrons (the neutron mean energy was 0.85 MeV, the contribution of gamma-quanta to the total was 25%, dose rate was 14 cGy/min) it was shown that the combination of unithiol with cystamine and AET enhances their radioprotective effect: the DRF of cystamine (150 mg/kg)--1.1, and the DRF of the combination of cystamine (300 mg/kg) with unithiol (152 mg/kg)--1.2; the DRF of AET (150 mg/kg)--1.2, the DRF of the combination of AET (300 mg/kg) with unithiol--1.4. Thus, the enhancement of dose of the radioprotectors, which was made possible as a result of their combination with unithiol, leads to enhancement of efficacy of chemical protection against fission neutron irradiation as much as 10-20%. Efficacy of AET is found to be comparable to efficacy of this protector in conditions of X-rays irradiation.

  6. Increased temporal lobe gyrification in preterm children.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Shelli R; Vohr, Betty; Schneider, Karen C; Katz, Karol H; Makuch, Robert W; Reiss, Allan L; Ment, Laura R

    2006-01-01

    Preterm birth often results in significant learning disability, and previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of preterm children have demonstrated reduction in overall cortical tissue with particular vulnerability in the temporal lobe. We measured cortical gyrification in 73 preterm and 33 term control children at 8 years of age and correlated these findings with tests of language ability to determine the associations among preterm birth, neurodevelopment and functional outcome. Preterm children demonstrated significantly increased bilateral temporal lobe gyrification index compared to term controls. Left temporal gyrification index was significantly negatively correlated with left temporal lobe gray matter volume as well as reading recognition scores in the preterm group. Cortical development in the temporal lobe appears to be differentially vulnerable to preterm birth.

  7. Parenting Self Efficacy in Mothers of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder vs. Normal Children

    PubMed Central

    Gohari, Zahra; Dehghani, Fatemeh; Rajabi, Gilda

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The main purpose of this study was to compare parenting self efficacy between mothers of children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mothers of normal children. Method One hundred twenty mothers including 60 mothers of children with ADHD and 62 mothers of normal children were selected. In each group the participants were allocated between three subgroups of preschool, first and second grade of primary school. The participants were evaluated for ADHD symptom severity and parenting self efficacy, using Conner’s Parents Rating Scales-Revised Short (CPRS-R:S) and Berkeley Parenting Self-efficacy scale. Data were analyzed using independent sample T test, Chi square, Pearson and Spearman correlation and stepwise linear regression statistical analysis when appropriate. Results The results of this study did not show any significant difference between self efficiency in mothers of children with ADHD and mothers of normal children in preschool and first grade of primary school. However, between group differences were significant in mothers of children in second grade of primary school. The most associated factors with parenting self efficacy were Children’s age, and education level. Conclusion No difference was observed in self efficacy of parents of ADHD children and parents of normal children in pre-school and first grade of primary school. However, parenting self efficacy was significantly lower in parents of the second grade ADHD children compared to the normal group. Increment in age and education level of children with ADHD may be associated with lower level of parenting self efficacy. PMID:22952546

  8. Efficacy of propranolol for cutaneous hemangiomas in premature children.

    PubMed

    Brazzelli, Valeria; Giorgini, Chiara; Barruscotti, Stefania; Codazzi, Claudia A; Mannarino, Savina; Tzialla, Chryssoula; Stronati, Mauro; Marseglia, Gian L; Borroni, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of propranolol for problematic infantile hemangiomas (IH), showing our experience on 24 children, with special focus on premature infants. A retrospective observational study considered 24 patients who were given oral propranolol for the treatment of "problematic" IH. A multidisciplinary team, composed of a dermatologist, a pediatrician, a pediatric cardiologist, and a neonatologist, took part in the indication for propranolol and follow-up on all the patients. Propranolol was administered orally at the starting dose of 0.5-1 mg/kg/die and was gradually increased to the target dose of 2 mg/kg/die. A clinical gravity score, based on color, major diameter, thickness and texture was calculated for each IH, giving a numeric score before (t0) and after (tf) propranolol therapy. Improvement rate was evaluated in terms of score percentage difference between t0 and tf. All of the IH except one (96%), showed a variable grade of improvement, with a median score improvement of 69.1%. Median initial score in premature and term infants did not show any significant difference (P=0.38). Otherwise the two subgroups showed a significant difference in final scores: medium percentage improvement in premature and term infants, was respectively 80.9% and 49.6% (P<0.01). No significant side effects were reported during the treatment period. As pointed out in our study, IH in premature children showed a significantly better response to propranolol treatment.

  9. The efficacy of relaxation training with children.

    PubMed

    Richter, N C

    1984-06-01

    This paper reviews studies that have examined the efficacy of relaxation training techniques in the treatment of childhood disorders. Methodological problems encountered in doing research in this area resemble those found in working with an adult population: imprecise definitions of subject populations and use of a variety of dependent variables from one study to another. Findings suggest that relaxation training is at least as effective as other treatment approaches for a variety of learning, behavioral, and physiological disorders when it is continued over an extended period of time and is augmented by other supportive measures. Needs for future research include better follow-up studies and further investigations with a behaviorally disruptive population.

  10. Health game interventions to enhance physical activity self-efficacy of children: a quantitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, Anni; Parisod, Heidi; Smed, Jouni; Salanterä, Sanna

    2017-04-01

    To describe and explore health game interventions that enhance the physical activity self-efficacy of children and to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions. Physical inactivity among children has increased globally. Self-efficacy is one of the key determinants of physical activity engagement in children. There is a need to explore new and innovative interventions to enhance physical activity self-efficacy that are also acceptable for today's children. Quantitative systematic review. MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL, PsychInfo, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library between 1996-2016. A review was conducted in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. A systematic search was done in June 2016 by two independent reviewers according to the eligibility criteria as follows: controlled trial, comparison of digital game intervention with no game intervention control condition, participants younger than 18 years of age and reported statistical analyses of a physical activity self-efficacy outcome measure. Altogether, five studies met the eligibility criteria. Four game interventions, employing three active games and one educational game, had positive effects on children's physical activity self-efficacy. An intervention, employing a game-themed mobile application, showed no intervention effects. The variation between intervention characteristics was significant and the quality of the studies was found to be at a medium level. Although health game interventions seemingly enhance the physical activity self-efficacy of children and have potential as a means of increasing physical activity, more rigorous research is needed to clarify how effective such interventions are in the longer run to contribute to the development of game-based interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Personal Agency in Children: Assessing Children's Coping Self-Efficacy in the Context of Parental Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummert Lennings, Heidi Isabel; Bussey, Kay

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a multidimensional measure for assessing children's personal agency to handle parental conflict through their coping self-efficacy beliefs (Bandura, 1997). Coping self-efficacy beliefs are individuals' perceived ability to motivate themselves, access cognitive resources, and perform the actions required to take…

  12. Neighborhood determinants of self-efficacy, physical activity, and body weights among Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Z; Simen-Kapeu, A; Veugelers, P J

    2010-05-01

    To examine the presence and pathways of the influence of neighborhood characteristics on self-efficacy, physical activity (PA) and body weight among pre-adolescent children. In 2008, we surveyed grade 5 students on self-efficacy, physical activity, neighborhood perception and measures of height and weight. We applied multilevel logistic regression methods and structural equation modeling to assess the presence and pathways of the influence of neighborhood characteristics on self-efficacy, PA and body weight. Of about 3421 grade 5 students from 148 randomly selected schools from across Alberta, Canada. We identified neighborhood satisfaction and services as well as neighborhood sidewalks and parks as determinants of self-efficacy. Over and above various independent associations of neighborhood characteristics with self-efficacy, PA and body weight, self-efficacy exhibited a positive effect on PA and a negative effect on body weight. Both infrastructural investments such as in recreational facilities, sidewalks and parks, as well as health education to promote self-efficacy may increase PA and prevent overweight among children. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rufinamide in children with refractory epilepsy: pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Maria G; Ohman, Inger

    2012-10-01

    We examined the influence of age and type of concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on the pharmacokinetics of rufinamide (RUF) as well as its efficacy and safety in 51 children with refractory epilepsy. In a retrospective noninterventional survey, dose-to-concentration ratios of RUF and concomitant AEDs were calculated: the weight-normalized dose (mg/kg/d) divided by the steady-state trough plasma drug level, which was used as a measure of clearance. During treatment with RUF concomitantly with valproic acid (VPA) young children, aged 0 to 4.9 years, had a low clearance of RUF, which did not differ from older children. If not on VPA but on enzyme inducers, young children had a threefold higher clearance of RUF than the older ones. In young children not on VPA, those on enzyme inducers had 1.7-fold higher clearance than those on nonenzyme inducers. In children neither on VPA nor on enzyme inducers, RUF clearance was age-dependent with higher clearance in younger children. Adding RUF did not change the pharmacokinetics of concomitantly used AEDs. Seizure response after 2 to 3 months on RUF treatment was found in 12 of 51 children (23.5%), at mean plasma level of 36.9 ± 22.0 µmol/L. Adverse events were reported in 41% of the patients of which fatigue was most frequent (24%). Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Elevated Vancomycin Trough Concentration: Increased Efficacy and/or Toxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Elyasi, Sepideh; Khalili, Hossein; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Emadi-Koochak, Hamid; Mohammadpour, Amirhooshang; Abdollahi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been changed over time and its average minimum inhibitory concentration increased from 1.5 to 1.75 mg/L.A recently published guideline by the American Society of Health Pharmacist recommended a daily dose of 15-20 mg/Kg every 8 to 12 hours of vancomycin to achieve a trough concentration between 15-20 mg/L for treatment of severe infections. Medical records of 69 patients from infectious ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, with suspected or confirmed gram-positive infection who had at least one trough level of vancomycin, were evaluated regarding vancomycin therapeutic goal; efficacy and renal safety. Most of patients (60.6%) with severe infections did not achieve the recommended vancomycin trough level during treatment course. Time to normalization of the signs and symptoms of infection did not correlate with the patients’ serum vancomycin trough levels. At the end of treatment course, there was no significant correlation between patients’ creatinine clearance and vancomycin trough levels (P=0.32). However, patients’cratinine clearance showed a negatively significant correlation with trough level of vancomycin (P=0.01). Vancomycin induced nephrotoxicity was detected in 4.3% of the patients. These data showed that vancomycin trough level may not necessarily assure treatment success, and also it would not essentially predict the risk of vancomycin induced nephrotoxicity. However, more well designed studies with larger sample size needed for better clinical and practical judgment. PMID:25587313

  15. An Examination of the Efficacy of Insights in Enhancing the Academic and Behavioral Development of Children in Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin E.; Cappella, Elise; McCormick, Meghan P.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this group randomized trial was to test the efficacy of INSIGHTS Into Children's Temperament (INSIGHTS) in increasing the academic achievement and sustained attention and reducing the disruptive behavior problems of low-income kindergarten and 1st grade children. Twenty-two urban elementary schools serving low-income families…

  16. An Examination of the Efficacy of Insights in Enhancing the Academic and Behavioral Development of Children in Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin E.; Cappella, Elise; McCormick, Meghan P.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this group randomized trial was to test the efficacy of INSIGHTS Into Children's Temperament (INSIGHTS) in increasing the academic achievement and sustained attention and reducing the disruptive behavior problems of low-income kindergarten and 1st grade children. Twenty-two urban elementary schools serving low-income families…

  17. Does pregnancy increase the efficacy of lumbar epidural anesthesia?

    PubMed

    Arakawa, M

    2004-04-01

    Pregnancy has been reported to enhance the sensitivity of nerves to local anesthetics and to decrease anesthetic requirements during regional anesthesia. In this study, whether pregnancy increased the efficacy of lumbar epidural anesthesia was evaluated. Two populations (14 pregnant and 14 non-pregnant women) undergoing lumbar epidural anesthesia were studied and received 17 mL of 2% lidocaine-epinephrine (1: 200,000). The pain threshold response after repeated electrical stimulation was used to assess sensory blockade at the L2, S1 and S3 dermatomes. Motor blockade was evaluated using the Bromage score. Demographic data except for weight were comparable between the two groups. There was a significant difference in cephalad spread of anesthesia between the groups. No significant differences in pain threshold or onset of sensory blockade at the L2, S1 or S3 segments were found between the groups. The pain thresholds at the S1 and S3 dermatomes were significantly lower than that at L2 within each group. The mean onset times at the S1 and S3 dermatomes were significantly longer than that at L2 within each group. No differences in Bromage score were found between the groups. In pregnant women, cephalad spread of epidural anesthesia was facilitated but latency of blockade, density and motor blockade were not. It takes over 25 min to achieve satisfactory blockade at sacral segments. Those who perform lumbar epidural anesthesia alone for cesarean section should consider the use of additives (e.g. fentanyl, bicarbonate) to enhance the block, or a greater volume of local anesthetic.

  18. Parental TV viewing, parental self-efficacy, media equipment and TV viewing among preschool children.

    PubMed

    Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Thompson, Janice L

    2013-11-01

    This study examined if parental TV viewing, parental self-efficacy or access to media equipment were associated with TV viewing among UK preschool-aged children. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 252 parents of 3-5-year-old children. Parents reported child and parent TV viewing and the number of TVs, DVDs, computers, games consoles, hand-held games consoles, music players and laptop computers in the home. Parents also completed scales which assessed their self-efficacy to limit the screen viewing (SV) and promote the physical activity (PA) and their own PA self-efficacy. Analysis indicated that around two thirds of the children spent two or more hours per day watching TV while 75 % of parents watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Logistic regression models showed that children who had a parent who watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day were over five times more likely to also watch ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Each unit increase in parental self-efficacy to limit SV was associated with a 77 % reduction in the likelihood that the child watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Each additional piece of media equipment in the home was associated with a 28 % increase in the likelihood that parents watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Family-based interventions focusing on changing access to home media equipment and building parental self-efficacy to reduce child TV viewing could form part of efforts to reduce TV viewing among preschool children.

  19. Helping African American children self-manage asthma: the importance of self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Teri

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the leading cause of chronic illness among children in the United States, with a disproportionately higher incidence among minority children. In an attempt to increase understanding of the factors that may influence self-management of chronic disease, the study examined the relationship between self-efficacy belief and asthma self-management in urban African American children. Using a descriptive correlational research design, the participants (81 African American children between 7 and 12 years old) completed the Asthma Inventory for Children (AIC), which measured asthma self-management behaviors, and Asthma Belief Survey (ABS), which measured asthma self-efficacy. Results of this study demonstrated a statistically positive correlation (p < .01, r = .53) between the child's asthma self-management and the child's self-efficacy belief toward his or her asthma. The mean item scores for the AIC, which measures the number of asthma management behaviors utilized by the participants, ranged from 1.88 to 5.00 with a mean of 3.69 and a standard deviation of 0.59. The mean scores of the ABS, which measures the level of self-efficacy beliefs for asthma management among the participants, ranged from 1.73 to 5.00 with a standard deviation of 0.58. In chronic illness such as asthma, self-management is key to the long-range personal, academic, and professional success of children and adults with such conditions. Implications are drawn for the preparation of health care providers, teachers, and counselors who work with school-age children with asthma. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  20. Examining elementary school--aged children's self-efficacy and proxy efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Geller, Karly S; Dzewaltowski, David A

    2010-08-01

    Children's self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and proxy efficacy to influence others to make fruit and vegetables (FV) available may influence their FVC. A previous investigation has demonstrated that self-efficacy for fruit consumption, self-efficacy for vegetable consumption, proxy efficacy to influence parents to make FV available, and proxy efficacy to influence after-school staff to make FV available can be measured with four independent but related scales. The purpose of the present investigation is to confirm this factor structure and determine if the scales were invariant across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES) subgroups of children attending after-school programs. Results provide further validity evidence for the four correlated scales. In addition, results confirm measurement invariance across gender, SES, and ethnicity, confirming the unbiased generalizability of the current measure to these demographic groups. Lastly, tests of population heterogeneity reveal no meaningful differences in self- and proxy efficacy among gender, SES, and ethnicity subgroups.

  1. Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices with Children Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMeel, Lorri S.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews existing measures related to evidence-based practices with children and self-efficacy and describes the development and psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices With Children Efficacy Scale. This scale was developed to assess students' and clinicians' self-efficacy in their abilities to use…

  2. Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices with Children Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMeel, Lorri S.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews existing measures related to evidence-based practices with children and self-efficacy and describes the development and psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices With Children Efficacy Scale. This scale was developed to assess students' and clinicians' self-efficacy in their abilities to use…

  3. Imitate or innovate? Children's innovation is influenced by the efficacy of observed behaviour.

    PubMed

    Carr, Kayleigh; Kendal, Rachel L; Flynn, Emma G

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the age at which children judge it futile to imitate unreliable information, in the form of a visibly ineffective demonstrated solution, and deviate to produce novel solutions ('innovations'). Children aged 4-9 years were presented with a novel puzzle box, the Multiple-Methods Box (MMB), which offered multiple innovation opportunities to extract a reward using different tools, access points and exits. 209 children were assigned to conditions in which eight social demonstrations of a reward retrieval method were provided; each condition differed incrementally in terms of the method's efficacy (0%, 25%, 75%, and 100% success at extracting the reward). An additional 47 children were assigned to a no-demonstration control condition. Innovative reward extractions from the MMB increased with decreasing efficacy of the demonstrated method. However, imitation remained a widely used strategy irrespective of the efficacy of the method being reproduced (90% of children produced at least one imitative attempt, and imitated on an average of 4.9 out of 8 attempt trials). Children were more likely to innovate in relation to the tool than exit, even though the latter would have been more effective. Overall, innovation was rare: only 12.4% of children innovated by discovering at least one novel reward exit. Children's prioritisation of social information is consistent with theories of cultural evolution indicating imitation is a prepotent response following observation of behaviour, and that innovation is a rarity; so much so, that even maladaptive behaviour is copied. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing Career Self-Efficacy for Women: Evaluating a Group Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kate Roy; Mahalik, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates whether women participating in a career group designed to increase career-related self-efficacy would make gains on career decision-making self-efficacy and vocational exploration and commitment compared with women in a control group. Results indicate that women in the treatment group improved on career decision-making self-efficacy and…

  5. Diagnostic efficacy of posttraumatic symptoms in children exposed to disaster.

    PubMed

    Lonigan, C J; Anthony, J L; Shannon, M P

    1998-10-01

    Examined 5 conditional probability indices to determine the diagnostic efficacy of 48 symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 5,687 children exposed to Hurricane Hugo, of whom 5.5% had a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). Moderate levels of sensitivity and high levels of specificity were obtained for most symptoms. Odds ratios more precisely demonstrated that some Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) symptoms of PTSD, especially when combined, were useful for identifying children with PTSS but that anxiety symptoms and some DSM symptoms of PTSD had poor diagnostic utility. Satisfying criteria for the DSM-III-R numbing/avoidance cluster and symptoms from the numbing/avoidance cluster had the highest diagnostic efficacy, suggesting that avoidance may be the hallmark of severe posttraumatic reactions. These results suggest which symptoms should be conceptualized as central versus peripheral to the disorder and which symptoms and symptom combinations clinicians should attend to most when diagnosing or screening PTSD in children.

  6. Involving Children in Reflective Discussions about Their Perceived Self-Efficacy and Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Elina; Järvelä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates the importance of self-efficacy beliefs for young children's learning and achievement. However, the challenge has been to research young children's self-efficacy in authentic learning situations. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate young children's immediate experiences of confidence in…

  7. Impact of self-efficacy and parenting practice on physical activity among school children

    PubMed Central

    Ah Hong, Seo; Peltzer, Karl; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT As insufficient engagement in physical activity (PA) is becoming a major health concern in Thailand, we aimed to investigate the impact of parenting practices and children’s self-efficacy on a child’s PA level and further in the subgroups, stratified by the child’s sex and weight status. A total of 609 primary school children recruited by cluster sampling in two schools were asked to complete questionnaires, and general familial factors and parenting practice related to activities were completed by parents. Multivariate linear regressions were conducted to calculate the standardized beta-coefficients (β). Children’s PA level was positively related to greater support seeking self-efficacy (β=0.281) for engaging in PA, and parenting practices, including less limit setting (β=–0.124) and more discipline (β=0.147) in the total sample. In the analyses of subgroups by a child’s sex and weight status, parenting practice, such as less limit setting and discipline played a more important role in children’s PA in normal weight children and girls as taking account of around 10% of variance of the child’s PA, while only seeking support self-efficacy showed great impact in overweight children and boys. In conclusion, impacts of children’s self-efficacy and parenting practices on children’s PA were different by child’s sex and weight status. This can suggest that future interventions to increase children’s PA might need to consider different strategies to increase children’s self-efficacy as well as parenting strategies when targeting different groups of children. PMID:28878439

  8. Efficacy of a public promotion program on children's oral health.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana Paula S; Rank, Rise C I C; Vilela, Joana Estela R; Rank, Marcos S; Ogawa, Wataro N; Molina, Omar F

    2017-09-25

    To assess the efficacy of the Baby's Mouth early dental care prevention and promotion program in preventing oral diseases (caries, gingivitis, or malocclusions) in children attended since 2010. This was a cross-sectional and cohort study that assessed 252 children between 36 and 60 months of age in both sexes. The children were divided into three groups: G1: effective participants of the program from birth; G2: children who have stopped participating for more than 24 months, and G3: children who have never attended a prevention program. The evaluation was carried out in two stages: first, an interview with the mothers and, afterwards, a clinical children examination to assess the presence of caries, gingivitis, and malocclusion. The chi-squared test was used for statistical analysis between groups (p<0.05). The diseases assessed were: caries (G1: 5.9%, G2: 54.7%, G3: 70%), gingivitis (G1: 8.3%, G2: 17.9%, G3: 40.5%), and malocclusion (G1: 22.6%; G2: 28.6%; G3: 50%). For gingivitis, there was no significant difference when comparing G1 and G2 (p=0.107), but it was significant between G1 and G3 (p<0.001). Regarding malocclusion, a statistically significant relationship was observed (p=0.004) among all groups. The prevention and promotion program in public oral health was effective in preventing caries disease, gingivitis, and malocclusion in children under 5 years of age. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits.

    PubMed

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Chi, Donald L; Momany, Elizabeth T; Kuthy, Raymond A; Carter, Knute D; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended parallel process model was used as a theoretical framework for this research. This model suggests that people will act if the perceived threat (severity and susceptibility) is high enough and if efficacy levels (self-efficacy and response efficacy) are likewise high. Following Witte's method of categorizing people's perceptions and emotions into one of four categories based on levels of threat and efficacy, this article describes four groups (high threat/high efficacy, high threat/low efficacy, low threat/high efficacy, and low threat/low efficacy) of parents and how they compare to each other. Using logistic regression to model if a child had a preventive visit, results indicate that parents with low threat/high efficacy and parents with high threat/high efficacy had approximately 2.5 times the odds of having a child with a preventive oral health visit compared to parents with low threat/low efficacy, when controlling for perceived oral health status, health literacy, and child's age. The importance of efficacy needs to be incorporated in interventions aimed at increasing preventive dental visits for young children.

  10. Safety and efficacy of propofol administered by paediatricians during procedural sedation in children.

    PubMed

    Chiaretti, Antonio; Benini, Franca; Pierri, Filomena; Vecchiato, Katy; Ronfani, Luca; Agosto, Caterina; Ventura, Alessandro; Genovese, Orazio; Barbi, Egidio

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the safety and the efficacy of paediatrician-administered propofol in children undergoing different painful procedures. We conducted a retrospective study over a 12-year period in three Italian hospitals. A specific training protocol was developed in each institution to train paediatricians administering propofol for painful procedures. In this study, 36,516 procedural sedations were performed. Deep sedation was achieved in all patients. None of the children experienced severe side effects or prolonged hospitalisation. There were six calls to the emergency team (0.02%): three for prolonged laryngospasm, one for bleeding, one for intestinal perforation and one during lumbar puncture. Nineteen patients (0.05%) developed hypotension requiring saline solution administration, 128 children (0.4%) needed O2 ventilation by face mask, mainly during upper endoscopy, 78 (0.2%) patients experienced laryngospasm, and 15 (0.04%) had bronchospasm. There were no differences in the incidence of major complications among the three hospitals, while minor complications were higher in children undergoing gastroscopy. This multicentre study demonstrates the safety and the efficacy of paediatrician-administered propofol for procedural sedation in children and highlights the importance of appropriate training for paediatricians to increase the safety of this procedure in children. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Increasing self-drinking for children with feeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kathryn M; Volkert, Valerie M; Zeleny, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often do not self-drink without treatment. Unfortunately, the literature on self-drinking is scarce. We evaluated differential positive reinforcement to increase self-drinking for 2 children with feeding disorders. Results showed that differential positive reinforcement with tangible items increased self-drinking for both children in the absence of nonremoval of the cup.

  12. Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children's aspirations and career trajectories.

    PubMed

    Bandura, A; Barbaranelli, C; Caprara, G V; Pastorelli, C

    2001-01-01

    This prospective study tested with 272 children a structural model of the network of sociocognitive influences that shape children's career aspirations and trajectories. Familial socioeconomic status is linked to children's career trajectories only indirectly through its effects on parents' perceived efficacy and academic aspirations. The impact of parental self-efficacy and aspirations on their children's perceived career efficacy and choice is, in turn, entirely mediated through the children's perceived efficacy and academic aspirations. Children's perceived academic, social, and self-regulatory efficacy influence the types of occupational activities for which they judge themselves to be efficacious both directly and through their impact on academic aspirations. Perceived occupational self-efficacy gives direction to the kinds of career pursuits children seriously consider for their life's work and those they disfavor. Children's perceived efficacy rather than their actual academic achievement is the key determinant of their perceived occupational self-efficacy and preferred choice of worklife. Analyses of gender differences reveal that perceived occupational self-efficacy predicts traditionality of career choice.

  13. Clinical efficacy of tiotropium in children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Chen, Ying; Long, Zhen; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Shu, Junhua

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of tiotropium in children with asthma. Methods: Eighty children with newly diagnosed moderate persistent asthma were enrolled into this study. The children were randomly assigned to the fluticasone propionate aerosol group or the fluticasone propionate aerosol plus tiotropium group for 12 weeks. Results: Lung function was significantly improved in both groups at 4, 8, and 12 weeks compared with baseline (P < 0.01). Moreover, lung function was significantly improved in the tiotropium group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of severe asthma between the two groups (36.3% and 26.8%, respectively; P > 0.05). Compared with the control group, the number of days and frequency of short-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist use was significantly reduced in the tiotropium group (P < 0.05). Awakenings during the night were also significantly decreased (P < 0.00). There were no severe adverse reactions in either of the study groups. Conclusion: Tiotropium could significantly improve lung function, reduce the use of short-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonists, and improve sleep in children with asthma. Furthermore, few adverse reactions were reported. PMID:27182262

  14. Increasing calorie consumption in children with cystic fibrosis: replication with 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Stark, L J; Knapp, L G; Bowen, A M; Powers, S W; Jelalian, E; Evans, S; Passero, M A; Mulvihill, M M; Hovell, M

    1993-01-01

    Three mildly malnourished children with cystic fibrosis and their parents participated in a behavioral group-treatment program that focused on promoting and maintaining increased calorie consumption. Treatment included nutritional education, gradually increasing calorie goals, contingency management, and relaxation training, and was evaluated in a multiple baseline design across four meals. Children's calorie intake increased across meals, and total calorie intake was 32% to 60% above baseline at posttreatment. Increased calorie consumption was maintained at the 96-week follow-up (2 years posttreatment). The children's growth rates in weight and height were greater during the 2 years following treatment than the year prior to treatment. Increases in pace of eating and calories consumed per minute were also observed 1 year posttreatment. These findings replicated and extended earlier research supporting the efficacy of behavioral intervention in the treatment of malnutrition in children with cystic fibrosis. Images Figure 3 PMID:8307828

  15. In-Service Training for Increasing Teachers' ADHD Knowledge and Self-Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Latouche, Alexandre Pascal; Gascoigne, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the efficacy of a brief in-service training workshop at increasing primary school teachers' ADHD knowledge and sense of self-efficacy. Teachers from 10 schools participated in the study ( n = 274) and were allocated into either an intervention or waitlist control group. Teachers' ADHD knowledge and self-efficacy were assessed following the provision of a brief training workshop on ADHD. Knowledge and self-efficacy retention were also assessed at a 1-month follow-up. Within the intervention group, ADHD knowledge and self-efficacy increased following the intervention (both ps < .001). Knowledge increased more than twofold, from very low to high levels, although increases in self-efficacy were more modest. Both knowledge and self-efficacy decreased at the 1-month follow-up but, nevertheless, remained higher than baseline levels ( p < .001). Results demonstrate that a brief training workshop can increase primary school teachers' ADHD knowledge and self-efficacy. Whilst increases in self-efficacy were modest, our findings suggest that a brief professional development intervention can be utilized to greatly increase teachers' ADHD knowledge, providing a cost-effective, practical solution to address this well-evidenced gap in teachers' training and knowledge about the disorder.

  16. Efficacy of a cartoon and photograph montage storybook in preparing children for voiding cystourethrogram.

    PubMed

    Gebarski, Kathleen S; Daley, Jamie; Gebarski, Matthew W; Keshavarzi, Nahid; Hernandez, Ramiro J; Ivanzic, Vesna; Gebarski, Stephen S

    2013-11-01

    Undergoing voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) can be distressing for children. To assess the efficacy of a cartoon and photograph montage storybook in preparing children for VCUG. Outpatient children (ages 2-14 years) who had VCUGs between December 2011 and June 2012 were randomly assigned to two groups; one group received the storybook a week before the procedure. Parents and guardians were asked to complete an anonymous survey rating their child's tolerance of the exam from 1 to 5, worst to best, immediately after VCUG. The VCUG technologist also rated the child's tolerance. Children prepared for VCUG with the storybook had less distress than those without. Results were analyzed by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel and Cochran-Armitage Trend exact tests, a P value of both tests of 0.0092 indicating a statistically significant difference between the tolerance scores of children prepared with the storybook and those without. Effects of gender and history of VCUG were not statistically significant. Two-thirds of all children had no other source of information. The cartoon and photograph montage storybook format of preparing children for VCUG was effective in increasing their tolerance for the procedure. The storybook should be mailed out in advance because the majority of families did not pursue information on preparing their children for VCUG.

  17. Efficacy of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in children in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Villar, Luis; Dayan, Gustavo Horacio; Arredondo-García, José Luis; Rivera, Doris Maribel; Cunha, Rivaldo; Deseda, Carmen; Reynales, Humberto; Costa, Maria Selma; Morales-Ramírez, Javier Osvaldo; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Rey, Luis Carlos; Dietze, Reynaldo; Luz, Kleber; Rivas, Enrique; Miranda Montoya, Maria Consuelo; Cortés Supelano, Margarita; Zambrano, Betzana; Langevin, Edith; Boaz, Mark; Tornieporth, Nadia; Saville, Melanie; Noriega, Fernando

    2015-01-08

    In light of the increasing rate of dengue infections throughout the world despite vector-control measures, several dengue vaccine candidates are in development. In a phase 3 efficacy trial of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in five Latin American countries where dengue is endemic, we randomly assigned healthy children between the ages of 9 and 16 years in a 2:1 ratio to receive three injections of recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) or placebo at months 0, 6, and 12 under blinded conditions. The children were then followed for 25 months. The primary outcome was vaccine efficacy against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue (VCD), regardless of disease severity or serotype, occurring more than 28 days after the third injection. A total of 20,869 healthy children received either vaccine or placebo. At baseline, 79.4% of an immunogenicity subgroup of 1944 children had seropositive status for one or more dengue serotypes. In the per-protocol population, there were 176 VCD cases (with 11,793 person-years at risk) in the vaccine group and 221 VCD cases (with 5809 person-years at risk) in the control group, for a vaccine efficacy of 60.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.0 to 68.0). In the intention-to-treat population (those who received at least one injection), vaccine efficacy was 64.7% (95% CI, 58.7 to 69.8). Serotype-specific vaccine efficacy was 50.3% for serotype 1, 42.3% for serotype 2, 74.0% for serotype 3, and 77.7% for serotype 4. Among the severe VCD cases, 1 of 12 was in the vaccine group, for an intention-to-treat vaccine efficacy of 95.5%. Vaccine efficacy against hospitalization for dengue was 80.3%. The safety profile for the CYD-TDV vaccine was similar to that for placebo, with no marked difference in rates of adverse events. The CYD-TDV dengue vaccine was efficacious against VCD and severe VCD and led to fewer hospitalizations for VCD in five Latin American countries where dengue is endemic. (Funded by Sanofi Pasteur

  18. That's a good one! Belief in efficacy of mnemonic strategies contributes to age-related increase in associative memory.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Ofen, Noa

    2015-08-01

    The development of associative memory during childhood may be influenced by metacognitive factors. Here, one aspect of metamemory function--belief in strategy efficacy-was tested for a role in the effective use of encoding strategies. A sample of 61 children and adults (8-25 years of age) completed an associative recognition memory test and were assessed on belief in the efficacy of encoding strategies. Independent of age, belief ratings identified two factors: "deep" and "shallow" encoding strategies. Although the strategy factor structure was stable across age, adolescents and adults were more likely to prefer using a deep encoding strategy, whereas children were equally likely to prefer a shallow strategy. Belief ratings of deep encoding strategies increased with age and, critically, accounted for better associative recognition.

  19. Algorithm for Designing Nanoscale Supramolecular Therapeutics with Increased Anticancer Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ashish; Pandey, Prithvi; Rao, Poornima; Mahmoud, Ayaat; Goldman, Aaron; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Parcha, Shashikanth; Natarajan, Siva Kumar; Chandrasekar, Vineethkrishna; Dinulescu, Daniela; Roy, Sudip; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2016-09-27

    In the chemical world, evolution is mirrored in the origin of nanoscale supramolecular structures from molecular subunits. The complexity of function acquired in a supramolecular system over a molecular subunit can be harnessed in the treatment of cancer. However, the design of supramolecular nanostructures is hindered by a limited atomistic level understanding of interactions between building blocks. Here, we report the development of a computational algorithm, which we term Volvox after the first multicellular organism, that sequentially integrates quantum mechanical energy-state- and force-field-based models with large-scale all-atomistic explicit water molecular dynamics simulations to design stable nanoscale lipidic supramolecular structures. In one example, we demonstrate that Volvox enables the design of a nanoscale taxane supramolecular therapeutic. In another example, we demonstrate that Volvox can be extended to optimizing the ratio of excipients to form a stable nanoscale supramolecular therapeutic. The nanoscale taxane supramolecular therapeutic exerts greater antitumor efficacy than a clinically used taxane in vivo. Volvox can emerge as a powerful tool in the design of nanoscale supramolecular therapeutics for effective treatment of cancer.

  20. INCREASED VISUAL BEHAVIOR IN LOW VISION CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARRAGA, NATALIE

    TEN PAIRS OF BLIND CHILDREN AGED SIX TO 13 YEARS WHO HAD SOME VISION WERE MATCHED BY PRETEST SCORES ON A TEST OF VISUAL DISCRIMINATION. A CRITERION GROUP, DESIGNATED THE PRINT COMPARISON GROUP, HAD SLIGHLY HIGHER RECORDED DISTANCE ACUITIES AND USED VISION AS THE PRIMARY MEANS OF LEARNING. PAIRS OF EXPERIMENTAL SUBJECTS DAILY RECEIVED 45 MINUTES OF…

  1. Efficacy and safety of oral sildenafil in children with Down syndrome and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Beghetti, Maurice; Rudzinski, Andrzej; Zhang, Min

    2017-07-04

    Despite the increased risk for pulmonary hypertension in children with Down syndrome, the response to treatment with targeted therapies for pulmonary hypertension in these patients is not well characterized. The Sildenafil in Treatment-naive children, Aged 1-17 years, with pulmonary arterial hypertension (STARTS-1) trial was a dose-ranging study of the short-term efficacy and safety of oral sildenafil in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. We assessed the safety and efficacy of oral sildenafil in children with Down syndrome and pulmonary arterial hypertension. This was a post-hoc analysis of children with Down syndrome and pulmonary arterial hypertension enrolled in the STARTS-1 trial. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI), and cardiac index (CI) were assessed at baseline and following 16 weeks of treatment with sildenafil. Of 234 patients randomized and treated in the STARTS-1 trial, 48 (20.5%) had Down syndrome. Although sildenafil produced dose-related reductions in PVRI and mPAP, compared with placebo, in non-Down syndrome patients and children developmentally able to exercise, this was not satisfactorily marked in patients with Down syndrome. The dose-related reductions in PVRI, compared with placebo, occurred in all subgroups, with the exception of the Down syndrome subgroup. Sildenafil appeared to be well tolerated in the Down syndrome subpopulation and the most frequently reported AEs were similar to those reported for the entire STARTS-1 population. Sildenafil treatment for 16 weeks had no effect on PVRI or mPAP in children with Down syndrome and pulmonary arterial hypertension. The results suggest that children with Down syndrome may be less responsive to sildenafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension, but the incomplete work-up for the etiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension may have introduced a potential bias. Study received, September 8, 2005 (retrospectively registered); Study start

  2. Intervention efficacy and intensity for children with speech sound disorder.

    PubMed

    Allen, Melissa M

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians do not have an evidence base they can use to recommend optimum intervention intensity for preschool children who present with speech sound disorder (SSD). This study examined the effect of dose frequency on phonological performance and the efficacy of the multiple oppositions approach. Fifty-four preschool children with SSD were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions. Two intervention conditions received the multiple oppositions approach either 3 times per week for 8 weeks (P3) or once weekly for 24 weeks (P1). A control (C) condition received a storybook intervention. Percentage of consonants correct (PCC) was evaluated at 8 weeks and after 24 sessions. PCC gain was examined after a 6-week maintenance period. The P3 condition had a significantly better phonological outcome than the P1 and C conditions at 8 weeks and than the P1 condition after 24 weeks. There were no significant differences between the P1 and C conditions. There was no significant difference between the P1 and P3 conditions in PCC gain during the maintenance period. Preschool children with SSD who received the multiple oppositions approach made significantly greater gains when they were provided with a more intensive dose frequency and when cumulative intervention intensity was held constant.

  3. Riboflavin in cyclic vomiting syndrome: efficacy in three children.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Esteve Melnikova, Anastasia; Schäppi, Michela G; Korff, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome is an episodic disorder considered to be a migraine variant. Riboflavin is efficient in the prophylactic treatment of migraines in adults. We describe the effectiveness and tolerance of riboflavin treatment in three children with cyclic vomiting syndrome. All of them fulfilled the diagnosis criteria for cyclic vomiting syndrome. They received prophylactic monotherapy with riboflavin for at least 12 months. Excellent response and tolerability was observed. Based on clinical observation in three cases, riboflavin may be an effective and safe prophylactic treatment for children with cyclic vomiting syndrome. CVS is one of the "childhood periodic syndromes" classified as a migraine subtype by the International Headache Society. Riboflavin is currently used as a prophylactic treatment in patients with migraine. Riboflavin may be an effective and safe prophylactic treatment for children with CVS. Increasing doses of riboflavin and long periods of prophylaxis may be needed in some children..

  4. Atomoxetine and Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with ADHD: The Efficacy, Tolerability and Effects on Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Ozlem; Sismanlar, Sahika G.; Memik, Nursu Cakin; Karakaya, Isik; Agaoglu, Belma

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the safety, efficacy, tolerability, and the effects of atomoxetine and OROS-MPH on executive functions in children with ADHD. This study was an open-label study that only included two medication groups. Children were randomized to open-label atomoxetine or OROS-MPH for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy measures were…

  5. Atomoxetine and Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with ADHD: The Efficacy, Tolerability and Effects on Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Ozlem; Sismanlar, Sahika G.; Memik, Nursu Cakin; Karakaya, Isik; Agaoglu, Belma

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the safety, efficacy, tolerability, and the effects of atomoxetine and OROS-MPH on executive functions in children with ADHD. This study was an open-label study that only included two medication groups. Children were randomized to open-label atomoxetine or OROS-MPH for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy measures were…

  6. Parenting Efficacy and Health-promoting Behaviors for Children of Mothers from Native and Multicultural Families in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sophia Jihey; Bang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the levels of parenting efficacy and health-promoting behaviors for children of mothers, and to explore the relationships between parenting efficacy and the behaviors of mothers from native and multicultural families in South Korea. Data was collected by a self-report questionnaire completed by 258 mothers who had 6-month to 36-month-old children attending kindergartens or multicultural family support centers located in Seoul and in Gyeounggi Province, South Korea. No significant difference in parenting efficacy was found, depending on the maternal country of origin. However, Chinese mothers performed health-promoting behaviors more frequently for their children than Korean and Vietnamese mothers did (F = 6.87, p < .001). The significant positive correlations between parenting efficacy and maternal health-promoting behaviors for children were found, regardless of maternal country of origin (r = .57, p < .001 for Korean, r = .42, p < .001 for Chinese, and r= .40, p < .001 for Vietnamese mothers). Since maternal health-promoting behaviors were different depending on the native country of the mothers, maternal country of origin should be considered in designing programs for improving maternal health-promoting behaviors for their children. In addition, increasing the level of parenting efficacy can be an effective way for improvement of maternal health-promoting behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Headache in school children: is the prevalence increasing?

    PubMed

    Albers, Lucia; von Kries, Rüdiger; Heinen, Florian; Straube, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this systematic review were to examine age dependency of headache prevalence in school age children and to assess secular trends of headache prevalence in the last decade, gender and regional differences. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE to identify all prevalence studies in children and adolescents. Five hundred seventy studies were found, of which 37 studies could be included for this review. Headache prevalence in school children increases with their age as demonstrated in cohorts of identical children and cross-sectional surveys covering different age groups of children in one population. Regarding a potential general increase in the prevalence of headache in children and adolescents in the last decade, there are four studies which all show some increase of headache prevalence; however, the degree of increase is varying. Prevalence of headache in girls appears to be higher than in boys. There were no clear regional differences in the prevalence of headache.

  8. Safety and efficacy of overnight orthokeratology in myopic children.

    PubMed

    Mika, Renée; Morgan, Bruce; Cron, Michael; Lotoczky, Josh; Pole, John

    2007-05-01

    This prospective case series was conducted to describe the safety and efficacy of orthokeratology with the Emerald Contact Lens for Overnight Orthokeratology (Oprifocon A; Euclid Systems Corporation, Herndon, Virginia) among young myopes. Twenty subjects (ages 10 to 16) were enrolled in the 6-month pilot study. Subjects were fit empirically with overnight orthokeratology lenses and evaluated at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, and 6 months. Sixteen subjects completed the study. The mean baseline spherical equivalent refraction (SER) was -2.06 diopters (D) (+/-0.75). The mean SER at 6 months was -0.16 D (+/-0.38). The mean baseline uncorrected acuity was 0.78 (+/-0.28) logarithmic minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) equivalent (20/100 Snellen). The mean logMAR equivalent at 6 months was -0.03 +/- 0.12 (<20/20 Snellen). On average, 40% of eyes showed some type of corneal staining between the 1-week and 6-month visits. No serious adverse events occurred during the study. In contrast to previously published studies that reported maximum results at 2 weeks, subjects reached maximum reduction in myopia at the 1-week visit and, on average, obtained a 92.2% reduction in spherical equivalent refractive error at 6 months. This pilot study lends to a growing body of evidence that short-term correction of mild to moderate myopia with overnight orthokeratology is safe and efficacious in children and adolescents.

  9. Increased efficacy of photodynamic therapy via sequential targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Aggarwal, Neha; Sloane, Bonnie F.

    2014-03-01

    Photokilling depends on the generation of death signals after photosensitized cells are irradiated. A variety of intracellular organelles can be targeted for photodamage, often with a high degree of specificity. We have discovered that a low level of photodamage directed against lysosomes can sensitize both a murine hepatoma cell line (in 2D culture) and an inflammatory breast cancer line of human origin (in a 3D model) to subsequent photodamage directed at mitochondria. Additional studies were carried out with hepatoma cells to explore possible mechanisms. The phototoxic effect of the `sequential targeting' approach was associated with an increased apoptotic response. The low level of lysosomal photodamage did not lead to any detectable migration of Fe++ from lysosomes to mitochondria or increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation after subsequent mitochondrial photodamage. Instead, there appears to be a signal generated that can amplify the pro-apoptotic effect of subsequent mitochondrial photodamage.

  10. Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 Increases Efficacy of Distraction Enterogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sueyoshi, Ryo; Ralls, Mathew W.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Application of distractive forces to small bowel induces intestinal growth, or enterogenesis. This emerging area of research may provide treatment for short bowel syndrome (SBS). Glucagon-like peptide 2(GLP-2) has also been reported to induce small bowel growth after bowel resection. We hypothesized that exogenous GLP-2 will result in enhanced distraction-induced enterogenesis. Methods Distraction-induced model was performed in 10-week-old C57B6 mice using osmotic forces with high molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG-stretch). Four groups were studied: Control group (PEG−/GLP-2−); PEG-stretch (PEG+/GLP-2−); GLP-2 control (PEG−/GLP-2+); and GLP-2 stretch (PEG+/GLP-2+). GLP-2 was given via subcutaneous osmotic pump over the 5 days of experiment. Morphology was measured by histomicrography. Epithelial cell (EC) proliferation was measured with PCNA immunofluorescent staining. Total intestinal growth and blood vessel volume was assessed with Micro CT volumetry. VEGF, FGF1 and 2, and PDGF were measured by RT-PCR. Results EC proliferation increased significantly in all groups compared to Controls, but was greatest in the GLP-2 stretch group. Diameter and length significantly increased in the PEG stretch and GLP-2 stretch groups. Moreover, there was statistically greater diameter, crypt depth and EC proliferation in the GLP-2 stretch vs. PEG stretch groups. GLP-2 stretch vessel volume was greater than all other groups and was significantly increased compared to controls. The relative expression of PDGF increased significantly in the PEG stretch group vs. the control group. Conclusions GLP-2 had an additive effect on EC proliferation, tissue growth, histomorphology and vascularization. The combination of enterogenesis and GLP-2 may yield an improved approach to treat SBS. PMID:23639355

  11. Associations among Depression, Perceived Self-Efficacy and Immune Function and Health in Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Caserta, Mary T.; Wyman, Peter A.; Wang, Hongyue; Moynihan, Jan; O’Connor, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental animal studies and adult research consistently show that stress exposure and/or psychological symptoms are associated with poorer health and immune function. The application to children is not yet clear, however, and we lack developmental models for studies in this area. The objective of this paper was to test the hypothesis that self-reported self-efficacy and depression, two markers of psychological well-being in children, would predict immunity and rate of illnesses. The data are based on a prospective study of 141 healthy, normally developing children aged 7 – 13 years who were recruited from an ambulatory pediatric setting. Children completed self-efficacy and depression measures and had blood obtained for IL-6 plasma levels and natural killer (NK) cell functional assays on three occasions, six months apart. Parents maintained weekly child illness diaries over one year, using a thermometer to record fever. Parent psychiatric symptoms and income were used as covariates. Results indicated that, across the three occasions of measurement collected over the one-year period, higher perceived self-efficacy was significantly associated with lower plasma IL-6 concentrations. There was no overall main effect of depressive symptoms on immune measures; however, for older girls, higher depression was associated with elevated NK cell cytotoxicity and an increased rate of total illnesses and febrile illnesses. The findings provide some of the first evidence that psychological processes are associated with immunity and health in a normally developing sample of pre-adolescents. Furthermore, the pattern of results suggests a modified model of a link between psychological well-being and immunological processes in children. These results build on and expand research on the notion of allostatic load, and develop a groundwork for developmental studies in this area. PMID:22018086

  12. Associations among depression, perceived self-efficacy, and immune function and health in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Mary T; Wyman, Peter A; Wang, Hongyue; Moynihan, Jan; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2011-11-01

    Experimental animal studies and adult research consistently show that stress exposure and/or psychological symptoms are associated with poorer health and immune functioning. The application to children is not yet clear, however, and we lack developmental models for studies in this area. The objective of this paper was to test the hypothesis that self-reported self-efficacy and depression, two markers of psychological well-being in children, would predict immunity and rate of illnesses. The data are based on a prospective study of 141 healthy, normally developing children aged 7-13 years who were recruited from an ambulatory pediatric setting. Children completed self-efficacy and depression measures and had blood obtained for IL-6 plasma levels and natural killer cell functional assays on three occasions, 6 months apart. Parents maintained weekly child illness diaries over 1 year using a thermometer to record fever. Parent psychiatric symptoms and income were used as covariates. Results indicated that, across the three occasions of measurement collected over the 1-year period, higher perceived self-efficacy was significantly associated with lower plasma interleukin 6 concentrations. There was no overall main effect of depressive symptoms on immune measures; however, for older girls, higher depression was associated with elevated natural killer cell cytotoxicity and an increased rate of total illnesses and febrile illnesses. The findings provide some of the first evidence that psychological processes are associated with immunity and health in a normally developing sample of preadolescents. Furthermore, the pattern of results suggests a modified model of a link between psychological well-being and immunological processes in children. These results build on and expand research on the notion of allostatic load and develop a groundwork for developmental studies in this area.

  13. Efficacy and effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Coelingh, Kathleen; Olajide, Ifedapo Rosemary; MacDonald, Peter; Yogev, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of high efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from randomized controlled trials is strong for children 2-6 years of age, but fewer data exist for older school-age children. We reviewed the published data on efficacy and effectiveness of LAIV in children ≥5 years. QUOSA (Elsevier database) was searched for articles published from January 1990 to June 2014 that included 'FluMist', 'LAIV', 'CAIV', 'cold adapted influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated cold adapted' or 'flu mist'. Studies evaluated included randomized controlled trials, effectiveness and indirect protection studies. This review demonstrates that LAIV has considerable efficacy and effectiveness in school-age children.

  14. Efficacy, Intent to Teach, and Implementation of Nutrition Education Increases after Training for Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Shen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, outcome value and strong intentions to teach are linked to teaching competence, curricular implementation and student outcomes. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of nutrition in-service professional development to increase self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, outcome…

  15. Examining the Practicum Experience to Increase Counseling Students' Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikonomopoulos, James; Vela, Javier Cavazos; Smith, Wayne D.; Dell'Aquila, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Counseling graduate students may begin practicum with low self-efficacy regarding their counseling abilities and skills. In the current study, we implemented a small-series (N = 11) single-case research design to assess the effectiveness of the practicum experience to increase counseling students' self-efficacy. Analysis of participants' scores on…

  16. Efficacy of an Emotion Self-regulation Program for Promoting Development in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Raymond Trevor; Galvin, Patrick; Tomasino, Dana

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This work reports the results of an evaluation study to assess the efficacy of the Early HeartSmarts (EHS) program in schools of the Salt Lake City, Utah, School District. The EHS program is designed to guide teachers with methods that support young children (3–6 y old) in learning emotion self-regulation and key age-appropriate socioemotional competencies with the goal of facilitating their emotional, social, and cognitive development. The study was conducted over one school year using a quasiexperimental longitudinal field research design with 3 measurement points (baseline, preintervention, and postintervention) using The Creative Curriculum Assessment (TCCA), a teacher-scored, 50-item instrument measuring students growth in 4 areas of development: social/emotional, physical, cognitive, and language development. Children in 19 preschool classrooms in the Salt Lake City School District were divided into intervention and control group samples (n = 66 and n = 309, respectively; mean age = 3.6 y). The intervention classes were specifically selected to target children of lower socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds. Overall, there is compelling evidence of the efficacy of the EHS program in increasing total psychosocial development and each of the 4 development areas measured by the TCCA: the results of a series of analyses of covariance found a strong, consistent pattern of large, significant differences on the development measures favoring preschool children who received the EHS program over those in the control group. PMID:24278801

  17. Efficacy of an Emotion Self-regulation Program for Promoting Development in Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Raymond Trevor; Galvin, Patrick; Atkinson, Mike; Tomasino, Dana

    2012-03-01

    This work reports the results of an evaluation study to assess the efficacy of the Early HeartSmarts (EHS) program in schools of the Salt Lake City, Utah, School District. The EHS program is designed to guide teachers with methods that support young children (3-6 y old) in learning emotion self-regulation and key age-appropriate socioemotional competencies with the goal of facilitating their emotional, social, and cognitive development. The study was conducted over one school year using a quasiexperimental longitudinal field research design with 3 measurement points (baseline, preintervention, and postintervention) using The Creative Curriculum Assessment (TCCA), a teacher-scored, 50-item instrument measuring students growth in 4 areas of development: social/emotional, physical, cognitive, and language development. Children in 19 preschool classrooms in the Salt Lake City School District were divided into intervention and control group samples (n = 66 and n = 309, respectively; mean age = 3.6 y). The intervention classes were specifically selected to target children of lower socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds. Overall, there is compelling evidence of the efficacy of the EHS program in increasing total psychosocial development and each of the 4 development areas measured by the TCCA: the results of a series of analyses of covariance found a strong, consistent pattern of large, significant differences on the development measures favoring preschool children who received the EHS program over those in the control group.

  18. Increasing Preventive Health Care in Young Children through Parental Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Sarah L.

    A health specialist serving a child care program in a metropolitan ghetto implemented a practicum to increase parent involvement with the health needs of their children. Goals were to: (1) ensure preventive and follow-up health care of children by increasing parents' use of medical resources; and (2) provide continuous education to parents in…

  19. Increasing Response Diversity in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napolitano, Deborah A.; Smith, Tristram; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Goodkin, Karen; McAdam, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive and invariant behavior is a diagnostic feature of autism. We implemented a lag reinforcement schedule to increase response diversity for 6 participants with autism aged 6 to 10 years, 4 of whom also received prompting plus additional training. These procedures appeared to increase the variety of building-block structures, demonstrating…

  20. Self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness in middle school children: examination of a pedometer intervention program.

    PubMed

    Manley, Dana; Cowan, Patricia; Graff, Carolyn; Perlow, Michael; Rice, Pamela; Richey, Phyllis; Sanchez, Zoila

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity in children has been associated with a number of health benefits. Unfortunately, physical inactivity continues to increase. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among self-efficacy levels, physical activity, aerobic fitness, and body composition (relative body mass index [RBMI]) and to determine whether a school-based pedometer intervention program would improve those variables. The sample consisted of 116 rural 11- to 13-year-old students. Weakly positive correlations between self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness and weakly correlated inverse relationships between self-efficacy, physical activity, aerobic fitness and RBMI were found. There was no statistical significance between the intervention and control group when analyzing outcome variables. These findings suggest that those with optimal RBMI levels have higher self-efficacy, physical activity and aerobic fitness levels. Although not statistically significant, the intervention group had greater improvements in mean self-efficacy scores, aerobic fitness levels, and RBMI.

  1. [Cochlear implant in children: rational, indications and cost/efficacy].

    PubMed

    Martini, A; Bovo, R; Trevisi, P; Forli, F; Berrettini, S

    2013-06-01

    this advantage persists in the subsequent years. With regard to cochlear implantation in children older than 12 months the studies show better hearing and linguistic results in children implanted at earlier ages. A sensitive period under 24-36 months has been identified over which cochlear implantation is reported to be less effective in terms of improvement in speech and hearing results. With regard to clinical effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implantation, greater benefits from bilateral implants compared to monolateral ones when assessing hearing in quiet and in noise and in sound localization abilities are reported to be present in both case of simultaneous or sequential bilateral implantation. However, with regard to the delay between the surgeries in sequential bilateral implantation, although benefit is reported to be present even after very long delays, on average long delays between surgeries seems to negatively affect the outcome with the second implant. With regard to benefits after cochlear implantation in children with multiple disabilities, benefits in terms of speech perception and communication as well as in quality of the daily life are reported even if benefits are slower and lower in comparison to those generally attained by implanted children without additional disabilities. Regarding the costs/efficacy ratio, the CI is expensive, in particular because of the cost of the high technological device, long life support, but even if healthcare costs are high, the savings in terms of indirect costs and quality of life are important. The CI, in fact, has a positive impact in terms of quality of life.

