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Sample records for children longitudinal study

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Adjustment during Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battistich, Victor; Solomon, Daniel

    A 7-year, longitudinal study of children's social development from kindergarten through sixth grade was designed to identify unusually prosocial children and characteristics that differentiated them from average and antisocial peers. Another objective was to identify functional socioemotional predictors of changes in children's social adjustment.…

  2. Young Children's Improvisations: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…

  3. Children's Perceptions of Live Arts Performances: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    "Children?s Voices" is a longitudinal research project to document and understand children's perceptions of live arts performance and the impact on their teachers and school communities. The research conducted in South Australia with 135 5?12-year-olds in four schools involves collaboration between the South Australian Department of Education and…

  4. Cognitive Abilities in Reading-Disabled Children: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, L.A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Longitudinal psychometric test data collected at two different ages (approximately 9.5 and 15 years) were utilized to compare the developmental rates of 69 pairs of reading-disabled and matched control children. Results indicated that reading-disabled children manifested deficits on measures of academic achievement, symbolic processing speed, and…

  5. A longitudinal study of early intellectual development in hemiplegic children.

    PubMed

    Muter, V; Taylor, S; Vargha-Khadem, F

    1997-03-01

    Thirty-eight 3- to 5-year-old children with unilateral lesions sustained pre- or peri-natally were studied longitudinally over a 2-year period, and their IQ scores compared with those of 20 "medical' controls. The failure to discover laterality effects following early unilateral injury supports the hypothesis of at least broad functional equipotentiality. There were few decrements in intellectual functioning provided the injury was not accompanied by seizures. The presence of seizures in contrast had a deleterious effect on both verbal and nonverbal aspects of cognitive functioning. While the IQs of the hemiplegic groups showed considerable stability over the 2-year span of the study, there was evidence that performance IQ, even in seizure-free patients, might be selectively impaired because of competition within the intact neural space for the sparing of verbal IQ. PMID:9051677

  6. A longitudinal study of very young children's vowel production

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Rebecca W.; McGowan, Richard S.; Denny, Margaret; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ecologically realistic, spontaneous adult-directed longitudinal speech data of young children was described by acoustic analyses. Method The first two formant frequencies of vowels produced by six children from different American English dialect regions were analyzed from ages 18 to 48 months. The vowels were from largely conversational contexts and were classified according to dictionary pronunciation. Results Within-subject formant frequency variability remained relatively constant for the span of ages studied here. It was often difficult to detect overall decreases in the first two formant frequencies between the ages of 30 and 48 months. A study of the movement of the corner vowels with respect to the vowel centroid showed that the shape of the vowel space remained qualitatively constant from 30 through 48 months. Conclusions The shape of the vowel space is established early in life. Some aspects of regional dialect were observed in some of the subjects at 42 months of age. The present paper adds to the existing data on the development of vowel spaces by describing ecologically realistic speech. PMID:24687464

  7. Cognitive abilities in reading-disabled children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Baker, L A; Decker, S N; DeFries, J C

    1984-01-01

    Longitudinal psychometric test data collected at two different ages (9.4 +/- 1.3 and 14.8 +/- 1.2 years) were utilized to compare the developmental rates of 69 pairs of reading-disabled and matched control children. Results of a two-factor (GROUP X TIME), mixed-model, multivariate analysis of variance indicated that reading-disabled children manifested deficits on measures of academic achievement, symbolic processing speed and spatial reasoning abilities at both ages. Although both reading-disabled and control children were found to improve significantly between the two testing sessions, the lack of a significant GROUP X TIME interaction on measures of academic achievement and spatial reasoning abilities indicated that the rate of development was similar for the two groups. For measures of symbolic processing speed, however, differences between reading-disabled and control children were somewhat greater at the later age.

  8. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  9. Multiracial Children and Poverty: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Stop Consonant Production in Normal and Down's Syndrome Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce L.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study of four normal children, 18 to 36 months old, and five Down's syndrome (DS) children, 3 to 6 years old, analyzed the development of stop consonants and stop clusters. Although similar sound patterns were observed for the two groups, the DS children showed considerable performance delay. (DB)

  11. Everyday Segregation amongst Disabled Children and Their Peers: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ytterhus, Borgunn

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative longitudinal study of children's changing peer relationships through childhood, with particular emphasis on experiences of disabled children. Initial observation of face-to-face-encounters among children in school made us aware of social inclusion and exclusion mechanisms relating to informal interaction…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Language Development in Three Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…

  13. Working Memory, Attention, and Mathematical Problem Solving: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The role of working memory (WM) in children's growth in mathematical problem solving was examined in a longitudinal study of children (N = 127). A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, WM, and cognitive processing (inhibition, speed, phonological coding) in Grade 1 children, with follow-up testing in Grades…

  14. Mothers' Teaching Strategies and Children's Effortful Control: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal…

  15. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  16. Impaired Perception of Syllable Stress in Children with Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…

  17. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  18. Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  19. Longitudinal study of young children's responses to challenging achievement situations.

    PubMed

    Ziegert, D I; Kistner, J A; Castro, R; Robertson, B

    2001-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to replicate and extend Dweck's findings regarding young children's responses to challenging achievement situations. Dweck's dichotomous helplessness classification system (i.e., task choice, task choice reason) was replicated with kindergartners, n = 235 (50% male), and first graders, n = 70 (46% male). To test whether individual differences in young children's responses to challenging situations are stable over time, 1- and 5-year follow-ups of the kindergartners were conducted. On the basis of children's responses on age-appropriate behavioral tasks, a composite of cognitive, behavioral, and affective helplessness indices predicted helplessness at 1 and 5 years later, n = 114 (50% male), above and beyond kindergarten task ability and gender, p<.05. Kindergarten helplessness predicted teacher ratings of children's helplessness 5 years later as well, p<.05. The implications of these findings for early intervention are discussed. PMID:11333088

  20. Young Children's Acquisition of Knowledge about the Earth: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannust, Triin; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the acquisition of early knowledge of astronomy to determine whether children's knowledge at any point in time is consistent with a naive "mental model." Children were first assessed by means of open questions and drawing tasks at 2 and 3 years of age (N = 143). The knowledge was reassessed over the course of the…

  1. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Speech Timing in Young Children Later Found to Have Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allan B.; Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Locke, John L.; Bennett, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development of timing characteristics in early spontaneous speech of children who were later identified as having reading disability (RD). Method: Child-adult play sessions were recorded longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age in 27 children, most of whom were at high familial risk for RD. For each speaking turn,…

  3. Gender Differences in the Content of Preschool Children's Recollections: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  5. Mothers' teaching strategies and children's effortful control: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie D; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-09-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal teaching strategies were assessed while the mother and child worked on a task together. Children's general vocabulary also was measured. In a structural panel model taking into account prior levels of constructs and correlations within time, as well as the relations of EC and teaching strategies to children's vocabulary, socioeconomic status, age, and sex of the child, 18-month EC positively predicted mothers' 30-month cognitive assistance and questioning strategies and negatively predicted 30-month maternal directive strategies. In addition, high 30-month EC predicted greater 42-month maternal cognitive assistance and fewer directive strategies. Thus, mothers' teaching strategies were predicted by individual differences in self-regulatory skills, supporting potential evocative child effects on mothers' teaching strategies.

  6. Cultural Mediation of Children's Cosmologies: A Longitudinal Study of the Astronomy Concepts of Chinese and New Zealand Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, T. G. K.; Blown, E. J.

    2006-01-01

    These longitudinal studies investigated the cultural mediation of children's thinking about the Earth using an interview technique designed to elicit responses from children from all "levels" of their conceptual organization (intuitive, cultural, and scientific). Close scrutiny of the research literature in this field reveals that some strategies…

  7. Parents' and children's ratings of sleep behavior, excitement, and tiredness: a 10-week longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, B E; Ross, K; Wilson, A

    1994-06-01

    In a 10-week longitudinal study, 29 parents and their children kept daily records of the children's sleep behaviors, excitement levels, and tiredness levels. Although the hypothesized increase in sleep behaviors such as sleepwalking and restlessness during the week of Christmas did not occur, children rated as more excitable by their parents and themselves exhibited a higher frequency of sleep behaviors. Positive associations were also found between averaged tiredness ratings and sleep scores. The results support previous findings of an association between arousal characteristics of children and their sleep behavior. Moderate validity coefficients were obtained for parents' and children's ratings of excitement, tiredness, and nocturnal waking.

  8. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES AMONG NON-WHITE PARTICIPANTS FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, childrens environmental health studies such as the National Childrens Study (NCS) is needed. In early 2003, eighteen focus groups were conducted across the ...

  9. Longitudinal Study of Developmental Problems of Children: Comparison between Japan and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    Two studies investigated behavioral problems in childhood. Study 1 longitudinally investigated similarities and differences in enuresis and nailbiting among Japanese and American children. Incidences of enuresis decreased as subjects' age increased. Socio-cultural and family tolerance were related to incidences of nailbiting. In Study 2, changes…

  10. Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent Sisters' Children: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent sisters' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage sister has recently given…

  11. Computer-Assisted Interventions Targeting Reading Skills of Children with Reading Disabilities--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falth, Linda; Gustafson, Stefan; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael; Svensson, Idor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three computerized interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinal intervention study included five test sessions over 1 year. Two test points occur before the intervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted 1…

  12. The Developmental Sequence of Social-Communicative Skills in Young Children with Autism: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  14. Brief Report: Parenting Styles and Obesity in Mexican American Children: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Power, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess longitudinally the relations between four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and indulgent) and child weight status in Mexican American families. Methods Sixty-nine low-income Mexican American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Mothers completed demographic and parenting measures. Children's body weight and height were assessed annually. Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. Results At baseline, 65% of children were found to be normal weight, 14% were overweight, and 21% were obese. Analyses examined how parenting styles at baseline predicted child's weight status 3 years later, controlling for initial weight status. Children of indulgent mothers were more likely to become overweight 3 years later than children of authoritative or authoritarian mothers. Conclusions This study provides longitudinal evidence for the role of indulgent parenting in predicting overweight in Mexican American children. Possible mediating factors that may account for this relationship (e.g., dietary patterns, physical activity patterns, and children's self-regulation) are considered. PMID:19726552

  15. Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Perceptions, and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored Theory of Mind (ToM), self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations of 91 children (52 females, ages 6-8?years) drawn from two schools situated in a mainly Euro-Canadian, middle socioeconomic status, semi-rural central Canadian context. ToM, self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations were…

  16. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscles among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…

  18. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  19. Effects of Early Relationships on Children's Perceived Control: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dan, Orrie; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bar-haim, Yair; Eshel, Yohanan

    2011-01-01

    People's response to stress depends to a large extent on their sense of perceived control over the situations they encounter. This longitudinal study of 136 children (70 girls) examined associations between attachment patterns and maternal sensitivity at 12 months of age, and perceived primary and secondary control at 11 years of age. Compared…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Chronic Maltreatment on Children's Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethier, L.S.; Lemelin, J.P.; Lacharite, C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present longitudinal study was to examine the links between chronicity of maltreatment and child behavioral and emotional problems. Method: Forty-nine maltreated children (32 victims of continuous, or chronic, maltreatment; 17 victims of transitory maltreatment) and their mothers were evaluated in their homes three times…

  1. The Home Environment and School Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Primary School Children in Swaziland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller

    In rural Swaziland, fathers often migrate for work, leaving wives and children behind. The family is denied the presence of a husband, father, and role model, as well as economic support, which fathers often fail to remit home regularly. A longitudinal study investigated the effects of parent availability and other home characteristics on the…

  2. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711)

    An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...

  3. Longitudinal Study of the Psychological Effects of Sexual Abuse in Foster Children and Children Who Return Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Myra; And Others

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of being placed in foster care versus remaining at home upon the psychological functioning of 64 black, sexually abused girls aged 5 to 16 years. Only subjects molested by persons well known to them were included in this study. The children were initially evaluated using a multi-method assessment…

  4. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap. This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5–2 and 3.5–5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education. LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. PMID:25011454

  5. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap.This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5-2 and 3.5-5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education.LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. PMID:25011454

  6. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap.This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5-2 and 3.5-5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education.LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health.

  7. Executive functions in preschool children with ADHD and DBD: an 18-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Deković, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the stability of the association between executive functions and externalizing behavior problems, and the developmental change of executive functions in a predominately clinically diagnosed preschool sample (N = 200). Inhibition and working memory performance were assessed three times in 18 months. Across time, poorer inhibition performance in young children was associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), and poorer working memory performance was associated with ADHD. Inhibition and working memory performance increased over time, especially in the early preschool period. The improvement of inhibition performance was more pronounced in the clinically diagnosed children compared to the TD children.

  8. The Speech and Language of Children Aged 25 Months: Descriptive Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulston, Sue; Loader, Sue; Northstone, Kate; Beveridge, Mike

    2002-01-01

    The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) provided descriptive data on the speech and language of 25-month-olds. Findings indicated great range in the stage of expressive language development achieved. Girls showed more advanced skills than boys. A clear pattern was identified in use of sound classes. Child verbal comprehension…

  9. Earlier predictors of eating disorder symptoms in 9-year-old children. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine predictors of eating disorder symptoms in a population based sample at the earliest age at which they can be measured using the Children's Eating Attitudes Test. Data were collected from the longitudinal Gateshead Millennium Study cohort; 609 children participated in the 7 year data sweep (and their mothers and teachers), and 589 children participated in the 9 year data sweep. Eating disorder symptoms at 9 years were higher in boys, and in children from more deprived families. Higher eating disorder symptoms were associated with more body dissatisfaction at 9 years. Higher symptoms were predicted by higher levels of dietary restraint and of emotional symptoms, but not greater body dissatisfaction, 2 years earlier. The study showed that some correlates of high eating disorder symptoms found in adolescents and adults are also found in children, before the rise in diagnosable eating disorders over the pubertal period.

  10. The developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in young children with autism: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin

    2014-05-01

    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them when they were 12 and 15 months old. The results indicated a reliable developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in infants with typical development. In Study 2, we explored the emergence sequence of social-communicative skills of 23 children with autism and 23 children with developmental delay between the ages of 2 and 4 years. The results demonstrated that the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in young children with autism and children with developmental delays was different.

  11. Physical Activity, Blood Glucose and C-Peptide in Healthy School-Children, a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Aim To further elucidate the relationship between physical activity and several risk factors for development of diabetes (glucose, C-peptide and obesity) over time. Methods A prospective longitudinal study where physical activity was measured on 199 children from Kalmar and Linköping at age 8, and the same 107 children from Linköping again at age 12. Anthropometric data was collected and blood was analyzed for C-peptide and f-glucose. The children in the study were representative for the general Swedish child population, and on an average lean. Results High physical activity was related to lower C-peptide at age 8 and 12. This correlation was especially pronounced in boys, who also were more physically active than girls at both time points. The association seen at 8 years of age was similar at age 12 in most children. Children with higher BMI Z-Score had a higher fasting C-peptide (age 12) but linear regression showed that children with more steps per day were less likely to have a higher fasting C-peptide irrespective of BMI. Longitudinal follow-up showed that a decrease in physical activity increased insulin resistance and β-cell load. Conclusions Already in young children, physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and decreases the need of C-peptide over time. This seems to become even more pronounced with increasing age when children are followed longitudinally. Low physical activity increases the load on insulin producing β-cells, might increase the risk for both type 1- and 2 diabetes. PMID:27270732

  12. Young children's acquisition of knowledge about the Earth: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hannust, Triin; Kikas, Eve

    2010-10-01

    This longitudinal study examined the acquisition of early knowledge of astronomy to determine whether children's knowledge at any point in time is consistent with a naive "mental model." Children were first assessed by means of open questions and drawing tasks at 2 and 3 years of age (N=143). The knowledge was reassessed over the course of the following 3 years. The results showed that although a few indications of naive mental models were found, in most cases young children's knowledge was fragmented and accurate knowledge was often expressed alongside inaccurate/synthetic ideas. Furthermore, it was shown that children need to know scientific facts before they start taking the global perspective when describing the world and, when faced with ambiguous open questions, children often experience difficulties that can induce them to change the types of answers they provide.

  13. Acculturation attitudes and social adjustment in British South Asian children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rupert; Baysu, Gülseli; Cameron, Lindsey; Nigbur, Dennis; Rutland, Adam; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Letouze, Dominique; Landau, Anick

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year longitudinal study with three testing points was conducted with 215 British Asian children aged 5 to 11 years to test hypotheses from Berry's acculturation framework. Using age-appropriate measures of acculturation attitudes and psychosocial outcomes, it was found that (a) children generally favored an "integrationist" attitude, and this was more pronounced among older (8-10 years) than in younger (5-7 years) children and (b) temporal changes in social self-esteem and peer acceptance were associated with different acculturation attitudes held initially, as shown by latent growth curve analyses. However, a supplementary time-lagged regression analysis revealed that children's earlier "integrationist" attitudes may be associated with more emotional symptoms (based on teachers' ratings) 6 months later. The implications of these different outcomes of children's acculturation attitudes are discussed.

  14. The Association between Children's Behavior and Parenting of Caregivers: A Longitudinal Study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kota; Kita, Yosuke; Kaga, Makiko; Takehara, Kenji; Misago, Chizuru; Inagaki, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the association between children's behavior (i.e., prosocial and problematic behavior) and the parenting style (i.e., laxness and overreactivity) of their caregivers by using longitudinal data in the Japanese population. These data were collected when the children were 7.5 and 9 years. We proposed three hypotheses: children's behavior at 7.5 years will predict their behavior at 9 years; children's behavior at 7.5 years will predict the parenting of their caregivers; and the parenting style of caregivers will affect their children's behavior at 9 years. We evaluated children's behavior and parenting behavior using a strength and difficulties questionnaire and a parenting scale. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results of the SEM showed that children's behavior at 7.5 years predicted their behavior at 9 years. Children's problematic behavior at 7.5 years triggered overreactive parenting in their caregivers at 9 years, which increased problematic behavior and decreased prosocial behavior in the children at 9 years. These findings indicate the association between children's behavior and the parenting style of caregivers in Japan.

  15. Longitudinal Study of Perceived Negative Impact in African American and Caucasian Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred…

  16. Development of somatosensory perception in children: a longitudinal QST-study.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Zernikow, Boris; Kraemer, Nicole; Hechler, Tanja; Aksu, Fuat; Krumova, Elena; Maier, Christoph; Magerl, Walter; Blankenburg, Markus

    2012-02-01

    Cross-sectional studies on somatosensory perception in children demonstrate lower pain thresholds for children compared with adolescents. The aim of the present longitudinal study was to replicate these age-related differences in a longitudinal design. Total 38 children and adolescents aged 6 to 16 years (two girls and two boys within each year) participated in this study. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) according to the protocol of the German research network on neuropathic pain (DFNS) was assessed twice with an interval of 15.8 ± 3.0 months. Bland-Altman analyses describe the short-term reliability of the measurements. Intraindividual sensory development was measured using paired t-test and quantified by effect sizes Cohen's d between the two measurements. QST parameters showed good short-term reliability. Over a period of 1 year, children became less sensitive to painful stimuli, especially to cold pain, pressure pain, and mechanical pain. No systematic developmental changes were observed in response to the other somatosensory stimuli. QST is reliable over short retest intervals. In line with previous results from cross-sectional studies, we find a decrease in pain sensitivity with increasing age but no differences in nonnociceptive somatosensory processing over a period of 1 year in children between 6 and 16 years of age. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of a reference-based interpretation of the individual QST data.

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Concept, and Gender-Role Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal relations between theory of mind (ToM) understanding, self-perceptions, and perceptions of gender-role orientation in 28 school-aged children, (16 girls, 12 boys, aged 8-12 years). Theory of mind and perceptions of self were assessed at Time 1 (T1, M = 8 y 5 m) and two years later at Time 2 (T2, M = 10 y 4…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Lexical Development in Children Learning Vietnamese and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study modeled lexical development among children who spoke Vietnamese as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Participants (n = 33, initial mean age of 7.3 years) completed a total of eight tasks (four in each language) that measured vocabulary knowledge and lexical processing at four yearly time points.…

  19. Longitudinal study of dental caries increment in Malaysian school children: a 5-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Yusof, Norashikin; Hassan, Mohamed I A; Jaafar, Nasaruddin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this 5-year longitudinal cohort study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and trends in caries increment and impact of the School Dental Incremental Care Programme (SDICP). Data were gathered from school dental records as part of the SDICP. A sample of 1830 children were included and checked for caries experience annually using World Health Organization criteria. In total, 95.4% of the children were caries free in 2004, and caries experience declined to 70.5% in 2009 with an average of 4.9% annually. At baseline, the mean DMFT (confidence interval [CI]) was 0.06 (0.05-0.08) and increased to 0.58 (0.53-0.63) in 2009. Children with active caries were 4.4% in 2004, and figures rose to 9.6% in 2009. The FT component increased most rapidly during these 5 years from 0.2% to 25.1%. Overall caries prevalence and increment was low in this study. Proportions of FT component were higher as compared with DT component with low rate of extractions during the latter years of the study. PMID:22218936

  20. [Causal relationship between assertiveness and adjustment in children: A short-term longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Megumi; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the causal relationships between assertiveness and both internal and external adjustment in children. Elementary school children in grades four through six (N = 284) participated in the study, which used a short-term longitudinal design. The children completed questionnaires twice during a 6-months period. They responded to assertiveness questionnaires that included two components: "self-expression" and "consideration of others". They also completed a self-esteem scale as an index of internal adjustment, and the Class Life Satisfaction scale as an index of external adjustment. There was a positive causative relationship between "self-expression" and internal adjustment and between "consideration for others" and external adjustment. In addition, the effects on adjustment varied according to the type of assertiveness. Cluster analysis and MANOVA indicated that the group with high "self-expression" and "consideration for others" had high internal and external adjustment, while the children with poor assertiveness showed the lowest degree of adaptivity. PMID:26402950

  1. Maternal Attributions and Young Children's Conduct Problems: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Charlotte; Gardner, Frances; Burton, Jennifer; Leung, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    The association between negative maternal attributions and child conduct problems is well established in correlational studies. However, little is known about how these variables influence each other over time. The present study examined patterns of prediction over time between maternal attributions and pre-school conduct problems. Sixty mothers…

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Autistic Traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: Precursors and Early Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Patrick F.; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan; Steer, Colin D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To chart the emergence of precursors and early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autistic traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of the surviving offspring of 14,541 pregnant women from southwestern England with an expected delivery date between April 1991 and…

  3. Prenatal stress and risk of febrile seizures in children: a nationwide longitudinal study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-07-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year before the pregnancy and they were included in the exposed group. The exposed children had a risk of febrile seizures similar to that of the unexposed children (hazard ratio (HR) 1.00, 95% CI 0.94-1.06). The HRs did not differ according to the nature or timing of bereavement. Our data do not suggest any causal link between exposure to prenatal stress and febrile seizures in childhood.

  4. Risk, resilience, and the rorschach: a longitudinal study of children who experienced sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Douglas; Heinze, Hillary J; Arble, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    Experiencing sexual abuse increases the risk that children will report or otherwise demonstrate problems with emotion, behavior, and health. This longitudinal study of 44 children who experienced sexual abuse examined whether information processing as assessed via the Rorschach Inkblot Test was associated with child-reported depression symptoms assessed via the Children's Depression Inventory (Kovacs, 1992) concurrently and an average of 15 months later. Children whose Rorschach protocols were relatively free of scores suggesting intense distress, complex processing, and sexual content were more likely to experience remission of depression symptoms at follow-up. Findings provide incremental validity for certain Rorschach indexes to inform prognosis regarding depression symptoms and perhaps their treatment. PMID:23941130

  5. Interracial Families and the Racial Identification of Mixed-Race Children: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsma, David L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a nationally-representative sample of kindergarten-aged children is used from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to explore the structure of parental racial designation of mixed-race children. The variation in these parental designations of a variety of mixed-race children is described. Parental racial designations in the…

  6. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Louise R.; Northstone, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children that used empirically derived dietary patterns were reviewed. The relationships of dietary patterns with socioeconomic background and childhood development were examined. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and food records. Three statistical methods were used: principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression. Throughout childhood, children and parents have similar dietary patterns. The “health-conscious” and “traditional” patterns were associated with high intakes of fruits and/or vegetables and better nutrient profiles than the “processed” patterns. There was evidence of tracking in childhood diet, with the “health-conscious” patterns tracking most strongly, followed by the “processed” pattern. An “energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat” dietary pattern was extracted using reduced rank regression; high scores on this pattern were associated with increasing adiposity. Maternal education was a strong determinant of pattern score or cluster membership; low educational attainment was associated with higher scores on processed, energy-dense patterns in both parents and children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided unique insights into the value of empirically derived dietary patterns and has demonstrated that they are a useful tool in nutritional epidemiology. PMID:26395343

  7. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R; Northstone, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children that used empirically derived dietary patterns were reviewed. The relationships of dietary patterns with socioeconomic background and childhood development were examined. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and food records. Three statistical methods were used: principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression. Throughout childhood, children and parents have similar dietary patterns. The "health-conscious" and "traditional" patterns were associated with high intakes of fruits and/or vegetables and better nutrient profiles than the "processed" patterns. There was evidence of tracking in childhood diet, with the "health-conscious" patterns tracking most strongly, followed by the "processed" pattern. An "energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat" dietary pattern was extracted using reduced rank regression; high scores on this pattern were associated with increasing adiposity. Maternal education was a strong determinant of pattern score or cluster membership; low educational attainment was associated with higher scores on processed, energy-dense patterns in both parents and children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided unique insights into the value of empirically derived dietary patterns and has demonstrated that they are a useful tool in nutritional epidemiology.

  8. The Development of Word Recognition, Sentence Comprehension, Word Spelling, and Vocabulary in Children with Deafness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colin, S.; Leybaert, J.; Ecalle, J.; Magnan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Only a small number of longitudinal studies have been conducted to assess the literacy skills of children with hearing impairment. The results of these studies are inconsistent with regard to the importance of phonology in reading acquisition as is the case in studies with hearing children. Colin, Magnan, Ecalle, and Leybaert (2007)…

  9. Parental warmth, control, and indulgence and their relations to adjustment in Chinese children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Liu, M; Li, D

    2000-09-01

    A sample of children, initially 12 years old, in the People's Republic of China participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Data on parental warmth, control, and indulgence were collected from children's self-reports. Information concerning social, academic, and psychological adjustment was obtained from multiple sources. The results indicated that parenting styles might be a function of child gender and change with age. Regression analyses revealed that parenting styles of fathers and mothers predicted different outcomes. Whereas maternal warmth had significant contributions to the prediction of emotional adjustment, paternal warmth significantly predicted later social and school achievement. It was also found that paternal, but not maternal, indulgence significantly predicted children's adjustment difficulties. The contributions of the parenting variables might be moderated by the child's initial conditions. PMID:11025932

  10. Parental warmth, control, and indulgence and their relations to adjustment in Chinese children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Liu, M; Li, D

    2000-09-01

    A sample of children, initially 12 years old, in the People's Republic of China participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Data on parental warmth, control, and indulgence were collected from children's self-reports. Information concerning social, academic, and psychological adjustment was obtained from multiple sources. The results indicated that parenting styles might be a function of child gender and change with age. Regression analyses revealed that parenting styles of fathers and mothers predicted different outcomes. Whereas maternal warmth had significant contributions to the prediction of emotional adjustment, paternal warmth significantly predicted later social and school achievement. It was also found that paternal, but not maternal, indulgence significantly predicted children's adjustment difficulties. The contributions of the parenting variables might be moderated by the child's initial conditions.

  11. Speech Perception and Production by Sequential Bilingual Children: A Longitudinal Study of Voice Onset Time Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Kathleen M; Mahon, Merle; Rosen, Stuart; Evans, Bronwen G

    2014-01-01

    The majority of bilingual speech research has focused on simultaneous bilinguals. Yet, in immigrant communities, children are often initially exposed to their family language (L1), before becoming gradually immersed in the host country's language (L2). This is typically referred to as sequential bilingualism. Using a longitudinal design, this study explored the perception and production of the English voicing contrast in 55 children (40 Sylheti-English sequential bilinguals and 15 English monolinguals). Children were tested twice: when they were in nursery (52-month-olds) and 1 year later. Sequential bilinguals' perception and production of English plosives were initially driven by their experience with their L1, but after starting school, changed to match that of their monolingual peers. PMID:25123987

  12. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN MODELING CHILDREN'S LONGITUDINAL EXPOSURES: AN OZONE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling children's exposures is a complicated, data-intensive process. Modeling longitudinal exposures, which are important for regulatory decision making, especially for most air toxics, adds another level of complexity and data requirements. Because it is difficult to model in...

  13. Pregnancy diet and associated outcomes in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Louise R.; Golding, Jean

    2015-01-01

    All publications covering diet during pregnancy that stemmed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were reviewed. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Socioeconomic background, maternal mental health, and the health and development of the offspring were assessed using a variety of methods, such as direct measurement, self-completion questionnaires, and assays of biological samples. Differences in diet, including specific food and nutrient intakes and dietary patterns, were associated with maternal educational attainment, smoking habits, and financial difficulty. There were marginal intakes, compared with recommendations, of the key nutrients iron, magnesium, potassium, and folate. Maternal diet during pregnancy was predictive of offspring diet during childhood. There were independent associations between prenatal fish consumption and lower frequency of maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as lower frequency of intrauterine growth retardation. Consistent evidence that fish consumption during pregnancy benefited the neurocognitive development of the child was also found. Two constituents of fish, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and iodine, were associated with these benefits in children. The findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children strengthen the recommendation to eat fish regularly during pregnancy. PMID:26395341

  14. Pregnancy diet and associated outcomes in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R; Golding, Jean

    2015-10-01

    All publications covering diet during pregnancy that stemmed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were reviewed. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Socioeconomic background, maternal mental health, and the health and development of the offspring were assessed using a variety of methods, such as direct measurement, self-completion questionnaires, and assays of biological samples. Differences in diet, including specific food and nutrient intakes and dietary patterns, were associated with maternal educational attainment, smoking habits, and financial difficulty. There were marginal intakes, compared with recommendations, of the key nutrients iron, magnesium, potassium, and folate. Maternal diet during pregnancy was predictive of offspring diet during childhood. There were independent associations between prenatal fish consumption and lower frequency of maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as lower frequency of intrauterine growth retardation. Consistent evidence that fish consumption during pregnancy benefited the neurocognitive development of the child was also found. Two constituents of fish, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and iodine, were associated with these benefits in children. The findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children strengthen the recommendation to eat fish regularly during pregnancy.

  15. Pregnancy diet and associated outcomes in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R; Golding, Jean

    2015-10-01

    All publications covering diet during pregnancy that stemmed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were reviewed. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Socioeconomic background, maternal mental health, and the health and development of the offspring were assessed using a variety of methods, such as direct measurement, self-completion questionnaires, and assays of biological samples. Differences in diet, including specific food and nutrient intakes and dietary patterns, were associated with maternal educational attainment, smoking habits, and financial difficulty. There were marginal intakes, compared with recommendations, of the key nutrients iron, magnesium, potassium, and folate. Maternal diet during pregnancy was predictive of offspring diet during childhood. There were independent associations between prenatal fish consumption and lower frequency of maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as lower frequency of intrauterine growth retardation. Consistent evidence that fish consumption during pregnancy benefited the neurocognitive development of the child was also found. Two constituents of fish, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and iodine, were associated with these benefits in children. The findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children strengthen the recommendation to eat fish regularly during pregnancy. PMID:26395341

  16. Retention of Children and Their Families in the Longitudinal Outcome Study of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebreselassie, Tesfayi; Stephens, Robert L.; Maples, Connie J.; Johnson, Stacy F.; Tucker, Alyce L.

    2014-01-01

    Predictors of retention of participants in a longitudinal study and heterogeneity between communities were investigated using a multilevel logistic regression model. Data from the longitudinal outcome study of the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families program and information on…

  17. Development of numerical processing in children with typical and dyscalculic arithmetic skills-a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Landerl, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Numerical processing has been demonstrated to be closely associated with arithmetic skills, however, our knowledge on the development of the relevant cognitive mechanisms is limited. The present longitudinal study investigated the developmental trajectories of numerical processing in 42 children with age-adequate arithmetic development and 41 children with dyscalculia over a 2-year period from beginning of Grade 2, when children were 7; 6 years old, to beginning of Grade 4. A battery of numerical processing tasks (dot enumeration, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison of one- and two-digit numbers, physical comparison, number line estimation) was given five times during the study (beginning and middle of each school year). Efficiency of numerical processing was a very good indicator of development in numerical processing while within-task effects remained largely constant and showed low long-term stability before middle of Grade 3. Children with dyscalculia showed less efficient numerical processing reflected in specifically prolonged response times. Importantly, they showed consistently larger slopes for dot enumeration in the subitizing range, an untypically large compatibility effect when processing two-digit numbers, and they were consistently less accurate in placing numbers on a number line. Thus, we were able to identify parameters that can be used in future research to characterize numerical processing in typical and dyscalculic development. These parameters can also be helpful for identification of children who struggle in their numerical development. PMID:23898310

  18. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  19. Shyness-Sensitivity and Social, School, and Psychological Adjustment in Urban Chinese Children: A Four-Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fan; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined reciprocal contributions between shyness-sensitivity and social, school, and psychological adjustment in urban Chinese children. Longitudinal data were collected once a year from Grade 3 to Grade 6 (ages 9-12 years) for 1,171 children from multiple sources. Shyness-sensitivity positively contributed to social, school, and…

  20. Child Care Quality and Children's Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Development: An Australian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gialamas, Angela; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that high-quality non-parental child care can contribute to children's learning, development and successful transition to school. Research examining the quality of child care and the effect on children's development is not well documented outside the USA. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian…

  1. Sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-08-01

    Although the literature has documented associations between sleep problems and internet addiction, the temporal direction of these relationships has not been established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the bidirectional relationships between sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents longitudinally. A four-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 1253 children and adolescents in grades 3, 5 and 8 from March 2013 to January 2014. The sleep problems of the student participants were measured by parental reports on the Sleep Habit Questionnaire, which catalogues early insomnia, middle insomnia, disturbed circadian rhythm, periodic leg movements, sleep terrors, sleepwalking, sleep talking, nightmares, bruxism, snoring and sleep apnoea. The severity of internet addiction was measured by students' self-reports on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Based on the results of time-lag models, dyssomnias (odds ratio = 1.31), especially early and middle insomnias (odds ratio = 1.74 and 2.24), sequentially predicted internet addiction, and internet addiction sequentially predicted disturbed circadian rhythm (odds ratio = 2.40), regardless of adjustment for gender and age. This is the first study to demonstrate the temporal relationship of early and middle insomnia predicting internet addiction, which subsequently predicts disturbed circadian rhythm. These findings imply that treatment strategies for sleep problems and internet addiction should vary according to the order of their occurrence.

  2. Sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-08-01

    Although the literature has documented associations between sleep problems and internet addiction, the temporal direction of these relationships has not been established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the bidirectional relationships between sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents longitudinally. A four-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 1253 children and adolescents in grades 3, 5 and 8 from March 2013 to January 2014. The sleep problems of the student participants were measured by parental reports on the Sleep Habit Questionnaire, which catalogues early insomnia, middle insomnia, disturbed circadian rhythm, periodic leg movements, sleep terrors, sleepwalking, sleep talking, nightmares, bruxism, snoring and sleep apnoea. The severity of internet addiction was measured by students' self-reports on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Based on the results of time-lag models, dyssomnias (odds ratio = 1.31), especially early and middle insomnias (odds ratio = 1.74 and 2.24), sequentially predicted internet addiction, and internet addiction sequentially predicted disturbed circadian rhythm (odds ratio = 2.40), regardless of adjustment for gender and age. This is the first study to demonstrate the temporal relationship of early and middle insomnia predicting internet addiction, which subsequently predicts disturbed circadian rhythm. These findings imply that treatment strategies for sleep problems and internet addiction should vary according to the order of their occurrence. PMID:26854132

  3. Diet, growth, and obesity development throughout childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R

    2015-10-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children covering diet, growth, and obesity development during childhood are reviewed. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires and food records. Growth data were collected by routine measurements, and in standardized clinics, body fatness was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scans. Diets changed dramatically during the preschool period with an increase in the intake of free (added) sugars (12.3% rising to 16.4% of energy) that remained similar until adolescence. This was due to increased intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Two periods of rapid growth were identified; infancy and mid-childhood (ages 7-11 y) and both were associated with obesity development. Diets with high energy density were associated with increasing fat mass from mid-childhood until adolescence. Genetic and dietary factors showed independent associations with increasing adiposity. At all ages studied, there were dietary inequalities related to maternal educational attainment that may influence inequalities found in obesity development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided valuable insights into how disparities in diet and growth may affect the development of ill health in adulthood.

  4. Diet, growth, and obesity development throughout childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Louise R.

    2015-01-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children covering diet, growth, and obesity development during childhood are reviewed. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires and food records. Growth data were collected by routine measurements, and in standardized clinics, body fatness was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scans. Diets changed dramatically during the preschool period with an increase in the intake of free (added) sugars (12.3% rising to 16.4% of energy) that remained similar until adolescence. This was due to increased intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Two periods of rapid growth were identified; infancy and mid-childhood (ages 7–11 y) and both were associated with obesity development. Diets with high energy density were associated with increasing fat mass from mid-childhood until adolescence. Genetic and dietary factors showed independent associations with increasing adiposity. At all ages studied, there were dietary inequalities related to maternal educational attainment that may influence inequalities found in obesity development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided valuable insights into how disparities in diet and growth may affect the development of ill health in adulthood. PMID:26395342

  5. Aggression, social competence, and academic achievement in Chinese children: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Huang, Xiaorui; Chang, Lei; Wang, Li; Li, Dan

    2010-08-01

    The primary purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine, in a sample of Chinese children (initial M age = 8 years, N = 1,140), contributions of aggression to the development of social competence and academic achievement. Five waves of panel data on aggression and social and school performance were collected from peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records in Grades 2 to 5. Structural equation modeling revealed that aggression had unique effects on later social competence and academic achievement after their stabilities were controlled, particularly in the junior grades. Aggression also had significant indirect effects on social and academic outcomes through multiple pathways. Social competence and academic achievement contributed to the development of each other, but not aggression. The results indicate cascade effects of aggression in Chinese children from a developmental perspective.

  6. Precursors of Language Ability and Academic Performance: An Intergenerational, Longitudinal Study of At-Risk Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campisi, Lisa; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    The current investigation examined whether inter-generational transfer of risk could be revealed through mothers' and preschool-aged children's expressive language, and whether continuity of risk persisted in these children's academic abilities, 3 years later. Participating families were drawn from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project, a…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Performance on Simple Multiplication and Division Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Brauwer, Jolien; Fias, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the performance on simple multiplication and division problems of 8-year-old children longitudinally to determine the developmental trajectories of both operations. Twice a year, during 2 consecutive school years, children performed a multiplication and division verification task and a number-matching task. All effects…

  8. MALOCCLUSIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in children.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor

    2015-01-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of the prevalence of malocclusions and possible self-correction of malocclusions during the development of the dentition. Early intervention might be unnecessary if self-correction of the malocclusion occurs during the transition from the primary to the permanent dentition. Most studies are cross-sectional and in those of longitudinal design, the results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Malocclusions may or may not influence the quality of life in children and adolescents. Thus, evaluations of the influence of different malocclusions on quality of life will certainly underpin a broader understanding and knowledge about how malocclusions affect the daily life of young patients. This information may also be important when it comes to assessing the most appropriate time for starting orthodontic treatment, not only from a professional point of view, but also, most importantly, from the patients' perspective. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusions, and to document changes occurring during the development of the dentition, from the primary dentition stage at age 3, through the mixed dentition at age 7, to the early permanent dentition at age 11.5 years. Further aims were to review the current state of knowledge about the impact of malocclusions on oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to investigate how malocclusions affect the quality of life in a cohort of children, aged 11.5 years, whose dental care is provided by the Swedish Public Dental Service.

  9. Diagnosis of a trend towards obesity in preschool children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Oya; Kinik, Sibel Tulgar; Aka, Sibel

    2011-06-01

    The study was planned to determine identifiable starting points of a trend towards obesity and the influence of variables in preschool children aged 0 to 6 years. In this longitudinal follow-up study, 102 children were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements such as weight-height centiles (specific for gender and age group), weight-height growth velocities, and body mass indices were taken annually and compared within each group from birth to 6 years. Family history and lifestyle variables were also recorded and compared. Our study has shown that gender does not affect the trend towards obesity. In obese children, the earliest sign of a trend was the rapid increase of weight and weight gain velocity after 6 months. There were upward trends in the BMI values indicating obesity at 1 year of age in boys and at 6 months of age in girls. The height was higher in obese children than in non-obese ones after 4 years of age. Paternal obesity and having an obese sibling were significant risk factors for obesity. In conclusion, 6 months are considered to be the most critical periods for evaluating the development of obesity in childhood. The efforts for preventing obesity should be initiated at 6 months of age.

