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Sample records for children normal anatomy

  1. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 761x736 ... View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  2. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1500x1575 View Download Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive ...

  3. Exercises in anatomy: the normal heart.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    In the first of our exercises in anatomy, created for the Multimedia Manual of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery, we emphasized that thorough knowledge of intracardiac anatomy was an essential part of the training for all budding cardiac surgeons, explaining how we had used the archive of congenitally malformed hearts maintained at Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to prepare a series of videoclips, demonstrating the salient features of tetralogy of Fallot. In this series of videoclips, we extend our analysis of the normal heart, since for our initial exercise we had concentrated exclusively on the structure of the right ventricular outflow tract. We begin our overview of normal anatomy by emphasizing the need, in the current era, to describe the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion. Increasingly, clinicians are demonstrating the features of the heart as it is located within the body. It is no longer satisfactory, therefore, to describe these components in a 'Valentine' fashion, as continues to be the case in most textbooks of normal or cardiac anatomy. We then emphasize the importance of the so-called morphological method, which states that structures within the heart should be defined on the basis of their own intrinsic morphology, and not according to other parts, which are themselves variable. We continue by using this concept to show how it is the appendages that serve to distinguish between the atrial chambers, while the apical trabecular components provide the features to distinguish the ventricles. We then return to the cardiac chambers, emphasizing features of surgical significance, in particular the locations of the cardiac conduction tissues. We proceed by examining the cardiac valves, and conclude by providing a detailed analysis of the septal structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  4. Normal anatomy of the skull base.

    PubMed

    Lustrin, E S; Robertson, R L; Tilak, S

    1994-08-01

    CT and MR imaging increasingly are being used for the evaluation of the skull base. New innovative techniques have revolutionized radiologic understanding of normal skull base anatomy. Thus, normal anatomic relationships with radiographic correlation are vital for accurate pathologic assessment.

  5. Anal anatomy and normal histology.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Priti

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this article is the anatomy and histology of the anal canal, and its clinical relevance to anal cancers. The article also highlights the recent histological and anatomical changes to the traditional terminology of the anal canal. The terminology has been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, separating the anal region into the anal canal, the perianal region and the skin. This paper describes the gross anatomy of the anal canal, along with its associated blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage, and nerve supply. The new terminology referred to in this article may assist clinicians and health care providers to identify lesions more precisely through naked eye observation and without the need for instrumentation. Knowledge of the regional anatomy of the anus will also assist in management decisions.

  6. Normal anatomy and biomechanics of the knee.

    PubMed

    Flandry, Fred; Hommel, Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    Functionally, the knee comprises 2 articulations-the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral. Stability of the joint is governed by a combination of static ligaments, dynamic muscular forces, meniscocapsular aponeurosis, bony topography, and joint load. The surgeon is ill equipped to undertake surgical treatment of a dislocated knee without a sound footing in the anatomic complexities of this joint. We review the normal anatomy of the knee, emphasizing connective tissue structures and common injury patterns.

  7. Arthroscopy in cattle: technique and normal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain

    2014-03-01

    Arthroscopy has all the advantages of minimally invasive surgery in cattle. Specialized equipment and knowledge of normal joint anatomy of cattle are mandatory for successful arthroscopy. The surgical technique is different in cattle compared with the horse. Thick skin and joint capsules complicate movement of the arthroscope within the joints. In cattle, septic arthritis and osteochondrosis are the most frequent disorders suitable for arthroscopic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pediatric cervical spine: normal anatomy, variants, and trauma.

    PubMed

    Lustrin, Elizabeth Susan; Karakas, Sabiha Pinar; Ortiz, A Orlando; Cinnamon, Jay; Castillo, Mauricio; Vaheesan, Kirubahara; Brown, James H; Diamond, Alan S; Black, Karen; Singh, Sudha

    2003-01-01

    Emergency radiologic evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine can be challenging because of the confusing appearance of synchondroses, normal anatomic variants, and injuries that are unique to children. Cervical spine injuries in children are usually seen in the upper cervical region owing to the unique biomechanics and anatomy of the pediatric cervical spine. Knowledge of the normal embryologic development and anatomy of the cervical spine is important to avoid mistaking synchondroses for fractures in the setting of trauma. Familiarity with anatomic variants is also important for correct image interpretation. These variants include pseudosubluxation, absence of cervical lordosis, wedging of the C3 vertebra, widening of the predental space, prevertebral soft-tissue widening, intervertebral widening, and "pseudo-Jefferson fracture." In addition, familiarity with mechanisms of injury and appropriate imaging modalities will aid in the correct interpretation of radiologic images of the pediatric cervical spine.

  9. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Normal shoulder ultrasound: anatomy and technique.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Harun; Robinson, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Shoulder ultrasound (US) is one of the most common applications of musculoskeletal US due to the high incidence of rotator cuff disorders. It can be used effectively for the diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases, and several studies have shown very high sensitivity and specificity for rotator cuff tears comparable with that of MRI. Shoulder US has several advantages over MRI such as lower cost, comparatively easier availability, short examination duration, dynamic capability, and ability to perform guided injection at the same appointment. However, it depends on the skill of the operator and therefore requires a standardized detailed protocol to avoid errors in diagnosis. A symptomatic area-only focused examination should not be performed because it is not uncommon to have symptoms away from the actual site of pathology. Detailed understanding of what anatomy can be evaluated is required, and this article discusses the relevant anatomy covering the rotator cuff, subacromial bursa, and acromioclavicular joint. The equipment requirements and technique of examination of different anatomical structures with transducer positions and normal sonographic appearances are described. Pitfalls and artifacts associated with shoulder US are covered; understanding them is crucial to avoid misinterpretation of findings.

  11. What is normal bladder neck anatomy?

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Ortiz, Cristina; Shek, Ka Lai; Martin, Andrew James; Dietz, Hans Peter

    2016-06-01

    Functional anatomy of the bladder neck and proximal urethra has been studied extensively because of the belief that it is important for urinary continence. The aim of this study was to explore the limits of normality for pelvic floor ultrasound parameters of bladder neck and urethral mobility associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urodynamic stress incontinence (USI). A retrospective study was conducted on 589 women seen for urodynamic testing in a tertiary urogynaecology clinic. All women were assessed following a protocol including interview, clinical examination, flowmetry, urodynamic testing and 4D pelvic floor ultrasound. Volume data sets were analysed offline to assess for bladder neck descent (BND), urethral rotation and the retrovesical angle (RVA) on maximal Valsalva. After excluding women with previous incontinence or prolapse surgery, 429 datasets were available. SI was significantly associated with the RVA (p = 0.033) and BND (p = 0.036); USI was associated with urethral rotation (p = 0.021) and BND (p < 0.001). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for confounders including age, BMI, parity, previous hysterectomy and maximal urethral pressure, the association between SUI and BND remained significant (OR [per 10 mm] = 1.23; 95 % CI: 1.01 to 1.51; p = 0.043), as did the association between USI and BND (OR [per 10 mm] = 1.58; 95 % CI: 1.3 to 1.91; p < 0.001). ROC statistics for BND suggested a cut-off of 25 mm in describing the limit of normality. Measures of functional bladder neck anatomy are weakly associated with SUI and USI (with association between BND and USI being the strongest). It is suggested that a BND of 25 mm or higher be defined as abnormal ("hypermobile") on the basis of its association with USI.

  12. CT of Normal Developmental and Variant Anatomy of the Pediatric Skull: Distinguishing Trauma from Normality.

    PubMed

    Idriz, Sanjin; Patel, Jaymin H; Ameli Renani, Seyed; Allan, Rosemary; Vlahos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice has been increasing rapidly, with the number of CT examinations performed in adults and children rising by 10% per year in England. Because the radiology community strives to reduce the radiation dose associated with pediatric examinations, external factors, including guidelines for pediatric head injury, are raising expectations for use of cranial CT in the pediatric population. Thus, radiologists are increasingly likely to encounter pediatric head CT examinations in daily practice. The variable appearance of cranial sutures at different ages can be confusing for inexperienced readers of radiologic images. The evolution of multidetector CT with thin-section acquisition increases the clarity of some of these sutures, which may be misinterpreted as fractures. Familiarity with the normal anatomy of the pediatric skull, how it changes with age, and normal variants can assist in translating the increased resolution of multidetector CT into more accurate detection of fractures and confident determination of normality, thereby reducing prolonged hospitalization of children with normal developmental structures that have been misinterpreted as fractures. More important, the potential morbidity and mortality related to false-negative interpretation of fractures as normal sutures may be avoided. The authors describe the normal anatomy of all standard pediatric sutures, common variants, and sutural mimics, thereby providing an accurate and safe framework for CT evaluation of skull trauma in pediatric patients.

  13. Computed tomography of the sacrum: 1. normal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, M.A.; Gold, R.P.

    1982-12-01

    The sacrum of a disarticulated pelvis was scanned with a Pfizer 0450 computed tomographic scanner using contiguous 5 mm sections to display the normal computed tomographic anatomy of the sacrum. These anatomic sections were then compared with normal sacrums. In analyzing the computed tomographic anatomy, emphasis was placed on the central canal and sacral foramina, in that these landmarks are important in determining not only the presence but also the type of pathology involving the sacrum.

  14. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, David

    1995-01-01

    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  15. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, David

    1995-01-01

    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  16. The Ventricular System of the Brain: Anatomy and Normal Variations.

    PubMed

    Stratchko, Lindsay; Filatova, Irina; Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-04-01

    The cerebral ventricular system is intimately associated with the forebrain and brainstem. The ventricular system functions to produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid, which plays an important role in mechanical protection and regulation of homeostasis in the central nervous system. This article discusses anatomy and neuroimaging of the ventricular system and highlights normal anatomical variations that may be mistaken for pathology. Applied surgical anatomy is reviewed with emphasis on operative approach and potential risk to adjacent central nervous system structures.

  17. Normal venous anatomy and physiology of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Notowitz, L B

    1993-06-01

    Venous disease of the lower extremities is common but is often misunderstood. It seems that the focus is on the exciting world of arterial anatomy and pathology, while the topic of venous anatomy and pathology comes in second place. However, venous diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency, leg ulcers, and varicose veins affect much of the population and may lead to disability and death. Nurses are often required to answer complex questions from the patients and his or her family about the patient's disease. Patients depend on nurses to provide accurate information in terms they can understand. Therefore it is important to have an understanding of the normal venous system of the legs before one can understand the complexities of venous diseases and treatments. This presents an overview of normal venous anatomy and physiology.

  18. Gastrohepatic ligament: normal and pathologic CT anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Balfe, D.M.; Mauro, M.A.; Koehler, R.E.; Lee, J.K.T.; Weyman, P.J.; Picus, D.; Peterson, R.R.

    1984-02-01

    In a review of 200 consecutive CT scans of the upper abdomen, the structures within the gastrohepatic ligament (GHL) were well seen in 182 (91%). In 85% of these 182 patients, the largest structure visible within the GHL was 6mm or smaller. A total of 27 patients had a structure larger than 6 mm within the GHL;this finding could be explained in 13 by the presence of a normal anatomic variant. Of the 14 others, 12 had known tumor arising in or known to have spread to the upper abdomen. Two patients had no obvious explanation. Fourteen patients with cancers of the stomach (9 patients), pancreas (3 patients), and esophagus (2 patients) had 57 intact nodes that were evaluated pathologically. Of these 40/40 benign nodes and 10/17 malignant nodes were less than or equal to 8 mm in size. When anatomic variants are excluded, the finding of rounded structures greater than 8 mm in the GHL is a reliable indicator of left gastric node involvement by carcinoma or lymphoma or of coronary venous dilatation.

  19. Equine thoracoscopy: normal anatomy and surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Peroni, J F; Horner, N T; Robinson, N E; Stick, J A

    2001-05-01

    Six normal, healthy horses age 3-10 years underwent left and right thoracoscopic examination using a rigid telescope. A minimum of 30 days was allowed between procedures. Horses were restrained in stocks and sedated with a continuous detomidine infusion. After surgical preparation of the hemithorax elected for surgery, and administration of local or regional anaesthesia of the surgery sites, thoracoscopy was completed during two 15 min pneumothorax periods. During the procedures, the thoracic structures were viewed using a 57 cm, 10 mm diameter, 30 degrees rigid telescope connected to a digital camcorder to allow computer capture of digital images. The telescope was inserted into the thoracic cavity via 3 different intercostal spaces. The 8th, 10th and 12th intercostal spaces were randomly selected and used among horses. The exploration of each hemithorax started from the dorsal-caudal quadrant continued toward the cranial thorax and was completed by observing the diaphragmatic and caudal pulmonary region. Collapsed lung, aorta, oesophagus and diaphragm were viewed readily in either hemithorax. On exploration of the right hemithorax, the azygos vein, thoracic duct and pulmonary veins were also identified. Horses tolerated thoracoscopy well. Signs of discomfort, such as increased respiratory rate, coughing and decreased level of sedation, were associated with lung collapse in one horse, with pneumothorax on 2 occasions, and when the thorax was approached through the 8th intercostal space. Surgery performed via the 8th intercostal space was hindered by the rigidity of the 8th and 9th ribs, and by the presence of a greater musculature, which did not allow easy cranial and caudal movements of the telescope.

  20. Carpal tunnel: Normal anatomy, anatomical variants and ultrasound technique

    PubMed Central

    Presazzi, A.; Bortolotto, C.; Zacchino, M.; Madonia, L.; Draghi, F.

    2011-01-01

    The carpal tunnel is an osteofibrous canal situated in the volar wrist. The boundaries are the carpal bones and the flexor retinaculum. In addition to the medial nerve, the carpal tunnel contains nine tendons: the flexor pollicis longus, the four flexor digitorum superficialis and the four flexor digitorum profundus. Ultrasound (US) study of the carpal tunnel generally involves short-axis imaging of the tendons, and in the presence of disease, long-axis imaging and dynamic maneuvers are added. There are numerous reports of anatomical variants of the wrist involving vessels, nerves, tendons and muscles, and they can all be studied by US. Some are particularly relevant from a clinical point of view and will therefore be accurately described. The anatomy is complex, and the US operator should therefore be thoroughly familiar with the normal anatomy as well as the anatomical variants that may have a role in the pathogenesis of carpal tunnel syndrome or influence treatment. PMID:23396809

  1. Carpal tunnel: Normal anatomy, anatomical variants and ultrasound technique.

    PubMed

    Presazzi, A; Bortolotto, C; Zacchino, M; Madonia, L; Draghi, F

    2011-03-01

    The carpal tunnel is an osteofibrous canal situated in the volar wrist. The boundaries are the carpal bones and the flexor retinaculum. In addition to the medial nerve, the carpal tunnel contains nine tendons: the flexor pollicis longus, the four flexor digitorum superficialis and the four flexor digitorum profundus. Ultrasound (US) study of the carpal tunnel generally involves short-axis imaging of the tendons, and in the presence of disease, long-axis imaging and dynamic maneuvers are added. There are numerous reports of anatomical variants of the wrist involving vessels, nerves, tendons and muscles, and they can all be studied by US. Some are particularly relevant from a clinical point of view and will therefore be accurately described. The anatomy is complex, and the US operator should therefore be thoroughly familiar with the normal anatomy as well as the anatomical variants that may have a role in the pathogenesis of carpal tunnel syndrome or influence treatment.

  2. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs.

  3. Are Children "Normal"?

    PubMed

    Black, Dan A; Kolesnikova, Natalia; Sanders, Seth G; Taylor, Lowell J

    2013-03-01

    We examine Becker's (1960) contention that children are "normal." For the cross section of non-Hispanic white married couples in the U.S., we show that when we restrict comparisons to similarly-educated women living in similarly-expensive locations, completed fertility is positively correlated with the husband's income. The empirical evidence is consistent with children being "normal." In an effort to show causal effects, we analyze the localized impact on fertility of the mid-1970s increase in world energy prices - an exogenous shock that substantially increased men's incomes in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Empirical evidence for that population indicates that fertility increases in men's income.

  4. Radiology of external ear: indications, normal anatomy, and pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Mazón, M; Pont, E; Montesinos, P; Carreres-Polo, J; Más-Estellés, F

    2016-01-01

    The external ear is accessible to direct examination; the clinical history and otoscopy are sufficient to diagnose and treat most diseases of the external ear. We aim to describe the normal anatomy of the external ear, specify the indications for imaging tests, and review the clinical and radiological manifestations of the most common diseases affecting the external ear. We classify these diseases according to their origin into congenital, inflammatory, infectious, or traumatic disease or benign bone tumors or malignant tumors. Imaging does not play an important role in diseases of the external ear, but in certain clinical scenarios it can be crucial for reaching a concrete diagnosis and establishing the best treatment. Computed tomography is the first-choice technique for most diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging complements computed tomography and makes it possible to differentiate among different tissue types and to evaluate the extension of disease accurately.