  2. An Acute Exercise Session Increases Self-Efficacy in Sedentary Endometrial Cancer Survivors and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Daniel; Baum, George; Jovanovic, Jennifer; Carmack, Cindy; Greisinger, Anthony; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Background Self-efficacy can be affected by mastery experiences and somatic sensations. A novel exercise experience and associated sensations may impact self-efficacy and subsequent behaviors. We investigated the effect of a single exercise session on self-efficacy for sedentary endometrial cancer survivors compared with sedentary women of a similar age, but with no cancer history. Methods Twenty survivors and 19 controls completed an exercise session performed as a submaximal cycle ergometry test. Sensations and efficacy were measured before and after exercise. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. Regression models were used to determine predictors of self-efficacy and subsequent exercise. Results Self-efficacy increased for both survivors and controls, but survivors had a higher rate of increase, and the change predicted subsequent exercise. The association between exercise-related somatic sensations and self-efficacy differed between the 2 groups. Conclusions A novel exercise experience had a larger effect on self-efficacy and subsequent exercise activity for endometrial cancer survivors than controls. Somatic sensations experienced during exercise may differ for survivors, which may be related to the experience of having cancer. Understanding factors affecting confidence in novel exercise experiences for populations with specific cancer histories is of the utmost importance in the adoption of exercise behaviors. PMID:21088310

  3. Increased perceived self-efficacy facilitates the extinction of fear in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Preusser, Friederike; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy has been proposed as an important element of a successful cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT). Positive changes in perceived self-efficacy have been linked to an improved adaptive emotional and behavioral responding in the context of anxiety-provoking situations. Furthermore, a positive influence of increased self-efficacy on cognitive functions has been confirmed. The present study examined the effect of verbal persuasion on perceived self-efficacy and fear extinction. Healthy participants were subjected to a standardized differential fear conditioning paradigm. After fear acquisition, half of the participants received a verbal persuasion aimed at increasing perceived self-efficacy. The extinction of fear was assessed immediately thereafter on both the implicit and explicit level. Our results suggest that an increased perceived self-efficacy was associated with enhanced extinction, evidenced on the psychophysiological level and accompanied by more pronounced decrements in conditioned negative valence. Changes in extinction were not due to a decrease in overall emotional reactivity to conditioned stimuli (CS). In addition, debriefing participants about the false positive feedback did not affect the processing of already extinguished conditioned responses during a subsequent continued extinction phase. Our results suggest that positive changes in perceived self-efficacy can be beneficial for emotional learning. Findings are discussed with respect to strategies aimed at increasing extinction learning in the course of exposure-based treatments. PMID:26528152

  4. Enhancing the Academic Development of Shy Children: A Test of the Efficacy of INSIGHTS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin E.; Cappella, Elise; McCormick, Meghan P.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of the INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament intervention in supporting the academic development of shy kindergarten and first-grade children. INSIGHTS is a temperament-based intervention with teacher, parent, and classroom programs. The participants included 345 children from 22 low-income, urban elementary…

  5. [Increasing dosage: a momentous proposition to improve therapeutic efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao-He; Yan, Dan; Jin, Cheng; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2008-02-01

    To explore a key approach for improving therapeutic efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine by means of increasing its dosage. The rationality, necessity and feasibility of this proposition were explained and verified by the retrospective and prospective analysis about the current situation of therapeutic efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine, the relationship between dosage and therapeutic efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine, the rationality of conventional dosage specification. The unremarkable therapeutic efficacy was the main reason of traditional Chinese medicine to be denounced frequently, which was heavily due to its low dosage. However, many cases showed excellent therapeutic efficacy if a big dosage was used. Compared with the clinical dosage of western medicine and curative dose of active substance from traditional Chinese medicine or crude drugs, the specification of the conventional dosage of traditional Chinese medicine failed to be rigorous and objective. The viewpoint of "Cooking pot size limitation" and "Human stomach size limitation" may be the bottleneck which restricted the increase of traditional dosage. In conclusion, to increase the dosage of traditional Chinese medicine and elucidate the relationship between dosage and therapeutic efficacy would be a momentous and essential method to improve the therapeutic efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine.

  6. Changing the School Environment to Increase Physical Activity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Foster, Randal C.; McCrady, Shelly K.; Manohar, Chinmay; Jensen, Teresa B.; Mitre, Naim G.; Hill, James O.; Levine, James A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the hypothesis that elementary school-age children will be more physically active while attending school in a novel, activity-permissive school environment compared to their traditional school environment RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES Twenty-four children were monitored with a single triaxial accelerometer worn on the thigh. The students attended school in three different environments: traditional school with chairs and desks, an activity-permissive environment, and finally their traditional school with desks which encouraged standing. Data from the school children was compared with another group of age-matched children (n = 16) whose physical activity was monitored during summer vacation. RESULTS When children attended school in their traditional environment, they moved an average (mean ± standard deviation) 71 ± 0.4 m/s2. When the children attended school in the activity-permissive environment, they moved an average of 115 ± 3 m/s2. The children moved 71 ± 0.7 m/s2 while attending the traditional school with standing desks. Children moved significantly more while attending school in the activity-permissive environment compared to the amount that they moved in either of the traditional school environments (P<0.0001 for both). Comparing children’s activity while they were on summer vacation (113 ± 8 m/s2) to school-bound children in their traditional environment showed significantly more activity for the children on summer vacation (P<0.0001). The school children in the activity-permissive environment were as active as children on summer vacation. DISCUSSION Children will move more in an activity-permissive environment. Strategies to increase the activity of school children may involve re-designing the school itself. PMID:18535550

  7. Shared Relationship Efficacy of Dyad Can Increase Life Satisfaction in Close Relationships: Multilevel Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kenichi; Yoshida, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of relationship itself play an important role in determining well-being of individuals who participate in the relationship. We used efficacy expectations mutually shared between close friends or romantic partners as a characteristic of relationship and investigated its impact on their life satisfaction. In Study 1, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 137 pairs of close same-sex friends to test whether the efficacy expectations shared between friends are associated with levels of life satisfaction. In Study 2, we conducted a longitudinal study among 114 heterosexual romantic couples to test predictive validity of the efficacy expectations shared between couples predict levels of life satisfaction 2 month later. In both studies we found a consistent result that as degrees of the efficacy expectations shared between individuals in a relationship increased, the degree of their life satisfaction also increased. Underlying mechanisms that explain how characteristics of relationship itself increase life satisfaction are discussed. PMID:27437946

  8. Has Poverty Really Increased among Children since 1970? Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan E.; Jencks, Christopher

    After a century of fairly steady decline, the official poverty rate among American children increased from 14.0% in 1969 to 19.6% in 1989, suggesting that the United States is losing the war on poverty. However, once various defects in the official poverty measure are corrected, it appears that the proportion of children in households with income…

  9. Hospitalizations of Children with Autism Increased from 1999 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayfack, Aaron M.; Huffman, Lynne C.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Chan, Jia; Saynina, Olga; Wise, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of hospital discharges for children with autism, in comparison to children with cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, mental retardation/intellectual disability, and the general population. Hospitalizations for autism increased nearly threefold over 10 years, especially at the oldest ages, while hospitalizations for…

  10. Hospitalizations of Children with Autism Increased from 1999 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayfack, Aaron M.; Huffman, Lynne C.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Chan, Jia; Saynina, Olga; Wise, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of hospital discharges for children with autism, in comparison to children with cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, mental retardation/intellectual disability, and the general population. Hospitalizations for autism increased nearly threefold over 10 years, especially at the oldest ages, while hospitalizations for…

  11. Measuring Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy Related to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Karteroliotis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Background: Social cognitive theory describes self-efficacy and proxy efficacy as influences on fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC). Proxy efficacy was defined as a child's confidence in his or her skills and abilities to get others to act in one's interests to provide fruit and vegetable (FV) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to…

  12. [Increasing prevalence of celiac children with negative serum antigliadin antibodies].

    PubMed

    Caristo, E; Tognato, E; Di Dio, G; Rapa, A; Fonio, P

    2010-04-01

    In the last few years we noted an increasing number of children with celiac disease with negative serum anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA) a useful serologic test to monitor compliance to gluten-free diet. The aim of this study was to verify diagnostic accuracy of AGA and compare clinical characteristics of AGA-negative with AGA-positive celiac children. The authors analyzed serum of AGA-negative celiac children with 3 Elisa kits, and compared clinical and anthropometric data of AGA-negative with AGA-positive celiac children. Celiac disease was diagnosed with small bowel biopsy, and total IgA were determined. Children with IgA-deficiency were excluded. When retested with two other commercial kits, serum values of AGA-negative children were confirmed in all but one. In the last 14 years a diagnosis of celiac disease was performed in 166 children, in 56 of them (33.7%) antigliadin antibodies were negative. Preva-lence of AGA-negative celiac children increased significantly in the last years (from 23% before 2002 to 39.8% after 2002, P=0.04). AGA-negative children were significantly older (7.8 years vs. 3.7 years, P=0.0007) they complained more frequently of abdominal pain (55%, vs. 25,4% P=0.04) and less frequently of anaemia (8% vs. 24.5% P=0.012) and were less likely to have a classical celiac triad (5.3 vs. 22%, P=0.004) than AGA-positive children. Serum AGA seem no longer useful for monitoring compliance to gluten-free diet. In children where AGA are negative at diagnosis, when the child eats a normal amount of gluten, they are going to remain negative even after poor compliance.

  13. Comparison of efficacy of Adeli suit and neurodevelopmental treatments in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Bar-Haim, Simona; Harries, Netta; Belokopytov, Mark; Frank, Alexander; Copeliovitch, Leonel; Kaplanski, Jacob; Lahat, Eli

    2006-05-01

    This study compared the efficacy of Adeli suit treatment (AST) with neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-four children with CP, Levels II to IV according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), were matched by age and functional status and randomly assigned to the AST or NDT treatment groups. In the AST group (n=12; eight males, four females; mean age 8.3 y [SD 2.0]), six children had spastic/ataxic diplegia, one triplegia and five spastic/mixed quadriplegia. In the NDT group (n=12; nine males, three females; mean age 8.1 y [SD 2.2]), five children had spastic diplegia and seven had spastic/mixed quadriplegia. Both groups were treated for 4 weeks (2 hours daily, 5 days per week, 20 sessions). To compare treatments, the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) and the mechanical efficiency index (EIHB) during stair-climbing were measured at baseline, immediately after 1 month of treatment, and 10 months after baseline. The small but significant time effects for GMFM-66 and EIHB that were noted after 1 month of both intensive physiotherapy courses were greater than expected from natural maturation of children with CP at this age. Improvements in motor skills and their retention 9 months after treatment were not significantly different between the two treatment modes. Post hoc analysis indicated a greater increase in EIHB after 1 month (p=0.16) and 10 months (p=0.004) in AST than that in NDT, predominantly in the children with higher motor function (GMFCS Levels II and III). The results suggest that AST might improve mechanical efficiency without a corresponding gain in gross motor skills, especially in children with higher levels of motor function.

  14. Increasing Inequality in Parent Incomes and Children's Schooling.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Greg J; Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M

    2017-08-01

    Income inequality and the achievement test score gap between high- and low-income children increased dramatically in the United States beginning in the 1970s. This article investigates the demographic (family income, mother's education, family size, two-parent family structure, and age of mother at birth) underpinnings of the growing income-based gap in schooling using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Across 31 cohorts, we find that increases in the income gap between high- and low-income children account for approximately three-quarters of the increasing gap in completed schooling, one-half of the gap in college attendance, and one-fifth of the gap in college graduation. We find no consistent evidence of increases in the estimated associations between parental income and children's completed schooling. Increasing gaps in the two-parent family structures of high- and low-income families accounted for relatively little of the schooling gap because our estimates of the (regression-adjusted) associations between family structure and schooling were surprisingly small for much of our accounting period. On the other hand, increasing gaps in mother's age at the time of birth accounts for a substantial portion of the increasing schooling gap: mother's age is consistently predictive of children's completed schooling, and the maternal age gap for children born into low- and high-income families increased considerably over the period.

  15. Distance to health services affects local-level vaccine efficacy for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) among rural Filipino children

    PubMed Central

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Lucero, Marilla; Nohynek, Hanna; Anthamatten, Peter; Thomas, Deborah S. K.; Tallo, Veronica; Tanskanen, Antti; Quiambao, Beatriz P.; Puumalainen, Taneli; Lupisan, Socorro P.; Ruutu, Petri; Ladesma, Erma; Williams, Gail M.; Riley, Ian; Simões, Eric A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have demonstrated efficacy against childhood pneumococcal disease in several regions globally. We demonstrate how spatial epidemiological analysis of a PCV trial can assist in developing vaccination strategies that target specific geographic subpopulations at greater risk for pneumococcal pneumonia. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind vaccine trial that examined the efficacy of an 11-valent PCV among children less than 2 y of age in Bohol, Philippines. Trial data were linked to the residential location of each participant using a geographic information system. We use spatial interpolation methods to create smoothed surface maps of vaccination rates and local-level vaccine efficacy across the study area. We then measure the relationship between distance to the main study hospital and local-level vaccine efficacy, controlling for ecological factors, using spatial autoregressive models with spatial autoregressive disturbances. We find a significant amount of spatial variation in vaccination rates across the study area. For the primary study endpoint vaccine efficacy increased with distance from the main study hospital from −14% for children living less than 1.5 km from Bohol Regional Hospital (BRH) to 55% for children living greater than 8.5 km from BRH. Spatial regression models indicated that after adjustment for ecological factors, distance to the main study hospital was positively related to vaccine efficacy, increasing at a rate of 4.5% per kilometer distance. Because areas with poor access to care have significantly higher VE, targeted vaccination of children in these areas might allow for a more effective implementation of global programs. PMID:24550454

  16. Long-term efficacy and safety of tolterodine in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pramod P; Borgstein, Niels G; Nijman, Rien J M; Ellsworth, Pamela I

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated long-term (> or =12 months) efficacy and safety of tolterodine in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Subjects successfully completed one of three 12-week, open-label studies and had stable neurologic disease and urodynamic evidence of neurogenic detrusor overactivity requiring intermittent catheterization. Drug formulation and dosing were based on age (4 months-4 years, tolterodine oral solution 0.2-2mg twice daily; 5-10 years, tolterodine oral solution 0.5-4 mg twice daily; 11-16 years, tolterodine extended-release capsules 2, 4, or 6 mg once daily). Daily doses were individualized for each subject. Efficacy was evaluated urodynamically and using parent-completed 3-day bladder diaries. Thirty subjects were enrolled. Functional bladder capacity (volume at first leakage, first sensation of bladder fullness or 40 cm H(2)O pressure) increased by month 12 in the younger age groups but not in the oldest subjects. Volume to first detrusor contraction >10 cm H(2)O pressure and detrusor leak point pressure did not change in any age group. The number of incontinence episodes per 24h decreased in all subjects, as did the number of catheterizations per 24h. Mean volume per catheterization increased in all subjects. Seven treatment-related adverse events were reported. Both tolterodine formulations were effective and well tolerated in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

  17. Dividing attention lowers children's but increases adults' false memories.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a divided attention task. The results showed that divided attention affected children's and adults' false memory levels differently but did not alter true memory differently. Our results revealed a developmental shift in that divided attention lowered children's false memory rates but increased adults' false memory rates, regardless of the nature of the material (i.e., neutral or negative). Our study indicates that manipulations that target conscious processing (e.g., divided attention) result in marked qualitative and quantitative differences between children's and adults' false memories but not true memories.

  18. Increasing children's consumption of fruit and vegetables: does the type of exposure matter?

    PubMed

    Osborne, Chelsea L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2012-06-06

    This study sought to determine how eight days of home exposure to information about healthful foods and eating behaviors in the form of children's books and a variety of fruit and vegetables interacted to affect 4- to 8-year-old children's (N=59) consumption of fruit and vegetables. Before and after the home exposure, children participated in a task in which their consumption of a variety of fruit and vegetables that ranged in familiarity was measured. Results indicated that exposure to food and books were both effective at increasing consumption of fruit, but not vegetables. Additionally, children who were exposed to books consumed more of an infrequently consumed fruit presented during the post-test, but only if they had not been exposed to food during the home exposure. Overall, children's fruit consumption increased more if their mothers did not pressure them to eat, and those who were less neophobic were more likely to try a novel fruit or vegetable during the post-test. These findings suggest that information and food variety both can be effective for increasing acceptance of fruit, and highlight the need for more research that investigates the efficacy of intervention strategies that promote vegetable consumption in young children.

  19. Self-Efficacy Beliefs as Shapers of Children's Aspirations and Career Trajectories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandura, Albert; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2001-01-01

    Tested a structural model of the network of sociocognitive influences shaping children's career aspirations and trajectories among 272 early adolescents. Found that subjects' perceived efficacy rather than their actual academic achievement was the key determinant of their perceived occupational self-efficacy and preferred choice of worklife.…

  20. Measuring Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Tutoring Children in Primary Mathematics: An Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerke, Annette Hessen; Eriksen, Elisabeta

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the use of Rasch modelling to develop and validate an instrument measuring self-efficacy in tutoring children in primary mathematics (SETcPM). In response to the literature on teacher efficacy, the 20-item instrument aims to inform teacher educators, and is designed for novice pre-service teachers (nPSTs) preparing to teach…

  1. Relations among Preschool Teachers' Self-Efficacy, Classroom Quality, and Children's Language and Literacy Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations among preschool teachers' self-efficacy (n = 67), classroom quality (instructional and emotional support), and children's (n = 328) gains in print awareness and vocabulary knowledge over an academic year in the US. Results indicated that teachers' self-efficacy and classroom quality served as significant and…

  2. Teacher Self-Efficacy in Working with Children with Autism in the General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Mary Irene

    2014-01-01

    Autism is being diagnosed at an unprecedented rate, with an influx of children with autism being educated in the general education classroom. A positive self-efficacy amongst teachers is imperative as education moves toward the inclusive education model. Bandura theorized a bidirectional approach in the improvement of self-efficacy. The purpose of…

  3. Parental Support and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Children: A Yearlong Cluster-Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Arto; Pesola, Arto J; Finni, Taija; Sääkslahti, Arja

    2017-09-01

    We studied whether physical activity (PA) counseling for parents influenced the level of parental support of children's PA and leisure-time PA in children of different levels of initial parental support. We hypothesized that the initial level of parental support would moderate the intervention efficacy. Children (n = 44, Mage = 6.09 ± 1.17 years) and their parents (n = 61) randomly assigned to an intervention group received counseling for 6 months. Children in the control group (n = 47, Mage = 6.12 ± 1.11 years) and their parents (n = 63) did not receive any counseling. Parental support was assessed using the Family Physical Activity Environment Questionnaire, and children's leisure-time PA was recorded using triaxial accelerometers at baseline, at 6 months, and at 12 months. The efficacy of the intervention was tested by linear mixed-effects modeling adjusted for confounding variables (Model 1) and additionally for children's participation in organized PA or sports (Model 2). Parents within the lowest initial parental support intervention tertile significantly increased their support, and their children's mean level of leisure-time PA significantly improved compared with the corresponding controls during the counseling period. On the other hand, intervention was found to have an unfavorable influence especially in the PA of children of initially highly supportive parents. Targeting PA counseling for parents with low support of their children's PA could contribute to better family-based PA counseling efficacy.

  4. Priming third-party ostracism increases affiliative imitation in children.

    PubMed

    Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2009-04-01

    Human beings are intensely social creatures and, as such, devote significant time and energy to creating and maintaining affiliative bonds with group members. Nevertheless, social relations sometimes collapse and individuals experience exclusion from the group. Fortunately for adults, they are able to use behavioral strategies such as mimicry to reduce their social exclusion. Here we test whether children, too, increase their imitation following an experience of ostracism. Given humans' profound need to belong, we predicted that the mere hint of social exclusion--even third-party social exclusion--would be sufficient to increase affiliative imitation in 5-year-olds. As predicted, children primed with videos in which one shape was ostracized by a group of other shapes subsequently imitated the actions of a model more closely than children in a control condition. These findings highlight just how sensitive humans are to social exclusion and demonstrate that children, like adults, modify their social behavior in response to ostracism.

  5. The Efficacy of Routine Screening for High-Frequency Hearing Loss in Adults and Children.

    PubMed

    Serpanos, Yula C; Senzer, Deborah; Renne, Brittany; Langer, Rebecca; Hoffman, Roxanne

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of routine screening for high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL) including 3000, 6000, and 8000 Hz frequencies with conventional test frequencies (1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) in adults and children in a university outreach program. Screening outcomes were examined in 2 cohorts of adults (Cohort 1, N = 315, M = 66.2 years; Cohort 2, N = 67, M = 68.3 years) and children (Cohort 1, N = 177, M = 6.5 years; Cohort 2, N = 57, M = 6.9 years) with a high-frequency screen protocol (1000-8000 Hz at 25 dB HL for adults and 20 dB HL for children) using supra-aural headphones. A rescreen was conducted in Cohort 2 with a modified protocol using insert earphones and monitored ambient noise levels. Average total test time significantly increased (p < .0001) and nearly doubled with inclusion of 3000-, 6000-, and 8000-Hz frequencies, adding approximately 1 min. Rescreen referral rates decreased by approximately 2%-16% at 1000-8000 Hz (approximately 13%-16% at 6000 and 8000 Hz) using the modified protocol in adults and children, supporting false-positive responses using supra-aural headphones. Screening for HFHL should include insert earphones in order to prevent potential errors, particularly at 6000 and 8000 Hz.

  6. [Efficacy of frequency-neurofeedback and Cogmed JM-working memory training in children with ADHD].

    PubMed

    van Dongen-Boomsma, M; Vollebregt, M A; Slaats-Willemse, D; Buitelaar, J K

    2015-01-01

    The need for and the interest in non-pharmacological treatments for children with ADHD are increasing. The treatments include electro-encephalogram (EEG) frequency-neurofeedback and Cogmed working memory training. To investigate the efficacy of frequency-neurofeedback and Cogmed working memory training in children with ADHD. Forty-one children with ADHD (aged 8-15 years) were assigned to frequency-neurofeedback or to placebo-neurofeedback in a randomized double-blind trial. We took measurements to find out whether frequency-neurofeedback had reduced the severity of the ADHD-symptoms, and/or had improved neurocognitive ability and global clinical functioning. Fifty-one children with ADHD (aged 5-7 years) were assigned to the active Cogmed JM-working memory training or to the placebo working memory training in a randomised double-blind trial. We took measurements to find out whether Cogmed JM-working memory training had reduced the ADHD symptoms, and/or had improved neurocognitive ability, daily performance and global clinical functioning. The ADHD symptoms and global clinical functioning of the children in both neurofeedback groups improved. However, frequency-neurofeedback did nor produce any significantly better treatment results than did the placebo neurofeedback. At the neurocognitive level, frequency-neurofeedback did not yield any measurements that were significantly superior to those achieved with placebo feedback. Various outcome measurements improved in both groups with memory training. However, the active working memory training was not found to have produced significantly better results than the placebo training with regards to the ADHD symptoms, neurocognitive ability and daily and global functioning. Children from the active working memory training group showed improvements in trained working memory tasks but not on untrained tasks. Neither study produced any conclusive evidence for the efficacy of the investigated treatments in children with ADHD

  7. How can self-efficacy be increased? Meta-analysis of dietary interventions.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, Andrew; Kellar, Ian; Parker, Richard; MacRae, Siobhan; Learmonth, Matthew; Sykes, Bianca; Taylor, Natalie; Castle, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Targeting individuals' beliefs that they are able to eat healthily can improve dietary-related behaviours. However, the most effective behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to promote dietary self-efficacy have not been systematically reviewed. This research addressed this gap. Studies testing the effect of interventions on healthy eating and underlying dietary-related self-efficacy, within randomised controlled trials, were systematically reviewed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCINFO. Two reviewers independently coded intervention content in both intervention and comparison groups. Data pertaining to study quality were also extracted. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate an overall effect size on dietary self-efficacy for each study. The associations between 26 BCTs and self-efficacy effects were calculated using meta-regression. In some of the analyses, interventions that incorporated self-monitoring (tracking one's own food-related behaviour), provided feedback on performance, prompted review of behavioural goals, provided contingent rewards (rewarding diet success), or planned for social support/social change increased dietary self-efficacy significantly more than interventions that did not. Stress management was consistently associated with self-efficacy effects across all analyses. There was strong evidence for stress management and weaker evidence for a number of other BCTs. The findings can be used to develop more effective, theory- and evidence-based behavioural interventions.

  8. Pilot study of efficacy of tongue and body acupuncture in children with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Virginia C N; Sun, Jie-Guang; Yeung, David W C

    2006-06-01

    We studied the efficacy of tongue and body acupuncture in affecting visual recovery in children with central and peripheral visual disorders. Twelve children (five boys, seven girls) (age range 18 months to 14.5 years) with visual disorder with static functional visual ability for at least 12 months were recruited for the study. The causes of cortical visual impairment (10) included severe perinatal asphyxia (4), postencephalitis (1), traumatic brain injury (1), hydrocephalus (1), and increased intracranial pressure (3). Peripheral causes (2) were due to congenital optic atrophy. We used the following assessment tools: clinical visual improvement, defined as improvement of vision by one grade in one or both eyes with measurement of visual acuity; the functional visual outcome scale of 0 to 5, with positive outcome defined as improvement in one level on a functional scale; visual evoked potential, with positive improvement defined as 10% improvement in P100 latency of one or both eyes; [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) of the brain, with positive improvement defined as a 10% increase in glucose metabolism in one or both occipital lobes; and the Clinical Global Impression Scale (parental report). Tongue and body acupuncture consisted of 60 sessions, with 5 sessions per week. Four children showed clinical or functional improvement (33%). Of nine children with abnormal visual evoked potentials, five had improvement (56%). Of seven children who underwent PET, six had improvement in glucose metabolism in the visual cortex (86%). Seven parents (58%) reported improvement (three children had 75% improvement; four children had 25% improvement). There was a significant correlation between the interval of onset of visual impairment and starting treatment with clinical or functional outcome, with a longer interval resulting in a better outcome (P = .0282). However, there was no correlation between cause, severity, or clinical or functional visual

  9. Efficacy of simvastatin in children with hyperlipidemia secondary to kidney disorders.

    PubMed

    García-de-la-Puente, Silvestre; Arredondo-García, José Luis; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro; Bojorquez-Ochoa, Aurora; Maya, Edith Reyna; Pérez-Martínez, María Del Pilar

    2009-06-01

    Children with hyperlipidemia secondary to renal disease develop premature atherosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis. The aims of this pilot study were to find the dosage and short-term efficacy of simvastatin and potential adverse events in children with chronic kidney diseases. This was a random, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial performed on children with hyperlipidemia secondary to kidney disorders. After being placed on a diet for 3 months, patients were randomly placed in one of two balanced group blocks and treated with diet plus placebo or simvastatin at doses of 5 mg for children weighing 30 kg or less and 10 mg for children weighing over 30 kg, for 1 month, and then doubled for two more months. After this treatment, patients were placed on a diet for a 3-month washout period. During the last trial phase, patients previously treated with simvastatin were administered a placebo, and vice versa. A total of 25 patients with ages ranging from 4 years to 17 years were included in the study. A significant decrease in the levels of serum cholesterol (26.4%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (35.4%) and triglycerides (23.1%) was noted during the study, primarily during the simvastatin treatments, in which case cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides decreased by 23.3%, 33.7% and 21%, respectively. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels increased moderately (10.7%) during the study but without differences during simvastatin treatment. No differences were found across groups with respect to adverse events. In the short-term the combination of diet and simvastatin was effective in lowering hyperlipidemia in children with renal disorders.

  10. Using Baby Books to Increase New Mothers' Self-Efficacy and Improve Toddler Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albarran, Alejandra S.; Reich, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal self-efficacy (MSE) has been shown to be important, yet little is known about how it develops over time and whether increasing knowledge about child development and parenting results in feeling more efficacious, especially for first-time mothers. Furthermore, research is lacking about whether increased maternal self-efficacy results in…

  11. Using Baby Books to Increase New Mothers' Self-Efficacy and Improve Toddler Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albarran, Alejandra S.; Reich, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal self-efficacy (MSE) has been shown to be important, yet little is known about how it develops over time and whether increasing knowledge about child development and parenting results in feeling more efficacious, especially for first-time mothers. Furthermore, research is lacking about whether increased maternal self-efficacy results in…

  12. The relationship between environment, efficacy beliefs, and academic achievement of low-income African American children in special education.

    PubMed

    Bean, Kristen F; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    African American students are overrepresented in special education. Ecological systems theory, social cognitive theory, and a literature review demonstrate that children's environments, particularly school, and self-efficacy impact the educational outcomes of African American children. Interventions have aimed to improve children's environmental resources and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environment, efficacy beliefs, and the Nurse-Family Partnership intervention on the educational achievements of African American children in special education. A secondary data analysis of 126 African American children in special education found that self-efficacy and the number of hours spent in special education were associated with their academic achievement.

  13. Short-Term Safety and Efficacy of Calcium Montmorillonite Clay (UPSN) in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nicole J.; Kumi, Justice; Aleser, Mildred; Elmore, Sarah E.; Rychlik, Kristal A.; Zychowski, Katherine E.; Romoser, Amelia A.; Phillips, Timothy D.; Ankrah, Nii-Ayi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an association between childhood growth stunting and aflatoxin (AF) exposure has been identified. In Ghana, homemade nutritional supplements often consist of AF-prone commodities. In this study, children were enrolled in a clinical intervention trial to determine the safety and efficacy of Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), a refined calcium montmorillonite known to be safe in adults. Participants ingested 0.75 or 1.5 g UPSN or 1.5 g calcium carbonate placebo per day for 14 days. Hematological and serum biochemistry parameters in the UPSN groups were not significantly different from the placebo-controlled group. Importantly, there were no adverse events attributable to UPSN treatment. A significant reduction in urinary metabolite (AFM1) was observed in the high-dose group compared with placebo. Results indicate that UPSN is safe for children at doses up to 1.5 g/day for a period of 2 weeks and can reduce exposure to AFs, resulting in increased quality and efficacy of contaminated foods. PMID:25135766

  14. Japanese Children and Plate Waste: Contexts of Low Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Leaving a portion of meals uneaten, known as plate waste, is a serious problem among children in Japan. Although children's confidence that they can completely finish meals is related to plate waste, the circumstances that influence this confidence are not known. This study examined situations in which low self-efficacy for finishing…

  15. Japanese Children and Plate Waste: Contexts of Low Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Leaving a portion of meals uneaten, known as plate waste, is a serious problem among children in Japan. Although children's confidence that they can completely finish meals is related to plate waste, the circumstances that influence this confidence are not known. This study examined situations in which low self-efficacy for finishing…

  16. Personal and Contextual Contributors to Young Children's Activity-Based Perceived Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Elina; Järvelä, Sanna; Perry, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated personal and contextual influences to young children's perceived self-efficacy (SE) in social and independent learning situations. The participants were children (n = 24) 6-8 years old from four Finnish elementary school classrooms. First, teachers from each classroom were asked to rate their students' social competence…

  17. Parents' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Children's Psychosocial Adaptation during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steca, Patrizia; Bassi, Marta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Fave, Antonella Delle

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that parents' perceived parental self-efficacy (PSE) plays a pivotal role in promoting their children's successful adjustment. In this study, we further explored this issue by comparing psychosocial adaptation in children of parents with high and low PSE during adolescence. One hundred and thirty Italian teenagers (55 males and…

  18. Training Program Efficacy in Developing Health Life Skills among Sample Selected from Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Mohtadi, Reham Mohammad; Al Zboon, Habis Sa'ad

    2017-01-01

    This study drove at identifying the training program efficacy in developing the health life skills among sample selected from Kindergarten children. Study sample consisted of 60 children of both genders, ages of which are ranged from 5-6 years old. We have applied herein the pre and post dimension of health life skills scale; consisting of 28…

  19. The Efficacy of Hospitalization of Nonorganic Failure-to-Thrive Children: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, George E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A meta-analysis of eight studies, involving 192 subjects, was performed to ascertain the efficacy of hospitalization of children with nonorganic failure to thrive. Hospitalization was found to approximately double the probability of catch-up physical growth for the children, but psychosocial development was only modestly hastened by…

  20. Efficacy of family-based weight control program for pre-school children in primary care

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of an innovative family-based intervention for overweight pre-school children and overweight parents conducted in the primary care setting. METHODS: 96 children with BMI >85th percentile and an overweight parent were randomized to Intervention or Information Control...

  1. Parents' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Children's Psychosocial Adaptation during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steca, Patrizia; Bassi, Marta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Fave, Antonella Delle

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that parents' perceived parental self-efficacy (PSE) plays a pivotal role in promoting their children's successful adjustment. In this study, we further explored this issue by comparing psychosocial adaptation in children of parents with high and low PSE during adolescence. One hundred and thirty Italian teenagers (55 males and…

  2. The Efficacy of Electronic Books in Fostering Kindergarten Children's Emergent Story Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Maria T.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2004-01-01

    A counterbalanced, within-subjects design was carried out to study the efficacy of electronic books in fostering kindergarten children's emergent story understanding. The study compared effects of children's independent reading of stories electronically with effects of printed books read aloud by adults. Participants were 18 four- to five-year-old…

  3. Relative Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions in Preschool Children Attending Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellone, Katherine M.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe; Barry, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the relative efficacy of two interventions for children referred for consultation services due to problem behavior in the classroom. Teachers nominated children for participation due to frequent disruptive behaviors, such as inappropriate vocalizations and off-task behavior. Four Black males from 3 to 4 years old who attended…

  4. Personal and Contextual Contributors to Young Children's Activity-Based Perceived Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Elina; Järvelä, Sanna; Perry, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated personal and contextual influences to young children's perceived self-efficacy (SE) in social and independent learning situations. The participants were children (n = 24) 6-8 years old from four Finnish elementary school classrooms. First, teachers from each classroom were asked to rate their students' social competence…

  5. The Efficacy of Electronic Books in Fostering Kindergarten Children's Emergent Story Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Maria T.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2004-01-01

    A counterbalanced, within-subjects design was carried out to study the efficacy of electronic books in fostering kindergarten children's emergent story understanding. The study compared effects of children's independent reading of stories electronically with effects of printed books read aloud by adults. Participants were 18 four- to five-year-old…

  6. Turkish Mothers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Styles of Interactions with Their Children with Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.

    2009-01-01

    Turkish mothers' self-efficacy beliefs and their interactional behaviors with their children with language delays are described and explored. Participants included 19 mother-child dyads. Mothers' interaction with their children with language delays was videotaped for 30 minutes in a free-play context. Regarding mothers' interactional behaviors,…

  7. Searching for control: priming randomness increases the evaluation of ritual efficacy.

    PubMed

    Legare, Cristine H; Souza, André L

    2014-01-01

    Reestablishing feelings of control after experiencing uncertainty has long been considered a fundamental motive for human behavior. We propose that rituals (i.e., socially stipulated, causally opaque practices) provide a means for coping with the aversive feelings associated with randomness due to the perception of a connection between ritual action and a desired outcome. Two experiments were conducted (one in Brazil [n = 40] and another in the United States [n = 94]) to evaluate how the perceived efficacy of rituals is affected by feelings of randomness. In a between-subjects design, the Scramble Sentence Task was used as a priming procedure in three conditions (i.e., randomness, negativity, and neutral) and participants were then asked to rate the efficacy of rituals used for problem-solving purposes. The results demonstrate that priming randomness increased participants' perception of ritual efficacy relative to negativity and neutral conditions. Implications for increasing our understanding of the relationship between perceived control and ritualistic behavior are discussed.

  8. School-age children with diabetes: role of maternal self-efficacy, environment, and management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Marvicsin, Donna

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between maternal environment (child behavior and coping resources), diabetes self-efficacy, diabetes management behaviors, and child glycemic control. Study participants were recruited from 3 outpatient clinics in the Midwest and included 41 mothers of children with type 1 diabetes, ages 6 to 10. All participants completed the following measures: Coping Resources Inventory, Behavioral Assessment System for Children-Parent Report, Maternal Self-Efficacy for Diabetes Scale, Diabetes Management Scale-Parent, and 24-hour diabetes behavior recall. Downloaded glucose data and child HgbA1c were obtained by chart review. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the influence of maternal environment on maternal diabetes self-efficacy and diabetes management behavior. Pearson product moment correlations were used to determine if relationships existed between maternal self-efficacy, diabetes management behaviors, and child metabolic control. Coping resources contributed significantly to mothers' diabetes self-efficacy. No significant relationship was found between the mothers' environment and diabetes management behavior. Self-efficacy did not predict maternal diabetes management behaviors. The blood glucose testing and maternal recall of diabetes behaviors were correlated to metabolic control. Mothers with coping resources felt more confident in managing their children's diabetes. Child behavior did not influence a mother's diabetes management behaviors. Mothers who were consistent in their diabetes management behaviors had children in better metabolic control. More information is needed to determine what mothers view as barriers in providing diabetes care for their children.

  9. Increasing Children's Physical Activity During the School Day.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Daniel Philip; Chomitz, Virginia Rall

    2015-06-01

    Insufficient levels of daily physical activity (PA) among children in the USA and worldwide have profound implications for pediatric obesity and children's health and well-being more generally. Public health recommendations highlight the central role that schools play in providing equitable opportunities for PA for all children. This review identifies evidence-based approaches for increasing children's PA throughout the school day and discusses multilevel factors that support implementation of such approaches. Opportunities to increase school-day PA span not only in-school time (e.g., quality recess and physical education, classroom activity breaks) but also time before school (e.g., active commuting initiatives) and after school (e.g., intramural and interscholastic sports programs). For such approaches to impact children's PA, dimensions of implementation such as adoption, fidelity, penetration, implementation costs, and sustainability are critical. Multilevel factors that influence implementation include policies, school environment and organizational factors, teacher and classroom factors, child and family characteristics, and attributes of the PA approach itself. Research and field observations reinforce the importance of understanding challenges specific to working with schools, including multiple stakeholders, competing priorities, limited facilities and staff capacity, and heterogeneity of students. Thus, while schools hold promise as promoters and equalizers of PA engagement for all children, more research is needed on the levers that influence implementation of effective school-based PA policies and programs.

  10. Efficacy and Tolerability of Anticholinergics in Korean Children with Overactive Bladder: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of various anticholinergics in Korean children with non-neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB). A total of 326 children (males:females= 157:169) aged under 18 yr (mean age 7.3±2.6 yr) who were diagnosed with OAB from 2008 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean duration of OAB symptoms before anticholinergic treatment was 16.9±19.0 months. The mean duration of medication was 5.6±7.3 months. Urgency urinary incontinence episodes per week decreased from 1.9±3.1 to 0.4±1.5 times (P<0.001). The median voiding frequency during daytime was decreased from 9.2±5.4 to 6.3±4.2 times (P<0.001). According to 3-day voiding diaries, the maximum and average bladder capacity were increased from 145.5±66.9 to 196.8±80.3 mL and from 80.8±39.6 to 121.8±56.5 mL, respectively (P<0.001). On uroflowmetry, maximum flow rate was increased from 17.6±8.4 to 20.5±8.2 mL/sec (P<0.001). Adverse effects were reported in 14 (4.3%) children and six children (1.8%) discontinued medication due to adverse effects. Our results indicate that anticholinergics are effective to improve OAB symptoms and tolerability was acceptable without severe complications in children. PMID:25408588

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of anticholinergics in Korean children with overactive bladder: a multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Jin; Pai, Ki Soo; Kim, Jun Mo; Park, Kwanjin; Kim, Kun Suk; Song, Sang Hoon; Park, Sungchan; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Ryu, Dong Soo; Baek, Minki; Lee, Sang Don; Lee, Jung Won; Im, Young Jae; Han, Sang Won; Chung, Jae Min; Cho, Min Hyun; Ha, Tae-Sun; Cho, Won Yeol; Suh, Hong Jin

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of various anticholinergics in Korean children with non-neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB). A total of 326 children (males:females= 157:169) aged under 18 yr (mean age 7.3±2.6 yr) who were diagnosed with OAB from 2008 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean duration of OAB symptoms before anticholinergic treatment was 16.9±19.0 months. The mean duration of medication was 5.6±7.3 months. Urgency urinary incontinence episodes per week decreased from 1.9±3.1 to 0.4±1.5 times (P<0.001). The median voiding frequency during daytime was decreased from 9.2±5.4 to 6.3±4.2 times (P<0.001). According to 3-day voiding diaries, the maximum and average bladder capacity were increased from 145.5±66.9 to 196.8±80.3 mL and from 80.8±39.6 to 121.8±56.5 mL, respectively (P<0.001). On uroflowmetry, maximum flow rate was increased from 17.6±8.4 to 20.5±8.2 mL/sec (P<0.001). Adverse effects were reported in 14 (4.3%) children and six children (1.8%) discontinued medication due to adverse effects. Our results indicate that anticholinergics are effective to improve OAB symptoms and tolerability was acceptable without severe complications in children.

  12. Investigation of Efficacy of Lidocaine Spray for Sedated Esophagogastroduodenoscopy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Artan, Reha; Yılmaz, Aygen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Our aim in this study is to investigate efficacy of topical lidocaine spray for sedated esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in children. Methods The endoscopy of children aged between 3-18 years who underwent EGD in our endoscopy unit. Intravenous (IV) midazolam and ketamine were used for sedation. Prior to sedation, endoscopy nurse applied topical lidocaine 10% with pump spray at 1 mg/kg dose in group 1, and distilled water via identically scaled pump spray in group 2, in a double blinded fashion. Results Sedation was not applied in 24.1% of the cases in topical lidocaine spray group (LS group) and in 5.7% of the cases in distilled water spray group (DS group). Gag reflex was observed in 6.5% of cases in LS group and 33.3% of cases in DS group (p=0.024), increased oral secretion was observed in 9.3% of cases in LS group and 51.7% of cases in DS group (p=0.038), sore throat was observed in 3.7% of cases in LS group and 35.6% of cases in DS group (p=0.019) and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion The study showed that topical pharyngeal lidocaine reduces both requirement and amount of IV sedation before EGD in children and sore throat, gag reflex and decreased oral secretion increase. PMID:28730132

  13. Investigation of Efficacy of Lidocaine Spray for Sedated Esophagogastroduodenoscopy in Children.

    PubMed

    Basturk, Ahmet; Artan, Reha; Yılmaz, Aygen

    2017-06-01

    Our aim in this study is to investigate efficacy of topical lidocaine spray for sedated esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in children. The endoscopy of children aged between 3-18 years who underwent EGD in our endoscopy unit. Intravenous (IV) midazolam and ketamine were used for sedation. Prior to sedation, endoscopy nurse applied topical lidocaine 10% with pump spray at 1 mg/kg dose in group 1, and distilled water via identically scaled pump spray in group 2, in a double blinded fashion. Sedation was not applied in 24.1% of the cases in topical lidocaine spray group (LS group) and in 5.7% of the cases in distilled water spray group (DS group). Gag reflex was observed in 6.5% of cases in LS group and 33.3% of cases in DS group (p=0.024), increased oral secretion was observed in 9.3% of cases in LS group and 51.7% of cases in DS group (p=0.038), sore throat was observed in 3.7% of cases in LS group and 35.6% of cases in DS group (p=0.019) and the difference was statistically significant. The study showed that topical pharyngeal lidocaine reduces both requirement and amount of IV sedation before EGD in children and sore throat, gag reflex and decreased oral secretion increase.

  14. Handwriting performance, self-reports, and perceived self-efficacy among children with dysgraphia.

    PubMed

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Nagauker-Yanuv, Limor; Rosenblum, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between children's self-reports on their handwriting performance, their actual handwriting process and product, and wider motor-perceived self-efficacy. Twenty-one children with dysgraphia and 21 typically developing children copied a paragraph on an electronic tablet as part of a Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool. Handwriting product was evaluated by the Hebrew Handwriting Evaluation. Participants completed the Children's Questionnaire for Handwriting Proficiency (CHaP) and the Perceived Efficacy and Goal Setting System (PEGS). The study group's CHaP scores significantly correlated with handwriting process, product measures (rs = .46 - .59, ps = .034 - .005), and PEGS scores, all of which were significantly poorer compared with those of the control participants. Children are aware of their handwriting deficits and are able to report them. Children's reports may contribute to the identification of dysgraphia and facilitate their participation in occupational therapy intervention and in class.

  15. Efficacy of Low Vision Services for Visually Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, H. W.

    1991-01-01

    Low vision children (ages 4-19, n=137) were screened, and 77 percent were advised to have comprehensive clinical evaluations or ophthalmology services. The visual capability of the referred children was determined, low vision aids were prescribed for 56 children, and the degree of successful utilization of aids was evaluated. (JDD)

  16. Efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation in 2 children with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and its impact on their growth and gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Walia, Ritu; Garg, Shashank; Song, Yang; Girotra, Mohit; Cuffari, Carmen; Fricke, Wolfgang Florian; Dutta, Sudhir K

    2014-11-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is recognized as an alternative therapeutic modality for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI); however, data on its efficacy in children are lacking, including its effect on their growth and fecal microbiota. We report on 2 young children (<3 years old) who failed available therapeutics for RCDI, but responded remarkably well to FMT. Besides resolution of clinical features of C difficile infection (CDI), FMT administration led to marked improvement in their growth, along with increased microbiota diversity, especially proportion of Bacteroides. Our 2 cases illustrate the efficacy of FMT in children with RCDI and its positive effect on their growth and gut microbiota.

  17. Efficacy of Peer Support Arrangements to Increase Peer Interaction and AAC Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Carter, Erik W.; Gustafson, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Supporting interaction in inclusive settings between students with complex communication needs (CCN) and their peers requires careful planning and support. We used a multiple-probe-across-participants design to investigate the efficacy of collaborative planning and peer support arrangements to increase peer interaction in inclusive classrooms.…

  18. Investigating the Efficacy of a Preschool Vocabulary Intervention Designed to Increase Vocabulary Size and Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Julie C.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study investigated the efficacy of a supplementary preschool embedded multimedia curriculum that was designed to increase one type of conceptual knowledge: taxonomic categories. Named the World of Words (WOW), this curriculum focused on teaching the properties and concepts associated with seven taxonomic categories and providing…

  19. Efficacy of Peer Support Arrangements to Increase Peer Interaction and AAC Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Carter, Erik W.; Gustafson, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Supporting interaction in inclusive settings between students with complex communication needs (CCN) and their peers requires careful planning and support. We used a multiple-probe-across-participants design to investigate the efficacy of collaborative planning and peer support arrangements to increase peer interaction in inclusive classrooms.…

  20. Increasing the Professional Efficacy of Secondary School Assistant Principals through the Process of Collegial Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. Robert

    This paper describes a practicum that was designed to increase the efficacy of assistant principals as members of an administrative team in a learning organization. The 1-year practicum took place at a grades 8 to 12 public school facility in a rural community. The problems facing the school principal, who designed the practicum were that the two…

  1. Collaborative Curriculum Design to Increase Science Teaching Self-Efficacy: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velthuis, Chantal; Fisser, Petra; Pieters, Jules

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether participation in a teacher design team (TDT) is an effective way to increase the science teaching self-efficacy of primary school teachers who vary in their levels of experience and interest in science. A TDT is a group of at least 2 teachers from the same or related subjects working together to…

  2. Investigating the Efficacy of a Preschool Vocabulary Intervention Designed to Increase Vocabulary Size and Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Julie C.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study investigated the efficacy of a supplementary preschool embedded multimedia curriculum that was designed to increase one type of conceptual knowledge: taxonomic categories. Named the World of Words (WOW), this curriculum focused on teaching the properties and concepts associated with seven taxonomic categories and providing…

  3. Increasing Self-Efficacy Expectations and Outcome Expectations: A Model to Facilitate Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Jean M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Without organizationwide commitment to training programs, educators may be able to increase learners' self-efficacy to acquire desired skills or behavior. But behavior and skills will not be transferred to the job if learners have low expectations about their use or if positive reinforcement is lacking. (SK)

  4. Increased efficacy of Eimeria oocysts delivery by gel beads or spray vaccination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel-beads containing a mixture of E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect ...

  5. Optimization strategies aimed to increase the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapies.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P; McNicholl, Adrian G

    2017-08-01

    As with any other infectious disease, we should aim for treatments offering ≥90% Helicobacter pylori eradication rates in clinical practice. To summarize optimization strategies aimed to increase the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapies. A systematic bibliographic search (in PubMed up to August 2016) was designed to identify studies investigating optimization strategies aimed to increase the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapies. The most direct way to optimize a treatment is using higher doses of drugs unless it has been shown that lower doses are equally effective. Similarly, prescriptions should use 14-day duration unless a shorter scheme has been shown locally to be equally effective. Double-dose proton-pump inhibitor therapy is recommended for triple therapy and may probably increase the efficacy of nonbismuth concomitant regimen as well. The efficacy of triple therapies in the presence of resistance can be significantly improved by the addition of bismuth salts, which offer an additive effect in combination with antibiotics. Overall, probiotics seem to reduce antibiotic side effects, but the increase in eradication rates is not so evident; therefore, they cannot be generally recommended for clinical practice yet. Using potent acid inhibition and/or higher antibiotic doses-especially by increasing the number of daily intakes-and lengthening treatments up to 14 days improves efficacy in most regimens and should be generally recommended. Triple therapies can be efficiently improved by the addition of bismuth salts, turning them into quadruple therapies. Finally, some treatments will require a combination of optimization strategies to significantly improve results. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Potential in-class strategies to increase children's vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma; Pettigrew, Simone; Wright, Shannon; Pratt, Iain S; Blane, Sally; Biagioni, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The Crunch&Sip programme is a school-based nutrition initiative designed to increase the fruit, vegetable and water intakes of primary-school children. In recognition of the notable deficits in children's vegetable consumption, the present study explored the receptivity of school staff to a realignment of the Crunch&Sip programme to feature a primary focus on vegetable consumption. This involved investigating school staff members' perceptions of relevant barriers, motivators and facilitators. A multi-method approach was adopted that involved four focus groups and a survey (administered in paper and online formats) containing a mixture of open- and closed-ended items. Western Australia. Staff from Western Australian schools participated in the focus groups (n 37) and survey (n 620). School staff were strongly supportive of modifying the Crunch&Sip programme to focus primarily on children's vegetable consumption and this was generally considered to be a feasible change to implement. Possible barriers identified included children's taste preferences and a perceived lack of parental support. Suggested strategies to overcome these barriers were education sessions for parents and children, teachers modelling vegetable consumption for their students and integrating vegetable-related topics into the school curriculum. School staff are likely to support the introduction of school-based nutrition programmes that specifically encourage the consumption of vegetables. Potential barriers may be overcome through strategies to engage parents and children.

  7. Maternal self-efficacy and 1-5-year-old children's brushing habits.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Tracy L; Siefert, Kristine; Ismail, Amid I; Sohn, Woosung

    2007-08-01

    This study investigates the relationships between maternal cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial factors and brushing practices in low-income African-American preschool children. Data are from a population-based sample of 1021 African-American families with at least one child <6 years of age and living in the 39 low-income Census tracts in Detroit, Michigan. Analyses were limited to 1-5-year-old children and their mothers (n = 719). Mothers were surveyed about oral health-related self-efficacy (OHSE), knowledge about appropriate bottle use (KBU), knowledge about children's oral hygiene (KCOH), oral health fatalism (OHF), their own toothbrushing behavior, depressive symptoms (CES-D), parenting stress, practical social support, and their child's dental history. Children's 1-week reported brushing frequency was the main outcome measure. Analyses were conducted in SUDAAN to account for the complex sampling design. Children's 1-week brushing frequency (range 0-40) averaged 8.50 times per week among 1-3-year olds and 9.75 among the 4-5-year olds. Maternal OHSE was a strong and significant predictor of children's brushing frequency; for each unit increase in OHSE, 1-3-year olds were expected to brush 18% more frequently on average during 1 week [incidence density ratios (IDR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.28; P < 0.001], and 4-5-year olds were expected to brush 9% more often (IDR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.19; P < 0.10). Mothers' KCOH score was also significantly positively associated with brushing frequency; for each unit increase on the KCOH scale, 1-3-year olds were expected to brush 22% more frequently (IDR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.10-1.35; P < 0.001) and 4-5-year olds were expected to brush 13% more frequently (IDR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26; P < 0.05). If a mother brushed her own teeth at bedtime during the week, her 1-3-year old child's brushing frequency was expected to increase by one-third (IDR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12-1.60; P < 0.01) and among the 4-5-year olds

  8. An educational intervention designed to increase women's leadership self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Carol; Kaatz, Anna; Lee, Barbara; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Women are sparsely represented in leadership in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Cultural stereotypes about men, women, and leaders influence the attitudes, judgments, and decisions that others make about women and the choices women make for themselves. Multilevel interventions are needed to counteract the impact of these pervasive and easily activated stereotypes, which conspire in multiple ways to constrain women's entry, persistence, and advancement in academic STEMM. We describe an individual-level educational intervention. Using the transtheoretical model of behavioral change as a framework, we assessed the success of a semester course on increasing women's leadership self-efficacy for the first three cohorts of course participants (n = 30). Pre/post questionnaires showed gains in leadership self-efficacy, personal mastery, and self-esteem, and decreases in perceived constraints. Qualitative text analysis of weekly journals indicated increasing leadership self-efficacy as course participants applied course information and integrated strategies to mitigate the impact of societal stereotypes into their own leadership practices. Follow-up queries of the first two cohorts supported the enduring value of course participation. We conclude that providing strategies to recognize and mitigate the impact of gender stereotypes is effective in increasing leadership self-efficacy in women at early stages of academic STEMM careers.