  10. A longitudinal study of auditory evoked field and language development in young children.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Ueno, Sanae; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Remijn, Gerard B; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Furutani, Naoki; Oi, Manabu; Munesue, Toshio; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2014-11-01

    The relationship between language development in early childhood and the maturation of brain functions related to the human voice remains unclear. Because the development of the auditory system likely correlates with language development in young children, we investigated the relationship between the auditory evoked field (AEF) and language development using non-invasive child-customized magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a longitudinal design. Twenty typically developing children were recruited (aged 36-75 months old at the first measurement). These children were re-investigated 11-25 months after the first measurement. The AEF component P1m was examined to investigate the developmental changes in each participant's neural brain response to vocal stimuli. In addition, we examined the relationships between brain responses and language performance. P1m peak amplitude in response to vocal stimuli significantly increased in both hemispheres in the second measurement compared to the first measurement. However, no differences were observed in P1m latency. Notably, our results reveal that children with greater increases in P1m amplitude in the left hemisphere performed better on linguistic tests. Thus, our results indicate that P1m evoked by vocal stimuli is a neurophysiological marker for language development in young children. Additionally, MEG is a technique that can be used to investigate the maturation of the auditory cortex based on auditory evoked fields in young children. This study is the first to demonstrate a significant relationship between the development of the auditory processing system and the development of language abilities in young children.

  11. Analysis of BMI of preschool children--results of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Christiane; Schüler, Grit

    2009-03-01

    Exceeding weight gain in childhood is a prevailing issue in industrialised countries, such as in Germany. The aim of this study was to detect a critical age for exceeding weight gain. It is assumed that especially in the early years of life, the years of nursery school age, the individual development of weight is fundamental for the prediction of obesity. The data of 638 children (324 boys and 314 girls) and the data of additional 1390 children of a preceding longitudinal study were analysed. The results show that overweight newborns are not at higher risk of becoming overweight children later, in the first place. But the results identify a high risk of becoming overweight for children 4.5-years-old through a BMI rebound. In addition, this comparably earlier BMI rebound is linked with an increasing percentage of body fat. This leads to the assumption, that a comparably early BMI rebound is remarkably atypical for healthy child development. The results are also interrelated with the test person's sex. Endangered girls are of pyknomorphic body type. In contrast, the boys' results are independent of the body type. Obesity of boys therefore is strongly assumed to be caused by environmental factors.

  12. Assessment of neuropsychological trajectories in longitudinal population-based studies of children

    PubMed Central

    White, R F; Campbell, R; Echeverria, D; Knox, S S; Janulewicz, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a strategy for the assessment of brain function in longitudinal cohort studies of children. The proposed strategy invokes both domain-specific and omnibus intelligence test approaches. In order to minimise testing burden and practice effects, the cohort is divided into four groups with one-quarter tested at 6-monthly intervals in the 0–2-year age range (at ages 6 months, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 years) and at annual intervals from ages 3–20 (one-quarter of the children at age 3, another at age 4, etc). This strategy allows investigation of cognitive development and of the relationship between environmental influences and development at each age. It also allows introduction of new domains of function when age-appropriate. As far as possible, tests are used that will provide a rich source of both longitudinal and cross-sectional data. The testing strategy allows the introduction of novel tests and new domains as well as piloting of tests when the test burden is relatively light. In addition to the recommended tests for each age and domain, alternative tests are described. Assessment methodology and knowledge about child cognitive development will change over the next 20 years, and strategies are suggested for altering the proposed test schedule as appropriate. PMID:19098136

  13. Use of biomarkers to indicate exposure of children to organophosphate pesticides: implications for a longitudinal study of children's environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Denise; Barr, Dana B; Mendola, Pauline

    2003-01-01

    Because of their history of widespread use in the United States and unknown long-term health effects, organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are being considered as a chemical class of interest in planning for the National Children's Study, a longitudinal study of children's environmental health. The availability and appropriate use of biomarkers to determine absorbed doses of environmental chemicals such as OPs are critical issues. Biomarkers of OP exposure are typically measured in blood and urine; however, postpartum meconium has been shown to be a promising matrix for assessing cumulative in utero exposure to the fetus, and studies are currently in progress to determine the utility of using saliva and amniotic fluid as matrices. In this article, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available OP exposure monitoring methods (cholinesterase inhibition in blood, pesticides in blood, metabolites in urine and alternative matrices); study design issues for a large, long-term study of children's environmental health; and current research and future research needs. Because OPs are rapidly metabolized and excreted, the utility of one-time spot measurements of OP biomarkers is questionable unless background exposure levels are relatively stable over time or a specific time frame of interest for the study is identified and samples are collected accordingly. Biomarkers of OP exposure can be a valuable tool in epidemiology of children's environmental health, as long as they are applied and interpreted appropriately. PMID:14644670

  14. A 10-year longitudinal fMRI study of narrative comprehension in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Altaye, Mekibib; Rajagopal, Akila; Eaton, Kenneth; Meng, Xiangxiang; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2012-11-15

    Comprehension of spoken narratives requires coordination of multiple language skills. As such, for normal children narrative skills develop well into the school years and, during this period, are particularly vulnerable in the face of brain injury or developmental disorder. For these reasons, we sought to determine the developmental trajectory of narrative processing using longitudinal fMRI scanning. 30 healthy children between the ages of 5 and 18 enrolled at ages 5, 6, or 7, were examined annually for up to 10 years. At each fMRI session, children were presented with a set of five, 30s-long, stories containing 9, 10, or 11 sentences designed to be understood by a 5 year old child. fMRI data analysis was conducted based on a hierarchical linear model (HLM) that was modified to investigate developmental changes while accounting for missing data and controlling for factors such as age, linguistic performance and IQ. Performance testing conducted after each scan indicated well above the chance (p<0.002) comprehension performance. There was a linear increase with increasing age in bilateral superior temporal cortical activation (BAs 21 and 22) linked to narrative processing. Conversely, age-related decreases in cortical activation were observed in bilateral occipital regions, cingulate and cuneus, possibly reflecting changes in the default mode networks. The dynamic changes observed in this longitudinal fMRI study support the increasing role of bilateral BAs 21 and 22 in narrative comprehension, involving non-domain-specific integration in order to achieve final story interpretation. The presence of a continued linear development of this area throughout childhood and teenage years with no apparent plateau, indicates that full maturation of narrative processing skills has not yet occurred and that it may be delayed to early adulthood.

  15. Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Cognitive Development in Children to Age 8 Years: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Blood, Emily; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood trauma exposure has been associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The influence of timing of exposure on the magnitude and persistence of deficits is not well understood. The impact of exposure in early development has been especially under-investigated. This study examined the impact of interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT) in the first years of life on childhood cognitive functioning. Methods Children (N = 206) participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study were assessed prospectively for exposure to IPT (physical or emotional abuse or neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing maternal partner violence) between birth and 64 months. Child intelligent quotient scores (IQ) were assessed at 24, 64, and 96 months of age. Race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home were also assessed. Results IPT was significantly associated with decreased cognitive scores at all time points, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home. IPT in the first two years appeared to be especially detrimental. On average, compared to children not exposed to IPT in the first two years, exposed children scored one-half standard deviation lower across cognitive assessments. Conclusion IPT in early life may have adverse effects on cognitive development. IPT during the first two years may have particular impact, with effects persisting at least into later childhood. PMID:22493459

  16. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes

  17. Is All-Day Kindergarten Better for Children's Academic Performance? Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the long-term effects of all-day kindergarten programs on children's academic performance. The study used three waves of data from a nationally representative database from the United States, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS), with the first wave at the beginning of kindergarten and the third wave…

  18. Children's Media Use and Self-Regulation Behavior: Longitudinal Associations in a Nationwide Japanese Study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Sachiko; Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Sanada, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-10-01

    Objective The effect of media use on child behavior has long been a concern. Although studies have shown robust cross-sectional relations between TV viewing and child behavior, longitudinal studies remain scarce. Methods We analyzed the Longitudinal Survey of Babies, conducted by Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare since 2001. Among 53,575 families, 47,010 responded to the baseline survey; they were followed up every year for 8 years. Complete data were available for longitudinal analysis among 32,439 participants. Daily media use (TV viewing and video game-playing hours at ages 3, 4, and 5 years) was used as the main exposure. We employed an index of the children's self-regulatory behavior as the outcome variable. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Results Among boys, longer TV-viewing times at ages 4 and 5 were related to problematic self-regulatory behavior. Compared with boys who watched just 1-2 h of TV a day, those who watched it 4-5 h had a 1.79-fold greater risk (CI 1.22-2.64) of problematic self-regulatory behavior, according to parental report. Among girls, similar results were evident at ages 4 and 5 (e.g., adjusted odds ratios for 4-5 h daily viewing versus 1-2 h at age 4: 2.59; 95 % CI 1.59-4.22). Video games may have a protective effect on the risk of problematic self-regulatory behavior at ages 3 and 5. Conclusion Longer daily exposure to TV during early childhood (age 4-5) may be associated with subsequent problematic child self-regulatory behavior. PMID:27334636

  19. Children's Media Use and Self-Regulation Behavior: Longitudinal Associations in a Nationwide Japanese Study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Sachiko; Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Sanada, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-10-01

    Objective The effect of media use on child behavior has long been a concern. Although studies have shown robust cross-sectional relations between TV viewing and child behavior, longitudinal studies remain scarce. Methods We analyzed the Longitudinal Survey of Babies, conducted by Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare since 2001. Among 53,575 families, 47,010 responded to the baseline survey; they were followed up every year for 8 years. Complete data were available for longitudinal analysis among 32,439 participants. Daily media use (TV viewing and video game-playing hours at ages 3, 4, and 5 years) was used as the main exposure. We employed an index of the children's self-regulatory behavior as the outcome variable. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Results Among boys, longer TV-viewing times at ages 4 and 5 were related to problematic self-regulatory behavior. Compared with boys who watched just 1-2 h of TV a day, those who watched it 4-5 h had a 1.79-fold greater risk (CI 1.22-2.64) of problematic self-regulatory behavior, according to parental report. Among girls, similar results were evident at ages 4 and 5 (e.g., adjusted odds ratios for 4-5 h daily viewing versus 1-2 h at age 4: 2.59; 95 % CI 1.59-4.22). Video games may have a protective effect on the risk of problematic self-regulatory behavior at ages 3 and 5. Conclusion Longer daily exposure to TV during early childhood (age 4-5) may be associated with subsequent problematic child self-regulatory behavior.

  20. Obesity and sugar-sweetened beverages in African-American preschool children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Zoellner, Jamie M; Lee, Joyce M; Burt, Brian A; Sandretto, Anita M; Sohn, Woosung; Ismail, Amid I; Lepkowski, James M

    2009-06-01

    A representative sample of 365 low-income African-American preschool children aged 3-5 years was studied to determine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (soda, fruit drinks, and both combined) and overweight and obesity. Children were examined at a dental clinic in 2002-2003 and again after 2 years. Dietary information was collected using the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. A BMI score was computed from recorded height and weight. Overweight and obesity were defined by national reference age-sex specific BMI: those with an age-sex specific BMI>or=85th, but <95th percentile as overweight and those with BMI>or=95th age-sex specific percentile as obese. The prevalence of overweight was 12.9% in baseline, and increased to 18.7% after 2 years. The prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3 to 20.4% during the same period. Baseline intake of soda and all sugar-sweetened beverages were positively associated with baseline BMI z-scores. After adjusting for covariates, additional intake of fruit drinks and all sugar-sweetened beverages at baseline showed significantly higher odds of incidence of overweight over 2 years. Among a longitudinal cohort of African-American preschool children, high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was significantly associated with an increased risk for obesity.

  1. Changes of Respiratory Exchange Ratio in Children and Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Jelec, Zeljko; Matković, Branka R; Lebo, Ana; Jelec, Drazen; Matković, Andro

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to examine changes in the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during progressively increasing body exertion in children and adolescents of female sex. In this analysis we only included 23 examinees for which we had all yearly measurements from examinee's age 9 years until 18 years of age. The data were analyzed according to the chronological and biological age. According to both criteria, the highest RER values were recorded at moments of maximum exertion and they did not increase with age. We found the highest RER values were in the year of the menarche. We interpret these results as related to the effect of estrogen. The beginning of sexual development involves a gradual increase in estrogen plasma concentrations. At one point serum levels of estrogen reach a level high, enough to allow for maximum RER values, i.e. causing the optimum anaerobic capacity of the examinee. This threshold estrogen value varies between individuals. PMID:26898052

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Lexical Development in Children Learning Vietnamese and English

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study modeled lexical development among children who spoke Vietnamese as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Participants (n=33, initial mean age of 7.3 years) completed a total of eight tasks (four in each language) that measured vocabulary knowledge and lexical processing at four yearly time points. Multivariate hierarchical linear modeling was used to calculate L1 and L2 trajectories within the same model for each task. Main findings included (a) positive growth in each language, (b) greater gains in English resulting in shifts toward L2 dominance, and (c) different patterns for receptive and expressive domains. Timing of shifts to L2 dominance underscored L1 skills that are resilient and vulnerable to increases in L2 proficiency. PMID:23869741

  3. Speech Perception and Production by Sequential Bilingual Children: A Longitudinal Study of Voice Onset Time Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Kathleen M.; Mahon, Merle; Rosen, Stuart; Evans, Bronwen G.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of bilingual speech research has focused on simultaneous bilinguals. Yet, in immigrant communities, children are often initially exposed to their family language (L1), before becoming gradually immersed in the host country's language (L2). This is typically referred to as sequential bilingualism. Using a longitudinal design, this…

  4. Longitudinal Study of Averaged Auditory Evoked Potentials in Normal Children from Birth to Three Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlrich, Elizabeth S.; And Others

    This study examined individual patterns of the maturation of auditory evoked potential (AEP) in normal infants to determine whether longitudinal data show less variability than cross-sectional data, and to further assess the effect of stage of sleep on AEP. The AEPs for 10 children were examined by repeated testing between the ages of about two…

  5. Does Maternal Depression Predict Young Children's Executive Function?--A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire; Roman, Gabriela; Hart, Martha J.; Ensor, Rosie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Building on reports that parental maltreatment and neglect adversely affect young children's executive function (EF), this longitudinal study examined whether exposure to a more common risk factor, mothers' depressive symptoms, predicted individual differences in EF at school-age. Methods: We followed up at age 6 a socially…

  6. Effects of the Peer Group on the Development of Social Functioning and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun; He, Yunfeng

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial mean ages = 9.5 and 12.7 years, N = 505), how the peer group contributed to social functioning and academic achievement and their associations. Data on informal peer groups, social functioning, and academic achievement were collected from multiple sources. Multilevel…

  7. Longitudinal Studies of the Effects and Costs of Early Intervention for Handicapped Children. Annual Report 1987-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Univ., Logan. Early Intervention Research Inst.

    The 1987-88 annual report reviews progress on 17 longitudinal studies to determine the efficacy of early intervention with handicapped children. The overview chapter reviews previous research on this topic; considers ethical, practical, and scientific considerations of randomized experiments in early childhood special education; examines benefits…

  8. Advancing Research on Children with Speech-Language Impairment: An Introduction to the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashburn, Andrew J.; Myers, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K; U.S. Department of Education, 2000) includes comprehensive assessments of home, classroom, and school contexts and developmental outcomes for a nationally representative sample of more than 20,000 children who began kindergarten in 1998-1999. The purposes of this article…

  9. Excessive Reassurance Seeking, Hassles, and Depressive Symptoms in Children of Affectively Ill Parents: A Multiwave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abela, John R. Z.; Zuroff, David C.; Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Adams, Philippe; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined whether excessive reassurance seeking serves as a vulnerability factor to depression in a sample of high-risk youth using a multiwave longitudinal design. At Time 1, 140 children (aged 6-14) of affectively disordered parents completed measures assessing reassurance seeking and depressive symptoms. In addition, every 6…

  10. The relations of parental warmth and positive expressiveness to children's empathy-related responding and social functioning: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H; Fabes, Richard A; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K; Murphy, Bridget C; Cumberland, Amanda J; Shepard, Stephanie A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parental observed warmth and positive expressivity to children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems in a sample of 180 elementary school children. Data was collected when the children were in second to fifth grades (age: M = 112.8 months), and again 2 years later. Cross-sectional and longitudinal structural equation models supported the hypothesis that parents' (mostly mothers') positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and children's empathy mediated the relation between parental positive expressivity and children's social functioning. These relations persisted after controlling for prior levels of parenting and child characteristics. Moreover, concurrent and cross-time consistencies were found on measures of parenting, children's situational empathic responding, and social functioning. PMID:12038559

  11. The relations of parental warmth and positive expressiveness to children's empathy-related responding and social functioning: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H; Fabes, Richard A; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K; Murphy, Bridget C; Cumberland, Amanda J; Shepard, Stephanie A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parental observed warmth and positive expressivity to children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems in a sample of 180 elementary school children. Data was collected when the children were in second to fifth grades (age: M = 112.8 months), and again 2 years later. Cross-sectional and longitudinal structural equation models supported the hypothesis that parents' (mostly mothers') positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and children's empathy mediated the relation between parental positive expressivity and children's social functioning. These relations persisted after controlling for prior levels of parenting and child characteristics. Moreover, concurrent and cross-time consistencies were found on measures of parenting, children's situational empathic responding, and social functioning.

  12. Current smoking behaviour among rural South African children: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of tobacco products is the major cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. Most smokers start the smoking habits from childhood and adolescent stages. Method This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 1654 subjects (854 boys and 800 girls), aged 11 to 18 years, who were part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study completed the questionnaire. Association between tobacco products use and habits, attitudes and beliefs were explored in this study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association. Results The prevalence of tobacco product use increases with increasing (4.9 to 17.1%) age among boys whereas girls do not smoke cigarette but only considerable number (1.0 to 4.1%) use home made tobacco products (pipe and snuff) among the Ellisras rural children. Parents and grand parents play a significant (about 50%) role in influencing smoking behaviour among the Ellisras rural children. Seeing actors smoking on TV shows was positively associated (p < 0.05) with smoking (OR = 2.3 95%CI (1.3-4.1 and OR = 2.3 95%CI 1.3-4.1 after adjusting for age and gender). However, women who smoke cigarette were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with success and success and wealth (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.2) even after adjusting for age and gender (OR = 2.9 95% CI 1.5-5.4). Conclusion The usage of tobacco products was high among older boys. Girls did not smoke cigarette. This tobacco use behaviour mirrors the cultural norms and adult behaviour. The association of this tobacco used products with biological parameters will shed more light on the health of these children over time. PMID:21699687

  13. Cohort Profile: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: ALSPAC mothers cohort.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Boyd, Andy; Golding, Jean; Davey Smith, George; Henderson, John; Macleod, John; Molloy, Lynn; Ness, Andy; Ring, Susan; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2013-02-01

    Summary The Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC) was established to understand how genetic and environmental characteristics influence health and development in parents and children. All pregnant women resident in a defined area in the South West of England, with an expected date of delivery between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992, were eligible and 13761 women (contributing 13867 pregnancies) were recruited. These women have been followed over the last 19-22 years and have completed up to 20 questionnaires, have had detailed data abstracted from their medical records and have information on any cancer diagnoses and deaths through record linkage. A follow-up assessment was completed 17-18 years postnatal at which anthropometry, blood pressure, fat, lean and bone mass and carotid intima media thickness were assessed, and a fasting blood sample taken. The second follow-up clinic, which additionally measures cognitive function, physical capability, physical activity (with accelerometer) and wrist bone architecture, is underway and two further assessments with similar measurements will take place over the next 5 years. There is a detailed biobank that includes DNA, with genome-wide data available on >10000, stored serum and plasma taken repeatedly since pregnancy and other samples; a wide range of data on completed biospecimen assays are available. Details of how to access these data are provided in this cohort profile.

  14. Outdoor temperature, precipitation, and wind speed affect physical activity levels in children: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Nicholas M.; Myer, Gregory D.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Khoury, Philip R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood. Methods Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature < 65°F or ≥ 65°F, respectively), wind, and precipitation. Mixed regression analyses, adjusted for repeated measures, were used to test the relationship between weather and physical activity. Results Precipitation and wind speed were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<0.0001). Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all P<0.0001), independent of age, sex, race, BMI, day length, wind, and precipitation. For every 10 additional heating degrees there was a five-minute daily reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies. PMID:25423667

  15. Local social environmental factors are associated with household food insecurity in a longitudinal study of children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Food insecurity is a significant public health problem in North America and elsewhere. The prevalence of food insecurity varies by country of residence; within countries, it is strongly associated with household socioeconomic status, but the local environment may also play an important role. In this study, we analyzed secondary data from a population-based survey conducted in Québec, Canada, to determine if five local environmental factors: material and social deprivation, social cohesion, disorder, and living location were associated with changes in household food insecurity over a period of 6 years, while adjusting for household socioeconomic status (SES) and other factors. Methods Data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, following same-aged children from 4–10 y of age, were analyzed using generalized estimating equations, to determine the longitudinal association between these environmental factors and food insecurity over a period of 6 years. Results Of the 2120 children originally included in the cohort, 1746 (82%) were included in the present analysis. The prevalence of food insecurity was 9.2% when children were 4 y of age (95% CI: 7.8 – 10.6%) but no significant changes were observed over time. On average over the 6 year period, three environmental factors were positively related to food insecurity: high social deprivation (OR 1.62, 95%CI: 1.16 – 2.26), low social cohesion (OR 1.45 95%CI: 1.10 – 1.92), and high disorder (OR 1.76, 95%CI: 1.37 – 2.27), while living location and material deprivation were not related to food insecurity. These associations were independent of household SES and other social variables. Conclusion These results highlight the potential role of the local social environment in preventing and ameliorating food insecurity at the household level. Stakeholders providing food security interventions at the community level should consider interactions with local social characteristics and perhaps

  16. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    PubMed

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  17. White-Matter Development is Different in Bilingual and Monolingual Children: A Longitudinal DTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10–13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways. PMID:25706865

  18. Longitudinal study of EEG frequency maturation and power changes in children on the Russian North.

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Shemyakina, N V; Nagornova, Zh V; Bekshaev, S S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal longitudinal changes in electroencephalogram spectral power and frequency (percentage frequency composition of EEG and alpha peak frequency) patterns in normal children from northern Russia. Fifteen children (9 girls and 6 boys) participated in the study. The resting state (eyes closed) EEGs were recorded yearly (2005-2013) from age 8 to age 16-17 for each child. EEG frequency patterns were estimated as the percentages of waves with a 1 Hz step revealed by measuring the interval durations between points crossing zero (isoline) by a curve. EEG spectral power changes were analyzed for delta (1.5-4 Hz), theta (4-7.5 Hz), alpha-1 (7.5-9.5 Hz), alpha-2 (9.5-12.5 Hz), beta-1 (12.5-18 Hz) and beta-2 (18-30 Hz) bands. According to the frequency composition of the EEG signals fast synchronous, polymorphous synchronous, polymorphous desynchronous and slow synchronous types of children EEG were revealed. These EEG types were relatively stable during adolescence. In these EEG types, the frequency patterns and spectral power dynamics with age had several common and specific features. Slow wave percentage and spectral power in the delta band remarkably decreased with age in all groups. Starting from the theta band the EEG types were characterized by different EEG spectral power changes with age. In fast synchronous EEG type, the theta and alpha-1 EEG power decreased, and the alpha-2 power increased in the occipital and parietal areas. The polymorphous synchronous type was characterized by increased both the alpha-1 and alpha-2 power with regional peculiarities. In the polymorphous desynchronous type spectral power in all bands decreased with age, and in the slow synchronous type, the alpha-1 power massively increased with age. Obtained results suggest predictive strength of the spatial-frequency patterns in EEG for its following maturation through the years. PMID:25219895

  19. A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Depression in Children with Developmental Disabilities in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooshtari, Shahin; Brownell, Marni; Dik, Natalia; Chateau, Dan; Yu, C. T.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Burchill, Charles A.; Wetzel, Monika

    2014-01-01

    In this population-based study, prevalence of depression was estimated and compared between children with and without developmental disability (DD). Twelve years of administrative data were linked to identify a cohort of children with DD living in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Children in the study cohort were matched with children without DD…

  20. Adverse Consequences of School Mobility for Children in Foster Care: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Buchanan, Rohanna; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined school mobility in children in foster care. This study described the school moves of 86 such children and 55 community comparison children (primarily Caucasian), living in a medium-sized metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest who were approximately 3 to 6 years old at the study start. Additionally, the…

  1. Maltreated children's representations of mother and an additional caregiver: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Manashko, Shany; Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz

    2009-04-01

    In the current longitudinal investigation, we explored the continuity of and changes in the mental representations of the mother and an additional caregiver among forty-five 9- to 11-year-old children who had been severely maltreated and subsequently placed in long-term residential care as well as the relationships between the content and structure of these representations and teacher's assessments of the child's externalizing and internalizing symptoms. At Time 1, a nonmaltreated comparison group was assessed concomitantly. Compared to nonmaltreated children, maltreated children scored higher for externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and their maternal representations were found to be significantly less benevolent and integrated and more punitive. In addition, among the maltreated children, the additional caregiver representations were found to be more benevolent and integrated, and less punitive, than the maternal representations. After 30 months, the maltreated children's levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms diminished, their maternal representations become more benevolent and less punitive, and the additional caregiver representations became less benevolent. Moreover, the Benevolence of the additional caregiver representation was found to predict these children's changes in externalizing symptoms beyond the effects of their symptomatology and its associations with the Benevolence of these representations at Time 1. PMID:19220720

  2. A Method For The Longitudinal Study Of Behavioral Development In Infants And Children: The Early Development Of XXY Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Stanley; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes preliminary results from a behavioral study of 13 male infants who were ascertained to have an XX Y sex chromosome complement at birth and who are being followed longitudinally through early ontogenesis. (CM)

  3. Parents' Causal Attributions Concerning Their Children's School Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytkonen, Katja; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the causes to which parents attribute their children's academic successes and failures during children's transition from preschool to primary school. It followed 182 mothers and 167 fathers of 207 children. The parents completed a questionnaire concerning their causal attributions, level of education, and parenting…

  4. Parenting Stress and Social Support in Hearing Mothers of Deaf and Hearing Children: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederberg, Amy R.; Golbach, Traci

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 23 mothers of children with deafness and 23 controls investigated the impact of child deafness on stress, social networks, and social support satisfaction. When children were 22 months, mothers of children with deafness expressed more stress, however at ages 3 and 4, stress was comparable to controls. (Contains references.)…

  5. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Giallo, Rebecca; Bahreinian, Salma; Brown, Stephanie; Cooklin, Amanda; Kingston, Dawn; Kozyrskyj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  6. Longitudinal association of neighborhood variables with Body Mass Index in Dutch school-age children: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Swantje C; Sleddens, Ester F C; de Vries, Sanne I; Gubbels, Jessica; Thijs, Carel

    2015-06-01

    Changes in the neighborhood environment may explain part of the rapid increase in childhood overweight and obesity during the last decades. To date few theory-driven rather than data-driven studies have explored longitudinal associations between multiple neighborhood characteristics and child body weight development. We aimed to assess the relationship between physical, social and perceived safety related characteristics of the neighborhood and Body Mass Index (BMI) development in children during early school age, using a longitudinal design. We included an examination of moderating and confounding factors based on a conceptual model adapted from the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention) and empirical research. Analyses included 1887 children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study followed from baseline age 4-5 years until 8-9 years. For children age 4-5 years, parents completed a questionnaire measuring characteristics of the neighborhood. Reliability and factor analyses were used to identify constructs for neighborhood characteristics. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between neighborhood constructs and BMI z-scores cross-sectionally at age 4-5 years and longitudinally using Generalized Estimating Equations with BMI z-scores over 5 repeated measurements until age 8-9 years. Fourteen constructs were identified and grouped in three domains including perceived physical, social, or safety related characteristics of the neighborhood. Cross-sectionally, a lower BMI z-score was associated with higher perceived physical attractiveness of the neighborhood environment (standardized regression coefficient (β) -0.078, 95% CI -0.123 to -0.034) and a higher level of social capital (β -0.142, -0.264 to -0.019). Longitudinally, similar associations were observed with potentially even stronger regression coefficients. This study suggests that BMI in children is mainly related to the modifiable physical

  7. Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology—A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Borgestig, Maria; Sandqvist, Jan; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with a before and after design was conducted on 10 children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance. PMID:26496529

  8. Initial mental graphemic representation acquisition and later literacy achievement in children with language impairment: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Julie A; Self, Trisha; Apel, Kenn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between the ability to quickly acquire initial mental graphemic representations (MGRs) in kindergarten and fourth grade literacy skills in children with typical language (TL) and children with language impairment (LI). The study is a longitudinal extension of a study conducted by Wolter and Apel in which kindergarten children with LI and TL were administered early literacy measures as well as a novel written pseudoword task of MGR learning (spelling and identification of target pseudowords). In the current study (4 years later), the authors administered reading and spelling measures to 37 of the original 45 children (18 children with LI, 19 children with TL). The children with LI performed significantly lower than their peers with TL on all fourth grade literacy measures. For both groups, kindergarten initial MGR acquisition ability significantly related to fourth grade real-word reading and spelling. For the children with LI, kindergarten initial MGR acquisition ability also related to fourth grade pseudoword decoding and reading comprehension. Collectively, the findings suggest that initial MGR learning in kindergarten is an essential skill that may uniquely relate to later literacy abilities. PMID:21252375

  9. Initial mental graphemic representation acquisition and later literacy achievement in children with language impairment: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Julie A; Self, Trisha; Apel, Kenn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between the ability to quickly acquire initial mental graphemic representations (MGRs) in kindergarten and fourth grade literacy skills in children with typical language (TL) and children with language impairment (LI). The study is a longitudinal extension of a study conducted by Wolter and Apel in which kindergarten children with LI and TL were administered early literacy measures as well as a novel written pseudoword task of MGR learning (spelling and identification of target pseudowords). In the current study (4 years later), the authors administered reading and spelling measures to 37 of the original 45 children (18 children with LI, 19 children with TL). The children with LI performed significantly lower than their peers with TL on all fourth grade literacy measures. For both groups, kindergarten initial MGR acquisition ability significantly related to fourth grade real-word reading and spelling. For the children with LI, kindergarten initial MGR acquisition ability also related to fourth grade pseudoword decoding and reading comprehension. Collectively, the findings suggest that initial MGR learning in kindergarten is an essential skill that may uniquely relate to later literacy abilities.

  10. Children's Drawing and Painting from a Cognitive Perspective: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, E. Beverley

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal study undertaken with 40 pre-schoolers during their last six months in an early childhood centre and their first six months at school. The study presents an investigation of the pathways that child drawers and painters make towards representational depictions. As such its primary focus is on cognitive processes.…

  11. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 grams) is related to attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  12. Longitudinal Study of Nightmares in Children: Stability and Effect of Emotional Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…

  13. Cultural Mediation of Children's Cosmologies: A longitudinal study of the astronomy concepts of Chinese and New Zealand children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryce, T. G. K.; Blown, E. J.

    2006-08-01

    These longitudinal studies investigated the cultural mediation of children’s thinking about the Earth using an interview technique designed to elicit responses from children from all “levels” of their conceptual organization (intuitive, cultural, and scientific). Close scrutiny of the research literature in this field reveals that some strategies used in the past to probe children’s ideas have been influenced by the background of the interviewer, either in the design of their questions or in the use made of concrete props (e.g., of the Earth’s shape). This has tended to obscure the degree of cultural influence in those interviewed. Central to the current research was the development of an interview method (“instrument attunement”) that was flexible, culturally adaptable, and could be tuned to the response level of the child. The participants included 129 boys and 113 girls from China, and 217 boys and 227 girls from New Zealand. The methodology utilizing observational astronomy led into discussion of the motion and shape of the Earth, Sun and Moon. Surprisingly, the development of children’s concepts was found to be remarkably similar within the three main ethnic groups (Han, New Zealand European and New Zealand Maori) in the two cultures (China and New Zealand). Cases of cultural mediation were detected using the new methodology but these could be assimilated into a common taxonomy of cosmological concepts for all participants.

  14. Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity and Longitudinal Growth in Children With Solid Tumors: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Triana, Clímaco Andres; Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo D; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Jiménez-Méndez, Ricardo; Medina, Aurora; Clark, Patricia; Rassekh, Rod; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Carleton, Bruce; Medeiros, Mara

    2015-08-01

    Cisplatin, a major antineoplastic drug used in the treatment of solid tumors, is a known nephrotoxin. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the prevalence and severity of cisplatin nephrotoxicity in 54 children and its impact on height and weight.We recorded the weight, height, serum creatinine, and electrolytes in each cisplatin cycle and after 12 months of treatment. Nephrotoxicity was graded as follows: normal renal function (Grade 0); asymptomatic electrolyte disorders, including an increase in serum creatinine, up to 1.5 times baseline value (Grade 1); need for electrolyte supplementation <3 months and/or increase in serum creatinine 1.5 to 1.9 times from baseline (Grade 2); increase in serum creatinine 2 to 2.9 times from baseline or need for electrolyte supplementation for more than 3 months after treatment completion (Grade 3); and increase in serum creatinine ≥3 times from baseline or renal replacement therapy (Grade 4).Nephrotoxicity was observed in 41 subjects (75.9%). Grade 1 nephrotoxicity was observed in 18 patients (33.3%), Grade 2 in 5 patients (9.2%), and Grade 3 in 18 patients (33.3%). None had Grade 4 nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity patients were younger and received higher cisplatin dose, they also had impairment in longitudinal growth manifested as statistically significant worsening on the height Z Score at 12 months after treatment. We used a multiple logistic regression model using the delta of height Z Score (baseline-12 months) as dependent variable in order to adjust for the main confounder variables such as: germ cell tumor, cisplatin total dose, serum magnesium levels at 12 months, gender, and nephrotoxicity grade. Patients with nephrotoxicity Grade 1 where at higher risk of not growing (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.07-24.3, P=0.04). The cisplatin total dose had a significant negative relationship with magnesium levels at 12 months (Spearman r=-0.527, P=<0.001). PMID:26313789

  15. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test

  16. Acquisition of Tense Marking in English-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ling-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of tense markers (e.g., past tense –ed) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) over a 3-year span. Nine children who received CIs before 30 months of age participated in this study at three, four, and five years postimplantation. Nine typical 3-, 4-, and 5-year- olds served as control groups. All children participated in a story-retell task. Percent correct of tense marking in the task was computed. Within the groups, percent correct of tense marking changed significantly in children with CIs and in typical children who had more hearing experience. Across the groups, children with CIs were significantly less accurate in tense marking than typical children at four and five years postimplantation. In addition, the performance of tense marking in children with CIs was correlated with their speech perception skills at earlier time points. Errors of tense marking tended to be omission rather than commission errors in typical children as well as in children with CIs. The findings suggested that despite the perceptual and processing constraints, children who received CIs may learn tense marking albeit with a delayed pattern. PMID:23288713

  17. Group Identity and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study of Group Identity, Perceived Peer Acceptance, and Friendships amongst Ethnic Minority English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Jugert, Philipp; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; Le Touze, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This research examined whether peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children reflect the social groups to which children belong and the degree to which they identify with these groups. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the influence of group identities (i.e., ethnic and national) on children's perceived peer acceptance…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of the TEACCH Program in Different Settings: The Potential Benefits of Low Intensity Intervention in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Elia, Lidia; Valeri, Giovanni; Sonnino, Fabiana; Fontana, Ilaria; Mammone, Alessia; Vicari, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study of 30 preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) to evaluate the potential benefits of the Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH). Fifteen children following a low intensity TEACCH program were assessed four times for autism severity, adaptive…

  19. Longitudinal Study of Self-Regulation, Positive Parenting, and Adjustment Problems among Physically Abused Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen.; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation…

  20. Acquisition of Tense Marking in English-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Spencer, Linda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of tense markers (e.g., past tense -ed) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) over a 3-year span. Nine children who received CIs before 30 months of age participated in this study at three, four, and five years postimplantation. Nine typical 3-, 4-, and 5-year- olds served as control groups. All children…

  1. Emotional development in children with tics: a longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, P J; Lundervold, A J; Lie, S A; Gillberg, C; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2013-03-01

    Children with tics often experience accompanying problems that may have more impact on their well being and quality of life than the tics themselves. The present study investigates characteristics and the course of associated problems. In a population-based follow-up study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of children with and without tics when they were 7-9 years old. Parents and teachers completed the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) when the children were 7-9 years (wave 1) and 4 years later (wave 2). Using strict criteria, we identified 38 children with tics in the cohort of 4,025 children (0.94% of the total cohort) with a preponderance of boys (78.9%). 22 children (57.9%) in the group with tics had only motor tics, and 16 (42.1%) had both motor and vocal tics. Children with tics had significantly higher parent- and teacher-rated SDQ total difficulty scores and subscale scores in both waves. Children with tics experienced an increase in emotional problems and in peer problems between the first and the second wave. This study in a general population indicates that the presence of tics is associated with a range of internalizing and externalizing difficulties, as well as problems in peer relationships. Moreover, our study indicates that emotional and peer problems tend to increase over time in the group of children with tics.

  2. Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Longitudinal Study of Slum-Dwelling Bangladeshi Children: Association with Severe Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Korpe, Poonum S.; Haque, Rashidul; Gilchrist, Carol; Valencia, Cristian; Niu, Feiyang; Lu, Miao; Ma, Jennie Z.; Petri, Sarah E.; Reichman, Daniel; Kabir, Mamun; Duggal, Priya; Petri, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidiosis is a common cause of infectious diarrhea in young children worldwide, and is a significant contributor to under-five mortality. Current treatment options are limited in young children. In this study, we describe the natural history of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in a birth cohort of children in Bangladesh and evaluate for association with malnutrition. Methodology/Principal Findings This is a longitudinal birth cohort study of 392 slum-dwelling Bangladeshi children followed over the first two years of life from 2008 to 2014. Children were monitored for diarrheal disease, and stool was tested for intestinal protozoa. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 3-month intervals. A subset of Cryptosporidium positive stools were genotyped for species and revealed that C. hominis was isolated from over 90% of samples. In the first two years of life, 77% of children experienced at least one infection with Cryptosporidium spp. Non-diarrheal infection (67%) was more common than diarrheal infection (6.3%) although 27% of children had both types of infection. Extreme poverty was associated with higher rates of infection (chi-square, 49.7% vs 33.3%, p = 0.006). Malnutrition was common in this cohort, 56% of children had stunted growth by age two. Children with Cryptosporidium spp. infection had a greater than 2-fold increased risk of severe stunting at age two compared to uninfected children (odds ratio 2.69, 95% CI 1.17, 6.15, p = 0.019) independent of sex, income, maternal body-mass index, maternal education and weight for age adjusted z (WAZ) score at birth. Conclusions/Significance Cryptosporidium infection is common (77%) in this cohort of slum-dwelling Bangladeshi children, and both non-diarrheal and diarrheal infections are significantly associated with a child’s growth at 2 years of age. PMID:27144404

  3. Parental literacy predicts children's literacy: a longitudinal family-risk study.

    PubMed

    Torppa, Minna; Eklund, Kenneth; van Bergen, Elsje; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2011-11-01

    This family-risk (FR) study examined whether the literacy skills of parents with dyslexia are predictive of the literacy skills of their offspring. We report data from 31 child-parent dyads where both had dyslexia (FR-D) and 68 dyads where the child did not have dyslexia (FR-ND). Findings supported the differences in liability of FR children with and without dyslexia: the parents of the FR-D children had more severe difficulties in pseudoword reading and spelling accuracy, in rapid word recognition, and in text reading fluency than the parents of the FR-ND children. Finally, parental skills were found to be significant predictors of children's Grade 3 reading and spelling. Parental skills predicted children's reading and spelling accuracy even after controlling for children's preschool skills. Our findings suggest that the literacy skills of a parent with dyslexia might be valuable in assessing early on their child's liability to dyslexia. PMID:22025422

  4. Parental literacy predicts children's literacy: a longitudinal family-risk study.

    PubMed

    Torppa, Minna; Eklund, Kenneth; van Bergen, Elsje; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2011-11-01

    This family-risk (FR) study examined whether the literacy skills of parents with dyslexia are predictive of the literacy skills of their offspring. We report data from 31 child-parent dyads where both had dyslexia (FR-D) and 68 dyads where the child did not have dyslexia (FR-ND). Findings supported the differences in liability of FR children with and without dyslexia: the parents of the FR-D children had more severe difficulties in pseudoword reading and spelling accuracy, in rapid word recognition, and in text reading fluency than the parents of the FR-ND children. Finally, parental skills were found to be significant predictors of children's Grade 3 reading and spelling. Parental skills predicted children's reading and spelling accuracy even after controlling for children's preschool skills. Our findings suggest that the literacy skills of a parent with dyslexia might be valuable in assessing early on their child's liability to dyslexia.