  5. A computational atlas of normal coronary artery anatomy.

    PubMed

    Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Ormiston, John; Webster, Mark; Beier, Susann; Young, Alistair; Ellis, Chris; Wang, Chunliang; Smedby, Örjan; Cowan, Brett

    2016-09-18

    The aim of this study was to define the shape variations, including diameters and angles, of the major coronary artery bifurcations. Computed tomographic angiograms from 300 adults with a zero calcium score and no stenoses were segmented for centreline and luminal models. A computational atlas was constructed enabling automatic quantification of 3D angles, diameters and lengths of the coronary tree. The diameter (mean±SD) of the left main coronary was 3.5±0.8 mm and the length 10.5±5.3 mm. The left main bifurcation angle (distal angle or angle B) was 89±21° for cases with, and 75±23° for those without an intermediate artery (p<0.001). Analogous measurements of diameter and angle were tabulated for the other major bifurcations (left anterior descending/diagonal, circumflex/obtuse marginal and right coronary crux). Novel 3D angle definitions are proposed and analysed. A computational atlas of normal coronary artery anatomy provides distributions of diameter, lengths and bifurcation angles as well as more complex shape analysis. These data define normal anatomical variation, facilitating stent design, selection and optimal treatment strategy. These population models are necessary for accurate computational flow dynamics, can be 3D printed for bench testing bifurcation stents and deployment strategies, and can aid in the discussion of different approaches to the treatment of coronary bifurcations.

  6. Retarded Children at Camp with Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Norman; Peters, Edward N.

    1969-01-01

    Statistical analysis of data from written forms and scales (designed to measure children's behavior in groups), observations, and interviews indicated that many educalble mentally retarded children can participate successfully in camp activities with normal children. (DR)

  7. Normal anatomy and histology of the adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Menke, Aswin L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish has been shown to be an excellent vertebrate model for studying the roles of specific genes and signaling pathways. The sequencing of its genome and the relative ease with which gene modifications can be performed have led to the creation of numerous human disease models that can be used for testing the potential and the toxicity of new pharmaceutical compounds. Many pharmaceutical companies already use the zebrafish for prescreening purposes. So far, the focus has been on ecotoxicity and the effects on embryonic development, but there is a trend to expand the use of the zebrafish with acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies that are currently still carried out with the more conventional test animals such as rodents. However, before we can fully realize the potential of the zebrafish as an animal model for understanding human development, disease, and toxicology, we must first greatly advance our knowledge of normal zebrafish physiology, anatomy, and histology. To further this knowledge, we describe, in the present article, location and histology of the major zebrafish organ systems with a brief description of their function.

  8. When Young Children Explore Anatomy: Dilemma or Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Offers advice to parents and teachers on addressing children's natural curiosities about their own bodies and those of others. Recommends using anatomically correct terms and dolls, and children's anatomy books; advises what to do when children engage in sex play, self-exploration, and masturbation, or use toilet language. (DLH)

  9. When Young Children Explore Anatomy: Dilemma or Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Offers advice to parents and teachers on addressing children's natural curiosities about their own bodies and those of others. Recommends using anatomically correct terms and dolls, and children's anatomy books; advises what to do when children engage in sex play, self-exploration, and masturbation, or use toilet language. (DLH)

  10. Hypospadias anatomy: Elastosonographic evaluation of the normal and hypospadic penis.

    PubMed

    Camoglio, Francesco Saverio; Bruno, Costanza; Zambaldo, Silvia; Zampieri, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies in childhood. The aim of this study is to apply elastosonography on normal and hypospadic penis to verify the structural differences in tissues composition and stiffness. We analyzed medical chart of patients treated at our Institution for hypospadias during the period December 2005 and December 2014 (group 1). Other two groups were enrolled for this study: group 2- patients with hypospadias waiting for surgery and group 3-patients without hypospadias. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were created; all patients underwent penile ultrasound and elastosonography. Elastographic index of elasticity was defined as soft, medium-hard or hard. We assigned the value 1 to soft tissue, 2 and 3 to medium-hard and hard respectively. During the study period 294 patients were treated for hypospadias. After reviewing medical chart 115 patients were considered for analysis (group 1). 22 patients were enrolled in group 2 and 38 patients were enrolled in group 3. Group 1: 7 proximal hypospadias, 29 penile hypospadias, 79 distal hypospadias. Patients with hypospadias had malformation also at corpus spongiosum and cavernosum respect to controls. Elastography showed a corpus spongiosum stiffness defined as medium-hard or hard in all cases of the pathologic group and soft in all the subjects of the control group (p < 0.05). Elastosonography showed how the hypospadia anatomy is deeply altered, even in an anatomical area far from meatal abnormality: corpus spongiosum in hypospadic penis seems to be globally stiffer and less elastic and cavernous corpora are less developed. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pediatric cervical spine in emergency: radiographic features of normal anatomy, variants and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Adib, Omar; Berthier, Emeline; Loisel, Didier; Aubé, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Injuries of the cervical spine are uncommon in children. The distribution of injuries, when they do occur, differs according to age. Young children aged less than 8 years usually have upper cervical injuries because of the anatomic and biomechanical properties of their immature spine, whereas older children, whose biomechanics more closely resemble those of adults, are prone to lower cervical injuries. In all cases, the pediatric cervical spine has distinct radiographic features, making the emergency radiological analysis of it difficult. Such features as hypermobility between C2 and C3, pseudospread of the atlas on the axis, pseudosubluxation, the absence of lordosis, anterior wedging of vertebral bodies, pseudowidening of prevertebral soft tissue and incomplete ossification of synchondrosis can be mistaken for traumatic injuries. The interpretation of a plain radiograph of the pediatric cervical spine following trauma must take into account the age of the child, the location of the injury and the mechanism of trauma. Comprehensive knowledge of the specific anatomy and biomechanics of the childhood spine is essential for the diagnosis of suspected cervical spine injury. With it, the physician can, on one hand, differentiate normal physes or synchondroses from pathological fractures or ligamentous disruptions and, on the other, identify any possible congenital anomalies that may also be mistaken for injury. Thus, in the present work, we discuss normal radiological features of the pediatric cervical spine, variants that may be encountered and pitfalls that must be avoided when interpreting plain radiographs taken in an emergency setting following trauma.

  12. Ultrasound examination of the liver: Normal vascular anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Draghi, F.; Rapaccini, G.L.; Fachinetti, C.; de Matthaeis, N.; Battaglia, S.; Abbattista, T.; Busilacchi, P.

    2007-01-01

    Various treatments for liver diseases, including liver transplant (particularly partial liver resection from a living donor), treatment of liver tumors, and TIPS, require detailed knowledge of the complex vascular anatomy of the liver. The hepatic artery and portal vein provide the organ with a double blood supply whereas venous drainage is furnished by the hepatic veins. Multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide undeniably excellent information on these structures. On ultrasound, the inferior vena cava, the openings of the hepatic veins, and the main branch of the portal vein can always be visualized, but intrasegmental vessels (portal, arterial, accessory hepatic venous branches) can be only partially depicted and in some cases not at all. In spite of its difficulty and limitations, hepatic sonography is frequently unavoidable, particularly in critically ill patients, and the results are essential for defining diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. For this reason, a thorough knowledge of the sonographic features of hepatic vascular anatomy is indispensable. PMID:23396216

  13. Pathogenesis of urinary tract infections with normal female anatomy.

    PubMed

    Finer, Gal; Landau, Daniel

    2004-10-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among girls and young women who are healthy and have anatomically normal urinary tracts. These infections are a main source of morbidity and health-care costs in this population. The interaction between specific infecting bacteria and urinary tract epithelium characteristics underlies the pathogenesis of this disease. Several pathogen-related factors predispose people to recurrent UTI, including periurethral bacterial colonisation and Escherichia coli virulence. Host behavioural risk factors include voiding dysfunction, high intercourse frequency, and oral contraceptive and spermicide use. The role of vesicoureteral reflux in recurrent childhood UTI is probably overestimated in the medical literature and is important only in a small group of children with high-grade reflux. Family pedigree analysis suggests a familial genetic predisposition for UTI among young females. Animal models show the multigenic nature of recurrent UTI. Putative candidate genes for the disease include ABH blood groups, interleukin-8 receptor (CXCR1), the human leucocyte antigen locus, toll-like receptors, tumour necrosis factor, and Tamm-Horsfall protein.

  14. Normal Vulvovaginal, Perineal, and Pelvic Anatomy with Reconstructive Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Yavagal, Sujata; de Farias, Thais F.; Medina, Carlos A.; Takacs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A thorough insight into the female genital anatomy is crucial for understanding and performing pelvic reconstructive procedures. The intimate relationship between the genitalia and the muscles, ligaments, and fascia that provide support is complex, but critical to restore during surgery for correction of prolapse or aesthetic reasons. The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule with glands, perineal body, and the muscles and fascia surrounding these structures. Through the perineal membrane and the perineal body, these superficial vulvar structures are structurally related to the deep pelvic muscle levator ani with its fascia. The levator ani forms the pelvic floor with the coccygeus muscle and provides vital support to all the pelvic organs and stability to the perineum. The internal female genital organs include the vagina, cervix, uterus, tubes, and ovaries with their visceral fascia. The visceral fascia also called the endopelvic fascia, surrounds the pelvic organs and connects them to the pelvic walls. It is continuous with the paraurethral and paravaginal fascia, which is attached to the perineal membrane. Thus, the internal and external genitalia are closely related to the muscles and fascia, and work as one functioning unit. PMID:22547969

  15. [Magnetic resonance imaging of the penis. Its normal anatomy].

    PubMed

    Banchik, E L; Mineev, N I; Mitusov, V V; Dombrovskiĭ, V I; Kogan, M I

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify penile anatomic structures and their topographic relationships. Penile MRI results were analyzed in 52 men of different ages who had no history, clinical, laboratory, and radiological data in favor of diseases of this organ. Penile imaging technology and its algorithm, including patient preparation and posi-tioning and a list of impulse sequences and their parameters, are proposed. Penile MRI and anatomy are described in detail; magnetic resonance signal characteristics of the main structural elements of the organ and its adjacent tissues on T1- and T2-weighted images are specified. The MRI morphometry results of the cavernous and spongy bodies, urethra, and penis as a whole, which agree well with the similar known literature data, are given. The investigation has provided evidence for the high informative value of the technique in recognizing the relatively small anatomic structures of the penis, which is comparable with that of the morphological study of a gross specimen of this organ, which in turn predetermines a further investigation of the capabilities of MRI to diagnose penile diseases and to estimate the quality of their treatment.

  16. Atlas of computed body tomography: normal and abnormal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.C.; Schapiro, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas contains comparative sections on normal and abnormal computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower limbs, fascia, and peritoneum. Also included is a subject index to aid in the identification of abnormal scans. (DLS)

  17. The carpal tunnel: ultrasound display of normal imaging anatomy and pathology.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Sundar; Naidich, Thomas P

    2004-02-01

    Ultrasound successfully displays the normal anatomy and pathology of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. This article reviews the sonographic characteristics of carpal tunnel anatomy, including the superficially situated median nerve, the contained tendons and vessels, and the boundary-forming fibro-osseous landmarks. It emphasizes ultrasound evaluation of the median nerve and the criteria for diagnosis of compressive neuropathy in carpal tunnel syndrome. The techniques for performing sonography for carpal tunnel syndrome are detailed. Ultrasonic imaging is more comfortable for patients, less time-consuming, and less expensive than MR imaging, and achieves equal accuracy in skilled hands.

  18. Normal anatomy and imaging of the hip: emphasis on impingement assessment.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Mary Kristen; Petersen, Brian; Strickland, Colin; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2013-07-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of normal hip anatomy and imaging techniques is essential in the evaluation and assessment of the patient with hip pain. This article reviews the osseous, soft tissue, and vascular components of the hip and the normal anatomical variants encountered in routine hip imaging. Basic and advanced hip imaging is discussed with particular emphasis on radiographic and computed tomography measurements and their utility in evaluating patients with developmental hip dysplasia and femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.

  19. Detectability of normal anatomy in digital panoramic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Gross, Heidi; Nilsson, Mats; Hellén-Halme, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of digital panoramic radiographs and its correlation with the detectability of normal anatomical structures. The effects of image enhancement on the detectability were also studied. A total of 500 panoramic images (DICOM format) obtained with a storage phosphor-based digital system were evaluated. The image quality and the detectability of selected normal anatomical structures were evaluated in all images. Images with inadequate image quality were subjected to enhancement after which the detectability of the structures was re-evaluated. Only 9% of the images were classified as having adequate technical quality. The main sources of poor image quality were that the patient's tongue was not held against the palate and incorrect positioning of the patient. Not holding the tongue against the palate was found to have a negative impact on the detectability of maxillary structures. Of the images with horizontal positioning errors the patient's head was rotated to the left in 81% (70 images). The most effective form of enhancement was a combination of increased contrast and decreased brightness. Images in which the tongue was not held against the palate were partially improved, whereas images with positioning errors remained unaffected by this enhancement. In conclusion, most of the panoramic images showed some technical flaws. The marginal bone level and the maxillary area were the most difficult areas to reproduce. Retakes could be avoided in some cases by using image enhancement. However, this should not be regarded as an option to avoid poor image quality.

  20. Anatomy of a normal fault with shale smear

    SciTech Connect

    Aydin, A. ); Eyal, Yehuda )

    1996-01-01

    Some faults are fluid pathways but others are barriers. The latter type is well known in the oil and gas industry and attributed to granulation and shale smear. Fault zone granulation has been the focus of many recent studies, but shale smearing remains relatively obscure. We describe the geometry and structure of a normal fault with shale smear in a 1500m thick sedimentary sequence of Cambrian to Neogene age in a graben 10km west of Elat in southern Israel. The fault has a trace length of about 2km and is marked entirely by what remains of a formation made up of a 60m lower shale unit, 25m of middle carbonates, and 35m of upper shale. Both shale units have been stretched over a planar discontinuity defined by the footwall cut-off planes of the underlying sandstone and limestone units for 250m, the magnitude of the normal slip. Thus, the fault geometry and the position of the shale units reveal a smearing process by which the shale units reduce their thickness or nearly vanish by thinning perpendicular to the fault and stretching parallel to the fault. In a few exposures, the lower shale unit is reduced from 60m to a thickness less than 0.5m. The middle carbonates display boudinage and form discontinuous lenses along the fault. The impact of the intense continuous deformation, the discontinuous deformation by the faults, joints and veins of the shale and surrounding competent rocks, and mixing of the shale with adjacent permeable units, on the hydraulics of the fault zone and its sealing potential need to be carefully evaluated. This study improves the present knowledge about how fault zones may incorporate shales therein act as lateral seals for hydrocarbons, and when and how this sealing potential may be breached.

  1. Anatomy of a normal fault with shale smear

    SciTech Connect

    Aydin, A.; Eyal, Yehuda

    1996-12-31

    Some faults are fluid pathways but others are barriers. The latter type is well known in the oil and gas industry and attributed to granulation and shale smear. Fault zone granulation has been the focus of many recent studies, but shale smearing remains relatively obscure. We describe the geometry and structure of a normal fault with shale smear in a 1500m thick sedimentary sequence of Cambrian to Neogene age in a graben 10km west of Elat in southern Israel. The fault has a trace length of about 2km and is marked entirely by what remains of a formation made up of a 60m lower shale unit, 25m of middle carbonates, and 35m of upper shale. Both shale units have been stretched over a planar discontinuity defined by the footwall cut-off planes of the underlying sandstone and limestone units for 250m, the magnitude of the normal slip. Thus, the fault geometry and the position of the shale units reveal a smearing process by which the shale units reduce their thickness or nearly vanish by thinning perpendicular to the fault and stretching parallel to the fault. In a few exposures, the lower shale unit is reduced from 60m to a thickness less than 0.5m. The middle carbonates display boudinage and form discontinuous lenses along the fault. The impact of the intense continuous deformation, the discontinuous deformation by the faults, joints and veins of the shale and surrounding competent rocks, and mixing of the shale with adjacent permeable units, on the hydraulics of the fault zone and its sealing potential need to be carefully evaluated. This study improves the present knowledge about how fault zones may incorporate shales therein act as lateral seals for hydrocarbons, and when and how this sealing potential may be breached.