  9. An Educational Intervention Designed to Increase Women's Leadership Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Carol; Kaatz, Anna; Lee, Barbara; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Women are sparsely represented in leadership in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Cultural stereotypes about men, women, and leaders influence the attitudes, judgments, and decisions that others make about women and the choices women make for themselves. Multilevel interventions are needed to counteract the impact of these pervasive and easily activated stereotypes, which conspire in multiple ways to constrain women's entry, persistence, and advancement in academic STEMM. We describe an individual-level educational intervention. Using the transtheoretical model of behavioral change as a framework, we assessed the success of a semester course on increasing women's leadership self-efficacy for the first three cohorts of course participants (n = 30). Pre/post questionnaires showed gains in leadership self-efficacy, personal mastery, and self-esteem, and decreases in perceived constraints. Qualitative text analysis of weekly journals indicated increasing leadership self-efficacy as course participants applied course information and integrated strategies to mitigate the impact of societal stereotypes into their own leadership practices. Follow-up queries of the first two cohorts supported the enduring value of course participation. We conclude that providing strategies to recognize and mitigate the impact of gender stereotypes is effective in increasing leadership self-efficacy in women at early stages of academic STEMM careers. PMID:22949427

  10. Evaluation of efficacy of dexmedetomidine versus propofol for sedation in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Kirti; Asthana, Unnati; Bansal, Teena; Dureja, Jagdish; Ahlawat, Geeta; Kapoor, Saloni

    2017-01-01

    Background: A deep level of sedation is required for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children to ensure optimum image quality. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine versus propofol for sedation in children undergoing MRI. Materials and Methods: A total of sixty children aged 2–10 years, having physical status 1 or 2 according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists, undergoing MRI were included in the study. Group D: (n = 30) received injection dexmedetomidine 2 μg/kg for 10 min followed by continuous infusion of 1.0 μg/kg/h. Group P (n = 30) received injection propofol 1 mg/kg bolus followed by continuous infusion of 100 μg/kg/min. Results: The mean time for onset of sedation in Group D was much longer than in Group P (P = 0.000). Mean duration of sedation was comparable in the two groups. The number of patients requiring increased infusion of study drug was significantly higher in Group D (30%) as compared to Group P (16.7%) (P < 0.05). The average recovery time in Group D was much longer than in Group P (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Propofol had an advantage of providing rapid onset of sedation and quicker recovery time. Dexmedetomidine resulted in a better preservation of respiratory rate and oxygen saturation, so it may be more suitable in children who are prone to respiratory depression. Hence, both the drugs could achieve required sedation in children posted for MRI. PMID:28442954

  11. Randomized efficacy trial of a micronutrient-fortified beverage in primary school children in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ash, Deborah M; Tatala, Simon R; Frongillo, Edward A; Ndossi, Godwin D; Latham, Michael C

    2003-04-01

    Dietary supplements providing physiologic amounts of several micronutrients simultaneously have not been thoroughly tested for combating micronutrient deficiencies. We determined whether a beverage fortified with 10 micronutrients at physiologic doses influenced the iron and vitamin A status and growth of rural children (aged 6-11 y) attending primary schools. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial, children were assigned to receive the fortified beverage or an unfortified beverage at school for 6 mo. There were nonsignificant differences at baseline between children in the fortified and nonfortified groups in iron status, serum retinol, and anthropometry. At the 6-mo follow-up, among children with anemia (hemoglobin < 110 g/L), there was a significantly larger increase in hemoglobin concentration in the fortified group than in the nonfortified group (9.2 and 0.2 g/L, respectively). Of those who were anemic at baseline, 69.4% in the nonfortified group and 55.1% in the fortified group remained anemic at follow-up (RR: 0.79), a cure rate of 21%. The prevalence of children with low serum retinol concentrations (< 200 microg/L) dropped significantly from 21.4% to 11.3% in the fortified group compared with a nonsignificant change (20.6% to 19.7%) in the nonfortified group. At follow-up, mean incremental changes in weight (1.79 compared with 1.24 kg), height (3.2 compared with 2.6 cm), and BMI (0.88 compared with 0.53) were significantly higher in the fortified group than in the nonfortified group. The fortified beverage significantly improved hematologic and anthropometric measurements and significantly lowered the overall prevalence of anemia and vitamin A deficiency.

  12. Increasing Prekindergarten Children's Writing Opportunities through Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickle, Barbara A.

    A practicum was designed to increase the writing opportunities of 37 prekindergarten children in three classes through staff development. Formal and informal surveys of prekindergarten teachers confirmed the need for more information on child development, the development of the writing process, and prekindergarten whole language. A series of…

  13. Increasing Communication in Children with Concurrent Vision and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Nancy C.; Bashinski, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Nine children with complex communication needs and concurrent vision and hearing losses participated in an intervention program aimed at increasing intentional prelinguistic communication. The intervention constituted a pilot, descriptive study of an adapted version of prelinguistic milieu teaching, hence referred to as A-PMT. In A-PMT, natural…

  14. "Can Drama, through Icelandic Tales, Increase Children's Vocabulary"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorkelsdóttir, Rannveig Björk; Ragnarsdóttir, Ása Helga

    2013-01-01

    The article is based on a study, done by Ása Helga Ragnarsdóttir and Rannveig Björk Þorkelsdóttir in 2010-2011 were the authors explored the research question: Can drama, through Icelandic tales, increase children's vocabulary? Methodology of the study was quantitative approach (comparative research). Data was gathered through questionnaires and a…

  15. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  16. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  17. [Efficacy and safety of potassium clavulanate/amoxicillin (CLAVAMOX) dry syrup in children with otitis media].

    PubMed

    Sugita, Rinya; Yamanaka, Noboru; Kudo, Fumiyo; Ito, Rie; Kawai, Motoji; Ohwaki, Ichiro; Asano, Satoshi; Nagata, Tsutae

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CLAVAMOX dry syrup (potassium clavulanate/amoxicillin) in children with otitis media, we conducted a postmarketing surveillance from February to September 2006. The analysis was made on the basis of 470 survey sheets collected from 127 medical institutions, of which we investigated 455 cases for safety, and 433 cases for efficacy. The efficacy was 95.2% in the 433 subjects eligible for the efficacy analysis. The clinical improvement rates for major symptoms (otalgia, otorrhea, flare reaction of drum membrane and fever) were 95% or more. The efficacies for the three major offending bacteria of otitis media (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis) were between 94.6% and 100%. The efficacies for penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) and penicillin intermediate resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PISP) were 95% or more. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were reported in 106 (23.3%) of the 455 subjects eligible for safety analysis. The major ADRs were diarrhea, of which incident was 22.6% (103 of 455). These ADRs were observed at a higher rate in younger age patients. Most of the diarrhea cases were non-serious, reversible on discontinuation or continuation of the drug. No clinically important serious diarrhea cases such as pseudomembranous colitis or dehydration were observed. Our surveillance results demonstrated that CLAVAMOX dry syrup had excellent efficacy and clinically manageable safety in children with otitis media. These findings indicated that this medicine was clinically-useful in children with otitis media.

  18. Use of animated cartoons with children's songs to increase compliance with ultrasonography in young children.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sok Hwan; Kim, Myung-Joon; Lee, Mi-Jung

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of animated cartoons with children's songs to increase compliance with ultrasonography (US) examination in young children. Animated cartoons with children's songs viewed on a cell phone were played just before the start of US examination when pediatric patients were agitated or irritable. The effect of this method was evaluated for initial responses and sustained responses (grade 0, no response; 1, partial response; and 2, good response). Site of US examination, scan duration, and the helpfulness of this method (0, useless; 1, partially helpful; and 2, very helpful) were also recorded. Among 464 pediatric patients who underwent US during the study period, 88 children (19%) needed to be calmed (67 abdominal and 21 other parts of the body). All subjects were less than five years of age (mean 1.5 years), except for four patients with mental retardation. Scan duration was less than 5 minutes in almost all examinations. Five children refused to watch the cartoon. Initial responses were good in 75 and partial in eight children. Sustained responses were good in 70 and partial in 12 children. The cartoons were very helpful in 73 (83%) and partially helpful in nine (10%) children. The effect of watching the cartoon did not change with sex, age (less or more than one year), or site of examination. Animated cartoons with children's songs viewed on a cell phone were helpful (93%) in increasing compliance with US examination in young children of both the abdomen and other parts.

  19. Efficacy of MP-AzeFlu in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis: Importance of paediatric symptom assessment.

    PubMed

    Berger, William; Meltzer, Eli O; Amar, Niran; Fox, Adam T; Just, Jocelyne; Muraro, Antonella; Nieto, Antonio; Valovirta, Erkka; Wickman, Magnus; Bousquet, Jean

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of MP-AzeFlu (a novel intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate in a single spray) in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and explore the importance of child symptom severity assessment in paediatric allergic rhinitis (AR) trials. A total of 348 children (4-11 years) with moderate/severe SAR were randomized into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 14-day, parallel-group trial. Efficacy was assessed by changes from baseline in reflective total nasal symptom score (rTNSS), reflective total ocular symptom score (rTOSS) and individual symptom scores over 14 days (children 6-11 years; n = 304), recorded by either children or caregivers. To determine whether a by-proxy effect existed, efficacy outcomes were assessed according to degree of child/caregiver rating. Moreover, total Paediatric Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (PRQLQ) score was compared between the groups. A statistically superior, clinically relevant efficacy signal of MP-AzeFlu versus placebo was apparent for PRQLQ overall score (diff: -0.29, 95% CI -0.55, -0.03; p = 0.027), but not for rTNSS (diff: -0.80; 95% CI: -1.75; 0.15; p = 0.099). However, as the extent of children's self-rating increased, so too did the treatment difference between MP-AzeFlu and placebo; MP-AzeFlu provided significantly better relief than placebo for rTNSS (p = 0.002), rTOSS (p = 0.009) and each individual nasal and ocular symptom assessed (except rhinorrhoea; p = 0.064) when children mostly rated their own symptoms. MP-AzeFlu is an effective treatment for AR in childhood. Caregivers are less able than children to accurately assess response to treatment with available tools. A simple paediatric-specific tool to assess efficacy in AR trials in children is needed. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Efficacy and safety of valganciclovir in liver-transplanted children infected with Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Hierro, Loreto; Díez-Dorado, Ruth; Díaz, Carmen; De la Vega, Angela; Frauca, Esteban; Camarena, Carmen; Muñoz-Bartolo, Gema; González de Zárate, Ana; López Santamaría, Manuel; Jara, Paloma

    2008-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection after liver transplantation (LT) is associated with increased risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Lowering immunosuppression is the current method to prevent PTLD in LT children with a high viral load. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of valganciclovir (VGCV) in children with EBV infection after LT. Forty-seven children showing detectable EBV-DNA (72% asymptomatic) were treated with VGCV (520 mg/sqm twice daily) with no immunosuppression decrease (except in 4 cases). VGCV treatment started 17 months (median) after the onset of EBV infection. A 30-day treatment applied to 26 patients led to undetectable EBV-DNA in 11/32 courses (34.3%), with 82% relapsing. A long VGCV treatment (median: 8 months) achieved undetectable EBV-DNA in 20/42 (47.6%), 60% of whom maintained response off therapy. There were no new PTLD cases. Symptoms worsened in 1 (2.1%) in whom PTLD was suspected but not confirmed in liver and jejunum biopsies. Factors associated with achievement of undetectable EBV-DNA were a longer time from LT and a lower rate of intervening infections in comparison with nonresponders. The safety profile for VGCV was excellent. Graft rejection occurred in 6%. In conclusion, in 47 LT children with a sustained increased EBV load treated with VGCV and unchanged immunosuppression, PTLD was suspected in 1 child (2.1%). A viral load decrease could be achieved as EBV-DNA was undetectable in 47% of patients under prolonged treatment.

  1. Decreasing Efficacy of Antimalarial Combination Therapy in Uganda Explained by Decreasing Host Immunity Rather than Increasing Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Greenhouse, Bryan; Slater, Madeline; Njama-Meya, Denise; Nzarubara, Bridget; Maiteki-Sebuguzi, Catherine; Clark, Tamara D.; Staedke, Sarah G.; Kamya, Moses R.; Hubbard, Alan; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Dorsey, Grant

    2009-01-01

    Background Improved control efforts are reducing the burden of malaria in Africa, but may result in decreased antimalarial immunity. Methods A cohort of 129 children aged 1–10 years in Kampala, Uganda were treated with amodiaquine+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for 396 episodes of uncomplicated malaria over a 29 month period as part of a longitudinal clinical trial. Results The risk of treatment failure increased over the course of the study from 5% to 21% (HR=2.4/yr, 95%CI=1.3–4.3). Parasite genetic polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of failure, but their prevalence did not change over time. Three markers of antimalarial immunity were associated with a decreased risk of treatment failure: increased age (HR=0.5/5yrs, 95%CI=0.2–1.2), living in an area of higher malaria incidence (HR=0.26, 95%CI=0.11–0.64), and recent asymptomatic parasitemia (HR=0.06, 95%CI=0.01–0.36). In multivariate analysis, adjustment for recent asymptomatic parasitemia, but not parasite polymorphisms, removed the association between calendar time and the risk of treatment failure (HR=1.5/yr, 95%CI=0.7–3.4), suggesting that worsening treatment efficacy was best explained by decreasing host immunity. Conclusion Declining immunity in our study population appeared to be the primary factor underlying decreased efficacy of amodiaquine+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. With improved malaria control efforts, decreasing immunity may unmask resistance to partially efficacious drugs. PMID:19199542

  2. Increased endothelial microparticles in obese and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Zübeyde; Dursun, İsmail; Tülpar, Sebahat; Baştuğ, Funda; Baykan, Ali; Yıkılmaz, Ali; Patıroğlu, Türkan; Poyrazoglu, Hakan M; Akın, Leyla; Yel, Sibel; Düşünsel, Ruhan

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in children increases the risk of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction is an important factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are considered as markers of endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we aimed to evaluate circulating EMPs in obese and overweight children and to disclose the measure of obesity with the strongest relation with circulating microparticles and carotid atherosclerosis. This prospective study included 55 obese and overweight children and 23 healthy controls. Insulin resistance was studied. Both in vivo and in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cell evaluations were used for the study. Circulating EMPs (CD144 and CD146) were measured by flow cytometry. The carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were measured using ultrasound and echocardiography, respectively. Study groups were compared for anthropometric measurement, insulin resistance, circulating EMP, cIMT, and LVMI. The relationship among overweight, obesity, and circulating EMPs were investigated. Blood pressure, CD144+EMP levels, and LVMI were statistically higher in the patients group than in the control group. The multiple logistic regression analysis and the backward elimination method showed that CD144+EMP and systolic blood pressure had a linear relationship with overweight and obesity. Our results suggest that endothelial damage starts in the early stage of childhood obesity and that obese and overweight children have increased circulating CD144+EMPs, showing that endothelial dysfunction and increased CD144+EMPs may be related to obesity.

  3. Social Intervention for Children with Language Impairment: Factors Affecting Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Children with language impairment (LI) frequently have social difficulties that limit their inclusion in learning contexts and make it difficult for them to form positive social relationships. Intervention programs designed to enhance social communication may be warranted for many children with LI. Several factors should be considered to maximize…

  4. Exploring Strategies That Influence Children's Physical Activity Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efrat, Merav W.

    2017-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity during the elementary school years has been associated with a number of health problems (Strong et al., 2006). During the school day, the recess period provides the greatest opportunity for children to engage in physical activity (Robert Wood Johnson, 2007). Nonetheless, most children spend the majority of their…

  5. A novel approach for increasing fruit consumption in children.

    PubMed

    Perikkou, Anastasia; Gavrieli, Anna; Kougioufa, Maria-Matina; Tzirkali, Maria; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2013-09-01

    Despite the well-documented health benefits of fruits and vegetables and the public health campaigns promoting their consumption, children's intake is below the recommended levels. A randomized controlled trial for evaluating the effectiveness of a school-based intervention for increasing children's fruit intake, with the teacher being the exposure model, was designed. Two hundred eighteen elementary school students (aged 9 years) in Cyprus were randomly assigned into two 1-year intervention groups, the Educational Material group (EDUC) (n=59) and the Exposure group (EXPO) (n=67), or a control group (n=58). Children's dietary intake was assessed through 2-day dietary records before the intervention began (October 2008), at the end of the intervention (June 2009), and at 1-year follow-up (June 2010). Students in the EDUC group received a weekly educational program for increasing awareness and improving skills regarding fruit preparation/consumption and students in the EXPO group were exposed to the consumption of a fruit on a daily basis by their teacher. The control group members received no intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the group effect and the time×group interaction. Higher fruit intake was reported by the children in the EXPO and the EDUC groups compared with the control group at the end of the intervention: a statistically significant group effect was found (P<0.001). At 1-year follow-up, results remained significant only for the children in the EXPO group (P<0.001). Exposure to fruit consumption by schoolteachers may be a more effective way for improving fruit intake of children compared with traditional educational approaches.

  6. A Single Mutation at PB1 Residue 319 Dramatically Increases the Safety of PR8 Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in a Murine Model without Compromising Vaccine Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is preferentially recommended for use in most children yet remains unsafe for the groups most at risk. Here we have improved the safety of a mouse-adapted live attenuated influenza vaccine containing the same attenuating amino acid mutations as in human LAIV by adding an additional mutation at PB1 residue 319. This results in a vaccine with a 20-fold decrease in protective efficacy and a 10,000-fold increase in safety. PMID:26676793

  7. Obesity Increases Operative Time in Children Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Pandian, T K; Ubl, Daniel S; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have assessed the impact of obesity on laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in pediatric patients. Children who underwent LC were identified from the 2012 to 2013 American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatrics data. Patient characteristics, operative details, and outcomes were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to identify predictors of increased operative time (OT) and duration of anesthesia (DOAn). In total, 1757 patients were identified. Due to low rates of obesity in children <9 years old, analyses were limited to those 9-17 (n = 1611, 43% obese). Among obese children, 80.6% were girls. A higher proportion of obese patients had diabetes (3.0% versus 1.0%, P < .01) and contaminated or dirty/infected wounds (15.1% versus 9.4%, P < .01). Complication rates were low. The most frequent indications for surgery were cholelithiasis/biliary colic (34.3%), chronic cholecystitis (26.9%), and biliary dyskinesia (18.2%). On multivariable analysis, obesity was an independent predictor of OT >90 (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.55-2.63), and DOAn >140 minutes (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.42-2.43). Obesity is an independent risk factor for increased OT in children undergoing LC. Pediatric surgeons and anesthesiologists should be prepared for the technical and physiological challenges that obesity may pose in this patient population.

  8. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Increases Rectal Activity in Children.

    PubMed

    Moeller Joensson, Iben; Hagstroem, Soren; Siggaard, Charlotte; Bower, Wendy; Djurhuus, Jens Christian; Krogh, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    Neurostimulation is increasingly used in treating bladder and bowel dysfunction, but its effect on rectal motility is obscure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the acute effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on rectal motility in children with overactive bladder (OAB). In this double-blind placebo-controlled study in 20 children with OAB (mean age 8.6 ± 1.8 years; 7 girls), 48-hour urodynamic monitoring including rectal manometry was performed. After 24-hours of baseline investigation without stimulation the children were randomised to either active TENS (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10). Surface electrodes were placed over the sacral bone. The exterior of active and placebo stimulators was identical. Starting in the morning, the children received either continuous TENS stimulation or placebo until bedtime. Rectal contractions were defined as pressure runs exceeding 5 cm H2O and lasting ≥3 minutes. At baseline there was no significant difference in proportion of time with rectal contractions in the 2 groups (TENS group median 31% [range 12%-66%] vs placebo group median 31% [range 10%-66%]; P = 0.75); however, on the day of stimulation there was more time with rectal contractions in the group receiving TENS (median 51% [range 25%-78%]) compared with placebo (median 32% [range 4%-68%]; P = 0.02). Also, there was an increase in time with rectal contractions in the TENS group (P = 0.007) but not in the placebo group (P = 0.39). The night after the TENS was disabled, rectal activity in both groups returned to baseline level. TENS acutely increases time with rectal contractions in children undergoing urodynamic investigation. The effect disappears when the stimulator is turned off.

  9. Chrysin Increases the Therapeutic Efficacy of Docetaxel and Mitigates Docetaxel-Induced Edema.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung; Jung, Joohee

    2016-05-05

    Docetaxel (DTX) is an effective commercial anticancer agent for chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), breast cancer, gastric cancer, and prostate cancer, but its adverse effects including edema, neurotoxicity, and hair loss limit its application. To improve the chemotherapeutic efficacy of DTX and reduce adverse effects, combination therapy is one of the alternative methods. So chrysin, which has various biological activities including anticancer effects, was considered. In vitro, the combination of chrysin and DTX was investigated in A549 cells. Increased cytotoxicity, suppressed cellular proliferation, and induced apoptosis were observed with posttreatment of chrysin following DTX treatment. In vivo, chrysin enhanced the tumor growth delay of DTX and increased DTX-induced apoptosis in the A549-derived xenograft model. Furthermore, chrysin prevented DTX-induced edema in ICR mouse. These results indicated that chrysin strengthened the therapeutic efficacy of DTX and diminished the adverse effect of DTX, suggesting chrysin could be exploited as an adjuvant therapy for NSCLC.

  10. Tolerance and efficacy of combined diethylcarbamazine and albendazole for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti and intestinal helminth infections in Haitian children.

    PubMed

    Fox, Leanne M; Furness, Bruce W; Haser, Jennifer K; Desire, Dardith; Brissau, Jean-Marc; Milord, Marie-Denise; Lafontant, Jack; Lammie, Patrick J; Beach, Michael J

    2005-07-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled trial investigated the tolerance, efficacy, and nutritional benefit of combining chemotherapeutic treatment of intestinal helminths and lymphatic filariasis. Children were infected with Ascaris (30.7%), Trichuris (53.4%), and hookworm (9.7%) with 69.9% having more than one of these parasites. A total of 15.8% of the children had Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae. Children were randomly assigned treatment with placebo, albendazole (ALB), diethylcarbamazine (DEC), or combined therapy. The combination of DEC/ALB reduced microfilarial density compared with placebo, ALB, or DEC (P < or = 0.03). Albendazole and DEC/ALB reduced the prevalence of Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm more than placebo or DEC (P < or = 0.03). Among Trichuris-infected children, those receiving ALB and DEC/ALB demonstrated greater gains in weight compared with placebo (P < or = 0.05). Albendazole and DEC/ALB were equally efficacious in treating intestinal helminths and for children with W. bancrofti microfilaremia, DEC/ALB was more effective than DEC, with no increase in severity of adverse reactions.

  11. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Oral Iron Chelators and their Novel Combination in Children with Thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Gomber, Sunil; Jain, Prachi; Sharma, Satender; Narang, Manish

    2016-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of oral iron chelators (Deferiprone and Deferasirox) when used singly and in combination in multi-transfused children with thalassemia. Prospective comparative study. Thalassemia Center of a medical college affiliated hospital. 49 multi-transfused children with thalassemia with a mean (SD) age 11.6 (6.21) y received daily chelation therapy with either deferiprone alone (75 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses), deferasirox alone (30 mg/kg/day single dose) or their daily combination (same dose as monotherapy) for 12 months. Serum ferritin levels at the start of study, after 6 months and after 12 months. MRI T2* of liver and heart initially and after 6 months of follow up. 24-hour urinary iron excretion values at the outset and after 12 months of chelation therapy. At every visit for blood transfusion, all patients were clinically assessed for any adverse effects; liver and renal functions were monitored 6-monthly. After 12 months of respective chelation therapy, serum ferritin values decreased from a mean of 3140.5 ng/mL to 2910.0 ng/mL in deferiprone alone group, 3859.2 ng/mL to 3417.4 ng/mL in deferasirox alone group and from 3696.5 ng/mL to 2572.1 ng/mL in the combination group. The combination therapy was more efficacious in causing fall in serum ferritin levels compared to deferiprone and deferasirox monotherapy (P= 0.035 and 0.040, respectively). Results of MRI T2 were equivocal. Combined drug usage produced maximum negative iron balance in the body by maximally increasing the iron excretion in urine from 61.1 umol/day to 343.3 umol/day (P = 0.002). No significant adverse reactions were noticed in either the monotherapy or the combination group. Oral combination therapy of deferiprone and deferasirox appears to be an efficacious and safe modality to reduce serum ferritin in multi-transfused children with thalassemia.

  12. Enhancing HIV communication between parents and children: efficacy of the Parents Matter! Program.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kim S; Lin, Carol Y; Poulsen, Melissa N; Fasula, Amy; Wyckoff, Sarah C; Forehand, Rex; Long, Nicholas; Armistead, Lisa

    2011-12-01

    We examine efficacy of the Parents Matter! Program (PMP), a program to teach African-American parents of preadolescents sexual communication and HIV-prevention skills, through a multicenter, randomized control trial. A total of 1115 parent-child participants were randomized to one of three intervention arms (enhanced, brief, control). Percentages and 95% confidence intervals compare parents' perception of child readiness to learn about sexual issues, communication effectiveness, and dyad concordance from baseline to 12 months postintervention. Wilcoxon rank sum tests compare the changes in scores measuring communication content in HIV/AIDS, abstinence, and condom use. Compared to control, parents in the enhanced arm increased perception of child readiness to learn about sex (16% vs. 29%; p < .001), and a greater proportion of parent-child dyads reported concordant responses on communication topics: HIV/AIDS (15%, 95% CI = 8-21%; p < .001), abstinence (13%, 95% CI = 7-20%; p < .001), condoms (15%, 95% CI = 9-22%; p < .001). Increases in communication scores in HIV/AIDS, abstinence, and condom use were greater in the enhanced arm than control (p < 0.01). We conclude that the enhanced PMP can help parents educate children about HIV and prepare children to avoid sexual risk.

  13. An Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Howie, Erin K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Dowda, Marsha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A majority of preschool-aged children spend a significant portion of every weekday in a preschool or child care setting, where they typically participate in limited physical activity. This study determined if an ecologic physical activity intervention in preschools increases children’s moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). Design RCT, with preschool as the unit of randomization and analysis. Child physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Mixed model analysis of covariance with preschool as a random variable was used to test the effects of the intervention on physical activity in the total group and in sex-specific subgroups. Data were collected in 2008–2010 and analyzed in 2012–2014. Setting/participants Children in 4-year-old classrooms in 16 preschools, pair matched and assigned to intervention or control groups. Intervention The intervention focused on increasing children’s physical activity by changing instructional practices. Researchers trained preschool teachers to engage children in physical activity during: (1) structured, teacher-led physical activity opportunities in the classroom; (2) structured and unstructured physical activity opportunities at recess; and (3) physical activity integrated into pre-academic lessons. Research staff encouraged teachers to adapt the intervention to their classrooms. Main outcome measures Minutes/hour of MVPA during the preschool day. Results In an analytic sample of 379 children (188 intervention, 191 control), those in the intervention schools engaged in significantly more MVPA than children in control schools (7.4 and 6.6 minutes/hour, respectively). This difference remained significant after adjusting for parent education and length of the school day (half versus full day), In the sex-specific analyses, the difference was significant for girls (6.8 vs 6.1 minutes/hour of MVPA, respectively) but not for boys (7.9 vs 7.2 minutes/hour, respectively). Conclusions A flexible

  14. Sonoporation increases therapeutic efficacy of inducible and constitutive BMP2/7 in vivo gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Georg A; Hofmann, Anna T; Slezak, Paul; Schuetzenberger, Sebastian; Kaipel, Martin; Schwartz, Ernst; Neef, Anne; Nomikou, Nikolitsa; Nau, Thomas; van Griensven, Martijn; McHale, Anthony P; Redl, Heinz

    2014-02-01

    An ideal novel treatment for bone defects should provide regeneration without autologous or allogenous grafting, exogenous cells, growth factors, or biomaterials while ensuring spatial and temporal control as well as safety. Therefore, a novel osteoinductive nonviral in vivo gene therapy approach using sonoporation was investigated in ectopic and orthotopic models. Constitutive or regulated, doxycycline-inducible, bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 7 coexpression plasmids were repeatedly applied for 5 days. Ectopic and orthotopic gene transfer efficacy was monitored by coapplication of a luciferase plasmid and bioluminescence imaging. Orthotopic plasmid DNA distribution was investigated using a novel plasmid-labeling method. Luciferase imaging demonstrated an increased trend (61% vs. 100%) of gene transfer efficacy, and micro-computed tomography evaluation showed significantly enhanced frequency of ectopic bone formation for sonoporation compared with passive gene delivery (46% vs. 100%) dependent on applied ultrasound power. Bone formation by the inducible system (83%) was stringently controlled by doxycycline in vivo, and no ectopic bone formation was observed without induction or with passive gene transfer without sonoporation. Orthotopic evaluation in a rat femur segmental defect model demonstrated an increased trend of gene transfer efficacy using sonoporation. Investigation of DNA distribution demonstrated extensive binding of plasmid DNA to bone tissue. Sonoporated animals displayed a potentially increased union rate (33%) without extensive callus formation or heterotopic ossification. We conclude that sonoporation of BMP2/7 coexpression plasmids is a feasible, minimally invasive method for osteoinduction and that improvement of bone regeneration by sonoporative gene delivery is superior to passive gene delivery.

  15. Increasing the efficacy of radiotherapy by modulating the CCR2/CCR5 chemokine axes

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Kelli A.; Belt, Brian A.; Figueroa, Nathania M.; Murthy, Aditi; Patel, Ankit; Kim, Minsoo; Lord, Edith M.; Linehan, David C.; Gerber, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Although radiotherapy (RT) is widely used to control tumor growth across many cancer types, there is a relatively high incidence of RT failure exhibited by tumor recurrence, therefore a clear need exists to achieve improved effectiveness of RT. The RT-elicited immune response largely impacts the efficacy of RT and includes immune cells that kill tumor cells, but also immunosuppressive cells, which dampen anti-tumor immunity. Using murine models in which syngeneic tumor cell lines (Colon38, Glioma261, Line1) are grown intramuscularly and treated with 15 Gy local RT, we assessed the effects of RT on both the systemic and intratumoral immune response. Here we demonstrate that RT stimulates increased production of two chemokines, CCL2 and CCL5, at the tumor site. Further, that this leads to increased CCR2+ CCR5+ monocytes in circulation and subsequently alters the intratumoral immune infiltrate favoring the largely immunosuppressive CCR2+ CCR5+ monocytes. Importantly, a CCR2/CCR5 antagonist administered daily (15 mg/kg subcutaneously) starting two days prior to RT reduces both circulating and intratumoral monocytes resulting in increased efficacy of RT in radioresponsive tumors. Overall, these data have important implications for the mechanism of RT and present a means to improve RT efficacy across many cancer types. PMID:27852031

  16. Sex differences in yohimbine-induced increases in the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Sophia; Zou, Sheng; Coen, Kathleen; Funk, Douglas; Shram, Megan J; Lê, A D

    2014-03-01

    Stress is an important factor in the initiation and maintenance of smoking in adolescents. Women are more vulnerable to the development of addiction to smoking and have more difficulty quitting than men. Women also showe enhanced responses to stress. Despite these differences, no work has been done examining the effects of stress on the reinforcing efficacy of self-administered nicotine in adolescent rats, or if there are sex differences. Male and female adolescent Long Evans rats were trained to self-administer one of three different intravenous doses of nicotine (7.5, 15, 30 μg/kg/infusion) first on fixed ratio, and then on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule beginning on postnatal day 33. The effect of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (0.3, 0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) on the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine was then determined using the PR schedule. Yohimbine stimulated nicotine intake and increased PR breakpoints and numbers of infusions received in both male and female adolescent rats. The infusion dose of nicotine was positively associated with yohimbine-induced increases in responding. Female rats showed significantly increased breakpoints at yohimbine doses and nicotine infusion doses at which males did not. The effects of the pharmacological stressor, yohimbine on the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine are therefore linked to sex and nicotine infusion dose. Female rats are more sensitive to stress-induced potentiation of nicotine self-administration. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Maternal Perceptions of Self-Efficacy and Involvement in the Auditory Development of Young Children with Prelingual Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardin, Jean L.

    2005-01-01

    Maternal ratings of self-efficacy and involvement in early intervention were compared across two groups of mothers with young children with Prelingual deafness: 24 mothers of children with hearing aids and 30 mothers of children with a cochlear implant. Although mothers of children with cochlear implants rated their child's early intervention…

  18. [Increased effectiveness of antibiotic therapy with adaptogens in dysentery and Proteus infection in children].

    PubMed

    Vereshchagin, I A; Geskina, O D; Bukhteeva, E R

    1982-01-01

    The course of the disease and the host immunological reactivity (IgA, IgM, IgG, CPhI, IgG and IgM antibody titers in the HIT, blood bactericidic properties) were studied in 258 children aged 0 to 14 year suffering from acute dysentery caused by Shigella sonnei and flexneri and enterocolitis of the Proteus etiology. 157 patients were treated with monomycin and kanamycin in combination with adaptogens, such as Eleuterococcus and Echinopanax elatum Nakai L. and 101 patients were treated with the antibiotics alone. It was shown that the use of the adaptogens decreased the periods of the diseases. It is concluded that adaptogens increase the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in children with dysentery and Proteus infection.

  19. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity in obese children.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ataç; Ozçetin, Mustafa; Yerli, Yasemin; Damar, Ibrahim Halil; Kadı, Hasan; Koç, Fatih; Ceyhan, Köksal

    2011-10-01

    Obesity may start in childhood and obese children are more likely to grow up to be obese adults. Atherosclerosis is one of the most important complications of obesity. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a noninvasive measure of arterial stiffness, is accepted to be an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to determine PWV in obese children. The study included 30 obese (12 boys, 18 girls; mean age 13 ± 2 years) and 30 lean children (13 boys, 17 girls; mean age 12.5 ± 1.7 years). Weight and height were measured and obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) of greater than the 95th percentile for age. All the subjects underwent echocardiographic evaluation and blood samples were obtained. Pulse-wave velocity was calculated using the following equation: PWV (m/sec) = height-based aortic length (cm)/(100xtransit time [sec]). The latter was measured as the difference in the time of onset of two flows at the diaphragm and the aortic valve. Obese subjects had significantly higher blood pressure levels compared to the control group (p<0.001). The two groups were similar with respect to fasting glucose, hemoglobin, serum creatinine, and lipid levels. Among echocardiographic parameters, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, interventricular septum thickness, posterior wall thickness, left ventricular mass index, left atrium dimension, and aortic root dimension were significantly increased in obese subjects compared to controls (p<0.01). Obese children had significantly higher PWV values than the controls (4.0 ± 0.8 vs. 3.3 ± 0.7 m/sec, p<0.001). A positive significant correlation was found between PWV and BMI (r=0.391, p=0.002). Our findings show that aortic PWV is increased in obese children, suggesting that obesity may cause subclinical atherosclerosis even at early ages.

  20. Maternal self-efficacy and feeding practices in children aged 3-6 years

    PubMed Central

    Doaei, Saeid; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition in childhood has an important role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother’s lifestyle has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child. This paper aimed to investigate the association between mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle with feeding practices in children aged 3- 6 years. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child’s demographics. Aspects of mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle and mother’s control practices were assessed using Weight Efficacy Lifestyle (WEL) questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices questionnaire (CFPQ) respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. The role of mother’s weight efficacy in predicting child’s feeding practices was assessed using linear regression. Results: Results showed that mother’s weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices. The mothers with similar weight efficacy lifestyle applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety, environmental control, child involvement and less emotion regulation using foods. Conclusion: ‎ ‏ ‏‎ The result of the ‎study showed that maternal ‎lifestyle was associated with ‎child feeding practices.‎ PMID:27006673

  1. Maternal self-efficacy and associated parenting cognitions among mothers of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Jennifer C; Carter, Alice S

    2006-10-01

    Feelings of competency in the parental role, termed parenting self-efficacy, have been associated with well-being and positive parenting outcomes. Given the unique stresses inherent in raising a child with autism, parents may find it challenging to maintain a positive sense of well-being and self-efficacy. Study aims were to investigate associations between maternal self-efficacy and parenting cognitions among mothers of children with autism. Mothers (n = 170) completed questionnaires on paper or via the Internet. In a hierarchical linear regression, depression, parenting stress, agency, and guilt each accounted for unique variance in maternal self-efficacy when controlling for time since diagnosis and the presence of a second child with a disability. Autism knowledge was not associated with parenting self-efficacy. Self-efficacy appears to be associated with well-being, agency, and feelings of guilt among mothers of children with autism. Parent- and family-based interventions designed to support parental well-being and focusing on parenting cognitions may enhance parenting self-efficacy. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Efficacy of exercise for treating overweight in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Atlantis, E; Barnes, E H; Singh, M A Fiatarone

    2006-07-01

    Overweight prevalence among children/adolescents is increasing, while adult obesity may potentially cause a decline in life expectancy. More exercise is uniformly recommended, although treatment efficacy remains unclear. To determine the efficacy of exercise alone for treating overweight in children/adolescents. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials published in English were completed following multiple database searches performed on December 10, 2004. Studies of isolated or adjunctive exercise/physical activity treatment in overweight/obese children or adolescents which reported any overweight outcome were included. Literature searches identified 645 papers which were manually searched, of which 45 were considered for inclusion, of which 13 papers which reported 14 studies were included (N=481 overweight boys and girls, aged approximately 12 years). Two reviewers independently identified relevant papers for potential inclusion and assessed methodological quality. Principal measures of effects included the mean difference (MD) (between treatment and control groups), the weighted MD (WMD), and the standardized MD (SMD). Few studies were of robust design. The pooled SMD was -0.4 (-0.7, -0.1, P=0.006) for percent body fat, and -0.2 (-0.6, 0.1, P=0.07) for central obesity outcomes, whereas the pooled WMD was -2.7 kg (-6.1 kg, 0.8 kg, P=0.07) for body weight, all of which favored exercise. Pooled effects on body weight were significant and larger for studies of higher doses, whereas nonsignificant and smaller effects were seen for studies of lower doses of exercise (155-180 min/weeks vs 120-150 min/weeks). Based on the small number of short-term randomized trials currently available, an aerobic exercise prescription of 155-180 min/weeks at moderate-to-high intensity is effective for reducing body fat in overweight children/adolescents, but effects on body weight and central obesity are inconclusive. Recommendations for future study designs are

  3. Maize, switchgrass, and ponderosa pine biochar added to soil increased herbicide sorption and decreased herbicide efficacy.

    PubMed

    Clay, Sharon A; Krack, Kaitlynn K; Bruggeman, Stephanie A; Papiernik, Sharon; Schumacher, Thomas E

    2016-08-02

    Biochar, a by-product of pyrolysis made from a wide array of plant biomass when producing biofuels, is a proposed soil amendment to improve soil health. This study measured herbicide sorption and efficacy when soils were treated with low (1% w/w) or high (10% w/w) amounts of biochar manufactured from different feedstocks [maize (Zea mays) stover, switchgrass (Panicum vigatum), and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)], and treated with different post-processing techniques. Twenty-four hour batch equilibration measured sorption of (14)C-labelled atrazine or 2,4-D to two soil types with and without biochar amendments. Herbicide efficacy was measured with and without biochar using speed of seed germination tests of sensitive species. Biochar amended soils sorbed more herbicide than untreated soils, with major differences due to biochar application rate but minor differences due to biochar type or post-process handling technique. Biochar presence increased the speed of seed germination compared with herbicide alone addition. These data indicate that biochar addition to soil can increase herbicide sorption and reduce efficacy. Evaluation for site-specific biochar applications may be warranted to obtain maximal benefits without compromising other agronomic practices.

  4. Breeding Increases the Efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the Sprout Control of Birch

    PubMed Central

    Hamberg, Leena; Vartiamäki, Henna; Hantula, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr.) Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh.) 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting. PMID:25674794

  5. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, Leena; Vartiamäki, Henna; Hantula, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr.) Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh.) 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  6. Increasing Memory Self-Efficacy and Strategy Use in Hispanic Elders

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a 4-week, nine-session group intervention taught in Spanish to Hispanic older adults entitled “Quieres Mejorar Tu Memoria” (Do you wish to improve your memory?). The program was based on Bandura’s self-efficacy theory and was designed to increase memory self-efficacy and strategy use. A total of 33 older adults attending a senior center (mean--age = 69 years; education = 5 years; MMSE = 25) participated in the study. A booster session and a post-test were given at 3 months to the intervention group (n=22). At posttest the intervention reported greater confidence in preventing decline in their memories, and in particular greater use of the internal strategy of elaboration (2.99 vs. 3.41), and the external strategies of list (2.55 vs. 3.38) and note (3.27 vs. 3.75). PMID:18802497

  7. Increasing Memory Self-Efficacy and Strategy Use in Hispanic Elders.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham J

    1998-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a 4-week, nine-session group intervention taught in Spanish to Hispanic older adults entitled "Quieres Mejorar Tu Memoria" (Do you wish to improve your memory?). The program was based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory and was designed to increase memory self-efficacy and strategy use. A total of 33 older adults attending a senior center (mean--age = 69 years; education = 5 years; MMSE = 25) participated in the study. A booster session and a post-test were given at 3 months to the intervention group (n=22). At posttest the intervention reported greater confidence in preventing decline in their memories, and in particular greater use of the internal strategy of elaboration (2.99 vs. 3.41), and the external strategies of list (2.55 vs. 3.38) and note (3.27 vs. 3.75).

  8. Increasing physical activity of children during school recess.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Lynda B; Van Camp, Carole M

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity is crucial for children's health. Fitbit accelerometers were used to measure steps of 6 elementary students during recess. The intervention included reinforcement, self-monitoring, goal setting, and feedback. Steps taken during the intervention phase (M = 1,956 steps) were 47% higher than in baseline (M = 1,326 steps), and the percentage of recess spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher during intervention (M = 25%) than in baseline (M = 4%). These methods successfully increased steps during recess and could be used to increase steps in other settings.

  9. Children's literature for the primary inclusive classroom: increasing understanding of children with hearing impairments.

    PubMed

    Turner, N D; Traxler, M

    1997-12-01

    As a result of recent federal legislation and positive research findings of educators, children with disabilities, including hearing impairment, are being included in general education classrooms. This development has many implications at the state, district, and classroom levels. While helping the child with disabilities assimilate into the general education classroom may appear to be the teacher's primary challenge, increasing awareness and understanding among those students without disabilities is a growing concern of educators. The use of children's literature featuring children with disabilities is one way to promote this understanding. This article includes an annotated bibliography of children's literature featuring children with hearing impairment, along with related classroom activities to enhance experiences with the books.

  10. [Efficacy and safety of antiepileptic therapy in children (a comparative analysis of valproates and barbiturates)].

    PubMed

    Pylaeva, O A; Petrukhin, A S; Voronkova, K V

    2004-01-01

    The study aimed at a comparative analysis of safety and efficacy of valproic acid (valproate) and barbiturates in the treatment of epilepsy in children. Two hundred and forty children were treated with valproate, 94% being assigned to depakine and depakine chrono, and 210 children received barbiturates. Therapeutic effect (a decrease of seizures frequency by 2 and more times or remission) was detected in 82 of 127 (65 +/- 8.53%) patients for valproate monotherapy and only in 26 of 89 (30 +/- 9.45%) for barbiturates monotherapy. An efficacy of antiepileptic therapy in children was significantly higher (p<0.05) for valproates as compared to barbiturates. A drug withdrawal due to poor tolerability was recorded in 6 of 127 (5 +/- 3.7%) patients treated with valproate in monotherapy and in 14 of 210 (7 +/- 3.45%)--in polytherapy; in 53 of 89 (59 +/- 10.2%) patients treated with barbiturates in monotherapy and in 78 of 121 (65 +/- 8.53%) patients treated with barbiturates in polytherapy. Therefore, adverse effects occurred more often in barbiturates than in valproate treatment both for mono- and polytherapy (p<0.05). The results of the study confirmed the high efficacy and safety of valproates, specifically depakine chrono, in the treatment of epilepsy in children. depakine chrono in-take is associated with lower frequency of adverse effects; side-effects are mostly of dose-dependent character and do not result in the drug withdrawal. The authors do not recommend using barbiturates in the first-line treatment in children, because of the lower efficacy, high frequency of medical complications that might result in the drug withdrawal and reducing of the efficacy of other antiepileptic medications.

  11. [The efficacy of tympanopunction in children with OMS].

    PubMed

    Jezewska, Elzbieta; Kukwa, Andrzej; Jabłońska, Joanna; Wozniak, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Otitis media with effusion is the most frequent cause of conductive hearing impairement (HL) at pediatric age. This entity can be asymptomatic for an important period of time (silent OME). There is a surgical and a nonsurgical approach for OME. In case of failure of conservative treatment of OME the ventilation tube insertion (VT) with adenoidectomy alone or combined with tonsillectomy should be choosed. If the hearing loss is less than 20 dB children are candidates for conservative treatment and myringotomy. From 1999 to 2003, 50 children with bilateral and 9 with unilateral OME underwent the surgical treatment in our ENT Department. Mean age of patient population was 6,8 years. Clinical evaluation of the OME treatment outcome was done in 2004. Surgical procedure involved myringotomy, aspiration of the middle ear effusion, middle ear irrigation with soline solution 0.9 % Sodium Chloride (NaCl) followed by suction of diluted glue. Depo-Medrol (methylprednisolone acetate) was administrated into the middle ear. Our procedure included the management of the upper airways obstruction. Good long-term outcomes after surgical treatment of OME were obtained in 30 patients (79%). In this group of children the upper airways management included adenoidectomy and partial tonsillectomy. 8 children presented poor response to the treatment. In this group the surgical procedure consisted of adenoidectomy and inferior turbinate reduction. Two children presented acute otitis media and improved after conservative treatment. Other children with poor outcome were: a boy who underwent multiple surgical procedures due to laryngotracheal stenosis, a girl who suffered from chondrodysplasia. Remaining two patients presented few months ago aggravation of conductive hearing loss. According to positive familial history they underwent allergical examinations. One boy was planned for readenoidectomy and laser myringotomy, a girl already operated at the age of tree years, was planned for

  12. Efficacy of Sensory and Motor Interventions for Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranek, Grace T.

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates the scientific basis (primarily gained through uncontrolled, descriptive studies) of various sensory and motor interventions for children with autism and concludes that most categories of interventions, including sensory integration, sensory stimulation approaches, auditory integration training, and prism lenses, have shown…

  13. Efficacy of an Intervention to Improve Fluency in Children with Developmental Dyslexia in a Regular Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Vio, Claudio; Iozzino, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a method to improve reading fluency in children with dyslexia. The method, which we named "subsyllabic," was aimed at automatizing the recognition of syllables within words in connected texts, presented by ad hoc software. Two versions of this method--one self-paced and the other one with…

  14. Efficacy Beliefs and the Learning Experiences of Children with Cancer in the Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    A study examined how self-efficacy beliefs influenced motivation, affect, and adjustment in five students aged 9-13 with cancer, receiving educational services in a hospital setting. Education was an effective vehicle through which children with cancer could experience control and autonomy and also achieve many necessary developmental outcomes for…

  15. Parenting Efficacy and the Early School Adjustment of Poor and Near-Poor Black Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Bentler, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigates whether maternal educational attainment, maternal employment status, and family income affect African American children's behavioral and cognitive functioning over time through their impacts on mothers' psychological functioning and parenting efficacy in a sample of 100 poor and near-poor single…

  16. Parental Self-Efficacy and Joining a Savings Program for Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okech, David; Little, Todd D.; Williams Shanks, Trina R.; Adams, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Using baseline survey data, the study examined self-efficacy of 381 lower-income parents who had opportunities to build financial assets for their children by opening college savings accounts in a human service agency. Methods: Of the study sample, 62% of the parents decided to open accounts while 38% did not. Structural equation…

  17. Parenting Efficacy and the Early School Adjustment of Poor and Near-Poor Black Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Bentler, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigates whether maternal educational attainment, maternal employment status, and family income affect African American children's behavioral and cognitive functioning over time through their impacts on mothers' psychological functioning and parenting efficacy in a sample of 100 poor and near-poor single…

  18. Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese ADHD Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Ng, Gene S. H.; Choi, S. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in Chinese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD features. Methods: This study adopted a randomized controlled trial design without blinding. Participants were randomized into either the intervention group (n = 32) and…

  19. Self-Efficacy Beliefs amongst Parents of Young Children: Validation of a Self-Report Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The self-efficacy belief (SEB) concept is discussed in the context of parenting. A questionnaire, the "Echelle Globale du Sentiment de Competence Parentale" (EGSCP), assessing several domain-specific SEBs and three related cognitive constructs, was developed with 705 French-speaking parents of 3- to 7-year-old children. The EGSCP displayed good…

  20. Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese ADHD Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Ng, Gene S. H.; Choi, S. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in Chinese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD features. Methods: This study adopted a randomized controlled trial design without blinding. Participants were randomized into either the intervention group (n = 32) and…

  1. Differential Efficacy of Home Monitoring and Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Decreasing Children's Maladaptive Nighttime Fears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, Donna B.; Weiner, Courtney L.; Friedman, Alice G.

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of brief cognitive-behavioral interventions for treating childhood nighttime fears. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether behavior changes could be initiated and maintained with home monitoring and reinforcement alone. Sixteen children, ages 6 to 11, with severe, disruptive…

  2. The Efficacy of Social Skills Treatment for Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Lisa M.; Caterino, Linda C.; Chao, Janet; Shaknai, Dina; De Simone, Gina

    2006-01-01

    Children with Asperger Syndrome present with significant social skills deficits, which may contribute to clinical problems such as anxiety, depression, and/or other behavioral disorders. This article provides a description of the nature of Asperger Syndrome and provides possible treatment interventions, specifically focusing on the efficacy of…

  3. Support and Self-Efficacy among Latino and White Parents of Children with ID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Shana R.; Holloway, Susan D.; Dominguez-Pareto, Irenka; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that mothers of children with ID who receive familial support experience less stress than those who receive less support. Less is known about the relation of support to mothers' evaluation of parenting self-efficacy, particularly in Latino families. We examined the relationship of different types of family support to life…

  4. The Efficacy of Social Skills Treatment for Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Lisa M.; Caterino, Linda C.; Chao, Janet; Shaknai, Dina; De Simone, Gina

    2006-01-01

    Children with Asperger Syndrome present with significant social skills deficits, which may contribute to clinical problems such as anxiety, depression, and/or other behavioral disorders. This article provides a description of the nature of Asperger Syndrome and provides possible treatment interventions, specifically focusing on the efficacy of…

  5. Differential Efficacy of Home Monitoring and Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Decreasing Children's Maladaptive Nighttime Fears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, Donna B.; Weiner, Courtney L.; Friedman, Alice G.

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of brief cognitive-behavioral interventions for treating childhood nighttime fears. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether behavior changes could be initiated and maintained with home monitoring and reinforcement alone. Sixteen children, ages 6 to 11, with severe, disruptive…

  6. Efficacy Beliefs and the Learning Experiences of Children with Cancer in the Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    A study examined how self-efficacy beliefs influenced motivation, affect, and adjustment in five students aged 9-13 with cancer, receiving educational services in a hospital setting. Education was an effective vehicle through which children with cancer could experience control and autonomy and also achieve many necessary developmental outcomes for…

  7. Gut microbiota influences low fermentable substrate diet efficacy in children with irritable bowel syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We sought to determine whether a low fermentable substrate diet (LFSD) decreases abdominal pain frequency in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to identify potential microbial factors related to diet efficacy. Pain symptoms, stooling characteristics, breath hydrogen and methane, whole ...

  8. Submucous tramadol increases the anesthetic efficacy of mepivacaine with epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve block.

    PubMed

    Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario Alberto; Orozco-Solis, Mariana; Tobías-Azúa, Francisco Javier; Méndez-Gutiérrez, Elsa Patricia

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of submucous tramadol as adjuvant of mepivacaine with epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve block. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial was conducted. Twenty healthy young volunteers were randomized into two treatment sequences using a series of random numbers. Sequence 1: Group A, 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine plus submucous tramadol 50mg (1mL of saline) and one week later Group B, 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine plus submucous placebo (1mL of saline). Sequence 2: Group B and one week later Group A. All treatments were administered 1min after that patient informed anesthesia of lower lip. We evaluated the duration of anesthesia of lower lip, anesthetic efficacy, and local and systemic adverse events. Anesthetic efficacy was better in group receiving submucous tramadol during the first 2h compared with group receiving submucous placebo (P<0.05). Submucous tramadol increased the anesthetic efficacy of mepivacaine with epinephrine of soft tissue in inferior alveolar nerve block.

  9. Validity and Reliability of the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children with Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tutar Güven, Şerife; Işler, Ayşegül

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to adapt the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children (SSES-C) into Turkish and then assess its validity and reliability in children with epilepsy. The study sample consisted of 166 children (aged 9-17 years) with epilepsy who attended of Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya Training and Research Hospital, and Bursa Dortcelik Children's Hospital Pediatric Neurology Clinics between July 2012 and March 2013. All research data were collected by a researcher in face-to-face interviews using Child Information Form, Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children and Children's Depression Scale. The Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children is a 15-item, 5-point Likert scale designed by Caplin et al. (2002). The linguistic adaptation and validation of the scale was conducted by seven experts. To evaluate the content validity of the scale, we elicited judgments from a panel of 10 content experts. The expert judgments showed that the correlation between the items on the scale was fairly good (Kendall's W=0.411, p<0.001, ki-kare: 57.495). Load factor of 40% and a large factor analysis included analysis of substances and two factors accounting for 49.67% of the total variance explained. We calculated Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the internal consistency and the full-scale score showed good internal consistency (alpha 0.89). Within the context of reliability studies, it was found correlations varying between 0,98-0,74 for the two sub-factors of the scale. Test/retest correlation coefficients were significant (p<0,01) and high (r=0.99). In parallel forms reliability, the correlations between the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children and Children's Depression Rating Scale were found to be negative, moderate and statistically significant (r=-0.58, p<0.001). The measurements conducted on the Turkish version of the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children showed that it is consistent with the original scale, valid and reliable for Turkish society.

  10. Increasing general practitioners' confidence and self-efficacy in managing obesity: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Haesler, Emily; Elmitt, Nicholas; van Weel, Chris; Douglas, Kirsty

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Internationally, general practitioners (GPs) are being encouraged to take an active role in the care of their patients with obesity, but as yet there are few tools for them to implement within their clinics. This study assessed the self-efficacy and confidence of GPs before and after implementing a weight management programme in their practice. Design Nested mixed methods study within a 6-month feasibility trial. Setting 4 urban general practices and 1 rural general practice in Australia. Participants All vocationally registered GPs in the local region were eligible and invited to participate; 12 GPs were recruited and 11 completed the study. Interventions The Change Programme is a structured GP-delivered weight management programme that uses the therapeutic relationship between the patient and their GP to provide holistic and person-centred care. It is an evidence-based programme founded on Australian guidelines for the management of obesity in primary care. Primary outcome measures Self-efficacy and confidence of the GPs when managing obesity was measured using a quantitative survey consisting of Likert scales in conjunction with pro forma interviews. Results In line with social cognitive theory, GPs who experienced performance mastery during the pilot intervention had an increase in their confidence and self-efficacy. In particular, confidence in assisting and arranging care for patients was improved as demonstrated in the survey and supported by the qualitative data. Most importantly from the qualitative data, GPs described changing their usual practice and felt more confident to discuss obesity with all of their patients. Conclusions A structured management tool for obesity care in general practice can improve GP confidence and self-efficacy in managing obesity. Enhancing GP ‘professional self-efficacy’ is the first step to improving obesity management within general practice. Trial registration number ACTRN12614001192673; Results. PMID:28132016

  11. Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Quality of Life of Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghati Barog, Zahra; Younesi, Seyyed Jalal; Sedaghati, Amir Hosein; Sedaghati, Zohre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The findings demonstrated that parents of children with cerebral palsy experience elevated levels of distress, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptom and subjective symptom of stress and low quality of life. Effective interventions targeting relapse have the potential to dramatically reduce the point prevalence of this condition. Many studies have shown that Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is an intervention that has shown efficacy in improving quality of life. In this study, the effect of Mindfulness –Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on increasing quality of life in mothers of children with cerebral palsy has been examined. Method: Three mothers of CP children with low scores on quality of life in WHOQOL-BREF inventory participated in this single- case study. Results: Findings revealed that the MBCT program elevated quality of life of the participants. The improvement quotient for quality of life of each participant was good . Conclusion: The results have implication for efficacy of mindfulness for improvement of psychosocial life of families of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:26884784

  12. Blinded with science: Trivial graphs and formulas increase ad persuasiveness and belief in product efficacy.

    PubMed

    Tal, Aner; Wansink, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of being scientific can increase persuasiveness. Even trivial cues can create such an appearance of a scientific basis. In our studies, including simple elements, such as graphs (Studies 1-2) or a chemical formula (Study 3), increased belief in a medication's efficacy. This appears to be due to the association of such elements with science, rather than increased comprehensibility, use of visuals, or recall. Belief in science moderates the persuasive effect of graphs, such that people who have a greater belief in science are more affected by the presence of graphs (Study 2). Overall, the studies contribute to past research by demonstrating that even trivial elements can increase public persuasion despite their not truly indicating scientific expertise or objective support.