  5. Low-Income Mothers' Food Practices with Young Children: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…

  6. Differential Olfactory Identification in Children with Autism and Asperger's Disorder: A Comparative and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Tamara; Brewer, Warrick J.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Enticott, Peter G.; Brereton, Avril V.; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Key theories of autism implicate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compromise, while olfactory identification (OI) deficits are associated with OFC dysfunction. This study aimed to complete a 5-year follow-up of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) who previously lacked the normal age-OI association; and compare unirhinal-OI in children with HFA,…

  7. Can Alternative Education Increase Children's Early School Engagement? A Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bilde, Jerissa; Van Damme, Jan; Lamote, Carl; De Fraine, Bieke

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the impact of alternative education on children's early school engagement in terms of school enjoyment and independent participation. A sample of 2,776 children from traditional (e.g., mainstream) and alternative (Freinet and Waldorf) Flemish schools was followed from their 3rd year of kindergarten until 3rd grade. The…

  8. The Development of Falling Intonation in Young Children with Cochlear Implants: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David P.; Ertmer, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of intonation in 12 cochlear implant (CI) recipients. In a previously reported study of the first year of CI use, children who were implanted late (after 24 months) acquired intonation more rapidly than the younger participants. The older children's advantage is plausibly owing to their greater maturity.…

  9. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Adolescent Involvement in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Theory of mind (ToM) allows the understanding and prediction of other people's behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children's involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early…

  10. Development of Orthographic Knowledge in German-Speaking Children: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Arnoldi, Carolin Judith; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that children develop orthographic knowledge from the very beginning of literacy acquisition. This study investigated the development of German-speaking children's orthographic knowledge with a nonword choice task. One nonword in each pair contained a frequent consonant doublet ("zommul") and the other…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Young Children and Mental Health Care. Data Trends #114

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" discusses research on mental health care utilization among young children, up to age seven, in a low-income urban setting. Overall, the study indicates that there is a high…

  12. Growth in Reading Skills of Children from Diverse Linguistic Backgrounds: Findings from a 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Rupp, Andre A.; Siegel, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a longitudinal investigation of the reading development of a sample of 824 children (406 girls, 418 boys). The sample included 689 native English-speaking (L1) children and 135 English-language learners (ELLs) representing 33 different native languages. In kindergarten and 4th grade, children's word reading,…

  13. A longitudinal study on children's music training experience and academic development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Ma, Weiyi; Gong, Diankun; Hu, Jiehui; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relation between long-term music training and child development based on 250 Chinese elementary school students' academic development of first language (L1), second language (L2), and mathematics. We found that musician children outperformed non-musician children only on musical achievement and second language development. Additionally, although music training appeared to be correlated with children's final academic development of L1, L2, and mathematics, it did not independently contribute to the development of L1 or mathematical skills. Our findings suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings on the non-musical cognitive benefits of music learning. PMID:25068398

  14. A longitudinal study on children's music training experience and academic development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Ma, Weiyi; Gong, Diankun; Hu, Jiehui; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-07-28

    This study examined the relation between long-term music training and child development based on 250 Chinese elementary school students' academic development of first language (L1), second language (L2), and mathematics. We found that musician children outperformed non-musician children only on musical achievement and second language development. Additionally, although music training appeared to be correlated with children's final academic development of L1, L2, and mathematics, it did not independently contribute to the development of L1 or mathematical skills. Our findings suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings on the non-musical cognitive benefits of music learning.

  15. Designing and implementing a longitudinal study of children with neurological, genetic or metabolic conditions: charting the territory

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with progressive metabolic, neurological, or chromosomal conditions and their families anticipate an unknown lifespan, endure unstable and often painful symptoms, and cope with erratic emotional and spiritual crises as the condition progresses along an uncertain trajectory towards death. Much is known about the genetics and pathophysiology of these diseases, but very little has been documented about the trajectory of symptoms for children with these conditions or the associated experience of their families. A longitudinal study design will help to close this gap in knowledge. Methods/Design Charting the Territory is a longitudinal descriptive, correlational study currently underway with children 0-19 years who are diagnosed with progressive neurological, metabolic, or chromosomal conditions and their families. The purpose of the study is to determine and document the clinical progression of the condition and the associated bio-psychosocial-spiritual experiences of the parents and siblings age 7-18 years. Approximately 300 families, both newly diagnosed children and those with established conditions, are being recruited in six Canadian cities. Children and their families are being followed for a minimum of 18 months, depending on when they enroll in the study. Family data collection will continue after the child's death if the child dies during the study period. Data collection includes monthly parental assessment of the child's symptoms; an annual functional assessment of the child; and completion of established instruments every 6 months by parents to assess family functioning, marital satisfaction, health status, anxiety, depression, stress, burden, grief, spirituality, and growth, and by siblings to assess coping and health. Impact of participation on parents is assessed after 1 year and at the end of the study. Chart reviews are conducted at enrollment and at the conclusion of the study or at the time of the child's death. Discussion

  16. The development of young children's memory strategies: First findings from the Würzburg Longitudinal Memory Study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Wolfgang; Kron, Veronika; Hünnerkopf, Michael; Krajewski, Kristin

    2004-06-01

    This article reports the first findings of the Würzburg Longitudinal Memory Study, which focuses on children's verbal memory development, particularly the acquisition of memory strategies. At the beginning of the study, 100 kindergarten children (mean age 6 1/2 years) were tested on various memory measures, including sort-recall, text recall, short-term memory capacity, and metamemory. Assessments were repeated twice, with adjacent measurement points separated by 6-month time intervals. One major goal of the initial phase of the study concerned the exploration of the utilization deficiency phenomenon, which refers to the fact that young children who spontaneously use a memory strategy for the first time do not experience immediate memory benefits. Results obtained for the sort-recall task showed that, among those children who acquired a sorting strategy between Times 1 and 2, only a small proportion experienced the utilization deficiency problem. Additional analyses demonstrated that these few children also performed more poorly on the short-term memory tasks and the text recall measure when compared with the groups of efficient strategy users, suggesting that utilization deficiency is accompanied by a more general memory capacity problem. Overall, the findings revealed enormous variability in the early acquisition of memory strategies, indicating that the utilization deficiency phenomenon might not be as frequent as is assumed in the relevant literature.

  17. Japanese adult's and children's production and perception of English fricatives: A longitudinal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Katsura; Guion, Susan; Yamada, Tsuneo; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the production and perception of English fricatives by native Japanese (NJ) adults and children (16 per group, mean age=40 and 10 years), and age-matched native English (NE) adults and children (16 per group). The subjects were tested two times (T1, T2) 1 year apart. (At T1, the NJ subjects' mean length of residence in the U.S. was 0.5 year.) A picture-naming task was used to elicit the production of English words beginning with /s/ and /θ/, and intelligibility scores were obtained for both. The intelligibility scores of the NJ children but not adults improved significantly from T1 to T2. The NJ children obtained significantly lower scores than the NJ adults did at T1, but at T2 the adult-child difference was nonsignificant. The perception of /s/ and /θ/ was tested by a categorial discrimination task. Although the NJ adult's and children's scores improved from T1 to T2, the T1-T2 differences were nonsignificant. Thus, the results showed that the NJ children's production scores improved significantly from T1 to T2, while there was no significant change for the perception scores on the discrimination of /s/-/θ/. The relationship between production and perception in L2 speech learning will be discussed. [Work supported by NIH.

  18. Oral Language and Narrative Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment with and without Literacy Delay: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Boons, Tinne; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared the development of oral language and more specifically narrative skills (storytelling and story retelling) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay. Therefore, 18 children with SLI and 18 matched controls with normal literacy were followed from the last year of…

  19. Effects of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Intervention Principles in Emergent Literacy in Children at Risk of Developmental Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid; Tjus, Tomas; Hovden, Marit; Ofte, Sonja; Heimann, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on the effects of two different principles of intervention in children at risk of developing dyslexia from 5 to 8 years old. The children were selected on the basis of a background questionnaire given to parents and preschool teachers, with cognitive and functional magnetic resonance imaging results substantiating…

  20. Predicting Vocabulary Growth in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study from 2;6 to 21 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; Hoffman, Lesa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) often have vocabulary impairments. This study evaluates longitudinal growth in a latent trait of receptive vocabulary in affected and unaffected children ages 2;6 (years;months) to 21 years and evaluates as possible predictors maternal education, child gender, and nonverbal IQ. Method: A…

  1. Are Parental Health Habits Transmitted to Their Children? An Eight Year Longitudinal Study of Physical Activity in Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderssen, Norman; Wold, Bente; Torsheim, Torbjorn

    2006-01-01

    Parents are believed to play a role in influencing their children's health behaviours. This longitudinal study of two generations (parents and their children) examined associations between parents' self-reported leisure-time physical activity changes and the self-reported physical activity changes of their offspring in a sample of 557 adolescents…

  2. Interventional three-year longitudinal study of melanocytic naevus development in pre-school children in Dresden, Saxony.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Helm, Catherine; Bennewitz, Annett; Koch, Rainer; Schaff, Kathrin; Burroni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Acquired melanocytic naevi (MN) are considered a risk factor for melanoma. Exposure to ultraviolet light (UV) is the major environmental factor for MN. UV protection is most critical in pre-school children. This 3-year interventional longitudinal study examined 395 3-year-old children attending daycare centres (DCC) in Dresden, Germany. Photo-skin type, eye and hair colour were recorded. DCC were randomly assigned to a control group and a behavioural intervention group. All children had a regular naevus check-up, including digital objective analysis with Dell'Eva-Burroni Dermoscopy Melanoma Image Processing Software (DB-MIPS) technology. Parents of children in the intervention group received additional guidance for sun-protection. The mean total MN counts of both groups at the start of the study period were 7.19 ± 4.55 (intervention) and 6.84 ± 4.63 (control), respectively. There was a significant increase in MN counts for both groups (mean 12.5 and 13.8). Subgroup analysis for skin type, eye colour, and hair colour did not demonstrate a significant influence on MN counts. The DB-MIPS integrated classifier revealed no risky lesions while analysing their patterns. Intervention did not reduce the number of newly acquired MN. MN counts in pre-school children were approximately 5 times higher than expected from previous large studies in Germany. This is the first study in pre-school children using objective digital image analysis of pigmented lesions. No atypical lesions were observed. New approaches to UV protection in pre-school children are now required. PMID:23975119

  3. Acute Respiratory Infections among Under-Five Age Group Children at Urban Slums of Gulbarga City: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Pattankar, Jayashree; Puttahonnappa, Suresh Kuralayanapalya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among all illness, Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) account for 30-60% of paediatric outpatient attendance and 20-30% of hospital admissions. Aim To study the morbidity pattern of ARI among under-five-age group children and to assess the determinants. Materials and Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted for a one year period, comprising a cumulative sample of 400 children from 3 urban slums of Gulbarga city. History of nasal discharge, cough, fever, sore throat, breathing difficulty, any discharge from ear alone or in combination, was used in the recognition of an ARI episode. Respiratory rate >60/minute (<2 month infants), >50(2-11 months) and >40(1-5 years) in a child with cough, cold or fever singly or in combination was considered the criteria for recognition of pneumonia. Results Out of the 400 surveyed, ARI was detected among 109 children giving an incidence of 27.25%. Among these, Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) was found among 19.25% and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) among 8%. ARI was observed among 38.04% of infants, 37.84% of 2-3-year-old children, 36.87% of boys, 40.43% of children born to illiterate father’s, 35.77% of SES class IV & 40.79% of SES class V, and 41.89% of children with family history of respiratory illness. All these data were found to be statistically significant. High rates of ARI were also observed among 41.36% of children living in households with firewood fuel usage, 35.04% of children with pets in the household, 34.82% of children with delayed milestones, 53.85% of children with grade IV and 66.67% of children with grade V malnutrition. More episodes occurred during winter months of the year (Oct – Jan). During the follow-up phase of study done on a cohort of 112 children for a period of one year, an attack rate of 3.27 episodes/child/year was observed. Conclusion Community education programs should focus on addressing specific issues viz. identification of respiratory illness

  4. Longitudinal Study of Motor Performance and Its Relation to Motor Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eck, Mirjam; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Becher, Jules G.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the course of motor performance and analyse its relationship with motor capacity over a period of 3 years in 104 children (66 males, 38 females; 43% of those initially invited) with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 9, 11, and 13 years at the start of the study. Forty-one had hemiplegia, 42 diplegia, 21…

  5. Predictors of Numeracy Performance in National Testing Programs: Insights from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Colin; MacDonald, Amy; McFarland-Piazza, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on an exploratory study that examines factors which predict children's performance on the numeracy component of the Australian National Assessment Program--Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). Utilizing an ecological theoretical model, this study examines child, home and school variables which may enable or constrain NAPLAN…

  6. Relationship between fat patterns, physical fitness and blood pressure of rural South African children: Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Monyeki, K D; Kemper, H C G; Makgae, P J

    2008-05-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between blood pressure (BP), fat patterns and fitness parameters of Ellisras children aged 7-13 years. Furthermore, an assessment of body fat patterns was done to determine the subjects with the highest risk of overweight, hypertension and waist-to-hip ratio above the 90th percentile. Data were collected from 1,817 subjects (938 boys and 879 girls), aged 7-13 years, participating in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to the standard procedure of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. The EUROFIT test items were used to test the physical fitness of 1,192 subjects (634 boys and 558 girls). Obesity was defined using the international recommended cutoff points for body mass index (BMI) in children. Hypertension was defined as the occurrence of BP levels greater or equal to the 95th percentile of height- and sex-adjusted reference levels. The prevalence of hypertension ranged from 1 to 11.4% and that of overweight 0.6-4.6%. Waist girth, BMI, triceps and subscapular skinfold showed significant (P<0.001-0.05) correlation with other fat pattern parameters (r ranging from -0.157 to 0.978) compared with significant correlations (P<0.001-0.05) with BP (r ranging from -0.071 to 0.164). Children with waist girth greater than the 90th percentile are more likely to have multiple risk factors than the children with a waist girth that is less than or equal to the 90th percentile. Longitudinal studies should verify whether changes in waist girth and skinfolds will indicate changes in cardiovascular risk factors during growth.

  7. Effects of the peer group on the development of social functioning and academic achievement: a longitudinal study in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun; He, Yunfeng

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial mean ages = 9.5 and 12.7 years, N = 505), how the peer group contributed to social functioning and academic achievement and their associations. Data on informal peer groups, social functioning, and academic achievement were collected from multiple sources. Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that group academic performance made direct contributions to children's social development. Group academic performance also moderated the individual-level relations between academic performance and later social functioning. Whereas high-achieving groups strengthened the positive relations between academic achievement and social competence, low-achieving groups facilitated the negative relations between academic achievement and social problems. The results indicate the significance of the peer group for social functioning from a developmental perspective.

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Regulation, Emotion Lability-Negativity, and Internalizing Symptomatology in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal contributions of emotion regulation and emotion lability-negativity to internalizing symptomatology were examined in a low-income sample (171 maltreated and 151 nonmaltreated children, from age 7 to 10 years). Latent difference score models indicated that for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children, emotion regulation was a…

  9. Longitudinal Associations between Executive Functions and Intelligence in Preschool Children: A Multi-Method, Multi- Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) and intelligence were examined concurrently and longitudinally in 126 preschool children. EF was assessed using the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Children's intelligence was assessed using the Verbal and Performance subtests from…

  10. Correlations between brain structures and study time at home in healthy children: a longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Michiko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Like sleeping and eating habits, the study habits adopted by children when they are at home are important contributors to lifestyle and they affect cognitive ability. It has recently been reported that sleeping and eating habits change the brain structure of children. However, no research on the effect of study habits at home on the brain structure of children has been conducted thus far. We investigated the effects of study habits at home on the brain structures of healthy children by examining correlations between study time at home and changes in brain structure over the course of 3 years. Methods We used the brain magnetic resonance images of 229 healthy children aged 5.6–18.4 years and computed the changes (time 2–time 1) in regional gray matter and white matter volume (rWMV) using voxel-based morphometry. Whole-brain multiple regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between study time at home and changes in rWMV in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Behaviorally, we found a significant positive correlation between study time at home and change in the verbal comprehension index (VCI), one of the subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–third edition (WISC–III). Results and Conclusions Given that the SFG is involved in memory control and that the VCI measures abilities related to vocabulary, our results indicate that greater SFG involvement in the memorization component of longer study times may result in greater increases in the number of axons and more axon branching and myelination, causing plastic changes in the neural network involved in memory processes. PMID:25365804

  11. Brief Report: A Longitudinal Study of Excessive Smiling and Laughing in Children with Angelman Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adams, Dawn; Horsler, Kate; Mount, Rebecca; Oliver, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Elevated laughing and smiling is a key characteristic of the Angelman syndrome behavioral phenotype, with cross-sectional studies reporting changes with environment and age. This study compares levels of laughing and smiling in 12 participants across three experimental conditions [full social interaction (with eye contact), social interaction with no eye contact, proximity only] at two data points. No differences were noted in frequency of laughing and smiling over time in any condition. However, with age as a covariate, the frequency of laughing and smiling decreased over time in the full social interaction (with eye contact) condition only. As this is the first longitudinal study to explore these behaviors in Angelman syndrome, the results suggest a gene-environment-time interaction within the behavioral phenotype.

  12. Brief Report: A Longitudinal Study of Excessive Smiling and Laughing in Children with Angelman Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adams, Dawn; Horsler, Kate; Mount, Rebecca; Oliver, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Elevated laughing and smiling is a key characteristic of the Angelman syndrome behavioral phenotype, with cross-sectional studies reporting changes with environment and age. This study compares levels of laughing and smiling in 12 participants across three experimental conditions [full social interaction (with eye contact), social interaction with no eye contact, proximity only] at two data points. No differences were noted in frequency of laughing and smiling over time in any condition. However, with age as a covariate, the frequency of laughing and smiling decreased over time in the full social interaction (with eye contact) condition only. As this is the first longitudinal study to explore these behaviors in Angelman syndrome, the results suggest a gene-environment-time interaction within the behavioral phenotype. PMID:25749713

  13. Parental Literacy Predicts Children's Literacy: A Longitudinal Family-Risk Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torppa, Minna; Eklund, Kenneth; van Bergen, Elsje; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    This family-risk (FR) study examined whether the literacy skills of parents with dyslexia are predictive of the literacy skills of their offspring. We report data from 31 child-parent dyads where both had dyslexia (FR-D) and 68 dyads where the child did not have dyslexia (FR-ND). Findings supported the differences in liability of FR children with…

  14. Relations of Children's Social Status to Their Emotionality and Regulation: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maszk, Patricia; Eisenberg, Nancy; Guthrie, Ivanna K.

    1999-01-01

    Study examined relation of children's negative emotionality and regulation to current and subsequent sociometric status throughout the year. Measures of emotional intensity, regulation and aggression completed by teachers for 74 four- to six-year olds at two points during the year, indicated individual differences in regulation, and emotionality…

  15. RECRUITING FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S HEALTH USING A HOUSEHOLD-BASED PROBABILITY SAMPLING APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sampling design for the National Children¿s Study (NCS) calls for a population-based, multi-stage, clustered household sampling approach (visit our website for more information on the NCS : www.nationalchildrensstudy.gov). The full sample is designed to be representative of ...

  16. Parenting Style Influences Bullying: A Longitudinal Study Comparing Children with and without Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Kruszewski, Edyta; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: More optimal parenting has been linked with lower rates of bullying. However, it is not clear whether parenting can alter the trajectories of bullying among children diagnosed with ADHD or ODD as well as those who are not so diagnosed. This study examined whether parenting at age 4-5 years was associated with changes in bullying over…

  17. Coping and Psychological Adjustment among Mothers of Children with ASD: An Accelerated Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a cohort sequential design and multilevel modeling on a sample of 113 mothers, the effects of four coping strategies (engagement, disengagement, distraction, and cognitive reframing) on multiple measures of maternal adjustment were assessed over a 7 years period when children with autism spectrum disorders in the study were approximately…

  18. Acoustic Analysis of the Speech of Children with Cochlear Implants: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liker, Marko; Mildner, Vesna; Sindija, Branka

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the speech of the children with cochlear implants, and compare it with the speech of hearing controls. We focused on three categories of Croatian sounds: vowels (F1 and F2 frequencies), fricatives (noise frequencies of /s/ and /[esh]/ ), and affricates (total duration and the pattern of stop-fricative components…

  19. Bidirectional Influences between Maternal Parenting and Children's Peer Problems: A Longitudinal Monozygotic Twin Difference Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamagata, Shinji; Takahashi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Koken; Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Nonaka, Koichi; Ando, Juko

    2013-01-01

    This twin study examined the bidirectional relationship between maternal parenting behaviors and children's peer problems that were not confounded by genetic and family environmental factors. Mothers of 259 monozygotic twin pairs reported parenting behaviors and peer problems when twins were 42 and 48 months. Path analyses on monozygotic twin…

  20. Anthropometric measurements and dental caries in children: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive.

  1. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  2. Components of Height and Blood Pressure among Ellisras Rural Children: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramoshaba, Nthai; Monyeki, Kotsedi; Hay, Leon

    2016-01-01

    To date, there has been no study done investigating the relationship between the components of height and blood pressure (BP) in rural South African children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between height, sitting height (SH), leg length (LL), and SH-to-height ratio (SH/H) with BP in Ellisras rural children. All children underwent anthropometric and BP measurements using standard procedure. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between height, SH, LL, SH/H, and BP. The regression showed a positive significant (p < 0.001) association between systolic BP (SBP) with height and SH (β ranged from 0.127 to 0.134 and 95% CI ranged from 0.082 to 0.415). Diastolic BP (DBP) also showed a positive significant (p < 0.001) association with height and SH (β ranged from 0.080 to 0.088 and 95% CI ranged from 0.042 to 0.259). After having been adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference, DBP showed a positive significant (p < 0.05) association with height. There was a positive significant association between DBP and SBP together with the components of height amongst Ellisras rural children. PMID:27618907

  3. Components of Height and Blood Pressure among Ellisras Rural Children: Ellisras Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Ramoshaba, Nthai; Monyeki, Kotsedi; Hay, Leon

    2016-01-01

    To date, there has been no study done investigating the relationship between the components of height and blood pressure (BP) in rural South African children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between height, sitting height (SH), leg length (LL), and SH-to-height ratio (SH/H) with BP in Ellisras rural children. All children underwent anthropometric and BP measurements using standard procedure. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between height, SH, LL, SH/H, and BP. The regression showed a positive significant (p < 0.001) association between systolic BP (SBP) with height and SH (β ranged from 0.127 to 0.134 and 95% CI ranged from 0.082 to 0.415). Diastolic BP (DBP) also showed a positive significant (p < 0.001) association with height and SH (β ranged from 0.080 to 0.088 and 95% CI ranged from 0.042 to 0.259). After having been adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference, DBP showed a positive significant (p < 0.05) association with height. There was a positive significant association between DBP and SBP together with the components of height amongst Ellisras rural children. PMID:27618907

  4. Change and associated factors of self-esteem among children in rural China: A two-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Le; Chen, Jian; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood has been targeted as an especially important period for self-esteem formation. The aim of this study is to examine the change and associated factors of self-esteem among children in rural China. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted with a general elementary and secondary school population in Anhui Province, China including 816 children aged between 7 and 16 years. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to examine relationships between low self-esteem and socio-demographic, family environment, and psychosocial factors. On average, self-esteem level among children was increased across three assessments. Multivariable analysis (GEE) showed that low self-esteem in children was clearly associated with male gender (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.12-1.89), moderate and severe family dysfunction (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.40-2.51; OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.25-2.83, respectively), quality of life (OR = .97, 95%CI = .96-.98), depression (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.32-2.70), anxiety (OR = 2.05, 95%CI = 1.51-2.77), positive coping styles (OR = .91, 95%CI = .89-.94), and negative coping styles (OR = 1.05, 95%CI = 1.03-1.07). Self-esteem is a dynamic rather than a static construct during childhood. Low self-esteem among children was associated with a number of socio-demographic, family environment, and psychosocial factors. Further studies exploring the pathways and mechanisms by which the effect of these factors impact on self-esteem among children are warranted.

  5. Digit ratio and autism spectrum disorders in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: a birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Guyatt, Anna Louise; Heron, Jon; Knight, Bernice Le Cornu; Golding, Jean; Rai, Dheeraj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a measure commonly used as a proxy for fetal testosterone exposure, is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), as predicted by the extreme male brain theory of autism. Design A birth cohort study. Setting The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Participants 6015 ALSPAC children with data on digit ratio, at least 1 outcome measure and information on potential confounding variables (parental occupational class, maternal education and age at digit ratio measurement). Digit ratio was measured by the photocopy and calliper method. Outcomes ASD diagnosis (cases were identified previously by record linkage or maternal report) and 4 measures that combine optimally within ALSPAC to predict ASD: the Children's Communication Checklist (coherence subscale), the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist, a repetitive behaviour measure, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability scale (sociability subscale). These measures were dichotomised, with approximately 10% defined as the ‘risk’ group. Results Using logistic regression, we examined the association of 2D:4D with ASDs and 4 dichotomised ASD traits. Covariates were occupational class, maternal education and age at 2D:4D measurement. 2D:4D was not associated with ASDs in males (adjusted OR per 1 SD increase in mean 2D:4D, 0.88 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.21), p=0.435) or females (adjusted OR=1.36 (95% CI 0.81 to 2.28), p=0.245). Similar results were observed after adjustment for IQ. There was 1 weak association between reduced coherence and increased left 2D:4D in males, in the opposite direction to that predicted by the extreme male brain theory (adjusted OR=1.15 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.29), p=0.023). Given multiple comparisons, this is consistent with chance. Conclusions In this population-based study, there was no strong evidence of an association between 2D:4D and ASD diagnosis or traits, although the CIs were wide. These

  6. Predictors of participation change in various areas for preschool children with cerebral palsy: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Katie P; Chuang, Yu-fen; Chen, Chia-ling; Liu, I-shu; Liu, Hsiang-tseng; Chen, Hsieh-ching

    2015-02-01

    This study identifies potential predictors of participation changes in various areas for preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eighty children with CP (2-6 years) were enrolled. Seven potential predictors were identified: age; sex; socioeconomic status, CP subtype; cognitive function, Function Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM), and motor composite variable from 5 motor factors (gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) level; bimanual fine motor function level; selective motor control score; Modified Ashworth Scale score; and Spinal Alignment and Range of Motion Measure). Outcome was assessed at baseline and at 6-month follow-up using the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) including diversity and intensity scores in the areas of play (PA), skill development (SD), active physical recreation, social activities (SA), and total areas. Dependent variables were change scores of APCP scores at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Regression analyses shows age and sex together predicted for APCP-total, APCP-SD diversity and APCP-total intensity changes (r(2)=0.13-0.25, p<0.001); cognitive function and WeeFIM were negative predictors for APCP-SA and APCP-PA diversity changes, respectively. CP subtype, motor composite variable, and socioeconomic status predicted for APCP changes in some areas. Findings suggest that young boys with poor cognitive function and daily activity predicted most on participation changes. PMID:25460224

  7. Interplay between singing and cortical processing of music: a longitudinal study in children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Torppa, Ritva; Huotilainen, Minna; Leminen, Miika; Lipsanen, Jari; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Informal music activities such as singing may lead to augmented auditory perception and attention. In order to study the accuracy and development of music-related sound change detection in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and normal hearing (NH) aged 4-13 years, we recorded their auditory event-related potentials twice (at T1 and T2, 14-17 months apart). We compared their MMN (preattentive discrimination) and P3a (attention toward salient sounds) to changes in piano tone pitch, timbre, duration, and gaps. Of particular interest was to determine whether singing can facilitate auditory perception and attention of CI children. It was found that, compared to the NH group, the CI group had smaller and later timbre P3a and later pitch P3a, implying degraded discrimination and attention shift. Duration MMN became larger from T1 to T2 only in the NH group. The development of response patterns for duration and gap changes were not similar in the CI and NH groups. Importantly, CI singers had enhanced or rapidly developing P3a or P3a-like responses over all change types. In contrast, CI non-singers had rapidly enlarging pitch MMN without enlargement of P3a, and their timbre P3a became smaller and later over time. These novel results show interplay between MMN, P3a, brain development, cochlear implantation, and singing. They imply an augmented development of neural networks for attention and more accurate neural discrimination associated with singing. In future studies, differential development of P3a between CI and NH children should be taken into account in comparisons of these groups. Moreover, further studies are needed to assess whether singing enhances auditory perception and attention of children with CIs. PMID:25540628

  8. Interplay between singing and cortical processing of music: a longitudinal study in children with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Torppa, Ritva; Huotilainen, Minna; Leminen, Miika; Lipsanen, Jari; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Informal music activities such as singing may lead to augmented auditory perception and attention. In order to study the accuracy and development of music-related sound change detection in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and normal hearing (NH) aged 4–13 years, we recorded their auditory event-related potentials twice (at T1 and T2, 14–17 months apart). We compared their MMN (preattentive discrimination) and P3a (attention toward salient sounds) to changes in piano tone pitch, timbre, duration, and gaps. Of particular interest was to determine whether singing can facilitate auditory perception and attention of CI children. It was found that, compared to the NH group, the CI group had smaller and later timbre P3a and later pitch P3a, implying degraded discrimination and attention shift. Duration MMN became larger from T1 to T2 only in the NH group. The development of response patterns for duration and gap changes were not similar in the CI and NH groups. Importantly, CI singers had enhanced or rapidly developing P3a or P3a-like responses over all change types. In contrast, CI non-singers had rapidly enlarging pitch MMN without enlargement of P3a, and their timbre P3a became smaller and later over time. These novel results show interplay between MMN, P3a, brain development, cochlear implantation, and singing. They imply an augmented development of neural networks for attention and more accurate neural discrimination associated with singing. In future studies, differential development of P3a between CI and NH children should be taken into account in comparisons of these groups. Moreover, further studies are needed to assess whether singing enhances auditory perception and attention of children with CIs. PMID:25540628

  9. Development of catching by children in kindergarten to grade 8: a multicohort longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E Michael; Butterfield, Stephen A; Bagaka's, Joshua G

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine developmental change associated with catching by children in Grades Kindergarten through 8. Children's performance was tested on the Catching Subtest of the Ohio State University Scale of Intra Gross Motor Assessment (OSU-SIGMA). More precisely, four cohorts of boys and girls in Grades K-8 (N = 340) from 1992 to 2000: in 1992 Grades K-8, in 1994 Grades 2-8, in 1996 Grades 4-8, and in 1998 Grades 6-8. In 2000, the original Kindergarten cohort was tested again. Data, analyzed by hierarchical nonlinear modeling, yielded significant differences in mean initial status (intercept) of all three cohorts, in mean growth rate (slope) for the K-8 cohort only, in initial status of the K-8 cohort, and for participants in baseball and softball.

  10. Bidirectional influences between maternal parenting and children's peer problems: a longitudinal monozygotic twin difference study.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Shinji; Takahashi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Koken; Fujisawa, Keiko K; Nonaka, Koichi; Ando, Juko

    2013-03-01

    This twin study examined the bidirectional relationship between maternal parenting behaviors and children's peer problems that were not confounded by genetic and family environmental factors. Mothers of 259 monozygotic twin pairs reported parenting behaviors and peer problems when twins were 42 and 48 months. Path analyses on monozygotic twin difference scores revealed that authoritative parenting (the presence of consistent discipline and lack of harsh parenting) and peer problems simultaneously influenced each other. Authoritative parenting reduced peer problems, and peer problems increased authoritative parenting. Neither consistent discipline nor harsh parenting alone was associated with peer problems. These results suggest that maternal authoritative parenting works protectively in regard to children's peer problems, and peer problems can evoke such effective parenting.

  11. Protecting Children from the Consequences of Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Parenting on Children's Coping Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Clorinda E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether intervention-induced changes in mother-child relationship quality and discipline led to short-term (6 months) and long-term (6 years) changes in children's coping processes in a sample of 240 youth aged 9-12 years when assessed initially. Data were from a randomized, experimental trial of a parenting-focused preventive…

  12. Longitudinal study of perceived negative impact in African American and Caucasian mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred for diagnosis of ASD at age two. Analyses included data from two time points, when child participants were approximately 9 and 14 years old. Linear mixed model analyses were used to examine the relationship between the primary outcome variable, mothers' perceived negative impact across time, and hypothesized predictors. Negative impact increased significantly from late childhood to into adolescence. However, African American mothers with lower education reported significantly lower levels of perceived negative impact at both time points. Findings show that for some families, the transition to adolescence is a period in which mothers experience increased amounts of negative impact and highlight the importance of examining the influence of socioeconomic variables. Furthermore, data suggest that there may be cultural differences mediating the relationship between maternal education, ethnicity, and perceived negative impact. Implications for the importance of including families from varying levels of socioeconomic status in ASD research are discussed.

  13. A Prospective, Longitudinal Study of US Children Unable to Achieve Open-Set Speech Recognition Five Years after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, JM; Fisher, LM; Johnson, KC; Eisenberg, LS; Wang, NY; Quittner, AL; Carson, CM; Niparko, JK

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with inability to progress to open-set speech recognition in children who are 5 years post cochlear implantation. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal and multidimensional assessment of auditory development over 5 years. Setting Six tertiary cochlear implant (CI) referral centers in the US. Patients Children with severe-to-profound hearing loss who underwent implantation before age 5 years enrolled in the Childhood Development after Cochlear Implant (CDaCI) study, categorized by level of speech recognition ability. Intervention(s) Cochlear implantation prior to 5 years of age and annual assessment of emergent speech recognition skills. Main outcome measure(s) Progression to open-set speech recognition by 5 years after implantation. Results Less functional hearing prior to implantation, older age at onset of amplification, lower maternal sensitivity to communication needs, minority status, and complicated perinatal history were associated with inability to obtain open set speech recognition by 5 years. Conclusions Characteristics of a subpopulation of children with CIs that were associated with an inability to achieve open-set speech recognition after 5 years of CI experience were investigated. These data distinguish pediatric CI recipients at risk for poor auditory development and highlight areas for future interventions to enhance support of early implantation. PMID:25700015

  14. Parental unemployment and children's happiness: A longitudinal study of young people's well-being in unemployed households.

    PubMed

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh; Vernoit, James

    2013-10-01

    Using a unique longitudinal data of British youths we estimate how adolescents' overall happiness is related to parents' exposure to unemployment. Our within-child estimates suggest that parental job loss when the child was relatively young has a positive influence on children's overall happiness. However, this positive association became either strongly negative or statistically insignificant as the child grew older. The estimated effects of parental job loss on children's happiness also appear to be unrelated to its effect on family income, parent-child interaction, and children's school experience. Together these findings offer new psychological evidence of unemployment effects on children's livelihood.

  15. Classroom Music Experiences of U.S. Elementary School Children: An Analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of 1998-1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miksza, Peter; Gault, Brent M.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to describe the music experiences elementary school children in the United States receive in the academic classroom setting. The data were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of the Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), a nationally representative study that followed kindergarteners through…

  16. Longitudinal Studies of the Effects of Alternative Types of Early Intervention for Children with Disabilities. Annual Report for Project Period October 1, 1993-September 30, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innocenti, Mark S.

    This report is the fourth in a series of follow-up analyses of nine longitudinal studies addressing the costs and effectiveness of alternative types of early intervention for children with disabilities. An introduction provides an historical perspective and conceptual framework for the studies, including common study elements and how research…

  17. Does Depression Moderate or Mediate the Relations between Deficits in Competence and Aggression?: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hyeonsook

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the role of child depression in the relations between deficits in competence and aggression by replicating and extending the study by Cole et al. (1996). In a two-wave longitudinal study, 6th-grade children (n = 329) completed self-report measures of three domains of competence (i.e. social, academic,…

  18. Lupus nephritis in children: a longitudinal study of prognostic factors and therapy.

    PubMed

    Baqi, N; Moazami, S; Singh, A; Ahmad, H; Balachandra, S; Tejani, A

    1996-06-01

    There are only a few studies in the pediatric literature that have analyzed risk factors for renal failure in childhood lupus nephritis. This study reviewed the outcome of 56 children (4 to 18 yr of age) with lupus nephritis seen at the authors' institution over a 27-yr period (1965 to 1992), in relation to risk factors and therapy. All children underwent percutaneous renal biopsy before the institution of therapy. From 1965 to 1987, treatment for Class III and IV lupus nephritis consisted of high-dose pulse methylprednisolone, 500 mg daily for 10 days, followed by oral prednisone. From 1987 to 1992, IV cyclophosphamide was given monthly for 6 months and then every 3 months for a period of 3 yr for patients with Class III and Class IV disease. Of 56 children, 42% had Class IV and 21% had Class III histology at onset. The mean follow-up period was 4 yr and ranged from 0.5 to 20.3 yr. Life-table analysis showed that the cumulative proportion of patients surviving was 82.8% at 5 yr and 67.7% at 10 yr. Renal survival was 44.4% at 5 yr and 29% at 10 yr, after the initial diagnosis of lupus nephritis was made. Age at diagnosis, race, sex, initial serum creatinine level, and the presence of proteinuria, hypertension, and DNA antibody titers were reviewed with respect to disease progression, as was the histological class at diagnosis. The effect of the different therapies was also examined. Univariate analysis revealed a significant association of progression to ESRD with an elevated serum creatinine level (P = 0.021), decreased C3 complement (P = 0.024), hypertension (P = 0.053), and histological classification of Class IV lupus nephritis (P = 0.031). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that progression to ESRD was independently associated with an initial Class IV histology (relative risk, 1.78; P < 0.003), hypertension at presentation (relative risk, 1.67; P < 0.003), and a low C3 complement level in conjuction with a high creatinine level (relative risk, 1.52; P < 0

  19. Early visual language exposure and emergent literacy in preschool deaf children: findings from a national longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Thomas E; Letteri, Amy; Choi, Song Hoa; Dang, Daqian

    2014-01-01

    Brief review is provided of recent research on the impact of early visual language exposure on a variety of developmental outcomes, including literacy, cognition, and social adjustment. This body of work points to the great importance of giving young deaf children early exposure to a visual language as a critical precursor to the acquisition of literacy. Four analyses of data from the Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2) Early Education Longitudinal Study are summarized. Each confirms findings from previously published laboratory findings and points to the positive effects of early sign language on, respectively, letter knowledge, social adaptability, sustained visual attention, and cognitive-behavioral milestones necessary for academic success. The article concludes with a consideration of the qualitative similarity hypothesis and a finding that the hypothesis is valid, but only if it can be presented as being modality independent. PMID:25669017

  20. Medication administered to children from 0 to 7.5 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

    PubMed Central

    Northstone, K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To present data on the parentally-reported use of all types of medicinal products in children from 0 to 7.5 years, in a large cohort in south-west England. Methods Participants in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) have been sent self-completion postal questionnaires since they were enrolled during pregnancy. The use of medicinal products has been obtained from questionnaires sent out when the study children were 4 weeks, 54, 78 and 91 months old. Results The data included prescription, over-the-counter and complementary and alternative medicines. Around three-quarters of study children were exposed to some form of medicinal product before 8 weeks of age. Dermatological preparations were the most commonly used products in young babies. Activated dimeticone, for treatment of colic and flatulence, was given to 16% of babies and gripe water was used by 13%. Other commonly reported products included oral and topical antifungals and ophthalmic antibiotics. Several OTC products, not licensed for use in this age group, were reported. At each of the older ages surveyed, over 95% of children had used some form of medicinal product within the previous 12–18 months. Use of several product categories was higher at 54 months than at 78 or 91 months, such as topical steroids, analgesics (mostly paracetamol) and systemic antibiotics (mainly amoxicillin). Conversely, use of other categories, such as asthma medication, throat preparations (sprays and lozenges) and anti-inflammatory products, increased with increasing age. Conclusion Parentally-reported use of medicinal products in the ALSPAC study children appears to be consistent with data from other sources. The use of medicinal products by young children is high and does not always conform to the product labelling. PMID:17200835

  1. Effects of Language Learning Interventions in Pre-School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasteiger-Klicpera, B.; Knapp, W.; Kucharz, D.; Schabmann, A.; Schmidt, B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present contribution is to evaluate and discuss the impacts of language learning interventions in pre-school children with German as a first or a second language. The sample consisted of 864 children in intervention groups and 294 children as a comparison group within two successive cohorts. The instruments used were the SSV (Grimm…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Developing Knowledge and Reasoning in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tytler, Russell; Peterson, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    The growth in science understanding and reasoning of 12 children is being traced through their primary school years. The paper reports findings concerning children's growing understandings of evaporation, and their changing responses to exploration activities, that show the complexity and coherence of learning pathways. Children's responses to…

  3. Predictors of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Aged 6-7 Years: A National Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciberras, Emma; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Efron, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prenatal, postnatal and demographic predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an Australian population-based sample. Participants were families participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. There were approximately even numbers of males (51%) and females (49%) in the…

  4. Parent-Child Book Reading across Early Childhood and Child Vocabulary in the Early School Years: Findings from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrant, Brad M.; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is a critical component of school readiness. The current study investigated the extent to which low levels of joint attention in infancy and parent-child book reading across early childhood increase the risk of children having poor vocabulary around the time of school entry. Relevant data from the Longitudinal Study of…

  5. Longitudinal Studies of the Effects of Alternative Types of Early Intervention for Children with Disabilities. Annual Report for Project Period October 1, 1990-September 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karl R.

    This document presents the first of several follow-up studies on the longitudinal effects and costs of providing alternative types of early intervention services to children with disabilities. The nine studies being followed focused on either variations in program intensity, variations in the age of beginning intervention, or variations in program…

  6. Longitudinal Studies of the Effects of Alternative Types of Early Intervention for Children with Disabilities. Annual Report for Project Period October 1, 1992-September 30, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karl R.