  2. Ultrasound anatomy and normal ECD of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Rosi, Paolo; Del Zingaro, Michele; Porena, Massimo

    2005-03-01

    The adult kidney is studied using convex-array probes with a frequency of 3.5 MHz, whereas in children higher frequencies are advisable (5 MHz). The study of the organ may be carried out with three possible approaches (access routes): abdominal (anterior), lumbar (lateral), dorsal (posterior). For a correct and complete study of the renal echostructure 5 fundamental parameters need to be evaluated: shape, size, parenchymal echotexture, renal sinus and renal hilum. The most common anatomical variants need to be identified and namely, dromedary humps, foetal lobation, hypertrophied column of Berten, hypertrophied renal tubercles and labia. The use of colour-Doppler ultrasound equipment permits assessment of the main renal arteries, the segmentary branches at the level of the hilum, the interlobar arteries, the arcuate arteries, and the interlobular arteries (inconsistently). Colour and duplex ultrasound enable identification of flow signals from arteries that are not directly visible at B-mode sonography, since frequency resolution (related to the Doppler-shift) is greater than spatial and contrast resolution. Power doppler provides a detailed visualisation of the distribution of vascular structures and blood circulation in the different regions of the kidney parenchyma, affording a perfusion study similar to angiographic parenchymography. Unlike colour Doppler, power Doppler allows identification of the cortical circulation. The Doppler pattern of the renal arteries is typical of arteries with parenchyma destination, which show a systolic peak and a well-depicted diastolic curve due to low peripheral resistance. The parameters to be analysed are peak systolic velocity, acceleration time, pulsatility index, and resistive index.

  3. Masterpiece Me: Children's Activities in Anatomy and Development. Children's Activity Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Sally

    The supplemental teaching resources provided in this book offer a variety of concrete, visual activities designed for the use of classroom and daycare center teachers to help young children feel proud and comfortable about their changing bodies. The lessons help children develop a healthy, age-appropriate foundation in anatomy and development.…

  4. Normal anatomy of the external urethral meatus in boys: implications for hypospadias repair.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Kim A R; Babu, Ramesh

    2007-07-01

    Both papers in this section relate to the always difficult subject of hypospadias repair. One of them describes the anatomy of the external urethral meatus, and the other a technique for repairing coronal or subcoronal hypospadias. To investigate the normal external urethral meatal anatomy in boys, and to examine the proportional relationship between meatal length and degree of ventral glans closure. In all, 92 boys with presumed normal penile anatomy were considered eligible for the study; 17 were not assessed because either the boy or parents declined to participate, leaving 75 boys (mean age 6.9 years, range 0.3-15) who completed the study. Photographic records of the meatal appearance were obtained and meatal height and ventral glans closure measured using ophthalmic callipers. All 75 boys in the study had a vertical slit-like meatus that commenced at the tip of the penis and ran ventrally. The mean (sd) vertical meatal length was 5.4 (1) mm and the mean length of ventral glans closure was 4.7 (1.2) mm. There was an age-dependent increase in meatal length and a similar association was identified for the length of ventral glans closure. There was also a statistically significant proportional relationship between meatal length and length of glans closure (r = 0.36, confidence interval 0.14-0.54, P < 0.002). The position and size of the external urethral meatus in normal boys is consistent, and ventral glans closure is equal to or slightly less than meatal length. These data might be of interest to hypospadiologists in their efforts to reconstruct normal glanular anatomy.

  5. [Balanoplasty in accordance with the normal anatomy--the key to successful correction of hypospadias].

    PubMed

    Rudin, Iu É; Marukhnenko, D V; Garmanova, T N; Saĭedov, K M

    2013-01-01

    The features of the normal anatomy of the balanus and distal urethra were evaluated. It was found that there is a physiological mechanism of stretching of distal urethra during urination owing to the scaphoid fossa, bridle and hippocrepiform-located corpus spongiosum of balanus. Based on these data, modified balanoplasty was proposed, which consisted in mobilization and increase the length of corpus spongiosum of wings of balanus by longitudinal incisions, followed by suturing wings of balanus with separate inside sutures on a short distance not above 3-5 mm and their dipping at a depth not above 1-2 mm. Between 2005 and 2010, 410 patients aged 1 to 18 years underwent surgeries. 90 (22%) patients underwent reoperation. Boys with glandular and coronal hypospadias (n = 69) underwent MAGPI surgery. Patients with penile hypospadias (n = 243) underwent TIP-Snodgrass (n = 72), onlay (n = 23), Mathuie (n = 123), and GTIP (n = 25) surgeries. In children with scrotal and perineal hypospadias (n = 98), method of transverse tubularized foreskin flap was used. All patients were arbitrarily divided into two groups. The study group consisted of patients (n = 210) who underwent modified balanoplasty. The comparison group consisted of 200 patients who underwent conventional balanoplasty. Complication rate after hypospadias correction was reduced from 18 to 12% in penile hypospadias, and from 28 to 18% in scrotal and perineal hypospadias. It is shown that modified balanoplasty excludes formation of obstructive ring of corpus spongiosum in the distal urethra. The results of urodynamic examinations in follow-up period showed improvement of mean urinary flow rates.

  6. Normal peer models and autistic children's learning.

    PubMed Central

    Egel, A L; Richman, G S; Koegel, R L

    1981-01-01

    Present research and legislation regarding mainstreaming autistic children into normal classrooms have raised the importance of studying whether autistic children can benefit from observing normal peer models. The present investigation systematically assessed whether autistic children's learning of discrimination tasks could be improved if they observed normal children perform the tasks correctly. In the context of a multiple baseline design, four autistic children worked on five discrimination tasks that their teachers reported were posing difficulty. Throughout the baseline condition the children evidenced very low levels of correct responding on all five tasks. In the subsequent treatment condition, when normal peers modeled correct responses, the autistic children's correct responding increased dramatically. In each case, the peer modeling procedure produced rapid achievement of the acquisition which was maintained after the peer models were removed. These results are discussed in relation to issues concerning observational learning and in relation to the implications for mainstreaming autistic children into normal classrooms. PMID:7216930

  7. Anatomy, histology, and ultrasonography of the normal adrenal gland in brown lemur: Eulemur fulvus.

    PubMed

    Raharison, Fidiniaina; Bourges Abella, Nathalie; Sautet, Jean; Deviers, Alexandra; Mogicato, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The medical care currently to brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) is limited by a lack of knowledge of their anatomy. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy and histology and obtain ultrasonographic measurements of normal adrenal glands in these animals. The adrenal glands of four lemurs cadavers were used for the anatomical and histological studies, and those of 15 anesthetized lemurs were examined by ultrasonography. Anatomically, the adrenal glands of brown lemurs are comparable to those of other species. The histological findings showed that the cortex is organized into three distinct layers, whereas most domestic mammals have an additional zone. The surface area of the adrenal glands increased with body weight, and the area of the right adrenal was slightly larger than the left. We suggest using ultrasonography to aid the etiological diagnosis of behavioral abnormalities that might be due to dysfunctions of the adrenal gland. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is frequently used for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. Part I of this article series described in detail the characteristic USG picture of peripheral nerves and the proper examination technique, following the example of the median nerve. This nerve is among the most often examined peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part presents describes the normal anatomy and ultrasound picture of the remaining large nerve branches in the upper extremity and neck – the spinal accessory nerve, the brachial plexus, the suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves. Their normal anatomy and ultrasonographic appearance have been described, including the division into individual branches. For each of them, specific reference points have been presented, to facilitate the location of the set trunk and its further monitoring. Sites for the application of the ultrasonographic probe at each reference point have been indicated. In the case of the ulnar nerve, the dynamic component of the examination was emphasized. The text is illustrated with images of probe positioning, diagrams of the normal course of the nerves as well as a series of ultrasonographic pictures of normal nerves of the upper limb. This article aims to serve as a guide in the ultrasound examination of the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. It should be remembered that a thorough knowledge of the area's topographic anatomy is required for this type of examination. PMID:26674017

  9. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of short umbilical cord in a dichorionic twin with normal fetal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Sherer, David M; Dalloul, Mudar; Ajayi, Olusegun; Kheyman, Mila; Sokolovski, Margarita; Abulafia, Ovadia

    2010-02-01

    Short umbilical cords are associated with fetal anomalies, often including those with decreased or absent fetal movement, fetal akinesia/hypokinesia sequence, and restrictive dermopathies and aneuploidy. In normal fetuses, abnormally short umbilical cords have been associated with an increased risk of umbilical vessel hematomas, thrombosis, rupture, thrombocytopenia, cord compression, variable fetal heart rate decelerations, instrumental and operative deliveries, and fetal demise. We report a 24-year-old gravida 2, para 0 with a concordant dichorionic twin gestation, at 26 weeks' gestation, in whom sonography depicted fetuses with normal-appearing anatomy as well as short umbilical cord of the 1st twin. Increased fetal surveillance was conducted. Following delivery at 36 weeks' gestation, the presence of a short umbilical cord of the 1st twin measuring 19 cm was confirmed. Systematic review of the literature confirms that this is the first report of prenatal diagnosis of a short umbilical cord in an otherwise normal fetus.

  10. Computed tomography of cervical and retropharyngeal lymph nodes: normal anatomy, variants of normal, and applications in staging head and neck cancer. Part 1. Normal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, A.A.; Harnsberger, H.R.; Muraki, A.S.; Stevens, M.H.

    1983-09-01

    The retropharyngeal and cervical lymph-node-bearing areas in 30 patients were examined with computed tomography (CT) to determine the range of normal variation in these nodal groups. The data agree with those in the pathologic, anatomic, and surgical literature, and indicate that CT can very precisely determine the size and gross morphology of normal nodes in the retropharyngeal region and the neck. This should have important applications in the management of patients with head and neck cancer.

  11. US of the elbow: indications, technique, normal anatomy, and pathologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Konin, Gabrielle P; Nazarian, Levon N; Walz, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    The elbow, a synovial hinge joint, is a common site of disease. Ultrasonography (US) has become an important imaging modality for evaluating pathologic conditions of the elbow. This powerful imaging tool has the advantages of outstanding spatial resolution, clinical correlation with direct patient interaction, dynamic assessment of disease, and the ability to guide interventions. Unlike most other imaging modalities, US allows the contralateral elbow to be imaged simultaneously, providing an internal control and comparison with normal anatomy. A useful approach to US evaluation of the elbow is to divide it into four compartments: anterior, lateral, medial, and posterior. US of the elbow has varied clinical applications, including evaluation and treatment of lateral and medial epicondylitis, imaging of biceps and triceps musculotendinous injuries, evaluation of ulnar collateral ligament laxity, diagnosis of joint effusions and intraarticular bodies, and evaluation of peripheral nerves for neuropathy and subluxation. US can also be used to evaluate soft-tissue masses about the elbow. Knowledge of the normal US anatomy of the elbow, familiarity with the technique of elbow US, and awareness of the US appearances of common pathologic conditions of the elbow along with their potential treatment options will optimize radiologists' diagnostic assessment and improve patient care. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/rg.334125059/-/DC1.

  12. Ultrasound anatomy of normal nails unit with 18 mhz linear transducer.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Andrea; Montella, Andrea; Ena, Pasquale; Meloni, Giovanni Battista; Mazzarello, Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    Interest is growing in non-invasive diagnostic methods for nails in dermatological pathology. Currently, nail disease diagnosis is based mostly on clinical evaluation; instrumental examination, traditionally, has been performed by magnetic resonance. Ultrasound (US) can be proposed as an easier and more available method for the study of the nail apparatus. In this study, the nail unit normal ultrasound anatomy was investigated to obtain data on adult normal parameters. On 35 healthy volunteers (20 women and 15 men--average age of 27 years) we performed an ultrasonographic study on the nail plate (dorsal and ventral), nail matrix and nail bed of all fingers of the hands using a 18 MHz linear transducer with Esaote Mylab 50. A thick gel layer allowed for appropriate transmission of ultrasound without any additional device. Macroscopic nail features were studied by clinical examination and photographic analysis. The following ultrasound parameters were investigated: nail thickness; nail bed thickness; matrix lenght; matrix-bone distance. Blood flow was studied with the use of colour and power colour Doppler. The nail apparatus echographic anatomy consists in: (a) nail plate, represented by two hyperechoic bands (dorsal and ventral) with an hypoechoic or anechoic space between them; (b) nail bed, represented by an area of dys-homogeneous hypo-echogeneity; (c) nail matrix, represented by a markedly hypoechoic area corresponding to the region under the nail sulcus; (d) ligaments, sometimes well detectable and formed by a specialized connective tissue; and (e) vessels, well evaluable through doppler examination.

  13. Assessment of normal tricuspid valve anatomy in adults by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Ashraf M.; Geleijnse, Marcel L.; Soliman, Osama I. I.; McGhie, Jackie S.; Frowijn, René; Nemes, Attila; van den Bosch, Annemien E.; Galema, Tjebbe W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The tricuspid valve (TV) is a complex structure. Unlike the aortic and mitral valve it is not possible to visualize all TV leaflets simultaneously in one cross-sectional view by standard two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) either transthoracic or transesophageal due to the position of TV in the far field. Aim Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the normal TV using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE). Methods RT3DE was performed for 100 normal adults (mean age 30 ± 9 years, 65% males). RT3DE visualization was evaluated by 4-point score (1: not visualized, 2: inadequate, 3: sufficient, and 4: excellent). Measurements included TV annulus diameters (TAD), TV area (TVA), and commissural width. Results In 90% of patients with good 2DE image quality, it was possible to analyse TV anatomy by RT3DE. A detailed anatomical structure including unique description and measurement of tricuspid annulus shape and size, TV leaflets shape, and mobility, and TV commissural width were obtained in majority of patients. Identification of each TV leaflet as seen in the routine 2DE views was obtained. Conclusion RT3DE of the TV is feasible in a large number of patients. RT3DE may add to functional 2DE data in description of TV anatomy and providing highly reproducible and actual reality (anatomical and functional) measurements. PMID:17318363

  14. Ultrasound of tibialis anterior muscle and tendon: anatomy, technique of examination, normal and pathologic appearance.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Ajay; Bianchi, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    Lesions of the tibialis anterior muscle and tendon are not frequently reported in international literature although pathology is not rare. Pathology can be spontaneous, associated with arthropathy or more generalized conditions. Clinical assessment may not be sufficient for distinguishing conditions like tendinopathy, tears, bursitis, etc. Therefore, imaging studies are necessary to plan appropriate therapy. US has a number of advantages, including widespread availability, absence of contraindications and low cost. It can also be used for dynamic studies of the muscle during contraction and relaxation. This article reviews the anatomy of the tibialis anterior, normal variants, the technique used for standard US examination of this muscle and tendon, its normal appearance on US and the sonographic characteristics of the most common lesions that affect it including tips on US-guided injections used for treatment.

  15. Computed and conventional arthrotomography of the glenohumeral joint: normal anatomy and clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, A.L.; Resnick, D.; Mink, J.H.; Berman, J.L.; Cone, R.O. III; Resnik, C.S.; Danzig, L.; Guerra, J. Jr.

    1984-12-01

    The glenohumeral joint was studied in 25 cadavers and 136 patients using computed arthrotomography (CAT) and conventional arthrotomography (AT) to assess shoulder instability. Cadaver shoulders were injected with air or latex, sectioned with a band saw, and normal articular anatomy outlined. CAT was performed in 81 patients and characterized the glenoid labrum as normal, abnormal, or detached. Hill-Sachs defects were seen in 20 out of 29 patients with anterior labral abnormalities, while bicipital tendon abnormalities were evident on CAT in 6. Of 55 patients who had AT, the status of the labrum was clarified in 13 of the 16 patients who had surgery or arthroscopy. Both methods can characterize the labrum; however, CAT is more comprehensive and appears ideal for both detection of Hill-Sachs defects and imaging the bicipital tendon. CAT requires less technical expertise and radiation than AT and is tolerated better by patients in pain.

  16. Preparing "Normal" Children for Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Gary B.

    1980-01-01

    Approaches to helping nondisabled elementary students examine their feelings in preparation for mainstreaming handicapped children are described, including simulations, activities to provide familiarity with braces and prostheses, use of handicapped adults as guest speakers, and discussions about handicaps. (CL)

  17. Stimulus Generalization in Autistic and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Deborah; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A comparative assessment of eight normal and eight psychotic children in a stimulus generalization paradigm using simple and complex figures. Six of the subjects fulfilled the criteria for infantile autism. (CM)

  18. Anatomy and metabolism of the normal human brain studied by magnetic resonance at 1. 5 Tesla

    SciTech Connect

    Bottomley, P.A.; Hart, H.R. Jr.; Edelstein, W.A.; Schenck, J.F.; Smith, L.S.; Leue, W.M.; Mueller, O.M.; Redington, R.W.