  13. Field Experience + Inclusive ECE Classrooms = Increased Preservice Teacher Efficacy in Working with Students with Developmental Delays or Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atiles, Julia T.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hyunjin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined whether field placements within an inclusive classroom are associated with improved preservice teacher's efficacy when working with children with developmental delays or disabilities. Study participants were 165 undergraduate students enrolled in primary teacher education classes at a Midwestern university. Participants…

  14. Misfolding Ectodomain Mutations of the Lutropin Receptor Increase Efficacy of Hormone Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Charmandari, E.; Guan, R.; Zhang, M.; Silveira, L. G.; Fan, Q. R.; Chrousos, G. P.; Sertedaki, A. C.; Latronico, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate 2 novel mutations of the LHCGR, each homozygous, in a 46,XY patient with severe Leydig cell hypoplasia. One is a mutation in the signal peptide (p.Gln18_Leu19ins9; referred to here as SP) that results in an alteration of the coding sequence of the N terminus of the mature mutant receptor. The other mutation (p.G71R) is also within the ectodomain. Similar to many other inactivating mutations, the cell surface expression of recombinant human LHR(SP,G71R) is greatly reduced due to intracellular retention. However, we made the unusual discovery that the intrinsic efficacy for agonist-stimulated cAMP in the reduced numbers of receptors on the cell surface was greatly increased relative to the same low number of cell surface wild-type receptor. Remarkably, this appears to be a general attribute of misfolding mutations in the ectodomains, but not serpentine domains, of the gonadotropin receptors. These findings suggest that there must be a common, shared mechanism by which disparate mutations in the ectodomain that cause misfolding and therefore reduced cell surface expression concomitantly confer increased agonist efficacy to those receptor mutants on the cell surface. Our data further suggest that, due to their increased agonist efficacy, extremely small changes in cell surface expression of misfolded ectodomain mutants cause larger than expected alterations in the cellular response to agonist. Therefore, for inactivating LHCGR mutations causing ectodomain misfolding, the numbers of cell surface mutant receptors on fetal Leydig cells of 46,XY individuals exert a more exquisite effect on the relative severity of the clinical phenotypes than already appreciated. PMID:26554443

  15. Efficacy of chemotherapy with benznidazole in children in the indeterminate phase of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Sosa Estani, S; Segura, E L; Ruiz, A M; Velazquez, E; Porcel, B M; Yampotis, C

    1998-10-01

    A double-blind, randomized, clinical field trial was designed to test the efficacy and tolerance of a specific drug treatment in children in the indeterminate phase of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Children were treated with benznidazole at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day for 60 days or placebo and followed-up for 48 months. The treated children showed a significant decrease in geometric mean titers of antibodies against T. cruzi measured by indirect hemagglutination, indirect immunofluorescence, and ELISA. After a four year follow-up, 62% of the benznidazole-treated children and no placebo-treated child were seronegative for T. cruzi when tested by an ELISA using a T. cruzi flagellar calcium-binding protein (F29). Xenodiagnosis carried out after 48 months of follow-up was positive in 4.7% of the benznidazole-treated children and in 51.2% of the placebo-treated children. These results show the tolerance to and efficacy of benznidazole against T. cruzi in seropositive children six to 12 years of age. We used an early serologic marker of cure after treatment, consisting of a recombinant antigen implemented in a rapid, conventional serologic procedure.

  16. Efficacy and tolerability of the modified Atkins diet in young children with refractory epilepsy: Indian experience

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ranju; Goel, Shaiphali; Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet; Mukherjee, Sharmila B.; Aneja, Satinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: The modified Atkins diet (MAD) has been used predominantly in older children, adolescents, and adults. There is a paucity of data on the use of the MAD in refractory epilepsy in young children. Objectives: This study was planned to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the MAD in refractory epilepsy in young children. Methods: This study recruited children aged 9 months to 3 years with refractory seizures. Children received MAD for 6-month with the on-going anticonvulsant medications being continued unchanged. Reduction in seizure frequency was the primary outcome measure. Adverse effects were also studied. Results: Thirty-one children with daily seizures were studied with a median age of 18-month (range 9–30 months). West syndrome was the most common epilepsy syndrome (26, 86.6%). Twenty-one children remained on diet at 3 months and 13 at 6 months. The children who achieved >50% seizure reduction were 17 (54.8%) at 3 months and 9 (29%) at 6 months. Refusal to eat was a significant problem seen in eight children. Three children discontinued the diet due to adverse effects. Conclusion: The MAD was found to be feasible, effective, and well-tolerated. PMID:27994368

  17. Efficacy of different strategies to treat anemia in children: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Jorge L; González, Karla E; Caamaño, María Del C; García, Olga P; Preciado, Roxana; Odio, Mauricio

    2010-09-23

    Anemia continues to be a major public health problem among children in many regions of the world, and it is still not clear which strategy to treat it is most effective. To evaluate the efficacy and children's acceptance of several recognized strategies to treat anemia. Non-breastfed children (n = 577), 6 to 43 mo of age, were screened for the trial; 267 were anemic (hemoglobin < 11.7 g/dL), and 266 of those were randomized into 1 of 5 treatments to received daily either: an iron supplement (IS), an iron+folic acid supplement (IFS), a multiple micronutrient supplement (MMS), a micronutrient-fortified complementary food as porridge powder (FCF), or zinc+iron+ascorbic acid fortified water (FW). The iron content of each daily dose was 20, 12.5, 10, 10 and 6.7 mg respectively. Hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, total iron, weight and height were measured at baseline and after 4 months of treatment. Morbidity, treatment acceptability and adherence were recorded during the intervention. All treatments significantly increased Hb and total iron concentration; ferritin did not change significantly. Groups MMS, IS and IFS increased Hb (g/dL) [1.50 (95%CI: 1.17, 1.83), 1.48 [(1.18, 1.78) and 1.57 (1.26, 1.88), respectively] and total iron ((μg/dL) [0.15 (0.01, 0.29), 0.19 (0.06, 0.31) and 0.12(-0.01, 0.25), respectively] significantly more than FCF [0.92 (0.64, 1.20)] but not to FW group [0.14 (0.04, 0.24)]. The prevalence of anemia was reduced to a greater extent in the MMS and IFS groups (72% and 69%, respectively) than in the FCF group (45%) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in anthropometry or in the number of episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections among treatment groups. The supplements MMS and IS were less acceptable to children, than IFS, FCF and FW. The three supplements IS, ISF and MMS increased Hb more than the FCF; the supplements that contained micronutrients (IFS and MMS) were more effective for reducing the prevalence of anemia. In general

  18. Efficacy of different strategies to treat anemia in children: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anemia continues to be a major public health problem among children in many regions of the world, and it is still not clear which strategy to treat it is most effective. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and children's acceptance of several recognized strategies to treat anemia. Methods Non-breastfed children (n = 577), 6 to 43 mo of age, were screened for the trial; 267 were anemic (hemoglobin < 11.7 g/dL), and 266 of those were randomized into 1 of 5 treatments to received daily either: an iron supplement (IS), an iron+folic acid supplement (IFS), a multiple micronutrient supplement (MMS), a micronutrient-fortified complementary food as porridge powder (FCF), or zinc+iron+ascorbic acid fortified water (FW). The iron content of each daily dose was 20, 12.5, 10, 10 and 6.7 mg respectively. Hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, total iron, weight and height were measured at baseline and after 4 months of treatment. Morbidity, treatment acceptability and adherence were recorded during the intervention. Results All treatments significantly increased Hb and total iron concentration; ferritin did not change significantly. Groups MMS, IS and IFS increased Hb (g/dL) [1.50 (95%CI: 1.17, 1.83), 1.48 [(1.18, 1.78) and 1.57 (1.26, 1.88), respectively] and total iron ((μg/dL) [0.15 (0.01, 0.29), 0.19 (0.06, 0.31) and 0.12(-0.01, 0.25), respectively] significantly more than FCF [0.92 (0.64, 1.20)] but not to FW group [0.14 (0.04, 0.24)]. The prevalence of anemia was reduced to a greater extent in the MMS and IFS groups (72% and 69%, respectively) than in the FCF group (45%) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in anthropometry or in the number of episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections among treatment groups. The supplements MMS and IS were less acceptable to children, than IFS, FCF and FW. Conclusion The three supplements IS, ISF and MMS increased Hb more than the FCF; the supplements that contained micronutrients (IFS and MMS) were more effective for

  19. Increasing the efficacy of cue exposure treatment in preventing relapse of addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Havermans, Remco C; Jansen, Anita T M

    2003-07-01

    Theoretically, cue exposure treatment should be able to prevent relapse by extinguishing conditioned drug responding (e.g. cue-elicited craving). According to contemporary learning theory, though, extinction does not eliminate conditioned responding. Analogous cue exposure with response prevention (CERP) as a treatment of addictive behavior might not eliminate the learned relation between drug-related cues and drug use. This does not necessarily mean that cue exposure cannot successfully prevent relapse. Various suggestions for increasing the efficacy of cue exposure treatment are being discussed from a contemporary learning theory perspective. It is suggested that cue exposure treatment incorporating retrieval cues can be a beneficial treatment in preventing relapse of addictive behavior.

  20. Commitment to philosophy, teacher efficacy, and burnout among teachers of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Jennett, Heather K; Harris, Sandra L; Mesibov, Gary B

    2003-12-01

    Variables that may be related to burnout in teachers of students with autism, including commitment to an underlying philosophy of a treatment and professional self-efficacy, were explored. Teachers using one of two different treatment approaches to autism participated: those using Applied Behavior Analysis (n = 34), and those using TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication-Related Handicapped Children) (n = 30). Participants completed the Autism Treatment Philosophy Questionnaire, developed by the authors to differentiate between the philosophy of the approaches; Teacher Efficacy Scale, and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results indicate a significant difference in philosophical commitment between the groups, but no differences in teaching efficacy or burnout. The relationship between a commitment to one's teaching approach and certain dimensions of teaching efficacy and burnout was found to be significant. Implications include the need for adequate training of teachers of students with autism.

  1. Compassionate Parenting as a Key to Satisfaction, Efficacy and Meaning Among Mothers of Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Conti, Regina

    2015-07-01

    Two studies examine the role of compassionate and self-image parenting goals in the experience of mothers of children with autism. In Study 1, a comparison sample was included. Study 1 included measures of parenting goals, life satisfaction, family life satisfaction, parenting satisfaction, and meaning in life. Study 2 incorporated a measure of parenting efficacy. Study 1 showed that mothers of children with autism were higher than comparison mothers in compassionate parenting goals. In both studies, compassionate parenting predicted positive outcomes including higher parenting satisfaction (both studies), family life satisfaction, meaning in life (Study 1) and higher parenting efficacy (Study 2). These studies support the notion that compassionate parenting is a key to satisfaction for mothers of children with autism.

  2. Brief Training on Patient Anger Increases Oncology Providers' Self-Efficacy in Communicating With Angry Patients.

    PubMed

    Gerhart, James I; Sanchez Varela, Veronica; Burns, John W

    2017-09-01

    Anger is a common reaction to pain and life-limiting and life-threatening illness, is linked to higher levels of pain, and may disrupt communication with medical providers. Anger is understudied compared with other emotions in mental health and health care contexts, and many providers have limited formal training in addressing anger. The objective of this study was to assess if a brief provider training program is a feasible method for increasing providers' self-efficacy in responding to patient anger. Providers working in stem cell transplant and oncology units attending a brief training session on responding to patient anger. The program was informed by cognitive behavioral models of anger and included didactics, discussion, and experiential training on communication and stress management. Provider-rated self-efficacy was significantly higher for nine of 10 skill outcomes (P < .005) including acknowledging patient anger, discussing anger, considering solutions, and using relaxation to manage their own distress. All skill increases were large in magnitude (Cohen's d = 1.18-2.22). Providers found the program to be useful for increasing their confidence in addressing patient anger. Discussion, didactics, and experiential exercises can support provider awareness of anger, shape adaptive communication, and foster stress management skills. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Using Narrative Language Intervention as a Tool To Increase Communicative Competence in Spanish-Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenbrodt, Lisa; Kerins, Marie; Gesell, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    Twelve Spanish-speaking school-aged children participated in an 8-week pretest/posttest design investigation targeting improvement of their communicative competence through a narrative intervention program. Also examined the efficacy of providing an intervention in the children's native language. Findings revealed that use of a narrative…

  4. Training Parents to Use the Natural Language Paradigm to Increase Their Autistic Children's Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laski, Karen E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Parents of four nonverbal and four echolalic autistic children, aged five-nine, were trained to increase their children's speech by using the Natural Language Paradigm. Following training, parents increased the frequency with which they required their children to speak, and children increased the frequency of their verbalizations in three…

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Mesalamine Suppositories for Treatment of Ulcerative Proctitis in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Melvin B.; Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Spénard, Jean; Shbaklo, Hadia; Giguere, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Background Treatment of ulcerative proctitis has not been well studied in pediatric populations. We conducted an open-label trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a mesalamine suppository (500 mg) to treat pediatric patients with mild to moderate ulcerative proctitis. Methods Pediatric patients (5–17 years of age) with ulcerative proctitis were enrolled for baseline evaluations, including a flexible sigmoidoscopic (or colonoscopic) assessment with biopsies performed at study entry. Eligible patients were started on mesalamine suppositories (500 mg) at bedtime. Two follow-up visits were scheduled after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. The dose could be increased to 500 mg twice daily at the week 3 follow-up visit if deemed appropriate by the investigator based on the Disease Activity Index (DAI) assessment. The primary outcome measure was a DAI derived from a composite score of stool frequency, urgency of defecation, rectal bleeding, and general well-being. Results Forty-nine patients were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. The mean DAI value decreased from 5.5 at baseline to 1.6 and 1.5 at weeks 3 and 6, respectively (P < 0.0001). Only 4 patients had their dose increased to 500 mg twice daily at week 3. Forty-one patients experienced at least one adverse event, most of which were deemed mild and unrelated to study therapy. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were gastrointestinal (n = 30, 61.2%). Conclusions This study showed that a daily bedtime dose of a 500 mg mesalamine suppository is safe and efficacious in children with ulcerative proctitis. PMID:20848454

  6. Modification of antisense phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotides by a 5' cholesteryl moiety increases cellular association and improves efficacy.

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, A M; Tonkinson, J; Matson, S; Zhao, Q; Saxon, M; Zhang, L M; Bhanja, U; Yakubov, L; Stein, C A

    1993-01-01

    Phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotides bearing a 5' cholesteryl (chol) modification bind to low density lipoprotein (LDL), apparently by partitioning the chol-modified oligonucleotides into the lipid layer. Both HL60 cells and primary mouse spleen T and B cells incubated with fluorescently labeled chol-modified oligonucleotide showed substantially increased cellular association by flow cytometry and increased internalization by confocal microscopy compared to an identical molecule not bearing the chol group. Cellular internalization of chol-modified oligonucleotide occurred at least partially through the LDL receptor; it was increased in mouse spleen cells by cell culture in lipoprotein-deficient medium and/or lovastatin, and it was decreased by culture in high serum medium. To determine whether chol-modified oligonucleotides are more potent antisense agents, we titered antisense unmodified phosphodiester and chol-modified oligonucleotides targeted against a mouse immunosuppressive protein. Murine spleen cells cultured with 20 microM phosphodiester antisense oligonucleotides had a 2-fold increase in RNA synthesis, indicating the expected lymphocyte activation. Antisense chol-modified oligonucleotides showed an 8-fold increase in relative potency: they caused a 2-fold increase in RNA synthesis at just 2.5 microM. The increased efficacy was blocked by heparin and was further increased by cell culture in 1% (vs. 10%) fetal bovine serum, suggesting that the effect may, at least in part, be mediated via the LDL receptor. Antisense chol-modified oligonucleotides are sequence specific and have increased potency as compared to unmodified oligonucleotides. Images PMID:8430072

  7. Increasing pesticide-resistant ectoparasitic infections may increase pesticide poisoning risks in children.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    Head louse and scabies mite infestations are common among pre-school and school-age children, and topical pesticides are frequently prescribed to treat such conditions. Ectoparasite resistance to the safest and most commonly prescribed pyrethrin/pyrethroid pesticides for ectoparasitic infections has, however, been increasing since the 1980s. The increasing resistance of these arthropods to the safest pesticides may lead to greater use of more toxic, alternative pesticides to control infestations and to prevent institutional outbreaks. MEDLINE and Cochrane searches, 1966-2008, were conducted to assess the impact of increasing pesticide resistance on prescribing practices for ectoparasitic infections and to describe the evolving global epidemiology of pediatric poisonings by more toxic pediculicides and miticides, including carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates. Pharmacists, physicians, and poison control personnel should be fully informed about increasing pesticide resistance among the most commonly encountered ectoparasites of children and the institutionalized and be prepared to prevent and to treat accidental home and institutional pesticide poisonings with more toxic pesticides.

  8. Increasing self-efficacy and quality lesson planning using Lesson-Study with elementary preservice teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Elizabeth Ann

    This qualitative, quasi-experimental study examined if lesson-study could be a successful approach in improving lesson plan quality and increasing self-efficacy levels toward teaching science at the preservice elementary teacher level in North Mississippi. Lesson-Study can be defined as a cycle of instructional improvement in which small groups work together to design and teach a lesson, revising again as needed over the course of a semester. This study described the experiences of two sections of preservice teachers enrolled in a science methods course as they engaged in lesson-study at a comprehensive university in Northeast Mississippi. One section of the class served as the control group while the other section, as the treatment group, received lesson-study over the course of the semester. Data was gathered in the form of interviews, observations, and a self-efficacy survey (STEBI-B). Lesson plans were also graded using a rubric to determine quality level. Findings indicated that, while not statistically significant, the treatment groups scores on the self-efficacy instrument increased more on average than the control groups' scores. There were also positive comments about the lesson study process from the teacher candidates in the treatment group as well as positive behaviors recorded by the researcher. Additionally, according to the external evaluators who graded the final drafts of the lessons, the treatment group had greater gains than the control class on average. These conclusions suggested the lesson study process implemented during the preservice teaching level can be beneficial.

  9. The safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Wang, Xue; Jin, Shuguang; Zhang, Dongsheng; Li, Yanuo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flexible bronchoscopy is more and more used for diagnosis and management of various pulmonary diseases in pediatrics. As poor coordination of children, the procedure is usually performed under general anesthesia with spontaneous or controlled ventilation to increase children and bronchoscopists’ safety and comfort. Previous studies have reported that dexmedetomidine (DEX) could be safely and effectively used for flexible bronchoscopy in both adulate and children. However, there is no trial to evaluate the dose-finding of safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil (DEX-RF) in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the dose-finding of safety and efficacy of DEX-RF in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy. One hundred thirty-five children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy with DEX-RF were divided into 3 groups: Group DR1 (n = 47, DEX infusion at 0.5 μg·kg–1 for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5–0.7 μg kg–1 h–1; RF infusion at 0.5 μg kg–1 for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05–0.2 μg kg–1 min–1), Group DR2 (n = 43, DEX infusion at 1 μg kg–1 for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5–0.7 μg kg–1 h–1; RF infusion at 1 μg kg–1 for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05–0.2 μg kg–1 min–1), Group DR3 (n = 45, DEX infusion at 1.5 μg kg–1 for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5–0.7 μg kg–1 h–1; RF infusion at 1 μg kg–1 for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05–0.2 μg kg–1 min–1). Ramsay sedation scale of the 3 groups was maintained 3. Anesthesia onset time, total number of intraoperative children movements, hemodynamics (heart rate, arterial pressure, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), respiratory rate), total cumulative dose of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil, the amount of midazolam and lidocaine, time to first dose of rescue midazolam and lidocaine, postoperative recovery time, adverse events, bronchoscopist satisfaction

  10. [Monitoring of side effects and estimation of cycloferon efficacy in treatment of children with frequent and prolonged diseases].

    PubMed

    Lialikov, S A; Romantsov, M G; Bedin, P G; Ermak, S Iu

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred fifty patients, including 100 children with frequent and prolonged diseases at the age of 4 to 7 years, 76 children at the age of 7 to 18 years and 74 subjects at the age of 22 to 57 years were observed. The patients were treated with cycloferon in two courses with a 2-week interval according to the standard scheme. The tonsil surface microflora and its susceptibility to antibiotics were determined. Cycloferon lowered the Staphylococcus aureus titre and increased the culture susceptibility to benzylpenicillin, oxacillin, rifampicin, and erythromycin, reducing the variety of the fauces nonpathogenic microflora. The use of cycloferon induced no adverse (pathologic) reactions in 94.8% of the cases. In 4.4% of the children under school age the adverse reactions were transitory and did not require discontinuation of the drug use. Unforeseen reactions were recorded in 0.8% of the children and the use of the drug in them was discontinued. The use of cycloferon in two courses with a 2-week interval according to the standard scheme is recommended for prophylaxis of acute respiratory diseases in the group of children with frequent and prolonged diseases during epidemiologically unfavourable periods and for complex therapy of rhinopharinx infections as an agent increasing efficacy of other antibacterials.

  11. Sequence-Specific Targeting of Bacterial Resistance Genes Increases Antibiotic Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Dilay Hazal; Tamer, Yusuf Talha; Akbar, Mohammed; Bailey, Stacey M; Wong, Michael; Daly, Seth M; Greenberg, David E; Toprak, Erdal

    2016-09-01

    The lack of effective and well-tolerated therapies against antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global public health problem leading to prolonged treatment and increased mortality. To improve the efficacy of existing antibiotic compounds, we introduce a new method for strategically inducing antibiotic hypersensitivity in pathogenic bacteria. Following the systematic verification that the AcrAB-TolC efflux system is one of the major determinants of the intrinsic antibiotic resistance levels in Escherichia coli, we have developed a short antisense oligomer designed to inhibit the expression of acrA and increase antibiotic susceptibility in E. coli. By employing this strategy, we can inhibit E. coli growth using 2- to 40-fold lower antibiotic doses, depending on the antibiotic compound utilized. The sensitizing effect of the antisense oligomer is highly specific to the targeted gene's sequence, which is conserved in several bacterial genera, and the oligomer does not have any detectable toxicity against human cells. Finally, we demonstrate that antisense oligomers improve the efficacy of antibiotic combinations, allowing the combined use of even antagonistic antibiotic pairs that are typically not favored due to their reduced activities.

  12. Sequence-Specific Targeting of Bacterial Resistance Genes Increases Antibiotic Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michael; Daly, Seth M.; Greenberg, David E.; Toprak, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    The lack of effective and well-tolerated therapies against antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global public health problem leading to prolonged treatment and increased mortality. To improve the efficacy of existing antibiotic compounds, we introduce a new method for strategically inducing antibiotic hypersensitivity in pathogenic bacteria. Following the systematic verification that the AcrAB-TolC efflux system is one of the major determinants of the intrinsic antibiotic resistance levels in Escherichia coli, we have developed a short antisense oligomer designed to inhibit the expression of acrA and increase antibiotic susceptibility in E. coli. By employing this strategy, we can inhibit E. coli growth using 2- to 40-fold lower antibiotic doses, depending on the antibiotic compound utilized. The sensitizing effect of the antisense oligomer is highly specific to the targeted gene’s sequence, which is conserved in several bacterial genera, and the oligomer does not have any detectable toxicity against human cells. Finally, we demonstrate that antisense oligomers improve the efficacy of antibiotic combinations, allowing the combined use of even antagonistic antibiotic pairs that are typically not favored due to their reduced activities. PMID:27631336

  13. Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Dana; Proulx, Denise; Saoudi, A.; Ng, Cheng E. . E-mail: cng@ohri.ca

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. Methods: We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 AM or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 PM or 9 HALO), early active period (9 PM or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 AM or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Results: Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 AM demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 PM, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Conclusions: Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial.

  14. Efficacy of Micromobile Foot Compression Device in Increasing Lower Limb Venous Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Weatherall, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background. A novel, micromobile foot compression device (MMC) has been developed to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with prolonged seated immobility. Objective. To compare the efficacy of the MMC with graduated compression stockings in augmenting lower limb venous blood flow. Patients/Methods. Twenty participants were randomised to wear the MMC or a graduated compression stocking (GCS) on either the left or right leg while seated. Doppler ultrasound measurements of popliteal vein blood flow and leg circumference measurements were made −30 and −10 minutes (baseline) and +30 and +60 minutes following application of the interventions. The primary outcome variable was peak systolic velocity. A mixed linear model was used, with covariates including baseline measurement, randomised side, time, and a time by interaction term. Results. The mean popliteal vein peak systolic velocity at 60 minutes with the MMC was 20.1 cm/s which was significantly higher than with the GCS (difference 14.1 cm/s 95% CI 12.1–16.2), representing a 3.8-fold increase from baseline. Conclusion. The MMC resulted in a marked increase in lower limb venous blood flow which suggests that it may have efficacy in reducing the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with prolonged seated immobility, such as long distance air travel. PMID:24319596

  15. Cognitive Vulnerability to Depressive Symptoms in Children: The Protective Role of Self-efficacy Beliefs in a Multi-Wave Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Steca, P.; Abela, J. R. Z.; Monzani, D.; Greco, A.; Hazel, N. A.; Hankin, B. L.

    2015-01-01

    The current multi-wave longitudinal study on childhood examined the role that social and academic self-efficacy beliefs and cognitive vulnerabilities play in predicting depressive symptoms in response to elevations in idiographic stressors. Children (N = 554; males: 51.4%) attending second and third grade completed measures of depressive symptoms, negative cognitive styles, negative life events, and academic and social self-efficacy beliefs at four time-points over 6 months. Results showed that high levels of academic and social self-efficacy beliefs predicted lower levels of depressive symptoms, whereas negative cognitive styles about consequences predicted higher depression. Furthermore, children reporting higher social self-efficacy beliefs showed a smaller elevation in levels of depressive symptoms when reporting an increases in stress than children with lower social self-efficacy beliefs. Findings point to the role of multiple factors in predicting children’s depression in the long term and commend the promotion of self-efficacy beliefs and the modification of cognitive dysfunctional styles as relevant protective factors. PMID:23740171

  16. Treatment of vocal tics in children with Tourette syndrome: investigating the efficacy of habit reversal.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Douglas W; Twohig, Michael P; Flessner, Christopher A; Roloff, Timothy J

    2003-01-01

    Habit reversal was used to treat vocal tics in 5 children with Tourette syndrome. Vocal tics were reduced in 4 of the 5 children, the untreated motor tics did not increase, and treatment was acceptable to the children's parents. PMID:12723873

  17. Relationship between maternal parenting and eating self-efficacy in overweight children when stressed

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyung E.; Pan, Teresa Y.; Norman, Gregory J.; Crow, Scott; Boutelle, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Background Emotional eating is associated with negative eating habits and obesity. Parents may be able to decrease the risk of emotional eating in children by promoting greater self-efficacy to engage in healthy eating behaviors. Our goal was to determine the relationship between certain parenting behaviors and eating self-efficacy (ESE) to consume healthy foods during times of emotional stress in a population of overweight/obese children. Methods Eighty children (60% female; mean BMI percentile = 98.4%; 79.2% White) completed a survey that assessed their ESE when stressed, feeling down, or bored. Children also reported on mothers’ parenting behaviors coded along three factors: acceptance-based parenting (AC), psychological control (PC), and firm control (FC). Correlations and multiple linear regression models were used for analysis. Results AC was positively correlated with ESE when stressed. PC and FC were inversely correlated with ESE when feeling down. In the multivariate regression, only FC was significantly inversely associated with ESE when feeling down. Conclusion Results suggest that overweight children who perceive their mothers to exhibit firm control have lower ESE to make healthy choices when feeling sad. These results suggest that pediatric obesity programs should place a stronger focus on decreasing firm control behaviors among parents in order to help children engage in healthier eating behaviors. PMID:23868554

  18. Relations of Parenting and Temperament to Chinese Children's Experience of Negative Life Events, Coping Efficacy, and Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and…

  19. Relations of Parenting and Temperament to Chinese Children's Experience of Negative Life Events, Coping Efficacy, and Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and…

  20. Parental Support and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Children: A Yearlong Cluster-Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukkanen, Arto; Pesola, Arto J.; Finni, Taija; Sääkslahti, Arja

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We studied whether physical activity (PA) counseling for parents influenced the level of parental support of children's PA and leisure-time PA in children of different levels of initial parental support. We hypothesized that the initial level of parental support would moderate the intervention efficacy. Method: Children (n = 44,…

  1. Exploring Young Children's Self-Efficacy Beliefs Related to Mathematical and Nonmathematical Tasks Performed in Kindergarten: Abused and Neglected Children and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirosh, Dina; Tsamir, Pessia; Levenson, Esther; Tabach, Michal; Barkai, Ruthi

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on young children's self-efficacy beliefs and their corresponding performance of mathematical and nonmathematical tasks typically encountered in kindergarten. Participants included 132 kindergarten children aged 5-6 years old. Among the participants, 69 children were identified by the social welfare department as being abused…

  2. Exploring Young Children's Self-Efficacy Beliefs Related to Mathematical and Nonmathematical Tasks Performed in Kindergarten: Abused and Neglected Children and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirosh, Dina; Tsamir, Pessia; Levenson, Esther; Tabach, Michal; Barkai, Ruthi

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on young children's self-efficacy beliefs and their corresponding performance of mathematical and nonmathematical tasks typically encountered in kindergarten. Participants included 132 kindergarten children aged 5-6 years old. Among the participants, 69 children were identified by the social welfare department as being abused…

  3. The efficacy of adapalene-benzoyl peroxide combination increases with number of acne lesions.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Steven R; Tan, Jerry; Poulin, Yves; Dirschka, Thomas; Kerrouche, Nabil; Manna, Vasant

    2011-06-01

    There is no direct correlation between acne severity and lesion numbers and patients with moderate acne may present with varying lesion counts. The fixed-dose adapalene 0.1%-benzoyl peroxide (BPO) 2.5% combination gel is an efficacious and safe acne treatment. We sought to evaluate whether the benefit of adapalene-BPO relative to vehicle varies with baseline lesion counts. Data were pooled from 3 randomized, double-blind, controlled studies, which compared efficacy in 4 treatment groups (adapalene-BPO, adapalene, BPO, and the gel vehicle). Three lesion count subgroups (Low, Mid, and High) were defined based on the number of total, inflammatory, or noninflammatory lesion at baseline. Efficacy of each treatment and benefit of each treatment relative to vehicle were evaluated on the entire population and in all lesion count subgroups. Safety was assessed by local tolerability score and adverse events. Adapalene-BPO provided significant benefit relative to vehicle and monotherapies on the entire population and in all lesion count subgroups (P < .05). At study end point, the benefit of adapalene-BPO relative to vehicle was greatest in the High subgroup, suggesting that patients with the highest baseline lesion counts contributed the most to the treatment benefit observed in the entire population. This effect was only observed with adapalene-BPO and not with monotherapies. Higher baseline lesion counts did not lead to more related adverse event or worse tolerability score for adapalene-BPO. These results were generated from clinical trials. Results in clinical practice could differ. The relative benefit of adapalene-BPO increases with higher lesion counts at baseline. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy and Safety Extrapolation Analyses for Atomoxetine in Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kratochvil, Christopher; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Camporeale, Angelo; Lipsius, Sarah; D'Souza, Deborah; Tanaka, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This extrapolation analysis qualitatively compared the efficacy and safety profile of atomoxetine from Lilly clinical trial data in 6–7-year-old patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of published literature in 4–5-year-old patients with ADHD (two open-label [4–5-year-old patients] and one placebo-controlled study [5-year-old patients]). Methods: The main efficacy analyses included placebo-controlled Lilly data and the placebo-controlled external study (5-year-old patients) data. The primary efficacy variables used in these studies were the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Parent Version, Investigator Administered (ADHD-RS-IV-Parent:Inv) total score, or the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV) scale score. Safety analyses included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and vital signs. Descriptive statistics (means, percentages) are presented. Results: Acute atomoxetine treatment improved core ADHD symptoms in both 6–7-year-old patients (n=565) and 5-year-old patients (n=37) (treatment effect: −10.16 and −7.42). In an analysis of placebo-controlled groups, the mean duration of exposure to atomoxetine was ∼7 weeks for 6–7-year-old patients and 9 weeks for 5-year-old patients. Decreased appetite was the most common TEAE in atomoxetine-treated patients. The TEAEs observed at a higher rate in 5-year-old versus 6–7-year-old patients were irritability (36.8% vs. 3.6%) and other mood-related events (6.9% each vs. <3.0%). Blood pressure and pulse increased in both 4–5-year-old patients and 6–7-year-old patients, whereas a weight increase was seen only in the 6–7-year-old patients. Conclusions: Although limited by the small sample size of the external studies, these analyses suggest that in 5-year-old patients with ADHD, atomoxetine may improve ADHD symptoms, but possibly to a lesser extent than in older children, with some adverse events occurring at a higher rate in 5-year-old patients. PMID:25265343

  5. Efficacy and safety of three ciclesonide doses vs placebo in children with asthma: the RAINBOW study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Søren; Potter, Paul; Dachev, Svetoslav; Bosheva, Miroslava; Kaczmarek, Jadwiga; Springer, Ewa; Dunkel, Jochen; Engelstätter, Renate

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of three doses of ciclesonide (with or without spacer) in children with persistent asthma. This was a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week study of ciclesonide 40, 80 or 160 μg (once daily pm). Children (6-11 years) were randomised 1:1 to treatment via a metered dose inhaler (MDI) or MDI plus spacer. The primary variable was change from baseline in mean morning peak expiratory flow (PEF). Secondary variables included: time to first lack of efficacy (LOE), asthma control, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), asthma symptom score and quality of life (QoL). Safety assessments included: adverse events (AEs), urinary cortisol excretion and body height. In total, 1073 children received treatment. At endpoint, mean morning PEF significantly improved with all doses of ciclesonide vs. placebo. There was no difference over placebo in time to first LOE, but ciclesonide was superior to placebo on asthma control, symptom score, FEV(1) and QoL. There were no differences between the spacer or non-spacer subgroups. The incidences of AEs were comparable between treatment groups (approximately 35%) and there were no between-group differences in body height or urinary cortisol. Ciclesonide 40-160 μg once daily is effective and well tolerated in children with persistent asthma; its efficacy and safety are unaffected by the use of a spacer. clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT00384189. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Convection-enhanced delivery of maghemite nanoparticles: Increased efficacy and MRI monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Perlstein, Benny; Ram, Zvi; Daniels, Dianne; Ocherashvilli, Aharon; Roth, Yiftach; Margel, Shlomo; Mardor, Yael

    2008-01-01

    Convection-enhanced drug delivery (CED) is a novel approach to delivering drugs into brain tissue. Drugs are delivered continuously via a catheter, enabling large volume distributions of high drug concentrations with minimum systemic toxicity. Previously we demonstrated that CED formation/extent of small molecules may be significantly improved by increasing infusate viscosities. In this study we show that the same methodology can be applied to monodispersed maghemite nanoparticles (MNPs). For this purpose we used a normal rat brain model and performed CED of MNPs over short infusion times. By adding 3% sucrose or 3%–6% polyethylene glycol (PEG; molecular weight 400) to saline containing pristine MNPs, we increased infusate viscosity and obtained increased CED efficacy. Further, we show that CED of dextran-coated MNPs (dextran-MNPs) resulted in increased efficacy over pristine MNPs (p < 0.007). To establish the use of MRI for reliable depiction of MNP distribution, CED of fluorescent dextran-MNPs was performed, demonstrating a significant correlation between the distributions as depicted by MRI and spectroscopic images (r2 = 0.74, p < 0.0002). MRI follow-up showed that approximately 80%–90% of the dextran-MNPs were cleared from the rat brain within 40 days of CED; the rest remained in the brain for more than 4 months. MNPs have been tested for applications such as targeted drug delivery and controlled drug release and are clinically used as a contrast agent for MRI. Thus, combining the CED method with the advantages of MNPs may provide a powerful tool to treat and monitor brain tumors. PMID:18316474

  7. Motivational theater to increase consumption of vegetable dishes by preschool children.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa; Lopez, Sandra; Liu, Yan; Saab, Rabab; Reiher, Robert

    2017-02-07

    By 3 years of age, many children have developed a dislike for certain foods, particularly vegetables. Seventy-five percent of young children consume less than the recommended levels for vegetables. The objective of this randomized feasibility intervention was to demonstrate the impact of an innovative approach to increase consumption of vegetable dishes by minority preschool children attending Head Start. The specific aims included the collection of data to assess feasibility and efficacy of the intervention. Both qualitative and quantitative assessments were conducted. Qualitative data was used for development of the intervention and for program feedback at post assessments. Two hundred fifty-three preschool children (49% boys; 66% Hispanics and 34% African-Americans; mean age 4.4 years) were randomized either to the intervention (n = 128) or the control group (n = 125). The teacher/parent intervention group showed the children videotaped (DVD) puppet shows. Based on the theoretical framework "transportation into a narrative world", three professionally developed characters, unique storylines and an engaging, repetitious song were incorporated in four 20-min DVD puppet shows. Prior to lunch each show was shown for five consecutive days in school and a minimum of once in the home. Digital photography was used in school to assess consumption of vegetable dishes at the lunch meal (quantitative assessment). At home parents were asked to complete the booklet questions corresponding to each DVD; questions could be answered correctly only if parents watched the DVD with their child. A multilevel mixed-effect model was used to analyze the data, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Children in the intervention group significantly (p < 0.0001) increased consumption of vegetable dishes from baseline to follow-up compared to no change in the control group. At follow-up, the intervention group continued to have significantly (p = 0.022) higher intake of

  8. Increasing obesity rates in school children in United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Shaban, S.; AlTunaiji, M.; Fares, N.; AlShehhi, L.; AlShehhi, H.; AlMazrouei, A.; Souid, A. ‐K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The remarkable socioeconomic changes in United Arab Emirates (UAE) necessitate regular monitoring of obesity in our population. This study explored the epidemiology of obesity in a large cohort of UAE students. Methods This population‐based study investigated the prevalence of obesity in 44,942 students attending governmental schools in Ras Al‐Khaimah. Body‐mass‐index (BMI) was calculated in 15,532 children (4–12 y) in 2013–2014, and in 29,410 children (3–18 y) in 2014–2015. The International Obesity Task Force, World Health Organization, and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reference methods were used to identify overweight, obesity, and extremely‐obesity. Results Using CDC interpretation of BMI, from 11 to 14 y, the prevalence of BMI ≥85th percentile was 41.2%, BMI ≥95th percentile 24.3% and BMI ≥99th percentile 5.7%. Obesity increased linearly from 3 to 12 y (R 2 ≥ 0.979); each year an additional 2.36% of the students became obese and 0.28% became extremely obese. The rate of extreme‐obesity was 9.6‐fold higher in boys than girls (0.58% vs. 0.06%). From 15 to 18 y, 10.3% of boys were extremely obese and 3.0% of girls were extremely obese. Conclusions These results confirm a steady rise in obesity in children 3–18 y. The rising rate of extreme obesity is also alarming, especially among boys. PMID:27818779

  9. Increase the risk of intellectual disability in children with scabies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jui-Ming; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Chang, Fung-Wei; Yeh, Chia-Lun; Huang, Chun-Fa; Chang, Shu-Ting; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Chang, Hung-Yang; Chi, Hsin; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Scabies is a common and distressing disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Psychiatric disorder in childhood is an important disease and easily neglected. There are several similarities in scabies and psychiatric disorders in childhood (PDC). Both of them may present with pruritus. They are relatively common in patients with lower socioeconomic status and crowded environment. Furthermore, immune-mediated inflammatory processes play a role in the pathophysiology in both diseases. An association between scabies and psychiatric disorders may exist. This nationwide population-based cohort study utilized data from the National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate the relationship between scabies and PDC. A total of 2137 children with scabies were identified as the study group and 8548 age- and sex-matched children were selected as the control group. A total of 607 (5.68%) children developed PDC during the 7-year follow-up period. The overall incidences of PDC are similar but patients with scabies had a higher risk of developing intellectual disability (ID) (scabies group vs control group: 1.3% vs 0.6%, adjusted hazard ratio: 2.04 and 95% confidence interval: 1.25–3.32). The immune-mediated inflammatory processes of both diseases were reviewed and may contribute to the 104% increased risk of interleukin in patients with scabies. We suggest a more comprehensive management in treating patients with scabies or ID. Early and comprehensive treatment of scabies and other risk factors may decrease the risk of subsequent ID. When we approach patients with ID, concurrent evaluation of scabies and other risk factors may contribute to successful management. PMID:28591057

  10. Supervision and Increasing Self-Efficacy in the Therapist-Trainee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Jennifer E.

    This work includes a discussion of the concept of self-efficacy, originally introduced by Albert Bandura, as it pertains to the therapist-trainee. Therapist self-efficacy has only recently gained attention theoretically as well as empirically. Measures used to assess the self-efficacy of the therapist are highlighted as well as factors…

  11. Lipid-core nanocapsules increase the oral efficacy of quercetin in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Batista, A J; Poletto, F S; Philipon, C I M S; Guterres, S S; Pohlmann, A R; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    2017-06-27

    New oral treatments are needed for all forms of leishmaniasis. Here, the improved oral efficacy of quercetin (Qc) and its penta-acetylated derivative (PQc) was evaluated in cutaneous leishmaniasis after encapsulation in lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs) of poly(ε-caprolactone). Leishmania amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice were given 51 daily oral doses of free drugs (16 mg kg-1) or LNC-loaded drugs (0·4 mg kg-1). While treatment with free Qc reduced the lesion sizes and parasite loads by 38 and 71%, respectively, LNC-Qc produced 64 and 91% reduction, respectively. The antileishmanial efficacy of PQc was similar but not as potently improved by encapsulation as Qc. None of the treatments increased aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase or creatinine serum levels. These findings indicate that when encapsulated in LNC, Qc and, to a lesser extent, PQc can safely produce an enhanced antileishmanial effect even at a 40-fold lower dose, with implications for the development of a new oral drug for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  12. Cholesterol-tethered platinum II-based supramolecular nanoparticle increases antitumor efficacy and reduces nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Poulomi; Basu, Sudipta; Soni, Shivani; Pandey, Ambarish; Roy, Bhaskar; Oh, Michael S; Chin, Kenneth T; Paraskar, Abhimanyu S; Sarangi, Sasmit; Connor, Yamicia; Sabbisetti, Venkata S; Kopparam, Jawahar; Kulkarni, Ashish; Muto, Katherine; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Jayawardene, Innocent; Lupoli, Nicola; Dinulescu, Daniela M; Bonventre, Joseph V; Mashelkar, Raghunath A; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2012-07-10

    Nanoscale drug delivery vehicles have been harnessed extensively as carriers for cancer chemotherapeutics. However, traditional pharmaceutical approaches for nanoformulation have been a challenge with molecules that exhibit incompatible physicochemical properties, such as platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Here we propose a paradigm based on rational design of active molecules that facilitate supramolecular assembly in the nanoscale dimension. Using cisplatin as a template, we describe the synthesis of a unique platinum (II) tethered to a cholesterol backbone via a unique monocarboxylato and O→Pt coordination environment that facilitates nanoparticle assembly with a fixed ratio of phosphatidylcholine and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino (polyethylene glycol)-2000]. The nanoparticles formed exhibit lower IC(50) values compared with carboplatin or cisplatin in vitro, and are active in cisplatin-resistant conditions. Additionally, the nanoparticles exhibit significantly enhanced in vivo antitumor efficacy in murine 4T1 breast cancer and in K-Ras(LSL/+)/Pten(fl/fl) ovarian cancer models with decreased systemic- and nephro-toxicity. Our results indicate that integrating rational drug design and supramolecular nanochemistry can emerge as a powerful strategy for drug development. Furthermore, given that platinum-based chemotherapeutics form the frontline therapy for a broad range of cancers, the increased efficacy and toxicity profile indicate the constructed nanostructure could translate into a next-generation platinum-based agent in the clinics.

  13. Cholesterol-tethered platinum II-based supramolecular nanoparticle increases antitumor efficacy and reduces nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Poulomi; Basu, Sudipta; Soni, Shivani; Pandey, Ambarish; Roy, Bhaskar; Oh, Michael S.; Chin, Kenneth T.; Paraskar, Abhimanyu S.; Sarangi, Sasmit; Connor, Yamicia; Sabbisetti, Venkata S.; Kopparam, Jawahar; Kulkarni, Ashish; Muto, Katherine; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Jayawardene, Innocent; Lupoli, Nicola; Dinulescu, Daniela M.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale drug delivery vehicles have been harnessed extensively as carriers for cancer chemotherapeutics. However, traditional pharmaceutical approaches for nanoformulation have been a challenge with molecules that exhibit incompatible physicochemical properties, such as platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Here we propose a paradigm based on rational design of active molecules that facilitate supramolecular assembly in the nanoscale dimension. Using cisplatin as a template, we describe the synthesis of a unique platinum (II) tethered to a cholesterol backbone via a unique monocarboxylato and O→Pt coordination environment that facilitates nanoparticle assembly with a fixed ratio of phosphatidylcholine and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino (polyethylene glycol)-2000]. The nanoparticles formed exhibit lower IC50 values compared with carboplatin or cisplatin in vitro, and are active in cisplatin-resistant conditions. Additionally, the nanoparticles exhibit significantly enhanced in vivo antitumor efficacy in murine 4T1 breast cancer and in K-RasLSL/+/Ptenfl/fl ovarian cancer models with decreased systemic- and nephro-toxicity. Our results indicate that integrating rational drug design and supramolecular nanochemistry can emerge as a powerful strategy for drug development. Furthermore, given that platinum-based chemotherapeutics form the frontline therapy for a broad range of cancers, the increased efficacy and toxicity profile indicate the constructed nanostructure could translate into a next-generation platinum-based agent in the clinics. PMID:22733767

  14. Increased oxidative stress parameters in children with moderate iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kurku, Huseyin; Gencer, Ali; Pirgon, Ozgur; Buyukinan, Muammer; Aslan, Nagehan

    2016-10-01

    Iodine is a part of thyroid hormones and has been reported to act directly as an antioxidant or induce indirectly antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed to assess the urinary iodine concentration and its relationship between the antioxidant and oxidative stress capacity in healthy school-aged children. In total, 196 students from five primary schools, randomly selected between 9 and 12 years (mean age: 10.2±1.2 years), were enrolled in the study. Urinary iodine levels were measured by spectrophotometry with the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. Total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) were analysed from urine samples. The ratio of TOS to TAS was regarded as an oxidative stress index (OSI), an indicator of the degree of oxidative status. Fifty-four percentage (107) of the children had iodine deficiency (ID) and the majority of them (30%) had mild ID. There was no severe-ID child in the population (<20 μg/L). Urine TAS levels were significantly lower in the moderate-ID group than in the mild-ID group (6.5±4.1 vs. 11.3±4.1 mmol, p<0.001) and the iodine-sufficient group (11.0±5.3 μmol, p<0.001). TOS levels and OSI were found higher in the moderate-ID group than in the mild-ID group (4.8±2.1 vs. 3.7±2.1 μmol, p<0.001) and the iodine-sufficient group (4.8±2.1 vs. 3.4±2.5 mmol, p<0.001). In the moderate-ID group, low urine iodine levels exhibited significant negative correlations with OSI (r=-0.660) and TOS (r=-0.248) and a positive correlation with TAS (r=0.475). We found that children with moderate ID were exposed to more oxidative burden than children with mild ID or iodine sufficiency. Increased systemic oxidative stress induced by moderate ID could cause development of ID-related complications and diseases. Iodine supplementation could have a beneficial role in the prevention of oxidative stress.

  15. Validity and Reliability of the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    TUTAR GÜVEN, Şerife; İŞLER, Ayşegül

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to adapt the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children (SSES-C) into Turkish and then assess its validity and reliability in children with epilepsy. Methods The study sample consisted of 166 children (aged 9–17 years) with epilepsy who attended of Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya Training and Research Hospital, and Bursa Dortcelik Children’s Hospital Pediatric Neurology Clinics between July 2012 and March 2013. All research data were collected by a researcher in face-to-face interviews using Child Information Form, Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children and Children’s Depression Scale. The Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children is a 15-item, 5-point Likert scale designed by Caplin et al. (2002). Results The linguistic adaptation and validation of the scale was conducted by seven experts. To evaluate the content validity of the scale, we elicited judgments from a panel of 10 content experts. The expert judgments showed that the correlation between the items on the scale was fairly good (Kendall’s W=0.411, p<0.001, ki-kare: 57.495). Load factor of 40% and a large factor analysis included analysis of substances and two factors accounting for 49.67% of the total variance explained. We calculated Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the internal consistency and the full-scale score showed good internal consistency (alpha 0.89). Within the context of reliability studies, it was found correlations varying between 0,98–0,74 for the two sub-factors of the scale. Test/retest correlation coefficients were significant (p<0,01) and high (r=0.99). In parallel forms reliability, the correlations between the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children and Children’s Depression Rating Scale were found to be negative, moderate and statistically significant (r=−0.58, p<0.001). Conclusion The measurements conducted on the Turkish version of the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children showed that it is consistent with the original scale

  16. Efficacy of B cell Depletion Therapy on Joint Flare is Associated with Increased Lymphatic Flow

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ju, Yawen; Bouta, Echoe M.; Xing, Lianping; Wood, Ronald W.; Kuzin, Igor; Bottaro, Andrea; Ritchlin, Christopher T.; Schwarz, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective B cell depletion therapy (BCDT) ameliorates rheumatoid arthritis by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Arthritic flare in tumor necrosis factor transgenic (TNF-Tg) mice is associated with efferent lymph node (LN) “collapse,” triggered by B cell translocation into lymphatic spaces and decreased lymphatic drainage. We examined whether BCDT efficacy is associated with restoration of lymphatic drainage due to removal of obstructing nodal B cells. Methods We developed contrast-enhancement (CE) MRI imaging, near-infrared indocyanine green (NIR-ICG) imaging, and intravital immunofluorescent imaging to longitudinally assess synovitis, lymphatic flow, and cell migration in lymphatic vessels in TNF-Tg mice. We tested to see if BCDT efficacy is associated with restoration of lymphatic draining and cell egress from arthritic joints. Results Unlike active lymphatics to normal and pre-arthritic knees, afferent lymphatic vessels to collapsed LNs in inflamed knees do not pulse. Intravital immunofluorescent imaging demonstrated that CD11b+ monocytes/macrophages in lymphatic vessels afferent to expanding LN travel at high velocity (186 ± 37 micrometer/sec), while these cells are stationary in lymphatic vessels afferent to collapsed PLN. BCDT of flaring TNF-Tg mice significantly decreased knee synovial volume by 50% from the baseline level, and significantly increased lymphatic clearance versus placebo (p<0.05). This increased lymphatic drainage restored macrophages egress from inflamed joints without recovery of the lymphatic pulse. Conclusion These results support a novel mechanism in which BCDT of flaring joints lessens inflammation by increasing lymphatic drainage and subsequent migration of cells and cytokines from the synovial space. PMID:23002006

  17. Automated coaching to help parents increase their children's brushing frequency: an exploratory trial.

    PubMed

    Hurling, R; Claessen, J P; Nicholson, J; Schäfer, F; Tomlin, C C; Lowe, C F

    2013-06-01

    Advances in digital communication, such as the internet, now provide a cost effective channel to reach and help families struggling to establish good oral hygiene in their homes. This paper describes a novel internet based oral hygiene intervention whose design draws from advances in social cognitive models of behaviour change. Intervention components included role-modelling cartoons for children, a guide for parents on using rewards, a personalised plan with clear steps, tips to follow and a weekly 10-minute review of progress. To evaluate the efficacy of the online coaching programme; specifically we expected that those in the intervention group would brush their teeth more frequently during the intervention period than those in the control group. An exploratory trial using a randomised controlled parallel approach. Children aged 5 to 9 years from 44 families (23 control and 21 intervention). An objective monitoring of tooth brushing. In the 3-week intervention period, children from families assigned to the coaching programme brushed their teeth 38% more often than those in the control group. The programme was effective in a number of respects. Opportunities for further research are discussed, including the need to create a more engaging system and so increase compliance.

  18. Safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea in children and adolescents with sickle/beta-thalassemia: two-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, E; Teli, A; Theodoridou, S; Gompakis, N; Economou, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Hydroxyurea is a cytotoxic and myelosuppressive drug that has been used during recent years in the treatment of children with severe sickle cell disease. Nevertheless, questions remain regarding its role in young patients with no severe course, like sickle/beta-thalassemia (S/b-thal) patients often present. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea in young patients with S/b-thal, which is the commonest form of the disease in Greece. Patients-Methods Hydroxyurea was given in thirteen children with S/b-thal for 24 months and for that period clinical and laboratory evaluation of the children was performed. Results A reduction in pain crises and rate of hospitalization was noted. None of the patients presented with a severe clinical event, related to the disease during the study period. A significant increase in hemoglobin, hemoglobin F, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin and a decrease in reticulocyte count, white blood cell and platelet count, and total bilirubin level was noted. With regards to adverse events, these were transient, short-term and dose-dependable. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to specifically assess the effect of hydroxyurea therapy in young patients with S/b-thal and the results indicate is safe and efficacious in this patient cohort. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (2):172-175. PMID:27418768

  19. DNA methyltransferase inhibition increases efficacy of adoptive cellular immunotherapy of murine breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Terracina, Krista P; Graham, Laura J; Payne, Kyle K; Manjili, Masoud H; Baek, Annabel; Damle, Sheela R; Bear, Harry D

    2016-09-01

    Adoptive T cell immunotherapy is a promising approach to cancer treatment that currently has limited clinical applications. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNAMTi) have known potential to affect the immune system through multiple mechanisms that could enhance the cytotoxic T cell responses, including: upregulation of tumor antigen expression, increased MHC class I expression, and blunting of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) expansion. In this study, we have investigated the effect of combining the DNAMTi, decitabine, with adoptive T cell immunotherapy in the murine 4T1 mammary carcinoma model. We found that expression of neu, MHC class I molecules, and several murine cancer testis antigens (CTA) was increased by decitabine treatment of 4T1 cells in vitro. Decitabine also increased expression of multiple CTA in two human breast cancer cell lines. Decitabine-treated 4T1 cells stimulated greater IFN-gamma release from tumor-sensitized lymphocytes, implying increased immunogenicity. Expansion of CD11b + Gr1 + MDSC in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice was significantly diminished by decitabine treatment. Decitabine treatment improved the efficacy of adoptive T cell immunotherapy in mice with established 4T1 tumors, with greater inhibition of tumor growth and an increased cure rate. Decitabine may have a role in combination with existing and emerging immunotherapies for breast cancer.

  20. Efficacy and acceptability of an Internet platform to improve the learning of nutritional knowledge in children: the ETIOBE Mates.