    This third annual report describes activities of and preliminary findings of nine longitudinal studies on the effects and costs of providing alternative types of early intervention services to children with disabilities. The nine studies being followed focus on either variations in program intensity, variations in the age of beginning…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Utility of the Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled Personality Types as Predictors of Children's and Adolescents' Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Karla; de Fruyt, Filip; Mervielde, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses the utility of the resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality prototypes for predicting children's and adolescents' problem behaviour in a longitudinal general population sample (N = 491). Both parents and one child participated in the study at two measurement occasions separated by a 3-year interval. The major…

  8. Predictive and Concurrent Relations between Literacy Skills in Grades 1 and 3: A Longitudinal Study of Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimoni, Marta; Scalisi, Teresa Gloria; Orsolini, Margherita

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 170 Italian children was assessed for reading accuracy, reading speed, text comprehension and spelling in Grades 1 and 3 in order to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal relationships among literacy skills. Main results from multivariate analyses (regression, discriminant and path analyses) indicated that reading speed was the…

  9. Teaching Technology Longitudinally to Virtual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Lynley

    2010-01-01

    Children of Generation Y are entering our schooling system. These children have always known instant communication and the internet. They possess basic skills in using technology, but they still need to develop a deeper understanding of technology. Teaching longitudinally will increase the learner's confidence and develop a deeper understanding.…

  10. Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Odgers, Candice L.; Fisher, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children’s risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Methods: Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children’s mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis. Results: Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16–2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15–2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders. Conclusions: Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms

  11. Psychomotor and intellectual development (Neurocognitive Function) of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Transversal and longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Puga, Beatriz; Puga, Paloma Gil; de Arriba, Antonio; Armendariz, Yolanda; Labarta, Jose I; Longas, Angel Ferrandez

    2009-02-01

    Although much is now known about the effects of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on children born SGA with regard to anthropometric and biochemical parameters and their treatment, there are still many gaps associated with its impact on neurocognitive functions. In our experience published several years ago, IUGR has a negative effect on neurocognitive development, regardless of whether these children showed evidence of catch-up growth or not or of the socio-economic conditions that might contribute to the situation. We have now accumulated a large number of cases, many of whom have been followed longitudinally, some for up to 7 years, many having been treated with GH from the time when this therapy was first approved by the EMA. Apart from the cases mentioned, other confounding factors such as gestational age, Apgar score, neonatal comorbidity and the possible effects of GH treatment have also been included. In addition and using our own reference standards, we now present our experience, which confirms what we had already noted in the past, that IUGR is in itself a condition that often causes psychomotorintellectual impairment, may be extremely severe and tends to worsen. This negative impact of IUGR on neurocognitive development does not depend on how the child grows,spontaneous growth is better and when growth is not altered by GH therapy. Later studies will be able to confirm whether early treatment with GH throughout the 2nd year of life, or an early specific stimulation programme, or the sum of both, can improve the neurocognitive development of these children. IUGR prevention, acting on causal factors that are partly avoidable such as smoking, working conditions and stress during pregnancy (see the corresponding article in this supplement) proves once again to be the best way to stop this negative impact on the IQ of many children born SGA.

  12. Advertisement and knowledge of tobacco products among Ellisras rural children aged 11 to 18 years: Ellisras Longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco products use is the leading cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. This study explores an exposure to tobacco advertisements factors and knowledge, an association with snuff/pipe usage and cigarette smoking among Ellisras rural children aged between 11 to 18 years. Methods A total of 1654 subjects (854 boys and 800 girls) who were part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study completed the questionnaire. Results A significant (p < 0.05) number of boys (11.7%) compared to girls (8.8%) received free cigarettes from the members of the community. Bill boards were successful in advertising tobacco products among the Ellisras rural boys (17% boys and 12.8% for girls, p < 0.022). Multivariate analyses found significant association between cigarette smoking (OR = 1.7 95%CI 1.1-2.7 and Model 2 OR 1.6 95%CI 1.0-2.6 adjusted for age and gender) and advertisements of tobacco products on the TV screens, videos or movies. Conclusions Exposure to tobacco products advertisements was high among Ellisras rural children. Though tobacco products legislation exists in South Africa, efforts should be taken by the health professionals to emphasize the danger of using tobacco products even among the illiterate. Teachers and parents should refrain from advertising tobacco products at schools and at homes. PMID:23914793

  13. Detecting Children with Arithmetic Disabilities from Kindergarten: Evidence from a 3-Year Longitudinal Study on the Role of Preparatory Arithmetic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Pieter; Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    In a 3-year longitudinal study, 471 children were classified, based on their performances on arithmetic tests in first and second grade, as having persistent arithmetic disabilities (AD), persistent low achieving (LA), persistent typical achieving, inconsistent arithmetic disabilities (DF1), or inconsistent low achieving in arithmetic. Significant…

  14. Long-Term Effects of Methylphenidate on Neural Networks Associated with Executive Attention in Children with ADHD: Results from a Longitudinal Functional MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Kerstin; Neufang, Susanne; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2007-01-01

    A longitudinal functional MRI study examines the effects of stimulants on neural activity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that one year of methylphenidate treatment might be beneficial though insufficient to show normalization of neural correlates of attention.

  15. Imitation (Rather than Core Language) Predicts Pragmatic Development in Young Children with ASD: A Preliminary Longitudinal Study Using CDI Parental Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miniscalco, Carmela; Rudling, Maja; Råstam, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Johnels, Jakob Åsberg

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research in the last decades has clearly pointed to the important role of language and communicative level when trying to understand developmental trajectories in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Aims: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether (1) "core language skills", measured as…

  16. Longitudinal Studies of the Effects of Alternative Types of Early Intervention for Children with Disabilities. Annual Report for Project Period October 1, 1991-September 30, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karl R.

    This second annual report describes activities of and presents Preliminary findings of nine longitudinal studies that are a follow-up of research conducted from 1985 to 1990 by the Early Intervention Research Institute at Utah State University on the effects and costs of providing alternative types of early intervention services to children with…

  17. Symposium Overview: Preliminary Report on the Longitudinal Comparison Study of the National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, E. Wayne; Osher, Trina W.; Santiago, Rolando L.; Hernandez, Mario; Brannan, Ana Maria

    This brief paper summarizes three papers and a response presented at a symposium examining longitudinal comparison studies of federally funded community mental health services (CMHS) for children and their families. Emphasis was on comparing the system of care approach to a more traditional approach. The symposium provided an update on the status…

  18. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; Technical Report 15. Disadvantaged Children and Their First School Experiences. ETS-Head Start Longitudinal Study. Technical Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meissner, Judith A.; And Others

    The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test is well known and widely used in testing the verbal ability of young children. In the longitudinal study, the standard Peabody test booklet was used in Year 1. In Year 2, a special ETS adaptation of the first 60 items was used, in which there were redrawings of a number of the human pictures to present black…

  19. Augmentative Communication Modes Taught to Cerebral Palsied Children: Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udwin, Orlee; Yule, William

    1987-01-01

    The impact of augmentative systems on the communicative abilities of two groups of young cerebral palsied children (total N=40) who were learning either Blissymbols or Makaton Signing was evaluated. Results indicated no significant differences between the systems and slow progress and severe limitations in sign/symbol repertoires of most children.…

  20. Skills for Independence for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Comparative Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Jane Jung-Ae

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-six English children with cerebral palsy (ages 3-4) were compared on their skills for independence. Nineteen of the children were enrolled in a Conductive Education Program, and 17 were enrolled in special education programs. Results indicate there were no significant differences between the two groups in their independence skills.…

  1. Narrative Competence in Children with Pragmatic Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelaars, Mieke P.; Jansonius, Kino; Cuperus, Juliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) show impairments in the use of language in social contexts. Although the issue has been gaining attention in recent literature, not much is known about the developmental trajectories of children who experience pragmatic language problems. Since narrative competence is an important…

  2. Early Predictors of Biliteracy Development in Children in French Immersion: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2011-01-01

    English language predictors of English and French reading development were investigated in a group of 140 children who were enrolled in French immersion programs. Children were first tested in kindergarten, and their reading achievement was tested yearly in both English and French from Grades 1 to 3, with word-level and passage-level measures that…

  3. Communicative and Linguistic Development in Preterm Children: A Longitudinal Study from 12 to 24 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattani, Allegra; Bonifacio, Serena; Fertz, Mariacristina; Iverson, Jana M.; Zocconi, Elisabetta; Caselli, M. Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research conducted on preterm children's linguistic skills has provided varying pictures, and the question of whether and to what extent preterm children are delayed in early language acquisition remains largely unresolved. Aims: To examine communicative and linguistic development during the second year in a group of Italian children…

  4. Children Born Through Reproductive Donation: A Longitudinal Study of Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Roman, Gabriela; Jadva, Vasanti

    2012-01-01

    Background Parenting and children’s adjustment were examined in 30 surrogacy families, 31 egg donation families, 35 donor insemination families, and 53 natural conception families. Methods Parenting was assessed at age 3 by a standardized interview designed to assess quality of parenting and by questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression and marital quality. Children’s adjustment was assessed at ages 3, 7 and 10 using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results Although children born through reproductive donation obtained SDQ scores within the normal range, surrogacy children showed higher levels of adjustment difficulties at age 7 than children conceived by gamete donation. Mothers who had kept their child’s origins secret showed elevated levels of distress. However, maternal distress had a more negative impact on children who were aware of their origins. Conclusions The absence of a gestational connection to the mother may be more problematic for children than the absence of a genetic link. PMID:23176601

  5. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  6. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  7. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: An 8-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  8. Patterns and Predictors of Language and Literacy Abilities 4-10 Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    PubMed Central

    Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Christensen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Aims Oral language is the foundation of literacy. Naturally, policies and practices to promote children’s literacy begin in early childhood and have a strong focus on developing children’s oral language, especially for children with known risk factors for low language ability. The underlying assumption is that children’s progress along the oral to literate continuum is stable and predictable, such that low language ability foretells low literacy ability. This study investigated patterns and predictors of children’s oral language and literacy abilities at 4, 6, 8 and 10 years. The study sample comprised 2,316 to 2,792 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Six developmental patterns were observed, a stable middle-high pattern, a stable low pattern, an improving pattern, a declining pattern, a fluctuating low pattern, and a fluctuating middle-high pattern. Most children (69%) fit a stable middle-high pattern. By contrast, less than 1% of children fit a stable low pattern. These results challenged the view that children’s progress along the oral to literate continuum is stable and predictable. Findings Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low literacy ability at 10 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. Predictors were modelled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, substantial risks for low literacy ability at 10 years, in order of descending magnitude, were: low school readiness, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander status and low language ability at 8 years. Moderate risks were high temperamental reactivity, low language ability at 4 years, and low language ability at 6 years. The following risk factors were not statistically significant in the multivariate model: Low maternal consistency, low family income, health care card

  9. Functional and Gait Assessment in Children and Adolescents Affected by Friedreich’s Ataxia: A One-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gazzellini, Simone; Petrarca, Maurizio; Lispi, Maria Luisa; Pisano, Alessandra; Zazza, Marco; Della Bella, Gessica; Castelli, Enrico; Bertini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Friedreich’s ataxia is the most common autosomal recessive form of neurodegenerative ataxia. We present a longitudinal study on the gait pattern of children and adolescents affected by Friedreich’s ataxia using Gait Analysis and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). We assessed the spectrum of changes over 12 months of the gait characteristics and the relationship between clinical and instrumental evaluations. We enrolled 11 genetically confirmed patients affected by Friedreich’s ataxia in this study together with 13 normally developing age-matched subjects. Eight patients completed a 12-month follow-up under the same protocol. By comparing the gait parameters of Friedreich’s ataxia with the control group, we found significant differences for some relevant indexes. In particular, the increased knee and ankle extension in stance revealed a peculiar biomechanical pattern, which correlated reliably with SARA Total, Gait and Sitting scores. The knee pattern showed its consistency also at the follow-up: Knee extension increased from 6.8±3.5° to -0.5±3.7° and was significantly correlated with the SARA total score. This feature anticipated the loss of the locomotor function in two patients. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the selective and segmental analysis of kinetic/kinematic features of ataxic gait, in particular the behavior of the knee, provides sensitive measures to detect specific longitudinal and functional alterations, more than the SARA scale, which however has proved to be a reliable and practical assessment tool. Functional outcomes measures integrated by instrumental evaluation increase their sensitivity, reliability and suitability for the follow-up of the disease progression and for the application in clinical trials and in rehabilitative programs. PMID:27598307

  10. Functional and Gait Assessment in Children and Adolescents Affected by Friedreich's Ataxia: A One-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Vasco, Gessica; Gazzellini, Simone; Petrarca, Maurizio; Lispi, Maria Luisa; Pisano, Alessandra; Zazza, Marco; Della Bella, Gessica; Castelli, Enrico; Bertini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is the most common autosomal recessive form of neurodegenerative ataxia. We present a longitudinal study on the gait pattern of children and adolescents affected by Friedreich's ataxia using Gait Analysis and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). We assessed the spectrum of changes over 12 months of the gait characteristics and the relationship between clinical and instrumental evaluations. We enrolled 11 genetically confirmed patients affected by Friedreich's ataxia in this study together with 13 normally developing age-matched subjects. Eight patients completed a 12-month follow-up under the same protocol. By comparing the gait parameters of Friedreich's ataxia with the control group, we found significant differences for some relevant indexes. In particular, the increased knee and ankle extension in stance revealed a peculiar biomechanical pattern, which correlated reliably with SARA Total, Gait and Sitting scores. The knee pattern showed its consistency also at the follow-up: Knee extension increased from 6.8±3.5° to -0.5±3.7° and was significantly correlated with the SARA total score. This feature anticipated the loss of the locomotor function in two patients. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the selective and segmental analysis of kinetic/kinematic features of ataxic gait, in particular the behavior of the knee, provides sensitive measures to detect specific longitudinal and functional alterations, more than the SARA scale, which however has proved to be a reliable and practical assessment tool. Functional outcomes measures integrated by instrumental evaluation increase their sensitivity, reliability and suitability for the follow-up of the disease progression and for the application in clinical trials and in rehabilitative programs. PMID:27598307

  11. Functional and Gait Assessment in Children and Adolescents Affected by Friedreich's Ataxia: A One-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Vasco, Gessica; Gazzellini, Simone; Petrarca, Maurizio; Lispi, Maria Luisa; Pisano, Alessandra; Zazza, Marco; Della Bella, Gessica; Castelli, Enrico; Bertini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is the most common autosomal recessive form of neurodegenerative ataxia. We present a longitudinal study on the gait pattern of children and adolescents affected by Friedreich's ataxia using Gait Analysis and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). We assessed the spectrum of changes over 12 months of the gait characteristics and the relationship between clinical and instrumental evaluations. We enrolled 11 genetically confirmed patients affected by Friedreich's ataxia in this study together with 13 normally developing age-matched subjects. Eight patients completed a 12-month follow-up under the same protocol. By comparing the gait parameters of Friedreich's ataxia with the control group, we found significant differences for some relevant indexes. In particular, the increased knee and ankle extension in stance revealed a peculiar biomechanical pattern, which correlated reliably with SARA Total, Gait and Sitting scores. The knee pattern showed its consistency also at the follow-up: Knee extension increased from 6.8±3.5° to -0.5±3.7° and was significantly correlated with the SARA total score. This feature anticipated the loss of the locomotor function in two patients. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the selective and segmental analysis of kinetic/kinematic features of ataxic gait, in particular the behavior of the knee, provides sensitive measures to detect specific longitudinal and functional alterations, more than the SARA scale, which however has proved to be a reliable and practical assessment tool. Functional outcomes measures integrated by instrumental evaluation increase their sensitivity, reliability and suitability for the follow-up of the disease progression and for the application in clinical trials and in rehabilitative programs.

  12. Longitudinal Study of Symptom Severity and Language in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurm, Audrey; Manwaring, Stacy S.; Swineford, Lauren; Farmer, Cristan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A significant minority of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are considered "minimally verbal" due to language development stagnating at a few words. Recent developments allow for the severity of ASD symptoms to be examined using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Social Affect (SA) and Restricted and…

  13. Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children: A Longitudinal Case Study of Functional Outcomes beyond the Visual Acuities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Fook Chang; Lovett, Fiona; Dutton, Gordon N.

    2010-01-01

    Damage to the areas of the brain that are responsible for higher visual processing can lead to severe cerebral visual impairment (CVI). The prognosis for higher cognitive visual functions in children with CVI is not well described. We therefore present our six-year follow-up of a boy with CVI and highlight intervention approaches that have proved…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Language and Speech in Children Who Were Internationally Adopted at Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The author followed 56 internationally adopted children during the first 3 years after adoption to determine how and when they reached age-expected language proficiency in Standard American English. The influence of age of adoption was measured, along with the relationship between early and later language and speech outcomes. Method:…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Word Processing by First-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttentag, Robert E.; Haith, Marshall M.

    1980-01-01

    Twelve first-grade children were tested on word-reading and automaticity of letter and word processing. Word-reading speed increased steadily during the year. Apparently, their ability to process letters automatically was acquired prior to the ability to read words rapidly and accurately. (Author/CP)

  16. Determinants of Parents' Decision to Vaccinate Their Children against Rotavirus: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, E.; Bettinger, J. A.; Halperin, B.; Bradet, R.; Lavoie, F.; Sauvageau, C.; Gilca, V.; Boulianne, N.

    2012-01-01

    Rotavirus disease is a common cause of health care utilization and almost all children are affected by the age of 5 years. In Canada, at the time of this survey (2008-09), immunization rates for rotavirus were less than 20%. We assessed the determinants of a parent's acceptance to have their child immunized against rotavirus. The survey…

  17. Rigidity in Gender-Typed Behaviors in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study of Ethnic Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2013-01-01

    A key prediction of cognitive theories of gender development concerns developmental trajectories in the relative strength or rigidity of gender typing. To examine these trajectories in early childhood, 229 children (African American, Mexican American, and Dominican American) were followed annually from age 3 to 5 years, and gender-stereotypical…

  18. Children Born through Reproductive Donation: A Longitudinal Study of Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Roman, Gabriela; Jadva, Vasanti

    2013-01-01

    Background: Parenting and children's adjustment were examined in 30 surrogacy families, 31 egg donation families, 35 donor insemination families, and 53 natural conception families. Methods: Parenting was assessed at age 3 by a standardized interview designed to assess quality of parenting and by questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression,…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Voices in Regard to Stress and Coping during the Transition to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Mun

    2016-01-01

    This study explores (1) how parental and teacher scaffolding and children's coping strategies contribute to children's adjustment during the transition from preschool to school; and (2) how children's perception of stress and coping are constructed over time. The sample included 216 six-year-old children, their parents and teachers. The parents,…

  20. Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Etchells, Peter J; Gage, Suzanne H; Rutherford, Adam D; Munafò, Marcus R

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression. PMID:26820149

  1. Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Etchells, Peter J; Gage, Suzanne H; Rutherford, Adam D; Munafò, Marcus R

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression.

  2. Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Adam D.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression. PMID:26820149

  3. Dental caries development among African-American children: results from a 4-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol; Ismail, Amid I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine dental caries development and caries risk factors among preschool African-American children from low-income families in Detroit, Michigan over a four- year window. Methods Data came from a representative sample of 1,021 children (zero to five years) and their caregivers in Detroit. The baseline participants in 2002–03 (W1) were reexamined in 2004–05 (W2) and 2007 (W3). Caries was measured using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Bivariate and multivariate analyses for repeated data were conducted to explore associations between caries increment outcomes and demographics, access to dental care, oral health-related behaviors, and social and physical environments. Results The mean number of new NCCL (non-cavitated caries lesions) was 2.8 between W1 and W2 and 2.6 between W2 and W3, while the mean number of new CCL (cavitated caries lesions) was 2.0 and 2.0, respectively, during the same time periods. In younger children (< three years old in W1) higher number of new NCCL than new CCL were observed in both W1–W2 and W2–W3. The risk of new NCCL was associated with child’s soda intake and caregiver’s age. For the risk of new CCL, significant risk factors included baseline NCCL, baseline CCL, as well as child’s age. Baseline caries and child’s soda intake were also associated with the risk of developing new decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces. Conclusions Higher number of new NCCL relative to CCL was developed among low-income Africa-American children during early childhood. New caries development was associated with baseline caries and child’s soda intake. PMID:25441657

  4. Impact of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in children. Longitudinal repeated-measures study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Salamanca, Mexico occupied fourth place nationally in contaminating emissions. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of air pollution on the frequency of pulmonary function alterations and respiratory symptoms in school-age children in a longitudinal repeated-measures study. Methods We recruited a cohort of 464 children from 6 to 14 years of age, from two schools differing in distance from the major stationary air pollution sources. Spirometry, respiratory symptoms and air pollutants (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, PM10,) were obtained for each season. Mixed models for continuous variables and multilevel logistic regression for respiratory symptoms were fitted taking into account seasonal variations in health effects according to air pollution levels. Results Abnormalities in lung function and frequency of respiratory symptoms were higher in the school closer to major stationary air pollution sources than in the distant school. However, in winter differences on health disappeared. The principal alteration in lung function was the obstructive type, which frequency was greater in those students with greater exposure (10.4% vs. 5.3%; OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.0-3.7), followed by the mixed pattern also more frequent in the same students (4.1% vs. 0.9%; OR = 4.69, 95% CI, 1.0-21.1). PM10 levels were the most consistent factor with a negative relationship with FVC, FEV1 and PEF but with a positive relationship with FEV1/FVC coefficient according to its change per 3-month period. Conclusions Students from the school closer to major stationary air pollution sources had in general more respiratory symptoms than those from the distant school. However, in winter air pollution was generalized in this city and differences in health disappeared. PM10 levels were the most consistent factor related to pulmonary function according, to its change per 3-month period. PMID:21106102

  5. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  6. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions. PMID:23812638

  7. Mother-Toddler Play Interaction in Extremely, Very Low Birth Weight, and Full-Term Children: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Salvatori, Paola; Neri, Erica; Chirico, Ilaria; Andrei, Federica; Agostini, Francesca; Trombini, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although preterm birth represents a risk factor for early mother-infant interactions, few studies have focused on toddlerhood, an important time for the development of symbolic play, autonomous skills, and child's socialization competences. Moreover, no study has looked at the effect of birth weight on mother-child interactions during this period. Expanding on the available literature on prematurity, the main objective of this study was to explore the quality of mother-toddler interactions during play, using a longitudinal research design, as well as taking into account the effect of birth weight. Method: 16 Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), 24 Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW), 25 full-term children, and their mothers were recruited for the present study. Mother-child dyads were evaluated at 18, 24, and 30 months of child age. Ten minutes of mother-child play interaction were recorded and later coded according to the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS). Furthermore, the child's level of development was assessed through the Griffiths Scale, and its contribution controlled for. Results: ELBW dyads showed an overall lower level of emotional availability, compared to VLBW and full-term dyads, but no main effect of birth weight was found on specific EA dimensions. Moreover, a significant effect of child age emerged. Overall scores, and Child Responsiveness and Involvement scores improved over time, independently of birth weight. Lastly, a significant effect of the interaction between birth weight and child age was found. Between 18 and 30 months, the overall quality of the interaction significantly increased in ELBW and VLBW dyads. Additionally, between 18 and 30 months, VLBW children significantly improved their responsiveness, while their mothers' sensitivity, structuring, and non-intrusive behaviors improved. In contrast, no change emerged in full-term dyads, although scores were consistently higher than those of the other groups. Discussion: Birth weight

  8. A Preference Based Measure of Complementary Feeding Quality: Application to the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Mittinty, Murthy N.; Golley, Rebecca K.; Smithers, Lisa G.; Brazionis, Laima; Lynch, John W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the Complementary Feeding Utility Index (CFUI), a composite index aimed to measure adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Through an axiomatic characterization this paper shows the advantages in using the CFUI are the following: it avoids the use of arbitrary cut-offs, and by converting observed diet preferences into utilities, summing the score is meaningful. In addition, as the CFUI is designed to be scored continuously, it allows the transition from intake of beneficial foods (in low quantities) and intake of detrimental foods (in high quantities) to be more subtle. The paper first describes the rationale being the development of the CFUI and then elaborates on the methodology used to develop the CFUI, including the process of selecting the components. The methodology is applied to data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to show the advantages of the CFUI over traditional diet index approaches. Unlike traditional approaches, the distribution of the CFUI does not peak towards mean value but distributes evenly towards the tails of the distribution. PMID:24155886

  9. Rigidity in Gender-Typed Behaviors in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study of Ethnic Minority Children

    PubMed Central

    Ruble, Diane; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    A key prediction of cognitive theories of gender development concerns developmental trajectories in the relative strength or rigidity of gender typing. To examine these trajectories in early childhood, 229 children (African American, Mexican, Dominican) were followed annually from age 3 to 5 and gender-stereotypical appearance, dress-up play, toy play, and sex segregation were examined. High gender-typing was found across ethnic group, and most behaviors increased in rigidity, especially from age 3 to 4. In addressing controversy surrounding the stability and structure of gender-typing it was found that from year to year, most behaviors showed moderately stable individual differences. Behaviors were uncorrelated within age, but showed more concordance in change across time, suggesting that aspects of gender-typing are multidimensional but still show coherence. PMID:23432471

  10. Rigidity in gender-typed behaviors in early childhood: a longitudinal study of ethnic minority children.

    PubMed

    Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Shrout, Patrick E

    2013-01-01

    A key prediction of cognitive theories of gender development concerns developmental trajectories in the relative strength or rigidity of gender typing. To examine these trajectories in early childhood, 229 children (African American, Mexican American, and Dominican American) were followed annually from age 3 to 5 years, and gender-stereotypical appearance, dress-up play, toy play, and sex segregation were examined. High gender-typing was found across ethnic groups, and most behaviors increased in rigidity, especially from age 3 to 4 years. In addressing controversy surrounding the stability and structure of gender-typing it was found that from year to year, most behaviors showed moderately stable individual differences. Behaviors were uncorrelated within age but showed more concordance in change across time, suggesting that aspects of gender-typing are multidimensional, but still show coherence. PMID:23432471

  11. Cohort profile: the Motorik-Modul Longitudinal Study: physical fitness and physical activity as determinants of health development in German children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Matthias O; Bös, Klaus; Jekauc, Darko; Karger, Claudia; Mewes, Nadine; Oberger, Jennifer; Reimers, Anne K; Schlenker, Lars; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study aims to contribute to long-term improvement in the health of German children and adolescents by focusing on: (i) the development of physical fitness and physical activity (including period effects); (ii) the individual and physical/social environmental determinants of the development of physical fitness and physical activity; and (iii) the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the development of physical and mental health. The MoMo Longitudinal Study began with a nationwide representative sample of 4529 children and adolescents who ranged in age from 4-17 years at the study baseline (2003-2006). The first survey wave of the MoMo Longitudinal Study was conducted between 2009 and 2012, with two subsequent survey waves to be conducted between 2014 and 2016 and 2018 and 2020, respectively. The MoMo Longitudinal Study includes a physical fitness test profile, a physical activity questionnaire, and subjective and objective measures of health from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS). Data access is provided on request (alexander.woll@kit.edu). For further information, including a complete list of publications please visit www.motorik-modul.de.

  12. Working Memory Arrest in Children with High-Functioning Autism Compared to Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Per N.; Skogli, Erik W.; Hovik, Kjell T.; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically…

  13. A longitudinal study of semantic grouping strategy use in 6-11-year-old children: investigating developmental phases, the role of working memory, and strategy transfer.

    PubMed

    Schleepen, Tamara M J; Jonkman, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    This two-cohort longitudinal study on the development of the semantic grouping strategy had three goals. First, the authors examined if 6-7-year-olds are nonstrategic before becoming strategic after prompting at 8-9 years of age, and if 8-9-year-olds are prompted strategic before spontaneous strategy use at 10-11 years of age. Children 6-7 and 8-9 years old performed two sort-recall tasks (one without and one with a grouping prompt) at two time points separated 1.5 years from each other. Second, the authors investigated whether short-term or working memory capacity at time point 1 predicted recall in children who did or did not use the semantic grouping strategy 1.5 years later. Third, the authors investigated whether prompted strategic children and children who used the strategy spontaneously differed in strategy transfer to a new task. Developmental results confirmed previous cross-sectional results, but in a longitudinal two-cohort study 6-7-year-olds were nonstrategic, and became prompted strategic around 8-9 years of age, followed by spontaneous strategy use at age 10-11 years. The authors found that memory capacity was not predictive of later use of the strategy. New findings were that prompted strategic children were as equally able as spontaneously strategic children to transfer the strategy to a new task, albeit with smaller recall benefits. PMID:25375863

  14. A longitudinal study of semantic grouping strategy use in 6-11-year-old children: investigating developmental phases, the role of working memory, and strategy transfer.

    PubMed

    Schleepen, Tamara M J; Jonkman, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    This two-cohort longitudinal study on the development of the semantic grouping strategy had three goals. First, the authors examined if 6-7-year-olds are nonstrategic before becoming strategic after prompting at 8-9 years of age, and if 8-9-year-olds are prompted strategic before spontaneous strategy use at 10-11 years of age. Children 6-7 and 8-9 years old performed two sort-recall tasks (one without and one with a grouping prompt) at two time points separated 1.5 years from each other. Second, the authors investigated whether short-term or working memory capacity at time point 1 predicted recall in children who did or did not use the semantic grouping strategy 1.5 years later. Third, the authors investigated whether prompted strategic children and children who used the strategy spontaneously differed in strategy transfer to a new task. Developmental results confirmed previous cross-sectional results, but in a longitudinal two-cohort study 6-7-year-olds were nonstrategic, and became prompted strategic around 8-9 years of age, followed by spontaneous strategy use at age 10-11 years. The authors found that memory capacity was not predictive of later use of the strategy. New findings were that prompted strategic children were as equally able as spontaneously strategic children to transfer the strategy to a new task, albeit with smaller recall benefits.

  15. Resistance Patterns of Typhoid Fever in Children: A Longitudinal Community-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Vala, Snehal; Shah, Urvesh; Ahmad, Syed Amir; Scolnik, Dennis; Glatstein, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi are important causes of bacteremia in children, especially those from the developing world. There is a lack of standardized treatment protocols for such patients in the literature, and there are also reports of therapeutic failure related to resistance to commonly used antibiotics. We analyzed the epidemiological, clinical, and antimicrobiological sensitivity patterns of disease in patients diagnosed with blood culture-positive typhoid fever over a 6-month period in a tertiary-care pediatric hospital in western India. Data were retrospectively analyzed for all patients with Salmonella isolates on blood culture between January 1 and June 30, 2011 at the Synergy Neonatal and Pediatric Hospital. Susceptibility of isolates to antimicrobials and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. Demographic data, symptoms and signs, basic laboratory results, treatment courses, and clinical outcomes were collected from clinical charts. All of the 61 isolates of S. typhi were sensitive to cefepime (fourth-generation cephalosporin), 96% to third-generation cephalosporins, and 95% to quinolones. There was intermediate sensitivity to ampicillin (92%) and chloramphenicol (80%). Notably, azithromycin resistance was observed in 63% of isolates. All patients ultimately made full recoveries. There is an urgent need for large scale, community-based clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different antibiotics in enteric fever. Our antimicrobial susceptibility data suggest that quinolones and third-generation cephalosporins should be used as first-line antimicrobials in enteric fever. Although fourth-generation cephalosporins are useful, we feel their use should be restricted to complicated or resistant cases. PMID:24987946

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Mathematical Competencies in Children With Specific Mathematics Difficulties Versus Children With Comorbid Mathematics and Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Hanich, Laurie B.; Kaplan, David

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical competencies of 180 children were examined at 4 points between 2nd and 3rd grades (age range between 7 and 9 years). Children were initially classified into one of 4 groups: math difficulties but normal reading (MD only), math and reading difficulties (MD–RD), reading difficulties but normal math (RD only), and normal achievement in math and reading (NA). The groups did not differ significantly in rate of development. However, at the end of 3rd grade the MD only group performed better than the MD–RD group in problem solving but not in calculation. The NA and RD only groups performed better than the MD–RD group in most areas. Deficiencies in fact mastery and calculation fluency, in particular, are defining features of MD, with or without RD. PMID:12795393

  17. Injuries in high-risk persons and high-risk sports. A longitudinal study of 1818 school children.

    PubMed

    Backx, F J; Beijer, H J; Bol, E; Erich, W B

    1991-01-01

    In this Dutch population-based study we attempted to determine the incidence and severity of sports injuries occurring during different kind of sports in a longitudinal way. The study included 1818 school children aged 8 to 17 years. Over a period of 7 months, 399 sports injuries were reported in 324 youngsters. The most common types of injuries were contusions (43%) and sprains (21%). Medical attention was needed in 25% of all cases. Young basketball, handball and korfball players had a nearly 100% chance of suffering one sports injury per year. Volleyball especially had a high incidence rate in practice (6.7 in 1000 hours). Although physical education classes had a low incidence rate, there were significantly more fractures on the upper limb. Etiologically, sports-related factors were much more important than personal-bound factors. The injured youths spent more time in practice than the noninjured ones, both in organized and nonorganized sports (P less than 0.001). High-risk sports were characterized by contact, a high jump rate, and indoor activities. These three factors explained 78% of the total variance. The contact versus noncontact factor accounted for 48% of the medically treated injuries. An additional goal of this study was to explore the seasonal influence as an extrinsic environmental factor. We found that the duration of injury was increased in the spring (P less than 0.05). Specific preventive measures were formulated in order to reduce the number of new and recurring injuries and a proposal was made to implement injury prevention in school curriculums.

  18. Do positive children become positive adults? Evidence from a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Richards, Marcus; Huppert, Felicia A

    2011-02-10

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term consequences of positive wellbeing in childhood in the general population. We used the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) to test associations between adolescent positive wellbeing and social functioning in midlife. METHOD: Temperament and behaviour at ages 13 and 15 years were rated by school teachers on a range of criteria. These mostly referred to absence or presence of conduct and emotional problems, but four items allowed positive ratings: 'very popular with other children', 'unusually happy and contented', 'makes friends extremely easily' and 'extremely energetic, never tired'. In addition, at age 16 years survey members self-completed the Maudsley Personality Inventory, from which a summary measure of extraversion was derived, as this was previously found to be associated with midlife positive wellbeing in this cohort. RESULTS: Being a happy child, defined as receiving at least two of the above teacher ratings, was positively associated with midlife functioning and wellbeing, specifically a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, a high frequency of contact with friends or relatives, engagement in social activities, and to a lesser extent feeling satisfied with accomplishments in working life. These associations were independent of father's social class, childhood cognition, educational attainment, and midlife occupational social class. There were no independent associations between being a happy child and educational or occupational attainment, being married, engagement in prosocial activities, taking leadership in community activities, and with life satisfaction in general or with family life. Extraversion was associated with a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, high engagement in social activities, being married, general midlife life satisfaction, and satisfaction with family life, but not with social contact, prosocial activity, leadership

  19. Do positive children become positive adults? Evidence from a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Richards, Marcus; Huppert, Felicia A

    2011-02-10

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term consequences of positive wellbeing in childhood in the general population. We used the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) to test associations between adolescent positive wellbeing and social functioning in midlife. METHOD: Temperament and behaviour at ages 13 and 15 years were rated by school teachers on a range of criteria. These mostly referred to absence or presence of conduct and emotional problems, but four items allowed positive ratings: 'very popular with other children', 'unusually happy and contented', 'makes friends extremely easily' and 'extremely energetic, never tired'. In addition, at age 16 years survey members self-completed the Maudsley Personality Inventory, from which a summary measure of extraversion was derived, as this was previously found to be associated with midlife positive wellbeing in this cohort. RESULTS: Being a happy child, defined as receiving at least two of the above teacher ratings, was positively associated with midlife functioning and wellbeing, specifically a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, a high frequency of contact with friends or relatives, engagement in social activities, and to a lesser extent feeling satisfied with accomplishments in working life. These associations were independent of father's social class, childhood cognition, educational attainment, and midlife occupational social class. There were no independent associations between being a happy child and educational or occupational attainment, being married, engagement in prosocial activities, taking leadership in community activities, and with life satisfaction in general or with family life. Extraversion was associated with a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, high engagement in social activities, being married, general midlife life satisfaction, and satisfaction with family life, but not with social contact, prosocial activity, leadership

  20. Brief Report: A Longitudinal Study of Excessive Smiling and Laughing in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dawn; Horsler, Kate; Mount, Rebecca; Oliver, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Elevated laughing and smiling is a key characteristic of the Angelman syndrome behavioral phenotype, with cross-sectional studies reporting changes with environment and age. This study compares levels of laughing and smiling in 12 participants across three experimental conditions [full social interaction (with eye contact), social interaction with…

  1. A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Affect in Children and Adults with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lisa; Moss, Jo; Oliver, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Studies of individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) have described changes in mood and behavior with age, although no empirical or longitudinal studies have been conducted. Caregivers of individuals with CdLS (N = 67), cri du chat syndrome (CdCS; N = 42), and Fragile X syndrome (FXS; N = 142) completed the Mood, Interest and Pleasure…

  2. The Role of Behavioral Self-Regulation in Learning to Read: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Icelandic Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birgisdóttir, Freyja; Gestsdóttir, Steinunn; Thorsdóttir, Fanney

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, including success in literacy, but few studies have explored the relations that behavioral self-regulation may have with different components of early literacy development. The present study investigated the longitudinal contribution…

  3. Are the discrepancies between self- and others' appraisals of competence predictive or reflective of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: a longitudinal study, Part II.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, K B; Cole, D A; Martin, J M; Tram, J; Seroczynski, A D

    2000-11-01

    Two cohorts of children and adolescents (who started 6th grade in 1993 and 1996), parents, teachers, and peers participated in a 4-wave, 2-year, longitudinal study of perceived competence and depressive symptoms. The authors assessed children's tendencies to underestimate their competence (discrepant self-appraisals) relative to the appraisals of significant others. We also assessed the degree to which self-appraisals reflected the evaluations of others (reflective self-appraisals). Domains of competence were academic competence, physical appearance, behavioral conduct, social acceptance, and athletic competence. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that depressive symptoms correlated with reflective and discrepant self-appraisals. Longitudinal analyses revealed that reflective and discrepant self-appraisals predicted subsequent depressive symptoms and that depressive symptoms predicted discrepant but not reflective self-appraisals. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Are the discrepancies between self- and others' appraisals of competence predictive or reflective of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: a longitudinal study, Part II.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, K B; Cole, D A; Martin, J M; Tram, J; Seroczynski, A D

    2000-11-01

    Two cohorts of children and adolescents (who started 6th grade in 1993 and 1996), parents, teachers, and peers participated in a 4-wave, 2-year, longitudinal study of perceived competence and depressive symptoms. The authors assessed children's tendencies to underestimate their competence (discrepant self-appraisals) relative to the appraisals of significant others. We also assessed the degree to which self-appraisals reflected the evaluations of others (reflective self-appraisals). Domains of competence were academic competence, physical appearance, behavioral conduct, social acceptance, and athletic competence. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that depressive symptoms correlated with reflective and discrepant self-appraisals. Longitudinal analyses revealed that reflective and discrepant self-appraisals predicted subsequent depressive symptoms and that depressive symptoms predicted discrepant but not reflective self-appraisals. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:11195989

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Childhood Obesity, Weight Status Change, and Subsequent Academic Performance in Taiwanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Backround: This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. Methods: First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end…

  6. How Persistent Are Phonological Difficulties? A Longitudinal Study of Reading Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Idor; Jacobson, Christer

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the persistency of phonological deficiencies over time. The participants were 40 pupils in grade 2 with documented reading and writing difficulties and a comparison group of 30 pupils. The participants were followed over a 10-year period by word- and non-word-reading tests and tests of cognitive ability. The persistence…

  7. Longitudinal Study of Self-Esteem in Children from 7-11 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoglund, Connie L.; Bell, Terece S.