    1984-02-01

    Proton magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained of the human head in magnetic fields as high as 1.5 Tesla (T) using slotted resonator high radio-frequency (RF) detection coils. The images showed no RF field penetration problems and exhibited an 11 (+/-1)-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio over a .12-T imaging system. The first localized phosphorus 31, carbon 13, and proton MR chemical shift spectra recorded with surface coils from the head and body in the same instrument showed relative concentrations of phosphorus metabolites, triglycerides, and, when correlated with proton images, negligible lipid (-CH/sub 2/-) signal from brain tissue on the time scale of the imaging experiment. Sugar phosphate and phosphodiester concentrations were significantly elevated in the head compared with muscle. This method should allow the combined assessment of anatomy, metabolism, and biochemistry in both the normal and diseased brain.

  19. Totally Robotic Reversal of Omega-Loop Gastric Bypass to Normal Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Reche, Fabian; Mancini, Adrian; Borel, Anne-Laure; Faucheron, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Gastric bypass procedures can potentially lead to middle and long-term complications (Podnos et al. Arch Surg 138(9):957-61, 2003). For several years, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reversal procedures performed by laparotomy or laparoscopic way have been described in literature (Moon et al. Surg Obes Relat Dis 11(4):821-6, 2015). Major complications are anastomotic ulcers, anastomotic complications or functional disorder such as dumping syndrome, hypocalcemia, severe hypoglycemia, and malnutrition (Moon et al. Surg Obes Relat Dis 11(4):821-6, 2015; Campos et al. Surg Obes Relat Dis 10(1):36-43, 2014). One-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) also called omega-loop gastric bypass (OLGB) or mini-gastric bypass (MGB) is a technique that has demonstrated similar results to traditional Roux-en-Y procedures in terms of weight loss and postoperative quality of life (Lee et al. Ann Surg 242(1):20-8, 2005). However, in a recent description of 1000 patients, the percentage of malnutrition was 0.2 % (two patients) with an indication to revert omega-loop gastric bypass back into normal anatomy (Chevallier et al. Obes Surg 25(6):951-8, 2015), but technical details have not been exposed yet. The first robotic gastric bypass was published by Horgan and Vanuno in 2001 (Horgan and Vanuno J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 11(6):415-9, 2001). The present work describes for the first time a robotic procedure to reverse OLGB into normal anatomy. We present the video report of a 69-year-old woman suffering of severe malnutrition (weight of 42 kg, body mass index of 15.8 kg/m(2), albumin 21 g/l) who had undergone laparoscopic omega-loop gastric bypass 2 years ago (initial weight of 104 kg and initial body mass index of 39.6 kg/m(2)). She was referred to our Bariatric Surgery Unit, and after a period of parenteral nutrition support to improve nutritional status (albumin 32 g/l), we decided in a multidisciplinary staff to perform a reversal omega-loop gastric bypass back into normal anatomy

  20. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Berta; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-06-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is currently increasingly used in imaging peripheral nerves, serving to supplement the physical examination, electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive and well-tolerated by patients. The typical ultrasonographic picture of peripheral nerves as well as the examination technique have been discussed in part I of this article series, following the example of the median nerve. Part II of the series presented the normal anatomy and the technique for examining the peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part of the article series focuses on the anatomy and technique for examining twelve normal peripheral nerves of the lower extremity: the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, the pudendal, sciatic, tibial, sural, medial plantar, lateral plantar, common peroneal, deep peroneal and superficial peroneal nerves. It includes diagrams showing the proper positioning of the sonographic probe, plus USG images of the successively discussed nerves and their surrounding structures. The ultrasonographic appearance of the peripheral nerves in the lower limb is identical to the nerves in the upper limb. However, when imaging the lower extremity, convex probes are more often utilized, to capture deeply-seated nerves. The examination technique, similarly to that used in visualizing the nerves of upper extremity, consists of locating the nerve at a characteristic anatomic reference point and tracking it using the "elevator technique". All 3 parts of the article series should serve as an introduction to a discussion of peripheral nerve pathologies, which will be presented in subsequent issues of the "Journal of Ultrasonography".

  1. Normal Anatomy and Compression Areas of Nerves of the Foot and Ankle: US and MR Imaging with Anatomic Correlation.

    PubMed

    De Maeseneer, Michel; Madani, Hardi; Lenchik, Leon; Kalume Brigido, Monica; Shahabpour, Maryam; Marcelis, Stefaan; de Mey, Johan; Scafoglieri, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the nerves of the foot and ankle is complex, and familiarity with the normal anatomy and course of these nerves as well as common anatomic variants is essential for correct identification at imaging. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allow visualization of these nerves and may facilitate diagnosis of various compression syndromes, such as "jogger's heel," Baxter neuropathy, and Morton neuroma. It may be difficult to distinguish the nerves from adjacent vasculature at MR imaging, and US can help in differentiation. The authors review the normal anatomy and common variants of the nerves of the foot and ankle, with use of dissected specimens and correlative US and MR imaging findings. In addition, the authors illustrate proper probe positioning, which is essential for visualizing the nerves at US. The authors' discussion focuses on the superficial and deep peroneal, sural, saphenous, tibial, medial and lateral plantar, medial and inferior calcaneal, common digital, and medial proper plantar digital nerves.

  2. Developmental pragmatics in normal and abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Bara, B G; Bosco, F M; Bucciarelli, M

    1999-07-01

    We propose a critical review of current theories of developmental pragmatics. The underlying assumption is that such a theory ought to account for both normal and abnormal development. From a clinical point of view, we are concerned with the effects of brain damage on the emergence of pragmatic competence. In particular, the paper deals with direct speech acts, indirect speech acts, irony, and deceit in children with head injury, closed head injury, hydrocephalus, focal brain damage, and autism. Since no single theory covers systematically the emergence of pragmatic capacity in normal children, it is not surprising that we have not found a systematic account of deficits in the communicative performance of brain injured children. In our view, the challenge for a pragmatic theory is the determination of the normal developmental pattern within which different pragmatic phenomena may find a precise role. Such a framework of normal behavior would then permit the systematic study of abnormal pragmatic development. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Renal-vertebral index in normal children.

    PubMed Central

    Bacopoulos, C; Papahatzi-Kalmadi, M; Karpathios, T; Thomaidis, T; Matsaniotis, N

    1981-01-01

    The renal-vertebral index is a simple method of evaluating the renal length in children and is convenient for everyday clinical work. The results of 822 normal children aged between 3 days and 14 years are reported. Infants of up to 1 year were found to have an index of about 4 to 5, pre-school children are an index of 3 1/2 to 4 1/2, and schoolchildren an index of 3 1/2 to 4. There was no significant difference in renal-vertebral index between boys and girls. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7259261

  4. Gaze aversion in autistic and normal children.

    PubMed

    Richer, J M; Coss, R G

    1976-03-01

    Autistic children rarely engage in eye contact, and whilst observation suggests this is due to a specific avoidance of eye contact, some experimental studies have challenged this. In this study the effects on autistic and normal children of an adult looking at them with both eyes, with one eye covered, or apparently not looking at them (both eyes covered) were investigated. As expected, autistic children looked more at the adult with his eyes covered, and also engaged in less flight behaviour. They looked less when two eyes were exposed than one, confirming the potency of the two-eye pattern in provoking gaze aversion. Normal children engaged in much more eye contact than the autistic children, with fewer flight behaviours and stereotypies, supporting the hypothesis that autistic children are predominatly flight motivated. Other, sometimes conflicting, results of previous studies are discussed. Teachers and nurses are recommened not to make efforts to engage autistic children even in friendly eye contact as this provokes more flight behaviour.

  5. Imaging and examination strategies of normal male and female sex development and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Wünsch, Lutz; Schober, Justine M

    2007-09-01

    Over recent years a variety of new details on the developmental biology of sexual differentiation has been discovered. Moreover, important advances have been made in imaging and examination strategies for urogenital organs, and these have added new knowledge to our understanding of the 'normal' anatomy of the sexes. Both aspects contribute to the comprehension of phenotypic sex development, but they are not commonly presented in the same context. This will be attempted in this chapter, which aims to link discoveries in developmental biology to anatomical details shown by modern examination techniques. A review of the literature concerning the link between sexual development and imaging of urogenital organs was performed. Genes, proteins and pathways related to sexual differentiation were related to some organotypic features revealed by clinical examination techniques. Early 'organotypic' patterns can be identified in prostatic, urethral and genital development and followed into postnatal life. New imaging and endoscopy techniques allow for detailed descriptive anatomical studies, hopefully resulting in a broader understanding of sex development and a better genotype-phenotype correlation in defined disorders. Clinical description relying on imaging techniques should be related to knowledge of the genetic and endocrine factors influencing sex development in a specific and stepwise manner.

  6. [Multimedia and didactics++. Application to the normal echographic anatomy of the female reproductive system].

    PubMed

    Migliore, G; Benza, I; Sparacia, G; Lagalla, R

    1993-05-01

    It is widely known that US results strictly depends on operators and that each operator follows individual pathways. Therefore the authors have tried to develop high-interactivity tools, allowing the "customization" of learning to the user's demands. Progress linked to microprocessors' technology allowed a wide spread of cost-effective electronic processors with high graphic performances, capable of supporting sophisticated softwares which are useful to develop multimedial programs. Our experiment is aimed at integrating a multimedial management system for US studies, with the training activity of the medical staff US-expert. The system is structured on a hardware platform based on the Motorola microprocessor, class 68040, an application software developed by Apple. The environment for multimedial applications development uses the "Hypercard" interface of graphic presentation, by Apple. The software allows the realization of a multimedial environment of learning, where US images are associated with graphics, drawing and text references. The application allows a multimedial environment of learning for normal eidodiagnostic anatomy of the female reproductive system, where different courses can be followed autonomously. On the basis of a check performed on a group of students, although in a preliminary stage, the combination of conventional didactic material with either a paper or television support, with devices allowing the connection of texts, graphics and images in a dynamic way, proved to be very useful and to allow personal courses of learning, which can be always modified in an interactive way.

  7. Tomographic ultrasound imaging of the fetal heart: a new technique for identifying normal and abnormal cardiac anatomy.

    PubMed

    Devore, Greggory R; Polanko, Bardo

    2005-12-01

    In 2003 and 2004, the American College of Radiology, the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists published guidelines for the standard ultrasound examination of the fetus. Each group recommended that the outflow tracts of the fetal heart be examined if technically feasible. One method to accomplish this task is to perform a free-hand sweep of the transducer beam directed in a transverse plane from the 4-chamber view to the fetal neck. One problem with this approach is that the examiner may not direct the beam transversely and, therefore, may not accurately identify the outflow tract anatomy. A new technology, tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI), allows the examiner to obtain a volume data set that simultaneously displays multiple images at specific distances from the 4-chamber view. This study examined TUI technology for identifying normal and abnormal fetal cardiac anatomy with the use of either static or spatiotemporal image correlation volume data sets. The 4 views used in the screening examination of the outflow tracts of the fetal heart (4-chamber, 5-chamber, 3-vessel, and tracheal views) could be identified with the use of TUI technology in fetuses between 13 and 40 weeks' gestation. Examples of fetuses with abnormal cardiac anatomy of the outflow tracts (tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great vessels, and pulmonary stenosis) all showed abnormal anatomy on TUI. Tomographic ultrasound imaging technology enables the fetal examiner to evaluate the 4-chamber view and the outflow tracts in a systematic manner to identify normal and abnormal cardiac anatomy.

  8. Sonography of the quadriceps muscle: Examination technique, normal anatomy, and traumatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pasta, G.; Nanni, G.; Molini, L.; Bianchi, S.

    2010-01-01

    Lesions of the quadriceps muscle (QM) are frequently seen by sonographers, and in most cases they are the result of sports-related trauma. An accurate assessment of the severity of the lesion is essential, particularly when the patient is a professional athlete. In most cases, careful history-taking and a thorough physical examination are sufficient for making the diagnosis and indicating the most suitable imaging studies for each case. Clinical assessment alone, however, may not be sufficient for distinguishing contusions from small, partial tears or for estimating the size of a tear. Therefore, at least in patients who are professional athletes, imaging studies are necessary to plan appropriate therapy that will allow prompt functional recovery. Muscles cannot be visualized with conventional radiography, but it is used routinely in prepubertal patients because it can detect apophyseal detachments, which are the most frequent muscle lesion in this age group. Radiography is also useful when myositis ossificans is suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging, thanks to its excellent tissue contrast, allows simultaneous assessment of muscle, joint, and bone planes. It remains a second-line study due to its high cost and relatively low availability. It is also associated with various contraindications, the most important of which is the presence of a cardiac pacemaker. Ultrasonography has a number of advantages, including widespread availability, absence of contraindications, and low cost. It can also be used for dynamic studies of the muscle during contraction and relaxation, and if doubts arise, scans can easily be obtained of the contralateral muscle for comparison purposes. These qualities make it an excellent tool for follow-up of patients with QM lesions, when follow-up is necessary. This article reviews the anatomy of the QM, the technique used for standard ultrasound examination of this muscle, its normal appearance on ultrasound, and the sonographic characteristics

  9. Learning the Rules: The Anatomy of Children's Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Brian J.; Tesson, Geoffrey; Lewko, John H.

    This book explores the process and characteristics of children's personal and social relationships. To determine what relationships mean to children and how children manage those relationships, a recursive interviewing technique was used with nearly a thousand children to detail children's social rules. Those rules cover a range of social issues,…

  10. Elementary Anatomy: Activities Designed to Teach Preschool Children about the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raven, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that children may not be able to conceptualize some of the topics associated with anatomy, including internal organs and involuntary muscles, because the concepts are too abstract and are not easily visualized. Thus, this article presents activities that incorporate a variety of models and hands-on activities designed to provide…

  11. Elementary Anatomy: Activities Designed to Teach Preschool Children about the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raven, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that children may not be able to conceptualize some of the topics associated with anatomy, including internal organs and involuntary muscles, because the concepts are too abstract and are not easily visualized. Thus, this article presents activities that incorporate a variety of models and hands-on activities designed to provide…

  12. Effect of a variable prosthetic neck-shaft angle and the surgical technique on replication of normal humeral anatomy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jinyoung; Bryan, Jason; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2009-08-01

    Replicating the normal anatomy of the shoulder is an important principle in the design of prosthetic devices and the development of surgical techniques. In this study, we used a three-dimensional surgical simulation to compare the abilities of an adjustable neck-shaft angle prosthesis and a fixed neck-shaft angle prosthesis to restore the normal geometry of the proximal part of the humerus. A total of 2058 cadaveric humeri were measured to define the normal distribution of neck-shaft angles. Thirty-six humeri were selected to represent a wide variation in neck-shaft angles, and computed tomographic scans with three-dimensional reconstruction were made of these specimens. With use of a three-dimensional computer surgical simulator, the humeral head was then cut at the anatomic neck to replicate a normal neck-shaft angle and version or it was cut at a fixed 135 degrees angle with anatomic version. The anatomy of an adjustable-angle prosthesis and that of a fixed-angle prosthesis of the same design were both compared with native humeral anatomy in three dimensions. The average neck-shaft angle of the 2058 humeri was 134.7 degrees (range, 115 degrees to 148 degrees), and the angle was between 130 degrees and 140 degrees in 77.84% of the humeri. In the setting of a high varus or valgus neck-shaft angle, an adjustable-angle prosthesis allowed optimal reconstruction when the humeral head was cut along the anatomic neck and allowed a standard and consistent surgical technique with use of anatomic landmarks. A fixed-angle prosthesis also replicated the anatomic center of rotation, tuberosity-head height, and head volume if the surgical procedure was altered to adapt to variations in humeral anatomy. There was no significant difference in anatomic parameters between the two types of prostheses, except that in all cases the head thickness was decreased when a fixed-135 degrees-angle prosthesis was used in a humerus with a high valgus or high varus neck-shaft angle, resulting

  13. Visualization of anatomy in normal and pathologic middle ears by cone beam CT.

    PubMed

    Güldner, Christian; Diogo, Isabell; Bernd, Eva; Dräger, Stephanie; Mandapathil, Magis; Teymoortash, Afshin; Negm, Hesham; Wilhelm, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, syn. digital volume tomography = DVT) was introduced into ENT imaging more than 10 years ago. The main focus was on imaging of the paranasal sinuses and traumatology of the mid face. In recent years, it has also been used in imaging of chronic ear diseases (especially in visualizing middle and inner ear implants), but an exact description of the advantages and limitations of visualizing precise anatomy in a relevant number of patients is still missing. The data sets of CBCT imaging of the middle and inner ear of 204 patients were analyzed regarding the visualization of 18 different anatomic structures. A three-step scale (excellent visible, partial visible, not visible) was taken. All analyses were performed by two surgeons experienced in otology and imaging. The indications for imaging were chronic middle ear disease or conductive hearing loss. Previously operated patients were excluded to rule out possible confounders. In dependence of a radiological pathology/opacity of the middle ear, two groups (with and without pathology) were built. Regarding the possibility of excellent visualization, significant differences were only found for small bony structures: incu-stapedial joint (25.8 vs. 63.5 %), long process of incus (42.7 vs. 88.8 %), head of stapes (27.0 vs. 62.6 %), anterior crus of stapes (16.9 vs. 40.9 %) and posterior crus of stapes (19.1 vs. 42.6 %). The other structures (semicircular canals, skull base at mastoid and middle ear, jugular bulb, sinus sigmoideus, facial nerve) could be visualized well in both groups with rates around 85-100 %. Even CBCT shows little limitations in visualization of the small structures of the middle and inner ear. Big bony structures can be visualized in normal as well as in pathologic ears. Overall, due to pathology of middle ear, an additional limitation of evaluation of the ossicular chain exists. In future, studies should focus on comparative evaluation of different diseases

  14. Imaging of the oropharynx and oral cavity. Part I: Normal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Hermans, R; Lenz, M

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the anatomy of the oropharynx and oral cavity, as seen on CT and MR imaging studies. Emphasis is placed on the description and illustration of the structures which are of importance to detect tissue alterations and interprete them adequately. Common pitfalls in the image interpretation of this region are indicated.