    PubMed

    Baños, R M; Cebolla, A; Oliver, E; Alcañiz, M; Botella, C

    2013-04-01

    Possessing sufficient nutritional knowledge is a necessary component in the prevention and treatment of obesity. A solid understanding of nutrition can help people make appropriate food selections and can also help correct irrational ideas or myths people may believe about food. It is a challenge to provide this information to children in ways that are exciting. Thus, we propose an online video game platform to deliver the information. The objective of this study was to study the efficacy and acceptability of an online game called 'ETIOBE Mates' that was designed to improve children's nutritional knowledge; furthermore, we compare it with the traditional paper-pencil mode of information delivery. A sample of 228 children participated in the study. Participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group (who used ETIOBE Mates) and a control group (who were given a pamphlet). Both groups increased their scores for nutritional knowledge. The interaction between group × time was also statistically significant; it indicated that acquisition of nutritional knowledge was superior in the experimental group. The children considered the serious games platform to be a useful medium for improving their nutritional knowledge. Online games can be an effective method of delivery for preventive and treatment tasks that are otherwise tedious for children.

  1. Safety and efficacy of acupuncture in children: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Vanita; Ge, Adeline; Mansky, Patrick J

    2008-06-01

    Acupuncture has been used therapeutically in China for thousands of years and is growing in prominence in Europe and the United States. In a recent review of complementary and alternative medicine use in the US population, an estimated 2.1 million people or 1.1% of the population sought acupuncture care during the past 12 months. Four percent of the US population used acupuncture at any time in their lives. We reviewed 31 different published journal articles, including 23 randomized controlled clinical trials and 8 meta-analysis/systematic reviews. We found evidence of some efficacy and low risk associated with acupuncture in pediatrics. From all the conditions we reviewed, the most extensive research has looked into acupuncture's role in managing postoperative and chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting. Postoperatively, there is far more evidence of acupuncture's efficacy for pediatrics than for children treated with chemotherapy. Acupuncture seems to be most effective in preventing postoperative induced nausea in children. For adults, research shows that acupuncture can inhibit chemotherapy-related acute vomiting, but conclusions about its effects in pediatrics cannot be made on the basis of the available published clinical trials data to date. Besides nausea and vomiting, research conducted in pain has yielded the most convincing results on acupuncture efficacy. Musculoskeletal and cancer-related pain commonly affects children and adults, but unfortunately, mostly adult studies have been conducted thus far. Because the manifestations of pain can be different in children than in adults, data cannot be extrapolated from adult research. Systematic reviews have shown that existing data often lack adequate control groups and sample sizes. Vas et al, Alimi et al, and Mehling et al demonstrated some relief for adults treated with acupuncture but we could not find any well-conducted randomized controlled studies that looked at pediatrics and acupuncture exclusively. Pain

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Acupuncture in Children A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Vanita; Ge, Adeline; Mansky, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Acupuncture has been used therapeutically in China for thousands of years and is growing in prominence in Europe and the United States. In a recent review of complementary and alternative medicine use in the US population, an estimated 2.1 million people or 1.1% of the population sought acupuncture care during the past 12 months. Four percent of the US population used acupuncture at any time in their lives. We reviewed 31 different published journal articles, including 23 randomized controlled clinical trials and 8 meta-analysis/systematic reviews. We found evidence of some efficacy and low risk associated with acupuncture in pediatrics. From all the conditions we reviewed, the most extensive research has looked into acupuncture’s role in managing postoperative and chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting. Postoperatively, there is far more evidence of acupuncture’s efficacy for pediatrics than for children treated with chemotherapy. Acupuncture seems to be most effective in preventing postoperative induced nausea in children. For adults, research shows that acupuncture can inhibit chemotherapy-related acute vomiting, but conclusions about its effects in pediatrics cannot be made on the basis of the available published clinical trials data to date. Besides nausea and vomiting, research conducted in pain has yielded the most convincing results on acupuncture efficacy. Musculoskeletal and cancer-related pain commonly affectss children and adults, but unfortunately, mostly adult studies have been conducted thus far. Because the manifestations of pain can be different in children than in adults, data cannot be extrapolated from adult research. Systematic reviews have shown that existing data often lack adequate control groups and sample sizes. Vas et al, Alimi et al, and Mehling et al demonstrated some relief for adults treated with acupuncture but we could not find any well-conducted randomized controlled studies that looked at pediatrics and acupuncture

  3. Increased Risk of Injury in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca A.; Chang, Jen Jen; Connors, Susan L.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine injury risk in children with autism, ADD/ADD, learning disability, psychopathology, or other medical conditions. Children aged 3-5 years who participated in the National Survey of Children's Health were included. Six study groups were analyzed in this report: autism (n=82), ADD/ADHD (n=191), learning…

  4. Increasing the Athletic Group Play of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Catherine A.; Charlop, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three children with autism and within child across activity was used to assess the effects of interventions designed to teach children with autism to play two common athletic group games, handball and 4-square. Treatment consisted of two phases. In Phase I, athletic skills training, the children participated in…

  5. Increasing the Athletic Group Play of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Catherine A.; Charlop, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three children with autism and within child across activity was used to assess the effects of interventions designed to teach children with autism to play two common athletic group games, handball and 4-square. Treatment consisted of two phases. In Phase I, athletic skills training, the children participated in…

  6. [Clinical efficacy and pharmacokinetics of cefpiramide in children].

    PubMed

    Fujita, K; Sakata, H; Murono, K; Mukai, N; Yoshioka, H; Maruyama, S; Sanae, N; Tsuchida, A; Suzuki, Y

    1983-08-01

    Thirty-six febrile patients were administered cefpiramide (CPM) of 20 approximately 75 mg/kg/day for 3 approximately 11 days, and the clinical and side effects were evaluated. Among children with bacterial infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infection, sepsis, pharyngitis and bronchitis, the results were excellent in 9, good in 13, and fair in 3 patients. Out of 36 patients, adverse reactions were observed in 9 cases, i.e. vascular pain at one shot intravenous injection in 4, diarrhea in 2, eosinophilia in 2, and diarrhea and eosinophilia in 1 case. One shot intravenous administration of CPM of 10 mg/kg to 4 patients yielded mean serum level of 100 micrograms/ml at 15 minutes and mean serum half-life of 2.5 hours, and administration of 20 mg/kg to 3 patients yielded mean serum level of 200 micrograms/ml at 15 minutes and mean serum half-life of 3.5 hours. The half-life in 1 patient with slight liver lesion was 5.36 hours. The rates of urinary recovery within 8 approximately 12 hours were 7.2 to 28.0% in 5 patients, 45.1% in a patient with nephrotic syndrome, and 50.9% in a patient with slight liver lesion.

  7. Playing active video games increases energy expenditure in children.

    PubMed

    Graf, Diana L; Pratt, Lauren V; Hester, Casey N; Short, Kevin R

    2009-08-01

    To compare energy expenditure rates in children playing the physically active video games, Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) and Nintendo's Wii Sports in relation to treadmill walking. Energy expenditure, heart rate, step rate, and perceived exertion were measured in 14 boys and 9 girls (ages 10-13 years; BMI at 3-98th percentile for age and gender) while watching television at rest, playing DDR at 2 skill levels, playing Wii bowling and boxing, and walking at 2.6, 4.2, and 5.7 km/h. Arterial elasticity was measured at rest and immediately after gaming. Compared with watching television, energy expenditure while gaming or walking increased 2- to 3-fold. Similarly, high rates of energy expenditure, heart rate, and perceived exertion were elicited from playing Wii boxing, DDR level 2, or walking at 5.7 km/h. This occurred despite variations in step rate among activities, reflecting greater use of upper body during Wii play (lowest step rate) than during walking (highest step rate) or DDR play. Wii bowling and beginner level DDR elicited a 2-fold increase in energy expenditure compared to television watching. Large-artery elasticity declined immediately after both DDR and Wii. The change was inversely related to the increment in energy expenditure above rest achieved during the activity. Energy expenditure during active video game play is comparable to moderate-intensity walking. Thus, for children who spend considerable time playing electronic screen games for entertainment, physically active games seem to be a safe, fun, and valuable means of promoting energy expenditure.

  8. Efficacy and Tolerability of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Irritability in Autistic Children

    PubMed Central

    Kirino, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. Irritability or self-injurious behavior can result in significant harm to those affected, as well as to marked distress for their families. This paper provides a literature review regarding the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of irritability in autistic children. Although antipsychotics have not yet been approved for the treatment of autistic children by many countries, they are often used to reduce symptoms of behavioral problems, including irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, and panic. However, among antipsychotics, the Food and Drug Administration has approved only risperidone and aripiprazole to treat irritability in autism. Among atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine and quetiapine are limited in their use for autism spectrum disorders in children because of high incidences of weight gain and sedation. In comparison, aripiprazole and ziprasidone cause less weight gain and sedation. However, potential QTc interval prolongation with ziprasidone has been reported. Contrary to ziprasidone, no changes were evident in the QT interval in any of the trials for aripiprazole. However, head-to-head comparison studies are needed to support that aripiprazole may be a promising drug that can be used to treat irritability in autistic children. On the other hand, risperidone has the greatest amount of evidence supporting it, including randomized controlled trials; thus, its efficacy and tolerability has been established in comparison with other agents. Further studies with risperidone as a control drug are needed. PMID:24932108

  9. Efficacy of Intravenous Sotalol for Treatment of Incessant Tachyarrhythmias in Children.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Haiju; Jiang, He; Ge, Haiyan; Zhang, Yi

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) sotalol in the treatment of incessant tachyarrhythmias in children with normal cardiac function. Eighty-three children admitted to hospital from October 2011 to December 2014 were treated with IV sotalol or IV sotalol plus IV propafenone. The time to conversion to sinus rhythm and maintaining sinus rhythm were evaluated. Blood pressure, heart rate, QTc, PR intervals, and rhythm were monitored; 50 patients (60%) were converted to sinus rhythm with IV sotalol; time to conversion was 12.0 ± 18.0 hours; 12 additional patients (15%) were converted with IV sotalol combined with IV propafenone; time to conversion was 13.1 ± 17.6 hours. A total of 62 patients (75%) were converted. Success rates of IV sotalol for different tachycardias were similar, whereas the time to conversion differed. The time to conversion for atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia was shorter than atrial tachycardia or atrial flutter (p <0.05). QTc prolongation (from 253 to 486 ms and from 398 ms to 500 ms) was seen in 2 patients (2%) within 48 hours after conversion. The QTc reverted to normal range at 48 and 144 hours, respectively, after withdrawal of IV sotalol. A 1 month old with atrial flutter developed bradycardia (7:1 atrioventricular conduction) 5 minutes after IV sotalol, and heart rate increased gradually after drug withdrawal. No other adverse effects were observed. In conclusion, IV sotalol can be safely and effectively used to terminate pediatric tachycardias in patients with normal cardiac function. No proarrhythmic or significant toxicities were detected. Close monitoring of QTc and heart rate is required after IV sotalol. Adding IV propafenone to IV sotalol in resistant cases enhance conversion. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment Efficacy of Multiple Family Therapy for Chinese Families of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ma, Joyce L C; Lai, Kelly Y C; Xia, Lily Li Li

    2017-05-30

    The treatment efficacy of multiple family therapy (MFT) for Chinese families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been studied in the past. In this paper, the effect of MFT on different aspects of the lives of the parents in the experimental group (n = 61) was compared with the effect of only the psychoeducational talks on parents in the control group (n = 53). The results of a MANOVA have shown that by the time they reached the posttreatment phase, the parents who had completed the full 42 hours of the MFT program perceived their children's ADHD symptoms as being less serious and less pathological than they had originally thought compared to the parents in the control group. The effect of MFT on parent-child relationships, parenting stress, parental efficacy, hope, and perceived social support was statistically insignificant. Contributions and limitations of our study are discussed. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  11. Parenting Efficacy and the Early School Adjustment of Poor and Near-Poor Black Children.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Aurora P; Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Bentler, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigated whether maternal educational attainment, maternal employment status, and family income affect African-American children's behavioral and cognitive functioning over time through their impacts on mothers' psychological functioning and parenting efficacy in a sample of 100 poor and near-poor single black mothers and their 3- and 4-year-old focal children. Results indicate that education, working status, and earnings display statistically significant, negative, indirect relations with behavior problems and, with the exception of earnings, statistically significant, positive, indirect relationships with teacher-rated adaptive language skills over time. Findings suggest further that parenting efficacy may mediate the link between poor and near-poor single black mothers' depressive symptoms and their preschoolers' subsequent school adjustment. Implications of these findings for policy and program interventions are discussed.

  12. Increasing antiplaque/antigingivitis efficacy of an essential oil mouthrinse over time: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Charles, Christine A; McGuire, J A; Qaqish, James; Amini, Pejmon

    2013-01-01

    This randomized, observer-blind, parallel, controlled study determined the efficacy of an essential oils-containing (EO) antiseptic mouthrinse (in conjunction with toothbrushing) in reducing and/or controlling existing plaque or gingivitis over 6 months. Toothbrushing, combined with placebo rinsing, served as the control (C). Following ethics board approval (Biosci Research Canada, Ltd. Institutional Review Board), 139 healthy adults with mild to moderate plaque and gingivitis were randomized into EO or C groups. All subjects received oral/written instructions, monthly monitoring, and assigned unsupervised rinses. Efficacy variables were whole-mouth mean modified gingival index (MGI), Turesky modification of the Quigley Hein plaque index (PI), bleeding index (BI) at 6, 12, and 24 weeks, and data analysis through an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model. The EO group provided greater and increasing MGI, PI, and BI reductions than did C group over all examination periods. Compared to the C group, at 6, 12, and 24 weeks, MGI reductions for the EO group were 4.7%, 9.1%, and 20.4%, and PI reductions were 7.6%, 12.6%, and 26.3%, respectively. BI scores decreased over time and were significant compared to those for the C group (P < 0.001). Additionally, the percentages of sites improved versus baseline MGI over time for EO were 14.1%, 26.4%, and 43.3%, respectively. This study demonstrated that an EO-containing mouthrinse can provide an increasing benefit over a period of 6 months with twice daily use. This study also confirmed that an antiseptic EO rinse can provide a clinically significant benefit in reducing existing plaque and gingivitis.

  13. Increased adjuvant efficacy in stimulation of antibody responses after macrophage elimination in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Leenaars, P P; Savelkoul, H F; Hendriksen, C F; Van Rooijen, N; Claassen, E

    1997-01-01

    To investigate whether macrophages influence the efficacy of adjuvants, we locally eliminated lymph node macrophages with dichloromethylene diphosphonate containing-liposomes before primary immunization. After macrophage elimination, animals were immunized with a soluble antigen (TNP-KLH; 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet haemocyanin) either in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), or in Specol is a water-in-oil emulsion, considered to be less aggressive than CFA, but equally effective. A secondary immunization followed with TNP-KLH. In vivo macrophage elimination before Specol/TNP-KLH immunization resulted in increased adjuvant efficacy as measured by (primary) antibody responses. This suggests that the activity of Specol is not primarily mediated through macrophages but rather through other antigen-presenting cell types (e.g. dendritic cells, B cells, fibroblasts). The overall quality of produced antibodies, in terms of isotype distribution and affinity maturation, remained the same. After primary injection, CFA/TNP-KLH immunization resulted in significantly higher antibody responses in macrophage-depleted animals and antibody responses did not increase significantly after secondary immunization. However, a booster effect was found when macrophages were not eliminated before CFA/TNP-KLH immunization, suggesting that the presence of macrophages during the first weeks of the primary immune response is essential for the induction of an effective secondary response in CFA immunizations. In conclusion, macrophage depletion before immunization with a soluble T-cell-dependent antigen combined with Specol may enhance specific antibody responses without changing the isotype or affinity of the antibodies. Images Figure 1 PMID:9155638

  14. Combination pharmacotherapy for psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents: prevalence, efficacy, risks and research needs.

    PubMed

    Jureidini, Jon; Tonkin, Anne; Jureidini, Elsa

    2013-10-01

    Polypharmacy, defined as the concomitant use of two or more psychotropic drugs, has become increasingly common in the paediatric and adolescent population over the past two decades. Combining psychotropic drugs leads to possible increases in benefits, but also in risks, particularly given the potential for psychotropic drug interactions. Despite the increasing use of concomitant therapy in children and adolescents, there is very little evidence from controlled clinical trials to provide guidance for prescribers. Even while acknowledging the small evidence base, clinical practice guidelines from eminent medical organizations are either relatively silent on or tend to support the use of concomitant treatments more enthusiastically than the evidence would warrant, so that practice and guidance are running ahead of the science. Our narrative review shows that the published evidence for efficacy and safety of concomitant psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents is scanty. A comprehensive search located 37 studies published over the last decade, of which 18 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). These focused mainly on stimulants, central sympatholytics (such as clonidine), antipsychotics and 'mood stabilizers'. While several small, often methodologically weak, RCTs demonstrated statistically significant advantages for dual pharmacotherapy over monotherapy, only adding central sympatholytics to stimulants for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms was supported by substantial studies with an effect size large enough to suggest clinical importance. Non-randomized studies tended to have results that supported concomitant treatment, but all have design-related problems that decrease the reliability of the results. Two studies that specifically examined tolerability of combination pharmacotherapy compared with monotherapy showed significant increases in adverse effects, both subjective and objective, and other studies confirmed a

  15. Does severity of physical neglect moderate the impact of an efficacious preventive intervention for maltreated children in foster care?

    PubMed

    Taussig, Heather N; Culhane, Sara E; Garrido, Edward; Knudtson, Michael D; Petrenko, Christie L M

    2013-02-01

    Physically neglected youth are at increased risk of mental health problems, but there are few interventions that have demonstrated efficacy in reducing mental health symptoms for this vulnerable population. The Fostering Healthy Futures (FHF) program, which consists of mentoring and skills groups, was developed for preadolescent youth in foster care. In a published randomized controlled trial with 156 youth, FHF demonstrated positive impacts on mental health functioning. The current study sought to determine whether FHF might be particularly effective in ameliorating the impact of neglectful family environments. Because it was not possible to isolate a neglected-only subgroup, as most children with physical neglect histories had experienced other types of maltreatment, we tested the hypothesis that intervention effects would be stronger among children with more severe physical neglect. Findings did not support this hypothesis, however, as severity of physical neglect did not significantly moderate the impact of the intervention on psychosocial outcomes.

  16. Initial efficacy of project ImPACT: a parent-mediated social communication intervention for young children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Wainer, Allison

    2013-12-01

    Project ImPACT is a parent-mediated social communication intervention for young children with ASD that was developed in community settings to encourage dissemination. A single-subject, multiple-baseline design was conducted across 8 preschoolers with ASD and their mothers to examine the efficacy of the model for improving parent intervention fidelity and child spontaneous language. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the relationship between parent fidelity and child language within session. All parents increased their use of the intervention techniques. Improvements in spontaneous use of language targets were observed for 6 of the 8 children. There was a significant association between parents' use of the intervention strategies and their child's spontaneous language use.

  17. Improving Children's Mental Health with a Digital Social Skills Development Game: A Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial of Adventures aboard the S.S. GRIN.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Rebecca; Brown, Emily; Kocher, Kelly; DeRosier, Melissa

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a computer-based game to improve social skills and mental health in children with social skills deficits would be efficacious. The program, Adventures aboard the S.S. GRIN, translates a proven in-person intervention into a nine-episode interactive online adventure game that provides opportunity for knowledge acquisition and skill practice. Participants (children aged 7-11 years with social skills challenges) were randomly assigned to immediate treatment group (n = 33) or waitlist control group (n = 36). Children in the immediate treatment condition completed the game at home over the course of 9 weeks. Before playing the game and again within 1 week of game completion, children completed surveys about social literacy, social anxiety, bullying, social self-efficacy, and social satisfaction. Children who played Adventures improved significantly more from pretest to posttest than children who did not play the game in social literacy, social anxiety, bullying victimization, and social satisfaction. Online interactive games can be effective in improving mental health for children who struggle with social skills. For children who can access them, serious games have the potential to increase the reach of effective programs by overcoming the logistical and implementation barriers (such as cost, travel, and accessibility) that limit traditionally delivered mental health interventions.

  18. Pilot study: efficacy of sensory integration therapy for Japanese children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Honda, Sumihisa; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Koji; Toeda, Haruka; Tanaka, Goro

    2014-03-01

    This study's objective was to investigate the efficacy of sensory integration therapy (SIT) for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). The subjects were 20 HFASD children with IQs above 70 selected from previously collected data. Eight participated in individual SIT sessions, and 12 participated in group therapy (GT) including social skill training, communication training, kinetic activities, and child-parent play for 8-10 months. Changes in Total score and five Index scores on the Japanese version of the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers before and after therapy between children in the SIT and GT groups were compared. The results showed that Total score and all Index scores except for Verbal Index increased significantly in the SIT group, while only Total score increased in the GT group. Furthermore, the SIT group showed more improvement compared with the GT group in Total score and on Coordination, Non-verbal, and Complex Index scores. SIT might have a more positive effect on motor coordination abilities, non-verbal cognitive abilities, and combined abilities of sensory motor and cognition in children with HFASD when compared with GT. This study has limitations such as being an analysis of previously collected data. Further study should be conducted with a randomized control trial.

  19. A Single Mutation at PB1 Residue 319 Dramatically Increases the Safety of PR8 Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in a Murine Model without Compromising Vaccine Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Cox, Andrew; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2015-12-16

    The live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is preferentially recommended for use in most children yet remains unsafe for the groups most at risk. Here we have improved the safety of a mouse-adapted live attenuated influenza vaccine containing the same attenuating amino acid mutations as in human LAIV by adding an additional mutation at PB1 residue 319. This results in a vaccine with a 20-fold decrease in protective efficacy and a 10,000-fold increase in safety. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Efficacy of vision therapy in children with learning disability and associated binocular vision anomalies.

    PubMed

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Shah, Prerana; Ramani, Krishna Kumar; Ramanujan, Lalitha

    2017-06-06

    To report the frequency of binocular vision (BV) anomalies in children with specific learning disorders (SLD) and to assess the efficacy of vision therapy (VT) in children with a non-strabismic binocular vision anomaly (NSBVA). The study was carried out at a centre for learning disability (LD). Comprehensive eye examination and binocular vision assessment was carried out for 94 children (mean (SD) age: 15 (2.2) years) diagnosed with specific learning disorder. BV assessment was done for children with best corrected visual acuity of ≥6/9 - N6, cooperative for examination and free from any ocular pathology. For children with a diagnosis of NSBVA (n=46), 24 children were randomized to VT and no intervention was provided to the other 22 children who served as experimental controls. At the end of 10 sessions of vision therapy, BV assessment was performed for both the intervention and non-intervention groups. Binocular vision anomalies were found in 59 children (62.8%) among which 22% (n=13) had strabismic binocular vision anomalies (SBVA) and 78% (n=46) had a NSBVA. Accommodative infacility (AIF) was the commonest of the NSBVA and found in 67%, followed by convergence insufficiency (CI) in 25%. Post-vision therapy, the intervention group showed significant improvement in all the BV parameters (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.05) except negative fusional vergence. Children with specific learning disorders have a high frequency of binocular vision disorders and vision therapy plays a significant role in improving the BV parameters. Children with SLD should be screened for BV anomalies as it could potentially be an added hindrance to the reading difficulty in this special population. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Antigen Targeting to Human HLA Class II Molecules Increases Efficacy of DNA Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen, Agnete Brunsvik; Løset, Geir Åge; Vikse, Elisabeth; Fugger, Lars

    2016-01-01

    It has been difficult to translate promising results from DNA vaccination in mice to larger animals and humans. Previously, DNA vaccines encoding proteins that target Ag to MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules on APCs have been shown to induce rapid, enhanced, and long-lasting Ag-specific Ab titers in mice. In this study, we describe two novel DNA vaccines that as proteins target HLA class II (HLA-II) molecules. These vaccine proteins cross-react with MHC-II molecules in several species of larger mammals. When tested in ferrets and pigs, a single DNA delivery with low doses of the HLA-II–targeted vaccines resulted in rapid and increased Ab responses. Importantly, painless intradermal jet delivery of DNA was as effective as delivery by needle injection followed by electroporation. As an indication that the vaccines could also be useful for human application, HLA-II–targeted vaccine proteins were found to increase human CD4+ T cell responses by a factor of ×103 in vitro. Thus, targeting of Ag to MHC-II molecules may represent an attractive strategy for increasing efficacy of DNA vaccines in larger animals and humans. PMID:27671110

  2. Efficacy of everolimus with reduced-exposure cyclosporine in de novo kidney transplant patients at increased risk for efficacy events: analysis of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Carmellini, Mario; Garcia, Valter; Wang, Zailong; Vergara, Marcela; Russ, Graeme

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of de novo everolimus with reduced-exposure calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) was examined in kidney transplant subpopulations from the A2309 study that were identified to be at increased risk for efficacy events. A2309 was a 24-month, multicenter, open-label trial in which 833 de novo kidney transplant recipients were randomized to everolimus targeting 3-8 or 6-12 ng/ml with reduced-exposure cyclosporine (CsA), or mycophenolic acid (MPA) with standard-exposure CsA, all with basiliximab induction. The composite efficacy endpoint was treated biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), graft loss, death, or loss to follow-up. Cox proportional hazard modeling showed male gender, younger recipient age, black race, delayed graft function, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch ≥3 and increasing donor age to be significantly predictive for the composite efficacy endpoint at months 12 or 24 post-transplant. CsA exposure was 53-75 % lower, and 46-75 % lower, in patients receiving everolimus 3-8 ng/ml or receiving everolimus 6-12 ng/ml, respectively, versus MPA-treated patients. The incidence of the composite endpoint was similar in all three treatment groups within each subpopulation analyzed. The incidence of treated BPAR was similar with everolimus 3-8 ng/ml or MPA in all subpopulations, but less frequent with everolimus 6-12 ng/ml versus MPA in patients with HLA mismatch ≥3 (p = 0.049). This post hoc analysis of a large, randomized trial suggests that a de novo regimen of everolimus with reduced-exposure CsA maintains immunosuppressive efficacy even in kidney transplant patients at increased risk for efficacy events despite substantial reductions in CsA exposure.

  3. Component-resolved immunologic modifications, efficacy, and tolerance of latex sublingual immunotherapy in children.

    PubMed

    Lasa Luaces, Eva María; Tabar Purroy, Ana Isabel; García Figueroa, Blanca Esther; Anda Apiñaniz, Marta; Sanz Laruga, Maria Luisa; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Barber Hernández, Domingo

    2012-05-01

    As the frequency of natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy has increased, attempts have been made to diminish exposure in high-risk patients. Despite some good results, complete NRL avoidance was not possible, so latex immunotherapy was developed. To examine variations in immunologic parameters, clinical efficacy, and safety of NRL sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). This prospective, observational, open, case-control study included 23 patients (18 patients receiving NRL SLIT and 5 controls). Skin prick, conjunctival provocation, and in-use tests with NRL, specific IgE and specific IgG4 to NRL, specific IgE to recombinant NRL allergens, and basophil activation test (BAT) with whole latex, natural, and recombinant allergens were performed before immunotherapy (T0) and at 6 (T1) and 12 months (T2) of treatment. Patients were sensitized to Hev b 5, Hev b 6.01, and Hev b 6.02 proteins, optimal for SLIT. Changes in specific IgE were not significant. Increases in specific IgG4 between T1 and T2 were larger in the active group. BAT determinations showed significant decreases in recombinant Hev b 6.01 and natural Hev b 6.02 in the active group at T1 but not at T2. Both groups had new sensitizations at T1 but not at T2. The active group had significant increases in the response threshold in the in vivo tests at T1 and T2. Adverse effects were limited to local reactions. NRL SLIT is effective and safe in children with latex allergy. Our results suggest that specific IgE determinations and BAT measurements to natural and recombinant latex allergens may allow obtaining an allergen-based diagnosis to help determine specific immunotherapy. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of Topiramate as an add-on drug in seizures in Indian children--an observational study.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Priya; Kunju, P A Mohammed

    2011-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of Topiramate as an add-on drug in the treatment of seizures in children of age group 0-12 years. Fifty children of age 0-12 years with seizures viz. partial seizures with or without secondary generalization, myoclonic jerks, infantile spasms, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, absence or mixed seizures were chosen from the out-patient department. Topiramate was added in small doses to conventional antiepileptics, and increased till the most effective/best-tolerated dose was reached. A Seizure Improvement Scale (SIS) was used. Outcome variables included seizure type, frequency, severity, SIS based on starting dose and the dose at the end of 6th month, EEG pattern, number of concomitant drugs used and adverse effects. Data was collected in monthly follow up visits for next 6 months (0-6 month study period). Details of seizures and medication availed by the study population during the 6 month period prior to the start of study were retrieved from available case records; this was used as control (-6 to 0 month study period). Using each of the outcome variables, efficacy was ascertained by clinical and statistical comparison. Myoclonic jerks, generalized tonic clonic seizures, partial seizures with secondary generalization and complex partial seizures constituted 75% of seizures. Z-test for proportion showed significant reduction (p < 0.05) in these seizure types. ANOVA test for repeated measures (f = 162.3, p < 0.01) showed a significant fall in seizure frequency in 0 to 6 month period (t = 2.0, df = 49, p < 0.05) in seizure frequency. 50%, 18%, 8% and 10% of children had 100%, >75%, >50% and <50% reduction in seizure frequency, respectively at the end of 6 months. Statistically significant reduction in severity (status epilepticus) was found. An association between starting dose and position in the SIS was noted (Chi-square test); the authors recommend a starting dose of 1-2 mg/kg/day. Similarly, significant association between dose at the end

  5. Acute Stimulant Treatment and Reinforcement Increase the Speed of Information Accumulation in Children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Whitney D; White, Corey N; Hawk, Larry W

    2016-10-27

    The current studies utilized drift diffusion modeling (DDM) to examine how reinforcement and stimulant medication affect cognitive task performance in children with ADHD. In Study 1, children with (n = 25; 88 % male) and without ADHD (n = 33; 82 % male) completed a 2-choice discrimination task at baseline (100 trials) and again a week later under alternating reinforcement and no-reinforcement contingencies (400 trials total). In Study 2, participants with ADHD (n = 29; 72 % male) completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg methylphenidate and completed the same task utilized in Study 1 at baseline (100 trials). Children with ADHD accumulated information at a much slower rate than controls, as evidenced by a lower drift rate. Groups were similar in nondecision time and boundary separation. Both reinforcement and stimulant medication markedly improved drift rate in children with ADHD (ds = 0.70 and 0.95 for reinforcement and methylphenidate, respectively); both treatments also reduced boundary separation (ds = 0.70 and 0.39). Reinforcement, which emphasized speeded accuracy, reduced nondecision time (d = 0.37), whereas stimulant medication increased nondecision time (d = 0.38). These studies provide initial evidence that frontline treatments for ADHD primarily impact cognitive performance in youth with ADHD by improving the speed/efficiency of information accumulation. Treatment effects on other DDM parameters may vary between treatments or interact with task parameters (number of trials, task difficulty). DDM, in conjunction with other approaches, may be helpful in clarifying the specific cognitive processes that are disrupted in ADHD, as well as the basic mechanisms that underlie the efficacy of ADHD treatments.

  6. The Influence of Africentric Values and Neighborhood Satisfaction on the Academic Self-Efficacy of African American Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Richard Q.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships between Africentric values, racial/ethnic identity, neighborhood satisfaction, and academic self-efficacy beliefs among 88 African American elementary school children. Results indicated that Africentric values and neighborhood satisfaction were both predictive of academic self-efficacy beliefs.…

  7. Antidepressant Efficacy for Depression in Children and Adolescents: Industry- and NIMH-Funded Studies.

    PubMed

    Walkup, John T

    2017-05-01

    Significant controversy surrounds the efficacy of the newer antidepressants for children and adolescents with depression. The controversy largely hinges on meta-analyses of studies that suggest that antidepressants are minimally effective, not effective, or equivalent to placebo. In this review, the author discusses several scientific and clinical complexities that are important to understand in reviewing the antidepressant literature: the strengths and weaknesses of meta-analyses; the scientific and regulatory context for the large number of antidepressant trials in the late 1990s and early 2000s; and the distinction between a negative trial, where the treatment does not demonstrate efficacy, and a failed trial, where methodological problems make it impossible to draw any conclusion about efficacy. It is the premise of this review that meta-analyses that include the large number of industry-sponsored antidepressant trials distort the picture of antidepressant efficacy for teen depression. Industry-sponsored child and adolescent depression trials suffer from a number of implementation challenges and should be considered failed trials that are largely uninformative and not eligible to be included in efficacy meta-analyses. In contrast to the industry-sponsored trials, depression trials funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (N=2) are characterized by many methodological strengths, lower placebo response rates (30%-35%), and meaningful between-group differences (25%-30%) that support antidepressant efficacy. The NIMH-funded trials, taken together with the demonstrated efficacy of the serotonin reuptake inhibitors for childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder and the anxiety disorders, suggest a broad and important role for antidepressant medications in pediatric internalizing conditions.

  8. Raltegravir for HIV-1 infected children and adolescents: efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Kajal B; King, Jennifer R; Acosta, Edward P

    2013-01-01

    Raltegravir was the first HIV integrase strand-transfer inhibitor to be approved by the US FDA, in October 2007, for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Raltegravir can be used in treatment-naïve and -experienced patients, as well as for the treatment of multidrug-resistant infection. Raltegravir exists in two formulations: a film-coated tablet administered orally at 400 mg twice daily, and a chewable tablet administered orally at 300 mg twice daily. In 2011, raltegravir was also approved for the treatment of children and adolescents, ages 2–18 years. For adolescents (ages 12–18 years), the recommended dose is 400 mg twice daily (film-coated tablet). If children (ages 6–12 years) weigh at least 25 kg, the film-coated tablet is recommended at 400 mg twice daily. Otherwise, patients receive the chewable tablet according to weight-based dosing at approximately 6 mg/kg/dose. Studies are ongoing for children ages 4 weeks to 2 years, and preliminary efficacy and safety data are promising. This article reviews current studies on the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of raltegravir in the pediatric population and the challenges of treating HIV in children and adolescents. PMID:24600298

  9. Efficacy and safety of caspofungin in children: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosanova, María T; Bes, David; Serrano Aguilar, Pedro; Cuellar Pompa, Leticia; Sberna, Norma; Lede, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Caspofungin is an echinocandin used as an alternative treatment in the prevention and/or treatment of certain invasive fungal infections in children, although compared to the standard treatment there is little evidence on its efficacy and safety. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of caspofungin compared with other antifungal drugs for the prevention and/or treatment of invasive fungal infections in children. The objective of the initial search strategy was to identify randomized controlled studies of acceptable methodological quality (Jadad scale >3), through the key word "caspofungin", conducted in patients with an age range from 0 to 18 years old. The objective of the initial search strategy was to identify randomized controlled studies of acceptable methodological quality (Jadad scale >3), through the key word "caspofungin", conducted in patients with an age range from 0 to 18 years old. This systematic review suggests that caspofungin could be considered as an alternative drug in children for the prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infections. However, given the small number of existing publications, more studies are required to reach definite conclusions. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  10. Is there an increased risk of burns to Amish children?

    PubMed

    Rieman, Mary T; Hunley, Melissa; Woeste, Lori; Kagan, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence, causes, and demographics of burn injuries in Amish children, treated at a pediatric burn center located in close proximity to the Midwestern Amish country. After Institutional Review Board approval, we used our TRACS Burn Registry to identify burn injuries in Amish and non-Amish children. We then compared the groups formed by gender and culture. We identified 37 Amish children (1.25%) among the 2972 acute burn patients admitted over the 12-year period of review. Importantly, Amish girls sustained significantly more extensive and deeper burns than Amish boys or non-Amish children of either gender (P < .05). Ventilator days were also greater for Amish girls than for the non-Amish groups (P < .05). A greater length of hospital stay for the Amish girls was likely because of their significantly larger burn size. There were also overall significant differences in burn causes among Amish and non-Amish children (P = .002). Amish patients had a higher incidence of burns, by hot liquids not related to cooking, ignition of clothing, or ignition of flammable materials, than non-Amish children. Of note, Amish girls had a relatively shorter delay in admission to our burn center than did Amish boys and non-Amish children. Burn injuries to Amish children requiring inpatient treatment seem to be quite uncommon. When they do occur, burns in Amish children tend to be more extensive than similar injuries in non-Amish children. The data suggest that there may be significant and specific educational opportunities for burn prevention in Amish children in our burn center's referral area.

  11. Maternal self-efficacy regarding children's eating and sedentary behaviours in the early years: associations with children's food intake and sedentary behaviours.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen; Hesketh, Kylie; Silverii, Amanda; Abbott, Gavin

    2010-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to describe parents' views regarding self-efficacy to influence children's eating and sedentary behaviours at two time points in early childhood, and to examine associations between these views and children's eating and sedentary behaviours. Mothers of 1-year (n=60) and 5-year-old children (n=80) were recruited through Maternal and Child Health Centres and kindergartens in Victoria, Australia. Mothers reported children's dietary intake, television viewing and perceptions of their self-efficacy regarding children's eating and sedentary behaviours. Overall, 5-year-old children consumed significantly more energy-dense food and drink and spent significantly more time viewing TV/DVD and video. Mothers of 1-year-olds were significantly more likely to report they felt confident to limit child's consumption of non-core foods/drinks, and to limit screen access (p<0.001). Measures of maternal self-efficacy were directly associated with 5-year-old children's water (p<0.05), and fruit and vegetable consumption (p<0.005), and with 1-year-old children's vegetable consumption (p<0.05), and were inversely associated with cordial and cake consumption (p<0.05). Maternal self-efficacy to limit viewing time was inversely associated with screen-time exposure in both age groups (p<0.01). This study suggests that mother's self-efficacy regarding limiting non-core foods/drinks and limiting screen-time exposures may decline during the first few years of a child's life. Higher maternal self-efficacy was associated with children having more obesity protective eating and sedentary behaviours at both ages. Interventions to support the development of healthy lifestyle behaviours may be most effective if they target mothers' self-efficacy in these domains early in their child's life.

  12. Improved targeting of JAK2 leads to increased therapeutic efficacy in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Neha; Koppikar, Priya; Keller, Matthew; Marubayashi, Sachie; Shank, Kaitlyn; Rampal, Raajit; Qi, Jun; Kleppe, Maria; Patel, Hardik J.; Shah, Smit K.; Taldone, Tony; Bradner, James E.; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of JAK2/MPL mutations in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) led to clinical development of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors for treatment of MPN. These inhibitors improve constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly but do not significantly reduce mutant allele burden in patients. We recently showed that chronic exposure to JAK inhibitors results in inhibitor persistence via JAK2 transactivation and persistent JAK–signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling. We performed genetic and pharmacologic studies to determine whether improved JAK2 inhibition would show increased efficacy in MPN models and primary samples. Jak2 deletion in vivo led to profound reduction in disease burden not seen with JAK inhibitors, and deletion of Jak2 following chronic ruxolitinib therapy markedly reduced mutant allele burden. This demonstrates that JAK2 remains an essential target in MPN cells that survive in the setting of chronic JAK inhibition. Combination therapy with the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor PU-H71 and ruxolitinib reduced total and phospho-JAK2 and achieved more potent inhibition of downstream signaling than ruxolitinib monotherapy. Combination treatment improved blood counts, spleen weights, and reduced bone marrow fibrosis compared with ruxolitinib alone. These data suggest alternate approaches that increase JAK2 targeting, including combination JAK/HSP90 inhibitor therapy, are warranted in the clinical setting. PMID:24470592

  13. Latent profiles of parental self-efficacy and children's multisource-evaluated social competence.

    PubMed

    Junttila, Niina; Vauras, Marja

    2014-09-01

    The interrelation between mothers' parental self-efficacy (PSE) and their school-aged children's well-being has been repeatedly proved. The lack of research in this area situates mainly on the absence of fathers, non-existent family-level studies, the paucity of independent evaluators, and the use of global PSE estimates. We aimed to qualitatively identify different subgroups of mothers, fathers, and couples based on their PSE factors. Furthermore, we aimed to study the interrelations between these PSE subgroups and children's school-related social competence evaluated by the children themselves as well as by their peers, teachers, and parents. Sample (n = 981; girls n = 467; boys n = 514) consisted of fourth-grade (mean age, 10 years old) children, their teachers, peers, and parents (mothers n = 876; fathers n = 696). Latent profile analysis was used to identify parents with similar patterns of PSE. The data of mothers and fathers were modelled separately and as a family-level combination. Interrelations between PSE subgroups and children's multisource-evaluated social competence were analysed with group comparisons. Separate subgroups of mothers, fathers, and couples were identified and labelled based on their PSE profiles. Subgroups were found to differ among mothers' age and education and children's academic skills. Most of the interrelations between PSE subgroups and children's social competence were statistically significant in a sense that children of parents with strong PSE were evaluated as more prosocial and less antisocial than others. Despite new perspectives on parents' PSE estimates and use of behaviour evaluators outside the family system, the interrelation between positive PSE and children's social competence and learning remains strong. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Effects of a Rape Awareness Program on College Women: Increasing Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Brasfield, Hope; Hill, Brent

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault risk-reduction program on 279 college women that focused on learning characteristics of male perpetrators and teaching bystander intervention techniques. After seeing The Women's Program, participants reported significantly greater bystander efficacy and significantly greater…

  15. Increasing the Self-Efficacy of Inservice Teachers through Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swackhamer, Lyn Ely; Koellner, Karen; Basile, Carole; Kimbrough, Doris

    2009-01-01

    A teacher's sense of self-efficacy has been consistently recognized as an important attribute of effective teaching and has been positively correlated to teacher and student outcomes. A number of studies show the impact of teachers with high levels of efficacy. Students of these teachers have outperformed students who had teachers with lower…

  16. Effects of a Rape Awareness Program on College Women: Increasing Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Brasfield, Hope; Hill, Brent

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault risk-reduction program on 279 college women that focused on learning characteristics of male perpetrators and teaching bystander intervention techniques. After seeing The Women's Program, participants reported significantly greater bystander efficacy and significantly greater…

  17. Using Asynchronous AV Communication Tools to Increase Academic Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girasoli, Anthony J.; Hannafin, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Technology-enhanced learning environments (TELEs) deliver instructional content and provide an array of scaffolding features designed to support independent student learning. TELEs also support teacher efforts to guide student inquiry within these sometimes complex environments. Self-efficacy, defined by Bandura [Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy.…

  18. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  19. Methionine splanchnic uptake is increased in critically ill children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During critical illness the splanchnic area is profoundly affected. There is no information on splanchnic uptake of amino acids in vivo, in critically ill children. Methionine splanchnic uptake in critically ill children will differ from estimates in healthy adults. We studied 24 critically ill chil...

  20. Do Chronic Conditions Increase Young Children's Risk of Being Maltreated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Mackey-Bilaver, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether and to what extent specific chronic health conditions place young children at risk of maltreatment. Methods: The study used a sample of Illinois children (born between January 1990 and March 1996) who were through age 3 continuously enrolled in Medicaid, a public health insurance program for low-income families. The…

  1. Resources for Increasing Physical Activity in Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Carol A.; Beighle, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    The number of children and youth who are overweight has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. According to the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an estimated 17 percent of children and adolescents ages 2-19 years are obese. In…

  2. Do Chronic Conditions Increase Young Children's Risk of Being Maltreated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Mackey-Bilaver, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether and to what extent specific chronic health conditions place young children at risk of maltreatment. Methods: The study used a sample of Illinois children (born between January 1990 and March 1996) who were through age 3 continuously enrolled in Medicaid, a public health insurance program for low-income families. The…

  3. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  4. Resources for Increasing Physical Activity in Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Carol A.; Beighle, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    The number of children and youth who are overweight has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. According to the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an estimated 17 percent of children and adolescents ages 2-19 years are obese. In…

  5. Increasing Social Reciprocity in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Debra; LaRocque, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Research and education law support the use of routines-based interventions for young children with disabilities in the children's natural environments. However, systematic training and practice can provide individuals with the strategies and skills that can enhance these interventions. This article provides guidance for implementing intervention…

  6. Increasing Social Reciprocity in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Debra; LaRocque, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Research and education law support the use of routines-based interventions for young children with disabilities in the children's natural environments. However, systematic training and practice can provide individuals with the strategies and skills that can enhance these interventions. This article provides guidance for implementing intervention…

  7. Efficacy of formalin and hydrogen peroxide to increase survival of channel catfish infected with saprolegniasis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Schreier, T.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Schleis, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of formalin and hydrogen peroxide to increase survival associated with external saprolegniasis on fingerlings of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in four laboratory trials. Fungal epizootics were initiated according to procedures developed in a fungal-disease model. Fish were abraded with a dremel tool and then placed in an aerated static infection tank containing fungal-infected hemp seeds held in teaballs that were suspended in 100 L of water for 24 h (trials 1-3) or 6 h (trial 4). In the formalin trials, treatment regimens of 0, 82, and 166 mg/L (trial 1) or 0 and 83 mg/L (trial 2) were administered to channel catfish for 60 min once every other day for a total of three treatments (trial 1) or once daily for a total of seven treatments (trial 2). In the hydrogen peroxide trials, treatment regimens of 0, 75, and 102 mg/L (trial 3) or 0 and 75 mg/L (trial 4) were administered to channel catfish for 60 min once every other day for a total of three treatments. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, with 10 fish per replicate. Formalin exposures of 83 (seven treatments; 33% survival) and 166 mg/L (three treatments; 63% survival) for 60 min significantly (P <= 0.01) increased channel catfish survival in comparison with controls (of which 3% and 13%, respectively, survived). In trial 4, hydrogen peroxide exposure of 75 mg/L (63% survival) for 60 min significantly (P <= 0.01) increased channel catfish survival in comparison with the untreated controls (13% survival). Formalin and hydrogen peroxide treatments were effective in increasing survival in channel catfish infected with fungus.

  8. The Influence of Parental Self-Efficacy and Perceived Control on the Home Learning Environment of Young Children.

    PubMed

    Peacock-Chambers, Elizabeth; Martin, Justin T; Necastro, Kelly A; Cabral, Howard J; Bair-Merritt, Megan

    2017-03-01

    To: 1) examine sociodemographic factors associated with high parental self-efficacy and perceived control, and 2) determine how self-efficacy and control relate to the home learning environment (HLE), including whether they mediate the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and HLE, among low-income parents of young children. Cross-sectional survey of English- and Spanish-speaking parents, 18 years of age and older, with children 15 to 36 months old, to assess parental self-efficacy, perceived control, HLE, and sociodemographic characteristics. Bivariate analysis identified sociodemographic predictors of high self-efficacy and control. Separate multivariate linear regression models were used to examine associations between self-efficacy, control, and the HLE. Formal path analysis was used to assess whether self-efficacy and control mediate the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and HLE. Of 144 participants, 25% were white, 65% were immigrants, and 35% completed the survey in Spanish. US-born subjects, those who completed English surveys, or who had higher educational levels had significantly higher mean self-efficacy and perceived control scores (P < .05). Higher self-efficacy and perceived control were associated with a positive change in HLE score in separate multivariate models (self-efficacy β = .7 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5-0.9]; control β = .5 [95% CI, 0.2-0.8]). Self-efficacy acted as a mediator such that low self-efficacy explained part of the association between parental depressive symptoms, immigrant status, and less optimal HLE (P = .04 and < .001, respectively). High parental self-efficacy and perceived control positively influence HLEs of young children. Self-efficacy alone mediates the relationship between parental depressive symptoms, immigrant status, and less optimal early home learning. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of midazolam as oral premedication in children in comparison to triclofos sodium

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, Kolathu Parambil; Sreejit, Melveetil S; Ramadas, Konnanath T

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The perioperative behavioural studies demonstrate that children are at greater risk of experiencing turbulent anaesthetic induction and adverse behavioural sequelae. We aimed to compare the efficacy of midazolam 0.5 mg/kg with triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg as oral premedication in children undergoing elective surgery. Methods: In this prospective, randomised and double-blind study, sixty children posted for elective lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into midazolam group (Group M) and triclofos sodium group (Group T) of thirty each. Group M received oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg 30 min before induction, and Group T received oral triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg 60 min before induction. All children were evaluated for level of sedation after premedication, behaviour at the time of separation from parents and at the time of mask placement for induction of anaesthesia. Mann–Whitney U-test was used for comparing the grade of sedation, ease of separation and acceptance of face mask. Results: Oral midazolam produced adequate sedation in children after premedication in comparison to oral triclofos (P = 0.002). Both drugs produced successful separation from parents, and the children were very cooperative during induction. No adverse effects attributable to the premedicants were seen. Conclusions: Oral midazolam is superior to triclofos sodium as a sedative anxiolytic in paediatric population. PMID:27330204

  10. Efficacy of midazolam as oral premedication in children in comparison to triclofos sodium.

    PubMed

    Radhika, Kolathu Parambil; Sreejit, Melveetil S; Ramadas, Konnanath T

    2016-06-01

    The perioperative behavioural studies demonstrate that children are at greater risk of experiencing turbulent anaesthetic induction and adverse behavioural sequelae. We aimed to compare the efficacy of midazolam 0.5 mg/kg with triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg as oral premedication in children undergoing elective surgery. In this prospective, randomised and double-blind study, sixty children posted for elective lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into midazolam group (Group M) and triclofos sodium group (Group T) of thirty each. Group M received oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg 30 min before induction, and Group T received oral triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg 60 min before induction. All children were evaluated for level of sedation after premedication, behaviour at the time of separation from parents and at the time of mask placement for induction of anaesthesia. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparing the grade of sedation, ease of separation and acceptance of face mask. Oral midazolam produced adequate sedation in children after premedication in comparison to oral triclofos (P = 0.002). Both drugs produced successful separation from parents, and the children were very cooperative during induction. No adverse effects attributable to the premedicants were seen. Oral midazolam is superior to triclofos sodium as a sedative anxiolytic in paediatric population.

  11. Motivational Interviewing as an intervention to increase adolescent self-efficacy and promote weight loss: Methodology and design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is associated with serious physiological and psychological consequences including type 2 diabetes, higher rates of depression and low self-esteem. With the population of overweight and obese youth increasing, appropriate interventions are needed that speak to the issue of readiness to change and motivation to maintain adherence to healthy behavior changes. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a method of therapy found to resolve ambivalence, enhance intrinsic motivation and promote confidence in a person's ability to make behavior changes. While MI has shown promise in the adult obesity literature as effecting positive lifestyle change, little is known about the effectiveness of MI with overweight and obese youth. This study aims to: 1) demonstrate that MI is an effective intervention for increasing a person's self-efficacy; 2) demonstrate that exposure to MI will facilitate healthy behavior changes; 3) explore psychological changes related to participation in MI and 4) compare physiological and anthropometric outcomes before and after intervention. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted with ongoing participants who regularly attend an outpatient pediatric care center for weight-loss. Overweight youth (BMI > 85th %ile) between the ages of 10 and 18 who meet eligibility criteria will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to a control group (social skills training) or a treatment group (MI). Participants will meet with the therapist for approximately 30 minutes prior to seeing the dietician, over the course of 6 months. Participants will also undergo a full day assessment at the beginning and end of psychology intervention to evaluate body fat, and metabolic risk (screening for diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and fitness level). The paper and pencil portions of the assessments as well as the clinical testing will occur at baseline and at the conclusion of the intervention (6

  12. A Parent-Mediated Intervention that Targets Responsive Parental Behaviors Increases Attachment Behaviors in Children with ASD: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siller, Michael; Swanson, Meghan; Gerber, Alan; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The current study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of Focused Playtime Intervention (FPI) in a sample of 70 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This parent-mediated intervention has previously been shown to significantly increase responsive parental communication (Siller et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord"…

  13. A Parent-Mediated Intervention that Targets Responsive Parental Behaviors Increases Attachment Behaviors in Children with ASD: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siller, Michael; Swanson, Meghan; Gerber, Alan; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The current study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of Focused Playtime Intervention (FPI) in a sample of 70 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This parent-mediated intervention has previously been shown to significantly increase responsive parental communication (Siller et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord"…

  14. The relationship among self-efficacy, negative self-referent cognitions, and social anxiety in children: a multiple mediator model.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Brittany M; Davis, Thompson E; Matthews, Russell A

    2012-09-01

    Evidence suggests that general self-efficacy, an individual's beliefs about his global abilities, and social self-efficacy, an individual's beliefs in his ability to navigate social situations, are strongly connected to levels of social anxiety. Negative self-statements, also known as negative self-referent cognitions, have also been linked with levels of social anxiety. Although self-efficacy and negative self-statements have been shown to be important variables in the phenomenology and maintenance of social anxiety in children, they have yet to be examined in conjunction with one another. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between negative self-referent cognitions and self-efficacy and to examine both general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy as mediator variables in the relationship between negative self-statements and social anxiety. Results were based on a sample of 126 children ages 11 to 14 years. A significant association between negative self-statements and both general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy was established. Results also indicated that general self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between negative self-statements and social anxiety; however, contrary to hypotheses, social self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between negative self-statements and social anxiety. Implications and future recommendations are discussed.

  15. Increased lipodystrophy is associated with increased exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Alessandra; Mora, Stefano; Testolin, Corrado; Beccio, Sabrina; Schneider, Laura; Bricalli, Dorella; Vanzulli, Angelo; Manzoni, Paola; Brambilla, Paolo

    2003-04-15

    To assess body composition changes in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Thirty-seven HIV-positive children were enrolled. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed in all HIV-infected children at baseline and after an additional 12 months of HAART and in 54 matched (for sex, age, body mass index [BMI], and pubertal stage) healthy controls. Abdominal MRI was performed in 14 of 37 HIV-positive children at baseline and in 28 of 37 HIV-positive children after additional 12 months of HAART. During the study period, mean HAART exposure increased from 39.3 to 50.9 months and the number of HIV-infected children with clinical lipodystrophy (LD) increased from 6 to 8, whereas mean BMI, CD4 percentage, and percentage of HIV-infected children with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL did not change. DXA scans showed an increase in lean mass, peripheral fat loss, and central fat accumulation in all HIV-infected children. As compared with controls, 70% and 84% of HIV-infected children showed DXA-detectable LD at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up, respectively. Mixed LD and central fat accumulation were the most common LD phenotype. At baseline and at 12 months of follow-up, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAT) was greater than in controls in 33% and 35% of HIV-infected children, and it was greater in those with LD than in those without. Peripheral fat loss and IAT content were associated with duration of HAART and were independent of immunologic stage of disease and immunologic response. Changes in body composition related to LD in HAART-treated children are frequent, precocious, and progressive. Duration of HAART negatively influences visceral adiposity and peripheral fat loss.

  16. Efficacy of levetiracetam in electrical status epilepticus during sleep of children: a multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Qiao; Zhang, Wei-Na; Yang, Zhi-Xian; Zhao, Meng; Cai, Fang-Cheng; Huang, Shao-Ping; Gao, Li; Pang, Bao-Dong; Chen, Xi; Zou, Li-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Electrical status epilepticus during sleep is characterized by epilepsy, a specific electroencephalographic pattern, and neuropsychological impairment. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam in treating children with electrical status epilepticus during sleep. A multicenter, retrospective, open-label study enrolled 73 children (mean age: 8 years) affected by electrical status epilepticus during sleep. The efficacy was rated according to the seizure frequency and electroencephalography response. After a mean treatment period of 19 months (range: 6 to 24 months), 33 (63.5%) of 52 patients became seizure-free or had experienced remarkable reduction in seizures. The electrical status epilepticus of 41 (56.2%) of 73 patients disappeared off their electroencephalography. The electroencephalography efficacy of levetiracetam treatment was noted in the monotherapy (61.9%) and add-on (53.9%) groups. The clinical (67.7%) and electroencephalography (64.3%) response rates of the idiopathic group were better than those of the symptomatic group (57.1% and 45.2%, respectively). No patient discontinued the trial because of intolerability of side effects. Levetiracetam is effective in individuals with electrical status epilepticus during sleep with tolerable side effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A genetically adjuvanted influenza B virus vector increases immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice.