    A controversy currently exists in the literature regarding the stability of self-esteem across childhood. This ongoing study, initiated in 1987, was designed to respond to the limitations in the existing body of knowledge. It examines the influence of a variety of environmental variables, specifically home and school experiences, as well as…

  8. Do cherished children age successfully? Longitudinal findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lewina O; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Kubzansky, Laura D; Chen, Edith; Mroczek, Daniel K; Wang, Joyce M; Spiro, Avron

    2015-12-01

    Although early adversity has been linked to worse mental and physical health in adulthood, few studies have investigated the pathways through which positive and negative dimensions of early experiences can jointly influence psychological well-being in later life. This study examined: (a) profiles of early experiences across multiple domains, (b) the relations of these profiles to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in later life, and (c) whether midlife social support mediated these relations. We first conducted latent class analysis of early experiences using data from 1,076 men in the VA Normative Aging Study who completed the Childhood Experiences Scale (age: M = 69, SD = 7). Analyses yielded 3 profiles of early experiences, labeled as cherished (strong support and some losses), harshly disciplined (harsh parental discipline, low positive reinforcement, and nonnormative stressors), and ordinary (few stressors and low parental attention). Next, we applied structural equation modeling to data on a subset of this sample assessed 7 years later on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (n = 496; age: M = 76, SD = 7). In general, the cherished group reported stronger qualitative social support in midlife than the harshly disciplined and ordinary groups, which in turn was related to greater hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect) and eudaimonic (competence, positive relations with others) well-being in later life. The cherished group also reported higher autonomy than the ordinary group, but this association was independent of midlife social support. Our findings suggest that experiencing adversity in the context of a nurturing early environment can promote successful aging through the maintenance of supportive relationships in midlife. PMID:26436456

  9. Children Born in 2001: First Results from the Base Year of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS?B). E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-036.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Kristin Denton; West, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    This E.D. TAB provides descriptive information about children born in the United States in 2001. It is the first publication based on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS?B), and it presents information on certain child and family characteristics, on children's mental and physical skills, on children's first experiences in…

  10. Longitudinal Stability in Genetic Effects on Children's Conversational Language Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Harlaar, Nicole; Petrill, Stephen A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the longitudinal stability of genetic and environmental influences on children's productive language sample measures during the early school-age years. Method: Twin study methodology with structural equation modeling was used to derive univariate estimates of additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and…

  11. Enhanced Development of Auditory Change Detection in Musically Trained School-Aged Children: A Longitudinal Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Saarikivi, Katri; Ojala, Pauliina; Huotilainen, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Adult musicians show superior auditory discrimination skills when compared to non-musicians. The enhanced auditory skills of musicians are reflected in the augmented amplitudes of their auditory event-related potential (ERP) responses. In the current study, we investigated longitudinally the development of auditory discrimination skills in…

  12. Technology in the Home and the Achievement of Young Children: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Linda M.; Laffey, James M.; Whittaker, Tiffany; Sheng, Yanyan

    2006-01-01

    Because technology in the home is becoming ever more available, understanding the role of technology in early childhood development is increasingly an opportunity and a concern for educators. This report examines data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99, to provide an overview of the role of technology in the…

  13. Learning to Read Changes Children's Phonological Skills: Evidence from a Latent Variable Longitudinal Study of Reading and Nonword Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Kate; Hulme, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in nonword repetition are associated with language and literacy development, but few studies have considered the extent to which learning to read influences phonological skills as indexed by nonword repetition performance. We explored this question using a latent variable longitudinal design. Reading, oral language and…

  14. Similarities and differences between internationally adopted and nonadopted children in their toddler years: Outcomes from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dalen, Monica; Theie, Steinar

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we compare internationally adopted children's communication, gross motor development, temperament, and challenging behavior with the same characteristics in nonadopted children at age 24 and 36 months. At 24 months, adopted children lag behind in communication and in gross motor development. The adopted children are less active and show less physically challenging behavior. At age 36 months, most of these differences have diminished, but the adopted children still lag behind in communication. This is an important finding because communication skills in the toddler years are a crucial factor in children's attachment, social development, and later language and cognitive development. Looking at the overall outcomes during early toddler years, internationally adopted children are developing very well considering the preadoption adversity to which many of them have been exposed. PMID:24999525

  15. Similarities and differences between internationally adopted and nonadopted children in their toddler years: Outcomes from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dalen, Monica; Theie, Steinar

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we compare internationally adopted children's communication, gross motor development, temperament, and challenging behavior with the same characteristics in nonadopted children at age 24 and 36 months. At 24 months, adopted children lag behind in communication and in gross motor development. The adopted children are less active and show less physically challenging behavior. At age 36 months, most of these differences have diminished, but the adopted children still lag behind in communication. This is an important finding because communication skills in the toddler years are a crucial factor in children's attachment, social development, and later language and cognitive development. Looking at the overall outcomes during early toddler years, internationally adopted children are developing very well considering the preadoption adversity to which many of them have been exposed.

  16. Performance of Motor Sequences in Children at Heightened vs. Low Risk for ASD: A Longitudinal Study from 18 to 36 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Focaroli, Valentina; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Parsons, Shelby M; Keller, Flavio; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-01-01

    Recent research shows that motor difficulties are a prominent component of the behavioral profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are also apparent from early in development in infants who have an older sibling with ASD (High Risk; HR). Delays have been reported for HR infants who do and who do not receive an eventual diagnosis of ASD. A growing body of prospective studies has focused on the emergence of early motor skills primarily during the first year of life. To date, however, relatively little work has examined motor skills in the second and third years. Thus, the present research was designed to investigate motor performance in object transport tasks longitudinally in HR and LR (Low Risk) children between the ages of 18 and 36 months. Participants (15 HR children and 14 LR children) were observed at 18, 24, and 36 months. Children completed two motor tasks, the Ball Task and the Block Task, each of which included two conditions that varied in terms of the precision demands of the goal action. Kinematic data were acquired via two magneto inertial sensors worn on each wrist. In the Block Task, HR children reached more slowly (i.e., mean acceleration was lower) compared to LR children. This finding is in line with growing evidence of early delays in fine motor skills in HR children and suggests that vulnerabilities in motor performance may persist into the preschool years in children at risk for ASD. PMID:27242630

  17. Performance of Motor Sequences in Children at Heightened vs. Low Risk for ASD: A Longitudinal Study from 18 to 36 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Focaroli, Valentina; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Parsons, Shelby M; Keller, Flavio; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-01-01

    Recent research shows that motor difficulties are a prominent component of the behavioral profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are also apparent from early in development in infants who have an older sibling with ASD (High Risk; HR). Delays have been reported for HR infants who do and who do not receive an eventual diagnosis of ASD. A growing body of prospective studies has focused on the emergence of early motor skills primarily during the first year of life. To date, however, relatively little work has examined motor skills in the second and third years. Thus, the present research was designed to investigate motor performance in object transport tasks longitudinally in HR and LR (Low Risk) children between the ages of 18 and 36 months. Participants (15 HR children and 14 LR children) were observed at 18, 24, and 36 months. Children completed two motor tasks, the Ball Task and the Block Task, each of which included two conditions that varied in terms of the precision demands of the goal action. Kinematic data were acquired via two magneto inertial sensors worn on each wrist. In the Block Task, HR children reached more slowly (i.e., mean acceleration was lower) compared to LR children. This finding is in line with growing evidence of early delays in fine motor skills in HR children and suggests that vulnerabilities in motor performance may persist into the preschool years in children at risk for ASD.

  18. Performance of Motor Sequences in Children at Heightened vs. Low Risk for ASD: A Longitudinal Study from 18 to 36 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Focaroli, Valentina; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Parsons, Shelby M.; Keller, Flavio; Iverson, Jana M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research shows that motor difficulties are a prominent component of the behavioral profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are also apparent from early in development in infants who have an older sibling with ASD (High Risk; HR). Delays have been reported for HR infants who do and who do not receive an eventual diagnosis of ASD. A growing body of prospective studies has focused on the emergence of early motor skills primarily during the first year of life. To date, however, relatively little work has examined motor skills in the second and third years. Thus, the present research was designed to investigate motor performance in object transport tasks longitudinally in HR and LR (Low Risk) children between the ages of 18 and 36 months. Participants (15 HR children and 14 LR children) were observed at 18, 24, and 36 months. Children completed two motor tasks, the Ball Task and the Block Task, each of which included two conditions that varied in terms of the precision demands of the goal action. Kinematic data were acquired via two magneto inertial sensors worn on each wrist. In the Block Task, HR children reached more slowly (i.e., mean acceleration was lower) compared to LR children. This finding is in line with growing evidence of early delays in fine motor skills in HR children and suggests that vulnerabilities in motor performance may persist into the preschool years in children at risk for ASD. PMID:27242630

  19. The Risk of Reduced Physical Activity in Children with Probable Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dido; Lingam, Raghu; Mattocks, Calum; Riddoch, Chris; Ness, Andy; Emond, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder have an increased risk of reduced moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), using data from a large population based study. Prospectively collected data from 4331 children (boys = 2065, girls = 2266) who had completed motor…

  20. Investigating Within-day and Longitudinal Effects of Maternal Stress on Children's Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition: Protocol for the MATCH Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve F.; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk. PMID:25987483

  1. Longitudinal Study of Speech Perception, Speech, and Language for Children with Hearing Loss in an Auditory-Verbal Therapy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornan, Dimity; Hickson, Louise; Murdoch, Bruce; Houston, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the speech perception, speech, and language developmental progress of 25 children with hearing loss (mean Pure-Tone Average [PTA] 79.37 dB HL) in an auditory verbal therapy program. Children were tested initially and then 21 months later on a battery of assessments. The speech and language results over time were compared with…

  2. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  3. Stability of Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Factors and Their Relation to General Mental Health Problems in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygaard, Egil; Jensen, Tine K.; Dyb, Grete

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure of posttraumatic stress reaction factors and their relation to general mental health problems in Norwegian children exposed to the tsunami on December 26, 2004. A total of 133 children and adolescents (ages 6-17) were interviewed 10 months posttsunami using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, and 104…

  4. Contextual Specificity in the Relationship between Maternal Autonomy Support and Children's Socio-emotional Development: A Longitudinal Study from Preschool to Preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Matte-Gagné, Célia; Harvey, Brenda; Stack, Dale M; Serbin, Lisa A

    2015-08-01

    The benefits of an autonomy supportive environment have been established as a key component in children's development at various ages. Nonetheless, research examining the outcomes of early autonomy supportive environments has largely neglected socio-emotional development. The first objective of the present longitudinal study was to examine the socio-emotional outcomes associated with maternal autonomy support during the preschool period. Second, we explored the contextual specificity of the relationships between maternal autonomy support and children's later socio-emotional outcomes. Finally, we investigated the indirect effect of maternal autonomy support on children's later socio-emotional outcomes through earlier children's socio-emotional outcomes. Sixty-six mothers and their pre-school aged children (41 girls) were followed during preschool (Time 1), elementary school (Time 2) and preadolescence (Time 3). Maternal autonomy support (Time 1) was measured in two contexts (free-play and interference task) using observational coding. Furthermore, the children's internalizing and externalizing problems as well as their social competence were measured at Times 2 and 3. The results revealed the importance of maternal autonomy support during preschool for children's later socio-emotional development, especially during challenging contexts, and the mediating role of children's socio-emotional outcomes during elementary school in the link between maternal autonomy support during the preschool years and children's later socio-emotional outcomes during preadolescence. The results highlight the contextual specificity of the relationship between maternal autonomy support and children's later socio-emotional development and reveal one of the mechanisms through which the effect of early childhood parental autonomy support on children's later socio-emotional development is carried forward over time. PMID:25559414

  5. A longitudinal study of growth and growth hormone secretion in children during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Marky, I.; Mellander, L.; Lannering, B.; Albertsson-Wikland, K. )

    1991-01-01

    Diminished growth rate during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is of the multifactorial etiology. Effects on GH secretion have been shown after discontinuation of treatment including prophylactic CNS irradiation. Seventeen children treated for ALL with three different CNS preventive schedules were followed longitudinally with repeated estimations of the spontaneous GH secretion during a 24-month period. No difference was found in GH secretion during this time between patients who had received no radiotherapy and those who had received 18 or 24 Gy as CNS prophylaxis. During dexamethasone treatment the GH secretion was completely suppressed, which can be a mediator for the diminished growth rate during the first 2 years of ALL treatment. We conclude that there is no clinical reason to perform GH analysis within the first 24 months of treatment for ALL.

  6. Working memory arrest in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Per N; Skogli, Erik W; Hovik, Kjell T; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically developing children (age 9-16 years) were included at baseline and followed up approximately 25 months later. The children were given a letter/number sequencing task to assess verbal working memory. The performance of children with high-functioning autism on verbal working memory did not improve after 2 years, while improvement was observed in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. The results indicate a different developmental trajectory for verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. More research is needed to construct a developmental framework more suitable for children with autism spectrum disorder.

  7. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES IN THEIR HOMES TO SELECTED PESTICIDES, PHTHALATES, BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS, AND PERFLUORINATED CHEMICALS (A CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH STUDY - CHEERS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is conducting a study of young children's exposures to chemicals in the home. The American Chemistry Council (ACC) is partnering with the EPA to enhance an existing EPA study of childre...

  8. Protocol for a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study of postconcussive symptoms in children: the Take C.A.Re (Concussion Assessment and Recovery Research) study

    PubMed Central

    Bressan, Silvia; Takagi, Michael; Anderson, Vicki; Davis, Gavin A; Oakley, Ed; Dunne, Kevin; Clarke, Cathriona; Doyle, Melissa; Hearps, Stephen; Ignjatovic, Vera; Seal, Marc; Babl, Franz E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A substantial minority of children who sustain a concussion suffer prolonged postconcussive symptoms. These symptoms can persist for more than 1 month postinjury and include physical, cognitive, behavioural and emotional changes. Those affected can develop significant disability, diminishing their quality of life. The precise prevalence of postconcussive symptoms following child concussion is unclear, with heterogeneous and at times conflicting results published regarding factors that predict children at risk for developing long-lasting postconcussive symptoms. The aim of the Take C.A.Re (Concussion Assessment and Recovery Research) study is to provide an in-depth multidimensional description of the postconcussive recovery trajectories from a physical, neurocognitive and psychosocial perspective in the 3 months following concussion, with a focus on the early postconcussive period, and identification of factors associated with prolonged recovery. Methods and analysis Take C.A.Re is a prospective, longitudinal study at a tertiary children's hospital, recruiting and assessing patients aged 5–<18 years who present to the emergency department with a concussion and following them at 1–4 days, 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months postinjury. Multiple domains are assessed: postconcussive symptoms, balance and coordination, neurocognition, behaviour, quality of life, fatigue, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parental distress and family burden. ‘Delayed recovery’ is operationalised as the presence of ≥3 symptoms on the Post Concussive Symptoms Inventory rated as worse compared with baseline. Main analyses comprise analysis of variance (recovery trajectories, delayed vs normal recovery groups) and regression analyses of predictors of recovery (preinjury, acute and family factors). Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained through the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committee (33122). We aim to

  9. Association of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With Psychological Well-Being Among Japanese Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Adachi, Minoru; Oka, Koichiro

    2016-10-01

    Data on the effect of increased or decreased physical activity on children's psychological status are scarce, and effect sizes are small. This study conducted two-year longitudinal research to identify associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and psychological well-being in Japanese school children through a mail survey completed by 292 children aged 6-12 years. Data on sociodemographics, physical activity, sedentary behavior on weekdays and the weekend, and psychometrics (self-efficacy, anxiety, and behavioral/emotional problems) were collected using a self-reported questionnaire. A logistic regression analysis was performed, calculating odds ratios for physical activity, psychometrics, and baseline age and physical activity and sedentary behavior changes. For boys, a negative association was found between increased physical activity outside school and maintained or improved self-efficacy as opposed to a positive association in girls. Increased sedentary behavior on weekdays and long periods of sedentary behavior on weekends were associated with maintained or improved behavioral/emotional problems in girls only. This two-year longitudinal study is the first of its kind conducted in Japan. Although effect sizes were small, these results may nevertheless assist in intervention development to promote psychological well-being. PMID:27516410

  10. Behavior and Attention Problems in Eight-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Opiate and Poly-Substance Exposure: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Egil; Slinning, Kari; Moe, Vibeke; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have found that children born to mothers with opioid or poly-substance use during pregnancy have more behavior and attention problems and lower cognitive functioning than non-exposed children. The present study aimed to investigate whether behavior and attention problems are more prominent than general cognitive deficits in this risk group and whether the problems wane or increase over time. This prospective longitudinal cross-informant study compared 72 children who were prenatally exposed to heroin and multiple drugs with a group of 58 children without known prenatal risk factors. Group differences in caregivers' and teachers' reports of the children's behavior and attention problems based on the Child Behavior Check List and the ADHD Rating Scale were compared based on group differences in general cognitive functioning at 4 ½ and 8 ½ years of age. Both parent and teacher reports suggest that the exposed group has significantly more problems in several behavioral areas than the comparison group, particularly with regard to attention problems. The preschool teachers had already reported these problems when the children were 4 ½ years old, whereas the caregivers reported these problems mainly when the children were 8 ½ years old. The group differences in behavioral and attentional problems were not significantly greater and some were even significantly smaller than the group differences in general cognitive abilities. These findings suggest that children subject to prenatally drug exposure have increasing problems in multiple areas related to behavior from preschool age to 8 ½ years but that these problems do not seem to be specific; i.e., they are not more severe than the problems with general cognitive abilities found for this group. PMID:27336798

  11. Development and predictive value of early vocalizations in very-low-birth-weight children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Stolt, Suvi; Lehtonen, Liisa; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze early vocalization development, the predictive value of this development in terms of later language skills, and possible gender difference in early vocalization development in a selected cohort of 32 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children and 35 full-term controls. The data on early vocalization development were gathered using a structured maternal report method. Language skills were assessed at 2.0. No significant difference was found between the groups in the rate of early vocalization development when corrected age was used for the VLBW children. The rate of early vocalization development correlated significantly with later language performance in VLBW children. Only weak correlations were detected in the control group. We found no gender difference in early vocalization development in either of the groups. The findings suggest that the rate of early vocalization development can be used as a clinical predictor of later linguistic performance in VLBW children.

  12. Organization and functioning of primary healthcare for pre-school children in Croatia: a longitudinal study from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Buljan, Josip; Prljević, Gordana; Menegoni, Martina; Bralić, Irena

    2014-12-01

    Primary health care for children in Croatia are mostly provided by primary pediatricians (PP) in the urban and by family doctors in rural areas. During past decades, as apart of health care reforms, primary pediatric care experiences several changes. This study was undertaken in order to investigate the trends in organizational structure and functioning of the PPs, based on routinely collected data from Croatian Health Service Yearbooks, 1995 to 2012. The results have consistently shown a shortage of PPs in Croatia. The shortage obviously affects the average number of children per PP; number increased from 994 in 1995, to 1556 children in 2010, which was far above the standard. The shortage of PPs is also related to the high number of visits (30 to 40) per PP and per working day. The obtained results clearly show only the trends, therefore further research is needed for a full understanding of the PHC for pre-school children.

  13. Media violence, physical aggression, and relational aggression in school age children: a short-term longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Douglas A; Coyne, Sarah; Walsh, David A

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical), (2) by measuring media violence exposure (MVE) across three types of media, and (3) by measuring MVE and aggressive/prosocial behaviors at two points in time during the school year. In this study, 430 3rd-5th grade children, their peers, and their teachers were surveyed. Children's consumption of media violence early in the school year predicted higher verbally aggressive behavior, higher relationally aggressive behavior, higher physically aggressive behavior, and less prosocial behavior later in the school year. Additionally, these effects were mediated by hostile attribution bias. The findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model. PMID:21274855

  14. Comparing Analytic Methods for Longitudinal GWAS and a Case-Study Evaluating Chemotherapy Course Length in Pediatric AML. A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Vujkovic, Marijana; Aplenc, Richard; Alonzo, Todd A.; Gamis, Alan S.; Li, Yimei

    2016-01-01

    Regression analysis is commonly used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to test genotype-phenotype associations but restricts the phenotype to a single observation for each individual. There is an increasing need for analytic methods for longitudinally collected phenotype data. Several methods have been proposed to perform longitudinal GWAS for family-based studies but few methods are described for unrelated populations. We compared the performance of three statistical approaches for longitudinal GWAS in unrelated subjectes: (1) principal component-based generalized estimating equations (PC-GEE); (2) principal component-based linear mixed effects model (PC-LMEM); (3) kinship coefficient matrix-based linear mixed effects model (KIN-LMEM), in a study of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the duration of 4 courses of chemotherapy in 624 unrelated children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) genotyped on the Illumina 2.5 M OmniQuad from the COG studies AAML0531 and AAML1031. In this study we observed an exaggerated type I error with PC-GEE in SNPs with minor allele frequencies < 0.05, wheras KIN-LMEM produces more than expected type II errors. PC-MEM showed balanced type I and type II errors for the observed vs. expected P-values in comparison to competing approaches. In general, a strong concordance was observed between the P-values with the different approaches, in particular among P < 0.01 where the between-method AUCs exceed 99%. PC-LMEM accounts for genetic relatedness and correlations among repeated phenotype measures, shows minimal genome-wide inflation of type I errors, and yields high power. We therefore recommend PC-LMEM as a robust analytic approach for GWAS of longitudinal data in unrelated populations. PMID:27547214

  15. Comparing Analytic Methods for Longitudinal GWAS and a Case-Study Evaluating Chemotherapy Course Length in Pediatric AML. A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Vujkovic, Marijana; Aplenc, Richard; Alonzo, Todd A; Gamis, Alan S; Li, Yimei

    2016-01-01

    Regression analysis is commonly used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to test genotype-phenotype associations but restricts the phenotype to a single observation for each individual. There is an increasing need for analytic methods for longitudinally collected phenotype data. Several methods have been proposed to perform longitudinal GWAS for family-based studies but few methods are described for unrelated populations. We compared the performance of three statistical approaches for longitudinal GWAS in unrelated subjectes: (1) principal component-based generalized estimating equations (PC-GEE); (2) principal component-based linear mixed effects model (PC-LMEM); (3) kinship coefficient matrix-based linear mixed effects model (KIN-LMEM), in a study of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the duration of 4 courses of chemotherapy in 624 unrelated children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) genotyped on the Illumina 2.5 M OmniQuad from the COG studies AAML0531 and AAML1031. In this study we observed an exaggerated type I error with PC-GEE in SNPs with minor allele frequencies < 0.05, wheras KIN-LMEM produces more than expected type II errors. PC-MEM showed balanced type I and type II errors for the observed vs. expected P-values in comparison to competing approaches. In general, a strong concordance was observed between the P-values with the different approaches, in particular among P < 0.01 where the between-method AUCs exceed 99%. PC-LMEM accounts for genetic relatedness and correlations among repeated phenotype measures, shows minimal genome-wide inflation of type I errors, and yields high power. We therefore recommend PC-LMEM as a robust analytic approach for GWAS of longitudinal data in unrelated populations. PMID:27547214

  16. Looking through Time: A Longitudinal Study of Children's Media Violence Consumption at Home and Aggressive Behaviors at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Linder, Jennifer R.; Walsh, David A.

    Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical); (2) by measuring media violence exposure across three types of media (television, movies/videos, and video…

  17. The Perceived Needs of Maine Parents of Premature Children for Services and Supports: A Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhee, Karen Boulos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the perceived needs and correlates of Maine parents of premature infants related to the chronological distance from the NICU. The study focused on identifying the perceived service needs of parents of premature children and how these needs changed over time, revealed the relationships between perceived…

  18. Oral language and narrative skills in children with specific language impairment with and without literacy delay: a three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Boons, Tinne; Ghesquière, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared the development of oral language and more specifically narrative skills (storytelling and story retelling) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay. Therefore, 18 children with SLI and 18 matched controls with normal literacy were followed from the last year of kindergarten (mean age=5 years 5 months) until the beginning of grade 3 (mean age=8 years 1 month). Oral language tests measuring vocabulary, morphology, sentence and text comprehension and narrative skills were administered yearly. Based on first and third grade reading and spelling achievement, both groups were divided into a group with and a group without literacy problems. Results showed that the children with SLI and literacy delay had persistent oral language problems across all assessed language domains. The children with SLI and normal literacy skills scored also persistently low on vocabulary, morphology and story retelling skills. Only on listening comprehension and storytelling, they evolved towards the level of the control group. In conclusion, oral language skills in children with SLI and normal literacy skills remained in general poor, despite their intact literacy development during the first years of literacy instruction. Only for listening comprehension and storytelling, they improved, probably as a result of more print exposure.

  19. Oral language and narrative skills in children with specific language impairment with and without literacy delay: a three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Boons, Tinne; Ghesquière, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared the development of oral language and more specifically narrative skills (storytelling and story retelling) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay. Therefore, 18 children with SLI and 18 matched controls with normal literacy were followed from the last year of kindergarten (mean age=5 years 5 months) until the beginning of grade 3 (mean age=8 years 1 month). Oral language tests measuring vocabulary, morphology, sentence and text comprehension and narrative skills were administered yearly. Based on first and third grade reading and spelling achievement, both groups were divided into a group with and a group without literacy problems. Results showed that the children with SLI and literacy delay had persistent oral language problems across all assessed language domains. The children with SLI and normal literacy skills scored also persistently low on vocabulary, morphology and story retelling skills. Only on listening comprehension and storytelling, they evolved towards the level of the control group. In conclusion, oral language skills in children with SLI and normal literacy skills remained in general poor, despite their intact literacy development during the first years of literacy instruction. Only for listening comprehension and storytelling, they improved, probably as a result of more print exposure. PMID:22699257

  20. Behavior and Attention Problems in Eight-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Opiate and Poly-Substance Exposure: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Slinning, Kari; Moe, Vibeke; Walhovd, Kristine B.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have found that children born to mothers with opioid or poly-substance use during pregnancy have more behavior and attention problems and lower cognitive functioning than non-exposed children. The present study aimed to investigate whether behavior and attention problems are more prominent than general cognitive deficits in this risk group and whether the problems wane or increase over time. This prospective longitudinal cross-informant study compared 72 children who were prenatally exposed to heroin and multiple drugs with a group of 58 children without known prenatal risk factors. Group differences in caregivers’ and teachers’ reports of the children’s behavior and attention problems based on the Child Behavior Check List and the ADHD Rating Scale were compared based on group differences in general cognitive functioning at 4 ½ and 8 ½ years of age. Both parent and teacher reports suggest that the exposed group has significantly more problems in several behavioral areas than the comparison group, particularly with regard to attention problems. The preschool teachers had already reported these problems when the children were 4 ½ years old, whereas the caregivers reported these problems mainly when the children were 8 ½ years old. The group differences in behavioral and attentional problems were not significantly greater and some were even significantly smaller than the group differences in general cognitive abilities. These findings suggest that children subject to prenatally drug exposure have increasing problems in multiple areas related to behavior from preschool age to 8 ½ years but that these problems do not seem to be specific; i.e., they are not more severe than the problems with general cognitive abilities found for this group. PMID:27336798

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  2. Investing in Better Outcomes: The Delaware Early Childhood Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamel-McCormick, Michael; Amsden, Deborah

    This report details the outcomes for children enrolled in two types of early intervention programs in Delaware: those serving young children with disabilities and those serving young children living in poverty. The Delaware Early Childhood Longitudinal Study was designed as a retrospective, two-group, posttest-only design. Participating in the…

  3. A longitudinal group study of speech development in Danish children born with and without cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Hutters, B; Bau, A; Brøndsted, K

    2001-01-01

    The present study focuses on contoid vocalization by Danish 1-year-old unrepaired toddlers born with cleft lip and palate, and how they differ from their non-cleft peers. Furthermore, we focus on how the same children master Danish consonants at 3 years of age compared with their non-cleft peers in terms of their ability to produce consonants in accordance with adult target. Also, with the 3 year olds, we look at cleft speech characteristics as well as developmental speech characteristics found in both groups of children. Based on phonetic transcription, it was found that Danish unoperated cleft palate children at 1 year of age produced few types of contoids and preferably contoids that did not require closure of the velopharyngeal port in their prespeech. In addition, the data suggest that consonants produced by cleft children who are treated with one-stage surgery after speech onset, at 3 years of age differ from speech produced by non-cleft children, not only as regards cleft speech characteristics, but also as regards developmental speech characteristics.

  4. Pneumonia, diarrhea, and growth in the first 4 y of life: a longitudinal study of 5914 urban Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Victora, C G; Barros, F C; Kirkwood, B R; Vaughan, J P

    1990-08-01

    The synergism between nutrition status and hospital admissions due to diarrhea and pneumonia was studied in a population-based birth cohort of greater than 5000 children in southern Brazil. Children were identified soon after birth in 1982, and data on nutrition status (weight and length) and hospital admissions were collected in 1984 and in 1986. Diarrhea admissions were stronger predictors of malnutrition than were pneumonia admissions, but malnutrition was a more important risk factor for pneumonia than for diarrhea. All associations were stronger in the first 2 y of life, although the early effect of severe diarrhea and pneumonia on nutrition status could still be detected in the fourth year of life.

  5. Acute stress disorder as a predictor of posttraumatic stress: A longitudinal study of Chinese children exposed to the Lushan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiling; Zhang, Yuqing; Wei, Chuguang; Liu, Zhengkui; Hannak, Walter

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children who experienced the Lushan earthquake in Sichuan, China, and assessed the ability of ASD to predict PTSD. The Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS) was used to assess acute stress reaction within weeks of the trauma. The University of California at Los Angeles Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA-PTSD) for children was administered at intervals of 2, 6, and 12 months after the earthquake to 197 students who experienced the Lushan earthquake at the Longxing Middle School. The results demonstrated that 28.4% of the children suffered from ASD, but only a small percentage of the population went on to develop PTSD. Among all of the students, 35.0% of those who met the criteria for ASD were diagnosed with PTSD at the 12-month interval. The severity of ASD symptoms correlated with later PTSD symptoms.

  6. School Entry Age and Children's Social-Behavioral Skills: Evidence From a National Longitudinal Study of U.S. Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datar, Ashlesha; Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research evaluating school entry age effects has largely overlooked the effects on social-behavioral skills despite the growing recognition of returns to such skills. This study is the first to examine the effects of kindergarten entry age on children's social-behavioral outcomes using 9 years of panel data on a national sample of U.S.…

  7. The Predictive Relationship between Temperament, School Adjustment, and Academic Achievement: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Children At-Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hendawi, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in temperament can be a risk or a protective factor for a child, especially for children at-risk who possess single or multiple risk factors that may interfere with their educational success and affect their healthy development and their life-long outcomes. This research study examined the concurrent and longitudinal…

  8. The Effects of the Presence and Contexts of Video Game Violence on Children: A Longitudinal Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibuya, Akiko; Sakamoto, Akira; Ihori, Nobuko; Yukawa, Shintaro

    2008-01-01

    A 1-year panel study of 591 children in fifth grade explored the accumulative effects of the presence and contexts of video game violence on aggression and the antiviolence norm in Japan, on the basis of a comprehensive content analysis of video game violence. The results suggest that contextual effects of violent video games are quite complex,…

  9. Development and Predictive Value of Early Vocalizations in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Lehtonen, Liisa; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze early vocalization development, the predictive value of this development in terms of later language skills, and possible gender difference in early vocalization development in a selected cohort of 32 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children and 35 full-term controls. The data on early vocalization…

  10. What Is Not Working in Working Memory of Children with Literacy Disorders? Evidence from a Three-Year-Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbach, Anne; Könen, Tanja; Rietz, Chantal S.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to explore the deficits in working memory associated with literacy disorders (i.e. developmental disorders of reading and/or spelling) and the developmental trajectories of these working memory deficits. The performance of 28 children with literacy disorders was compared to a non-disabled control group with the same…

  11. Nothing Matters?: A Critique of the Ramirez, et al. Longitudinal Study of Instructional Programs for Language-Minority Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossell, Christine H.

    1992-01-01

    Critiques the Ramirez et al. study of bilingual programs for its serious research flaws. Calls into question the findings of no consistent difference in the achievement of language-minority children regardless of how much Spanish or English is used in instruction. Proposes a reanalysis of the Ramirez data. (KS)

  12. Sensory Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Other Developmental Disorders and Typical Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Carolyn; Hepburn, Susan; Young, Gregory S.; Rogers, Sally J.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory symptoms are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder but little is known about the early developmental patterns of these symptoms. This study examined the development of sensory symptoms and the relationship between sensory symptoms and adaptive functioning during early childhood. Three groups of children were followed across three time…

  13. Developmental trajectories of body mass index and emotional-behavioral functioning of underweight children: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Almenara, Carlos A.; Jezek, Stanislav; Erriu, Michela; Tambelli, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have addressed developmental trajectories from childhood to adolescence of internalizing/externalizing problems, limited attention has been given to underweight children. Two groups were recruited for this study from a community sample: underweight (Ug, N = 80, 50% female) and normal weight (NWg, N = 80, 50% female) to examine the developmental trajectories of body mass index and emotional-behavioral functioning of underweight children from the age two years, and their risk of eating disorder at early adolescence. The study was organized over four waves, each of three years. Pediatricians measured BMI, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Eating Disorders Inventory-Referral Form (EDI-3-RF). Our results showed that children in the two groups recorded different BMI trajectories over time. In NWg, male and female subjects started from a higher BMI at T1 than their peers. In Ug, internalizing and externalizing problems in males and females remained higher than their peers at all points of assessment. Males and females in Ug scored higher than those in NWg on EDI-3-RF total score. Our results indicate a need for effective physical and psychological assessment of underweight children in community samples to prevent psychological difficulties and eating disorders in adolescence. PMID:26806123

  14. A longitudinal follow-up study of affect in children and adults with Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Lisa; Moss, Jo; Oliver, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Studies of individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) have described changes in mood and behavior with age, although no empirical or longitudinal studies have been conducted. Caregivers of individuals with CdLS (N  =  67), cri du chat syndrome (CdCS; N  =  42), and Fragile X syndrome (FXS; N  =  142) completed the Mood, Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire (MIPQ) at Time 1 and 2 years later (Time 2). Scores on the MIPQ were significantly lower in the CdLS group compared with the CdCS and FXS groups at Time 1 and Time 2. Lower MIPQ scores were characteristic of older adolescents (> 15 years) and adults with CdLS. However, there were no significant differences in MIPQ scores between Time 1 and Time 2. Age and insistence on sameness predicted MIPQ scores in CdLS. PMID:24871792

  15. Risk factors for low receptive vocabulary abilities in the preschool and early school years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Daniel; Zubrick, Stephen R; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4-8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4-8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well-fitted multivariate model

  16. Short normal children and environmental disadvantage: a longitudinal study of growth and cognitive development from 4 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Dowdney, L; Skuse, D; Morris, K; Pickles, A

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to follow up a sample of exceptionally short but medically healthy children, and a normal comparison group, previously studied at 4 years of age. They lived in an inner-city area which was, on objective criteria, seriously disadvantaged in socioeconomic terms. When first seen at 4 years, cases were significantly impaired in cognitive abilities relative to comparisons, although firstborns were much less severely affected. Of the original 46 cases, 45 were assessed again at 11 years. Most continued to live in the same geographical area. Case children remained exceptionally short, even when parental stature was taken into account, although a degree of catch-up had occurred. One third had special educational needs, and a similar proportion had been referred for speech therapy. Verbal and nonverbal cognitive skills of both case and comparison children had, on the whole, changed little and group differences persisted. In conclusion, short normal children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds are at high risk of educational failure at elementary school. PMID:9804034

  17. Maternal feeding practices predict fruit and vegetable consumption in young children. Results of a 12-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jane E; Paxton, Susan J; Brozovic, Anna M

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the prospective relationship between maternal feeding practices and young children's frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and sweets, and also child weight-for-height z-scores. Participants were 60 mothers who completed questionnaires when their children were 1 year old and again when their children were 2 years old. Regression analyses were performed. After controlling for availability and prior child consumption of the target food, maternal use of pressure to eat at 1 year predicted lower child frequency of fruit consumption at 2 years and approached significance for lower vegetable consumption. Maternal modelling of healthy eating at 1 year predicted higher child frequency of vegetable consumption at 2 years. Restriction did not significantly predict child frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables or sweets over time. Child weight-for-height scores at 2 years were predicted by weight-for-height at 1 year but not by feeding practices. The findings suggest that maternal feeding practices can influence child eating at a very young age. Interventions should focus on encouraging parents to model healthy eating to promote healthy eating in children. PMID:21569809

  18. The effects of airway hyperresponsiveness, wheezing, and atopy on longitudinal pulmonary function in children: a 6-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, D; Sears, M R; Lebowitz, M D; Holdaway, M D; Hewitt, C J; Flannery, E M; Herbison, G P; Silva, P A

    1992-06-01

    We examined growth of spirometric lung function in 696 children of European ancestry who were followed from ages 9 to 15 years and stratified according to their degree of responsiveness to methacholine inhalation challenge, atopic status, and respiratory symptoms. Subjects were participants in the longitudinal Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study in Dunedin, New Zealand. Forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1), and vital capacity (VC) were measured at 9, 11, 13, and 15 years of age, concurrently with assessment of airway responsiveness determined by the concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20 FEV1). Atopic status was assessed at age 13 by skin-prick testing to 11 allergens. In children demonstrating airway hyperresponsiveness, FEV1 increased with age at a slower rate, and the FEV1/VC ratio had a faster rate of decline through childhood, compared to non-responsive children. Subjects with positive skin tests to house dust mite and cat dander also had lower mean FEV1/VC ratios than the control group. Any reported wheezing was associated with slower growth of FEV1 and VC in males. We conclude that in New Zealand children with airway responsiveness and/or atopy to house dust mite or cat growth of spirometric lung function is impaired.

  19. Predictors of the onset of depression in young children: a multi-method, multi-informant longitudinal study from ages 3 to 6

    PubMed Central

    Bufferd, Sara J.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in depression in young children, little is known about which variables predict the onset of depression in early childhood. We examined a range of predictors of the onset of depression diagnoses in a multi-method, multi-informant longitudinal study of a large community sample of young children from age 3 to 6. Methods Predictors of the onset of depression at age 6 were drawn from five domains assessed when children were 3 years old: child psychopathology (assessed using a parent diagnostic interview), observed child temperament, teacher ratings of peer functioning, parental psychopathology (assessed using a diagnostic interview), and psychosocial environment (observed parental hostility, parent reported family stressors, parental education). Results A number of variables predicted the onset of depression by age 6, including child history of anxiety disorders, child temperamental low inhibitory control, poor peer functioning, parental history of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, early and recent stressful life events, and less parental education. Conclusions Predictors of the onset of depression in early childhood tend to be similar to those identified in older youth and adults, and support the feasibility of identifying children in greatest need for early interventio PMID:24828086

  20. Homosexual parents: testing "common sense"--a literature review emphasizing the Golombok and Tasker longitudinal study of lesbians' children.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P

    1999-08-01

    Counter to claims by the American Psychological Association and the National Association of Social Workers as well as numerous reviewers that children raised by homosexuals and married heterosexuals do not differ, the elaborate social-personality theory called "common sense" predicts that because "like produces like" and because psychopathy/sociopathy informs the major expressions of social deviance including homosexuality, children of homosexuals will (1) be more frequently subjected to parental instability (of residence and sexual partners) and (2) have poorer peer and adult relationships. Also, as is held to be true of their parents, homosexuals' children will be more apt to (3) become homosexual, (4) be unstable (have emotional problems and difficulty forming lasting bonds) with reduced interest in natality, and (5) be sexually precocious and promiscuous. Differences between homosexual and heterosexual comparison groups that bore on "common sense" were considered suggestive "bits" of empirical evidence. Differences that emerged within studies conducted by sympathetic researchers utilizing volunteer samples were considered bits of adverse evidence. Of 171 bits, 82 adverse and 55 nonadverse bits supported, while 34 bits fell against "common sense." From this tentative method of counting, support was found for common sense beliefs that children of homosexuals will be more apt to become homosexual and have poorer peer relationships, while weaker support was found for some of the other predictions. As assessed in this way, the empirical evidence in the literature tended to lean against claims of "no differences" between children raised by homosexuals and heterosexuals. In particular, the strongly worded official claims of there being "no differences" are overstatements. They amount to the organizations and some prominent researchers asserting that they have proven the null hypothesis, which is fundamentally impossible. It is likely that the nonsignificant

  1. Early childhood behavioral inhibition and social and school adjustment in chinese children: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Chen, Huichang; Li, Dan; Wang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations between early behavioral inhibition and social and school outcomes in Chinese children (N = 200). Data on behavioral inhibition were collected from a sample of 2-year-olds in China. Follow-up data on social behaviors, peer relationships, and school performance were collected from multiple sources at 7 years of age. Behavioral inhibition was found to be positively associated with later cooperative behavior, peer liking, perceived social integration, positive school attitudes, and school competence, and negatively associated with later learning problems. Highly inhibited toddlers were generally better adjusted than others in social and school areas in middle childhood. The results indicate the distinct functional meaning of behavioral inhibition in Chinese children from a developmental perspective. PMID:19930346

  2. The relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and paternal parenting of adult children among ex-prisoners of war: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zerach, Gadi; Greene, Talya; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Solomon, Zahava

    2012-04-01

    The aversive impact of combat and combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on parenting of young children has been examined in a few studies. Nevertheless, the toll of war captivity on parenting and the long-term relations between posttraumatic symptoms and paternal parenting of adult children remains unknown. This longitudinal study examined paternal parenting of adult children among war veterans, some of whom were held in captivity. Furthermore, we examined the mediating role of PTSD symptoms in the association between captivity and parenting. The sample included two groups of male Israeli veterans from the 1973 Yom Kippur War: ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and comparable veterans who had not been held captive. Both groups were assessed via self-report measures of PTSD at three time points: Time 1 (18 after the war), Time 2 (30 after the war), and Time 3 (35 after the war) years after the war. Results shows that ex-POWs reported lower levels of positive parenting compared to comparison group veterans at Time 3. Furthermore, PTSD symptoms at Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3 mediated the association between captivity experience and parenting at Time 3. In addition, it was found that increases in the levels of PTSD symptom clusters over time were associated with lower levels of positive parenting at Time 3.