  15. Nasal Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly ...

  16. Children's Fears: A Developmental Comparison of Normal and Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    Analyzed were the self reported fears of 83 educable mentally retarded (EMR), 32 trainable mentally retarded (TMR), 19 learning disabled, and 22 normal children (all between the ages of 6 and 19 years). Ss were individually asked, "What are the things to be afraid of?", and answers were grouped into the following categories: animals, people, dark,…

  17. [Multiplane postmortem cerebral computed angiotomography--Part I. Normal anatomy of cerebral vessels on the axial plane (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Satoh, T; Asari, S; Sadamoto, K

    1982-04-01

    Cranial computed tomography has been mainly used for detection of the parenchymal space-occupying lesion, and has had the limitation of detection of the cerebrovascular lesion itself because of low CT resolution. However, high resolution CT scanners have recently brought us the possibility of definition of fine cerebral vessels on CT images using an appropriate injection method of contrast agents (cerebral computed angiotomography). This paper concerns the normal anatomy of the cerebral vasculature on CT images using 9 fresh cadavers with normal intracranial structures. They received the postmortem injection of contrast agents through bilateral common carotid and vertebral arteries, and were undertaken the multiplane CT scanning with the axial, modified coronal, Towne (half-axial) and the semisagittal projections using GE-CT/T 8800 (9.6 sec scanning time, 320 x 320 matrices). The normal anatomy of cerebral vessels on the axial plane, obtained at the levels 10 to 90 mm above the canthomeatal line, is presented in this paper. Main visualized vessels in the posterior fossa were the basilar artery, the cranial loop of the PICA, the AICA from the origin to the hemispheric branches including the meatal loop in the cerebellopontine angle cistern, and the SCA from the ambient and quadrigeminal segments to the lateral marginal and superior hemispheric branches. The circle of Willis and other main cerebral arteries were clearly visualized with their small branches, for example, the posterior communicating, the anterior choroidal and the lenticulostriate arteries. Deep cerebral veins were also visualized at the levels of the midbrain, the middle and the roof of third ventricle, and the body of lateral ventricle. Postmortem cerebral computed angiotomography provided us not only the precise anatomy of the cerebral vasculatures, but also their anatomic relations with the surrounding structures such as cerebral parenchyma, ventricles, cisterns and other subarachnoid spaces. On

  18. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants *

    PubMed Central

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Duarte, Cláudia Martina Araújo; Borges, Rafael Farias; de Magalhães, Ana Guardiana Ximenes

    2016-01-01

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications. PMID:26929461

  19. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants.

    PubMed

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Duarte, Cláudia Martina Araújo; Borges, Rafael Farias; de Magalhães, Ana Guardiana Ximenes

    2016-01-01

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications.

  20. Recent skin injuries in normal children.

    PubMed

    Labbé, J; Caouette, G

    2001-08-01

    The objective of our study was to collect data on the totality of recent skin injuries in normal children and adolescents, and to determine the relationship between the number of injuries, the age of the child, and the time of year in a temperate climate. The participants in this study were children and adolescents seen successively for a reason other than trauma over a period of 1 year, by the first author (J.L.), in a university medical center in Québec City, Canada. The total body surface, with the exception of the anal-genital area, was examined systematically. The characteristics and location of all recent injuries (bruises, abrasions, scratches, cuts, burns, etc) were recorded. Scars from old injuries were ignored. The statistical method used for comparison was the Fisher's exact test. Two thousand forty examinations were done on 1467 youngsters from 0 to 17 years of age. Nine hundred thirty-one examinations were done on boys and 1109 on girls. The majority of children 9 months and older (76.6%) had at least 1 recent skin injury, without a significant difference between the sexes. Seventeen percent of the total sample of children had at least 5 injuries, whereas 4% had 10 or more, <1% had 15 or more, and 0.2% had 20 or more. The sites involved were mostly the lower limbs. Less than 2% of the total sample of children had injuries to the thorax, abdomen, pelvis, or buttocks, and <1% to the chin, ears, or neck. The majority of injuries observed were bruises, regardless of the time of year. There were, however, more skin injuries during the summer and the proportion of abrasions was higher at this time of the year. The 0- to 8-month age group was unique from all points of view. Skin injuries were rare in this age group (11.4%); they did not vary with the season, and they were mainly on the head and the face. Their injuries were mostly scratches. Bruises were found in only 1.2% of this group. The majority of normal children (after the age of 9 months) and

  1. Colorectal anatomy in adults at computed tomography colonography: normal distribution and the effect of age, sex, and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Khashab, M A; Pickhardt, P J; Kim, D H; Rex, D K

    2009-08-01

    Computed tomography colonography (CTC) is an accurate tool for assessing the large intestinal anatomy. Our aims were to determine the normal distribution of in vivo colorectal anatomy and to investigate the effect of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) on colorectal length. Asymptomatic adults who underwent primary CTC examination at a single institution over an 8-month period were evaluated. The interactive three-dimensional map was used to determine total and segmental lengths and number of acute-angle flexures. The two-dimensional multiplanar display was used to measure luminal diameters. The effects of age, sex, and BMI on colorectal lengths were examined. The study cohort consisted of 505 consecutive adults (266 women, mean age 56.6 years). Mean total colorectal length was 189.5 +/- 26.3 cm and mean number of acute-angle flexures was 10.9 +/- 2.4. Total length for older adults (> 60 years) did not significantly differ from those who were younger than 60 years ( P = 0.22), although the transverse colon was significantly longer in older adults ( P = 0.04). Women had significantly longer colons than men (193.3 cm vs. 185.4 cm, P = 0.002), whereas overweight adults (BMI > 25) had significantly shorter colons compared with those with BMI normal distribution of colorectal anatomy in an asymptomatic adult cohort, and may help to facilitate both colonoscopy training efforts and design of novel endoscopic devices. The transverse colon was the major determinant in length differences according to age, sex, and BMI, and was significantly longer in older adults, women, and thinner adults, respectively.

  2. Metabolic Cost, Mechanical Work, and Efficiency during Normal Walking in Obese and Normal-Weight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Zhang, Yanxin; Walt, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood obesity on energetic cost during normal walking and to determine if obese children choose a walking strategy optimizing their gait pattern. Method: Sixteen obese children with no functional abnormalities were matched by age and gender with 16 normal-weight children. All…

  3. Metabolic Cost, Mechanical Work, and Efficiency during Normal Walking in Obese and Normal-Weight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Zhang, Yanxin; Walt, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood obesity on energetic cost during normal walking and to determine if obese children choose a walking strategy optimizing their gait pattern. Method: Sixteen obese children with no functional abnormalities were matched by age and gender with 16 normal-weight children. All…

  4. Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia. PMID:27047403

  5. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the renal arteries: normal anatomy and its variations*

    PubMed Central

    de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Carvalho Junior, Arlindo Monteiro; Rebouças, Rafael Batista; Negromonte, Gustavo Ramalho Pessoa; de Oliveira, Carollyne Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Conventional angiography is still considered the gold standard for the study of the anatomy and of vascular diseases of the abdomen. However, the advent of multidetector computed tomography and techniques of digital image reconstruction has provided an alternative means of performing angiography, without the risks inherent to invasive angiographic examinations. Therefore, within the field of radiology, there is an ever-increasing demand for deeper knowledge of the anatomy of the regional vasculature and its variations. Variations in the renal vascular system are relatively prevalent in the venous and arterial vessels. For various conditions in which surgical planning is crucial to the success of the procedure, knowledge of this topic is important. The aim of this study was to familiarize the general radiologist with variations in the renal vascular system. To that end, we prepared a pictorial essay comprising multidetector computed tomography images obtained in a series of cases. We show patterns representative of the most common anatomical variations in the arterial blood supply to the kidneys, calling attention to the nomenclature, as well as to the clinical and surgical implications of such variations. PMID:27403020

  6. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the renal arteries: normal anatomy and its variations.

    PubMed

    de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Carvalho Junior, Arlindo Monteiro; Rebouças, Rafael Batista; Negromonte, Gustavo Ramalho Pessoa; de Oliveira, Carollyne Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Conventional angiography is still considered the gold standard for the study of the anatomy and of vascular diseases of the abdomen. However, the advent of multidetector computed tomography and techniques of digital image reconstruction has provided an alternative means of performing angiography, without the risks inherent to invasive angiographic examinations. Therefore, within the field of radiology, there is an ever-increasing demand for deeper knowledge of the anatomy of the regional vasculature and its variations. Variations in the renal vascular system are relatively prevalent in the venous and arterial vessels. For various conditions in which surgical planning is crucial to the success of the procedure, knowledge of this topic is important. The aim of this study was to familiarize the general radiologist with variations in the renal vascular system. To that end, we prepared a pictorial essay comprising multidetector computed tomography images obtained in a series of cases. We show patterns representative of the most common anatomical variations in the arterial blood supply to the kidneys, calling attention to the nomenclature, as well as to the clinical and surgical implications of such variations.

  7. Transesophageal Echocardiography in Healthy Young Adult Male Baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis): Normal Cardiac Anatomy and Function in Subhuman Primates Compared to Humans.

    PubMed

    Bert, Arthur A; Drake, William B; Quinn, Rachael W; Brasky, Kathleen M; O'Brien, James E; Lofland, Gary K; Hopkins, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    Implantable, viable tissue engineered cardiovascular constructs are rapidly approaching clinical translation. Species typically utilized as preclinical large animal models are food stock ungulates for which cross species biological and genomic differences with humans are great. Multiple authorities have recommended developing subhuman primate models for testing regenerative surgical strategies to mitigate xenotransplant inflammation. However, there is a lack of specific quantitative cardiac imaging comparisons between humans and the genomically similar baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). This study was undertaken to translate to baboons transesophageal echocardiographic functional and dimensional criteria defined as necessary for defining cardiac anatomy and function in the perioperative setting. Seventeen young, healthy baboons (approximately 30 kg, similar to 5 year old children) were studied to determine whether the requisite 11 views and 52 measurement parameters could be reliably acquired by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The obtained measurements were compared to human adult normative literature values and to a large relational database of pediatric "normal heart" echo measurements. Comparisons to humans, when normalized to BSA, revealed a trend in baboons toward larger mitral and aortic valve effective orifice areas and much larger left ventricular muscle mass and wall thickness, but similar pulmonary and tricuspid valves. By modifying probe positioning relative to human techniques, all recommended TEE views except transgastric could be replicated. To supplement, two transthoracic apical views were discovered that in baboons could reliably replace the transgastric TEE view. Thus, all requisite echo views could be obtained for a complete cardiac evaluation in Papio hamadryas anubis to noninvasively quantify cardiac structural anatomy, physiology, and dimensions. Despite similarities between the species, there are subtle and important physiologic and

  8. Transesophageal Echocardiography in Healthy Young Adult Male Baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis): Normal Cardiac Anatomy and Function in Subhuman Primates Compared to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bert, Arthur A.; Drake, William B.; Quinn, Rachael W.; Brasky, Kathleen M.; O’Brien, James E.; Lofland, Gary K.; Hopkins, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Implantable, viable tissue engineered cardiovascular constructs are rapidly approaching clinical translation. Species typically utilized as preclinical large animal models are food stock ungulates for which cross species biological and genomic differences with humans are great. Multiple authorities have recommended developing subhuman primate models for testing regenerative surgical strategies to mitigate xenotransplant inflammation. However, there is a lack of specific quantitative cardiac imaging comparisons between humans and the genomically similar baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). This study was undertaken to translate to baboons transesophageal echocardiographic functional and dimensional criteria defined as necessary for defining cardiac anatomy and function in the perioperative setting. Seventeen young, healthy baboons (approximately 30 kg, similar to 5 year old children) were studied to determine whether the requisite 11 views and 52 measurement parameters could be reliably acquired by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The obtained measurements were compared to human adult normative literature values and to a large relational database of pediatric “normal heart” echo measurements. Comparisons to humans, when normalized to BSA, revealed a trend in baboons toward larger mitral and aortic valve effective orifice areas and much larger left ventricular muscle mass and wall thickness, but similar pulmonary and tricuspid valves. By modifying probe positioning relative to human techniques, all recommended TEE views except transgastric could be replicated. To supplement, two transthoracic apical views were discovered that in baboons could reliably replace the transgastric TEE view. Thus, all requisite echo views could be obtained for a complete cardiac evaluation in Papio hamadryas anubis to noninvasively quantify cardiac structural anatomy, physiology, and dimensions. Despite similarities between the species, there are subtle and important physiologic

  9. Global and regional differences in brain anatomy of young children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    De Bie, Henrica M A; Oostrom, Kim J; Boersma, Maria; Veltman, Dick J; Barkhof, Frederik; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P

    2011-01-01

    In children who are born small for gestational age (SGA), an adverse intrauterine environment has led to underdevelopment of both the body and the brain. The delay in body growth is (partially) restored during the first two years in a majority of these children. In addition to a negative influence on these physical parameters, decreased levels of intelligence and cognitive impairments have been described in children born SGA. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain anatomy in 4- to 7-year-old SGA children with and without complete bodily catch-up growth and compared them to healthy children born appropriate for gestational age. Our findings demonstrate that these children strongly differ on brain organisation when compared with healthy controls relating to both global and regional anatomical differences. Children born SGA displayed reduced cerebral and cerebellar grey and white matter volumes, smaller volumes of subcortical structures and reduced cortical surface area. Regional differences in prefrontal cortical thickness suggest a different development of the cerebral cortex. SGA children with bodily catch-up growth constitute an intermediate between those children without catch-up growth and healthy controls. Therefore, bodily catch-up growth in children born SGA does not implicate full catch-up growth of the brain.

  10. Concept Formation Ability in Brain-Damaged and Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townes, Brenda D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Comparisons were made between 27 normal and 27 brain damaged children (5-8 years old) on a variety of concept formation tasks from the Reitan-Indiana Neuropsychological Test Battery for Children. (CL)

  11. Children's Knowledge of Genital Anatomy and Its Relationship With Children's Use of the Word "Inside" During Questioning About Possible Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Milam, Lisa J; Nugent, William R

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between children's understanding of their genital anatomy and their use of the word "inside" in response to questions about genital touch during a forensic medical examination. This study involved a secondary data analysis of 674 records of children at a sexual abuse clinic in a large city in a southern state. Data were analyzed using contingency table, binary logistic, and multinomial logistic regression analysis methods. An association between children's understanding of genital anatomy and their use of the word "inside" to describe genital touch was found. Children's age and development contributes to their overall understanding of genital anatomy, and their knowledge of genital anatomy appears to influence how they answer questions regarding genital touch. This finding could play an important role in sexual abuse cases in states where the definition of rape includes penetration of any bodily opening, including labial penetration.