    PubMed

    Kittel, Christian; Wressnigg, Nina; Shurygina, Anna Polina; Wolschek, Markus; Stukova, Marina; Romanovskaya-Romanko, Ekatherina; Romanova, Julia; Kiselev, Oleg; Muster, Thomas; Egorov, Andrej

    2015-10-01

    The existence of multiple antigenically distinct types and subtypes of influenza viruses allows the construction of a multivalent vector system for the mucosal delivery of foreign sequences. Influenza A viruses have been exploited successfully for the expression of extraneous antigens as well as immunostimulatory molecules. In this study, we describe the development of an influenza B virus vector whose functional part of the interferon antagonist NS1 was replaced by human interleukin 2 (IL2) as a genetic adjuvant. We demonstrate that IL2 expressed by this viral vector displays immune adjuvant activity in immunized mice. Animals vaccinated with the IL2 viral vector showed an increased hemagglutination inhibition antibody response and higher protective efficacy after challenge with a wild-type influenza B virus when compared to mice vaccinated with a control virus. Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to construct influenza B vaccine strains expressing immune-potentiating foreign sequences from the NS genomic segment. Based on these data, it is now hypothetically possible to create a trivalent (or quadrivalent) live attenuated influenza vaccine in which each component expresses a selected genetic adjuvant with tailored expression levels.

  18. Decreased circulation time offsets increased efficacy of PEGylated nanocarriers targeting folate receptors of glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeeley, Kathleen M.; Annapragada, Ananth; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2007-09-01

    Liposomal and other nanocarrier based drug delivery vehicles can localize to tumours through passive and/or active targeting. Passively targeted liposomal nanocarriers accumulate in tumours via 'leaky' vasculature through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Passive accumulation depends upon the circulation time and the degree of tumour vessel 'leakiness'. After extravasation, actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers efficiently deliver their payload by receptor-mediated uptake. However, incorporation of targeting moieties can compromise circulation time in the blood due to recognition and clearance by the reticuloendothelial system, decreasing passive accumulation. Here, we compare the efficacy of passively targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers to that of actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers in a rat 9L brain tumour model. Although folate receptor (FR)-targeted liposomal nanocarriers had significantly reduced blood circulation time compared to PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers; intratumoural drug concentrations both at 20 and 50 h after administration were equal for both treatments. Both treatments significantly increased tumour inoculated animal survival by 60-80% compared to non-treated controls, but no difference in survival was observed between FR-targeted and passively targeted nanocarriers. Therefore, alternate approaches allowing for active targeting without compromising circulation time may be important for fully realizing the benefits of receptor-mediated active targeting of gliomas.

  19. A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy for Eliciting Speech in Nonverbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant…

  20. Effect of Indoor Wall Climbing on Self- Efficacy and Self-Perceptions of Children with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzoni, Erin R.; Purves, P. Lynn; Southward, Julie; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Temple, Viviene A.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of a six-week indoor wall climbing on the perceptions of self for children with special needs aged 6-12 years was explored. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to the intervention (girls, n = 4; boys, n = 19) and control groups (girls, n = 5; boys, n = 18). Belayers' and children's perceptions of efficacy were measured using…

  1. Efficacy of an Integrated School Curriculum Pedometer Intervention to Enhance Physical Activity and to Reduce Weight Status in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael; Birch, Samantha; Woodfield, Lorayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an integrated school curriculum pedometer intervention on children's physical activity and weight status. Following ethics approval and informed consent, 59 children (22 boys, 27 girls, aged 10-11) from a primary school in central England completed a four-week integrated physical activity…

  2. The Efficacy of an Aquatic Program on Physical Fitness and Aquatic Skills in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 14-week aquatic program on physical fitness and aquatic skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their siblings without a disability. Children with ASD (n = 15) and their siblings (n = 15), between 7 and 12 years (8.55 [plus or minus] 2.19 years) participated. In the first 14-week phase,…

  3. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  4. The Protective Effects of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy on British Children Growing Up in Deprivation: A Developmental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odgers, Candice L.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Tach, Laura M.; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Avshalom; Matthews, Charlotte L.; Sampson, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of neighborhood-level deprivation and collective efficacy on children's antisocial behavior between the ages of 5 and 10 years. Latent growth curve modeling was applied to characterize the developmental course of antisocial behavior among children in the E-Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological…

  5. The Efficacy of a Social Skills Group Intervention for Improving Social Behaviors in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosier, Melissa E.; Swick, Danielle C.; Davis, Naomi Ornstein; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; Matthews, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a new social skills intervention, "S ocial S kills GR oup IN tervention-High Functioning Autism" ("S.S.GRIN-HFA"), designed to improve social behaviors in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Fifty-five children were randomly assigned to "S.S.GRIN-HFA" treatment (n = 27) or control (i.e.,…

  6. The Efficacy of a Social Skills Group Intervention for Improving Social Behaviors in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosier, Melissa E.; Swick, Danielle C.; Davis, Naomi Ornstein; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; Matthews, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a new social skills intervention, "S ocial S kills GR oup IN tervention-High Functioning Autism" ("S.S.GRIN-HFA"), designed to improve social behaviors in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Fifty-five children were randomly assigned to "S.S.GRIN-HFA" treatment (n = 27) or control (i.e.,…

  7. Efficacy of an Integrated School Curriculum Pedometer Intervention to Enhance Physical Activity and to Reduce Weight Status in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael; Birch, Samantha; Woodfield, Lorayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an integrated school curriculum pedometer intervention on children's physical activity and weight status. Following ethics approval and informed consent, 59 children (22 boys, 27 girls, aged 10-11) from a primary school in central England completed a four-week integrated physical activity…

  8. The Efficacy of the Tomatis Method for Children with Learning and Communication Disorders: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmor, Tim

    1999-01-01

    Explains the Tomatis Method, a program of auditory stimulation and counseling used to assist children, adolescents, and adults with learning and communication disorders. Presents a meta-analysis of data from five research studies evaluating the efficacy of this method in assisting children with such disorders. Suggests that effect sizes favoring…

  9. A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy for Eliciting Speech in Nonverbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant…

  10. The Efficacy of an Aquatic Program on Physical Fitness and Aquatic Skills in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 14-week aquatic program on physical fitness and aquatic skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their siblings without a disability. Children with ASD (n = 15) and their siblings (n = 15), between 7 and 12 years (8.55 [plus or minus] 2.19 years) participated. In the first 14-week phase,…

  11. Evaluating the Efficacy of the PEAK Relational Training System Using a Randomized Controlled Trial of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeel, Autumn Nicole; Dixon, Mark R.; Daar, Jacob H.; Rowsey, Kyle E.; Szekely, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation sought to examine the efficacy of the instructional curriculum described in the Direct Training Module of the PEAK Relational Training System on the language repertoires, as measured by the PEAK direct assessment, of children diagnosed with autism or related developmental disabilities. Twenty-seven children diagnosed with…

  12. Using Robotics and Game Design to Enhance Children's Self-Efficacy, STEM Attitudes, and Computational Thinking Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Jacqueline; Buss, Alan; Gamboa, Ruben; Mitchell, Monica; Fashola, Olatokunbo S.; Hubert, Tarcia; Almughyirah, Sultan

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the findings of a pilot study that used robotics and game design to develop middle school students' computational thinking strategies. One hundred and twenty-four students engaged in LEGO® EV3 robotics and created games using Scalable Game Design software. The results of the study revealed students' pre-post self-efficacy scores on the construct of computer use declined significantly, while the constructs of videogaming and computer gaming remained unchanged. When these constructs were analyzed by type of learning environment, self-efficacy on videogaming increased significantly in the combined robotics/gaming environment compared with the gaming-only context. Student attitudes toward STEM, however, did not change significantly as a result of the study. Finally, children's computational thinking (CT) strategies varied by method of instruction as students who participated in holistic game development (i.e., Project First) had higher CT ratings. This study contributes to the STEM education literature on the use of robotics and game design to influence self-efficacy in technology and CT, while informing the research team about the adaptations needed to ensure project fidelity during the remaining years of the study.

  13. Engineering novel targeted nanoparticle formulations to increase the therapeutic efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutics against multiple myeloma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Jonathan D.

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy which results from the uncontrolled clonal expansion of plasma cells within the body. Despite recent medical advances, this disease remains largely incurable, with a median survival of ˜7 years, owing to the development of drug resistance. This dissertation will explore new advances in nanotechnology that will combine the cytotoxic effects of small molecule chemotherapeutics with the tumor targeting capabilities of nanoparticles to create novel nanoparticle formulations that exhibit enhanced therapeutic indices in the treatment of MM. First, doxorubicin was surfaced conjugated onto micellar nanoparticles via an acid labile hydrazone bond to increase the drug accumulation at the tumor. The cell surface receptor Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4; alpha4beta1) is expressed on cancers of hematopoietic origin and plays a vital role in the cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) in MM. Therefore, VLA-4 antagonist peptides were conjugated onto the nanoparticles via a multifaceted procedure to actively target MM cells and simultaneously inhibit CAM-DR. The micellar doxorubicin nanoparticles were able to overcome CAM-DR and demonstrated improved therapeutic index relative to free doxorubicin. In addition to doxorubicin, other classes of therapeutic agents, such as proteasome inhibitors, can be incorporated in nanoparticles for improved therapeutic outcomes. Utilizing boronic acid chemistry, bortezomib prodrugs were synthesized using a reversible boronic ester bond and then incorporated into liposomes. The different boronic ester bonds that could be potentially used in the synthesis of bortezomib prodrugs were screened based on stability using isobutylboronic acid. The liposomal bortezomib nanoparticles demonstrated significant proteasome inhibition and cytotoxicity in MM cells in vitro, and dramatically reduced the non-specific toxicities associated with free bortezomib while maintaining significant tumor growth

  14. Increased incidence of perforated appendicitis in children with obesity.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Felix C; Sandler, Anthony D; Nadler, Evan P

    2012-10-01

    Based on their clinical impression, the authors hypothesized that children with obesity may more commonly present with perforated appendicitis. Therefore, the authors reviewed their experience from 2008 to 2010 to determine whether obesity affected the clinical presentation of appendicitis. Variables studied were height, weight, use of diagnostic imaging, and clinical findings of appendicitis at presentation. Outcomes assessed were length of stay and complication rate. The study identified 319 patients with appendicitis. Children with obesity were more likely (P = .026) to present with perforation (28/62, 45%) than nonobese patients (78/257, 30%). Neither length of stay nor complication rate was affected by the presence of obesity. The data suggest that children with obesity are more likely to present with perforated appendicitis. This finding suggests that the diagnosis of appendicitis may be more difficult in obese patients or their presentation may be delayed. Practitioners should have heightened awareness in children with obesity and symptoms of abdominal pain.

  15. Screen Time Engagement Is Increased in Urban Children With Asthma.

    PubMed

    Rota, Alexandra P; Bacharier, Leonard B; Jaffee, Katy; Visness, Cynthia M; Kattan, Meyer; O'Connor, George T; Wood, Robert A; Gergen, Peter J; Gern, James E; Bloomberg, Gordon R

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity in children has been shown to play a role in its relationship to asthma, both in terms of prevalence and incidence. One measure of physical activity in children is sedentary behavior, which might be measured by the degree of engagement with media electronic screens. We found that children with asthma, as compared with children without asthma, engage in significantly more hours of screen time (median 35 vs 26 h/wk, P = .004). In this birth cohort, those who developed a diagnosis of asthma at 8 years of age were significantly more engaged in electronic screen time than their peers. No other clinical or lifestyle behaviors were significantly associated with a diagnosis of asthma. Further study will be needed to determine directionality of this finding.

  16. Child Indicators: Why Is Poverty Increasing among Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewit, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the child poverty rate in the United States over the last several decades and examines the impact of economic and demographic trends and changes in government programs on the poverty status of children. (MDM)

  17. Efficacy of antiresorptive agents for preventing fractures in Japanese patients with an increased fracture risk: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present review was to clarify the efficacy of currently available potent antiresorptive agents for preventing fractures in Japanese patients with an increased fracture risk. PubMed was used to search the literature for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), with the following search terms: fracture, etidronate, alendronate, risedronate, minodronate, raloxifene, bazedoxifene and Japan. The inclusion criteria were papers written in English, ≥50 subjects per group and a study period of ≥1 year. Fourteen RCTs met these criteria. The efficacy of antiresorptive agents for preventing vertebral, nonvertebral and hip fractures was investigated. There was evidence that raloxifene reduced the incidence of clinical vertebral fractures, while etidronate, alendronate and minodronate (but not bazedoxifene) reduced the incidence of morphometric vertebral fractures in patients with postmenopausal or involutional osteoporosis. Head-to-head trials showed that alendronate and raloxifene had similar efficacy for preventing vertebral fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, while risedronate was not inferior to etidronate for reducing the incidence of morphometric vertebral fractures in patients with involutional osteoporosis. Alendronate reduced the incidence of hip fractures in patients with Parkinson's disease, and risedronate reduced the incidence of nonvertebral fractures and hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease or stroke. In conclusion, the present review confirmed the efficacy of etidronate, minodronate and raloxifene for the prevention of vertebral fractures, the efficacy of alendronate for vertebral and hip fractures, and the efficacy of risedronate for vertebral, nonvertebral and hip fractures in Japanese patients with an increased fracture risk.

  18. The increase of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Brandon M

    2007-11-01

    Communities around the world have seen a dramatic rise in the incidence of childhood obesity and pediatric type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although significant advancement has been made in our understanding of the pathogenesis and risk factors for T2DM in children during the past 15 years, we have yet to find the safest and most effective ways to prevent and treat this disease. This review highlights our understanding of T2DM in children and outlines treatment strategies.

  19. Item response modeling: a psychometric assessment of the children's fruit, vegetable, water, and physical activity self-efficacy scales among Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C

    2017-09-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of four self-efficacy scales (i.e., self-efficacy for fruit (FSE), vegetable (VSE), and water (WSE) intakes, and physical activity (PASE)) and to investigate their differences in item functioning across sex, age, and body weight status groups using item response modeling (IRM) and differential item functioning (DIF). Four self-efficacy scales were administrated to 763 Hong Kong Chinese children (55.2% boys) aged 8-13 years. Classical test theory (CTT) was used to examine the reliability and factorial validity of scales. IRM was conducted and DIF analyses were performed to assess the characteristics of item parameter estimates on the basis of children's sex, age and body weight status. All self-efficacy scales demonstrated adequate to excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.79-0.91). One FSE misfit item and one PASE misfit item were detected. Small DIF were found for all the scale items across children's age groups. Items with medium to large DIF were detected in different sex and body weight status groups, which will require modification. A Wright map revealed that items covered the range of the distribution of participants' self-efficacy for each scale except VSE. Several self-efficacy scales' items functioned differently by children's sex and body weight status. Additional research is required to modify the four self-efficacy scales to minimize these moderating influences for application.

  20. Targeting mitotic exit with hyperthermia or APC/C inhibition to increase paclitaxel efficacy.

    PubMed

    Giovinazzi, Serena; Bellapu, Dhruv; Morozov, Viacheslav M; Ishov, Alexander M

    2013-08-15

    Microtubule-poisoning drugs, such as Paclitaxel (or Taxol, PTX), are powerful and commonly used anti-neoplastic agents for the treatment of several malignancies. PTX triggers cell death, mainly through a mitotic arrest following the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Cells treated with PTX slowly slip from this mitotic block and die by mitotic catastrophe. However, cancer cells can acquire or are intrinsically resistant to this drug, posing one of the main obstacles for PTX clinical effectiveness. In order to override PTX resistance and increase its efficacy, we investigated both the enhancement of mitotic slippage and the block of mitotic exit. To test these opposing strategies, we used physiological hyperthermia (HT) to force exit from PTX-induced mitotic block and the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) inhibitor, proTAME, to block mitotic exit. We observed that application of HT on PTX-treated cells forced mitotic slippage, as shown by the rapid decline of cyclin B levels and by microscopy analysis. Similarly, HT induced mitotic exit in cells blocked in mitosis by other antimitotic drugs, such as Nocodazole and the Aurora A inhibitor MLN8054, indicating a common effect of HT on mitotic cells. On the other hand, proTAME prevented mitotic exit of PTX and MLN8054 arrested cells, prolonged mitosis, and induced apoptosis. In addition, we showed that proTAME prevented HT-mediated mitotic exit, indicating that stress-induced APC/C activation is necessary for HT-induced mitotic slippage. Finally, HT significantly increased PTX cytotoxicity, regardless of cancer cells' sensitivity to PTX, and this activity was superior to the combination of PTX with pro-TAME. Our data suggested that forced mitotic exit of cells arrested in mitosis by anti-mitotic drugs, such as PTX, can be a more successful anticancer strategy than blocking mitotic exit by inactivation of the APC/C.

  1. Parental control, nurturance, self-efficacy, and screen viewing among 5- to 6-year-old children: a cross-sectional mediation analysis to inform potential behavior change strategies.

    PubMed

    Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L; Sebire, Simon J

    2015-04-01

    Children's screen viewing (SV) is associated with higher levels of childhood obesity. Many children exceed the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline of 2 hours of television (TV) per day. There is limited information about how parenting styles and parental self-efficacy to limit child screen time are associated with children's SV. This study examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children and whether any effects were mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. Data were from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. Child and parent SV were reported by a parent, who also provided information about their parenting practices and self-efficacy to restrict SV. A four-step regression method examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children. Mediation by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was examined using indirect effects. On a weekday, 90% of children watched TV for <2 hours per day, decreasing to 55% for boys and 58% for girls at weekends. At the weekend, 75% of children used a personal computer at home, compared with 61% during the week. Self-reported parental control, but not nurturance, was associated with children's TV viewing. Parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was independently associated with child weekday TV viewing and mediated associations between parental control and SV. Parental control was associated with lower levels of SV among 5- to 6-year-old children. This association was partially mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. The development of strategies to increase parental self-efficacy to limit screen-time may be useful.

  2. Parental Control, Nurturance, Self-Efficacy, and Screen Viewing among 5- to 6-Year-Old Children: A Cross-Sectional Mediation Analysis To Inform Potential Behavior Change Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lesley; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L.; Sebire, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Children's screen viewing (SV) is associated with higher levels of childhood obesity. Many children exceed the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline of 2 hours of television (TV) per day. There is limited information about how parenting styles and parental self-efficacy to limit child screen time are associated with children's SV. This study examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children and whether any effects were mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. Methods: Data were from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. Child and parent SV were reported by a parent, who also provided information about their parenting practices and self-efficacy to restrict SV. A four-step regression method examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children. Mediation by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was examined using indirect effects. Results: On a weekday, 90% of children watched TV for <2 hours per day, decreasing to 55% for boys and 58% for girls at weekends. At the weekend, 75% of children used a personal computer at home, compared with 61% during the week. Self-reported parental control, but not nurturance, was associated with children's TV viewing. Parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was independently associated with child weekday TV viewing and mediated associations between parental control and SV. Conclusions: Parental control was associated with lower levels of SV among 5- to 6-year-old children. This association was partially mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. The development of strategies to increase parental self-efficacy to limit screen-time may be useful. PMID:25584518

  3. [Efficacy and safety profile of cranberry in infants and children with recurrent urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Puentes, V; Uberos, J; Rodríguez-Belmonte, R; Nogueras-Ocaña, M; Blanca-Jover, E; Narbona-López, E

    2015-06-01

    Cranberry prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants has proven effective in the experimental model of the adult. There are few data on its efficacy, safety and recommended dose in the pediatric population. A controlled, double-blind Phase III clinical trial was conducted on children older than 1 month of age to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cranberry in recurrent urinary tract infection. The assumption was of the non-inferiority of cranberry versus trimethoprim. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan Meier analysis. A total of 85 patients under 1 year of age and 107 over 1 year were recruited. Trimethoprim was prescribed to 75 patients and 117 received cranberry. The cumulative rate of urinary infection associated with cranberry prophylaxis in children under 1 year was 46% (95% CI; 23-70) in children and 17% (95% CI; 0-38) in girls, effectively at doses inferior to trimethoprim. In children over 1 year-old cranberry was not inferior to trimethoprim, with a cumulative rate of urine infection of 26% (95% CI; 12-41). The cranberry was well tolerated and with no new adverse effects. Our study confirms that cranberry is safe and effective in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants and children. With the doses used, their efficiency is not less than that observed for trimethoprim among those over 1 year-old. (Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN16968287). Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of antipsychotics for irritability and aggression in children: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Lewis, Alan S; Beyer, Chad; Johnson, Jessica; van Rensburg, Samuel; Bloch, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    Aggression and irritability in children occur across a range of diagnoses, and are associated with both economic cost and negative psychosocial outcomes. Antipsychotics are frequently prescribed in these cases. A random effects meta-analysis of 14 random controlled trials was conducted. Overall effect sizes for antipsychotics for irritability and aggression were extracted. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to diagnostic indication, specific medication and degree of sedation. Meta-regression examined effects of antipsychotic dose. Overall, antipsychotics were effective in reducing aggression and irritability (SMD = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.92, z = 8.4, p < 0.0001). In stratified subgroup analysis, individual antipsychotic agents did not differ in efficacy (χ(2) = 1.1, df = 3, p = 0.78). However, aripiprazole and risperidone demonstrated significant benefit over placebo. Antipsychotic efficacy did not differ significantly based on diagnostic indication (χ(2) = 4.2, df = 4, p = 0.39). Meta-regression showed no overall dose effect. Clinical data supports the efficacy of risperidone and aripiprazole for aggression and irritability across diagnoses, with insufficient data available for other agents. Available data does not support a difference in efficacy based on underlying diagnosis, choice of agent, or its degree of sedation.

  5. Efficacy and Tolerability of Lacosamide in the Treatment of Children With Refractory Generalized Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Miskin, Chandrabhaga; Khurana, Divya S; Valencia, Ignacio; Legido, Agustin; Hasbani, Daphne M; Carvalho, Karen S

    2016-06-01

    Lacosamide is FDA-approved in patients 17 years or older with partial-onset epilepsy. We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of lacosamide in children with refractory generalized epilepsy. We retrospectively reviewed records of 21 children with refractory generalized epilepsy treated with lacosamide in our institution from 2009-2013 divided into 2 subgroups- I, Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, and II, other generalized epilepsies. Efficacy was defined as seizure freedom or ≥50% seizure reduction. Descriptive data analysis including seizure freedom was compared using c(2) analysis. There were eleven females and ten males with a mean age, of 11.9 years. Five patients became seizure free, nine had ≥50% seizure reduction, and seven had no response. Group I: seven had ≥50% improvement, one did not respond. Group II: five became seizure free, two had ≥50% improvement, five had no response. Lacosamide is effective and well tolerated in children with refractory generalized epilepsy particularly patients with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome.

  6. Examining the efficacy and safety of squaric acid therapy for treatment of recalcitrant warts in children.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shaily; Wilmer, Erin N; Morrell, Dean S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the safety and efficacy of squaric acid dibutyl ester (SADBE) therapy on the treatment of recalcitrant warts in children. This retrospective chart review examined 72 patients treated using SADBE from July 2002 to December 2012. Patients were followed for 6 months to 11 years. Patients were treated at a pediatric dermatology outpatient clinic at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Seventy-two children with verrucae who failed initial treatment for warts were selected for the study. Full long-term follow-up was obtained in 48 patients. Four patients discontinued the use of SADBE because of adverse effects. The primary study outcome was efficacy of SADBE treatment. Adverse effects, dosages administered, type of wart, other cutaneous disease present, and level of immunosuppression were measured. Forty of 48 (83%) patients in whom treatment outcomes could be obtained reported complete resolution of their warts. Seventy percent of patients used a maximum concentration of 0.4% SADBE and 60% of patients reported no adverse effects. The majority of patients treated with SADBE reported complete resolution of warts. Most patients reported no adverse effects even while receiving doses as high as 2% daily. This study shows that SADBE is a safe and effective treatment for recalcitrant warts in children.

  7. Grandmothers' familism values, adolescent mothers' parenting efficacy, and children's well-being.

    PubMed

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined intergenerational processes related to familism values among grandmothers, adolescent mothers, and their children. Mexican-origin families (N = 180) participated in in-home interviews during adolescent mothers' third trimester of pregnancy and 10-, 24-, 48-, and 60-months postpartum. Using longitudinal path analyses, we linked grandmothers' familism values and behaviors to adolescent mothers' parenting processes and, in turn, their child's well-being, taking into account developmentally relevant needs of adolescent mothers. Results revealed that grandmothers' familism values before the birth of the baby predicted child-rearing support and communication within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad after the birth of the baby. Support, but not communication, was in turn predictive of adolescent mothers' parenting self-efficacy, but only at high levels of autonomy granting within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad. Finally, adolescent mothers' parenting self-efficacy predicted children's greater social competence (48 months old), which in turn, predicted greater academic functioning (60 months old). Our findings shed light on the behavioral correlates of familism values within Mexican-origin families with adolescent mothers and highlight the need to consider factors that are developmentally salient (e.g., autonomy) when understanding how familism behaviors benefit adolescent mothers and their children.

  8. Efficacy of lacosamide as adjunctive therapy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Yorns, William R; Khurana, Divya S; Carvalho, Karen S; Hardison, H Huntley; Legido, Agustín; Valencia, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Lacosamide is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antiepileptic drug for patients 17 years or older with partial epilepsy. There are sparse data on children. The objective of our study was to evaluate its efficacy/safety in children with refractory epilepsy. Forty children (mean age 14.3 years) were treated with lacosamide at our institution (adjunctive therapy in 36, monotherapy in 4). Fifteen patients had symptomatic focal epilepsy, 2 had cryptogenic focal epilepsy, 20 had symptomatic generalized epilepsy, and 3 had cryptogenic generalized epilepsy. Two had juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and 5 had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Forty-two percent had at least >50% reduction in seizure frequency, and 6 became seizure free. Average dose was 7 mg/kg/d and average follow-up was 9.2 months. Responders had a 76.5% mean decrease in seizures. Fifteen children experienced an adverse reaction and 7 discontinued lacosamide (4: Ineffective, I: insurance denial, 1: tremor, 1: behavior). Lacosamide is effective and well-tolerated in children with refractory epilepsy.

  9. Efficacy of an anal fistula plug for fistulas-in-Ano in children.

    PubMed

    Kouchi, Katsunori; Takenouchi, Ayao; Matsuoka, Aki; Yabe, Kiyoaki; Korai, Mashahiro; Nakata, Chikako

    2017-08-01

    In children, perianal abscesses have a good prognosis and often heal with age. However, some perianal abscesses are refractory to treatment and remain as fistulas-in-Ano. Treatment with a Surgisis Anal Fistula Plug® has been reported as a new method of treatment for fistulas. In adults, the plug has been reported to cause little pain and have a high cure rate, but there have been no reported cases of its use in children. This study was designed to analyze the efficacy of the plug for closure of refractory fistulas in children. Since the plug has not been approved as a medical device in Japan, application for its use was submitted to the ethics committee of our university, and approval was granted, marking the first use of the plug in Japan. We classified refractory fistulas as those treated for 6months or longer and remaining unhealed, even after 1year of age, despite continued conservative treatment. The plug was used in 11 refractory fistulas in 8 children. Eight of 11 fistulas (72.7%) were successfully treated. Three fistulas recurred, and fistulectomies were performed. No sequelae were observed after AFP treatment. The plug was effective even for closure of refractory fistulas without sequelae in children. Treatment Study, Level IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy and safety of oral triclofos as sedative for children undergoing sleep electroencephalogram: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Puneet; Sharma, Suvasini; Sharma, Ankita; Goel, Shaiphali; Jose, Anjali; Aneja, Satinder

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Triclofos may be a better sedative in view of better palatability and less gastric irritation as compared to chloral hydrate. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of triclofos (a commonly used sedative in India) as a sedative for sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) study in children. Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care pediatric center. Consecutive children aged 6 months to 5 years referred for sleep EEG evaluation were recruited. Their clinical details were noted in a proforma after an informed consent. After a trial for natural sleep, oral triclofos was administered. Sleep parameters and adverse effects were noted. Results: One-hundred and sixty children were then enrolled. EEG was successfully recorded in 149 (93.1%) children. Median latency of sleep onset was 30 min and median duration of sleep was 90 min. The adverse effects in the following 24 h were mild and included dizziness, irritability, and vomiting. Conclusions: Oral triclofos was found to be an effective sedative for EEG in children with minimal adverse effects. PMID:27606015

  11. Efficacy of Intensive Neurodevelopmental Treatment for Children With Developmental Delay, With or Without Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hwan; Park, Jin Woo; Lee, Ho Jun; Nam, Ki Yeun; Park, Tae June; Kim, Hee Jae; Kwon, Bum Sun

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intensive neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) on gross motor function for the children having developmental delay (DD), with or without cerebral palsy (CP). Forty-two children had intensive NDT three times weekly, 60 minutes a day, for 3 months, immediately followed by conventional NDT once or twice a week, 30 minutes a day, for another 3 months. We assessed Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) over three time points: before conventional NDT, before and after intensive NDT, and after 3 months of additional conventional NDT. The GMFM score in DD children significantly improved after intensive NDT, and the improvement maintained after 3 months of conventional NDT (p<0.05). The children were further divided into two groups: DD with CP and DD without CP. Both groups showed significant improvement and maintained the improvements, after intensive NDT (p<0.05). Also, there was no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the two groups. When we calculate the absence rate for comparing the compliance between intensive and conventional NDT, the absence rate was lower during the intensive NDT. Intensive NDT showed significantly improved gross motor function and higher compliance than conventional NDT. Additionally, all improvements were maintained through subsequent short-term conventional NDT. Thus, we recommend the intensive NDT program by day-hospital centers for children with DD, irrespective of accompanying CP.

  12. Efficacy of Intensive Neurodevelopmental Treatment for Children With Developmental Delay, With or Without Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of intensive neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) on gross motor function for the children having developmental delay (DD), with or without cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Forty-two children had intensive NDT three times weekly, 60 minutes a day, for 3 months, immediately followed by conventional NDT once or twice a week, 30 minutes a day, for another 3 months. We assessed Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) over three time points: before conventional NDT, before and after intensive NDT, and after 3 months of additional conventional NDT. Results The GMFM score in DD children significantly improved after intensive NDT, and the improvement maintained after 3 months of conventional NDT (p<0.05). The children were further divided into two groups: DD with CP and DD without CP. Both groups showed significant improvement and maintained the improvements, after intensive NDT (p<0.05). Also, there was no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the two groups. When we calculate the absence rate for comparing the compliance between intensive and conventional NDT, the absence rate was lower during the intensive NDT. Conclusion Intensive NDT showed significantly improved gross motor function and higher compliance than conventional NDT. Additionally, all improvements were maintained through subsequent short-term conventional NDT. Thus, we recommend the intensive NDT program by day-hospital centers for children with DD, irrespective of accompanying CP. PMID:28289640

  13. Parent-Targeted Mobile Phone Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Sedentary Children: Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Marker, Arwen M; Allen, H Raymond; Machtmes, Ryan; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Schuna Jr, John M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are associated with adverse health consequences. Objective The intent of the study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a 12-week physical activity promotion program targeting children, which was delivered to parents through mobile phones. Methods Potential participants were recruited through advertisements placed in the newspaper, local hospitals and schools, and an email listserv. Sedentary children aged 6-10 years were randomly assigned to a minimal (MIG) or intensive (IIG) intervention group. Parents in the MIG were given a goal to increase (within 1 month) and maintain their child’s activity at 6000 pedometer steps/day above their baseline levels and to monitor their child’s steps daily. Parents in the IIG were given the same steps/day and monitoring goals, in addition to text messages and articles containing additional behavioral strategies (based on the Social Cognitive Theory) designed to promote their child’s physical activity. The intervention components were delivered via mobile phone. Anthropometrics, body composition, and questionnaires were administered in a clinic. Children wore a New Lifestyles pedometer (NL-1000) each day throughout the intervention and parents were to monitor their child’s step counts daily. Results Out of 59 children who screened for the study, a total of 27 children (mean age 8.7, SD 1.4 years; 56%, 15/27 female; 59%, 16/27 African American) were enrolled and completed the study. Overall, 97.90% (2220/2268; 98.20%, 1072/1092 for MIG; 97.60%, 1148/1176 for IIG) of expected step data were successfully entered by the parent or study coordinator. Parents in the MIG and IIG were sent approximately 7 and 13 text messages per week, respectively, averaged over the course of the study. IIG parents accessed an average of 6.1 (SD 4.4) articles over the course of the intervention and accessed a fewer number of articles in the last month compared to the first

  14. Efficacy and tolerability of levodropropizine and dropropizine in children with non-productive cough.

    PubMed

    Banderali, G; Riva, E; Fiocchi, A; Cordaro, C I; Giovannini, M

    1995-01-01

    The antitussive efficacy and tolerability of dropropizine and of its enantiomer levodropropizine were evaluated in children with non-productive cough; 258 were evaluable for tolerability and 254 for efficacy. Patients randomly received either 1 mg/kg dropropizine or 2 mg/kg levodropropizine orally, three times daily for 3 days. There were statistically significant decreases in the frequency of coughing spells and nocturnal awakenings after both levodropropizine and dropropizine treatments (P < 0.001). Gastro-intestinal symptoms were mild in the two groups; somnolence was twice as frequent in the dropropizine group (10.3% vs 5.3%) and the difference is clinically relevant, though not statistically significant. Levodropropizine is as effective as an antitussive as dropropizine, but appears to carry a lower risk of daytime somnolence.

  15. Efficacy of Pharmacopuncture for Treating Children with Physical Disabilities in Uzbekistan

    PubMed Central

    Ismailov N, Zohidjon; Yu, Jun-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research was performed to investigate the efficacy of complex rehabilitation combined with pharmacopuncture treatment for the children with neuromotor system diseases. Methods: Fifty (50) patients aged from 5 to 15 yr old were compared. Twenty (20) patients received conventional treatments and complex rehabilitation as a control group, and fifty (50) patients received complex rehabilitation with pharmacopuncture. At their first visits, the patients had checkups and neurological scales, and after 10 days of pharmacopuncture treatments and 55 days of rehabilitation, they also took neurological scales. We studied the pre and post effects of the treatment group. Results: The number of patients with ankle joint disorder and contracture, knee joint contracture, steppage, horsey hoof, shoulder weakness and contracture, radio-carpal joint disorder and contracture, arm hypotrophia, arm atrophia, leg hypotrophia and total atrophia decreased after treatments. Conclusion: This study showed the efficacy of pharmacopuncture combined with complex rehabilitation for the treatment of neuromotor system diseases. PMID:25780664

  16. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.

  17. Safety and Efficacy of Low-Dose Oral Immunotherapy for Hen's Egg Allergy in Children.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Sato, Sakura; Asaumi, Tomoyuki; Nagakura, Kenichi; Ogura, Kiyotake; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    The minimal dose for oral immunotherapy (OIT) tolerance is unknown. We investigated the efficacy and safety of low-dose OIT with 1/32 of the volume of a whole egg. Thirty-three children (aged ≥5 years) with egg allergies confirmed by oral food challenge against 1/32 of a heated whole egg (194 mg of egg protein) were enrolled. The OIT group ingested a scrambled egg once a day. The volume was gradually increased up to a maximum of 1/32 of a heated whole egg. Egg consumption was completely absent in the control group. There were no significant differences in background between the OIT and control groups. Respectively, 71% (15/21) and 0% (0/12) of the patients in the OIT and control groups exhibited sustained unresponsiveness to 1/32 of a whole egg 2 weeks after stopping OIT after 12 months (p < 0.001); 33% (7/21) and 0% (0/12; p = 0.032), respectively, showed sustained unresponsiveness to 1/2 of a whole egg. Egg white- or ovomucoid-specific IgE levels in the OIT group were significantly lower than at baseline after 12 months. Egg white- or ovomucoid-specific IgG as well as IgG4 levels in the OIT group were significantly higher than baseline levels after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Adverse allergic reactions were rare, and most symptoms were mild. Low-dose OIT induced sustained unresponsiveness to 1/32 and 1/2 of a whole egg, with no severe symptoms. To improve food allergies, continuous intake of small amounts of these foods may be as effective as the consumption of larger quantities. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Relationships of self-esteem and efficacy to psychological distress in mothers of children with chronic physical illnesses.

    PubMed

    Silver, E J; Bauman, L J; Ireys, H T

    1995-07-01

    This study examined relationships of children's illness-related functional limitations and 2 maternal psychological resources, self-esteem and efficacy, to symptoms of psychological distress in 365 urban mothers of 5- to 9-year-old children with diverse chronic illnesses. Multiple regression controlling for sociodemographic variables indicated that presence of functional limitations in the child and lower resources each were associated with higher maternal scores on a psychological symptom scale. Self-esteem had a main effect on maternal distress; however, a significant Efficacy x Functional Status interaction term suggested that mothers experienced greater distress when their children had illness-related functional limitations and maternal efficacy was low. Interventions aimed at enhancing maternal psychological resources may reduce the likelihood of distress in mothers of children with chronic illness.

  19. Prediction of melatonin efficacy by pretreatment dim light melatonin onset in children with idiopathic chronic sleep onset insomnia.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Smits, Marcel G; van Someren, Eus J W; Boudewijn Gunning, W

    2005-06-01

    Research has shown efficacy of melatonin treatment to advance sleep-wake rhythms in insomnia. In healthy adults, direction and magnitude of the phase shift depends on the timing of administration relative to the phase position of the circadian system. Therefore, in the present study we investigated whether in children with chronic sleep onset insomnia (SOI) efficacy of melatonin treatment in the early evening could be predicted from dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), a phase marker of the circadian system. We combined data of two previously published double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in 110 participants, aged 6-12 years. Sleep was actigraphically estimated, and saliva collected, at baseline and in the third week of a 4-week treatment period with 5 mg melatonin or placebo at 18:00 or 19:00 hours. Primary outcome measures were pre- to post-treatment changes in dim light melatonin onset (DeltaDLMO), sleep onset (DeltaSO), sleep latency (DeltaSL), and total sleep duration (DeltaTSD). Melatonin advanced DLMO with +1:12 h (P < 0.001), SO with +0:42 h (P = 0.004), SL decreased with 25 min (P = 0.019), and TSD did not change significantly, as compared with placebo. In the melatonin-treated group, but not in the placebo-treated group, pretreatment DLMO was significantly related to DeltaDLMO [F(1, 29) = 7.28, P = 0.012] and DeltaSO [F(1, 25) = 7.72, P = 0.010]. The time interval between treatment administration and pretreatment DLMO (INT) was only significantly related to DeltaSO [F(1,26) = 5.40, P = 0.028]. The results suggest that in children with SOI, the efficacy of early evening melatonin to advance sleep onset and endogenous melatonin onset increases the later the pretreatment DLMO is.

  20. A nurse-coached exercise program to increase muscle strength, improve quality of life, and increase self-efficacy in people with tetraplegic spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, Susan Budassi

    2013-08-01

    A nurse-coached exercise intervention for 10 people with tetraplegic spinal cord injuries was conducted over a period of 2 years at an accessible, community-based YMCA using an equipment especially designed for people with mobility issues and neurological deficits. In this single-subject design study, each participant completed three 3-hour exercise sessions a week for over 6 months. The purpose of the study was to determine what effects the program would have on increasing muscle strength, improving quality of life, and increasing self-efficacy after traditional outpatient therapy sessions were no longer available or affordable. The Sheehy Spinal Cord Injury Functional Improvement via Exercise Model was constructed at the conclusion of an unpublished pilot study and was tested in this study. Expectations of the model were that, if a person with a tetraplegic spinal cord injury participated in a coached program of exercise, muscle strength would increase and functional ability would improve, resulting in greater independence, a higher sense of self-efficacy, and a higher quality of life. Study results using a single-subject design of graph-trend analysis showed upward trajectories in muscle strength, quality of life, and self-efficacy in all study participants regardless of the length of time since his or her original injury. The results support the efficacy of this nurse-coached program for people with tetraplegic spinal cord injuries and validate the Sheehy Spinal Cord Injury Functional Improvement via Exercise Model.

  1. Bully/victim problems and their association with Machiavellianism and self-efficacy in Greek primary school children.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Eleni

    2004-06-01

    Previous research demonstrated that Machiavellian beliefs are linked with bully/victim problems at school. However, Machiavellianism was treated as a single construct and not as multidimensional. Children's perceptions of self-efficacy in both social and academic domains have been related to conflictual peer interactions but not directly to bully/victim problems. This study extends previous work by examining the association of Machiavellianism and self-efficacy with bully/victim problems. The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bully/victim problems and (a) components of Machiavellian beliefs, (b) Self-efficacy for Assertion, (c) Self-efficacy for Aggression and (d) Self-efficacy for Learning and Performance, among school-age children. It was also examined whether children who bully others and are bullied themselves (bully/victims) are a distinct group in terms of Machiavellian beliefs and the above perceptions of self-efficacy. The sample consisted of 186 children drawn from the fourth to sixth grade classrooms of four primary schools in central Greece. Peer victimization and bullying behaviour were assessed by two 6-item self-report scales (Austin & Joseph, 1996), Machiavellian beliefs with a 20-item scale (Christie & Geis, 1970), Self-efficacy for Assertion and Self-efficacy for Aggression with two 6-item scales (Egan & Perry, 1998) and Self-efficacy for Learning and Performance with an 8-item scale (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991). Higher scores reflected greater victimization, bullying behaviour, Machiavellianism and domain specific self-efficacy. Data were analysed using both correlational and categorical approach. Factor analysis of the Kiddie Mach scale revealed four main factors: Lack of Faith in Human Nature, Manipulation, Dishonesty and Distrust. The results of the correlational approach suggest that both bullying and victimization are associated with most of these factors, overall Machiavellianism and self-efficacy

  2. [Efficacy of two Helicobacter pylori eradication treatments in children with recurrent abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Larrosa-Haro, Alfredo; Martínez-Puente, Elsa Ofelia; Coello-Ramírez, Pedro; Castillo de León, Yolanda Alicia; Bojórquez-Ramos, María del Carmen; Macías-Rosales, Rocío; García-Salazar, Osvaldo; Vázquez-Camacho, Gonzalo; Flores Márquez, María Rosa

    2004-01-01

    To compare clinical and bacteriologic efficacy of two therapeutic trials to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in two series of pediatric patients with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). n = 36 children with RAP-associated H. pylori infection. Age 9.8 +/- 3.1 years, 19 boys and 17 girls. Clinical and bacteriologic efficacy of two therapeutic trials was compared: Group A (1996-1997), n = 9, amoxicillin, bismuth subsalicilate, and metronidazol, and group B (1991-1993), n = 27, omeprazol, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin. Initially and post-treatment, H. pylori evaluation was carried out with upper endoscopy and gastric biopsies. For statistics, we used Student t test, chi2, Fisher test, and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (alpha = 0.05). We found that 33/36 cases had gastritis at endoscopy, two with duodenal ulcer; nodular gastritis was observed in more than one half of total cases. All cases fulfilled histologic criteria of gastritis according to Sydney Score. In group A eradication was achieved in 28.6%, while in group B eradication rose to 77.8% (p < 0.05). In group A, 8/9 and in group B 15/27 persisted with RAP (p = 0.113). High frequency of abnormal and histologic findings was observed in the series presented on children with RAP and H. pylori. Eradication efficacy in the omeprazol/amoxicillin/clarithromycin group was higher when compared with bismuth subsalicilate/amoxicillin/metronidazol trial. This efficacy is comparable to pediatric series treated with the same therapeutic trial.

  3. [Efficacy of midodrine hydrochloride in the treatment of children with vasovagal syncope].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Li-Jia; Hu, Chun-Yan; Lin, Ping; Li, Ming-Xiang; Cui, Xiao-Li; Xie, Zhen-Wu

    2009-07-28

    To explore the efficacy of midodrine hydrochloride in the treatment of vasovagal syncope (VVS) in children. Forty-eight children with unexplained syncope and prodromata (21 males, 27 females, aged 6 -17 years, mean 11 years +/- 3 years) were randomly assigned into 3 groups. They were health education group, cresol group and midodrine hydrochloride group respectively. Cresol group was comprised of children given cresol as first-line therapy in addition to health education and midodrine hydrochloride group patients given midodrine hydrochloride on the basis of cresol group. Repeated head-up tilt testing (HUTT) and follow-ups of at least 6 months were conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, side effects of midodrine hydrochloride and hemodynamic changes in treating pediatric VVS. (1) The HUTT-based effective rate of 3 group was 20.0% (2/10), 60.9% (14/23) and 80.0% (12/15) respectively. It was significantly higher in cases of midodrine hydrochloride group and cresol group than that of health education group (P < 0.05). However,there was no significant difference in the HUTT-based effective rate between cresol group and midodrine hydrochloride group (P > 0.05). (2) During the follow-up period, the recurrence rate of syncope was significantly lower in midodrine hydrochloride group than in other two groups (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the recurrence rate of syncope between health education and cresol groups (P > 0.05). (3) There was no statistic difference in supine hemodynamic indices (HR, SBP, DBP) between before and after treatment in 3 groups. After midodrine therapy, the effects of midodrine upon changes in systolic and diastolic pressures and heart rate, between upright beginning and supine positions, were statistically significant (P <0.05). Health education and cresol are conventional therapies for pediatric VVS. The efficacy can be enhanced by supplementing midodrine hydrochloride. Such a regimen is effective and safe in

  4. Impact of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Perceived Stress and Special Health Self-Efficacy in Seven to Fifteen-Year-Old Children With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Moazzezi, Mousa; Ataie Moghanloo, Vahid; Ataie Moghanloo, Roghayeh; Pishvaei, Malihe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) imposes restrictions on physical, emotional and social functioning of children and adolescents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on perceived stress and special health self-efficacy in seven to fifteen-year-old children with DM. Patients and Methods: The present study was a clinical trial with a pretest-posttest control group design. The study population included all seven to fifteen-year-old patients who had referred to the Diabetes Mellitus Association of Tabriz, Iran, of whom 40 participants were selected using convenient sampling. They were randomly allocated to two matched groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in therapy sessions, while the control group did not receive any interventions. The research instruments were perceived stress and special health self-efficacy scales. Results: The multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) results showed that the treatment was effective on variables of perceived stress and special health self-efficacy (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The ACT is effective for reducing perceived stress and increasing special health self-efficacy in children with DM. PMID:26288639

  5. Training welfare caseworkers in service excellence: increasing children's Medicaid coverage.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Richard; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Calloway, Joy; Allen, Rochelle; Lopez, Ellen; Ross, Rachel; Johnson, Penni; Riley, Sherry

    2006-08-01

    Many low-income children who are eligible for public sector health insurance remain uninsured. There are many barriers to enrolling these children, but one key issue is parents' reluctance to use the services of the local enrollment agency, which is usually the welfare office. The Eastside Access Partnership, a community-academic coalition on the Eastside of Detroit, addressed the problem of uninsured-but-eligible children through a variety of interventions focused on (1) enhancing community members' understanding of the enrollment process and (2) reducing institutional barriers to enrollment. One of these interventions addressed the institutional barriers by developing a customer service excellence training program for welfare caseworkers. The training program curriculum, which was developed following the principles of community-based participatory research, included extensive input from community residents, welfare agency staff, and academic researchers. The training sessions received positive evaluations from participants and agency executives. A more thorough evaluation of the project is under way.

  6. Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade by phentolamine increases the efficacy of vasodilators in penile corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Kim, N N; Goldstein, I; Moreland, R B; Traish, A M

    2000-03-01

    Penile trabecular smooth muscle tone, a major determinant of erectile function, is highly regulated by numerous inter- and intracellular pathways. The interaction between pathways mediating contraction and relaxation has not been studied in detail. To this end, we investigated the functional effects of alpha adrenergic receptor blockade with phentolamine and its interaction with vasodilators (sildenafil, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and PGE1) that elevate cyclic nucleotides on penile cavernosal smooth muscle contractility. In organ bath preparations of cavernosal tissue strips contracted with phenylephrine, phentolamine significantly enhanced relaxation induced by sildenafil, VIP and PGE1. Sildenafil, VIP or PGE1 also significantly enhanced relaxation induced by phentolamine in cavernosal tissue strips contracted with phenylephrine. To study the effects of alpha adrenergic receptor blockade and modification of cyclic nucleotide metabolism during active neurogenic input, cavernosal tissue strips in organ bath preparations were contracted with the non-adrenergic agonist endothelin-1 and subjected to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence or presence of phentolamine and/or sildenafil. EFS (5-40Hz) typically caused biphasic relaxation and contraction responses. Phentolamine alone enhanced relaxation and reduced or prevented contraction to EFS. Sildenafil enhanced relaxation to EFS at lower frequencies (< or = 5 Hz). The combination of phentolamine and sildenafil enhanced EFS-induced relaxation at all frequencies tested. EFS, in the presence of 10 nM phentolamine and 30 nM sildenafil, produced enhanced relaxation responses which were quantitatively similar to those obtained in the presence of 50 nM sildenafil alone. Thus, blockade of alpha-adrenergic receptors with phentolamine increases the efficacy of cyclic nucleotide-dependent vasodilators. Furthermore, phentolamine potentiates relaxation and attenuates contraction in response to endogenous

  7. Evaluation of the relationship between elevated vancomycin trough concentrations and increased efficacy and/or toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Bruce H; Guilday, Robert E; Reigart, Cynthia L; Patton, Mary L; Haith, Linwood R

    2013-01-01

    Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentrations, 1 to 2 mg/L, suggests increasing vancomycin trough ranges, from 10 to 20 mg/L or even higher. Vancomycin troughs from 604 treatment courses from 560 patients with suspected or actual Gram-positive infection were analyzed with focus on potential toxicity/efficacy. Trough concentrations were required to be drawn within 15 to 45 minutes before the administration of at least the third vancomycin dose. Patients were retrospectively evaluated for their total daily dose and milligrams per kilograms per vancomycin dose. Data on the duration of vancomycin therapy, days to a normal temperature, and white blood cells were obtained. Data were stratified by trough concentration as <5, 5 to 10, and >10 mg/L to determine whether there was any relationship between response and trough concentration. Demographic data were obtained in 560 patients with 604 vancomycin treatment courses. For 361 patients with 379 separate treatment courses of vancomycin therapy no other nephrotoxic antimicrobial agent had been used. The greatest risk of vancomycin nephrotoxicity correlated with the duration of treatment. Using the log time to normal temperature, white blood cell count, heart rate, outcome from vancomycin therapy was assessed and no relationship could be demonstrated for the three vancomycin trough strata using analysis of variance (F < 2.62 for all parameters; p > .05). These data indicate that vancomycin trough elevation may not guarantee treatment success and that there may be no real benefit from higher vancomycin trough concentrations in thermal injury patients with burns <20% TBSA.

  8. Alpha-interferon does not increase the efficacy of 5-fluorouracil in advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Thirion, P; Piedbois, P; Buyse, M; O'Dwyer, P J; Cunningham, D; Man, A; Greco, F A; Colucci, G; Köhne, C H; Di Constanzo, F; Piga, A; Palmeri, S; Dufour, P; Cassano, A; Pajkos, G; Pensel, R A; Aykan, N F; Marsh, J; Seymour, M T

    2001-03-02

    Two meta-analyses were conducted to quantify the benefit of combining alpha-IFN to 5FU in advanced colorectal cancer in terms of tumour response and survival. Analyses were based on a total of 3254 individual patient data provided by principal investigators of each trial. The meta-analysis of 5FU +/- LV vs. 5FU +/- LV + alpha-IFN combined 12 trials and 1766 patients. The meta-analysis failed to show any statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups in terms of tumour response or survival. Overall tumour response rates were 25% for patients receiving no alpha-IFN vs. 24% for patients receiving alpha-IFN (relative risk, RR = 1.02), and median survivals were 11.4 months for patients receiving no alpha-IFN vs. 11.5 months for patients receiving alpha-IFN (hazard ratio, HR = 0.95). The meta-analysis of 5FU + LV vs. 5FU + alpha-IFN combined 7 trials, and 1488 patients. This meta-analysis showed an advantage for 5FU + LV over 5FU + alpha-IFN which was statistically significant in terms of tumour response (23% vs. 18%; RR = 1.26;P = 0.042), and of a borderline significance for overall survival (HR = 1.11;P = 0.066). Metastases confined to the liver and primary rectal tumours were independent favourable prognostic factors for tumour response, whereas good performance status, metastases confined to the liver or confined to the lung, and primary tumour in the rectum were independent favourable prognostic factors for survival. We conclude that alpha-IFN does not increase the efficacy of 5FU or of 5FU + LV, and that 5FU + alpha-IFN is significantly inferior to 5FU + LV, for patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

  9. Corynebacterium cutis Lysate Treatment Can Increase the Efficacies of PPR Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Dik, Burak; Dik, Irmak; Bahcivan, Emre; Avci, Oguzhan

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine on cytokine and antibody levels in sheep when administered alone or in combination with Corynebacterium cutis lysate (CCL). The PPR vaccine group received a single subcutaneous axillary injection of the PPR vaccine (1 mL containing tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)50 attenuated live PPRV, n = 6) and the combination treatment (1 mL CCL and 1 mL PPR vaccine, n = 6) groups received a single subcutaneous axillary injection of both CCL and PPR vaccine. Blood samples were collected from sheep before the treatment and at different points after treatment (1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days). Plasma and serum samples were evaluated for antibody percentage, levels of cytokines IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-12, and IL-18, oxidative stress marker Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and hematological and biochemical parameters. Maximum protective antibody levels reach 3-4 weeks after vaccine administration. The combination treatment resulted in significant changes in IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-12, and IL-18 cytokine levels. These changes were not evident when only the PPR vaccine was administered and antibody percentage against PPRV was short term in PPR vaccine group. In conclusion, combined usage of the PPR vaccine with CCL resulted in a heightened cytokine response, leading to improved antibody level against PPR virus. Repeated CCL treatments can lead to earlier vaccine potency, provide protective efficacy for a longer time, and increase passive immunity.

  10. Increasing Social Capital and Personal Efficacy through Small-Scale Community Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molitor, Fred; Rossi, Melissa; Branton, Lisa; Field, Julie

    2011-01-01

    California's voter-approved Children and Families Act of 1998 calls for money collected from tobacco taxes to support services for families with children up to 5 years of age. Sacramento County uses a portion of its allocation for small community grants with the specific intent of building social capital among neighbors and across communities. The…

  11. Increasing Social Capital and Personal Efficacy through Small-Scale Community Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molitor, Fred; Rossi, Melissa; Branton, Lisa; Field, Julie

    2011-01-01

    California's voter-approved Children and Families Act of 1998 calls for money collected from tobacco taxes to support services for families with children up to 5 years of age. Sacramento County uses a portion of its allocation for small community grants with the specific intent of building social capital among neighbors and across communities. The…

  12. Increased congregational support for parents of children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Szczesniak, Rhonda D; Zou, Yuanshu; Wetzel, J Denise; Krause, Neal; Grossoehme, Daniel H

    2015-04-01

    Positive health outcomes are related to adults' religious congregational participation. For parents of children with chronic disease, structured daily care routines and/or strict infection control precautions may limit participation. For this exploratory study, we examined the relationship between congregational support and religious coping by parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) compared to parents for whom child health issues were not significant stressors. CF parents reported higher levels of emotional support from congregation members and use of religious coping. Within-group differences were found for CF parents by denominational affiliation. Congregational support for parents dealing with child chronic disease is important.