  3. The relationship between state abortion-restrictions and homicide deaths among children under 5 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sen, Bisakha; Wingate, Martha Slay; Kirby, Russell

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether, in the U.S., there are associations between state-level variations in mortality among young children and state abortion restriction policies - such as parental-consent requirements, parental-notification requirements, mandatory delay laws, and restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion. To investigate this, we used NCHS Multiple Cause of Deaths public-use data files for the period 1983-2002, and compiled data on children ages 0-4 identified as having died as a result of assault/homicide in each state and year. Medicaid funding of abortion, mandatory delay laws, and parental involvement laws for minors seeking abortions were included as the main predictor variables of interest. Multivariate count data models using pooled state-year-age cohort data, with state and time fixed effects and other state-level controls, were estimated. Results indicated that, between 1983 and 2002, the average increase in the number of homicide deaths for children under 5 years of age was 5.70 per state among states that implemented stricter abortion policies over that time, and 2.00 per state for states that did not. In the count data models, parental-consent laws were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths; parental-notification laws were associated with an 8 percent increase in child homicide deaths though the results were less robust to alternate model specifications; mandatory delay requirements were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths. While these data do not allow us to discern precise pathways via which state abortion-restrictions can lead to more child homicide deaths, we speculate that state restrictions on abortion may result in a disproportionate increase in children born into relatively high-risk environments. Additional research is called for to explore the association of state abortion-restrictions with other measures of infant/child health and well-being.

  4. Alzheimer Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Moderate Baseline Differences and Predict Longitudinal Change in Attentional Control and Episodic Memory Composites in the Adult Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Balota, David A.; Fagan, Anne M.; Duchek, Janet M.; Benzinger, Tammie L.S.; Morris, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cognitive measures that are sensitive to biological markers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology are needed in order to (a) facilitate preclinical staging, (b) identify individuals who are at the highest risk for developing clinical symptoms and (c) serve as endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of interventions. The present study assesses the utility of two cognitive composite scores of attentional control and episodic memory as markers for preclinical AD pathology in a group of cognitively normal older adults (N = 238), as part of the Adult Children Study. Method All participants were given a baseline cognitive assessment and follow-up assessments every 3 years over an 8-year period, as well as a lumbar puncture within two years of the initial assessment to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and a PET-PIB scan for amyloid imaging. Results Results indicated that attentional control was correlated with levels of Aβ42 at the initial assessment whereas episodic memory was not. Longitudinally, individuals with high CSF tau exhibited a decline in both attention and episodic memory over the course of the study. Conclusion These results indicate that measures of attentional control and episodic memory can be utilized to evaluate cognitive decline in preclinical AD and provide support that CSF tau may be a key mechanism driving longitudinal cognitive change. PMID:26416094

  5. Data relating to early child development in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), their relationship with prenatal blood mercury and stratification by fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Golding, Jean; Gregory, Steven; Emond, Alan; Taylor, Caroline M

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), measures of early child development were collected using both hands-on expert assessment (on a random 10% sub-sample) by trained psychologists at 18 months using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (Extended 0-8 years) and from detailed questionnaires completed by the study mothers on the whole cohort using assessments based on the Denver Developmental Screening Test. The development determined by the psychologists on the 10% subsample showed a correlation of 0.49 (R. Wilson, 2003) [9] with the developmental level estimated from the maternal report. Maternal reports were used to determine the associations between prenatal blood mercury levels and scores of social achievement, fine motor skills, gross motor skills and communication at various preschool ages. (For results, please see doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2016.02.006 [1].). PMID:27642617

  6. Participation in the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children is not associated with early childhood socioemotional development: Results from a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Arons, Abigail; Bolbocean, Corneliu; Bush, Nicole R; Tylavsky, Frances A; LeWinn, Kaja Z

    2016-12-01

    Socioemotional development in early childhood has long-term impacts on health status and social outcomes, and racial and socioeconomic disparities in socioemotional skills emerge early in life. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is an early childhood nutrition intervention with the potential to ameliorate these disparities. Our objective was to assess the impact of WIC on early socioemotional development in a longitudinal study. We examined the association between WIC participation and scores on the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) in 327 predominantly African American mother-child dyads who were participants in the longitudinal Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development in Early Life (CANDLE) Study (Memphis, TN). To account for selection bias, we used within-child fixed effects to model the variability in each child's BITSEA scores over two measurement occasions (ages 12 and 24 months). Final models were adjusted for time-varying characteristics including child age, maternal stress, mental health, child abuse potential, marital status, and food stamp participation. In fully adjusted models, we found no statistically significant effect of WIC on change in socioemotional development (β = 0.22 [SD = 0.39] and β = - 0.58 [SD = 0.79] for BITSEA Competence and Problem subdomains, respectively). Using rigorous methods and a longitudinal study design, we found no significant association between WIC and socioemotional development in a high needs population. This finding suggests that early childhood interventions that more specifically target socioemotional development are necessary if we are to reduce racial disparities in socioemotional skills and prevent poor social and health outcomes across the life course. PMID:27688993

  7. A Longitudinal Investigation of Morpho-Syntax in Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Jennifer; Rvachew, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The intent of this study was to examine the longitudinal morpho-syntactic progression of children with Speech Sound Disorders (SSD) grouped according to Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) scores. Methods: Thirty-seven children separated into four clusters were assessed in their pre-kindergarten and Grade 1 years. Cluster 1 were children with…

  8. Sociobehavioral Factors Associated with Caries Increment: A Longitudinal Study from 24 to 36 Months Old Children in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Satchaiyan, Gamon; Rajchagool, Sunsanee; Pimpak, Taksin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate sociobehavioral risk factors from the prenatal period until 36 months of age, and the caries increment from 24 to 36 months of the child in Thailand. The data utilized in this study come from the prospective cohort study of Thai children (PCTC) from prenatal to 36 months of the child in Mueang Nan district, Northern Thailand. The total sample size recruited was 783 infants. The sample size with dental caries data was 603 and 597, at 24 months and at 36 months, respectively. The sample size of having two assessment points with a dental examination (at 24 months and at 36 months) was 597. Results indicate that the caries increment was 52.9%, meaning from 365 caries free children at 24 months 193 had developed dental caries at 36 months. The prevalence of dental caries was 34.2% at 24 months (n = 206) and 68.5% at 36 months of age (n = 409). In bivariate analysis, higher education of the mother, lower household income, bottle feeding of the infant, frequent sweet candy consumptions, and using rain or well water as drinking water were associated with dental caries increment, while in multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis lower household income, higher education of the mother, and using rain or well water as drinking water remained associated with dental caries increment. In conclusion, a very significant increase in caries development was observed, and oral health may be influenced by sociobehavioural risk factors. PMID:25329535

  9. Relation of Neural Structure to Persistently Low Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Children with Differing Birth Weights

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Caron A. C.; Fang, Hua; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Filipek, Pauline A.; Juranek, Jenifer; Bangert, Barbara; Hack, Maureen; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective Children with very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500g) are at risk for academic underachievement, although less is known regarding the developmental course of these difficulties or their neural basis. This study examined whether cerebral tissue reductions related to VLBW are associated with poor patterns of growth in core academic skills. Method Children born <750 g, 750–1499 g or >2500 g completed measures of calculation, mathematical problem solving and word decoding at several time points spanning middle childhood and adolescence. Espy, Fang, Charak, Minich and Taylor (2009) used growth mixture modeling to identify two distinct growth trajectories (growth clusters) for each academic domain: an average achievement trajectory and a persistently low achievement trajectory. In this study, 97 of the same participants underwent MRI in late adolescence. MRI measures of cerebral tissue volume were used to predict the probability of low growth cluster membership for each domain. Results After adjusting for whole brain volume, each 1cm3 reduction in caudate volume was associated with a 1.7 – 2.1 fold increase in the odds of low cluster membership for each academic domain. Each 1mm2 decrease in corpus callosum surface area increased these odds approximately 1.02 fold. Reductions in cerebellar white matter volume were associated specifically with low calculation and decoding growth while reduced cerebral white matter volume was associated with low calculation growth. Findings were similar when analyses were confined to the VLBW groups. Conclusions Volumetric reductions in neural regions involved in connectivity, executive attention and motor control may help to explain heterogeneous academic growth trajectories amongst children with VLBW. PMID:23688218

  10. Age-related Changes in Acoustic Modifications of Mandarin Maternal Speech to Preverbal Infants and Five-Year-Old Children: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huei-Mei; Tsao, Feng-Ming; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic-phonetic exaggeration of infant-directed speech (IDS) is well documented, but few studies address whether these features are modified with a child's age. Mandarin-speaking mothers were recorded while addressing an adult and their child at two ages (7-12 months and 5 years) to examine the acoustic-phonetic differences between IDS and child–directed speech (CDS). CDS exhibits an exaggeration pattern resembling that of IDS—expanded vowel space, longer vowels, higher pitch, and greater lexical tone differences—when compared to ADS. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the extent of acoustic exaggeration is significantly smaller in CDS than in IDS. Age-related changes in maternal speech provide some support for the hypothesis that mothers adjust their speech directed toward children as a function of the child's language ability. PMID:19232142

  11. CHIP Utilization in South Texas: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of the Children's Health Insurance Program. JSRI Research Report No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Ann V.; Mier, Nelda; Gabriel, Olga; Flores, Soledad

    2004-01-01

    The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) began as a federal stopgap measure to assist families whose incomes were too high to qualify for Medicaid, but too low to make health insurance for their children affordable. In 2002, efforts were launched around the United States to recruit eligible children into the program. This pilot study…

  12. African American Fathers' Contributions to Children's Early Academic Achievement: Evidence from Two-Parent Families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study utilized a large sample ("N" = 750) of 2-parent families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to examine the contributions of African American fathers' home literacy involvement, play activities, and caregiving at 24 months to children's reading and math achievement in…

  13. Mathematics Anxiety in Young Children: Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations with Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Bailey, Sean P.; Harari, Rachel R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored mathematics anxiety in a longitudinal sample of 113 children followed from second to third grade. We examined how mathematics anxiety related to different types of mathematical performance concurrently and longitudinally and whether the relations between mathematics anxiety and mathematical performance differed as a function of…

  14. Stability of posttraumatic stress reaction factors and their relation to general mental health problems in children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Egil; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure of posttraumatic stress reaction factors and their relation to general mental health problems in Norwegian children exposed to the tsunami on December 26, 2004. A total of 133 children and adolescents (ages 6-17) were interviewed 10 months posttsunami using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, and 104 were interviewed again 2.5 years after the tsunami. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the theory of a four-factor model of intrusion, active avoidance, numbing, and arousal as a better division of symptoms than the three-factor model used in the present diagnostic criteria. The factors of intrusion and active avoidance were highly correlated 2.5 years posttsunami. This association may be due to nonspecificity in these trauma-related factors as posttraumatic stress reaction levels diminish over time. General mental health problems were highly related to arousal at both assessments, supporting the theory that some symptoms of posttraumatic stress reactions overlap with other, concurrent mental problems.

  15. Onabotulinumtoxin A Treatment of Drooling in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Prospective, Longitudinal Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Eigild; Pedersen, Søren Anker; Vinicoff, Pablo Gustavo; Bardow, Allan; Lykkeaa, Joan; Svendsen, Pia; Bakke, Merete

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective open-label study was to treat disabling drooling in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with onabotulinumtoxin A (A/Ona, Botox®) into submandibular and parotid glands and find the lowest effective dosage and least invasive method. A/Ona was injected in 14 children, Mean age 9 years, SD 3 years, under ultrasonic guidance in six successive Series, with at least six months between injections. Doses and gland involvement increased from Series A to F (units (U) per submandibular/parotid gland: A, 10/0; B, 15/0; C, 20/0; D, 20/20; E, 30/20; and F, 30/30). The effect was assessed 2, 4, 8, 12, and 20 weeks after A/Ona (drooling problems (VAS), impact (0–7), treatment effect (0–5), unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) flow and composition)) and analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The effect was unchanged–moderate in A to moderate–marked in F. Changes in all parameters were significant in E and F, but with swallowing problems ≤5 weeks in 3 of 28 treatments. F had largest VAS and UWS reduction (64% and 49%). We recommend: Start with dose D A/Ona (both submandibular and parotid glands and a total of 80 U) and increase to E and eventually F (total 120 U) without sufficient response. PMID:26134257

  16. The anthropometry of children and adolescents may be influenced by the prenatal smoking habits of their grandmothers: A longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Jean; Northstone, Kate; Gregory, Steven; Miller, Laura L; Pembrey, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Previously, in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we have shown different sex-specific birth anthropometric measurements contingent upon whether or not prenatal smoking was undertaken by paternal grandmother (PGM±), maternal grandmother (MGM±), and the study mother (M±). The findings raised the question as to whether there were long-term associations on the growth of the study children over time. Methods Measures of weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, lean mass, and fat mass of children in the ALSPAC study from 7 to 17 years of age were used. We compared growth in four categories at each age: PGM+M− with PGM−M−; MGM+M− with MGM−M−; PGM+M+ with PGM−M+; MGM+M+ with MGM−M+; and adjusted for housing tenure, maternal education, parity, and paternal smoking at the start of the study pregnancy. Results We found that if the PGM had, but the study mother had not, smoked in pregnancy, the girls were taller and both genders had greater bone and lean mass. However, if the MGM had smoked prenatally but the mother had not (MGM+M−), the boys became heavier than expected with increasing age—an association that was particularly due to lean rather than fat mass, reflected in increased strength and fitness. When both the maternal grandmother and the mother had smoked (MGM+M+) girls had reduced height, weight, and fat/lean/bone mass when compared with girls born to smoking mothers whose own mothers had not smoked (MGM−M+). Conclusions This study indicates that smoking in humans can have sex-specific transgenerational effects. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:731–739, 2014. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25130101

  17. The Role of Mother-Child Joint Play in the Early Development of Children's Conduct Problems: A Longitudinal Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Frances; Ward, Sarah; Burton, Jennifer; Wilson, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    Examined longitudinally the relationship between mother-child spontaneous joint play and development of conduct problems in 60 preschoolers. Found that amount of joint play at age 3 predicted individual improvement in conduct problems at age 4, and this association was independent of initial level of conduct problems and hyperactivity, social…

  18. Changes in and Stability of Cardiovascular Responses to Behavorial Stress: Results from a Four-Year Longitudinal Study of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Blood pressure and heart rate responses during serial subtraction, mirror image tracing, and isometric exercise tasks were longitudinally reliable for all measures except heart rate responses during isometric exercise. Systolic blood pressure responses to all tasks increased with age for boys, but not for girls. (RH)

  19. Young Adult Outcomes of Children Growing up with Chronic Illness: An analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Gary R.; Haydon, Abigail; Ford, Carol Ann; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine young adult outcomes in a nationally representative US cohort of young adults who grew up with a chronic illness. Design Secondary analysis of nationally representative data from Wave III (2001) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Setting United States Participants The analytic sample included 13,236 young adults 18–28 years old at Wave III. Main Exposure Self-report of a chronic physical illness (asthma, cancer, diabetes or epilepsy) in adolescence. Respondents with (1) asthma or (2) non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) were compared to subjects without these conditions. Main Outcome Measures Self-report of high school graduation, ever having a job, having a current job, living with parents, and ever receiving public assistance. Results Three percent of young adults had non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) and 16% had asthma. The majority of young adults with chronic illness graduated high school (81%) and were currently employed (60%). However, compared to healthy young adults, those with a non-asthma chronic illness were significantly less likely to graduate high school, ever have a job, or have a current job and were more likely to receive public assistance. When compared to young adults with asthma, young adults with non-asthma chronic illness again had significantly worse young adult outcomes on all measures. Conclusions Most young adults growing up with chronic illness graduate high school and are employed. However, these young adults are significantly less likely than their healthy peers to achieve these important educational and vocational milestones. PMID:21383274

  20. The Importance of Longitudinal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

  1. Visual evoked potential latencies of three-year-old children prenatally exposed to buprenorphine or methadone compared with non-opioid exposed children: The results of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Whitham, Justine N; Spurrier, Nicola J; Baghurst, Peter A; Weston, Paul; Sawyer, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the latency of pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (VEP) of 36-month old children exposed to opioid pharmacotherapy in utero to that of a group of non-exposed children. Pregnant women were enrolled as part of an open-label non-randomised flexible dosing longitudinal study. Participants were 21 children whose mothers were treated with buprenorphine- (n=11) or methadone-pharmacotherapy (n=10) during pregnancy, and 15 children not exposed to opioids in pregnancy. One-way between groups analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to test the statistical significance of differences between the mean latencies of the peak response to two different sized checkerboard patterns (48' and 69' of retinal arc). Standard multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine whether there was a significant relationship between group status and VEP latencies after adjusting for the effect of covariates. VEP latencies ranged from 98 to 112 milliseconds (ms) for checks of 48' arc, and from 95 to 113ms for checks of 69' arc. Latencies were comparable across groups. After adjusting for covariates children prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine did not differ significantly from non-opioid exposed children in their responses to either check size. Nor were there any significant differences in VEP latencies between children prenatally exposed to methadone and children prenatally exposed to buprenorphine. Head circumference (HC) was significantly associated with P100 latencies for both check sizes. Data from this controlled, non-randomised study suggest that neither buprenorphine nor methadone appear to have any long-term effects on visual maturity assessed at 36months of age.

  2. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M.; Welsh, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home. PMID:25089074

  3. A longitudinal study of streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in healthy children in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era

    PubMed Central

    Mameli, Chiara; Fabiano, Valentina; Daprai, Laura; Bedogni, Giorgio; Faccini, Marino; Garlaschi, Maria Laura; Penagini, Francesca; Dilillo, Dario; Torresani, Erminio; Gramegna, Maria; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Few epidemiological data are available after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in 2010. We performed repeat nasopharyngeal swabs and evaluated the serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) and its association with PCV13 vaccine status in healthy Italian children aged 3–59 months. SP serotypes were assessed by the Quellung reaction. 618 children appropriately (28%) or incompletely (72%) vaccinated for age with PCV13 were available at baseline (T0). 515 were re-evaluated at 6 months from baseline (T6) and 436 at 12 months from baseline (T12). The percentage of appropriately vaccinated subjects at T0, T6 and T12 was 28%, 67% and 92%, respectively. Random effects logistic regression models with robust 95% confidence intervals was used to estimate the time-related changes in SP and PCV13 carriage and marginal probabilities were obtained from such models. The age-corrected probability of SP carriage was 0.31 (95% CI 0.22 - 0.41) at T0, 0.32 (0.24 - 0.40) at T6 and 0.28 (0.20 - 0.35) at T12. The probability of PCV13 serotypes carriage was 0.025 (0.001 - 0.050) at T0, 0.018 (0.001 - 0.039) at T6 and 0.010 (0.001 - 0.023) at T12. A decrease in PCV13 serotypes and a shift in non-PCV13 serotypes colonization was observed. In particular, the 15A serotype accounted for 4%, 8% and 23% of SP isolates at T0, T6 and T12, respectively. In conclusion, the benefits of the PCV13 vaccination on SP carriage increase with increasing coverage rates. The shift of SP isolates toward non-PCV13 serotypes needs to be studied further. PMID:25751237

  4. Disadvantaged Children and Their First School Experiences. ETS-Head Start Longitudinal Study: Preliminary Description of the Initial Sample Prior to School Enrollment. A Report in Two Volumes: Volume 2--Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    As part of its 6-year longitudinal study designed to assess the impact of Head Start, Educational Testing Service (ETS) has summarized and compiled tables of data collected on 16 of the 33 instruments administered to children in 1969 in three sites (St. Louis, Missouri; Trenton, New Jersey; and Portland, Oregon). Data from the parent interview and…

  5. The Relations of Parental Warmth and Positive Expressiveness to Children's Empathy-Related Responding and Social Functioning: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H.; Fabes, Richard A.; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Cumberland, Amanda J.; Shepard, Stephanie A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parents' warmth and positive expressivity to elementary school children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems. Found that parents' positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and…

  6. Dietary diversity, animal source food consumption and linear growth among children aged 1-5 years in Bandung, Indonesia: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Muslimatun, Siti; Wiradnyani, Luh Ade Ari

    2016-07-01

    Dietary diversity involves adequate intake of macronutrient and micronutrient. The inclusion of animal source foods (ASF) in the diet helps prevent multiple nutrient deficiencies and any resultant, linear growth retardation. The objective of the current study was to assess the relationship between dietary diversity, ASF consumption and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) among children aged 12-59 months old across a 1-year observation. This longitudinal observational study without controls was conducted among four age groups: 12-23 months (n 57), 24-35 months (n 56), 36-47 months (n 58) and 48-59 months (n 56). Anthropometry and dietary intake were measured during each of four visits at 16-20-week intervals. The general characteristics and other observations were only collected at baseline and endline. During the year-long study period, approximately 27 % of the children ate a diverse diet (consumed ≥6 out of 9 food groups) according to ≥3 visits. ASF consumption was high, particularly for eggs, poultry, processed meats and liquid milk. Yet, micronutrient intake inadequacy, especially of Zn, Ca, Fe and vitamin A, was highly prevalent. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the consumption of a diverse diet and ASF was not significantly associated with the HAZ at endline, after controlling for demographic characteristics and the baseline HAZ. The consumption of a diverse diet was significantly associated with Ca intake adequacy. Moreover, ASF consumption was significantly associated with adequate intake of protein and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, Ca and Zn. Thus, the recommendation is to continue and strengthen the promotion of consuming a diverse diet that includes ASF in supporting the linear growth of young children.

  7. Young children's representations of conflict and distress: a longitudinal study of boys and girls with disruptive behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Park, Jong-Hyo; Usher, Barbara; Belouad, Francesca; Cole, Pamela; Gruber, Reut

    2008-01-01

    We investigated narratives, symbolic play, and emotions in children who varied in severity of disruptive behavior problems. Children's representations of hypothetical situations of conflict and distress were assessed at 4-5 and 7 years. Behavior problems also were assessed then and again at 9 years. Children's aggressive and caring themes differentiated nonproblem children, children whose problems remained or worsened with age, and those whose problems improved over time. Differences in boys and girls whose problems continued sometimes reflected exaggerations of prototypic gender differences seen across the groups. Boys with problems showed more hostile themes (physical aggression and anger), whereas girls with problems showed more caring (prosocial) themes relative to the other groups. Modulated (verbal) aggression, more common in girls than boys, showed developmentally appropriate increases with age. However, this was true only for children without problems and those whose problems improved. We consider how these findings contribute to an understanding the inner worlds of boys and girls who differ in their early developmental trajectories for behavior problems.

  8. Differences in predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying: a 2-year longitudinal study in Korean school children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Jin; Stewart, Robert; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Dewey, Michael E; Maskey, Sean; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-05-01

    Traditional bullying has received considerable research but the emerging phenomenon of cyber-bullying much less so. Our study aims to investigate environmental and psychological factors associated with traditional and cyber-bullying. In a school-based 2-year prospective survey, information was collected on 1,344 children aged 10 including bullying behavior/experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, and psychopathology. Parents reported demographic data, general health, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. These were investigated in relation to traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization at age 12. Male gender and depressive symptoms were associated with all types of bullying behavior and experience. Living with a single parent was associated with perpetration of traditional bullying while higher ADHD symptoms were associated with victimization from this. Lower academic achievement and lower self esteem were associated with cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and anxiety symptoms with cyber-bullying perpetration. After adjustment, previous bullying perpetration was associated with victimization from cyber-bullying but not other outcomes. Cyber-bullying has differences in predictors from traditional bullying and intervention programmes need to take these into consideration. PMID:23640732

  9. Differences in predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying: a 2-year longitudinal study in Korean school children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Jin; Stewart, Robert; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Dewey, Michael E; Maskey, Sean; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-05-01

    Traditional bullying has received considerable research but the emerging phenomenon of cyber-bullying much less so. Our study aims to investigate environmental and psychological factors associated with traditional and cyber-bullying. In a school-based 2-year prospective survey, information was collected on 1,344 children aged 10 including bullying behavior/experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, and psychopathology. Parents reported demographic data, general health, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. These were investigated in relation to traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization at age 12. Male gender and depressive symptoms were associated with all types of bullying behavior and experience. Living with a single parent was associated with perpetration of traditional bullying while higher ADHD symptoms were associated with victimization from this. Lower academic achievement and lower self esteem were associated with cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and anxiety symptoms with cyber-bullying perpetration. After adjustment, previous bullying perpetration was associated with victimization from cyber-bullying but not other outcomes. Cyber-bullying has differences in predictors from traditional bullying and intervention programmes need to take these into consideration.

  10. Longitudinal Development of Hand Function in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmefur, Marie; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Bergstrom, Jakob; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how the usefulness of the hemiplegic hand develops in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 18 months and 8 years. Method: A prospective longitudinal study of 43 children (22 males, 21 females) with unilateral CP was conducted. Inclusion age was 18 months to 5 years 4 months (mean 2y…

  11. A longitudinal study of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: Parental self reports versus age dependent biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carme; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Monleon, Toni; Pacifici, Roberta; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Sunyer, Jordi; Figueroa, Cecilia; Pichini, Simona; Vall, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    Background Awareness of the negative effects of smoking on children's health prompted a decrease in the self-reporting of parental tobacco use in periodic surveys from most industrialized countries. Our aim is to assess changes between ETS exposure at the end of pregnancy and at 4 years of age determined by the parents' self-report and measurement of cotinine in age related biological matrices. Methods The prospective birth cohort included 487 infants from Barcelona city (Spain). Mothers were asked about maternal and household smoking habit. Cord serum and children's urinary cotinine were analyzed in duplicate using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. Results At 4 years of age, the median urinary cotinine level in children increased 1.4 or 3.5 times when father or mother smoked, respectively. Cotinine levels in children's urine statistically differentiated children from smoking mothers (Geometric Mean (GM) 19.7 ng/ml; 95% CI 16.83–23.01) and exposed homes (GM 7.1 ng/ml; 95% CI 5.61–8.99) compared with non-exposed homes (GM 4.5 ng/ml; 95% CI 3.71–5.48). Maternal self-reported ETS exposure in homes declined in the four year span between the two time periods from 42.2% to 31.0% (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, most of the children considered non-exposed by their mothers had detectable levels of cotinine above 1 ng/mL in their urine. Conclusion We concluded that cotinine levels determined in cord blood and urine, respectively, were useful for categorizing the children exposed to smoking and showed that a certain increase in ETS exposure during the 4-year follow-up period occurred. PMID:18254964

  12. Thick Explanation in the Ethnographic Study of Child Socialization: A Longitudinal Study of the Problem of Schooling for Kwara'ae (Solomon Islands) Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Gegeo, Karen Ann

    1992-01-01

    Outlines a framework for examining children's socialization that combines microlevels and macrolevels. Applies the framework to a case study of student failure in the Solomon Islands. Concludes that children's failure had less to do with home socialization than with larger societal processes that shape schooling in the Solomons. (MM)

  13. The development of phonological representations in Mandarin-speaking children: Evidence from a longitudinal study of phonological awareness.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Li-Li; Wells, Bill; Stackhouse, Joy; Szczerbinski, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Two competing approaches to the analysis of the phonological structure of Mandarin syllables have been put forward. The first and more traditional approach is that a syllable can be segmented into initial consonant, medial glide, nucleus plus coda and tone. The second approach does not distinguish the non-compulsory medial glide as an independent element. To compare and evaluate these two different approaches, the development of phoneme-level awareness was investigated in 67 Mandarin-speaking children in Year 1 of school (mean age: 6;9) and Year 5 (mean age: 10;1). Results showed that at school entry some children were sensitive to glides and to a lesser extent to codas; their number increased by Year 5. This suggests that spoken language experience is enough for some children to acquire the representation of glides and codas; this is consistent with the traditional model of the Mandarin syllable, with both glides and codas as independent elements. However, the children's task performance was generally rather poor, even in Year 5, suggesting that development of phonemic sensitivity in Mandarin speaking children is not substantially improved by increased literacy experience. PMID:25651196

  14. Early predictors of autism in young children who are deaf or hard of hearing: three longitudinal case studies.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Elizabeth Cameron; Thrasher, Amy; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Early assessment data (starting at 9 months) for three children who were deaf or hard of hearing and later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were analyzed. The results from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Words and Gestures and the Child Development Inventory were used to develop three profiles of children who were deaf or hard of hearing and had ASD. One child lacked expected skills and language at ages 9 and 14 months. Another child lost skills and language after 17 months. The third child had results usually within or above the average range until 3 years of age. However, his age quotient decreased for MacArthur-Bates CDI: Words and Gestures Words Expressed and the Child Development Inventory: Social to significantly below the normal range. Although it can be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence of ASD and deafness, there were early warning signs for these children. PMID:25321852

  15. Early predictors of autism in young children who are deaf or hard of hearing: three longitudinal case studies.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Elizabeth Cameron; Thrasher, Amy; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Early assessment data (starting at 9 months) for three children who were deaf or hard of hearing and later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were analyzed. The results from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Words and Gestures and the Child Development Inventory were used to develop three profiles of children who were deaf or hard of hearing and had ASD. One child lacked expected skills and language at ages 9 and 14 months. Another child lost skills and language after 17 months. The third child had results usually within or above the average range until 3 years of age. However, his age quotient decreased for MacArthur-Bates CDI: Words and Gestures Words Expressed and the Child Development Inventory: Social to significantly below the normal range. Although it can be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence of ASD and deafness, there were early warning signs for these children.

  16. Mother-Child Interaction and Child Cognitive Development in Low-Income Black Children: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Janet B.

    Sixty-two socioculturally homogeneous, low-income black mother/child pairs were tested and observed when the infants were 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age to determine the relationship between variability in parenting attitudes, skills, and behaviors and consequent variability in children's intellectual development. As expected, the…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children at Risk for Reading Disabilities: The Poor Really Are Getting Poorer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, John K.; Scissons, Mary; Gutknecth, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, educators and researchers concerned about children with reading disabilities have called for widespread adoption of "early" identification tools and "early" effective programming. This call may be the result of, in part, what Stanovich calls "Matthew effects in reading." That is, when stakeholders delay identification and…

  18. Early Visual Language Exposure and Emergent Literacy in Preschool Deaf Children: Findings from a National Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Thomas E.; Letteri, Amy; Choi, Song Hoa; Dang, Daqian

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is provided of recent research on the impact of early visual language exposure on a variety of developmental outcomes, including literacy, cognition, and social adjustment. This body of work points to the great importance of giving young deaf children early exposure to a visual language as a critical precursor to the acquisition of…

  19. Longitudinal Study of Parents' Impact on Quality of Life of Children and Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, Jane M.; Nieboer, Anna P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Earlier research has distinguished five domains of Quality of life (QoL) for people with ID: material well-being, development and activity, physical well-being, social well-being, and emotional well-being. We investigated parents' perspectives on these domains and QoL for children and young adults with ID and hypothesized that parents'…

  20. Characteristics of Phonological Development as a Risk Factor for Language Development in Italian-Speaking Pre-Term Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Odorico, Laura; Majorano, Marinella; Fasolo, Mirco; Salerni, Nicoletta; Suttora, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the early linguistic development of Italian pre-term children. Samples of spontaneous pre-linguistic and verbal production were recorded at 12 and 18 months of age from two groups of children: 24 pre-term children and 15 full-term children. The Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Questionnaire was administered at 24 months…

  1. A Longitudinal Investigation of Early Reading and Language Skills in Children with Poor Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Kate; Cocksey, Joanne; Taylor, Jo S. H.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor comprehenders have difficulty comprehending connected text, despite having age-appropriate levels of reading accuracy and fluency. We used a longitudinal design to examine earlier reading and language skills in children identified as poor comprehenders in mid-childhood. Method: Two hundred and forty-two children began the study at…

  2. Developmental Changes in Depressive Cognitions: A Longitudinal Evaluation of the Cognitive Triad Inventory for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrange, Beth; Cole, David A.; Dallaire, Danielle H.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Truss, Alanna E.; Folmer, Amy

    2008-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study, the Cognitive Triad Inventory for Children (CTI-C; N. J. Kaslow, K. D. Stark, B. Printz, R. Livingston, & S. L. Tsai, 1992) as well as other measures of cognitive style and depressive symptoms were administered annually to 3 cohorts of children starting in Grades 2, 4, and 6. Developmentally based analyses revealed…

  3. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  4. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  5. ADHD and autistic traits, family function, parenting style, and social adjustment for Internet addiction among children and adolescents in Taiwan: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-04-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the prevalence, predictors, and related factors for Internet addiction among elementary and junior high school students in Taiwan. A convenient sample of grades 3, 5, and 8 students (n = 1153) was recruited from six elementary and one junior high schools. They were assessed during the beginning and the end of the spring semester of 2013. Internet addiction was examined by the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS). Other factors were screened using the Chinese version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) for autistic trait, the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) for parenting, the Family APGAR for family support, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for social function, and the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV) for ADHD symptoms. The prevalence of Internet addiction decreased from 11.4% to 10.6%. Male, low family support, poor social adjustment, and high ADHD-related symptoms were related to Internet addiction. However, there was an inverse relationship between autistic traits and Internet addiction. Further, its predictivity could be accounted by poor academic performance, male, and protective parenting style. Internet addiction is not uncommon among youths in Taiwan. The predictors identified in this study could be the specific measures for the development of a prevention program for Internet addiction in the youth population.

  6. Social Class Differentiation in Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Mark; And Others

    In an effort to isolate the emergence and causes of social class differences in intellectual performance, this longitudinal study was undertaken as a follow-up on a cross-sectional study that yielded no social class differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale for 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old black children. In the present study, 89 children…

  7. Diet and growth in infancy: relationship to socioeconomic background and to health and development in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R

    2014-08-01

    To assess the relationship between diet and growth in infancy and socioeconomic background, all publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) covering breastfeeding, diet and growth in infancy, and the associations of these factors with socioeconomic background and later health and developmental outcomes were reviewed. Diet was assessed by parent-completed food records and parent-completed food frequency questionnaires covering infant feeding practices. Infancy growth was monitored through routine screening and by standardized measurements. Indicators of socioeconomic background were obtained by parent-completed questionnaires. Childhood outcomes were measured by standardized procedures. Rapid early weight gain was associated with later obesity. Longer breastfeeding duration was associated with lower body fat, but not lower body mass index, and with higher IQ in mid-childhood. Breastfed infants were better at regulating their energy intake than bottle-fed infants. In bottle-fed infants, energy intake at 4 months was associated with greater weight gain up to 5 years of age. Feeding cow's milk as a main drink in infancy was associated with anemia and high salt intake. Maternal education was a strong determinant of dietary differences: low education was associated with never breastfeeding and not following feeding guidelines. ALSPAC has provided unique insights into the relationship between diet and growth in infancy and later developmental outcomes.

  8. Suprasegmental Phonology Development and Reading Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Gender-Related Cognition and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour…

  10. Predictors of Educational Attainment in the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated a comprehensive set of predictors of high school completion and years of completed education for youth in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of over 1500 low-income, minority children who grew up on high-poverty neighborhoods. The study sample included 1286 youth for whom educational attainment could…

  11. Longitudinal posturography and rotational testing in children 3-9 years of age: Normative data

    PubMed Central

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L.; Mandel, Ellen M.; Sparto, Patrick J; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Fall, Patricia A.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To obtain normative longitudinal vestibulo-ocular and balance test data in children from ages 3 to 9 with normal middle-ear status. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort Setting Tertiary care pediatric hospital Subjects and Methods Three-year-old children were entered and tested yearly. Subjects underwent earth vertical axis rotation testing using sinusoidal and constant velocity stimuli and performed the Sensory Organization Test. Results One hundred forty-eight children were entered and usable data were collected on 127 children. A linear increase in the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as children aged was found, without a change in the phase of the response. An age-related linear increase in Equilibrium Scores, indicating reduced postural sway, was also observed. Conclusion These normative data can be used in the evaluation of dizziness and balance disorders in children. PMID:20416461

  12. Longitudinal relationships between language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Næss, Kari-Anne B; Lervåg, Arne; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles

    2015-07-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at risk for language difficulties, the nature of which is not well understood. This study compared the longitudinal predictors of language skills in children with Down syndrome with those in typically developing control children matched for initial level of nonverbal mental ability. An age cohort of children with Down syndrome (n=43) and 57 typically developing control children was assessed on measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal short-term memory three times at yearly intervals. Children with Down syndrome showed slower development on all measures than the typically developing controls. Longitudinal analyses showed moderate to high stability of language and verbal short-term memory skills. Our results confirm earlier evidence of pervasive language learning difficulties in this group and suggest that early language intervention should be given high priority. PMID:25819288

  13. Longitudinal relationships between language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Næss, Kari-Anne B; Lervåg, Arne; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles

    2015-07-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at risk for language difficulties, the nature of which is not well understood. This study compared the longitudinal predictors of language skills in children with Down syndrome with those in typically developing control children matched for initial level of nonverbal mental ability. An age cohort of children with Down syndrome (n=43) and 57 typically developing control children was assessed on measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal short-term memory three times at yearly intervals. Children with Down syndrome showed slower development on all measures than the typically developing controls. Longitudinal analyses showed moderate to high stability of language and verbal short-term memory skills. Our results confirm earlier evidence of pervasive language learning difficulties in this group and suggest that early language intervention should be given high priority.

  14. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  15. A longitudinal study of the acquisition of language by two German-speaking children with cochlear implants and of their mothers' speech.

    PubMed

    Szagun, G

    1997-10-18

    The development of language in two children with cochlear implants was analyzed using longitudinal data of videorecorded mother-child interactions. Recordings were made over a period of 14 months for child A and over a period of 3 years for child B. At the beginning of data collection the children were 2;11 and 3;7 respectively. Results reveal substantial differences between the two children and their mothers. Child B was slow in acquiring grammar, with vocalizations and non-linguistic communicative behavior persisting. The child also used language in a labeling function. Child B's MLU (mean length of utterance) never exceeded 2.7 morphemes and his syntax remained rudimentary. Child A had a highly imitative style at the beginning, but then progressed to the spontaneous use of multi-word utterances very quickly, reaching an MLU of 5.6 morphemes in less than 2 years. Child A progressed to correct morphology and a fairly complex syntax. The children's mothers differed with respect to their use of exaggerated intonation patterns, repetitions and expansions, the use of labeling, questions, and directives. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of children's information processing styles and mothers' speech input.

  16. Prevalence of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tics in the Population-Based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Miller, Laura L.; Mathews, Carol A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are more common than previously recognized. However, few population-based studies have examined the prevalence of co-occurring neuropsychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Pretend Play in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Young, Gregory S.; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder", 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Idiom and Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levorato, M. Chiara; Roch, Maja; Nesi, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The relation between text and idiom comprehension in children with poor text comprehension skills was investigated longitudinally. In the first phase of the study, six-year-old first graders with different levels of text comprehension were compared in an idiom and sentence comprehension task. Text comprehension was shown to be more closely related…

  19. Early Cognitive Profiles of Emergent Readers: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  1. Factors associated with newly diagnosed tic disorders among children in Taiwan: a 10-year nationwide longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan-Yu; Liang, Hsin-Yi; Chang, Chia-Ming; Lin, Ju-Hwa; Chang, Tsung-Kai; Tsai, Hui-Ju

    2013-08-01

    Increased attention has been paid to tic disorders clinically, yet relatively few studies have probed potential factors that account for the occurrence of tic disorders in the general population. In this study, we used data derived from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database to examine an array of factors related to the diagnosis of tic disorders and to further probe gender heterogeneity in clinical manifestation. Poisson regression analyses were applied to model the effects of birth cohort, period, and age, separately, on tic disorders. A total of 880 newly diagnosed tic disorders were identified from 2002 to 2009 among 100,516 youngsters in the study dataset who were born between 1997 and 2005. The results showed that a significant increase in the adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) was observed when age increased, with the highest adjusted IRR found at age 8-9 years. Compared to the time period from 2002 to 2005, an elevated IRR was found in the time period from 2006 to 2009 (adjusted IRR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.05-1.80). Boys tended to be more likely to receive their initial diagnosis from psychiatrists and have higher comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as compared with their girl counterparts. In conclusion, the findings indicate that the effects of age and period, respectively, influence the occurrence of newly diagnosed tic disorders. Gender difference and higher frequent comorbid ADHD in boys than in girls were observed in this study.

  2. Benefits of a Classroom Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal Memory of Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickard, Nikki S.; Vasquez, Jorge T.; Murphy, Fintan; Gill, Anneliese; Toukhsati, Samia R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbal memory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training…

  3. Cognitive Mechanism Underlying the Relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading: A Longitudinal Study on Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Susanna S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming has been demonstrated as an important correlate of various reading outcomes. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying the RAN-reading relationship is not well understood. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate three major theoretical accounts for the RAN--reading relationship: phonological processing account,…

  4. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  5. Longitudinal modelling of respiratory symptoms in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlink, Uwe; Fritz, Gisela; Herbarth, Olf; Richter, Matthias

    2002-08-01

    A panel of 277 children, aged 3-7 years, was used to study the association between air pollution (O3, SO2, NO2, and total suspended particles), meteorological factors (global radiation, maximum daytime temperature, daily averages of vapour pressure and air humidity) and respiratory symptoms. For 759 days the symptoms were recorded in a diary and modelling was based on a modification of the method proposed by Korn and Whittemore (Biometrics 35: 795-798, 1979). This approach (1) comprises an extension using environmental parameters at different time scales, (2) addresses the suitability of using the daily fraction of symptomatic individuals to account for inter-individual interactions and (3) enables the most significant weather effects to be identified. The resulting model consisted of (1) an individual specific intercept that takes account of the population's heterogeneity, (2) the individual's health status the day before, (3) a long-term meteorological effect, which may be either the squared temperature or global radiation in interaction with temperature, (4) the short-term effect of sulfur dioxide, and (5) the short-term effect of an 8-h ozone concentration above 60 µg/m3. Using the estimated parameters as input to a simulation study, we checked the quality of the model and demonstrate that the annual cycle of the prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated to atmospheric covariates. Individuals suffering from allergy have been identified as a group of a particular susceptibility to ozone. The duration of respiratory symptoms appears to be free of scale and follows an exponential distribution function, which confirms that the symptom record of each individual follows a Poisson point-process. This supports the assumption that not only respiratory diseases, but also respiratory symptoms can be considered an independent measure for the health status of a population sample. Since a point process is described by only one parameter (namely the intensity of the

  6. Analyzing True Change in Longitudinal Multitrait-Multimethod Studies: Application of a Multimethod Change Model to Depression and Anxiety in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Eid, Michael; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.; Courvoisier, Delphine S.; Cole, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors show how structural equation modeling can be applied to analyze change in longitudinal multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) studies. For this purpose, an extension of latent difference models (McArdle, 1988; Steyer, Eid, & Schwenkmezger, 1997) to multiple constructs and multiple methods is presented. The model allows investigators to separate…

  7. TAMA General Knowledge Test; Technical Report 23. Disadvantaged Children and Their First School Experiences. ETS-Head Start Longitudinal Study. Technical Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lynn E.; Shipman, Virginia C.