  12. Atypical sulcal anatomy in young children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Auzias, G.; Viellard, M.; Takerkart, S.; Villeneuve, N.; Poinso, F.; Fonséca, D. Da; Girard, N.; Deruelle, C.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is associated with an altered early brain development. However, the specific cortical structure abnormalities underlying this disorder remain largely unknown. Nonetheless, atypical cortical folding provides lingering evidence of early disruptions in neurodevelopmental processes and identifying changes in the geometry of cortical sulci is of primary interest for characterizing these structural abnormalities in autism and their evolution over the first stages of brain development. Here, we applied state-of-the-art sulcus-based morphometry methods to a large highly-selective cohort of 73 young male children of age spanning from 18 to 108 months. Moreover, such large cohort was selected through extensive behavioral assessments and stringent inclusion criteria for the group of 59 children with autism. After manual labeling of 59 different sulci in each hemisphere, we computed multiple shape descriptors for each single sulcus element, hereby separating the folding measurement into distinct factors such as the length and depth of the sulcus. We demonstrated that the central, intraparietal and frontal medial sulci showed a significant and consistent pattern of abnormalities across our different geometrical indices. We also found that autistic and control children exhibited strikingly different relationships between age and structural changes in brain morphology. Lastly, the different measures of sulcus shapes were correlated with the CARS and ADOS scores that are specific to the autistic pathology and indices of symptom severity. Inherently, these structural abnormalities are confined to regions that are functionally relevant with respect to cognitive disorders in ASD. In contrast to those previously reported in adults, it is very unlikely that these abnormalities originate from general compensatory mechanisms unrelated to the primary pathology. Rather, they most probably reflect an early disruption on developmental trajectory that could be part

  13. Atypical sulcal anatomy in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Auzias, G; Viellard, M; Takerkart, S; Villeneuve, N; Poinso, F; Fonséca, D Da; Girard, N; Deruelle, C

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is associated with an altered early brain development. However, the specific cortical structure abnormalities underlying this disorder remain largely unknown. Nonetheless, atypical cortical folding provides lingering evidence of early disruptions in neurodevelopmental processes and identifying changes in the geometry of cortical sulci is of primary interest for characterizing these structural abnormalities in autism and their evolution over the first stages of brain development. Here, we applied state-of-the-art sulcus-based morphometry methods to a large highly-selective cohort of 73 young male children of age spanning from 18 to 108 months. Moreover, such large cohort was selected through extensive behavioral assessments and stringent inclusion criteria for the group of 59 children with autism. After manual labeling of 59 different sulci in each hemisphere, we computed multiple shape descriptors for each single sulcus element, hereby separating the folding measurement into distinct factors such as the length and depth of the sulcus. We demonstrated that the central, intraparietal and frontal medial sulci showed a significant and consistent pattern of abnormalities across our different geometrical indices. We also found that autistic and control children exhibited strikingly different relationships between age and structural changes in brain morphology. Lastly, the different measures of sulcus shapes were correlated with the CARS and ADOS scores that are specific to the autistic pathology and indices of symptom severity. Inherently, these structural abnormalities are confined to regions that are functionally relevant with respect to cognitive disorders in ASD. In contrast to those previously reported in adults, it is very unlikely that these abnormalities originate from general compensatory mechanisms unrelated to the primary pathology. Rather, they most probably reflect an early disruption on developmental trajectory that could be part

  14. Comparison of anatomy and composition distribution between normal and compression wood of Pinus bungeana Zucc. revealed by microscopic imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiheng; Ma, Jianfeng; Ji, Zhe; Xu, Feng

    2012-12-01

    The anatomy and topochemistry in normal and compression wood tracheid cell wall of Pinus bungeana Zucc. were investigated by fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy. Using fluorescence microscopy, the severity of compression wood was classed as a mild type for the reason that it did not contain all compression wood features. Chemical imaging by confocal Raman microscopy was used for analyzing the distribution of lignin and cellulose, as well as the functional groups of lignin in tracheid cell walls. By comparison with normal wood, highly lignified outer S2 layer [S2(L)], thicker S1 layer, and obviously reduced lignification in the middle lamella were characteristic of compression wood. In addition, smaller microfibril angle was observed in the S2(L) region. The distribution of coniferyl alcohol and coniferyl aldehyde in normal and compression wood was enriched in S1 and S2 layers but lack in cell corner and/or S2L regions, which showed an opposite pattern to lignin distribution. Confocal Raman microscopy with high spatial resolution contributes to a further understanding of the differences between normal and compression wood in polymers distribution and molecules orientation in situ.

  15. Anatomy of the pig heart: comparisons with normal human cardiac structure

    PubMed Central

    CRICK, SIMON J.; SHEPPARD, MARY N.; HO, SIEW YEN; GEBSTEIN, LIOR; ANDERSON, ROBERT H.

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic technology has potentially solved many of the immunological difficulties of using pig organs to support life in the human recipient. Nevertheless, other problems still remain. Knowledge of cardiac anatomy of the pig (Sus scrofa) is limited despite the general acceptance in the literature that it is similar to that of man. A qualitative analysis of porcine and human cardiac anatomy was achieved by gross examination and dissection of hearts with macrophotography. The porcine organ had a classic ‘Valentine heart’ shape, reflecting its location within the thorax and to the orientation of the pig's body (unguligrade stance). The human heart, in contrast, was trapezoidal in silhouette, reflecting man's orthograde posture. The morphologically right atrium of the pig was characterised by the tubular shape of its appendage (a feature observed on the left in the human heart). The porcine superior and inferior caval veins opened into the atrium at right angles to one another, whereas in man the orifices were directly in line. A prominent left azygous vein (comparable to the much reduced left superior caval or oblique vein in man) entered on the left side of the pig heart and drained via the coronary sinus. The porcine left atrium received only 2 pulmonary veins, whereas 4 orifices were generally observed in man. The sweep between the inlet and outlet components of the porcine right ventricle was less marked than in man, and a prominent muscular moderator band was situated in a much higher position within the porcine right ventricle compared with that of man. The apical components of both porcine ventricles possessed very coarse trabeculations, much broader than those observed in the human ventricles. In general, aortic-mitral fibrous continuity was reduced in the outlet component of the porcine left ventricle, with approximately two-thirds of the aortic valve being supported by left ventricular musculature. Several potentially significant differences exist

  16. [Normal anatomy, anatomical variants, and anomalies of the origin and course of the coronary arteries on multislice CT].

    PubMed

    Bastarrika Alemañ, G; Alonso Burgos, A; Azcárate Agüero, P M; Castaño Rodríguez, S; Pueyo Villoslada, J C; Alegría Ezquerra, E

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in adults in developed countries. Conventional coronary angiography is the technique of choice for the detection of coronary disease; however, this technique is not without complications. Nowadays, a significant proportion of conventional coronary angiography examinations are performed solely for diagnostic purposes. Multislice CT enables noninvasive study of the coronary arteries. This technique involves many professionals from different specialties and is constantly evolving. This article aims to provide an initiation to the fundamentals of multislice CT coronary angiography. We describe the classification of coronary arteries, as well as the normal anatomy, anatomical variants, and anomalies of the origin and course of the coronary arteries in axial images, in maximum intensity reconstructions, and in volumetric reconstructions. We also describe the myocardial segments and their vascularization.

  17. Cochlear implantation in children with anomalous cochleovestibular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Pakdaman, Michael N; Herrmann, Barbara S; Curtin, Hugh D; Van Beek-King, Jessica; Lee, Daniel J

    2012-02-01

    Our aim was to determine the influence of inner-ear anomalies on surgical difficulty and postoperative audiologic outcomes among pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients at our institution. We reviewed medical and audiologic records from 78 consecutive pediatric CI cases between 1985 and June 2009. Thirty patients had high-resolution temporal bone computed tomography imaging available for retrospective interpretation. Seven of these 30 patients (23%) had cochleovestibular dysplasia. Fifty percent of patients with severe dysplasia had a cerebrospinal fluid gusher intraoperatively, compared with 13% of patients with no dysplasia. Of patients with available audiologic outcome data, 17 of 26 patients with normal/mild/moderate dysplasia were able to complete CNC testing, whereas neither of the 2 patients with severe dysplasia could complete the open set test. Our experience suggests that surgical difficulty and audiologic outcomes in pediatric CI recipients may be affected by the presence and severity of a cochleovestibular anomaly.

  18. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys.

  19. Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Anatomy of the Normal Orbit and Eye of the Horse.

    PubMed

    D'Août, C; Nisolle, J F; Navez, M; Perrin, R; Launois, T; Brogniez, L; Clegg, P; Hontoir, F; Vandeweerd, J M

    2015-10-01

    Traumatic and infectious diseases of the eye and orbit can occur in horses. For diagnosis and monitoring of such diseases, medical imaging is useful including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of the current study was to describe CT and MRI anatomy of the equine orbit and ocular globe. The heads from four adult horses were scanned with a 6-slice Emotion 6 CT (Siemens, Erlangen), and a 3.0 Tesla Siemens Verio 6 MRI using T1 and T2-weighted sequences. To validate CT and MR reference images, these were compared with anatomical models and gross anatomical sections. The bony limits of the orbital cavity, the relationship of the orbit with sinuses and foramina of the skull were well identified by CT. MRI was useful to observe soft tissues and was able to identify adnexae of the ocular globe (eyelids, periorbital fat, extraocular muscles, lacrymal and tarsal glands). Although MRI was able to identify all components of the eye (including the posterior chamber), it could not differentiate sclera from choroid and retina. The only nerve identified was the optic nerve. Vessels were not seen in this series of cadaver heads. This study showed that CT and MRI are useful techniques to image the equine orbit and eye that can have clinical applications. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Visual Attention in Children with Normal Hearing, Children with Hearing Aids, and Children with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharpe, Anne Marie; Ashmead, Daniel H.; Rothpletz, Ann M.

    2002-01-01

    This study compared visual attention in 18 prelingually deaf children (half with cochlear implants and half with hearing aids) and 10 normal hearing children. Unlike previous studies, children in all three groups performed similarly on a continuous-performance visual attention task and on a letter cancellation task. Only age and nonverbal…

  1. Normal variations of oral anatomy and common oral soft tissue lesions: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Madani, Farideh M; Kuperstein, Arthur S

    2014-11-01

    Examination of the oral cavity can provide significant diagnostic information regarding the general health of the patient. The oral cavity is affected by a multitude of pathologic conditions of variable cause and significance; however, there are numerous normal variations of oral soft tissue structures that may resemble a pathologic state. Understanding these variations assists practitioners to discriminate between normal versus abnormal findings and determine the appropriate course of management, if necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rejane G; Costa, Ana Paula A; Bragato, Nathália; Fonseca, Angela M; Duque, Juan C M; Prado, Tales D; Silva, Andrea C R; Borges, Naida C

    2013-06-23

    The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera.

  3. Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. Results The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Conclusions Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera. PMID:23800301

  4. Facial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Surgical anatomy of the first extensor compartment: A systematic review and comparison of normal cadavers vs. De Quervain syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Z-Hye; Stranix, J T; Anzai, Lavinia; Sharma, Sheel

    2017-01-01

    De Quervain syndrome or tenosynovitis is a common wrist pathology caused by stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment. Multiple studies have demonstrated significant anatomic variation within the first extensor compartment. The terms "De Quervain's tenosynovitis" and "first extensor compartment anatomy" were comprehensively searched using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane database. The presence of a septum within the first dorsal compartment, the number of APL (abductor pollicis longus), and EPB (extensor pollicis brevis) tendon slips were identified. A total of 574 articles were identified on initial search, of which 21 met inclusion criteria. There were 1901 normal cadaver specimens and 470 surgically treated De Quervain disease patients, whose data were available. A septum was present in 43.7% of normal cadavers versus 62.2% De Quervain patients with 58.5% (327 of 559) of the septi characterized as incomplete. There was a difference in the number of APL tendons with a single APL tendon slip noted in 18.3% of normal cadavers (200/1096) versus 27.2% of De Quervain patients (87/230). There was a difference in the number of EPB tendons between the normal cadavers and De Quervain's wrists with 2 or more EPB tendinous slips observed in 5.9% of normal cadavers compared with 2.9% of De Quervain patients. Significant anatomic variability exists within the first extensor compartment. Patients with De Quervain disease were more likely to have a septum dividing the compartment and a single slip of APL. These variations are clinically relevant in the pathophysiology and treatment of De Quervain's tenosynovitis. Prognostic studies. Level III. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The anatomy at the lamina cribrosa in the normal cat eye.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Bade, B

    1982-10-01

    In normal cat eyes, the mean cross-sectional area of the nerve fiber bundles is greater in the temporal than in the nasal lamina cribrosa. The area occupied by the interbundle trabeculae is less in the temporal sectors than in the nasal sectors of the nerve. The number and the shape of the laminar pores are similar in all nerve sectors.

  7. Short posterior ciliary artery anatomy in normal and acutely glaucomatous dogs.

    PubMed

    Fick, Catherine M; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the total number and luminal areas of the short posterior ciliary arteries (SPCA) surrounding the canine optic nerve at the level of the sclera/lamina cribrosa in normal dogs and compare this data to dogs with a history of acute (≤7 days) glaucoma. Twelve normal globes were obtained through Harlan Laboratories, the UW-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine necropsy service and via enucleation submissions to the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (COPLOW). Ten globes with a history of acute glaucoma were obtained from submissions to the COPLOW. Optic nerves were cross-sectioned in 20 micron steps, and five distinct levels were identified: the retinal nerve fiber layer; the retinal pigmented epithelium and neural canal opening; the choroid/pre-lamina; the sclera/lamina cribrosa; and the retro-lamina. At the level of the sclera/lamina cribrosa, SPCA profiles were counted and the luminal area was measured using Cell Sens software. Normal and glaucomatous globes were compared using ANOVA. Statistically significant smaller luminal areas and fewer numbers of arteries were recorded between normal and glaucomatous globes. The glaucomatous eyes in this study have SPCA with decreased lumina, suggestive of a vascular pathology present at the early stages of clinical glaucoma. Smaller lumina may be a contributing factor to the ischemia, necrosis, and the eventual full-thickness retinal atrophy often seen in glaucomatous dogs. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Intramammary Findings on CT of the Chest – a Review of Normal Anatomy and Possible Findings

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Summary Computed tomography (CT) is a frequently performed examination in women of all ages. In all thoracic CT examinations of the chest at least parts of the breasts are included. Therefore incidental breast pathology may be observed. It has been suggested that one out of 250 women undergoing chest CT will show a malignant incidental breast lesion. Given the high number of performed chest CT examinations, this contributes to a significant number of malignancies. In this review, after a brief discussion of the value of computed tomography in breast imaging, normal and pathologic findings are discussed to create awareness of this potential “black box” on chest CT. PMID:28058068

  9. Parasitic diarrhea in normal and malnourished children.

    PubMed

    Gendrel, D; Treluyer, J M; Richard-Lenoble, D

    2003-04-01

    Diarrhea is only one of the many manifestations of intestinal parasites. Environmental influences are inescapable, regardless of an individual's state of health: in a highly endemic region, intestinal parasitic colonization is almost the rule. The clinical expression of the parasitoses, however, is largely determined by host defenses; and when they are weakened, parasitic diarrhea is frequent and severe. Protein-energy malnutrition is by far the most important cause of immune deficiency in developing countries. Diarrhea caused by Strongyloides or Giardia is common and severe in malnourished children, while well-nourished children remain healthy carriers. These parasites require specific treatment in the malnourished; and the well-nourished should have preventive treatment when they are to receive corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents. Diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium spp. may be severe in malnourished or immunodeficient children, and recovery is achieved only after renutrition or treatment of the immunodeficiency.

  10. Differences Between Children with Attention Deficit Disorder, Children with Specific Learning Disabilities, and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehne, Cheryl; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated power of five measures to differentiate between normal children and children with Attention Deficit Disorder or Specific Learning Disabilities. Discriminant analysis revealed that Connors Parent Questionnaire was best predictor of group membership, followed in order by Connors Teacher Questionnaire, Porteus Mazes Test, and Matching…

  11. Optic radiation structure and anatomy in the normally developing brain determined using diffusion MRI and tractography.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Michael; Munoz, Monica; Jentschke, Sebastian; Chadwick, Martin J; Cooper, Janine M; Riney, Kate; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Clark, Chris A

    2015-01-01

    The optic radiation (OR) is a component of the visual system known to be myelin mature very early in life. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and its unique ability to reconstruct the OR in vivo were used to study structural maturation through analysis of DTI metrics in a cohort of 90 children aged 5-18 years. As the OR is at risk of damage during epilepsy surgery, we measured its position relative to characteristic anatomical landmarks. Anatomical distances, DTI metrics and volume of the OR were investigated for age, gender and hemisphere effects. We observed changes in DTI metrics with age comparable to known trajectories in other white matter tracts. Left lateralization of DTI metrics was observed that showed a gender effect in lateralization. Sexual dimorphism of DTI metrics in the right hemisphere was also found. With respect to OR dimensions, volume was shown to be right lateralised and sexual dimorphism demonstrated for the extent of the left OR. The anatomical results presented for the OR have potentially important applications for neurosurgical planning.