  13. Increased arterial stiffness in South Dakota American Indian children.

    PubMed

    Litz, Andrew M; Van Guilder, Gary P

    2016-02-01

    Arterial stiffness has been observed in white American obese children, yet there are no data in American Indian youth, who are affected disproportionately by the cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity and its accompanying risk factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of childhood overweight-obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors with arterial stiffness in South Dakota white American and American Indian children. Thirty-six (28 white American and 8 American Indian) children (age, 13 ± 1 years; grades 6-8) from a rural South Dakota elementary and middle school were studied: 18 had a healthy weight (body mass index (BMI), 19.5 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)) and 18 were overweight-obese (BMI, 26.8 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)). Arterial stiffness was assessed using applanation tonometry via pulse wave analysis to determine carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (crPWV) and aortic augmentation index (AIx). There were no differences (P = 0.94) in crPWV between healthy weight (7.1 ± 1.4 m/s) and overweight-obese (7.3 ± 1.0 m/s) children, even after controlling for risk factors. However, crPWV was markedly elevated (P = 0.002) in overweight-obese American Indian children (7.7 ± 1.1 m/s) compared with white American children (6.8 ± 0.5 m/s), and these differences remained after controlling for blood pressure and more severe obesity in the American Indians. An obesity-matched subgroup analysis indicated that crPWV (7.7 ± 1.1 vs 6.8 ± 0.4 m/s) remained significantly greater in the American Indians (P = 0.03). There were no between-group differences in aortic AIx. These findings indicate an adverse influence of American Indian ethnicity on arterial stiffening in children with elevated adiposity. Arterial stiffness in American Indian children may accelerate early adulthood vascular disease.

  14. A Randomized Trial of a Classroom Intervention to Increase Peers' Social Inclusion of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Lerner, Matthew D.; Emeh, Christina C.; Reuland, Meg M.; Jack, Allison; Anthony, Maria R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Interventions for peer problems among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) typically focus on improving these children's behaviors. This study tested the proposition that an adjunctive component encouraging the peer group to be socially inclusive of children with ADHD would augment the efficacy of traditional…

  15. A Randomized Trial of a Classroom Intervention to Increase Peers' Social Inclusion of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Lerner, Matthew D.; Emeh, Christina C.; Reuland, Meg M.; Jack, Allison; Anthony, Maria R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Interventions for peer problems among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) typically focus on improving these children's behaviors. This study tested the proposition that an adjunctive component encouraging the peer group to be socially inclusive of children with ADHD would augment the efficacy of traditional…

  16. Efficacy of asthma education program on asthma control in children with uncontrolled asthma.

    PubMed

    Arıkan-Ayyıldız, Zeynep; Işık, Sakine; Çağlayan-Sözmen, Şule; Anal, Özden; Karaman, Özkan; Uzuner, Nevin

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a group education program on asthma control for children with uncontrolled asthma. Patients were randomized to receive 1-hour group education program with their parents or usual care. Our primary outcome was the change in asthma control test (ACT) between baseline and month 3 and secondary outcomes were health care utilizations and self report of exacerbations of asthma symptoms and missed school days. Change of ACT between baseline and 1st month and 3rd month was not significant in education and usual care groups. Health care utilizations and self reported exacerbations in the study groups were similar while missed school days were significantly higher in usual care group. The results of the study suggest that group education may play a useful role in the management of children with uncontrolled asthma but it is not significantly effective when compared with usual care.

  17. The efficacy of tepid sponge bathing to reduce fever in young children.

    PubMed

    Sharber, J

    1997-03-01

    Tepid sponge baths distress febrile children, and their efficacy at reducing fever has not been established. This study compared fever reduction and with (1) acetaminophen alone and (2) acetaminophen plus a 15-minute tepid sponge bath. Twenty children, ages 5 to 68 months, who presented to the emergency department or urgent care center with fever of > or = 38.9 degrees C were randomized to receive (1) acetaminophen alone or (2) acetaminophen plus a 15-minute tepid sponge bath. All subjects received a 15-mg/kg dose of acetaminophen. Tympanic temperature was monitored every 30 minutes for 2 hours. Subjects were monitored for signs of discomfort (crying, shivering, goosebumps). Sponge-bathed subjects cooled faster during the first hour but there was no significant temperature difference between the groups over the 2-hour study period (P = .871). Subjects in the sponge bath group had significantly higher discomfort scores (P = .009).

  18. ONCOLYTIC HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 1 (HSV-1) VECTORS: INCREASING TREATMENT EFFICACY AND RANGE THROUGH STRATEGIC VIRUS DESIGN

    PubMed Central

    Carson, J.; Haddad, D.; Bressman, M.; Fong, Y.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Viruses have long been considered potential anticancer treatments. Wild-type viruses have been tested as anticancer agents in clinical trials since the 1960s. The possibility of viral oncolysis as an alternate cancer therapy was transformed by the emergence of modern genetic engineering. The herpes simplex virus (HSV) family offers particular advantages for use as a viral oncolytic. The engineered vectors that make up oncolytic HSVs (oHSVs) have demonstrated remarkable safety in clinical trials, with some evidence of efficacy. The past decade has seen a focus on increasing the efficacy of oncolytic vectors by adding exogenous transgenes to enhance tumor destruction. The current paper describes the various strategies for engineering HSV for increased cancer tissue specificity and efficacy. Presented are the rationale, preclinical data and clinical data where available. This is meant to illustrate a basic framework for the development of a novel therapy meant to exploit the viral life cycle for the killing of cancer. PMID:22287818

  19. [Comparative efficacy of oral deflazacort versus oral prednisolone in children with moderate acute asthma].

    PubMed

    Gartner, S; Cobos, N; Pérez-Yarza, E G; Moreno, A; De Frutos, C; Liñan, S; Mintegui, J

    2004-09-01

    To assess the efficacy and tolerability of oral deflazacort versus oral prednisolone in acute moderate asthma in children. We performed a prospective, randomized, parallel group trial of children aged 6 to 14 years old with a diagnosis of asthma who presented to the pediatric emergency department for moderate asthma exacerbation. All patients were administered short-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists. The intervention groups received either oral deflazacort (1.5 mg/kg) or prednisolone (1 mg/kg) for 7 days. The primary outcome measure was forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and secondary outcome measures were pulmonary symptom score index, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), hospitalization rate and the use of rescue beta2-agonists. Patients were evaluated at the start of treatment (visit 1), on day 2 (visit 2) and on day 7 (visit 3). Of the 54 children enrolled, two were hospitalized on visit 2 (one from each group). Baseline clinical data were similar in both groups: FEV1: 53 and 51 %; bronchodilator test: 119 and 121 %; PEFR: 169 and 165 L/min; symptom score: 6 and 6.5 for the deflazacort and prednisolone groups, respectively. On visit 2, all measures improved: FEV1: 122.2 and 126.5 % (p < 0.05); PEFR: 164 and 149 L/min (p < 0.05); symptom score: -4.4 and -3.8 (p < 0.05), without significant differences between groups. On visit 3 all variables continued to show improvement: FEV1: 133.2 and 132.5 % (p < 0.05); PEFR: 1115.7 and 187.6 L/min (p < 0.05); symptom score: -5.4 and -5.9 (p < 0.05), without significant differences between groups. No adverse effects were reported. Deflazacort and prednisolone show similar efficacy in improving pulmonary function and in producing clinical improvement in the management of acute moderate asthma in children.

  20. Multilingual Children Increase Language Differentiation by Indexing Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shannessy, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    An area in need of study in child language acquisition is that of complex multilingual contexts in which there is little language separation by interlocutor or domain. Little is known about how multilingual children use language to construct their identities in each language or in both languages. Identity construction in monolingual contexts has…

  1. Increasing Observational Learning of Children with Autism: A Preliminary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bridget A.; DeQuinzio, Jaime A.; Stine, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of monitoring responses on the acquisition of sight words with 3 children with autism. In the training condition, we taught participants a vocal imitation and matching response related to a peer's reading response. In another condition, participants were exposed only to a peer's reading responses. Participants read the…

  2. Increasing Children's Self-Control through Cognitive Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Research is reviewed on cognitive interventions which affect children's self-control. Five types of effective manipulations are discussed: self-verbalization; external verbalization; affect manipulation; cognitive transformation; and manipulation of attention. Self-control behaviors include modification of impulsive behaviors; delay of…

  3. Increasing Observational Learning of Children with Autism: A Preliminary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bridget A.; DeQuinzio, Jaime A.; Stine, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of monitoring responses on the acquisition of sight words with 3 children with autism. In the training condition, we taught participants a vocal imitation and matching response related to a peer's reading response. In another condition, participants were exposed only to a peer's reading responses. Participants read the…

  4. Increasing Fathers' Participation in Therapeutic Intervention Programs for Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revelj, Elizabeth O.

    In response to a research review indicating that few programs address the father's role in early intervention and preschool programs for the young exceptional child, a three-month practicum was designed which included fathers in physical therapy sessions and in daily home exercise programming for their developmentally disabled children. Practicum…

  5. Multilingual Children Increase Language Differentiation by Indexing Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shannessy, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    An area in need of study in child language acquisition is that of complex multilingual contexts in which there is little language separation by interlocutor or domain. Little is known about how multilingual children use language to construct their identities in each language or in both languages. Identity construction in monolingual contexts has…

  6. Increasing Physical Activity of Children during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Lynda B.; Van Camp, Carole M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is crucial for children's health. Fitbit accelerometers were used to measure steps of 6 elementary students during recess. The intervention included reinforcement, self-monitoring, goal setting, and feedback. Steps taken during the intervention phase (M?=?1,956 steps) were 47% higher than in baseline (M?=?1,326 steps), and the…

  7. Increasing Physical Activity of Children during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Lynda B.; Van Camp, Carole M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is crucial for children's health. Fitbit accelerometers were used to measure steps of 6 elementary students during recess. The intervention included reinforcement, self-monitoring, goal setting, and feedback. Steps taken during the intervention phase (M?=?1,956 steps) were 47% higher than in baseline (M?=?1,326 steps), and the…

  8. Increasing Social Skills Training for Visually Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, Sharon A.; Drash, Philip W.

    1988-01-01

    A systematic program for the training of broad-based social skills is necessary for some visually impaired children. Research on social skills programs has focused on the use of behavioral therapy, verbal and nonverbal social skills intervention, early intervention, and a team approach. (Author/JDD)

  9. Efficacy of Concomitant Therapy with Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Varnish on Remineralization of Incipient Lesions in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Sarika; Tandon, Shobha; Nayak, Rashmi; Ratnanag, P Venkat; Prajapati, Deepesh; Kamath, Namitha

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of combined use of chlorhexidine and fluoride varnish on the remineralization of incipient carious lesions in young children. Twenty caries-active children (80 lesions) were randomly divided into four groups and subjected to initial examination. Caries status was assessed visually and with the aid of DIAGNOdent. Baseline enamel biopsies were obtained. Subjects of groups I and II received fluoride and chlorhexidine varnish respectively. Group III received both fluoride and chlorhexidine varnish alternatively, for a period of 4 weeks. Group IV served as the control. At 3-month follow-up, the incipient lesions were assessed again with DIAGNOdent and enamel biopsy. Increased calcium, phosphate, and fluoride levels were noticed in groups I, II, III compared to group IV, at the 3-month follow-up (p < 0.001). The combined therapy with fluoride and chlorhex-idine varnish may be considered an alternative therapy for early reversal of incipient lesions. Naidu S, Tandon S, Nayak R, Ratnanag PV, Prajapati D, Kamath N. Efficacy of Concomitant Therapy with Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Varnish on Remineralization of Incipient Lesions in Young Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):296-302.

  10. Efficacy of Concomitant Therapy with Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Varnish on Remineralization of Incipient Lesions in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Shobha; Nayak, Rashmi; Ratnanag, P Venkat; Prajapati, Deepesh; Kamath, Namitha

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the effect of combined use of chlorhexidine and fluoride varnish on the remineralization of incipient carious lesions in young children. Materials and methods Twenty caries-active children (80 lesions) were randomly divided into four groups and subjected to initial examination. Caries status was assessed visually and with the aid of DIAGNOdent. Baseline enamel biopsies were obtained. Subjects of groups I and II received fluoride and chlorhexidine varnish respectively. Group III received both fluoride and chlorhexidine varnish alternatively, for a period of 4 weeks. Group IV served as the control. At 3-month follow-up, the incipient lesions were assessed again with DIAGNOdent and enamel biopsy. Results Increased calcium, phosphate, and fluoride levels were noticed in groups I, II, III compared to group IV, at the 3-month follow-up (p < 0.001). Conclusion The combined therapy with fluoride and chlorhex-idine varnish may be considered an alternative therapy for early reversal of incipient lesions. How to cite this article Naidu S, Tandon S, Nayak R, Ratnanag PV, Prajapati D, Kamath N. Efficacy of Concomitant Therapy with Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Varnish on Remineralization of Incipient Lesions in Young Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):296-302. PMID:28127159

  11. Mindful parenting decreases aggression and increases social behavior in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay N; Lancioni, Giulio E; Winton, Alan S W; Singh, Judy; Curtis, W John; Wahler, Robert G; McAleavey, Kristen M

    2007-11-01

    Research shows that after training in the philosophy and practice of mindfulness, parents can mindfully attend to the challenging behaviors of their children with autism. Parents also report an increased satisfaction with their parenting skills and social interactions with their children. These findings were replicated and extended with 4 parents of children who had developmental disabilities, exhibited aggressive behavior, and had limited social skills. After mindfulness training, the parents were able to decrease aggressive behavior and increase their children's social skills. They also reported a greater practice of mindfulness, increased satisfaction with their parenting, more social interactions with their children, and lower parenting stress. Furthermore, the children showed increased positive and decreased negative social interactions with their siblings. We speculate that mindfulness produces transformational change in the parents that is reflected in enhanced positive behavioral transactions with their children.

  12. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Lanling; Sheng, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children’s BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). Material/Methods We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4–5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. Results Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. Conclusions Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children’s overweight or obesity. PMID:28179618

  13. Efficacy and safety of eculizumab in children and adolescents with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Ulrike M; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Sakamoto, Kathleen M; Puthenveetil, Geetha; Ogawa, Masayo; Bedrosian, Camille L; Ware, Russell E

    2014-09-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is rare in children, but represents a similarly serious and chronic condition as in adults. Children with PNH frequently experience complications of chronic hemolysis, recurrent thrombosis, marrow failure, serious infections, abdominal pain, chronic fatigue, and decreased quality of life with reduced survival. The terminal complement inhibitor eculizumab is proven to be effective and safe in adults and approved by the FDA for treatment of PNH. This 12-week, open-label, multi-center phase I/II study evaluated pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety in seven children with PNH 11-17 years of age. Eculizumab was intravenously administered at 600 mg weekly for 4 weeks, 900 mg in week 5, and 900 mg every 2 weeks thereafter (http://clinicaltrials.gov NCT00867932). Eculizumab therapy resulted in complete and sustained inhibition of hemolysis in all participants with a reduction of lactate dehydrogenase to normal levels. All hematological parameters stabilized. No definitive, study drug-related adverse events were observed. Only one severe SAE of hospitalization due to aplastic anemia occurred, which was not study drug-related. Eculizumab appears to be a safe and effective therapy for children with PNH. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Efficacy of earphones for 12- to 24-month-old children during visual reinforcement audiometry.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Allyson D; Karzon, Roanne K; Ead, Banan; Lieu, Judith E C

    2016-01-01

    Efficacy of insert and supra-aural earphones during visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) was investigated for 12- to 24-month-old children. VRA testing began in the soundfield and transitioned to either insert or supra-aural earphones. Audiologists recorded threshold estimates, participant behaviors, and an overall subjective rating of earphone acceptance. One hundred and eighty-six 12- to 24-month-old children referred to the Department of Audiology at St. Louis Children's Hospital for a variety of reasons. Subjective ratings indicated high acceptance of insert earphones (84%) and supra-aural earphones (80%) despite negative behaviors. There was no significant difference in the number of threshold estimates based on earphone type for 12- to 17-month-old participants. Participants in the 18- to 24-month-old age group provided significantly more threshold estimates with insert earphones (mean = 5.3 threshold estimates, SD = 3.5) than with supra-aural earphones (mean = 2.9 threshold estimates, SD = 2.9). All seven participants who rejected earphone placement were successfully reconditioned for soundfield testing. Data support the use of insert earphones during VRA, especially with 18-to 24-month-old children, to obtain ear-specific information.

  15. Using Education, Exposure, and Environments to Increase Preschool Children's Knowledge about Fruit and Vegetables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Tande, Desiree L.; Hwang, Joyce; Stastny, Sherri; Hektner, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    Because children's eating habits predict their adult eating habits, educating children about healthy foods is essential (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). A Midwest Extension Service created and delivered an educational experience for preschool children to increase knowledge of fruits and vegetables. The knowledge assessment…

  16. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  17. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  18. Increasing Latency Age Children's Sensitivity to Racial and Ethnic Differences through Enhancing their Awareness and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Alvin D.

    This practicum addressed the needs of latency age children who were insensitive to racial and ethnic differences. These needs were met by designing and developing a Cultural Awareness Program, so as to increase latency age children's sensitivity to racial and ethnic differences. The program's focus was on helping the children gain an appreciation…

  19. Using Education, Exposure, and Environments to Increase Preschool Children's Knowledge about Fruit and Vegetables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Tande, Desiree L.; Hwang, Joyce; Stastny, Sherri; Hektner, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    Because children's eating habits predict their adult eating habits, educating children about healthy foods is essential (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). A Midwest Extension Service created and delivered an educational experience for preschool children to increase knowledge of fruits and vegetables. The knowledge assessment…

  20. The Effectiveness of Dialogic Reading in Increasing English Language Learning Preschool Children's Expressive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, Diana; Dauksas, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of dialogic reading in increasing the literacy interactions between English language learning parents (ELL) and their preschool aged children and children's expressive language development were studied. Twenty-one ELL parents of preschool aged children received dialogic reading training every other week for a ten-week period.…

  1. Consulting with children in the development of self-efficacy and recall tools related to nutrition and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Lassetter, Jane H; Ray, Gaye; Driessnack, Martha; Williams, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This article chronicles our efforts to develop an instrument with and for children-complete with insights, multiple iterations, and missteps along the way. The instruments we developed assess children's self-efficacy and recall related to healthy eating and physical activity. Five focus groups were held with 39 children to discuss the evolving instrument. A nine-item self-efficacy instrument and a 10-item recall instrument were developed with Flesch-Kincaid grade levels of 1.8 and 4.0, respectively, which fifth graders can complete in less than 5 min. When assessing children in clinical practice or research, we should use instruments that have been developed with children's feedback and are child-centered. Without that assurance, assessment results can be questionable. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Efficacy and safety of ketamine in refractory status epilepticus in children.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Anna; L'Erario, Manuela; Ilvento, Lucrezia; Cecchi, Costanza; Pisano, Tiziana; Mirabile, Lorenzo; Guerrini, Renzo

    2012-12-11

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ketamine (KE) in the management of refractory convulsive status epilepticus (RSE) in children. In November 2009, we started using KE for treating all children consecutively referred for RSE. Clinical and treatment data were analyzed. Between November 2009 and June 2011, 9 children with RSE received IV KE. In 8 patients, SE had persisted for more than 24 hours (super-refractory RSE), with a median of 6 days (mean 8.5 ± 7.5; range 2-26 days). Prior to KE administration, conventional anesthetics were used, including midazolam, thiopental, and propofol in 9, 5, and 4 patients each. Median dose of KE in continuous IV infusion was 40 gamma(μg)/kg/min (mean 36.5 ± 18.6 gamma[μg]/kg/min; range 10-60 gamma[μg]/kg/min). Midazolam was administered add-on to prevent emergence reactions. The use of KE was associated with resolution of RSE in 6 children. None of the patients experienced serious adverse events. Among the 3 individuals who did not respond to KE, 2 were cured by surgical removal of epileptogenic focal cortical dysplasia. In this small, open-label, unblinded series with no concurrent control group, KE appears effective and safe in treating RSE in children. Larger, randomized studies are needed to confirm data emerging from this preliminary observation. This study provides Class IV evidence that IV KE can be effective in treating children with RSE (no statistical analysis was done).

  3. [Efficacy and safety of ademetionine for treatment of drug-induced liver disease in children].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shi-Shu; Dong, Yi; Gan, Yu; Tang, Hong-Mei; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Da-Wei; Jia, Wen-Zheng; Wang, Li-Min; Zhang, Hong-Fei

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of ademetionine for treatment of cholestatic or mixed-type drug-induced liver disease (DILD) in children. The children with DILD were divided into the treated group and control group. Yinzhihuang Granule was orally administered and Compound Glycyrrhizin Injection intravenously given in patients of both groups. Those patients in the treated group were additionally treated with intravenous infusion of 250-1000 mg ademetionine for 28 d. The incidence of pruritus and adverse effects as well as biochemical parameters in all the patients and compared between the 2 groups. For statistical analysis, Chi2 test was used for between-group comparison and t test for processing the data. 1) Before treatment, severe pruritus was found in 17 and 16 children in the treated and control group, respectively. Two weeks after the treatment, the symptom was significantly relieved in 14 and 3 patients in the treated and control group, respectively (Chi2 = 4.52, P < 0.05). 2) As for comparisons between the 2 groups, a P value of 0.0014 for AST level was found 4 weeks, 0.045 and 0.007 for disappearance and recovery rate of jaundice, 0.0014 and 0.0006 for decrease in TBA level and 0.0003 for gammaGT level 2 and 4 weeks after the treatment. Intravenous administration of ademetionine is safe in children with DILD and it can effectively alleviate pruritus, promote the recovery of various biochemical parameters and fasten liver functional recovery in these children. Therefore, ademetionine can be widely used for treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis in children.

  4. Assessment of the anti-hepatitis B vaccination efficacy in high risk children.

    PubMed

    Nedelcu, I; Crăciun, D; Târdei, G; Ruţă, S M; Grancea, C; Cernescu, C

    1998-01-01

    In October 1995, The Ministry of Health has initiated the national immunization program of newborns against hepatitis B. Owing to the frequency of asymptomatic Hepatitis B clinical forms in children, as well as the deficiencies in the surveillance system, the assessment of the vaccination efficacy can be performed objectively only by the detection of the prevalence of anti HBs antibodies in children to whom the complete three doses of immunization schedule have been administered (at 0, 2 and 6 months of age). We report in this study the results of a seroprevalence research carried out on a group of 272 children from orphanages who have been vaccinated. A protective anti HBs titer (> 10 mIU) was recorded only in 66.3% of cases; other 10 samples contained antibodies at a titer lower than the protective level. In the 80 children without seroconversion the presence of anti HBc antibodies (marker for the natural infection) was investigated. 30% of the seronegative children have anti HBc antibodies from which 54.2% have also HbsAg. Significant differences were recorded in the seroconversion level and in the geometric mean of titers between the various units in which sera were collected. In four orphanages (district Arad, Jassy, Sibiu and Teleorman) the seroconversion exceeded 90%, in 5 orphanages it was over 80% and in the others it ranged from 30% to 70%. The lowest seroconversions were recorded in the orphanages in Bucharest, Botoşani, Galaţi and Olt. The possible causes of the low immunogenicity are analyzed: non-vaccination or incomplete vaccination; low immunoreactivity of children, many of whom are premature; high HbsAg carriage rate among the mother's etc. Although the evolution of the post vaccinal seroconversion is not a routine practice in the appraisement of Hepatitis B vaccine immunogenicity, our results require the extension of the study in order to adopt the most effective vaccinal strategy.

  5. Safety and efficacy of levetiracetam for the treatment of partial onset seizures in children from one month of age

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Justine; Chu, Catherine J

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in the pediatric population, affecting up to one percent of children, and for which the mainstay of treatment is anticonvulsant medication. Despite the frequent use of anticonvulsant drugs, remarkably little is known about the safety and efficacy of most of these medications in the pediatric epilepsy population. Of 34 anticonvulsants currently approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), only 13 have been approved for use in children. Although infants and young children are disproportionately affected by epilepsy, there are currently only three anticonvulsant medications that have been specifically evaluated and approved for use in children younger than 2 years of age. In 2012, the FDA approved levetiracetam as an adjunctive treatment for partial onset seizures in infants and children from one month of age. Here we review the available data on levetiracetam in the pediatric epilepsy population. We first discuss the pharmacological profile of levetiracetam, including its mechanism of action, formulations and dosing, and pharmacokinetics in children. We then review the available efficacy, safety, and tolerability data in children from one month of age with partial onset seizures. We conclude that the current data leading to the approval of levetiracetam for use in infants and children with partial onset seizures is encouraging, although more work needs to be done before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of levetiracetam across different pediatric age groups. PMID:23458993

  6. Increasing Writing Self-Efficacy of Adult Learners: Different Approaches, Different Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2016-01-01

    To help graduate students with academic writing, a college of education at a large university implemented a new service, Writing Support Circles. Based on the results of the first series of this service, we changed its design. The purpose of this article is to share how changes in the design affected these adult learners' writing self-efficacy and…

  7. Increasing Writing Self-Efficacy of Adult Learners: Different Approaches, Different Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2016-01-01

    To help graduate students with academic writing, a college of education at a large university implemented a new service, Writing Support Circles. Based on the results of the first series of this service, we changed its design. The purpose of this article is to share how changes in the design affected these adult learners' writing self-efficacy and…

  8. Increasing Students' Empathy and Counseling Self-Efficacy through a Mindfulness Experiential Small Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohecker, Lynn; Doughty Horn, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Solomon 4-group design to examine the relationship between a mindfulness experiential small group (MESG) and mindfulness skills, empathy, counseling self-efficacy, and perceived stress for counselors in training (CITs). Understanding how the MESG affects these characteristics provides essential information to inform the…

  9. Increasing Student Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Efficacy through Gamification Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfield, James; Wilkerson, Brad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess gamification as a method of experiential learning theory (ELT) on student motivation and self-efficacy to perform System Engineering/Information Assurance (IA) tasks. The study was a basic qualitative method, whereby data was collected via semi-structured interview and then analyzed for recurring themes and…

  10. The Use of Peer Modeling to Increase Self-Efficacy in Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Chad

    2015-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges students face in any undergraduate methods course is a lack of confidence in their mathematical abilities, leading to a struggle for both retention of information and for continued involvement in research-based courses. In my article, I present a new approach to improving self-efficacy in undergraduate methods…

  11. Increasing Students' Empathy and Counseling Self-Efficacy through a Mindfulness Experiential Small Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohecker, Lynn; Doughty Horn, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Solomon 4-group design to examine the relationship between a mindfulness experiential small group (MESG) and mindfulness skills, empathy, counseling self-efficacy, and perceived stress for counselors in training (CITs). Understanding how the MESG affects these characteristics provides essential information to inform the…

  12. Cage-Fighting Bees: Can Aggressive Competition Increase Pollination Efficacy for an Oligolectic Native Bee?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pollination efficacy of the oligolectic bee Ptilothrix bombiformis was measured as the number of pollen grains delivered to virgin Hibiscus stigmas. Such specialized bee foragers are often assumed to be highly efficient pollinators. Intriguingly, however, we discovered females fight over host blooms...

  13. Reducing Anxiety and Increasing Self-Efficacy within an Advanced Graduate Psychology Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, April L.; Ferns, Alyssa; Greiner, Leigh; Wanamaker, Kayla; Brown, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    In this study we assessed the usefulness of a multifaceted teaching framework in an advanced statistics course. We sought to expand on past findings by using this framework to assess changes in anxiety and self-efficacy, and we collected focus group data to ascertain whether students attribute such changes to a multifaceted teaching approach.…

  14. The Use of Peer Modeling to Increase Self-Efficacy in Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Chad

    2015-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges students face in any undergraduate methods course is a lack of confidence in their mathematical abilities, leading to a struggle for both retention of information and for continued involvement in research-based courses. In my article, I present a new approach to improving self-efficacy in undergraduate methods…

  15. Planning and self-efficacy can increase fruit and vegetable consumption: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kreausukon, Pimchanok; Gellert, Paul; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-08-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption represents a nutritional goal to prevent obesity and chronic illness. To change dietary behaviors, people must be motivated to do so, and they must translate their motivation into actual behavior. The present experiment aims at the psychological mechanisms that support such changes, with a particular focus on dietary self-efficacy and planning skills. A randomized controlled trial compared a theory-based psychological intervention with a health education session in 114 participants. Dependent variables were fruit and vegetable consumption, intention to consume more fruit and vegetables, planning to consume more, and dietary self-efficacy, assessed before the intervention, 1 week afterwards, and at 6-week follow up. Significant group by time interactions for all four dependent variables documented superior treatment effects for the psychological intervention group, with substantially higher scores at posttest and follow-up for the experimental group, although all students benefited from participation. To identify the contribution of the main intervention ingredients (self-efficacy and planning), regression analyses yielded mediator effects for these two factors. A social-cognitive intervention to improve fruit and vegetable consumption was superior to a knowledge-based education session. Self-efficacy and planning seem to play a major role in the mechanisms that facilitate dietary changes.

  16. An update on the efficacy of oral corticosteroids in the treatment of wheezing episodes in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew D; Beigelman, Avraham

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, oral corticosteroids (OCSs) have been the mainstay of treatment for acute wheezing episodes among preschool children with a history of recurrent wheezing. Although there is substantial evidence for the efficacy of OCSs as a treatment for asthma exacerbations in school-aged children and adolescents, recent clinical studies questioned the benefits of OCSs as a treatment for acute wheezing in preschool children. This review summarizes the current evidence on the efficacy of OCSs as a treatment for acute wheezing episodes among preschool age children with episodic wheezing, focusing on studies performed in three different settings: OCS treatment initiated by parents in the outpatient setting, OCS treatment initiated in the emergency department (ED), and OCS treatment among hospitalized preschool children. The results of most studies reviewed in this paper do not support the efficacy of OCS treatment among preschool children with recurrent wheezing. The heterogeneity of early childhood wheezing and asthma might be part of the explanation for lack of efficacy of this intervention noted in multiple studies.

  17. Exposure to foods' non-taste sensory properties. A nursery intervention to increase children's willingness to try fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Dazeley, Paul; Houston-Price, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Activities that engage young children with the sensory properties of foods are popular with nursery schools, despite the lack of evidence for their efficacy in increasing children's consumption of healthy foods. This study provides the first empirical exploration of the effectiveness of a non-taste sensory activity program in a nursery school setting. Ninety-two children aged between 12 and 36 months were allocated either to an intervention group, who took part in looking, listening, feeling and smelling activities with unusual fruits and vegetables every day for 4 weeks, or to a non-intervention control group. In a subsequent mealtime taste test, children touched and tasted more of the vegetables to which they had been familiarized in their playtime activities than of a matched set of non-exposed foods. The results demonstrate that hands-on activities with unfamiliar fruits and vegetables can enhance children's willingness to taste these foods, and confirm the potential for such activities to support healthy eating initiatives. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of the Atkins diet as therapy for intractable epilepsy in children.

    PubMed

    Tonekaboni, Seyed Hassan; Mostaghimi, Parvin; Mirmiran, Parvin; Abbaskhanian, Ali; Abdollah Gorji, Fatemeh; Ghofrani, Mohammad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2010-11-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective medical therapy for intractable childhood epilepsy. However, it has drawbacks in that it restricts calories, fluids and protein. The Atkins diet may also induce ketosis without those restrictions. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a modified Atkins diet in children with intractable childhood epilepsy. This clinical trial was conducted in 51 epileptic children aged 1 - 16 years with refractory seizures from Feb. 2004 to Oct. 2006. Outcome measures included seizure frequency and adverse reactions. Twenty-seven patients left the study for various reasons, leaving 24 who continued the Atkins diet for a minimum of three months. Carbohydrates were initially limited to 10 g/day and fats constituted 60% of the total energy requirement. All participants received vitamin and calcium supplementation. Following three months of treatment with the Atkins diet, 16 patients (67%) had >50% decrease in seizure frequency, and 6 (25%) had >90% improvement, of whom 5 were seizure-free. Mean seizure frequency after the first, second and third months of treatment were significantly lower than at baseline (P values <0.001, 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). The Atkins diet can be considered as a safe and effective alternative therapy for intractable childhood epilepsy. Atkins diet was well tolerated in our patients with rare complications and it appears to demonstrate preliminary efficacy in childhood refractory epilepsy.

  19. Efficacy and safety of zonisamide in Thai children and adolescents with intractable seizures.

    PubMed

    Thampratankul, Lunliya; Khongkhatithum, Chaiyos; Visudtibhan, Anannit

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study examined the efficacy and safety of zonisamide for Thai children and adolescents with intractable seizures. The medical records of 24 patients (13 male, 11 female), aged 2 to 18 years (median 11.5, mean 10.4) who received zonisamide were reviewed. The underlying illness, etiology of epilepsy, seizure types, previous and concomitant antiepileptic drugs, dosage, and adverse effects of the drug were collected. Zonisamide's efficacy was evaluated on the basis of seizure reduction rates. At final evaluation, 7 patients were still taking zonisamide from 4.7 to 10.3 mg/kg/d (median 8). One patient became seizure-free and the other 6 experienced favorable seizure control. The median duration of zonisamide therapy was 23.75 months (range 20.5-25 months). Minor adverse effects were reported in 41.6% of patients during the first 3 months of therapy. Zonisamide is an option for the treatment of intractable seizures with favorable seizure control in children and adolescents.

  20. Parents' self-efficacy beliefs and their children's psychosocial adaptation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Steca, Patrizia; Bassi, Marta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Delle Fave, Antonella

    2011-03-01

    Research has shown that parents' perceived parental self-efficacy (PSE) plays a pivotal role in promoting their children's successful adjustment. In this study, we further explored this issue by comparing psychosocial adaptation in children of parents with high and low PSE during adolescence. One hundred and thirty Italian teenagers (55 males and 75 females) and one of their parents (101 mothers and 29 fathers) participated in the research. Data were collected at T1 (adolescents' mean age = 13.6) and T2 (mean age = 17.5). Parents reported their PSE at T1. At T1 and T2, adolescents reported their perceived academic self-efficacy, aggressive and violent conducts, well-being, and perceived quality of their relationships with parents. At T2, they were also administered questions by using Experience Sampling Method to assess their quality of experience in daily life. As hypothesized, adolescents with high PSE parents reported higher competence, freedom and well-being in learning activities as well as in family and peer interactions. They also reported fewer problematic aspects and more daily opportunities for optimal experience. Findings pointed to the stability of adolescents' psychosocial adaptation and highlighted possible directions in future research.

  1. Soap Suds Enemas Are Efficacious and Safe for Treating Fecal Impaction in Children With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E; Henkel, Erin B; Valdez, Karina L; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2016-07-01

    Constipation is a common cause of pediatric abdominal pain and emergency department (ED) presentation. Despite the high prevalence, there is a dearth of clinical information and wide practice variation in childhood constipation management in the ED. The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of soap suds enema (SSE) in the therapy for fecal impaction in children with abdominal pain within the pediatric ED setting. The primary outcome was stool output following SSE. Secondary outcomes were adverse events, admissions, and return visits within 72 hours. The present study is a retrospective cross-sectional study performed in the ED at a quaternary care children's hospital of patients seen during a 12-month period who received an SSE for fecal impaction. Five hundred twelve patients (53% girls, median age 7.8 years, range: 8 months-23 years) received SSE therapy during a 1-year period. Successful therapy (bowel movement) following SSE occurred in 419 (82%). Adverse events included abdominal pain in 24 (5%) and nausea/vomiting in 18 (4%). No SSE-related serious adverse events were identified. Following SSE, 405 (79%) were subsequently discharged, of which 15 (3.7%) returned to the ED for re-evaluation within 72 hours. SSE is an efficacious and safe therapeutic option for the acute treatment of childhood fecal impaction in the ED setting.

  2. Long-term efficacy of simple behavioral therapy for daytime wetting in children.

    PubMed

    Wiener, J S; Scales, M T; Hampton, J; King, L R; Surwit, R; Edwards, C L

    2000-09-01

    Behavioral therapy has proved benefit for children with daytime wetting but most studies have used biofeedback techniques and provide no long-term assessment of results. We previously reported similar results using simple behavioral therapy without biofeedback. We report the long-term efficacy of behavioral therapy for daytime wetting. Our program of behavioral therapy included timed voiding, modification of fluid intake, positive reinforcement techniques and pelvic floor (Kegel) exercises to promote pelvic floor strengthening and relaxation. Questionnaires to assess therapeutic efficacy were mailed to patients who had completed therapy more than 1 year previously. A total of 48 patients responded. Mean ages at the time of the initial clinic visit and questionnaire were 8.2 and 12.9 years, respectively. Improvement in symptoms was noted in approximately 74% of the cases during the first year following therapy. At a mean of 4. 7 years after treatment 59.4% of the patients had improved daytime urinary control, 51.1% improved daytime urinary frequency and 45.6% improved daytime urinary urgency. The frequency of urinary tract infections decreased in 56.4% of the cases. Measures of psychological well-being were also noted to be improved in a majority of patients. A total of 77.3% of the patients stated that they would recommend the program to others. Simple behavioral therapy without biofeedback techniques is an effective and durable first line therapy for children with daytime wetting.

  3. Olopatadine hydrochloride in children: efficacy and safety for perennial allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Kimihiro; Okuda, Minoru; Magara, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kenji

    2010-07-01

    The efficacy of antihistamines in perennial allergic rhinitis in children has been evaluated in studies using active comparators, whereas placebo-controlled studies are very few. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group clinical study was carried out to evaluate the dose-response relationship and superiority of olopatadine hydrochloride over placebo in children aged 7 to 16 years with perennial allergic rhinitis. Subjects received twice daily treatment for two weeks with either olopatadine 2.5 mg, 5 mg or placebo after a one-week observation period. Efficacy was assessed based on the diary card score the subject (or guardian) recorded. Of the 302 subjects randomized, two were excluded from analysis: one did not receive treatment; the other was not monitored for efficacy parameters. The remaining 300 subjects (97 in the placebo group, 103 in the olopatadine 2.5-mg group and 100 in the olopatadine 5-mg group) constituted the full analysis set (FAS) for the efficacy analysis. As a primary endpoint, the total three nasal symptom score (for sneezing, rhinorrhea and nasal congestion) at final assessment was compared with baseline or the score obtained in the observation period. The change from baseline was then tested using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with the baseline score as covariate. Williams' test was applied to the least squares means estimated from this ANCOVA model for each treatment group, resulting in showing the monotonicity Williams' test assumed. The total three nasal symptom score significantly improved in the 5-mg group compared with the placebo group (p = 0.019). In contrast, the 2.5-mg group did not differ statistically from the placebo group. Adverse events occurred in 33.7% (33/98 subjects) in the placebo group, 35.9% (37/103 subjects) in the 2.5-mg group and 35.0% (35/100 subjects) in the 5-mg group. There were no serious or severe adverse events. Olopatadine hydrochloride 5 mg twice daily is an effective and safe treatment for

  4. Efficacy of an internet-based CBT program for children with comorbid High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder and anxiety: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Conaughton, Rebecca J; Donovan, Caroline L; March, Sonja

    2017-08-15

    All trials conducted to date on BRAVE-ONLINE for youth anxiety disorders have excluded children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD) and therefore it is unknown whether these programs might be beneficial to HFASD children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of BRAVE-ONLINE in HFASD children with an anxiety disorder. Forty-two HFASD children, aged 8-12 years, with an anxiety disorder, and their parents, were randomly assigned to either the BRAVE-ONLINE condition (NET) or a waitlist control (WLC). Diagnostic interviews and parent/child questionnaires were completed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. At post- assessment, compared to children in the WLC condition, children in the NET condition demonstrated a significantly greater reduction in number of anxiety diagnoses, clinical severity of diagnosis, and self and parent reported anxiety symptoms, as well as significantly greater increases in overall functioning. However, loss of primary diagnosis in this sample was lower than in previous studies. The small sample size, coupled with attrition rates, makes it difficult to generalise the findings of the study to HFASD population and to conduct analyses regarding mediators, moderators and predictors of outcomes. The BRAVE-ONLINE program may be useful in reducing anxiety symptoms in HFASD children, although the effects are less strong than those found in neurotypical children for a variety of reasons. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Synergism between carvacrol or thymol increases the antimicrobial efficacy of soy sauce with no sensory impact.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyeree; Rhee, Min Suk

    2016-01-18

    Here, we examined the antimicrobial effects of soy sauce containing essential oils (EOs) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes at 22°C and 4°C. To screen a variety of combined effects, soy sauce was mixed with six different EOs (carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, trans-cinnamaldehyde, β-resorcylic acid, and vanillin), each at a concentration of 1mM for 10 min. None of the oils showed bactericidal activity when used alone. Soy sauce combined with carvacrol and thymol induced the greatest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria; therefore, these oils were further tested at 0.25, 0.5, and 1mM (0.0039%, 0.0078%, and 0.0157%) for 1, 5, and 10 min at 4°C and 22°C. In addition, sensory evaluation of soy sauce containing each EO at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2mM was performed using the nine point hedonic test. Carvacrol or thymol (1mM) eliminated all the test bacteria (initial population, 7.0-7.5logCFU/ml) in 1-5 min at 22°C and within 10 min at 4°C. L. monocytogenes was slightly more tolerant at 4°C, which may be attributable to the ability of the cell membrane to adapt to low temperatures. The sensory scores for soy sauce containing EOs were not significantly different from that of soy sauce without EOs (P>0.05). The stability of EO efficacy in soy sauce was also verified. These results suggest that carvacrol and thymol act synergistically with other factors present in soy sauce to increase antimicrobial activity against major foodborne pathogens at both 4°C and 22°C. The synergism may be attributable to the combination of factors (mainly high salt concentration and low pH imparted by organic acids) present in soy sauce and the membrane attacking properties of carvacrol and thymol. This method will facilitate the production of microbiologically safe soy sauce, soy sauce-based marinades, and various marinated foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of monotherapies and artesunate-based combination therapies in children with uncomplicated malaria in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Warsame, Marian; Atta, Hoda; Klena, John D; Waqar, Butt Ahmed; Elmi, Hussein Haji; Jibril, Ali Mohamed; Hassan, Hassan Mohamed; Hassan, Abdullahi Mohamed

    2009-02-01

    In order to guide the antimalarial treatment policy of Somalia, we conducted therapeutic efficacy studies of routinely used antimalarial monotherapies as well as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for uncomplicated malaria in three sentinel sites during 2003-2006. Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ) and sulfadoxine/pyrimetahmine (SP) monotherapies, and artesunate plus SP (AS+SP) or AQ (AS+AQ) were evaluated in children 6 months to 10 years old with uncomplicated malaria. For the assessment of the monotherapies, 2003 WHO protocol with 14-day follow-up was used while the 2005 WHO protocol with 28-day follow-up was used for testing the ACTs. Of the monotherapies, CQ performed very poorly with treatment failures varying from 76.5% to 88% between the sites. AQ treatment failure was low except for Janale site with treatment failure of 23.4% compared to 2.8% and 8% in Jamame and Jowhar, respectively. For SP, treatment failures from 7.8% to 12.2% were observed. A 28-day test of artemisinin-based combinations, AS+SP and AS+AQ, proved to be highly efficacious with cure rates of 98-100% supporting the choice of AS+SP combination as first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria for Somalia.

  7. Changes in self-efficacy for exercise and improved nutrition fostered by increased self-regulation among adults with obesity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; McEwen, Kristin L

    2015-10-01

    Behavioral theory suggests that treatments that increase participants' use of self-regulatory skills and/or their feelings of ability (self-efficacy) will improve exercise and nutrition behaviors. In addition, psychosocial factors associated with increased exercise may carry over to improved eating. Self-regulation might enhance self-efficacy through feelings of ability to manage barriers to maintaining weight-loss behaviors. Sedentary adults with severe or morbid obesity (M age = 43 years; M BMI = 40.1 kg/m(2)) participated in a 6-month study within a community-based YMCA center. We randomly assigned participants to one of the two groups that incorporated the same cognitive-behavioral support of exercise paired with methods for controlled, healthy eating emphasizing either (a) self-efficacy (n = 138), or (b) self-regulation (n = 136) methods. Mixed model repeated measures ANOVAs indicated significant improvements in exercise- and eating-related self-regulation over 3 months, and exercise- and eating-related self-efficacy over 6 months. The Self-Regulation Treatment Group demonstrated greater improvements in self-regulation for eating and fruit and vegetable intake than the Self-Efficacy Group. Regression analyses indicated that for both exercise and eating, self-regulation change significantly predicted self-efficacy change. In separate equations, changes in exercise and fruit and vegetable intake mediated those relationships, and change in self-efficacy and the corresponding behavioral changes demonstrated reciprocal, mutually reinforcing, relationships. There was evidence of carry-over, or generalization, of both self-regulation and self-efficacy changes from an exercise context to an eating context. We discussed findings in terms of leveraging self-regulation to improve self-efficacy, and provide a rationale for why exercise is the strongest predictor of success with weight loss. Results may be used to inform future behavioral weight

  8. Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children.

    PubMed

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Amin, Abdinasir A; Akhwale, Willis S; Snow, Robert W

    2007-08-01

    Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups. We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0-4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni) annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004), the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005), and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006). The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281); 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131), and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000). The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of the least poor, and the commercial social

  9. Behavioral intervention to increase compliance with electroencephalographic procedures in children with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Slifer, Keith J.; Avis, Kristin T.; Frutchey, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    The EEG, or electroencephalogram, is a neurophysiological technique used to detect and record electrical activity in the brain. It is critical to the diagnosis and management of seizure disorders, such as epilepsy, as well as other neurological conditions. The EEG procedure is often not well tolerated by children with developmental disabilities because of anxiety about unfamiliar equipment, difficulty inhibiting motion, and tactile defensiveness. The inability of children with developmental disabilities to tolerate an EEG procedure is especially problematic because the incidence of epilepsy is considerably higher in children with disabilities. This clinical outcome study sought to determine the efficacy of using behavioral intervention to teach children with developmental disorders to cooperate with an EEG procedure. The behavioral training employed modeling, counterconditioning, escape extinction, and differential reinforcement-based shaping procedures. Results indicated that behavioral training is successful in promoting EEG compliance without restraint, anesthesia, or sedation. PMID:18348911

  10. Measuring collective efficacy among children in community-based afterschool programs: exploring pathways toward prevention and positive youth development.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Osgood, D Wayne; Caldwell, Linda; Hynes, Kathryn; Perkins, Daniel F

    2013-09-01

    Collective efficacy refers to a perceived sense of connectedness and willingness to intervene among youth, and is a potential aspect of positive youth development (Larson in Am Psychol 55:170-183, 2000; Lerner et al. in Child Dev 71:11-20, 2000; Sampson et al. in Science 277:918-924, 1997). Theoretically, those who feel connected to a group that is empowered to positively influence the behavior of their peers may demonstrate fewer problem behaviors. Few studies, however, have measured the impact of youth perceptions of collective efficacy. As a relatively new child-related research topic, there is much to be learned. One contribution to the foundation of this research agenda begins by evaluating the reliability and validity of a measure of collective efficacy with elementary children attending community-based afterschool programs. This paper describes the internal consistency reliability and various indicators of construct and concurrent validity of the Collective Efficacy Among Children Scale. The measure was found to have high internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was tested using exploratory factor analyses of collective efficacy including the dimensions of willingness to intervene and cohesion found in previous research (Sampson et al. in Science 277:918-924, 1997). Concurrent validity assessed relations between the scale and other measures in theoretically congruent ways. Using Hierarchical Linear Models to account for children's nestedness in after-school programs, connectedness was found to be more related to emotional adjustment, particularly children's prosocial attitudes (caring about others and sharing). Children's perception of the willingness of the group to intervene was found to be related to less problem behavior, (i.e. smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, vandalism, and stealing). The implications suggest that future research should further explore children's collective efficacy, and ways to foster its development in youth

  11. A New Transcutaneous Bone Conduction Hearing Implant: Short-term Safety and Efficacy in Children.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Hamzavi, Jafar-Sasan; Böheim, Klaus; Wolf-Magele, Astrid; Schlögel, Max; Riechelmann, Herbert; Zorowka, Patrick; Koci, Viktor; Keck, Tilman; Potzinger, Peter; Sprinzl, Georg

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the safety and efficacy of a new bone conduction hearing implant in children, during a 3-month follow-up period. Prospective, single-subject repeated-measures design in which each subject serves as his/her own control. Otolaryngology departments of four Austrian hospitals. Twelve German-speaking children aged 5 to 17 suffering from conductive or mixed hearing loss, with an upper bone conduction threshold limit of 45 dB HL at frequencies between 500 and 4000 Hz. Implantation of the Bonebridge transcutaneous bone conduction hearing implant (tBCI). The subjects' audiometric thresholds (air conduction, bone conduction, and sound field at frequencies 500 Hz to 8 kHz) and speech perception (word recognition scores [WRS] and 50% word intelligibility in sentences [SRT50%]) were tested preoperatively and at 1 and 3 months postoperatively. The patients were also monitored for adverse events and they or their parents filled out questionnaires to analyze satisfaction levels. Speech perception as measured by WRS and SRT50% improved on average approximately 67.6% and 27.5 dB, respectively, 3 months after implantation. Aided thresholds also improved postoperatively, showing statistical significance at all tested frequencies. Air conduction and bone conduction thresholds showed no significant changes, confirming that subjects' residual unaided hearing was not damaged by the treatment. Only minor adverse events were reported and resolved by the end of the study. Safety and efficacy of the new bone conduction implant was demonstrated in children followed up to 3 months postoperatively.

  12. Efficacy and safety of transdermal buprenorphine in the management of children with cancer-related pain.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Antonio; Coccia, Paola; Arena, Roberta; Maurizi, Palma; Battista, Andrea; Ridola, Vita; Attinà, Giorgio; Riccardi, Riccardo

    2013-03-01

    The current study investigated the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and compliance of a transdermal buprenorphine delivery system for the management of chronic cancer pain in the pediatric population. Sixteen pediatric patients with moderate to severe cancer-related pain not satisfactorily controlled with previous non-opioid therapies were enrolled. Transdermal buprenorphine was administered following a 72 hour schedule and rescue medication (tramadol) was allowed for breakthrough pain. Pain intensity was assessed using the Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBS) and other parameters related to the global quality of life were evaluated. Children's evaluations of efficacy, compliance, and tolerability were recorded using numerical scales. Adverse events were monitored during the study and the medications needed to control opioid-related nausea and constipation were recorded. Eleven patients (68.75%) responded to transdermal buprenorphine after 2 weeks of treatment. Pain intensity measured with WBS decreased from 6.25 at baseline to 1.38 at Day +60 (P < 0.001). All outcome measures of global quality of life (quality of sleep, alimentation, play and activity, speech, and crying) significantly improved over the 60-day study period. Children's evaluations of compliance and tolerability of the drug were always positive over the entire period of treatment. No severe adverse events were recorded. Opioid-related nausea was well controlled with medication on request, and the need for laxative therapy was greater at the end of the second month of treatment. Transdermal buprenorphine was found to represent an efficient, safe and well tolerated approach to the management of children's chronic cancer pain. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The effects of the Orff Approach on self-expression, self-efficacy, and social skills of children in low-income families in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Young-Bae; Kim, Ji-Eun

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was designed to study the Orff Approach--a child-centered, developmental approach to music education that aims to enrich the imagination through the acceleration of psychological activities. The study was conducted in children who had exhibited problematic behavior possibly due to economical or psychological issues; it aimed to determine whether the Orff Approach satisfies educational and treatment purposes and is an acceptable alternative in improving self-expression, self-efficacy, and social skills. The experiment involved 43 elementary school children in South Korean households with a monthly income of 100% below the average (according to the National Basic Living Security Act, South Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare), and the results showed an increase of the chil-dren's self-expression, self-efficacy, and social skills after musical activities with the Orff Approach. Also, children interacted with the musical activities--according to the Orff Approach--like a game.They noted that they were able to explain their thoughts and emotions better; their relationships with friends improved, as well. Therefore, this research is significant because it shows that musical activities according to the Orff Approach have possibilities to be utilized as a program for children's psychological and emotional support.

  14. Efficacy of oral ketamine compared to midazolam for sedation of children undergoing laceration repair

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Orit; Barkan, Shiri; Breitbart, Rachelle; Berkovitch, Sofia; Toledano, Michal; Weiser, Giora; Karadi, Natali; Nassi, Anat; Kozer, Eran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the efficacy of oral ketamine versus oral midazolam for sedation during laceration repair at a pediatric emergency department. Methods: Children between 1 and 10 years requiring laceration repair were randomly assigned to 2 groups, treated either with oral midazolam (0.7 mg/kg) or with oral ketamine (5 mg/kg). Main outcomes measured were level of pain during local anesthesia, as assessed by the parent on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the number of children who required intravenous sedation. Secondary outcomes included VAS by physician, pain assessment by child, maximal sedation depth assessed by the University of Michigan Sedation Scale, time until University of Michigan Sedation Scale 2 or more, general satisfaction of a parent and treating physician, length of procedure, total sedation time, and the incidence of any adverse events. Results: Sixty-eight children were recruited of which 33 were girls. Average age was 5.08 ± 2.14 years. Thirty-seven children were treated with ketamine and 31 with midazolam. Parent-assessed VAS in ketamine treated patients was 5.07 ± 0.75 compared with 3.68 ± 0.7 in midazolam treated patients [mean difference = 1.39 95% confidence interval (CI) –0.47 to 3.26]. Twelve (32%) of the children treated with ketamine required the addition of IV sedation compared to only 2 children (6%) of the children treated with midazolam [odds ratio (adjusted for age and gender) 6.1, 95% CI: 1.2 to 30.5]. The rest of the measured variables were similar between the groups, with no statistical significance. Discussion: No difference in the level of pain was found between ketamine and midazolam treated patients. Compared with oral midazolam (0.7 mg/kg), oral ketamine (5 mg/kg) was associated with higher rates of sedation failure, and thus is not recommended as a single agent for oral sedation in children requiring laceration repair. PMID:27368000

  15. Efficacy of Family-Based Weight Control Program for Preschool Children in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Roemmich, James N.; Paluch, Rocco; Yu, Jihnhee; Epstein, Leonard H.; Ecker, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of an innovative family-based intervention for overweight preschool-aged children and overweight parents conducted in the primary care setting. METHODS: Children with BMI ≥85th percentile and an overweight parent were randomized to intervention or information control (IC). Trained staff delivered dietary and physical/sedentary activities education to parents over 6 months (10 group meetings and 8 calls). Parents in the intervention received also behavioral modification. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed by using mixed analysis of variance models to test changes in child percent over BMI (%OBMI) and z-BMI and to explore potential moderators of group differences in treatment response. RESULTS: Ninety-six of 105 randomized families started the program: 46 children (31 girls/15 boys) in the intervention and 50 (33 girls/17 boys) in the IC, with 33 and 39 mothers and 13 and 11 fathers in intervention and IC, respectively. Baseline characteristics did not differ between groups. Children in the intervention group had greater %OBMI and z-BMI decreases at 3 and 6 months compared with those assigned to IC (P < .0021). A greater BMI reduction over time was also observed in parents in the intervention compared with parents assigned to IC (P < .0001). Child %OBMI and parent BMI changes were correlated (r = .31; P = .003). Children with greater baseline %OBMI were more likely to have a greater %OBMI decrease over time (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Concurrently targeting preschool-aged overweight youth and their overweight parents for behavioral weight control in a primary care setting reduced child %OBMI and parent BMI, with parent and child weight changes correlating. PMID:22987879

  16. Efficacy of Flippits to Reduce Pain in Children during Venipuncture - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Risaw, Larishisha; Narang, Kavita; Thakur, J S; Ghai, Sandhya; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Bharti, Bhavneet

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the efficacy of distraction by flippits/distraction cards in relieving pain associated with pediatric venipuncture process in young children. This study was a prospective, non-blinded, randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted of 210 children aged 4 to 6 y undergoing phlebotomy in the sampling room of the Advanced Pediatric Center outpatient department and were randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. Latter were exposed to distraction using flippits/distraction cards during the procedure. Pain was assessed for both groups by using FLACC (Face Legs Activity Cry Consolability) behavior pain assessment scale. In addition, procedural pain was also assessed by Wong Bakers Faces Pain Scale (WBFPS) using children and parents' report. Flippits (distraction cards) had a significant effect on behavioral response to pain in children during blood sampling as evidenced by lower mean pain scores in the intervention group (2.75 ± 0.97) as compared to the control group (3.24 ± 0.85) as per FLACC behavioral pain assessment scale (p < 0.001). Parents and self reported pain as per Wong Baker Faces Pain Scale was also lower in the intervention group as compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Odds of severe pain/discomfort (total pain score 7-10) were 2.5 times higher in controls as compared to the intervention group (OR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.40-4.45) (P 0.002). The use of simple distraction technique using flippits can significantly relieve the pain associated with blood sampling in children.