    The TAMA was designed specifically for the Longitudinal Study as a nonverbal test of general knowledge. The test requires the child to point to the correct picture among three alternatives in response to a question. The two practice items and 25 test items are printed on bound cards, mostly in black and white. Items can be classified as follows:…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Black Adoptions: Single Parent Transracial, and Traditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan F.; Johnson, Penny R.

    1986-01-01

    This longitudinal study of Black children reared in single-parent, transracial, and traditional adoptive homes reveals that most children grow well in these homes. Interest at this reporting is chiefly focused on the transracially adopted children because their pattern of racial identity development differs from that of children in Black homes.…

  9. Combining growth curves when a longitudinal study switches measurement tools

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Jacob J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Walker, Elizabeth; Dunn, Camille

    2014-01-01

    When longitudinal studies are performed to investigate the growth of traits in children, the measurement tool being used to quantify the trait may need to change as the subjects age throughout the study. Changing the measurement tool at some point in the longitudinal study makes the analysis of that growth challenging which, in turn, makes it difficult to determine what other factors influence the growth rate. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework that relates the growth curves per individual for each of the different measurement tools and allows for covariates to influence the shapes of the curves by borrowing strength across curves. The method is motivated by and demonstrated by speech perception outcome measurements of children who were implanted with cochlear implants. Researchers are interested in assessing the impact of age at implantation, and comparing the growth rates of children who are implanted under the age of two versus those implanted between the ages of two and four. PMID:24821002

  10. Concurrent and Longitudinal Effects of Morphological Awareness on Reading Comprehension among Chinese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Haomin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the concurrent and longitudinal effects of morphological awareness on the development of reading comprehension among Chinese-speaking children (N = 123, mean[subscript age] = 8.1 at Time 2). Drawing upon multivariate analyses, the study found that morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability were intertwined together…

  11. Anger, Stress Proliferation, and Depressed Mood among Parents of Children with ASD: A Longitudinal Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Paul R.; Karlof, Kristie L.

    2009-01-01

    "Stress proliferation" (the tendency for stressors to create additional stressors) has been suggested as an important contributor to depression among caregivers. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 90 parents of children with ASD to replicate and extend a prior cross-sectional study on stress proliferation by Benson (J Autism Develop…

  12. Longitudinal Studies of Spelling Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick

    Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…

  13. Disadvantaged Children and Their First School Experiences: ETS-OEO Longitudinal Study. Theoretical Considerations and Measurement Strategies. Appendices Related to Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    This report is part of a comprehensive study of the cognitive, personal, and social development of disadvantaged children over the crucial period age three through grade three. The aims of the study are to identify the components of early education associated with children's development, to determine the environmental and background factors…

  14. Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills. PMID:23267341

  15. Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.

  16. The Influence of Early Science Experience in Kindergarten on Children's Immediate and Later Science Achievement: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Bell, Randy L.; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the impacts of selected early science experiences in kindergarten (frequency and duration of teachers' teaching of science, availability of sand/water table and science areas, and children's participation in cooking and science equipment activities) on children's science achievement in kindergarten and third grade using data…

  17. The Relationship between Preschool Block Play and Reading and Maths Abilities in Early Elementary School: A Longitudinal Study of Children with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanline, Mary Frances; Milton, Sande; Phelps, Pamela C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive relationship between the level of symbolic representation in block constructions of preschoolers and reading and mathematics abilities and rate of growth in early elementary school for children with and without disabilities. Fifty-one children participated, 22 of whom had identified…

  18. Longitudinal Relationships between Lexical and Grammatical Development in Typical and Late-Talking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyle, Maura Jones; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Evans, Julia L.; Lindstrom, Mary J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the longitudinal relationships between lexical and grammatical development in typically developing (TD) and late-talking children for the purposes of testing the single-mechanism account of language acquisition and comparing the developmental trajectories of lexical and grammatical development in late-talking and TD…

  19. Concurrent and Longitudinal Links between Children's and Their Friends' Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eivers, Areana R.; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal links between children's own and their nominated best friends' antisocial and prosocial behavior were studied in a normative sample of 3-5-year-olds (N = 203). Moderating effects of age and gender were also explored. Subscales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to obtain teacher ratings of…

  20. Longitudinal Trajectories of Self-System Processes and Depressive Symptoms among Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante

    2006-01-01

    This study used latent growth modeling to investigate longitudinal relationships between self-system processes and depressive symptoms among maltreated (n=142) and nonmaltreated children (n=109) aged 6--11 years. On average, self-esteem and self-agency increased and depressive symptoms decreased over time. Multivariate growth modeling indicated…

  1. Longitudinal Follow-up of Factors Associated with Food Selectivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Michelle A.; Nelson, Nickola W.; Curtis, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders longitudinally. Additionally explored were the stability of the relationship between food selectivity and sensory over-responsivity from time 1 to time 2 and the association between food selectivity and restricted and repetitive behavior at time…

  2. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Antecedents of Locus of Control Orientation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickline, Virginia B.; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.; Kincheloe, Amy Ransom; Osborn, Albert F.

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control (LOC) is related to many aspects of human behavior, yet relatively little is known about what factors in early childhood may dispose a child to develop an internal or external LOC orientation. Data from a British epidemiological, longitudinal, cohort study of 12,463 children and their mothers were used to identify, from a wide…

  3. Bidirectional Longitudinal Relations between Father-Child Relationships and Chinese Children's Social Competence during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Using a two-year and three-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between father-child relationships and children's social competence. The results of structural equation modeling showed bidirectional effects between father-child conflict and social…

  4. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  5. Association between childhood obesity and use of regular medications in the UK: longitudinal cohort study of children aged 5–11 years

    PubMed Central

    Solmi, Francesca; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increasing rates of childhood obesity have been suggested as a possible cause for the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions among adults and children. Few studies have examined whether obese children are more likely to use medications than normal weight children. We investigate this association in the UK. Design A panel study with repeated observations at ages 5, 7 and 11. Setting A general population sample drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study, a UK-based birth cohort. Participants A sample of 9667 children. Primary and secondary outcome measures Our primary outcomes were crude and adjusted probabilities of taking any regular medications and the number of medications among overweight and obese children compared with normal weight children. Our secondary outcome was the distribution of medication use by therapeutic classification across body mass index (BMI) groups. Results Obese children were more likely to use any medication (marginal effect (ME)=0.02, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.03) and to use more medications (ME=0.08, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.12) than normal weight children. Obese children used more medications for respiratory conditions than those of other BMI groups. Conclusions Obese children are more likely to use regular medications and have comorbid conditions, even at young ages. This suggests that the cost of prescriptions should be considered when evaluating the economic burden of childhood obesity and that preventative strategies to reduce childhood obesity could be cost-effective in the short as well as in the long term. While more research is needed, both clinicians and policymakers should be aware of these findings when planning prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:26033945

  6. Effects of a School-Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal and Visual Memory in Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children’s socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills. PMID:23267341

  7. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  8. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  9. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  10. Blood lead, parental marital status and the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in elementary school children: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Jun; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Lim, Myung Ho; Lim, Ji-Ae; Ha, Mina

    2016-02-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the blood lead level and parental marital status that might influence the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in school-aged children. The participants in the survey included elementary school children, and they were followed up biennially. The participants' parents or caregivers were administered a questionnaire including ADHD rating scale. Among 2967 who were not suspected to have ADHD at baseline survey, 2195 children who took follow-up test for ADHD were evaluated. The incidence rate of suspected ADHD was 5.0% (107 cases) during the two years of the follow-up period. The geometric mean blood lead level was 1.56μg/dL. Relative risk ratio for ADHD was estimated using logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for potential confounders, ADHD developed more frequently in children with blood lead levels of >2.17μg/dL (highest quartile) (RR 1.552, 95% CI 1.002-2.403) and in children with a single parent (RR 1.805, 95% CI 1.002-3.254). The RR was 3.567 (95% CI 1.595-7.980) in children with relatively high blood lead levels (>2.17μg/dL) from single-parent families, compared with those with low blood lead and a two-parent family. The ADHD risk in association with blood lead level was modified by family status.

  11. Longitudinal Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota in Persistently Stunted Young Children in South India.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Duy M; Ramadass, Balamurugan; Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Braunstein, Philip; Tai, Albert; Wanke, Christine A; Hassoun, Soha; Kane, Anne V; Naumova, Elena N; Kang, Gagandeep; Ward, Honorine D

    2016-01-01

    Stunting or reduced linear growth is very prevalent in low-income countries. Recent studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and moderate or severe acute malnutrition in children in these countries. However, there have been no primary longitudinal studies comparing the intestinal microbiota of persistently stunted children to that of non-stunted children in the same community. In this pilot study, we characterized gut microbial community composition and diversity of the fecal microbiota of 10 children with low birth weight and persistent stunting (cases) and 10 children with normal birth weight and no stunting (controls) from a birth cohort every 3 months up to 2 years of age in a slum community in south India. There was an increase in diversity indices (P <0.0001) with increasing age in all children. However, there were no differences in diversity indices or in the rates of their increase with increasing age between cases and controls. The percent relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum was higher in stunted compared to control children at 12 months of age (P = 0.043). There was an increase in the relative abundance of this phylum with increasing age in all children (P = 0.0380) with no difference in the rate of increase between cases and controls. There was a decrease in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0004) and Actinobacteria (P = 0.0489) with increasing age in cases. The microbiota of control children was enriched in probiotic species Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus mucosae, whereas that of stunted children was enriched in inflammogenic taxa including those in the Desulfovibrio genus and Campylobacterales order. Larger, longitudinal studies on the compositional and functional maturation of the microbiome in children are needed. PMID:27228122

  12. Longitudinal Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota in Persistently Stunted Young Children in South India

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Duy M.; Ramadass, Balamurugan; Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Braunstein, Philip; Tai, Albert; Wanke, Christine A.; Hassoun, Soha; Kane, Anne V.; Naumova, Elena N.; Kang, Gagandeep; Ward, Honorine D.

    2016-01-01

    Stunting or reduced linear growth is very prevalent in low-income countries. Recent studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and moderate or severe acute malnutrition in children in these countries. However, there have been no primary longitudinal studies comparing the intestinal microbiota of persistently stunted children to that of non-stunted children in the same community. In this pilot study, we characterized gut microbial community composition and diversity of the fecal microbiota of 10 children with low birth weight and persistent stunting (cases) and 10 children with normal birth weight and no stunting (controls) from a birth cohort every 3 months up to 2 years of age in a slum community in south India. There was an increase in diversity indices (P <0.0001) with increasing age in all children. However, there were no differences in diversity indices or in the rates of their increase with increasing age between cases and controls. The percent relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum was higher in stunted compared to control children at 12 months of age (P = 0.043). There was an increase in the relative abundance of this phylum with increasing age in all children (P = 0.0380) with no difference in the rate of increase between cases and controls. There was a decrease in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0004) and Actinobacteria (P = 0.0489) with increasing age in cases. The microbiota of control children was enriched in probiotic species Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus mucosae, whereas that of stunted children was enriched in inflammogenic taxa including those in the Desulfovibrio genus and Campylobacterales order. Larger, longitudinal studies on the compositional and functional maturation of the microbiome in children are needed. PMID:27228122

  13. Early Parenting and the Development of Externalizing Behavior Problems: Longitudinal Mediation Through Children's Executive Function.

    PubMed

    Sulik, Michael J; Blair, Clancy; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Berry, Daniel; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Path analysis was used to investigate the longitudinal associations among parenting and children's executive function and externalizing behavior problems from 36 to 90 months of age in the Family Life Project (N = 1,115), a study of child development in the context of rural poverty. While controlling for stability in the constructs, semistructured observations of parenting prospectively predicted performance on a battery of executive function tasks and primary caregivers' reports of externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the association between early parenting and later externalizing behavior was longitudinally mediated by executive function, providing support for a process model in which sensitive parenting promotes children's self-regulation, which in turn reduces children's externalizing behavior. PMID:26082032

  14. Acquisition of mental state language in Spanish children: a longitudinal study of the relationship between the production of mental verbs and linguistic development.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Belén; Aguado, Gerardo; Sotillo, María; Masdeu, Jose C

    2008-07-01

    The development of language indicating the emergence of thinking about the thoughts of self and others has been scarcely studied in Spanish-speaking children. For this reason, we studied the development of mental state language and various indicators of language development in 25 Spanish-speaking children assessed at 3, 3 1/2, 4, 4 1/2, and 5 years of age. We coded and categorized the 40,250 utterances children produced during the five time points, 1202 (3.01%) of which had mental terms. In this sample, mental state language in Spanish children developed with a similar timeline and patterns as described in English-speaking children. However, several findings were novel for studies of mental state language. The general indexes of syntactic development did not correlate with the production of mental terms. The Index of Lexical Diversity was associated with the frequency of references to verbs of desire. The results of regression analyses suggest that not only the development of subordinate sentences with complement is associated with genuine mental references to desires and beliefs, but the development of lexical skills as well.

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  16. Immigration and the Family Circumstances of Mexican-Origin Children: A Binational Longitudinal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Landale, Nancy S; Oropesa, R S; Noah, Aggie J

    2014-02-01

    Using data from the birth cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (n = 1,200) and the Mexican Family Life Survey (n = 1,013), this study investigated the living arrangements of Mexican-origin preschool children. The analysis examined children's family circumstances in both sending and receiving countries, used longitudinal data to capture family transitions, and considered the intersection between nuclear and extended family structures. Between ages 0-1 and 4-5, Mexican children of immigrants experienced significantly more family instability than children in Mexico. They were more likely to transition from 2-parent to single-parent families and from extended family households to simple households. There were fewer differences between U.S. children with immigrant versus native parents, but the higher level of single parenthood among children of natives at ages 0-1 and the greater share making transitions from a 2-parent to a single-parent family suggest ongoing erosion of children's family support across generations in the United States. PMID:25228783

  17. Racial Disparities in Children's Health: A Longitudinal Analysis of Mothers Based on the Multiple Disadvantage Model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tyrone C; Lo, Celia C

    2016-08-01

    This secondary data analysis of 4373 mothers and their children investigated racial disparities in children's health and its associations with social structural factors, social relationships/support, health/mental health, substance use, and access to health/mental health services. The study drew on longitudinal records for mother-child pairs created from data in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Generalized estimating equations yielded results showing children's good health to be associated positively with mother's health (current health and health during pregnancy), across three ethnic groups. For African-American children, good health was associated with mothers' education level, receipt of informal child care, receipt of public health insurance, uninsured status, and absence of depression. For Hispanic children, health was positively associated with mothers' education level, receipt of substance-use treatment, and non-receipt of public assistance. Implications for policy and intervention are discussed. PMID:26754044

  18. Effects of Early and Later Family Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression: A Longitudinal, Multi-Informant Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Lamb, Michael E.; Guterman, Eva; Abbott, Craig B.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effects of different forms of family violence at two developmental stages by assessing a sample of 110 Israeli children, drawn from the case files of Israeli family service agencies, studied longitudinally in both middle childhood and adolescence. Methods: Information about the children's adjustment was obtained from…

  19. Short-Term Longitudinal Relationships between Children's Peer Victimization/Bullying Experiences and Self-Perceptions: Evidence for Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Michael J.; Smith, Peter K.; Cowie, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This study tested transactional models to explain the short-term longitudinal links between self-perceptions and involvement in bullying and victimization among 115 9- to 10-year-old children. Self-perceptions were measured with Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children (six sub-scales) and bullying/victimization by means of peer nominations.…

  20. Longitudinal Improvements in Communication and Socialization of Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids: Evidence from Parental Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bat-Chava, Yael; Martin, Daniela; Kosciw, Joseph G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that the cochlear implant may improve deaf children's speech and communication skills. However, little is known about its effect on children's ability to socialize with hearing peers. Methods: Using a standardized psychological measure completed by parents and a longitudinal design, this study examined the…

  1. The Development of Extraversion and Ability: Analysis of Data from a Large-Scale Longitudinal Study of Children Tested at 10-11 and 14-15 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results of analysis of correlations collected by Cookson, following Eysenck and Cookson's study of personality and ability in young people, confirm the finding from previous Cattellian test data that the more intelligent children decline in relative extraversion scores and cast doubt on Eysenck's suggestion that introverts gradually show higher…

  2. First and Second Language Acquisition in German Children Attending a Kindergarten Immersion Program: A Combined Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergström, Kirstin; Klatte, Maria; Steinbrink, Claudia; Lachmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated first (L1) and second (L2) language acquisition in two age-matched groups of 2- to 6-year-old kindergarten children over the course of 2.5 years. The immersion group participated in a partial English immersion program whereas the conventional instruction group received a conventional L2 course (30 minutes per week); the…

  3. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…

  4. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  5. Longitudinal studies based on vital registration records.

    PubMed

    Fox, A J

    1989-01-01

    We describe here the increased use of routine vital event and census records to construct national follow-up and longitudinal studies. The strengths and weaknesses of these studies are discussed and examples given of their use in research into relationships between employment and mortality and socio-economic differences in mortality. PMID:2626588

  6. Methods for a longitudinal cohort of refugee children in a regional community in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Zwi, Karen; Rungan, Santuri; Woolfenden, Susan; Williams, Katrina; Woodland, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Few studies explore the long-term health and well-being of refugee children. A longitudinal cohort of refugee children was created to determine health and well-being outcomes over time. This article describes the methodology used to conduct this study, including sample characteristics and effectiveness of recruitment and retention strategies. Participants Newly arrived refugee children settling in a regional part of Australia aged 6 months to 15 years were recruited between 2009 and 2013 and 85% were followed for an average of 31 months. Method and design General practitioners conducted health and pathology examinations shortly after arrival. Additional follow-up assessments were conducted by the research team at an average of 13 months after arrival for the first (year 2) and 31 months for the second (year 3) assessment. Children under 5 years had developmental and children aged 4–17 years had social–emotional screening. Families were assessed for risk and protective factors using a structured interview and the Social Readjustment Ratings Scale. Parent experience of the research was explored. Findings to date Eligibility criteria were met by 158 of 228 (69%) newly arrived children, 61 of whom (39%) were enrolled. Retention was 100% (n=61) at year 2 and 85% at year 3. The study sample was younger than and had an over-representation of African refugees as compared to the eligible population. Parents reported that the research was respectful. Future plans This study demonstrates that a longitudinal cohort study in refugee children is feasible and acceptable, and retention rates can be high. The establishment of this cohort provides the opportunity to analyse valuable data about the early settlement experience, risk and protective factors and long-term health and well-being outcomes in refugee children. These are necessary to identify refugee children in need of additional support and to guide future service delivery. PMID:27558902

  7. Longitudinal study on the effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence, parent-child attachments, and antisocial behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Moylan, Carrie A; Tajima, Emiko A; Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, for those who were abused only and those who were exposed only to domestic violence, the relationship between exposure types and youth outcomes did not differ by level of attachment to parents. However, stronger bonds of attachment to parents in adolescence did appear to predict a lower risk of antisocial behavior independent of exposure status. Preventing child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence could lessen the risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence, as could strengthening parent-child attachments in adolescence. However, strengthening attachments between parents and children after exposure may not be sufficient to counter the negative impact of earlier violence trauma in children.

  8. Neurocognitive Development and Predictors of L1 and L2 Literacy Skills in Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study of Children 5–11 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Morken, Frøydis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find valid neurocognitive precursors of literacy development in first language (L1, Norwegian) and second language (L2, English) in a group of children during their Pre‐literacy, Emergent Literacy and Literacy stages, by comparing children with dyslexia and a typical group. Children who were 5 years old at project start were followed until the age of 11, when dyslexia was identified and data could be analysed in retrospect. The children's neurocognitive pattern changed both by literacy stage and domain. Visuo‐spatial recall and RAN appeared as early precursors of L1 literacy, while phonological awareness appeared as early precursor of L2 English. Verbal long term memory was associated with both L1 and L2 skills in the Literacy stage. Significant group differences seen in the Pre‐literacy and Emergent literacy stages decreased in the Literacy stage. The developmental variations by stage and domain may explain some of the inconsistencies seen in dyslexia research. Early identification and training are essential to avoid academic failure, and our data show that visuo‐spatial memory and RAN could be suitable early markers in transparent orthographies like Norwegian. Phonological awareness was here seen as an early precursor of L2 English, but not of L1 Norwegian. © 2015 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26511662

  9. Neurocognitive Development and Predictors of L1 and L2 Literacy Skills in Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study of Children 5-11 Years Old.

    PubMed

    Helland, Turid; Morken, Frøydis

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find valid neurocognitive precursors of literacy development in first language (L1, Norwegian) and second language (L2, English) in a group of children during their Pre-literacy, Emergent Literacy and Literacy stages, by comparing children with dyslexia and a typical group. Children who were 5 years old at project start were followed until the age of 11, when dyslexia was identified and data could be analysed in retrospect. The children's neurocognitive pattern changed both by literacy stage and domain. Visuo-spatial recall and RAN appeared as early precursors of L1 literacy, while phonological awareness appeared as early precursor of L2 English. Verbal long term memory was associated with both L1 and L2 skills in the Literacy stage. Significant group differences seen in the Pre-literacy and Emergent literacy stages decreased in the Literacy stage. The developmental variations by stage and domain may explain some of the inconsistencies seen in dyslexia research. Early identification and training are essential to avoid academic failure, and our data show that visuo-spatial memory and RAN could be suitable early markers in transparent orthographies like Norwegian. Phonological awareness was here seen as an early precursor of L2 English, but not of L1 Norwegian. PMID:26511662

  10. Neurocognitive Development and Predictors of L1 and L2 Literacy Skills in Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study of Children 5-11 Years Old.

    PubMed

    Helland, Turid; Morken, Frøydis

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find valid neurocognitive precursors of literacy development in first language (L1, Norwegian) and second language (L2, English) in a group of children during their Pre-literacy, Emergent Literacy and Literacy stages, by comparing children with dyslexia and a typical group. Children who were 5 years old at project start were followed until the age of 11, when dyslexia was identified and data could be analysed in retrospect. The children's neurocognitive pattern changed both by literacy stage and domain. Visuo-spatial recall and RAN appeared as early precursors of L1 literacy, while phonological awareness appeared as early precursor of L2 English. Verbal long term memory was associated with both L1 and L2 skills in the Literacy stage. Significant group differences seen in the Pre-literacy and Emergent literacy stages decreased in the Literacy stage. The developmental variations by stage and domain may explain some of the inconsistencies seen in dyslexia research. Early identification and training are essential to avoid academic failure, and our data show that visuo-spatial memory and RAN could be suitable early markers in transparent orthographies like Norwegian. Phonological awareness was here seen as an early precursor of L2 English, but not of L1 Norwegian.

  11. Concurrent and longitudinal effects of maternal and paternal warmth on depression symptoms in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Del Barrio, Victoria; Holgado-Tello, F Pablo; Carrasco, Miguel A

    2016-08-30

    The main aim of this study is to examine the concurrent and longitudinal effects of perceived affection of mothers and fathers separately on the self-reported symptoms of children's depression. Data were obtained from a 3-wave study of 535 families with children (41.3% boys) aged 9-15 years of age. Structural equation models were performed to test different models. Significant effects of mothers' and fathers' affection on depression symptomatology over the three years were found. The longitudinal effects of parental warmth on the child's depression symptoms were mediated over time by the previous levels of the mother's and father's warmth. The presence of parental warmth can lessen the severity of depression symptoms, especially when paternal and maternal warmth are applied consistently over a long period of time. These results were invariant across the child's sex. Treatments for childhood depression should take place over extended periods of time including both fathers and mothers. PMID:27262265

  12. Concurrent and longitudinal effects of maternal and paternal warmth on depression symptoms in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Del Barrio, Victoria; Holgado-Tello, F Pablo; Carrasco, Miguel A

    2016-08-30

    The main aim of this study is to examine the concurrent and longitudinal effects of perceived affection of mothers and fathers separately on the self-reported symptoms of children's depression. Data were obtained from a 3-wave study of 535 families with children (41.3% boys) aged 9-15 years of age. Structural equation models were performed to test different models. Significant effects of mothers' and fathers' affection on depression symptomatology over the three years were found. The longitudinal effects of parental warmth on the child's depression symptoms were mediated over time by the previous levels of the mother's and father's warmth. The presence of parental warmth can lessen the severity of depression symptoms, especially when paternal and maternal warmth are applied consistently over a long period of time. These results were invariant across the child's sex. Treatments for childhood depression should take place over extended periods of time including both fathers and mothers.

  13. Biomechanics of Distance Running: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard C.; Gregor, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinal study of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)

  14. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  15. Longitudinal Study of Obesity and Athletic Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, David B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that tracked the fatness of elementary students over two years using current fitness test standards, assessing the athletic competence of obese and nonobese children. Children who were obese at the beginning of the study were likely to remain so. The study's findings regarding athletic competence were equivocal. (SM)

  16. A longitudinal study of the effectiveness of a multi-media intervention on parents' knowledge and use of vehicle safety systems for children.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Anne W; Hussein, Abdul; Purc-Stevenson, Rebecca; Follo, Giovanna; Ahmed, Ejaz

    2009-05-01

    Motor-vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and serious injury for children under the age of 14 in Canada and in the United States despite mandatory use of vehicle restraints since 1977. Using a pre- and post-test design, the present study tests the effectiveness of a multi-media intervention study on parents' knowledge of car safety seat use for children (0-12 years). The sample included 201 parents from four Ontario cities. Results indicate that parents' knowledge of when to accurately and safely transition a child to the appropriate car safety seat based on child's age, weight and height was retained at the 1 year post-test for children 4-8 years of age. The rates of correct use of safety seats significantly increased 1 year following the intervention program. Other factors that influenced parent's knowledge included being a parent versus non-parents, gender, income, education, sources of information, and regional location. The results of this study can help guide the development and implementation of future intervention programs and injury prevention policy. PMID:19393799

  17. Trends and Predictors of Longitudinal Hearing Aid Use for Children who are Hard of Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; McCreery, Ryan W.; Spratford, Meredith; Oleson, Jacob J.; Van Buren, John; Bentler, Ruth; Roush, Patricia; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Children who are hard of hearing (CHH) have restricted access to acoustic and linguistic information. Increased audibility provided by hearing aids (HAs) influences language outcomes, but the advantages of appropriately-fit HAs can only be realized if children wear their devices on a consistent basis. The purpose of the current paper was to characterize long-term HA use in CHH, based on parent report measures, and identify factors that influence longitudinal trends in HA use. Design Participants were parents of 290 children with mild to severe hearing loss. At every visit, parents estimated the average amount of time the child used HAs per day during the week and on the weekends. Parent reports of daily HA use were analyzed to determine if different patterns of HA use were observed longitudinally during the study. Independent predictor variables were then related to longitudinal trends in HA use within three age groups (infant, preschool, school-age). Results On average across multiple visits, parents reported that their children wore their HAs for 10.63 hours per day (SD = 3.29). Data logging values were lower than parent report measures (M = 8.44, SD = 4.06), suggesting that parents overestimated daily HA use. The majority of children in each age group wore HAs at least 8 hours per day from their first research testing interval to their last, based on parent-report measures. Maternal education level predicted longitudinal trends in HA use for infants and school-age CHH. Degree of hearing loss was related to trends in school-age children only. Conclusions The current results indicated that the majority of CHH increased HA use over time, but a sizable minority demonstrated a low level of use or decreased use in the time period studied. Maternal education level influenced longitudinal trends in daily HA use. Degree of hearing loss influenced trends in school-age children only. Audiologists and early intervention service providers might aid in improving HA

  18. A longitudinal study of social competence among children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic parents: role of parental psychopathology, parental warmth, and self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Eiden, Rina D; Colder, Craig; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2009-03-01

    This study tested a conceptual model predicting children's social competence in a sample of children with alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents. The model examined the role of parents' alcohol diagnoses, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12-18 months of child age in predicting parental warmth/sensitivity at 2 years of child age. Parental warmth/sensitivity at 2 years was hypothesized to predict children's self-regulation and externalizing behavior problems at 3 years. Parenting, self-regulation, and behavior problems were expected to predict social competence in kindergarten. Structural equations modeling was supportive of this model. Fathers' alcohol diagnosis was associated with lower warmth/sensitivity. Lower maternal warmth/sensitivity at 2 years was predictive of lower child self-regulation at 3 years. Parenting, self-regulation, and externalizing behavior problems were predictive of social competence in kindergarten, although associations varied by reporter (parents or teacher). There was a direct association between fathers' alcohol diagnosis and father reports of social competence, and between fathers' depression and teacher reports of social competence. The study elucidates developmental processes in predicting social competence and the role of fathers' alcoholism and associated risk factors in this process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Exposure to Parental Cigarette Smoking and Child Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Fagan, Pebbles

    2008-01-01

    This study examined exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a major public health problem. ETS has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects in children. This study utilizes data from a community-based, longitudinal investigation examining the relation between children's exposure to ETS and later…

  20. Longitudinal development of number line estimation and mathematics performance in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Friso-van den Bos, Ilona; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Van Luit, Johannes E H; Xenidou-Dervou, Iro; Jonkman, Lisa M; Van der Schoot, Menno; Van Lieshout, Ernest C D M

    2015-06-01

    Children's ability to relate number to a continuous quantity abstraction visualized as a number line is widely accepted to be predictive of mathematics achievement. However, a debate has emerged with respect to how children's placements are distributed on this number line across development. In the current study, different models were applied to children's longitudinal number placement data to get more insight into the development of number line representations in kindergarten and early primary school years. In addition, longitudinal developmental relations between number line placements and mathematical achievement, measured with a national test of mathematics, were investigated using cross-lagged panel modeling. A group of 442 children participated in a 3-year longitudinal study (ages 5-8 years) in which they completed a number-to-position task every 6 months. Individual number line placements were fitted to various models, of which a one-anchor power model provided the best fit for many of the placements at a younger age (5 or 6 years) and a two-anchor power model provided better fit for many of the children at an older age (7 or 8 years). The number of children who made linear placements also grew with age. Cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the best fit was provided with a model in which number line acuity and mathematics performance were mutually predictive of each other rather than models in which one ability predicted the other in a non-reciprocal way. This indicates that number line acuity should not be seen as a predictor of math but that both skills influence each other during the developmental process. PMID:25778851

  1. Longitudinal development of number line estimation and mathematics performance in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Friso-van den Bos, Ilona; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Van Luit, Johannes E H; Xenidou-Dervou, Iro; Jonkman, Lisa M; Van der Schoot, Menno; Van Lieshout, Ernest C D M

    2015-06-01

    Children's ability to relate number to a continuous quantity abstraction visualized as a number line is widely accepted to be predictive of mathematics achievement. However, a debate has emerged with respect to how children's placements are distributed on this number line across development. In the current study, different models were applied to children's longitudinal number placement data to get more insight into the development of number line representations in kindergarten and early primary school years. In addition, longitudinal developmental relations between number line placements and mathematical achievement, measured with a national test of mathematics, were investigated using cross-lagged panel modeling. A group of 442 children participated in a 3-year longitudinal study (ages 5-8 years) in which they completed a number-to-position task every 6 months. Individual number line placements were fitted to various models, of which a one-anchor power model provided the best fit for many of the placements at a younger age (5 or 6 years) and a two-anchor power model provided better fit for many of the children at an older age (7 or 8 years). The number of children who made linear placements also grew with age. Cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the best fit was provided with a model in which number line acuity and mathematics performance were mutually predictive of each other rather than models in which one ability predicted the other in a non-reciprocal way. This indicates that number line acuity should not be seen as a predictor of math but that both skills influence each other during the developmental process.

  2. Longitudinal Correlates of Reading Comprehension Difficulties in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Zhang, Yuping

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the early predictors of reading comprehension difficulties in Chinese children. We originally recruited 290 Beijing and 154 Hong Kong children and further selected from each sample those (30 from Beijing and 22 from Hong Kong sample) in the lowest 25% on reading comprehension tests across the last two consecutive testing…

  3. Longitudinal Relations Between Parenting and Child Adjustment in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadeyne, Els; Ghesquiere, Pol; Onghena, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied the predictive relations between reports of parenting behavior on the one hand and academic achievement and reported behavior problems of young children on the other hand. Data were gathered for 352 children and their parents from kindergarten to 2nd grade. The results indicated that in the academic domain, low supportive and…

  4. Risk factors and immunological pathways for asthma and other allergic diseases in children: background and methodology of a longitudinal study in a large urban center in Northeastern Brazil (Salvador-SCAALA study)

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Cunha, Sergio S; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza; Carvalho, Lain P; Cruz, Álvaro A; Stein, Renato T; Genser, Bernd; Cooper, Philip J; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2006-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in industrialised countries, and it is known that rates vary according whether the area is urban or rural and to socio-economic status. Surveys conducted in some urban settings in Latin America found high prevalence rates, only exceeded by the rates observed in industrialised English-speaking countries. It is likely that the marked changes in the environment, life style and living conditions in Latin America are responsible for these observations. The understanding of the epidemiological and immunological changes that underlie the increase in asthma and allergic diseases in Latin America aimed by SCAALA studies in Brazil and Ecuador will be crucial for the identification of novel preventive interventions. Methods/Design The Salvador-SCAALA project described here is a longitudinal study involving children aged 4–11 years living in the city of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Data on asthma and allergic diseases (rhinitis and eczema) and potential risk factors will be collected in successive surveys using standardised questionnaire. This will be completed with data on dust collection (to dust mite and endotoxin), skin test to most common allergens, stool examinations to helminth and parasites, blood samples (to infection, total and specific IgE, and immunological makers), formaldehyde, physical inspection to diagnoses of eczema, and anthropometric measures. Data on earlier exposures when these children were 0–3 years old are available from a different project. Discussion It is expected that knowledge generated may help identify public health interventions that may enable countries in LA to enjoy the benefits of a "modern" lifestyle while avoiding – or minimising – increases in morbidity caused by asthma and allergies. PMID:16796729

  5. Metabolic risk in contemporary children is unrelated to socio-economic status: longitudinal study of a UK urban population (EarlyBird 42).

    PubMed

    Voss, Linda D; Hosking, Joanne; Metcalf, Brad S; Jeffery, Alison N; Frémeaux, Alissa E; Wilkin, Terence J

    2014-05-01

    Lifestyle interventions to improve health in young children tend to target areas of relative deprivation, but the evidence for so doing is largely historical. Accordingly, we have re-examined the link between deprivation, obesity and metabolic risk in contemporary UK children. Using a postcode-based index of multiple deprivation (IMD), we assessed 269 children from the community-based EarlyBird Study, attending 53 schools representing a wide socio-economic range. Annual measures of fatness from 5 to 8 yr included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sum of five skinfolds (SSF). A metabolic risk score, based on blood pressure, lipids and insulin resistance, was derived from annual fasting blood samples. There were no significant associations between deprivation and any measure of adiposity in girls (all p > 0.37). In boys, there was a weak but consistently inverse relationship between deprivation and WC (r = -0.19, p = 0.03) and BMI (r = -0.14, p = 0.09) at 8 yr. Changes in adiposity over 3 yr were unrelated to deprivation in boys. In girls there was a slight but significant increase in SSF only (1 mm/yr per 20 IMD units, p = 0.001). Importantly, in both genders, metabolic risk score was unrelated to deprivation throughout (r values -0.05 to -0.13, all p > 0.12), as was change in metabolic risk (all p > 0.30). Our data do not support the assumption that obesity, metabolic disturbance and thus risk of type 2 diabetes are more prevalent among poorer children. In today's increasingly obesogenic environment, youngsters from all backgrounds appear to be vulnerable, with population-wide implications for public health spending, and the prevention of diabetes in contemporary youth. PMID:24827703

  6. Metabolic risk in contemporary children is unrelated to socio-economic status: longitudinal study of a UK urban population (EarlyBird 42).

    PubMed

    Voss, Linda D; Hosking, Joanne; Metcalf, Brad S; Jeffery, Alison N; Frémeaux, Alissa E; Wilkin, Terence J

    2014-05-01

    Lifestyle interventions to improve health in young children tend to target areas of relative deprivation, but the evidence for so doing is largely historical. Accordingly, we have re-examined the link between deprivation, obesity and metabolic risk in contemporary UK children. Using a postcode-based index of multiple deprivation (IMD), we assessed 269 children from the community-based EarlyBird Study, attending 53 schools representing a wide socio-economic range. Annual measures of fatness from 5 to 8 yr included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sum of five skinfolds (SSF). A metabolic risk score, based on blood pressure, lipids and insulin resistance, was derived from annual fasting blood samples. There were no significant associations between deprivation and any measure of adiposity in girls (all p > 0.37). In boys, there was a weak but consistently inverse relationship between deprivation and WC (r = -0.19, p = 0.03) and BMI (r = -0.14, p = 0.09) at 8 yr. Changes in adiposity over 3 yr were unrelated to deprivation in boys. In girls there was a slight but significant increase in SSF only (1 mm/yr per 20 IMD units, p = 0.001). Importantly, in both genders, metabolic risk score was unrelated to deprivation throughout (r values -0.05 to -0.13, all p > 0.12), as was change in metabolic risk (all p > 0.30). Our data do not support the assumption that obesity, metabolic disturbance and thus risk of type 2 diabetes are more prevalent among poorer children. In today's increasingly obesogenic environment, youngsters from all backgrounds appear to be vulnerable, with population-wide implications for public health spending, and the prevention of diabetes in contemporary youth.