  12. Laparoscopic reversal of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass into normal anatomy with or without sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Vilallonga, Ramon; van de Vrande, Simon; Himpens, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to describe and analyze the outcomes after laparoscopic reversal to normal anatomy (NA) with or without concomitant "sleeve gastrectomy" (SG), after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Reversal has been proposed as corrective strategy after RYGB. We propose a retrospective analysis of a prospectively kept database. From January 2005 to October 2012, 20 female patients underwent laparoscopic reversal after RYGB for one or more of the following conditions: hypoglycaemic syndrome (nine patients), weight regain (six patients), severe dumping (six patients), and cachexia (two patients). Preoperative BMI was 28.0 (19.2-40.3) kg/m². Reversal was performed to NA in ten patients and included a SG procedure in another ten. Postoperative complications included one bleeding and three leaks (15%; all in SG patients). Mean hospital stay was 7 days. Mortality was 0. With a mean follow-up of 11.5 months, all but one patient recovered from their initial condition. However, three developed severe gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and three had chronic diarrhoea. Outcomes of laparoscopic reversal of RYGB are good, but complications may occur when SG is added. The surgical alterations caused by the reversal may explain the GERD or diarrhoea experienced by some patients.

  13. [Ultrasound and color Doppler applications in nephrology. The normal kidney: anatomy, vessels and congenital anomalies].

    PubMed

    Meola, Mario; Petrucci, Ilaria; Giovannini, Lisa; Samoni, Sara; Dellafiore, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Gray-scale ultrasound is the diagnostic technique of choice in patients with suspected or known renal disease. Knowledge of the normal and abnormal sonographic morphology of the kidney and urinary tract is essential for a successful diagnosis. Conventional sonography must always be complemented by Doppler sampling of the principal arterial and venous vessels. B-mode scanning is performed with the patient in supine, prone or side position. The kidney can be imaged by the anterior, lateral or posterior approach using coronal, transverse and oblique scanning planes. Morphological parameters that must be evaluated are the coronal diameter, the parenchymal thickness and echogenicity, the structure and state of the urinary tract, and the presence of congenital anomalies that may mimic a pseudomass. The main renal artery and the hilar-intraparenchymal branches of the arterial and venous vessels should be accurately evaluated using color Doppler. Measurement of intraparenchymal resistance indices (IP, IR) provides an indirect and quantitative parameter of the stiffness and eutrophic or dystrophic remodeling of the intrarenal microvasculature. These parameters differ depending on age, diabetic and hypertensive disease, chronic renal glomerular disease, and interstitial, vascular and obstructive nephropathy.

  14. Metabolic cost, mechanical work, and efficiency during normal walking in obese and normal-weight children.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Walt, Sharon

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood obesity on energetic cost during normal walking and to determine if obese children choose a walking strategy optimizing their gait pattern. Sixteen obese children with no functional abnormalities were matched by age and gender with 16 normal-weight children. All participants were asked to walk along a nearly circular track 30 m in length at a self-selected speed. Spatiotemporal data, kinematics, and ground reaction force were collected during walking using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Metabolic cost was collected by a portable gas analyzer simultaneously. The mechanical energy expenditure (MEE) was 72.7% higher in obese children than in normal-weight children. The net metabolic cost was 65.7% higher in obese children. No difference was found in the metabolic rate (J x kg(-1) x m(-1)), normalized MEE (J x kg(-1) x m(-1)) and mechanical efficiency between the obese and normal-weight groups. The obese children walked with a 0.15 m/s slower walking speed, 10.0% shorter cadence, and 30.9% longer double-support phase compared with normal-weight children. In addition, no differences were found in the mediolateral and vertical body center of mass displacement. Body mass played a dominant role in the total metabolic and mechanical cost per stride. Obese children may adopt a walking strategy to avoid an increase in the metabolic cost and the mechanical work required to move their excess body mass.

  15. The Assessment of Effectance Motivation in Normal and Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; Zigler, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Several measures of effectance motivation were constructed; their validity was assessed by administering them to groups of subjects whose effectance motivation was assumed to differ: normal, noninstitutionalized retarded, and institutionalized children matched on mental age. (CS)

  16. A Comparative Dermatoglyphic Study of Autistic, Retarded, and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartin, Phillip J.; Barry, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    Significant differences were found between the autistic and normal children for distribution of dermal patterns and ridge line disruption, but no significant differences were found for the total mean ridge counts or mean ridge count rankings. (Author)

  17. CT and myelography of the spine and cord: techniques, anatomy and pathology in children

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, H.; Nash, C.F.H.

    1982-01-01

    This book is a concise presentation of CT metrizamide myelography in children and young adults. A description of the technical approaches, documentation of the normal development of the spine, and a survey of normal spinal cord dimens are presented. A broad range of abnormal states is briefly discussed.

  18. Cochlear implanted children present vocal parameters within normal standards.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Lourdes Bernadete Rocha; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Coelho, Ana Cristina

    2012-08-01

    to compare acoustic and perceptual parameters regarding the voice of cochlear implanted children, with normal hearing children. this is a cross-sectional, quantitative and qualitative study. Thirty six cochlear implanted children aged between 3 y and 3 m to 5 y and 9 m and 25 children with normal hearing, aged between 3 y and 11 m and 6 y and 6 m, participated in this study. The recordings and the acoustics analysis of the sustained vowel/a/and spontaneous speech were performed using the PRAAT program. The parameters analyzed for the sustained vowel were the mean of the fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer and harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR). For the spontaneous speech, the minimum and maximum frequencies and the number of semitones were extracted. The perceptual analysis of the speech material was analyzed using visual-analogical scales of 100 points, composing the aspects related to the overall severity of the vocal deviation, roughness, breathiness, strain, pitch, loudness and resonance deviation, and instability. This last parameter was only analyzed for the sustained vowel. The results demonstrated that the majority of the vocal parameters analyzed in the samples of the implanted children disclosed values similar to those obtained by the group of children with normal hearing. implanted children who participate in a (re) habilitation and follow-up program, can present vocal characteristics similar to those vocal characteristics of children with normal hearing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Racial Variations in Velopharyngeal and Craniometric Morphology in Children: An Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollara, Lakshmi; Perry, Jamie L.; Hudson, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine craniometric and velopharyngeal anatomy among young children (4-8 years of age) with normal anatomy across Black and White racial groups. Method: Thirty-two healthy children (16 White and 16 Black) with normal velopharyngeal anatomy participated and successfully completed the magnetic resonance…

  20. Racial Variations in Velopharyngeal and Craniometric Morphology in Children: An Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollara, Lakshmi; Perry, Jamie L.; Hudson, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine craniometric and velopharyngeal anatomy among young children (4-8 years of age) with normal anatomy across Black and White racial groups. Method: Thirty-two healthy children (16 White and 16 Black) with normal velopharyngeal anatomy participated and successfully completed the magnetic resonance…

  1. Adolescents' Perceptions of Normal and Voice-Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This investigation compared 19 adolescents' perceptions of the nonspeech personality characteristics of voice-disordered and normal-speaking children. Listeners, who rated recorded speech samples, showed a significant tendency to judge the normal speakers more positively than the voice-disordered speakers. Results suggest developmental trends in…

  2. Visual and Auditory Learning Processes in Normal Children and Children with Specific Learning Disabilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrady, Harold J.; Olson, Don A.

    To describe and compare the psychosensory functioning of normal children and children with specific learning disabilities, 62 learning disabled and 68 normal children were studied. Each child was given a battery of thirteen subtests on an automated psychosensory system representing various combinations of auditory and visual intra- and…

  3. The anatomic basis for ventricular arrhythmia in the normal heart: what the student of anatomy needs to know.

    PubMed

    Hai, Jo Jo; Lachman, Nirusha; Syed, Faisal F; Desimone, Christopher V; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2014-09-01

    The traditional route for teaching cardiac anatomy involves didactic instruction, cadaver dissections, and familiarization with the main structure and relationships of the cardiac chambers, valves, and vasculature. In contemporary cardiac electrophysiology, however, a very different view of anatomy is required including details rarely appreciated with a general overview. In this review, we discuss the critical advances in cardiac electrophysiology that were possible only because of understanding detailed anatomic relationships. While we briefly discuss the clinical relevance, we explain in depth the necessary structural information for the student of clinical anatomy. Interspersed through the text are boxes that highlight and summarize the critical pieces of knowledge to be borne in mind while studying the fascinating structural anatomy of the human heart. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Factors associated with second-trimester pregnancy loss in women with normal uterine anatomy undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Hawkins Bressler, Leah; Correia, Katharine F; Srouji, Serene S; Hornstein, Mark D; Missmer, Stacey A

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate factors associated with second-trimester pregnancy loss in patients with normal uterine anatomy who conceived through in vitro fertilization. Women aged 21-44 years with ongoing in vitro fertilization pregnancy (at least one fetus with fetal heart tones at 12 weeks of gestation) at an academic hospital from 2001 to 2012 were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective cohort. Comprehensive uterine evaluation permitted inclusion of only women with anatomically normal uterine cavities. Maternal and clinical characteristics associated with spontaneous second-trimester pregnancy loss (between 12 1/7 and 23 6/7 weeks of gestation) were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression generated adjusted odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and Wald two-sided P values. Among ongoing second-trimester pregnancies, 60 (2.1%) ended in spontaneous pregnancy loss and 2,841 (97.9%) ended in live birth. Multiple gestations (twins or more) conferred greater odds of pregnancy loss (adjusted OR 1.93, CI 1.15-3.24, P=.01) and were more prevalent among losses (48.3%) than live births (34.1%). Uterine leiomyomas were present in 16.7% of losses and 4.7% of live births and were associated with a nearly fourfold increased odds of second-trimester pregnancy loss (adjusted OR 3.82, CI 1.85-7.89, P<.001). Women with obese body mass index ([BMI] 30 or higher) at cycle start experienced twofold greater odds of pregnancy loss compared with normal-weight women (adjusted OR 2.38, CI 1.05-5.65, P=.04). There were eight obese women (32%) among losses and 209 obese women (16.5%) among live births. In vitro fertilization treatment parameters were not associated with odds of second-trimester loss nor were maternal age, ethnicity, or history of recurrent pregnancy loss. Odds of second-trimester spontaneous pregnancy loss among in vitro fertilization conceived pregnancies were greater with multiple gestations, leiomyomas, and obese maternal BMI. II.

  5. Cephalic Index in the First Three Years of Life: Study of Children with Normal Brain Development Based on Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bajor, Grzegorz; Gruszczyńska, Katrzyna; Baron, Jan; Markowski, Jarosław; Machnikowska-Sokołowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Cephalic index is a highly useful method for planning surgical procedures, as well as assessing their effectiveness in correcting cranial deformations in children. There are relatively very few studies measuring cephalic index in healthy Caucasian young children. The aim of our study was to develop a classification of current cephalic index for healthy Caucasian children up to 3 years of age with normal brain development, using axial slice computer tomography performed with very thin slices (0.5 mm) resulting in more accurate measurements. 180 healthy infants (83 females and 97 males) were divided into 5 age categories: 0–3, 4–6, 7–12, 13–24, and 25–36 months. The average value of cephalic index in children up to 3 years of age amounted to 81.45 ± 7.06. The index value in case of children under 3 months was 80.19, 4 to 6 months was 81.45, 7 to 12 months was 83.15, in children under 2 years was 81.05, and in children under 3 years was 79.76. Mesocephaly is the dominating skull shape in children. In this study, we formulated a classification of current cephalic indices of children with normal brain development. Our date appears to be of utmost importance in anthropology, anatomy forensic medicine, and genetics. PMID:24688395

  6. Microscopic anatomy: normal structure.

    PubMed

    King, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    A peripheral nerve trunk is composed of nerve fascicles supported in a fibrous collagenous sheath and defined by concentric layers of cells (the perineurium) that separate the contents (the endoneurium) from its fibrous collagen support (the epineurium). In the endoneurium are myelinated and unmyelinated fibers that are axons combined with their supporting Schwann cells to provide physical and electrical connections with end-organs such as muscle fibers and sensory endings. Axons are tubular neuronal extensions with a cytoskeleton of neurotubules and tubulin along which organelles and proteins can travel between the neuronal cell body and the axon terminal. During development some axons enlarge and are covered by a chain of Schwann cells each associated with just one axon. As the axons grow in diameter, the Schwann cells wrap round them to produce a myelin sheath. This consists of many layers of compacted Schwann cell membrane plus some additional proteins. Adjacent myelin segments connect at highly specialized structures, the nodes of Ranvier. Myelin insulates the axon so that the nerve impulse can jump from one node to the next. The region adjacent to the node, the paranodal segment, is the site of myelin terminations on the axolemma. There are connections here between the Schwann cell and the axon via a complex chain of proteins. The Schwann cell cytoplasm in the adjacent segment, the juxtaparanode, contains most of the Schwann cell mitochondria. In addition to the node, continuity of myelin lamellae is broken at intervals along the internode by helical regions of decompaction known as Schmidt-Lanterman incisures; these are seen as paler conical segments in suitably stained microscopical preparations and provide a pathway between the adaxonal and abaxonal cytoplasm. Smaller axons without a myelin sheath conduct very much more slowly and have a more complex relationship with their supporting Schwann cells that has important implications for repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Connected speech intelligibility of children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Chin, Steven B; Tsai, Patrick L; Gao, Sujuan

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the connected speech intelligibility of children who use cochlear implants with that of children who have normal hearing. Previous research has shown that speech intelligibility improves from before cochlear implantation to after implantation and that the speech intelligibility of children who use cochlear implants compares favorably with that of children who use conventional hearing aids. However, no research has yet addressed the question of how the speech intelligibility of children who use cochlear implants compares to that of children with normal hearing. In the current study, archival data on connected speech intelligibility from 51 children with cochlear implants were compared with newly collected data from 47 children with normal hearing. Results showed that for children with cochlear implants, greater intelligibility was associated with both increased chronological age and increased duration of cochlear implant use. Consistent with previous studies, children with normal hearing achieved adult-like or near-adult-like intelligibility around the age of 4 years, but a similar peak in intelligibility was not observed for the children who used cochlear implants. On the whole, children with cochlear implants were significantly less intelligible than children with normal hearing, when controlling both for chronological age and for length of auditory experience. These results have implications for the socialization and education of children with cochlear implants, particularly with respect to on-time placement in mainstream educational environments with age peers.

  8. Defining the surface anatomy of the central venous system in children.

    PubMed

    Tarr, Gregory P; Pak, Neda; Taghavi, Kiarash; Iwan, Tom; Dumble, Charlotte; Davies-Payne, David; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2016-03-01

    Pediatric emergency physicians, pediatric critical care specialists, and pediatric surgeons perform central venous catheterization in many clinical settings. Complications of the procedure are not uncommon and can be fatal. Despite the frequency of application, the evidence-base describing the surface landmarks involved is missing. The aim of the current study was to critically investigate the surface markings of the central venous system in children. The superior vena cava/right atrial (SVC/RA) junction, superior vena cava (SVC) formation, and brachiocephalic vein (BCV) formation were examined independently by two investigators. Three hundred computed tomography (CT) scans collected across multiple centers were categorized by age group into: 0-3 years, 4-7 years, and 8-11 years. Scans with pathology that distorted or obscured the regional anatomy were excluded. The BCV formation was commonly found behind the ipsilateral medial clavicular head throughout childhood. This contrasts with the variable levels of SVC formation, SVC length, and SVC/RA junction. In the youngest group, SVC formation was most commonly at the second costal cartilage (CC), but moved to the first CC/first intercostal space (ICS) as the child grew. The SVC/RA junction was at the fourth CC in the youngest group and moved to the third CC/third ICS as the child grew. This study demonstrates the variable anatomy of SVC formation and the SVC/RA junction with respect to rib level. This variability underscores the unreliability of surface anatomical landmarks of the SVC/RA junction as a guide to catheter tip position. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Coronary anatomy in children with bicuspid aortic valves and associated congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Koenraadt, Wilke M C; Bartelings, Margot M; Bökenkamp, Regina; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; DeRuiter, Marco C; Schalij, Martin J; Jongbloed, Monique Rm

    2017-07-27

    In patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), coronary anatomy is variable. High take-off coronary arteries have been described, but data are scarce, especially when associated with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). The purpose of this study was to describe coronary patterns in these patients. In 84 postmortem heart specimens with BAV and associated CHD, position and height of the coronary ostia were studied and related to BAV morphology. High take-off right (RCA) and left coronary arteries (LCA) were observed in 23% and 37% of hearts, respectively, most frequently in hearts with hypoplastic left ventricle (HLV) and outflow tract anomalies. In HLV, high take-off was observed in 18/40 (45%) more frequently of LCA (n=14) than RCA (n=6). In hearts with aortic hypoplasia, 8/13 (62%) had high take-off LCA and 6/13 (46%) high take-off RCA. High take-off was seen 19 times in 22 specimens with perimembranous ventricular septal defect (RCA 8, LCA 11). High take-off was associated with type 1A BAV (raphe between right and left coronary leaflets), more outspoken for the RCA. Separate ostia of left anterior descending coronary artery and left circumflex coronary artery were seen in four hearts (5%), not related to specific BAV morphology. High take-off coronary arteries, especially the LCA, occur more frequently in BAV with associated CHD than reported in normal hearts and isolated BAV. Outflow tract defects and HLV are associated with type 1A BAV and high take-off coronary arteries. Although it is unclear whether these findings in infants with detrimental outcome can be related to surviving adults, clinical awareness of variations in coronary anatomy is warranted. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Prevalence of periodic limb movements during sleep in normal children.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Carole L; Traylor, Joel; Gallagher, Paul R; Brooks, Lee J; Huang, Jingtao; Koren, Dorit; Katz, Lorraine; Mason, Thornton B A; Tapia, Ignacio E

    2014-08-01

    Although the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) mandates that periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) be scored on every polysomnogram, and considers a periodic limb movement index (PLMI) > 5/h abnormal in children, there is a lack of community-derived data regarding the prevalence of PLMS in children, and no data to support this cutoff value. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PLMS in a sample of normal children. Retrospective study. 195 healthy, non-snoring children aged 5-17 years, recruited from the community, who underwent polysomnography for research purposes. PLMS were scored using the AASM 2007 criteria. The group age (median [IQR]) was 12.9 [10-15] years, and 58% were male. Sleep architecture was normal, and the obstructive apnea hypopnea index was 0.1 [0-0.3]/h. The median PLMI was 0/h, ranging from 0 to 35.5/h. Fifteen (7.7%) subjects had a PLMI > 5/h, and only 3 (1.5%) met the adult pathologic criterion of more than 15/h. Use of the 95th percentile PLMI cutoff of 7.2/h produced little difference in categorization between groups. Children with a PLMI > 5/h had a higher arousal index than those with a lower PLMI (11.6 [8.8-14.6] vs 8.1 [6.1-9.9]/h, respectively, P = 0.003). This study provides normative data to the field and supports the clinical periodic limb movement index cutoff of > 5/h based on both prevalence and the correlate of increased sleep fragmentation. Periodic limb movements during sleep are infrequent in normal children recruited from the community. Marcus CL, Traylor J, Gallagher PR, Brooks LJ, Huang J, Koren D, Katz L, Mason TB, Tapia IE. Prevalence of periodic limb movements during sleep in normal children.