  17. Decreased Radiation Exposure and Increased Efficacy in Extracorporeal Lithotripsy Using a New Ultrasound Stone Locking System

    PubMed Central

    Ravier, Emmanuel; Promeyrat, Xavier; Codas, Ricardo; Fehri, Hakim Fassi; Crouzet, Sebastien; Martin, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To compare fluoroscopy duration, radiation dose, and efficacy of two ultrasound stone localization systems during extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) treatment. Patients and Methods: Monocentric prospective data were obtained from patients consecutively treated for renal stones using the Sonolith® i-sys (EDAP TMS) lithotripter, with fluoroscopy combined with ultrasound localization using an “outline” Automatic Ultrasound Positioning Support (AUPS) (group A), or the “free-line” Visio-Track (VT) (EDAP-TMS) hand-held three-dimensional ultrasound stone locking system (group B). Efficacy rate was defined as the within-groups proportion stone free or with partial stone fragmentation not needing additional procedures. Statistical analysis used Pearson chi-square tests for categoric variables, nonparametric Mann-Whitney tests for continuous variables, and linear regression for operator learning curve with VT. Continuous variables were reported as median (range) values. Results: Patients in group A (n=73) and group B (n=81) were comparable in baseline characteristics (age, kidney stone size, others) and in SWL application (duration, number of shocks, energy [Joules]). During SWL, the median (range) duration (seconds) of radiation exposure was 159.5 (0–690) in group A and 3.5 (0–478) in group B (P<0.001) and irradiation dose (mGy.cm2), 10598 (0–54843) in group A and 163 (0–13926) in group B (P<0.001). Fluoroscopy time significantly decreased with operator experience using VT. The efficacy rate was 54.5% in group A and 79.5% in group B (P=0.001). Conclusion: VT significantly reduced fluoroscopy use during SWL and the duration and dose of patient exposure to ionizing radiation. Stone treatment efficacy was significantly greater with VT mainly because of a better real-time monitoring of the stone. PMID:26133199

  18. Increased HIV-1 vaccine efficacy against viruses with genetic signatures in Env V2.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Morgane; Edlefsen, Paul T; Larsen, Brendan B; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Hertz, Tomer; deCamp, Allan C; Carrico, Chris; Menis, Sergey; Magaret, Craig A; Ahmed, Hasan; Juraska, Michal; Chen, Lennie; Konopa, Philip; Nariya, Snehal; Stoddard, Julia N; Wong, Kim; Zhao, Hong; Deng, Wenjie; Maust, Brandon S; Bose, Meera; Howell, Shana; Bates, Adam; Lazzaro, Michelle; O'Sullivan, Annemarie; Lei, Esther; Bradfield, Andrea; Ibitamuno, Grace; Assawadarachai, Vatcharain; O'Connell, Robert J; deSouza, Mark S; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Robb, Merlin L; McLellan, Jason S; Georgiev, Ivelin; Kwong, Peter D; Carlson, Jonathan M; Michael, Nelson L; Schief, William R; Gilbert, Peter B; Mullins, James I; Kim, Jerome H

    2012-10-18

    The RV144 trial demonstrated 31% vaccine efficacy at preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Antibodies against the HIV-1 envelope variable loops 1 and 2 (Env V1 and V2) correlated inversely with infection risk. We proposed that vaccine-induced immune responses against V1/V2 would have a selective effect against, or sieve, HIV-1 breakthrough viruses. A total of 936 HIV-1 genome sequences from 44 vaccine and 66 placebo recipients were examined. We show that vaccine-induced immune responses were associated with two signatures in V2 at amino acid positions 169 and 181. Vaccine efficacy against viruses matching the vaccine at position 169 was 48% (confidence interval 18% to 66%; P = 0.0036), whereas vaccine efficacy against viruses mismatching the vaccine at position 181 was 78% (confidence interval 35% to 93%; P = 0.0028). Residue 169 is in a cationic glycosylated region recognized by broadly neutralizing and RV144-derived antibodies. The predicted distance between the two signature sites (21 ± 7 Å) and their match/mismatch dichotomy indicate that multiple factors may be involved in the protection observed in RV144. Genetic signatures of RV144 vaccination in V2 complement the finding of an association between high V1/V2-binding antibodies and reduced risk of HIV-1 acquisition, and provide evidence that vaccine-induced V2 responses plausibly had a role in the partial protection conferred by the RV144 regimen.

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of a schools-based programme to promote exercise self-efficacy in children and young people with risk factors for obesity: steps to active kids (STAK).

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Cris; Batty, Martin J; Mullan, Nivette; Macdonald, Ian; Nathan, Dilip; Sayal, Kapil; Smyth, Alan; Yang, Min; Guo, Boliang; Hollis, Chris

    2011-10-26

    Low levels of physical activity in children have been linked to an increased risk of obesity, but many children lack confidence in relation to exercise (exercise self-efficacy). Factors which can impact on confidence include a chronic health condition such as asthma, poor motor skills and being overweight. Increasing levels of physical activity have obvious benefits for children with asthma and children who are overweight, but few activity interventions with children specifically target children with low exercise self-efficacy (ESE). This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a schools-based activity programme suitable for children with risk factors for adult obesity, including asthma, overweight and low exercise self-efficacy. A clustered (at the level of school) RCT will be used to compare a targeted, 10 week, stepped activity programme (activity diary, dance DVD, circuit-training and motivational interviewing) designed to promote ESE. We will recruit 20 primary schools to participate in the intervention and 9-11 year old children will be screened for low levels of ESE, asthma and overweight. In order to provide sufficient power to detect a difference in primary outcomes (Body Mass Index-BMI & ESE at 12 month follow-up) between children in the intervention schools and control schools, the target sample size is 396. Assessments of BMI, ESE, waist circumference, peak flow, activity levels and emotional and behavioural difficulties will be made at baseline, 4 months and 12 month follow-up. We aim to increase ESE and levels of physical activity in children with risk factors for adult obesity. The outcomes of this study will inform policy makers about the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of delivering targeted health interventions within a school setting. ISRCTN Register no. ISRCTN12650001.

  20. Predictive Low-Glucose Insulin Suspension Reduces Duration of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia in Children Without Increasing Ketosis

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, Bruce A.; Raghinaru, Dan; Cameron, Fraser; Bequette, B. Wayne; Chase, H. Peter; Maahs, David M.; Slover, Robert; Wadwa, R. Paul; Wilson, Darrell M.; Ly, Trang; Aye, Tandy; Hramiak, Irene; Clarson, Cheril; Stein, Robert; Gallego, Patricia H.; Lum, John; Sibayan, Judy; Kollman, Craig

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Nocturnal hypoglycemia can cause seizures and is a major impediment to tight glycemic control, especially in young children with type 1 diabetes. We conducted an in-home randomized trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a continuous glucose monitor–based overnight predictive low-glucose suspend (PLGS) system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In two age-groups of children with type 1 diabetes (11–14 and 4–10 years of age), a 42-night trial for each child was conducted wherein each night was assigned randomly to either having the PLGS system active (intervention night) or inactive (control night). The primary outcome was percent time <70 mg/dL overnight. RESULTS Median time at <70 mg/dL was reduced by 54% from 10.1% on control nights to 4.6% on intervention nights (P < 0.001) in 11–14-year-olds (n = 45) and by 50% from 6.2% to 3.1% (P < 0.001) in 4–10-year-olds (n = 36). Mean overnight glucose was lower on control versus intervention nights in both age-groups (144 ± 18 vs. 152 ± 19 mg/dL [P < 0.001] and 153 ± 14 vs. 160 ± 16 mg/dL [P = 0.004], respectively). Mean morning blood glucose was 159 ± 29 vs. 176 ± 28 mg/dL (P < 0.001) in the 11–14-year-olds and 154 ± 25 vs. 158 ± 22 mg/dL (P = 0.11) in the 4–10-year-olds, respectively. No differences were found between intervention and control in either age-group in morning blood ketosis. CONCLUSIONS In 4–14-year-olds, use of a nocturnal PLGS system can substantially reduce overnight hypoglycemia without an increase in morning ketosis, although overnight mean glucose is slightly higher. PMID:26049549

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Atomoxetine in the Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Michael R.; Tsang, Tracey W.; Clarke, Simon D.

    2012-01-01

    Several non-stimulant medications have been used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Atomoxetine, was introduced in 2002. The safety and efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD for children, adolescents, and adults has been evaluated in over 4000 patients in randomized controlled studies and double blinded studies as well as in recent large longitudinal studies. This paper provides an updated summary of the literature on atomoxetine, particularly in relation to findings on the short- and long-term safety of atomoxetine in children and adolescents arising from recent large longitudinal cohort studies. Information is presented about the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of this medication. PMID:23641171

  2. Kindergarten children's growth trajectories in reading and mathematics: who falls increasingly behind?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a large sample of children (N ≈ 7,400) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to estimate kindergarten children's academic achievement growth trajectories in reading and mathematics. The authors were particularly interested in whether the growth trajectories of children with learning disabilities (LD) or speech language impairments (SLI)--as well as those of other groups of children--were consistent with a cumulative or compensatory developmental cycle. Both LD and SLI children displayed significantly lower levels of kindergarten reading achievement than nondisabled children. However, and over the subsequent 5 years of elementary school, only children with SLI lagged increasingly behind nondisabled peers in their reading skills growth. The authors observed a different pattern for mathematics achievement. Children with LD, but not SLI, lagged increasingly behind nondisabled children in their mathematics skills growth. The authors also observed some consistency in "poor-get-poorer" effects across reading and mathematic achievement for additional population subgroups. Those kindergarten children who were from lower socioeconomic status families, who were African American, and who more frequently displayed learning-related behavior problems initially had lower levels of reading and mathematics achievement and also lagged increasingly behind in their acquisition of these skills over time. Some groups of children, including those with SLI, experience a cumulative rather than a compensatory cycle of achievement growth.

  3. Associations of self-regulation with personality traits and self-efficacy in Japanese elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, K; Nakata, S; Joireman, J A

    1999-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the associations of scores on four self-regulation subscales identified by Nakata and Shiomi in 1998 with those on personality traits measured on the Shimoda Personality Inventory and self-efficacy with 123 Japanese elementary school children. Scores on the self-regulation subscales had significant positive correlations with scores on immodithymic and syntonic traits, and significant negative correlations with scores on schizothymic, nervous, and uncertain traits. Correlations with self-efficacy were also positive and significant. From these results higher scorers on self-regulation may have more positive personality traits and higher self-efficacy scores.

  4. Online course increases nutrition professionals' knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy in using an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Stark, Christina M; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L; Devine, Carol M; Dollahite, Jamie S; Olson, Christine M

    2011-01-01

    To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Online continuing education course. Nutrition and health professionals in an online course (n = 105) and a delayed intervention comparison group (n = 37). A 6-week, facilitated online course titled, Preventing Childhood Obesity: An Ecological Approach. Changes in knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy in using an ecological approach to address childhood obesity. Paired and independent sample t tests, factor analysis, regression analysis. In contrast to a comparison group, nutrition and health professionals who participated in a 6-week online course had statistically significant increases (P < .01) in their knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy related to using an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. A facilitated online course can be effective at increasing the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of community-based nutrition and health professionals in using an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity in their communities. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An Efficacy Trial of an Intervention Program for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Miller-Graff, Laura E; Howell, Kathryn H; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) are at high risk for adjustment problems, especially internalizing disorders. Few evidence-based interventions are available to address internalizing behavior problems in this population. An efficacy trial compared outcomes for 4-6 year old children randomly assigned to a program designed to address the effects of exposure to IPV with those allocated to a waitlist comparison condition. Mothers (N = 120) and children from the United States and Canada were assessed at baseline, 5 weeks later (post-intervention) and at 8-month follow-up. The evaluation compared rates of change over time for child internalizing problems. Results were analyzed using both intent-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) approaches. ITT analyses indicated the program reduced internalizing problems for girls at follow-up. PP analyses indicated the program reduced internalizing problems for both boys and girls at post-intervention. In this study, child internalizing problems were significantly reduced through an intervention for the mother and the child.

  6. Efficacy of triphala mouth rinse (aqueous extracts) on dental plaque and gingivitis in children.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Ritesh; Nekkanti, Sridhar; Kumar, Nikesh G; Kapuria, Ketan; Acharya, Shashidhar; Pentapati, Kalyana C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of triphala mouth rinse (aqueous) in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis among children. The study was a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, with a total of 60 school children (n = 30 in each group; triphala and chlorhexidine groups). Plaque and gingival indices were used to evaluate baseline and follow-up plaque and gingivitis. A total of 57 children completed the study. Both chlorhexidine and triphala groups showed significantly lower mean gingival and plaque index scores at follow up than baseline (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the percentage change in the mean gingival index between the two groups (P = 0.826). The percentage change in the mean plaque index was significantly higher in the chlorhexidine group compared to the triphala group (P = 0.048). The effectiveness of triphala in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis was comparable to chlorhexidine, and can be used for short-term purposes without potential side-effects. It is a cost-effective alternative in reducing plaque and gingivitis. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) treatment efficacy in children with primary and secondary glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Malinska, Agnieszka; Silska, Magdalena; Perek, Bartlomiej; Zachwieja, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of our study was to analyse the efficacy and safety of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as part of the complex immunosuppressive therapy in children with different types of primary and secondary glomerulonephritis, who were not eligible for the standard treatment routine suggested by evidence-based guidelines. Material and methods The study group comprised 85 children with proteinuric glomerulopathies hospitalized between 2007 and 2010, who were non-responders to immunosuppressive therapy. The dose of MMF was established as 1 g/m2/24 h. Remission was defined as negative proteinuria in three consecutive urinalyses. Results The patients were divided into 4 groups: idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (n = 35), primary glomerulonephritis (n = 15), auto-antibody associated glomerulonephritis (n = 20) and lupus nephropathy (LN, n = 15). Ten patients from the first group (29%) and 5 patients each from the second and third group (34% and 25% respectively) did not respond to MMF therapy. On the other hand, all the children diagnosed with LN have reached clinical and biochemical remission. Conclusions Alternative rescue MMF therapy should always be taken into consideration in proteinuric patients who are non-responders to steroids, cyclosporine A and cyclophosphamide in whom the initial glomerular filtration rate is higher than 60 ml/min/1.73m2. It is recommended that MMF be administered as part of the standard treatment regimen in patients diagnosed with lupus nephropathy. In these groups of patients, the potent benefits of this therapy are higher than expected side-effects. PMID:22328889

  8. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) treatment efficacy in children with primary and secondary glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Malinska, Agnieszka; Silska, Magdalena; Perek, Bartlomiej; Zachwieja, Jacek; Nowicki, Michal

    2011-12-31

    The aim of our study was to analyse the efficacy and safety of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as part of the complex immunosuppressive therapy in children with different types of primary and secondary glomerulonephritis, who were not eligible for the standard treatment routine suggested by evidence-based guidelines. The study group comprised 85 children with proteinuric glomerulopathies hospitalized between 2007 and 2010, who were non-responders to immunosuppressive therapy. The dose of MMF was established as 1 g/m(2)/24 h. Remission was defined as negative proteinuria in three consecutive urinalyses. The patients were divided into 4 groups: idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (n = 35), primary glomerulonephritis (n = 15), auto-antibody associated glomerulonephritis (n = 20) and lupus nephropathy (LN, n = 15). Ten patients from the first group (29%) and 5 patients each from the second and third group (34% and 25% respectively) did not respond to MMF therapy. On the other hand, all the children diagnosed with LN have reached clinical and biochemical remission. Alternative rescue MMF therapy should always be taken into consideration in proteinuric patients who are non-responders to steroids, cyclosporine A and cyclophosphamide in whom the initial glomerular filtration rate is higher than 60 ml/min/1.73m(2). It is recommended that MMF be administered as part of the standard treatment regimen in patients diagnosed with lupus nephropathy. In these groups of patients, the potent benefits of this therapy are higher than expected side-effects.

  9. Efficacy and safety of rituximab treatment in children with primary glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Zachwieja, Jacek; Silska, Magdalena; Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Soltysiak, Jolanta; Lipkowska, Katarzyna; Blumczynski, Andrzej; Musielak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the efficacy and safety of rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20 lymphocytes, as a nonstandard immunosuppressive therapy in children with different types of primary glomerulonephritis who were not eligible for routine treatment. The study group was composed of 16 children with proteinuric glomerulopathies, not responding to standard immunosuppressive therapy. The indications included steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (n=14) and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (n=2). The dose of rituximab was established as 375 mg/m2 of body surface area, administered by intravenous infusion once weekly for 1 to 4 weeks, depending on the CD19 lymphocyte count. We evaluated proteinuria and plasma concentration of CD19 lymphocytes at intervals of 1, 3 and 6 months, after which patients received a single repeat dose. Remission, defined as proteinuria less than 150 mg per 24 hours, was observed in 7 of the 16 children. There were no statistically significant differences in leukocyte counts between single and multiple rituximab doses. We also did not observe any clinical or biochemical side effects. In conclusion, we postulate that alternative rituximab therapy should be taken into consideration in nephrotic patients not responding to standard therapy.

  10. Combining antiangiogenic therapy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy increases treatment efficacy in stage IIIA (N2) non-small cell lung cancer without increasing adverse effects

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Su, Yanjun; You, Jian; Gong, Liqun; Zhang, Zhenfa; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Zhenqing; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Changli

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combining Endostar antiangiogenic therapy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of stage IIIA (N2) NSCLC, we conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label clinical study of 30 NSCLC patients. Patients were randomly assigned to the test or control groups, which received either two cycles of an NP neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen combined with Endostar or the NP regimen alone, respectively, at a 2:1 ratio. Efficacy was assessed after 3 weeks, and surgical resection occurred within 4 weeks, in the 26 patients who successfully completed treatment. While total response rates (RR) and clinical benefit rates (CBR) did not differ between the experimental groups, total tumor regression rates (TRR) were higher in the test group than in the control group. Median DFS and OS also did not differ between the test and control groups. Clinical perioperative indicators, including intraoperative blood loss, number of dissected lymph node groups, duration of postoperative indwelling catheter use, and time to postoperative discharge, were comparable in the test and control groups. Finally, hematological and non-hematological toxicities and postoperative pathological indicators, including down-staging ratio, complete resection ratio, and metastatic lymph node ratio, also did not differ between the groups. Overall, combining Endostar with NP neoadjuvant chemotherapy increased therapeutic efficacy without increasing adverse effects in stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT02497118). PMID:27566586

  11. A School-Based Intervention to Increase Lyme Disease Preventive Measures Among Elementary School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Zibit, Melanie J.; Nardone, Elizabeth; DeMaria, Alfred; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Cui, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Educational interventions to reduce Lyme disease (LD) among at-risk school children have had little study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a short in-class LD education program based on social learning theory and the Health Belief Model (HBM) impacted a child's knowledge, attitude, and preventive behavior. Methods: Students in grades 2–5 in 19 elementary schools were selected in an area that was highly endemic for LD. The children received an educational intervention or were on a wait list as controls. Their knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported preventive behaviors were surveyed before implementing the program and 1 year later. General linear regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and baseline variables were used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results: There were 3570 participants in the study: 1562 received the intervention, and 2008 were controls. The mean age for both groups was 9.1 years, with 53% women in the intervention group and 50% women in the control group. The children in the intervention group increased their overall knowledge of LD more than the children in the control group (overall knowledge score improvement, mean difference (SD) 1.38 (1.3) vs. 0.36 (1.3) p < 0.0001). All children in classes receiving the intervention reported an increase in precautionary behavior, positive attitude toward taking precautions, and self-efficacy compared with the wait list controls. Two LD cases were confirmed during the follow-up period, one in the intervention group and one in the controls. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that a short in-class educational program that includes elements of the HBM, including: (1) awareness and knowledge about the disease, (2) benefits of preventive behavior, and (3) confidence in ability to perform preventive behaviors can improve knowledge, attitude, and self-reported precautionary behavior among at-risk children. www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00594997 PMID

  12. A School-Based Intervention to Increase Lyme Disease Preventive Measures Among Elementary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Shadick, Nancy A; Zibit, Melanie J; Nardone, Elizabeth; DeMaria, Alfred; Iannaccone, Christine K; Cui, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Educational interventions to reduce Lyme disease (LD) among at-risk school children have had little study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a short in-class LD education program based on social learning theory and the Health Belief Model (HBM) impacted a child's knowledge, attitude, and preventive behavior. Students in grades 2-5 in 19 elementary schools were selected in an area that was highly endemic for LD. The children received an educational intervention or were on a wait list as controls. Their knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported preventive behaviors were surveyed before implementing the program and 1 year later. General linear regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and baseline variables were used to measure the impact of the intervention. There were 3570 participants in the study: 1562 received the intervention, and 2008 were controls. The mean age for both groups was 9.1 years, with 53% women in the intervention group and 50% women in the control group. The children in the intervention group increased their overall knowledge of LD more than the children in the control group (overall knowledge score improvement, mean difference (SD) 1.38 (1.3) vs. 0.36 (1.3) p < 0.0001). All children in classes receiving the intervention reported an increase in precautionary behavior, positive attitude toward taking precautions, and self-efficacy compared with the wait list controls. Two LD cases were confirmed during the follow-up period, one in the intervention group and one in the controls. These findings demonstrate that a short in-class educational program that includes elements of the HBM, including: (1) awareness and knowledge about the disease, (2) benefits of preventive behavior, and (3) confidence in ability to perform preventive behaviors can improve knowledge, attitude, and self-reported precautionary behavior among at-risk children. www.clinicaltrials.gov : NCT00594997.

  13. Increased production of IL-17 in children with autism spectrum disorders and co-morbid asthma

    PubMed Central

    Akintunde, Marjannie Eloi; Rose, Melissa; Krakowiak, Paula; Heuer, Luke; Ashwood, Paul; Hansen, Robin H.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Van de Water, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and asthma have both been reported in some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To further assess this connection, peripheral immune cells isolated from young children with ASD and typically developing (TD) controls and the production of cytokines IL-17, −13, and −4 assessed following ex vivo mitogen stimulation. Notably, IL-17 production was significantly higher following stimulation in ASD children compared to controls. Moreover, IL-17 was increased in ASD children with co-morbid asthma compared to controls with the same condition. In conclusion, children with ASD exhibited a differential response to T cell stimulation with elevated IL-17 production compared to controls. PMID:26298322

  14. A review of the efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adult patients with common comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Clemow, David B; Bushe, Chris; Mancini, Michele; Ossipov, Michael H; Upadhyaya, Himanshu

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that is often diagnosed during childhood, but has also increasingly been recognized to occur in adults. Importantly, up to 52% of children (including adolescents) and 87% of adults with ADHD also have a comorbid psychiatric disorder. The presence of a comorbid disorder has the potential to impact diagnosis and could affect treatment outcomes. Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant treatment for ADHD. Despite numerous published studies regarding efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD in patients with comorbid disorders, there is limited information about the impact of individual common comorbid disorders on the efficacy of atomoxetine for ADHD, especially with regard to adults. Moreover, a cumulative review and assessment of these studies has not been conducted. For this reason, we performed a literature review to find, identify, and cumulatively review clinical studies that examined the efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of patients with ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders. We found a total of 50 clinical studies (37 in children; 13 in adults) that examined the efficacy of atomoxetine in patients with ADHD and a comorbid disorder. The comorbidities that were studied in children or in adults included anxiety, depression, and substance use disorder. Overall, the presence of comorbidity did not adversely impact the efficacy of atomoxetine in treatment of ADHD symptoms in both patient populations. In the studies identified and assessed in this review, atomoxetine did not appear to exacerbate any of the comorbid conditions and could, therefore, be an important therapy choice for the treatment of ADHD in the presence of comorbid disorders. PMID:28223809

  15. A review of the efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adult patients with common comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Clemow, David B; Bushe, Chris; Mancini, Michele; Ossipov, Michael H; Upadhyaya, Himanshu

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that is often diagnosed during childhood, but has also increasingly been recognized to occur in adults. Importantly, up to 52% of children (including adolescents) and 87% of adults with ADHD also have a comorbid psychiatric disorder. The presence of a comorbid disorder has the potential to impact diagnosis and could affect treatment outcomes. Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant treatment for ADHD. Despite numerous published studies regarding efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD in patients with comorbid disorders, there is limited information about the impact of individual common comorbid disorders on the efficacy of atomoxetine for ADHD, especially with regard to adults. Moreover, a cumulative review and assessment of these studies has not been conducted. For this reason, we performed a literature review to find, identify, and cumulatively review clinical studies that examined the efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of patients with ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders. We found a total of 50 clinical studies (37 in children; 13 in adults) that examined the efficacy of atomoxetine in patients with ADHD and a comorbid disorder. The comorbidities that were studied in children or in adults included anxiety, depression, and substance use disorder. Overall, the presence of comorbidity did not adversely impact the efficacy of atomoxetine in treatment of ADHD symptoms in both patient populations. In the studies identified and assessed in this review, atomoxetine did not appear to exacerbate any of the comorbid conditions and could, therefore, be an important therapy choice for the treatment of ADHD in the presence of comorbid disorders.

  16. Does MAOA increase susceptibility to prenatal stress in young children?

    PubMed

    Massey, Suena H; Hatcher, Amalia E; Clark, Caron A C; Burns, James L; Pine, Daniel S; Skol, Andrew D; Mroczek, Daniel K; Espy, Kimberly A; Goldman, David; Cook, Edwin; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2017-05-01

    We previously demonstrated a gene-by-prenatal-environment interaction whereby the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) modified the impact of prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) on adolescent disruptive behavior (DB), with the MAOA risk genotype varying by sex. We extend this work by examining whether this mechanism is evident with another common adversity, prenatal stress exposure (PSE), and whether sex differences are present earlier in development in closer proximity to exposure. Participants were 281 mothers and their 285 children derived from a prenatal cohort with in-depth prospective measures of PSE and PTE. We assessed DB at age 5 via dimensional developmentally-sensitive measurement. Analyses were stratified by sex based on prior evidence for sex differences. Concurrent stress exposure predicted DB in children (β=0.310, p=0.001), while main effects of prenatal exposures were seen only in boys. We found a three-way interaction of MAOA×PSE×sex on DB (β=0.813, p=0.022). Boys with MAOA-H had more DB as a function of PSE, controlling for PTE (β=0.774, p=0.015), and as a function of PTE, controlling for PSE (β=0.362, p=0.037). Boys with MAOA-L did not show this susceptibility. MAOA did not interact with PSE (β=-0.133, p=0.561) nor PTE (β=-0.144; p=0.505) in predicting DB in girls. Examination of gene-environment correlation (rGE) showed a correlation between paternal MAOA-L and daughters' concurrent stress exposure (r=-0.240, p=0.013). Findings underscore complex mechanisms linking genetic susceptibility and early adverse exposures. Replication in larger cohorts followed from the pregnancy through adolescence is suggested to elucidate mechanisms that appear to have varying developmental expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Thrombophilia risk is not increased in children after perinatal stroke.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Colleen; Mineyko, Aleksandra; Massicotte, Patricia; Leaker, Michael; Jiang, Xiu Yan; Floer, Amalia; Kirton, Adam

    2017-03-03

    Perinatal stroke causes cerebral palsy and lifelong disability. Specific diseases are definable but mechanisms are poorly understood. Evidence suggests possible associations between arterial perinatal stroke and prothrombotic disorders but population-based, controlled, disease-specific studies are limited. Understanding thrombophilia in perinatal stroke informs pathogenesis models and clinical management. We conducted a population-based, prospective, case-control study to determine the association of specific perinatal stroke diseases with known thrombophilias. Children with idiopathic, MRI-classified neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS), arterial presumed perinatal ischemic stroke (APPIS), or fetal periventricular venous infarction (PVI) were recruited. Standardized thrombophilia evaluations were performed after 12 months of age on stroke cases and controls including quantified protein C and S, antithrombin, factors VIII/IX/XI, fibrinogen, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies and genotyping of factor V Leiden (FVL), factor II G20210A (FII), and MTHFR C677T. A total of 212 children were studied: 46 NAIS, 34 APPIS, 55 PVI, and 77 controls (53% male, median 4.8 years). Of 14 parameters, no differences were observed in 12 including all common thrombophilias. Mean prothrombin time was shorter in arterial strokes (p<0.001). Rates of antiphospholipid antibodies were low, comparable to controls, and resolved on repeat testing. FVL and FII rates were comparable to population norms. Total number of possible abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Our prospective, population-based, controlled, disease-specific study suggests minimal association between perinatal stroke and thrombophilia. This does not exclude the possibility of disordered coagulation at the time of stroke but suggests testing in childhood is not indicated.

  18. Increases in maternal education and low-income children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jessica F

    2015-05-01

    Although the strong link between maternal education and children's outcomes is one of the most well-established findings in developmental psychology (Reardon, 2011; Sirin, 2005), less is known about how young, low-income children are influenced by their mothers completing additional education. In this research, longitudinal data from the Head Start Impact Study were used to explore the associations between increases in maternal education and Head Start eligible children's cognitive skills and behavioral problems in 1st grade. Propensity score weighting was used to identify a balanced comparison group of 1,362 children whose mothers did not increase their education between baseline (when children were aged 3 or 4) and children's kindergarten year, who are similar on numerous covariates to the 262 children whose mothers did increase their education. Propensity-score weighted regression analyses indicated that increases in maternal education were positively associated with children's standardized cognitive scores, but also with higher teacher-reported externalizing behavioral problems in 1st grade. The increases in externalizing behavioral problems were larger for children whose mothers had less than a college degree at baseline.

  19. Involvement in home meal preparation is associated with food preference and self-efficacy among Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yen Li; Farmer, Anna; Fung, Christina; Kuhle, Stefan; Storey, Kate E; Veugelers, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between frequency of assisting with home meal preparation and fruit and vegetable preference and self-efficacy for making healthier food choices among grade 5 children in Alberta, Canada. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Children were asked how often they helped prepare food at home and rated their preference for twelve fruits and vegetables on a 3-point Likert-type scale. Self-efficacy was measured with six items on a 4-point Likert-type scale asking children their level of confidence in selecting and eating healthy foods at home and at school. Schools (n =151) located in Alberta, Canada. Grade 5 students (n = 3398). A large majority (83-93 %) of the study children reported helping in home meal preparation at least once monthly. Higher frequency of helping prepare and cook food at home was associated with higher fruit and vegetable preference and with higher self-efficacy for selecting and eating healthy foods. Encouraging children to be more involved in home meal preparation could be an effective health promotion strategy. These findings suggest that the incorporation of activities teaching children how to prepare simple and healthy meals in health promotion programmes could potentially lead to improvement in dietary habits.

  20. Examination of the Perceived Efficacy and Goal Setting System (PEGS) with children with disabilities, their parents, and teachers.

    PubMed

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Pollock, Nancy; Law, Mary; Walter, Stephen; Cavey, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The Perceived Efficacy and Goal Setting System (PEGS) is an instrument and a process that enables children with disabilities to reflect on their ability to perform everyday occupations and to identify goals for occupational therapy intervention. In this study, 117 children with disabilities in grades 1-3 completed the PEGS with occupational therapists who work in school settings. Children from 6-9 years of age with a variety of disabilities were able to self-report perceptions of their effectiveness performing 24 activities that would be expected of them each day. Parents and teachers, who completed a parallel questionnaire, rated their abilities lower than the children did. The School Function Assessment, a measure of the amount and type of support required for school participation, had low correlations with the Parent and Teacher PEGS questionnaires and did not correlate with the Child PEGS. No differences in perceived efficacy were found for children across grades or gender; however, differences were found across types of disabilities. Children were able to use the perceived efficacy information to identify and prioritize goals for intervention and these goals remained stable 2 weeks later. Occupational therapists can use the PEGS within a client-centered practice to help the child set goals for therapy and to incorporate explicitly the perspectives of parents and teachers.

  1. Visual-spatial training efficacy in children affected by migraine without aura: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Parisi, Lucia; Salerno, Margherita; Maltese, Agata; Gallai, Beatrice; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Lavano, Francesco; Roccella, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Routinely in the clinical practice, children affected by migraine without aura (MwA) tend to exhibit severe and persistent difficulties within cognitive processes such as attention, memory, and visual-motor integration (VMI) skills. The aim of this study was to assess the visual-spatial and visual-motor abilities among a sample of children with MwA and the effects of a specific computerized training. The study population was composed of 84 patients affected by MwA (39 girls and 45 boys; mean age: 8.91±2.46 years), and they were randomly divided into two groups (group A and group B) comparable for age (P=0.581), gender (P=0.826), socioeconomic status (SES), migraine frequency (P=0.415), and intensity (P=0.323). At baseline (T0), the two groups were comparable for movement assessment battery for children (M-ABC) and VMI performances. After 6 months of treatment (T1), group A showed lower scores in the dexterity item of M-ABC test (P<0.001) and higher scores in M-ABC global performance centile (P<0.001) and total (P<0.001), visual (P=0.017), and motor (P<0.001) tasks of VMI test than group B. Moreover, at T1, group A showed higher scores in total (P<0.001) and motor (P<0.001) tasks of VMI test and in M-ABC global performance centile (P<0.001) and lower scores in the dexterity item of M-ABC test (P<0.001) than at T0. Group B showed, at T1, performances comparable to T0 for all evaluations. As reported by recent studies about alteration MwA among children in motor abilities, our study confirmed these difficulties and the efficacy of a specific software training, suggesting a new rehabilitative proposal in childhood.

  2. Visual–spatial training efficacy in children affected by migraine without aura: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Parisi, Lucia; Salerno, Margherita; Maltese, Agata; Gallai, Beatrice; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Lavano, Francesco; Roccella, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Routinely in the clinical practice, children affected by migraine without aura (MwA) tend to exhibit severe and persistent difficulties within cognitive processes such as attention, memory, and visual–motor integration (VMI) skills. The aim of this study was to assess the visual–spatial and visual–motor abilities among a sample of children with MwA and the effects of a specific computerized training. The study population was composed of 84 patients affected by MwA (39 girls and 45 boys; mean age: 8.91±2.46 years), and they were randomly divided into two groups (group A and group B) comparable for age (P=0.581), gender (P=0.826), socioeconomic status (SES), migraine frequency (P=0.415), and intensity (P=0.323). At baseline (T0), the two groups were comparable for movement assessment battery for children (M-ABC) and VMI performances. After 6 months of treatment (T1), group A showed lower scores in the dexterity item of M-ABC test (P<0.001) and higher scores in M-ABC global performance centile (P<0.001) and total (P<0.001), visual (P=0.017), and motor (P<0.001) tasks of VMI test than group B. Moreover, at T1, group A showed higher scores in total (P<0.001) and motor (P<0.001) tasks of VMI test and in M-ABC global performance centile (P<0.001) and lower scores in the dexterity item of M-ABC test (P<0.001) than at T0. Group B showed, at T1, performances comparable to T0 for all evaluations. As reported by recent studies about alteration MwA among children in motor abilities, our study confirmed these difficulties and the efficacy of a specific software training, suggesting a new rehabilitative proposal in childhood. PMID:28184165

  3. Efficacy and safety of intramuscular midazolam versus rectal diazepam in controlling status epilepticus in children.

    PubMed

    Momen, Ali Akbar; Azizi Malamiri, Reza; Nikkhah, Ali; Jafari, Maryam; Fayezi, Abbas; Riahi, Kourosh; Maraghi, Elham

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intramuscular midazolam in controlling convulsive status epilepticus in children, by comparing it with rectal diazepam. In this randomized trial, 100 children (50 in each group) with convulsive status epilepticus aged 1 month to 16 years were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 0.3 mg/kg intramuscular midazolam or 0.5 mg/kg rectal diazepam. Main outcome measure was stopping of all motor activity after drug administration. Another measures were times between patient's arrival to emergency department till drug administration, between drug administration to seizure cessation, and between patient's arrival to seizure cessation. Both medication were effective for seizure control and no significant difference was found between successful treatments after administering the medication (P = 0.061). In the midazolam group, in 96% (48/50) of cases treatment was successful and in the diazepam group, in 94% (47/50) of cases treatment was successful. Time from arrival to administering the medication was significantly shorter in midazolam group (P = 0.017). The majority of seizures in midazolam group were stopped in less than 66 s (median) compared to 130 s (median) for diazepam group, (P < 0.001). No serious adverse effects were seen in both groups. IM midazolam is not superior but may be at least as effective as rectal diazepam for controlling of status epilepticus in children. Midazolam via IM route could be one of the choices in children with convulsive status seizures who have difficult IV access. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Efficacy of Adenotonsillectomy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children with Down Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nation, Javan; Brigger, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Objective Determine the efficacy of adenotonsillectomy in children with Down syndrome. Data Sources Databases included PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. The search was inclusive of all references available through January 5, 2017. Review Methods A systematic review of the medical literature addressing adenotonsillectomy in treating obstructive sleep apnea in children with Down syndrome was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Data were pooled using a random-effects model where possible. The quality of studies was graded using the Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies criteria. Results Of the 957 articles screened, 5 met inclusion for the qualitative analysis and 3 met criteria for the quantitative analysis. The findings of the qualitative analysis were that adenotonsillectomy has a positive effect on children with Down syndrome but in many cases is noncurative, up to 75% need postoperative breathing support, there is a high rate of immediate postoperative airway needs, and there is no change in sleep efficiency or architecture. The articles consistently reported moderate success in improving polysomnographic parameters, and limited pooling of the data demonstrated a mean decrease of the apnea-hypopnea index by 51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46%-55%). Conclusion A 51% reduction in the preoperative apnea-hypopnea index can be expected with the intervention of adenotonsillectomy alone in children with Down syndrome. This information is useful for counseling and managing patient and family expectations. It also serves as a reminder to clinicians to obtain a postoperative sleep study, as many of these patients will need nighttime airway support or secondary sleep surgery.

  5. Evaluation Efficacy of Ferrous Sulfate Therapy on Headaches of 5-15 Years Old Iron Deficient Children with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, R; Zare Bidoki, S; Ordooei, M

    2016-01-01

    Background Some researches have shown the association between iron deficiency and migraine headache in adults. The aim of present study was to evaluate efficacy of ferrous sulfate treatment on migraine headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children with iron deficiency. Materials and Methods In a quasi- experimental study, monthly frequency, severity, duration and disability of headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children that prophylactic therapy was indicated in them and had iron deficiency who were referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran between 2013 and 2015 and were treated with 2mg/kg/day topiramate plus 4mg/kg/day of ferrous sulfate for three consecutive months, were evaluated and headache characteristics before and after treatment were compared. Results In this study, 98 children with mean age of 9.72±3.19 were evaluated that 31children (31.6%) had iron deficiency. Monthly frequency (22.89±7.18 vs.14.5±4.56, P= 0.02), severity score (8.12± 1.76 vs. 5.03±1.15, P= 0.02) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7vs. 30.12±7.46, P= 0.03) were more in children with iron deficiency. Iron therapy was effective in decreasing of monthlyfrequency 22.89± 7.18 vs. 10.13±4.51, P = 0.001), severity score (8.12±1.76 vs. 5.11±1.62, P =0.001), duration (2.14±1.23 vs.1.14±1.01, P= 0.001) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7 vs. 22.87±8.65, P= 0.01). Conclusion In children, iron deficiency increased monthly frequency, severity and disability of migraine headache and ferrous sulfate can be used as a safe and effective drug in migraine prophylaxis. PMID:27222700

  6. [Review of pharmacokinetic monitoring of 5-Fluorouracil as a tool to increase efficacy and safety].

    PubMed

    Matus-Santos, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Ponce, José Luis; Lara-Medina, Fernando Ulises; Herrera-Gómez, Ángel; Meneses-García, Abelardo; López-Gamboa, Mireya

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in medical knowledge has indicated that both clinical and biological markers will determine the response to different medical treatments: age, gender and genetics will determine the success of treatment. Genetic variability in this respect is fundamental and determines efficiency and safety of drugs, as well as susceptibility and illness' development. Fortunately, personalized medicine now offers individually tailored treatment strategies for each patient's needs. This is of outmost importance in oncology, since treatment is per se toxic and the commonly found low serum drug concentrations result in low treatment efficacy. Personalized medicine will allow a better approach to this, until now, a poorly managed disease. In this review we intent to raise awareness of personalized medicine and of clinical pharmacologic monitoring, with the aim to achieve adequate levels of efficacy and safety in the use of the cytotoxic drug 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Additionally, the importance of pharmacogenomics for the use of 5-FU is discussed. We designed this discussion towards medical practitioners challenged with treatment decisions every day, together with their patients.

  7. Increased Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Influenza M2e Fused to a Tetramerizing Protein

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Anne-Marie Carola; Håkansson, Kjell O.; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Christensen, Dennis; Andersen, Peter; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard

    2012-01-01

    The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared by diverse influenza A viruses, a vaccine (M2e-NSP4) was constructed linking M2e (in its consensus sequence) to the rotavirus fragment NSP498–135; due to its coiled-coil region this fragment is known to form tetramers in aqueous solution and in this manner we hoped to mimick the natural configuration of M2e as presented in membranes. M2e-NSP4 was then evaluated side-by-side with synthetic M2e peptide for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine influenza challenge model. Here we demonstrate that M2e fused to the tetramerizing protein induces an accelerated, augmented and more broadly reactive antibody response than does M2e peptide as measured in two different assays. Most importantly, vaccination with M2e-NSP4 caused a significant decrease in lung virus load early after challenge with influenza A virus and maintained its efficacy against a lethal challenge even at very low vaccine doses. Based on the results presented in this study M2e-NSP4 merits further investigation as a candidate for or as a component of a universal influenza A vaccine. PMID:23049700

  8. Treatment of hyperactive children with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. I. Clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zametkin, A; Rapoport, J L; Murphy, D L; Linnoila, M; Ismond, D

    1985-10-01

    Fourteen boys (mean age, 9.2 +/- 1.5 years) with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) With Hyperactivity were treated with dextroamphetamine sulfate or a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) (six received clorgyline, eight received tranylcypromine sulfate) for four weeks each in a double-blind, cross-over study that included a two-week placebo washout between active drug periods. The MAOIs had immediate, clinically significant benefit and were clinically indistinguishable from dextroamphetamine. Most children responded to both stimulant and MAOI. These findings of equivalent efficacy of MAOIs in ADD are in contrast to our previous studies with neurotransmitter system selective agents, which showed only weak effects, and suggest that multiple neurotransmitter alterations may be required for stimulant drug effects in ADD. The immediate response to MAOIs indicates a different mechanism from that mediating antidepressant effect. The MAOIs may be useful alternate treatments in selected cases of ADD.

  9. [The rationale for the efficacious puncture therapy of acute suppurative sinusitis in the children].

    PubMed

    Edgem, S R

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the clinical efficacy of local antibacterial therapy in the children presenting with sinusitis. The study included a total of 104 patients allocated to 2 groups. In one of them, the patients underwent therapeutic and diagnostic punctures of the maxillary sinuses to obtain the material for subsequent microbiological analysis and to administer antibiotics into the sinuses. The results of the study give evidence that local application of antibacterial agents in combination with mucolytic drugs is at least as efficient for the treatment of acute maxillary sinusitis as the traditional methods for the management of the same conditions with the use of systemic antibiotics. The study confirmed the expediency of using the puncture technique for the treatment of patients with acute inflammatory process in maxillary sinuses.

  10. Phase II trial of standard versus increased transfusion volume in Ugandan children with acute severe anemia.

    PubMed

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Thompson, Jennifer; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Chebet, Martin; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Dambisya, Cornelius M; Okuuny, Vicent; Wokulira, Ronald; Amorut, Denis; Ongodia, Paul; Mpoya, Ayub; Williams, Thomas N; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Gibb, Diana M; Walker, A Sarah; Maitland, Kathryn

    2014-04-25

    Severe anemia (SA, hemoglobin <6 g/dl) is a leading cause of pediatric hospital admission in Africa, with significant in-hospital mortality. The underlying etiology is often infectious, but specific pathogens are rarely identified. Guidelines developed to encourage rational blood use recommend a standard volume of whole blood (20 ml/kg) for transfusion, but this is commonly associated with a frequent need for repeat transfusion and poor outcome. Evidence is lacking on what hemoglobin threshold criteria for intervention and volume are associated with the optimal survival outcomes. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a higher volume of whole blood (30 ml/kg; Tx30: n = 78) against the standard volume (20 ml/kg; Tx20: n = 82) in Ugandan children (median age 36 months (interquartile range (IQR) 13 to 53)) for 24-hour anemia correction (hemoglobin >6 g/dl: primary outcome) and 28-day survival. Median admission hemoglobin was 4.2 g/dl (IQR 3.1 to 4.9). Initial volume received followed the randomization strategy in 155 (97%) patients. By 24-hours, 70 (90%) children in the Tx30 arm had corrected SA compared to 61 (74%) in the Tx20 arm; cause-specific hazard ratio = 1.54 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 2.18, P = 0.01). From admission to day 28 there was a greater hemoglobin increase from enrollment in Tx30 (global P <0.0001). Serious adverse events included one non-fatal allergic reaction and one death in the Tx30 arm. There were six deaths in the Tx20 arm (P = 0.12); three deaths were adjudicated as possibly related to transfusion, but none secondary to volume overload. A higher initial transfusion volume prescribed at hospital admission was safe and resulted in an accelerated hematological recovery in Ugandan children with SA. Future testing in a large, pragmatic clinical trial to establish the effect on short and longer-term survival is warranted. ClinicalTrials.Gov identifier: NCT01461590 registered 26 October 2011.

  11. [The Efficacy of Near-Infrared Devices in Facilitating Peripheral Intravenous Access in Children: A Systematic Review and Subgroup Meta-Analysis].

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Chi; Feng, I-Jung; Lee, Wei-Jing

    2017-10-01

    Peripheral intravenous access is a common and invasive procedure that is performed in pediatric clinical settings. Children often have difficult intravenous-access problems that may not only increase staff stress but also affect the timeliness of immediate treatments. To determine the efficacy of near-infrared devices in facilitating peripheral intravenous access in children, using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Six databases, namely the Index to Taiwan Periodical Literature System, Airiti Library, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PubMed/MEDLINE, and ProQuest were searched for related articles that were published between the earliest year available and February 2017. The search was limited to studies on populations of children that used either a randomized controlled trial or controlled clinical trial approach and used the key words "near-infrared devices" AND "peripheral intravenous access." The 12 articles that met these criteria were included in the analysis. The Cochrane Collaboration bias assessment tool was used to assess the methodological quality. In addition, RevMan 5.3.5 software was used to conduct the meta-analysis. The near-infrared devices did not significantly improve the first-attempt success rate, number of attempts, or the procedural time of peripheral intravenous access in children. However, the subgroup analysis of difficult intravenous-access factors revealed a significant improvement in the first-attempt success rate of children with difficult intravenous access scores (OR = 1.83, p = .03). Near-infrared devices may improve the first-attempt success rate in children with difficult intravenous access by allowing healthcare professionals to visualize the peripheral veins. Therefore, we suggest that the difficult intravenous-access score be used as a screening tool to suggest when to apply near-infrared devices to children with difficult peripheral intravenous access in order to maximize efficacy of treatment.

  12. Iron-fortified rice is as efficacious as supplemental iron drops in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Beinner, Mark A; Velasquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Pessoa, Milene C; Greiner, Ted

    2010-01-01

    How to improve iron status among infants and young children is of continued concern in low- to middle-income countries, including Brazil. In a double blind, 5-mo, home-based, randomized trial in Brazil, we gave one group of mildly anemic 6- to 24-mo-old children (n = 175) rice fortified with micronized ferric pyrophosphate using the Ultra Rice technology and a placebo solution (URG) and another group identical nonfortified rice and iron drops. We instructed parents on the correct dosage of iron drops and to feed their children rice as they normally would. We measured serum ferritin (SF) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations at baseline and at 5 mo. At baseline, the prevalences of iron deficiency and anemia in the total sample were 73.1 and 100%, respectively. At 5 mo, SF and Hb increased in both groups, although the change in the URG was larger (P < 0.01). Adult participants were unable to distinguish cooked fortified rice from unfortified rice in terms of smell, color, or taste. As rice is normally consumed at home, MPF-fortified rice increased iron stores and reduced anemia in a group of mildly anemic children 6-24 mo old. In populations where young children are routinely fed approximately 100 g of cooked rice daily, fortifying it with iron may improve iron status at least as well as providing free iron drops.

  13. Soap Suds Enema are Efficacious and Safe for Treating Fecal Impaction in Children with Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E.; Henkel, Erin B.; Valdez, Karina L.; Chumpitazi, Bruno P.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Constipation is a common cause of pediatric abdominal pain and emergency department (ED) presentation. Despite the high prevalence, there is a dearth of clinical information and wide practice variation in childhood constipation management in the ED. Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of soap suds enema (SSE) in the treatment of fecal impaction in children with abdominal pain within the pediatric emergency department (ED) setting. The primary outcome was stool output following SSE. Secondary outcomes were adverse events, admissions, and return visits within 72 hours. Methods This is a retrospective cross-sectional study performed in the ED at a quaternary care children’s hospital of patients seen over a 12-month period who received a SSE for fecal impaction. Results Five hundred twelve patients (53% female, median age 7.8 years, range: 8 months-23 years) received SSE therapy over a 1-year period. Successful therapy (bowel movement) following SSE occurred in 419 (82%). Adverse events included abdominal pain in 24 (5%) and nausea/vomiting in 18 (4%). No SSE-related serious adverse events were identified. Following SSE, 405 (79%) were subsequently discharged, of which 15 (3.7%) returned to the ED for re-evaluation within 72 hours. Conclusions and Relevance SSE is an efficacious and safe therapeutic option for the acute treatment of childhood fecal impaction in the ED setting. PMID:26655947

  14. Psychosocial Treatment Efficacy for Disruptive Behavior Problems in Very Young Children: A Meta-Analytic Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Chow, Candice; Chan, Priscilla T.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Wilson, Lianna A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Service use trends showing increased off-label prescribing in very young children and reduced psychotherapy use raise concerns about quality of care for early disruptive behavior problems. Meta-analysis can empirically clarify best practices and guide clinical decision making by providing a quantitative synthesis of a body of…

  15. Efficacy of Aggression Replacement Training among Children from North-West Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koposov, Roman; Gundersen, Knut K.; Svartdal, Frode

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether the Aggression Replacement Training (ART) programme is effective in increasing social skills and decreasing problem behaviour. The sample consisted of 232 children (mean age 10.9 yrs, SD = 2.32), their parents and teachers. The study had a quasi-experimental design with intervention and control groups.…

  16. Psychosocial Treatment Efficacy for Disruptive Behavior Problems in Very Young Children: A Meta-Analytic Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Chow, Candice; Chan, Priscilla T.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Wilson, Lianna A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Service use trends showing increased off-label prescribing in very young children and reduced psychotherapy use raise concerns about quality of care for early disruptive behavior problems. Meta-analysis can empirically clarify best practices and guide clinical decision making by providing a quantitative synthesis of a body of…

  17. Emerald dragon bites vs veggie beans: Fun food names increase children's consumption of novel healthy foods

    PubMed Central

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years) were served each of three foods twice, once labeled with a fun name and once with a healthy name. Percentage of the food consumed by each child was recorded. Overall, children ate a greater percentage of the target foods when they were labeled with fun names. Also, a larger percentage of the children tasted the foods when they were labeled with fun names. This simple strategy could be effective for increasing consumption of healthy foods among young children. PMID:26257583

  18. Increasing reading and communication skills in children with autism through an interactive multimedia computer program.

    PubMed

    Heimann, M; Nelson, K E; Tjus, T; Gillberg, C

    1995-10-01

    This paper reports on the effect of using an interactive and child-initiated microcomputer program (Alpha) when teaching three groups of children (N = 30) reading and communications skills: (a) 11 children with autism (M chronological age, CA = 9:4 years), (b) 9 children with mixed handicaps (M CA = 13:1), and (c) 10 normal preschool children (M CA = 6:4 years). Their mental age varied from 5:8 years to 6:9 years and all children received computer instruction supplementary to their regular reading and writing activities. Tests of reading and phonological development were carried out at the onset of the training (Start), at the end (Post 1), and at a follow-up evaluation (Post 2). In addition, video observations of the childrens' verbal and nonverbal communication were added at Start and Post 1. The children with autism increased both their word reading and their phonological awareness through the use of the Alpha program. Clearly significant gains were observed during the intervention, but none during the follow-up period. A similar but weaker pattern is observed for the children with mixed handicaps. In contrast, the normal preschool children increased their scores regardless of the program. Analyses of the children's classroom behavior indicate that the intervention succeeded in stimulating verbal expressions among the children with autism and mixed handicap. A significant increase in enjoyment was also noted for the children with autism. It is concluded that the intervention with a motivating multimedia program might stimulate reading and communication in children with various developmental disabilities, but that such interventions must be individually based and include both detailed planning and monitoring from teachers, and parents, as well as from clinicians in charge.

  19. Mindfulness Training for Parents and Their Children with ADHD Increases the Children's Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Judy; Winton, Alan S. W.; Adkins, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Children with ADHD are often non-compliant with parental instructions. Various methods have been used to reduce problem behaviors in these children, with medication and manipulation of behavioral contingencies being the most prevalent. An objection often raised by parents is that these management strategies require them to impose external control…

  20. The International Children's Digital Library: Increasing Children's Access to Books through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Ann Carlson

    2007-01-01

    The International Children's Digital Library (ICDL) began as a research project funded primarily by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Institute for Museum and Library Services (IMLS), and Microsoft Research and creates a digital library of outstanding children's books from all over the world (http://www. childrenslibrary.org). The project…