  7. Does parenting help to explain socioeconomic inequalities in children's body mass index trajectories? Longitudinal analysis using the Growing Up in Scotland study

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Young, Robert; Wight, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathways leading to socioeconomic inequalities in young children's body mass index (BMI) are not well understood. This study examined whether parenting related to the physical and social context of children's food consumption helped to explain associations between maternal educational level and child BMI trajectory. Methods The study used data from 2957 families in a nationally representative birth cohort study surveyed from 2004 to 2011, with child BMI z-score measured 3 times (46, 70 and 94 months). Latent growth curve models examined associations between maternal education and BMI z-score trajectory, exploring mediating effects of parenting (positive mealtime interaction, informal meal setting and child bedroom TV) and unhealthy child diet. Results After adjusting for maternal BMI, maternal education predicted increased inequality in child BMI z-score trajectory slope over the study period. The slope index of inequality coefficient for maternal education, that is, the change in z-score associated with the lowest relative to the highest maternal education level, was 0.17, p<0.001. Indirect effects of lower maternal education on steeper BMI trajectory via parenting and/or unhealthy diet represented 89% of the total effect. Pathways via parenting and then unhealthy diet accounted for 68% of significant indirect pathways, with the remainder via unhealthy diet only. Bedroom TV was the most important parenting pathway, followed by informal meal setting. Conclusions Pathways via parenting helped to explain the emergence of inequalities in young children's BMI related to maternal education. Interventions targeting parental provision of child bedroom TV and informal meal setting might reduce these inequalities. PMID:27056682

  8. What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner

    2005-01-01

    This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

  9. Predicting Internet risks: a longitudinal panel study of gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use among children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal panel survey data collected from 417 adolescents at 2 points in time 1 year apart. It examined relationships between Internet risks changes in Time 2 and social media gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use all measured at Time 1. By controlling for age, gender, education, and criterion variable scores in Internet addiction at Time 1, entertainment and instant messaging use at Time 1 significantly predicted increased Internet addiction measured at Time 2. The study also controlled for demographics and scores of criterion variables in Internet risks: targeted for harassment, privacy exposed, and pornographic or violent content consumed in Time 1. Gratifications-sought (including status-gaining, expressing opinions, and identity experimentation), Internet addiction symptoms (including withdrawal and negative life consequences), and social media use (in particular, blogs, and Facebook) significantly predicted Internet risk changes in Time 2. These findings suggest that, with their predictive power, these predictors at Time 1 could be used to identify those adolescents who are likely to develop Internet addiction symptoms and the likelihood of experiencing Internet risks based on their previous gratifications-sought, previous addiction symptoms, and their habits of social media use at Time 1. PMID:25750792

  10. Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity and Longitudinal Growth in Children With Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Triana, Clímaco Andres; Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo D.; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Jiménez-Méndez, Ricardo; Medina, Aurora; Clark, Patricia; Rassekh, Rod; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Carleton, Bruce; Medeiros, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cisplatin, a major antineoplastic drug used in the treatment of solid tumors, is a known nephrotoxin. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the prevalence and severity of cisplatin nephrotoxicity in 54 children and its impact on height and weight. We recorded the weight, height, serum creatinine, and electrolytes in each cisplatin cycle and after 12 months of treatment. Nephrotoxicity was graded as follows: normal renal function (Grade 0); asymptomatic electrolyte disorders, including an increase in serum creatinine, up to 1.5 times baseline value (Grade 1); need for electrolyte supplementation <3 months and/or increase in serum creatinine 1.5 to 1.9 times from baseline (Grade 2); increase in serum creatinine 2 to 2.9 times from baseline or need for electrolyte supplementation for more than 3 months after treatment completion (Grade 3); and increase in serum creatinine ≥3 times from baseline or renal replacement therapy (Grade 4). Nephrotoxicity was observed in 41 subjects (75.9%). Grade 1 nephrotoxicity was observed in 18 patients (33.3%), Grade 2 in 5 patients (9.2%), and Grade 3 in 18 patients (33.3%). None had Grade 4 nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity patients were younger and received higher cisplatin dose, they also had impairment in longitudinal growth manifested as statistically significant worsening on the height Z Score at 12 months after treatment. We used a multiple logistic regression model using the delta of height Z Score (baseline-12 months) as dependent variable in order to adjust for the main confounder variables such as: germ cell tumor, cisplatin total dose, serum magnesium levels at 12 months, gender, and nephrotoxicity grade. Patients with nephrotoxicity Grade 1 where at higher risk of not growing (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.07–24.3, P = 0.04). The cisplatin total dose had a significant negative relationship with magnesium levels at 12 months (Spearman r = −0.527, P = <0.001). PMID:26313789

  11. Mothers and Fathers with Binge Eating Disorder and Their 18-36 Months Old Children: A Longitudinal Study on Parent-Infant Interactions and Offspring's Emotional-Behavioral Profiles.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Porreca, Alessio; Simonelli, Alessandra; Ronconi, Lucia; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Maternal Binge Eating Disorder (BED) has been suggested to be associated with poor parent-infant interactions during feeding and with children's emotional and behavioral problems during infancy (Blissett and Haycraft, 2011). The role of fathers has received increasing consideration in recent years, yet the research has not focused on interactional patterns between fathers with BED and their children. The present study aimed to longitudinally investigate the influence of BED diagnosis, in one or both parents, on parent-infant feeding interactions and on children's emotional-behavioral functioning. 612 subjects (408 parents; 204 children), recruited in mental health services and pre-schools in Central Italy, were divided into four groups: Group 1 included families with both parents diagnosed with BED, Group 2 and 3 included families with one parent diagnosed with BED, Group 0 was a healthy control. The assessment took place at T1 (18 months of age of children) and T2 (36 months of age of children): feeding interactions were assessed through the Scale for the Assessment of Feeding Interactions (SVIA) while child emotional-behavioral functioning was evaluated with the Child Behavior Check-List (CBCL). When compared to healthy controls, the groups with one or both parents diagnosed with BED showed higher scores on the SVIA and on the CBCL internalizing and externalizing scales, indicating poorer adult-child feeding interactions and higher emotional-behavioral difficulties. A direct influence of parental psychiatric diagnosis on the quality of mother-infant and father-infant interactions was also found, both at T1 and T2. Moreover, dyadic feeding interactions mediated the influence of parental diagnosis on children's psychological functioning. The presence of BED diagnosis in one or both parents seems to influence the severity of maladaptive parent-infant exchanges during feeding and offspring's emotional-behavioral problems over time, consequently affecting different

  12. Longitudinal changes in neurodevelopmental outcomes between 18 and 36 months in children with prenatal triptan exposure: findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Mollie E; Frazier, Jean A; Nordeng, Hedvig M E; Lapane, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether changes in neurodevelopmental outcomes between 18 and 36 months of age were associated with prenatal exposure to triptan medications, a class of 5-HT receptor agonists used in the treatment of migraine. Method Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, a prospective birth cohort that includes nearly 40% of all pregnancies in Norway from 1999 to 2008, we identified 50 469 mother–child dyads who met inclusion criteria and were present for at least one follow-up assessment at 18 or 36 months postpartum. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist, the Emotionality, Activity, and Shyness Questionnaire, and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. We used generalised estimating equations to evaluate change from 18 to 36 months for children prenatally exposed to triptans, relative to contrast groups, and used marginal structural models with inverse probability of treatment and censoring weights to address time-varying exposure and confounding as well as loss to follow-up. Results Among eligible participants (n=50 469), 1.0% used a triptan during pregnancy, 2.0% used triptans prior to pregnancy only, 8.0% reported migraine without triptan use and 89.0% had no history of migraine. Children with prenatal triptan exposure had greater increases in emotionality (r-RR 2.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.53) and activity problems (r-RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.8) compared to children born to mothers who discontinued triptan use prior to pregnancy. Conclusion Prenatal triptan exposure was associated with changes over time in externalising-type behaviours such as emotionality and activity, but not with internalising-type behaviours. PMID:27625061

  13. Relations of Television Viewing and Reading: Findings from a 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennemoser, Marco; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the long-term effects of television viewing on the development of children's reading competencies. Among 2 cohorts of German children (N[subscript 1] = 165, N[subscript 2] = 167), measures of television viewing were collected over 4 years, and tests of reading speed and reading comprehension were administered…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of the Relation between Depressive Symptomatology and Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arellano, Paula A. Errazuriz; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether mothers' depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6…

  15. Head Start Participation and School Readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ˜ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care…

  16. Limiting Nonresponse in Longitudinal Research: Three Strategies for School-Based Studies. A RAND Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    Longitudinal studies conducted with children typically experience non-response problems that can make substantial inroads on sample size and introduce bias into the analysis. Three methods for limiting non-response in school-based research programs were assessed: (1) asking parents to return consent forms only if they do not want their children to…

  17. Parenting and the Behavior Problems of Young Children with an Intellectual Disability: Concurrent and Longitudinal Relationships in a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard Patrick; Vagenas, Dimitrios; Emerson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We examined parenting behaviors, and their association with concurrent and later child behavior problems. Children with an intellectual disability (ID) were identified from a UK birth cohort (N = 516 at age 5). Compared to parents of children without an ID, parents of children with an ID used discipline less frequently, but reported a more…

  18. Do not forget the boys - gender differences in children living in high HIV-affected communities in South Africa and Malawi in a longitudinal, community-based study.

    PubMed

    Hensels, I S; Sherr, L; Skeen, S; Macedo, A; Roberts, K J; Tomlinson, M

    2016-03-01

    Gender is an important factor in child development. Especially in sub-Saharan Africa, girls have often been shown to be less likely to access education compared to boys. The consequence of this has been that that programmes addressing child development are often aimed at girls in order to redress gender imbalances. This study examines the effect of gender on the development of children attending community-based organisations in high HIV-affected areas, and explores whether community-based organisation attendance was associated with any changes in gender differences over time. Baseline data from 989 children and 12-15 month follow from 854 (86% response rate) were used to examine gender differences in children from Malawi and South Africa. At baseline, where there were differences by gender, these tended to disadvantage boys. It was found that boys were significantly more often found to be subjected to violence. Boys showed worse performance at school and more behavioural problems than girls. These gender differences persisted from baseline to follow-up. At follow-up, boys self-reported significantly worse average quality of life than girls. Only harsh discipline differed by gender in progression over time: boys experienced a stronger reduction in harsh physical discipline than girls from baseline to follow-up. Since harsh discipline was associated with boys' worse educational outcomes and behavioural problems, our data cautiously suggests that gender differences could be reduced over time. In conclusion, our data suggests that, perhaps due to the narrow equity approach focusing on provision for girls, boys may be overlooked. As a result, there are some specific experiences where boys are generally worse off. These differences have distinct ramifications for the educational and emotional development of boys. A broader equity approach to child development might be warranted to ensure that the needs of both girls and boys are considered, and that boys are not

  19. Marital Quality and Psychological Adjustment among Mothers of Children with ASD: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Paul R.; Kersh, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Using data drawn from a longitudinal study of families of children with ASD, the current study examined the impact of marital quality on three indicators of maternal psychological adjustment: depressed mood, parenting efficacy, and subjective well-being. Multiple regression analyses indicated marital quality to be a significant cross-sectional and…

  20. Using the Longitudinal Study as a Central Teaching Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinal studies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)

  1. Longitudinal research on the behavioral characteristics of children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    McKinney, J D

    1989-03-01

    This paper summarizes a program of research on the behavioral characteristics of children with learning disabilities (LD) compared to average achievers. Longitudinal studies over a 3-year period beginning in the first and second grades showed that children with LD, as a heterogeneous group, displayed a persistent pattern of maladaptive classroom behavior that distinguished them from average achieving peers and that was associated with continued underachievement over time. Subsequently, children with LD in the longitudinal sample were clustered into seven different subtypes that represented attention problems, conduct and classroom management problems, withdrawn-dependent behavior, and normal behavior. Although no differences in achievement were found initially between behavioral subtypes, children in the attention and conduct problem subtypes had poorer academic outcomes 3 years later compared to those in the withdrawn subtype and those who had no significant behavior problems. The collective findings from this research are discussed in terms of the developmental relationship between learning disabilities, attention disorders, and social/emotional problems, and implications are drawn for a greater focus on behavioral interventions in special education and prevention efforts in the early grades. PMID:2708890

  2. Structural brain imaging in children and adolescents following prenatal cocaine exposure: preliminary longitudinal findings.

    PubMed

    Akyuz, Nurunisa; Kekatpure, Minal V; Liu, Jie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Quinn, Brian T; Lala, Meenakshi D; Kennedy, David; Makris, Nikos; Lester, Barry M; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2014-01-01

    The brain morphometry of 21 children, who were followed from birth and underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at 8-10 years, was studied. This cohort included 11 children with prenatal cocaine exposure (CE) and 10 noncocaine-exposed children (NCE). We compared the CE versus NCE groups using FreeSurfer to automatically segment and quantify the volume of individual brain structures. In addition, we created a pediatric atlas specifically for this population and demonstrate the enhanced accuracy of this approach. We found an overall trend towards smaller brain volumes among CE children. The volume differences were significant for cortical gray matter, the thalamus and the putamen. Here, reductions in thalamic and putaminal volumes showed a robust inverse correlation with exposure levels, thus highlighting effects on dopamine-rich brain regions that form key components of brain circuitry known to play important roles in behavior and attention. Interestingly, head circumferences (HCs) at birth as well as at the time of imaging showed a tendency for smaller size among CE children. HCs at the time of imaging correlated well with the cortical volumes for all subjects. In contrast, HCs at birth were predictive of the cortical volume only for the CE group. A subgroup of these subjects (6 CE, 4 NCE) was also scanned at 13-15 years of age. In subjects who were scanned twice, we found that the trend for smaller structures continued into teenage years. We found that the differences in structural volumes between the CE and NCE groups are largely diminished when the HCs are controlled for or matched by study design. Participants in this study were drawn from a unique longitudinal cohort and, while the small sample size precludes strong conclusions regarding the longitudinal findings reported, the results point to reductions in HCs and in specific brain structures that persist through teenage years in children who were exposed to cocaine in utero. PMID:24994509

  3. Paths from mother-child and father-child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: a longitudinal study from infancy to age 10.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Brock, Rebecca L; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W

    2015-05-01

    Electrodermal hyporeactivity (or low skin conductance level, SCL) has been long established as a correlate of and diathesis for antisocial behavior, aggression, disregard for rules of conduct and feelings of others, and generally, externalizing behavior problems in children and adults. Much less is known, however, about how individual differences in children's SCL and qualities of their early experiences in relationships with parents interact to produce antisocial outcomes. In a community sample of 102 families (51 girls), we examined children's SCL, assessed in standard laboratory tasks at age 8 (N = 81), as a moderator of the links between parent-child socialization history and children's externalizing behavior problems at ages 8 and 10, reported by mothers and fathers in well-established instruments and by children in clinical interviews. Mother- and father-child socialization history was assessed in frequent, intensive observations. Parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) was observed from infancy to age 10, parental power assertion was observed from 15 months to age 6 ½, and children reported their attachment security in interviews at age 8 and 10. For children with lower SCL, variations in mothers' power assertion and father-child MRO were associated with parent-rated externalizing problems. The former interaction was consistent with diathesis-stress, and the latter with differential susceptibility. For children with higher SCL, there were no links between socialization history and externalizing problems. PMID:25218772

  4. Paths from mother-child and father-child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: a longitudinal study from infancy to age 10.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Brock, Rebecca L; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W

    2015-05-01

    Electrodermal hyporeactivity (or low skin conductance level, SCL) has been long established as a correlate of and diathesis for antisocial behavior, aggression, disregard for rules of conduct and feelings of others, and generally, externalizing behavior problems in children and adults. Much less is known, however, about how individual differences in children's SCL and qualities of their early experiences in relationships with parents interact to produce antisocial outcomes. In a community sample of 102 families (51 girls), we examined children's SCL, assessed in standard laboratory tasks at age 8 (N = 81), as a moderator of the links between parent-child socialization history and children's externalizing behavior problems at ages 8 and 10, reported by mothers and fathers in well-established instruments and by children in clinical interviews. Mother- and father-child socialization history was assessed in frequent, intensive observations. Parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) was observed from infancy to age 10, parental power assertion was observed from 15 months to age 6 ½, and children reported their attachment security in interviews at age 8 and 10. For children with lower SCL, variations in mothers' power assertion and father-child MRO were associated with parent-rated externalizing problems. The former interaction was consistent with diathesis-stress, and the latter with differential susceptibility. For children with higher SCL, there were no links between socialization history and externalizing problems.

  5. Skill Development in Different Components of Arithmetic and Basic Cognitive Functions: Findings from a 3-Year Longitudinal Study of Children with Different Types of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    Arithmetic and cognitive skills of children with mathematical difficulties (MD-only), with comorbid reading difficulties (MD-RD), with reading difficulties (RD-only), and normally achieving children were examined at 3 points from Grades 3-4 to Grades 5-6 (age range, 9-13 years). Both MD groups displayed severe weaknesses in 4 domain-specific…

  6. Stability of the SB:FE and K-ABC for Young Children from Low-Income Families: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Emily J.; Lamp, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the stability of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition (SB:FE) and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) by testing a sample of 65 children from low socioeconomic status families. Mean scores for the group were roughly equivalent, correlation coefficients were high, and change scores for the majority of…

  7. Prevalence, Motivations, and Social, Mental Health and Health Consequences of Cyberbullying Among School-Aged Children and Youth: Protocol of a Longitudinal and Multi-Perspective Mixed Method Study

    PubMed Central

    McInroy, Lauren B; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Bhole, Payal; Van Wert, Melissa; Schwan, Kaitlin; Birze, Arija; Daciuk, Joanne; Beran, Tanya; Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra J; Wiener, Judith; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Johnston, David

    2016-01-01

    Background While the online environment may promote important developmental and social benefits, it also enables the serious and rapidly growing issue of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying constitutes an increasing public health problem – victimized children and youth experience a range of health and mental health concerns, including emotional and psychosomatic problems, maladaptive behaviors, and increased suicidality. Perpetrators demonstrate a lack of empathy, and may also struggle with health and mental health issues. Objective This paper describes the protocols applied in a longitudinal and multi-perspective mixed-methods study with five objectives: (1) to explore children/youth’s experiences, and children/youth’s, parents’, and teachers’ conceptions, definitions, and understanding of cyberbullying; (2) to explore how children/youth view the underlying motivations for cyberbullying; (3) to document the shifting prevalence rates of cyberbullying victimization, witnessing, and perpetration; (4) to identify risk and protective factors for cyberbullying involvement; and (5) to explore social, mental health, and health consequences of cyberbullying. Methods Quantitative survey data were collected over three years (2012-2014) from a stratified random baseline sample of fourth (n=160), seventh (n=243), and tenth (n=267) grade children/youth, their parents (n=246), and their teachers (n=103). Quantitative data were collected from students and teachers during in-person school visits, and from parents via mail-in surveys. Student, parent, and teacher surveys included questions regarding: student experiences with bullying/cyberbullying; student health, mental health, and social and behavioral issues; socio-demographics; and information and communication technology use. In-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted twice with a sub-sample of students (n=57), purposively selected based on socio-demographics and cyberbullying experience, twice with

  8. A Longitudinal Examination of the Psychoeducational, Neurocognitive, and Psychiatric Functioning in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Curtiss, Kathleen; Schoch, Kelly; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Allen, Andrew; Shashi, Vandana

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the longitudinal psychoeducational, neurocognitive, and psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population with a high incidence of major psychiatric illnesses appearing in late adolescence/early adulthood. Little is known of the developmental…

  9. A Longitudinal View of the Receptive Vocabulary and Math Achievement of Young Children with Disabilities. NCSER 2011-3006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Elaine; Jenkins, Frank; Bitterman, Amy; Keller, Brad

    2011-01-01

    The Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS), which is funded by the U.S. Department of Education, is examining the characteristics of children receiving preschool special education, the services they receive, their transitions across educational levels, and their performance over time on assessments of academic and adaptive skills.…

  10. The First Year Inventory: A Longitudinal Follow-Up of 12-Month-Old to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Baranek, Grace T.; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory--regulatory and social--communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of…

  11. The Longitudinal Interplay of Psychopathology and Social Competence during Chinese Children's Transition to Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal relations between psychopathology and social competence in a sample of 115 Chinese children during the transition to preschool initiated in their third year of life. Social competence was assessed by maternal reports at three months after preschool entry (T1) and at the end of the first (T2) and second…

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Children's Depression Inventory: An Item Response Theory Analysis across Age in a Nonclinical, Longitudinal, Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Sun; Krishnan, Anita; Park, Yoon Soo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate psychometric properties of the Children's Depression Inventory within a nonclinical and longitudinal sample (8th and 12th grades). Using the Rasch rating scale, most items represented one dimension. There was adequate separation among items and no overlap between ranges of item difficulties with latent…

  13. A synthetic Longitudinal Study dataset for England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Adam; Norman, Paul; Shelton, Nicola; Stuchbury, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the new synthetic England and Wales Longitudinal Study 'spine' dataset designed for teaching and experimentation purposes. In the United Kingdom, there exist three Census-based longitudinal micro-datasets, known collectively as the Longitudinal Studies. The England and Wales Longitudinal Study (LS) is a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales (around 500,000 individuals), linking individual person records from the 1971 to 2011 Censuses. The synthetic data presented contains a similar number of individuals to the original data and accurate longitudinal transitions between 2001 and 2011 for key demographic variables, but unlike the original data, is open access. PMID:27656667

  14. A synthetic Longitudinal Study dataset for England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Adam; Norman, Paul; Shelton, Nicola; Stuchbury, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the new synthetic England and Wales Longitudinal Study 'spine' dataset designed for teaching and experimentation purposes. In the United Kingdom, there exist three Census-based longitudinal micro-datasets, known collectively as the Longitudinal Studies. The England and Wales Longitudinal Study (LS) is a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales (around 500,000 individuals), linking individual person records from the 1971 to 2011 Censuses. The synthetic data presented contains a similar number of individuals to the original data and accurate longitudinal transitions between 2001 and 2011 for key demographic variables, but unlike the original data, is open access.

  15. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Hayat, Matthew J.; Gross, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers’ attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95% CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95% CI [.96-.99], p = .03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  16. Saturday Morning Children's Television Advertising: A Longitudinal Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Content of ads on Saturday children's television programs in 1993 (n=378) and 1999 (n=385) was compared with dietary recommendations and advertising guidelines. Cereals and foods high in sugar or fat dominated ads. Results were compared with earlier studies, finding that over 30 years, ads adhered to advertising guidelines but did not reflect…

  17. Paths from Mother-Child and Father-Child Relationships to Externalizing Behavior Problems in Children Differing in Electrodermal Reactivity: a Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Age 10

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Brock, Rebecca L.; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Electrodermal hyporeactivity (or low skin conductance level, SCL) has been long established as a correlate of and diathesis for antisocial behavior, aggression, disregard for rules of conduct and feelings of others, and generally, externalizing behavior problems in children and adults. Much less is known, however, about how individual differences in children’s SCL and qualities of their early experiences in relationships with parents interact to produce antisocial outcomes. In a community sample of 102 families (51 girls), we examined children’s SCL, assessed in standard laboratory tasks at age 8 (N=81), as a moderator of the links between parent–child socialization history and children’s externalizing behavior problems at ages 8 and 10, reported by mothers and fathers in well-established instruments and by children in clinical interviews. Mother- and father-child socialization history was assessed in frequent, intensive observations. Parent–child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) was observed from infancy to age 10, parental power assertion was observed from 15 months to age 6 ½, and children reported their attachment security in interviews at age 8 and 10. For children with lower SCL, variations in mothers’ power assertion and father-child MRO were associated with parent-rated externalizing problems. The former interaction was consistent with diathesis-stress, and the latter with differential susceptibility. For children with higher SCL, there were no links between socialization history and externalizing problems. PMID:25218772

  18. INCAP Oriente longitudinal study: 40 years of history and legacy.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Melgar, Paul; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    Our purpose in this article is to describe the objectives, design, overall coverage, and main domains of data collection of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama Oriente Longitudinal Study and subsequent follow-up studies. This supplementary feeding trial targeted to pregnant and lactating women and children from birth to 7 y of age, conducted in 4 rural Guatemalan villages (1969-77) with a series of follow-up studies (1988-2007), is one of the richest sources of information on the effects of nutrition, growth, development, and human capital in the developing world, with outstanding data from gestation to adult age and 40 y of follow-up. Its results have influenced nutrition knowledge and policy with over 300 scientific publications. We present brief descriptions of preliminary studies that were critical for the success of the trial and the design and methods used during the trial and in the follow-up studies, in chronological order.

  19. The Impact of Technology Use on Low-Income and Minority Students' Academic Achievement: Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jianxia; Havard, Byron; Yu, Chien; Adams, James

    2004-01-01

    Analyzing data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this report examines how computer use produced generic benefits for all children and differential benefits for minority and poor children. Computer use at home was compared with computer use at school in relation to the academic performance of disadvantaged children and their peers. The…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Moral Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Anne; And Others

    A 20-year study to verify Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development through a new research design, the Standard Issue Scoring System, is reported. Kohlberg theorizes that an individual progresses through several stages in attaining moral judgment. As children grow older, they are able to integrate diverse points of view on a moral conflict.…

  1. Johns Hopkins Perceptual Test; Technical Report 9. Disadvantaged Children and Their First School Experiences. ETS-Head Start Longitudinal Study. Technical Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lynn E.; Shipman, Virginia C.

    The Johns Hopkins Perceptual Test, a brief measure of intelligence in children, requires the child to choose a form identical to a standard. It consists of 3 practice and 30 test items, all involving black geometric figures printed on white cards. There is one booklet for stimulus cards and one for response cards. The child is presented with a…

  2. Massad Mimicry Test I and II; Technical Report 10. Disadvantaged Children and Their First School Experiences. ETS-Head Start Longitudinal Study. Technical Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Virginia C.; And Others

    The Massad Mimicry Test is an individually administered task for 3-1/2--4-1/2 year-old children. Part I evaluates the child's ability to reproduce phonemes in 30 nonsense words upon hearing each no more than three times from a tape recorded model. Similarly, Part II assesses the child's ability to reproduce meaningful words and phonemes as they…

  3. Longitudinal Patterns of Cortisol Regulation Differ in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    PubMed Central

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Child maltreatment is associated with dysregulation of stress-mediating systems and an increased risk of mental and physical health problems. Specifically, disruptions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation have been reported in maltreated children. The current study investigates whether increased cortisol variability is responsible for inconsistent patterns in the literature. Method This study modeled cortisol activity over 20 weeks in 187 maltreated and 154 nonmaltreated children (M = 8.4 years, SD = 1.8 years) in order to capture week-to-week cortisol patterns. Maltreatment was assessed through coding of Department of Human Services records. Children attended an after school program one day per week for 20 weeks where saliva was collected at the same time each day and subsequently assayed for cortisol. Results Multiple-group growth curves indicated that maltreated and nonmaltreated children differ in longitudinal cortisol patterns. Maltreated children showed higher variance in the initial cortisol levels and slope over time compared to nonmaltreated children, indicating greater between-person variability in the maltreated group. Maltreated children with higher cortisol at the first assessment showed cortisol suppression over time, indicating potential HPA blunting after chronic high cortisol levels. The severity, timing, and number of subtypes of maltreatment predicted individuals’ cortisol variability, and both maltreatment status and greater cortisol variability predicted more behavior problems. Conclusion Interventions for maltreated children may benefit from pre- and post-intervention HPA assessments to determine a component of treatment efficacy. As maltreatment dimensions predicted differential cortisol regulation, assessment of maltreatment experiences is necessary to understand alterations in behavior and HPA regulation post-intervention. PMID:25440310

  4. The Friendships of Young Children with Developmental Delays: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Neville, Brian; Hammond, Mary A.; Connor, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the social interactions of children with mild developmental (cognitive) delays with friends across the early childhood and early elementary years. Results revealed increases in many forms of social exchange with effect sizes in the moderate range, but no changes in sustained interactive play. Social interaction patterns, difficulties in identifying friends to participate in the study, and concerns evident in children’s peer and friendship networks suggest the general absence of reciprocal friendships. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that children’s limited peer-related social competence constrains all aspects of their development of friendships. Despite these problems, the potential benefits of interventions designed to support relationships at this stage of friendship development for children with delays were noted. PMID:17558442

  5. Development of the Literacy Achievement Gap: A Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten through Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Wayne A.; Miller, Merideth

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The major goal of this study was to specify the developmental trajectories for phonics and early text comprehension skills of children from kindergarten through third grade. Method: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (N = 12,261) were used in this study. The participants were divided into 3 school readiness groups based on…

  6. Longitudinal effects of passive smoking on pulmonary function in New Zealand children.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, D L; Martinez, F D; Lebowitz, M D; Holdaway, M D; Flannery, E M; Herbison, G P; Stanton, W R; Silva, P A; Sears, M R

    1992-05-01

    In this study we examined the longitudinal effects of smoke exposure on lung function in a cohort of New Zealand children observed from 9 to 15 yr of age. Possible exposures included in utero exposure from mothers smoking during pregnancy, passive smoke from parents, and active smoking by the children. Lung function measures of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and vital capacity (VC) were measured biennially and ratios (FEV1/VC) were computed. The data were analyzed using longitudinal methodology, and all subjects with at least one pulmonary function test and responses to the questions concerning smoke exposures were included (n = 634). Subjects reporting wheeze or asthma were examined as a separate subgroup. In the whole cohort, no significant detrimental effects were detected for absolute FEV1 or VC in either sex, related to active or passive smoke exposures. Parental smoking was, however, associated with persistent but mild and nonprogressive impairment of the FEV1/VC ratio in males, an effect that was present at the time lung function measurements were first made. This effect was not seen in females. In children with reported wheeze or asthma, parental smoking had progressive, more serious, and clinically significant effects on the FEV1/VC ratio among adolescents of both sexes, causing a mean reduction in FEV1/VC ratios by age 15 of 3.9% in males and 2.3% in females, in contrast to the observed increase in FEV1/VC ratios with age seen in nonexposed wheezing children. We conclude that passive smoking is a major contributing factor to the development and persistence of airflow limitation in wheezing children.

  7. An ecological-transactional analysis of children and contexts: the longitudinal interplay among child maltreatment, community violence, and children's symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M; Cicchetti, D

    1998-01-01

    Cicchetti and Lynch have conceptualized ecological contexts as consisting of nested levels with varying degrees of proximity to the individual. These levels of the environment interact and transact with each other over time in shaping individual development and adaptation. With a sample of maltreated (n = 188) and nonmaltreated (n = 134) children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, this investigation employed a 1-year longitudinal design to conduct an ecological-transactional analysis of the mutual relationships among community violence, child maltreatment, and children's functioning over time. Indicators of children's functioning were externalizing and internalizing behavior problems and self-rated traumatic stress reactions, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem. Either full or partial support was obtained for the study's primary hypotheses. Rates of maltreatment, particularly physical abuse, were related to levels of child-reported violence in the community. In addition, child maltreatment and exposure to community violence were related to different aspects of children's functioning. Specific effects were observed for neglect and sexual abuse and for witnessing and being victimized by violence in the community. Finally, there was evidence that children and their contexts mutually influence each other over time. Results were discussed within the framework of an ecological-transactional model of development.

  8. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  9. Mothers and Fathers with Binge Eating Disorder and Their 18–36 Months Old Children: A Longitudinal Study on Parent–Infant Interactions and Offspring’s Emotional–Behavioral Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Porreca, Alessio; Simonelli, Alessandra; Ronconi, Lucia; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Maternal Binge Eating Disorder (BED) has been suggested to be associated with poor parent–infant interactions during feeding and with children’s emotional and behavioral problems during infancy (Blissett and Haycraft, 2011). The role of fathers has received increasing consideration in recent years, yet the research has not focused on interactional patterns between fathers with BED and their children. The present study aimed to longitudinally investigate the influence of BED diagnosis, in one or both parents, on parent–infant feeding interactions and on children’s emotional–behavioral functioning. 612 subjects (408 parents; 204 children), recruited in mental health services and pre-schools in Central Italy, were divided into four groups: Group 1 included families with both parents diagnosed with BED, Group 2 and 3 included families with one parent diagnosed with BED, Group 0 was a healthy control. The assessment took place at T1 (18 months of age of children) and T2 (36 months of age of children): feeding interactions were assessed through the Scale for the Assessment of Feeding Interactions (SVIA) while child emotional–behavioral functioning was evaluated with the Child Behavior Check-List (CBCL). When compared to healthy controls, the groups with one or both parents diagnosed with BED showed higher scores on the SVIA and on the CBCL internalizing and externalizing scales, indicating poorer adult–child feeding interactions and higher emotional–behavioral difficulties. A direct influence of parental psychiatric diagnosis on the quality of mother–infant and father–infant interactions was also found, both at T1 and T2. Moreover, dyadic feeding interactions mediated the influence of parental diagnosis on children’s psychological functioning. The presence of BED diagnosis in one or both parents seems to influence the severity of maladaptive parent–infant exchanges during feeding and offspring’s emotional–behavioral problems over time

  10. Mothers and Fathers with Binge Eating Disorder and Their 18–36 Months Old Children: A Longitudinal Study on Parent–Infant Interactions and Offspring’s Emotional–Behavioral Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Porreca, Alessio; Simonelli, Alessandra; Ronconi, Lucia; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Maternal Binge Eating Disorder (BED) has been suggested to be associated with poor parent–infant interactions during feeding and with children’s emotional and behavioral problems during infancy (Blissett and Haycraft, 2011). The role of fathers has received increasing consideration in recent years, yet the research has not focused on interactional patterns between fathers with BED and their children. The present study aimed to longitudinally investigate the influence of BED diagnosis, in one or both parents, on parent–infant feeding interactions and on children’s emotional–behavioral functioning. 612 subjects (408 parents; 204 children), recruited in mental health services and pre-schools in Central Italy, were divided into four groups: Group 1 included families with both parents diagnosed with BED, Group 2 and 3 included families with one parent diagnosed with BED, Group 0 was a healthy control. The assessment took place at T1 (18 months of age of children) and T2 (36 months of age of children): feeding interactions were assessed through the Scale for the Assessment of Feeding Interactions (SVIA) while child emotional–behavioral functioning was evaluated with the Child Behavior Check-List (CBCL). When compared to healthy controls, the groups with one or both parents diagnosed with BED showed higher scores on the SVIA and on the CBCL internalizing and externalizing scales, indicating poorer adult–child feeding interactions and higher emotional–behavioral difficulties. A direct influence of parental psychiatric diagnosis on the quality of mother–infant and father–infant interactions was also found, both at T1 and T2. Moreover, dyadic feeding interactions mediated the influence of parental diagnosis on children’s psychological functioning. The presence of BED diagnosis in one or both parents seems to influence the severity of maladaptive parent–infant exchanges during feeding and offspring’s emotional–behavioral problems over time

  11. [Morbidity rate and mental capacity of Moscow schoolchildren (longitudinal study)].

    PubMed

    Sukhareva, L M; Rapoport, I K; Polenova, M A

    2014-01-01

    In the article there are presented data of longitudinal study of the health of Moscow schoolchildren (426 children), followed throughout from the 1st to 9th class, inclusively. Students were annually clinically examined in the school. There was performed a comprehensive study of mental health and functional state of the organism in the process of education students in high school (over 2700 pupils of 5-9th classes). The health status of students was shown to deteriorate due to the increase of the prevalence of chronic disease, the rise in occupancy of the III-IV health groups, the decrease of the number of children referred to I and II health groups. Unfavorable trends in the health state among boys are more pronounced than in girls, while they are also characterized by lower functional capabilities of the CNS and lower resistance to the development of training fatigue. Relatively favorable stage of school ontogeny is characterized by period with reduced morbidity in children studying in 4th-6th classes. Deterioration in the health of students as a significant rate of the rise of chronic diseases morbidity is observed in 7-9th classes. Along with this, in the 7th and 9th classes there is revealed the deterioration of mental capacity and high frequency of the pronounced signs of fatigue among schoolchildren. PMID:25306705

  12. Developmental trajectories of sex-typed behavior in boys and girls: a longitudinal general population study of children aged 2.5-8 years.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Croudace, Tim; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The stability of sex-typed behavior from the preschool to the middle school years was examined. The Preschool Activities Inventory, a measure of within-sex variation in sex-typed behavior, was completed by the primary caregiver when the child was 2.5, 3.5, and 5 years, and a modified version, the Child Activities Inventory, was completed by the child at age 8. The investigation involved a general population sample of 2,726 boys and 2,775 girls. Sex-typed behavior increased through the preschool years, and those children who were the most sex typed at age 2.5 were still the most sex typed at age 5, with those children who showed the highest levels of sex-typed behavior during the preschool years continuing to do so at age 8.

  13. Disentangling the effects of cognitive development and linguistic expertise: a longitudinal study of the acquisition of English in internationally-adopted children.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jesse; Geren, Joy; Shafto, Carissa L

    2012-08-01

    Early language development is characterized by predictable changes in the words children produce and the complexity of their utterances. In infants, these changes could reflect increasing linguistic expertise or cognitive maturation and development. To disentangle these factors, we compared the acquisition of English in internationally-adopted preschoolers and internationally-adopted infants. Parental reports and speech samples were collected for 1 year. Both groups showed the qualitative shifts that characterize first-language acquisition. Initially, they produced single-word utterances consisting mostly of nouns and social words. The appearance of verbs, adjectives and multiword utterances was predicted by vocabulary size in both groups. Preschoolers did learn some words at an earlier stage than infants, specifically words referring to the past or future and adjectives describing behavior and internal states. These findings suggest that cognitive development plays little role in the shift from referential terms to predicates but may constrain children's ability to learn some abstract words.

  14. Brain Structural Integrity and Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Forecast 6 Year Longitudinal Growth in Children's Numerical Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Kochalka, John; Ngoon, Tricia J.; Wu, Sarah S.; Qin, Shaozheng; Battista, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Early numerical proficiency lays the foundation for acquiring quantitative skills essential in today's technological society. Identification of cognitive and brain markers associated with long-term growth of children's basic numerical computation abilities is therefore of utmost importance. Previous attempts to relate brain structure and function to numerical competency have focused on behavioral measures from a single time point. Thus, little is known about the brain predictors of individual differences in growth trajectories of numerical abilities. Using a longitudinal design, with multimodal imaging and machine-learning algorithms, we investigated whether brain structure and intrinsic connectivity in early childhood are predictive of 6 year outcomes in numerical abilities spanning childhood and adolescence. Gray matter volume at age 8 in distributed brain regions, including the ventrotemporal occipital cortex (VTOC), the posterior parietal cortex, and the prefrontal cortex, predicted longitudinal gains in numerical, but not reading, abilities. Remarkably, intrinsic connectivity analysis revealed that the strength of functional coupling among these regions also predicted gains in numerical abilities, providing novel evidence for a network of brain regions that works in concert to promote numerical skill acquisition. VTOC connectivity with posterior parietal, anterior temporal, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices emerged as the most extensive network predicting individual gains in numerical abilities. Crucially, behavioral measures of mathematics, IQ, working memory, and reading did not predict children's gains in numerical abilities. Our study identifies, for the first time, functional circuits in the human brain that scaffold the development of numerical skills, and highlights potential biomarkers for identifying children at risk for learning difficulties. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Children show substantial individual differences in math abilities and ease of math

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Engineering Students' Approaches to Their Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungert, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study draws on data from a larger project and examines how students' perceptions of their opportunities to influence their study environment may be enacted in approaches aimed at influencing their studies, and whether this changes during the course of their studies. Ten students from a 4.5-year Master's program in Engineering…

  16. The fruits of their labors: a longitudinal exploration of parent personality and adjustment in their adult children.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M

    2000-04-01

    This longitudinal study of several aspects of parenting examines how children "turn out" as adults. Ratings of adjustment (educational and occupational attainment as well as social and emotional maturity) in young adult children (aged 25-37) were made on the basis of information from 64 mothers who were participants in a longitudinal study of women's lives. As hypothesized, mothers who were demanding yet responsive, sensitive, and psychologically mature at ages 27 and 43 had children with higher overall adult adjustment scores. Other factors correlated with adjustment included the mother's long-term commitment to being a wife and mother, and the cohesiveness of the home environment. In their 50s, characteristics of parents associated with adult child adjustment were different for men and women (competence in women and forcefulness and individuality in men). Divorce was not a negative factor, and mothers' paid work (after age 27) was positive at a trend level.

  17. Cost-minimization analysis in the treatment of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy with botulinum toxin type A: an observational, longitudinal, retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tapias, Gloria; García-Romero, Mar; Crespo, Carlos; Cuesta, Maribel; Forné, Carles; Pascual-Pascual, Samuel Ignacio

    2016-09-01

    Objetivo: Estudio de minimización de costes de onabotulinumtoxinA y de abobotulinumtoxinA, teniendo en cuenta la dosis real administrada, en ninos con espasticidad asociada con la deformidad dinámica del pie equino debida a parálisis cerebral. Método: Estudio unicéntrico, observacional, longitudinal y retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes pediátricos espásticos entre 2 y 18 anos tratados con onabotulinumtoxinA o abobotulinumtoxinA, entre diciembre del 1995 y octubre del 2012, en el Servicio de Neurología Pediátrica de un hospital espanol de primer nivel. Se realizó un análisis longitudinal de la gravedad de la espasticidad para confirmar la similar efectividad de ambos tratamientos y proceder al análisis de minimización de costes que contempló las dosis infiltradas y los costes directos (costes farmacológicos y de visitas) desde la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud (euros 2016). Resultados: Se analizaron 895 pacientes con espasticidad infantil, 543 fueron tratados únicamente con onabotulinumtoxinA, 292 con abobotulinumtoxinA y 60 con ambos tratamientos. Las dosis medias infiltradas obtenidas fueron de 5,44 U/kg (DE = 2,17) para las infiltraciones con onabotulinumtoxinA y de 14,73 U/kg (5,26) para las infiltraciones con abobotulinumto xinA. El coste directo anual total (farmacológico y visitas) fue de 839,56 € para onabotulinumtoxinA y de 631,23 € para abobotulinumtoxinA, lo que supone una diferencia de 208,34 € al ano a favor del tratamiento con abobotulinumtoxinA. Conclusiones: Se ha mostrado que en práctica clínica real el coste por paciente y ano del tratamiento de la espasticidad infantil resulta más económico con la utilización de abobotulinumtoxinA.

  18. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  19. Reading and math achievement profiles and longitudinal growth trajectories of children with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Christiano, Elizabeth R A; Yu, Jennifer W; Wagner, Mary; Spiker, Donna

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the reading and math achievement profiles and longitudinal growth trajectories of a nationally representative sample of children ages 6 through 9 with an autism spectrum disorder. Four distinct achievement profiles were identified: higher-achieving (39%), hyperlexia (9%), hypercalculia (20%) and lower-achieving (32%). Children with hypercalculia and lower-achieving profiles were more likely to be from low socioeconomic families and had lower functional cognitive skills than the higher-achieving profile. All four profiles lost ground in passage comprehension over time. Slower improvement occurred for the higher-achieving group on letter-word identification, the hyperlexia group on conversation abilities and the hypercalculia group on calculation and functional cognitive skills relative to the lower-achieving group.

  20. Divorce, approaches to learning, and children's academic achievement: a longitudinal analysis of mediated and moderated effects.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James Clyde; Amato, Paul R

    2014-06-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) were used to test the hypothesis that approaches to learning (ATL) mediates the link between parental divorce and academic achievement. Fixed effects regression was utilized to test for mediation, and subsequent moderation analyses examining gender and age at time of divorce also were conducted. Results indicated that divorce was associated with less growth in test scores and that ATL mediated 18% and 12% of this association in reading and mathematics respectively. Parental divorce also was associated with larger negative effects for children who experienced divorce at an older age as well as for girls' mathematics test scores. These findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of parental divorce on children's academic achievement and underscore the importance of focusing on the variability of child outcomes following parental divorce. PMID:24930818