  11. RESPONSES OF BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN TO LEARNING TASKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARRIER, NEIL A.; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE VARIABLES OF INTELLIGENCE, LEARNING TASK PERFORMANCE, EMOTIONAL TENSION, AND TASK MOTIVATION WERE STUDIED. ABOUT 120 BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN PERFORMED SIX TRIALS OF NUMBER LEARNING, CONCEPT FORMATION, PROBLEM SOLVING, PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION, AND VERBAL LEARNING TASKS. DURING THE LEARNING SESSIONS,…

  12. Listeners' Perceptions of Nonspeech Characteristics of Normal and Dysarthric Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The comparison of listeners' evaluations of nonspeech characteristics of eight dysarthric (due to cerebral palsy) and eight normal speaking children (ages 6-11) found that dysarthric speech adversely affected listeners' perceptions of the dysarthric speakers' personality and physical appearance characteristics. (Author/DB)

  13. RESPONSES OF BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN TO LEARNING TASKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARRIER, NEIL A.; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE VARIABLES OF INTELLIGENCE, LEARNING TASK PERFORMANCE, EMOTIONAL TENSION, AND TASK MOTIVATION WERE STUDIED. ABOUT 120 BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN PERFORMED SIX TRIALS OF NUMBER LEARNING, CONCEPT FORMATION, PROBLEM SOLVING, PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION, AND VERBAL LEARNING TASKS. DURING THE LEARNING SESSIONS,…

  14. Anticipatory Imagery Ability in Normal and Language-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Patricia A.

    1984-01-01

    five spatial tasks were administered to two groups of seven and one-half to nine and one-half year olds: 18 language-disabled and 18 children with normal language development. The language-disabled were less accurate on all tasks which involved anticipation or prediction of mental rotations, movements, or other transformations. (Author/CL)

  15. Diabetic Children Need Care but Can Lead Normal Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Children with diabetes can take part in normal school activities as long as they maintain control over their blood sugar level through a technique called self blood-glucose monitoring. Parents can work with teachers to see that dietary and medicinal needs are accommodated. (PP)

  16. Psychological interventions for symptomatic management of non-specific chest pain in patients with normal coronary anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve R; Campbell, Leslie A; Yelland, Michael J; Paydar, Anita

    2015-06-30

    Recurrent chest pain in the absence of coronary artery disease is a common problem which sometimes leads to excess use of medical care. Although many studies have examined the causes of pain in these patients, few clinical trials have evaluated treatment. This is an update of a Cochrane review originally published in 2005 and last updated in 2010. The studies reviewed in this paper provide an insight into the effectiveness of psychological interventions for this group of patients. To assess the effects of psychological interventions for chest pain, quality of life and psychological parameters in people with non-specific chest pain. We searched the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, Issue 4 of 12, 2014 and DARE Issue 2 of 4, 2014), MEDLINE (OVID, 1966 to April week 4 2014), EMBASE (OVID, 1980 to week 18 2014), CINAHL (EBSCO, 1982 to April 2014), PsycINFO (OVID, 1887 to April week 5 2014) and BIOSIS Previews (Web of Knowledge, 1969 to 2 May 2014). We also searched citation lists and contacted study authors. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with standardised outcome methodology that tested any form of psychotherapy for chest pain with normal anatomy. Diagnoses included non-specific chest pain (NSCP), atypical chest pain, syndrome X or chest pain with normal coronary anatomy (as either inpatients or outpatients). Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed quality of studies. We contacted trial authors for further information about the included RCTs. We included two new papers, one of which was an update of a previously included study. Therefore, a total of 17 RCTs with 1006 randomised participants met the inclusion criteria, with the one new study contributing an additional 113 participants. There was a significant reduction in reports of chest pain in the first three months following the intervention: random-effects relative risk = 0.70 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.92). This was maintained from three to nine months afterwards

  17. Vocal Frequency Measures in Normal Speaking Children and Children with Vocal Deviations. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeper, Herbert A., Jr.; Iverson, Rachel L.

    The report examines vocal frequency differences between normal speaking children and 65 children (mean age 9-years) with vocal nodules and accompanying vocal quality disturbances. In part I of the study children were screened by a physician and their voices were recorded and analyzed by a digitizer-computer system for mean vocal frequency,…

  18. Longitudinal Changes in Auditory Discrimination in Normal Children and Children with Language-Learning Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Lois L.; Hammer, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    Using a set of fine-grained auditory discrimination tasks, 21 children with language-learning problems were compared with 21 normal children, aged six-nine. Across three years, children with language-learning problems showed poorer auditory discrimination for temporally based acoustic differences, poorer receptive vocabulary and language…

  19. [Comparison of functional activity performance in normally developing children and children with cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Mancini, Marisa C; Fiúza, Patrícia M; Rebelo, Jerusa M; Magalhães, Lívia C; Coelho, Zélia A C; Paixao, Maria Lúcia; Gontijo, Ana Paula B; Fonseca, Sérgio T

    2002-06-01

    To compare the pattern of self-care performance in normal children and children with cerebral palsy (CP). 142 normal children and 33 children with CP were evaluated by 22 items from the self-care scale of the PEDI functional test. Rasch methodology transformed scores into interval measures of difficulty from 0 to 100 (logit). Spearman rank correlation coefficient compared the order of logits in the two groups. Eleven items showed significant differences in the logit values received. Out of these, 7 items showed relative difficulty values greater in the group of children with CP and 4 items showed relative difficulty values greater among normal children. A significant correlation was observed in the order of the 22 items displayed in the two interval scales. The results suggest that the development of self-care functional activities may be influenced by the presence of CP. These results may support assessment and intervention strategies for children with neuromotor disorders.

  20. Patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Seth L; Plackis, Andreas C; Nuelle, Clayton W

    2014-07-01

    Patellofemoral disorders are common. There is a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from patellofemoral pain and instability to focal cartilage disease and arthritis. Regardless of the specific condition, abnormal anatomy and biomechanics are often the root cause of patellofemoral dysfunction. A thorough understanding of normal patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics is critical for the treating physician. Recognizing and addressing abnormal anatomy will optimize patellofemoral biomechanics and may ultimately translate into clinical success. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-monitoring of listening abilities in normal-hearing children, normal-hearing adults, and children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Rothpletz, Ann M; Wightman, Frederic L; Kistler, Doris J

    2012-03-01

    Self-monitoring has been shown to be an essential skill for various aspects of our lives, including our health, education, and interpersonal relationships. Likewise, the ability to monitor one's speech reception in noisy environments may be a fundamental skill for communication, particularly for those who are often confronted with challenging listening environments, such as students and children with hearing loss. The purpose of this project was to determine if normal-hearing children, normal-hearing adults, and children with cochlear implants can monitor their listening ability in noise and recognize when they are not able to perceive spoken messages. Participants were administered an Objective-Subjective listening task in which their subjective judgments of their ability to understand sentences from the Coordinate Response Measure corpus presented in speech spectrum noise were compared to their objective performance on the same task. Participants included 41 normal-hearing children, 35 normal-hearing adults, and 10 children with cochlear implants. On the Objective-Subjective listening task, the level of the masker noise remained constant at 63 dB SPL, while the level of the target sentences varied over a 12 dB range in a block of trials. Psychometric functions, relating proportion correct (Objective condition) and proportion perceived as intelligible (Subjective condition) to target/masker ratio (T/M), were estimated for each participant. Thresholds were defined as the T/M required to produce 51% correct (Objective condition) and 51% perceived as intelligible (Subjective condition). Discrepancy scores between listeners' threshold estimates in the Objective and Subjective conditions served as an index of self-monitoring ability. In addition, the normal-hearing children were administered tests of cognitive skills and academic achievement, and results from these measures were compared to findings on the Objective-Subjective listening task. Nearly half of the

  2. Self-Monitoring of Listening Abilities in Normal-Hearing Children, Normal-Hearing Adults, and Children with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Rothpletz, Ann M.; Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring has been shown to be an essential skill for various aspects of our lives, including our health, education, and interpersonal relationships. Likewise, the ability to monitor one’s speech reception in noisy environments may be a fundamental skill for communication, particularly for those who are often confronted with challenging listening environments, such as students and children with hearing loss. Purpose The purpose of this project was to determine if normal-hearing children, normal-hearing adults, and children with cochlear implants can monitor their listening ability in noise and recognize when they are not able to perceive spoken messages. Research Design Participants were administered an Objective-Subjective listening task in which their subjective judgments of their ability to understand sentences from the Coordinate Response Measure corpus presented in speech spectrum noise were compared to their objective performance on the same task. Study Sample Participants included 41 normal-hearing children, 35 normal-hearing adults, and 10 children with cochlear implants. Data Collection and Analysis On the Objective-Subjective listening task, the level of the masker noise remained constant at 63 dB SPL, while the level of the target sentences varied over a 12 dB range in a block of trials. Psychometric functions, relating proportion correct (Objective condition) and proportion perceived as intelligible (Subjective condition) to target/masker ratio (T/M), were estimated for each participant. Thresholds were defined as the T/M required to produce 51% correct (Objective condition) and 51% perceived as intelligible (Subjective condition). Discrepancy scores between listeners’ threshold estimates in the Objective and Subjective conditions served as an index of self-monitoring ability. In addition, the normal-hearing children were administered tests of cognitive skills and academic achievement, and results from these measures were compared

  3. Sylvian Fissure and Parietal Anatomy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Foundas, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social functioning and language and communication, with restricted interests or stereotyped behaviors. Anatomical differences have been found in the parietal cortex in children with ASD, but parietal subregions and associations between Sylvian fissure (SF) and parietal anatomy have not been explored. In this study, SF length and anterior and posterior parietal volumes were measured on MRI in 30 right-handed boys with ASD and 30 right-handed typically developing boys (7–14 years), matched on age and non-verbal IQ. There was leftward SF and anterior parietal asymmetry, and rightward posterior parietal asymmetry, across groups. There were associations between SF and parietal asymmetries, with slight group differences. Typical SF asymmetry was associated with typical anterior and posterior parietal asymmetry, in both groups. In the atypical SF asymmetry group, controls had atypical parietal asymmetry, whereas in ASD there were more equal numbers of individuals with typical as atypical anterior parietal asymmetry. We did not find significant anatomical-behavioral associations. Our findings of more individuals in the ASD group having a dissociation between cortical asymmetries warrants further investigation of these subgroups and emphasizes the importance of investigating anatomical relationships in addition to group differences in individual regions. PMID:22713374

  4. Embryology, normal anatomy, and imaging techniques of the hyoid and larynx with respect to forensic purposes: a review article.

    PubMed

    Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, Vidija; van Rijn, Rick R

    2008-01-01

    Experiences with pre- and postmortem imaging in a forensic setting create more and more interest. If autopsy is permitted, forensic pathologists perform careful examination of the neck structures, which plays an important role as this is decisive in the diagnostics of compressive neck injury. Primary tools are important: forensic pathologists and radiologists are supposed to be aware of the complex anatomy of the neck, especially the laryngeal region, to interprete their findings at autopsy and after imaging. It is of great interest whether CT and MR imaging techniques would be useful in comparing findings of autopsy and document findings if autopsy is refused. In the light of this, the embryology, anatomy and a review of imaging techniques of the neck will be highlighted in this article, with special attention to the value of updated imaging techniques of the larynx for forensic purposes in living people and postmortem.

  5. Knowledge of binding in normal and SLI children.

    PubMed

    Franks, S L; Connell, P J

    1996-06-01

    The properties of reflexives vary across adult languages with respect to (i) the domain in which a reflexive may be bound and (ii) the syntactic positions an appropriate antecedent may occupy. These two issues have been approached in GB theory in various ways, each with specific implications for acquisition. In this paper we examine these implications by testing normal and Specific Language Impaired (SLI) children for evidence of the binding domain and orientation properties of their grammars. The investigation reveals that, contrary to most previous claims, normal children acquiring English pass through a long-distance binding stage. SLI children, however, do not display this pattern, tending instead to behave like very young normal children in requiring the nearest available NP to be the antecedent. We argue that this constitutes an early binding stage not previously identified. Finally, we interpret our findings in terms of a conception of acquisition dubbed the 'competing grammars' model, according to which competing incompatible grammars may coexist in the mind of the learner.

  6. [Berger's disease in children: its form of presentation, pathological anatomy and evolution in 22 cases].

    PubMed

    Cabot Dalmau, A; Callis, L; Lara, E; Carreras, M

    1993-09-01

    We have reviewed 22 cases of Berger's disease in children (glomerular nephritis with mesangial IgA deposits), all of which were diagnosed by renal biopsy between 1976 and the present time. We describe the clinical and pathological findings in these patients. In addition, we put special emphasis on the evolution of the disease in relationship to some of the parameters that have been reported in the literature as being related to a bad prognosis of glomerular function such as, massive proteinuria at the onset of the disease, histological classification, presence of deposits of IgM or fibrinogen derivatives and glomerular sclerosis. All of the patients started with hematuria, 21 of which had gross hematuria (95%). Fourteen patients (63%) showed proteinuria (2 of which also had a temporary nephrotic syndrome). Five children showed some transient decrease in glomerular filtration rate and another patient rapidly developed renal failure and then end stage renal disease. We were able to follow 15 children for 3 years: 8 (53%) still showed outbreaks of gross hematuria, 5 (33%) only had microhematuria and 2 (14%) showed no signs of hematuria. Four children (27%) still had proteinuria. The glomerular filtration rate was still normal in all but two children (one with rapid evolution to end stage renal disease and another with a glomerular filtration decrease of 20%). Ten children were followed for 6 to 13 years. After 6 years, 2 (20%) still showed outbreaks of gross hematuria, 1 (10%) still had proteinuria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Working Capacity of Normal Children Tested on a Bicycle Ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, Gordon R.; Cumming, P. M.

    1963-01-01

    Working capacity defined as that work load performed at a minute pulse rate of 170 was determined in 200 school children aged 6 to 16 and in 40 young adults. Working capacity increased gradually with age and was greater in boys than girls at all ages. The range of normal was large. Working capacities of 11- and 12-year-old Winnipeg children in kg./M./min. were 384 for boys and 300 for girls, these values being 19 and 14% below comparable studies from California and Sweden. Working capacities of Winnipeg student nurses averaged 478 kg./M./min., half the value reported for nurses from Sweden. PMID:14024227

  8. Perceptual Development of Nasal Consonants in Children with Normal Hearing and in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillot, Kathryn M.; Ohde, Ralph N.; Hedrick, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to determine whether the perceptions of nasal consonants in children with normal hearing and children with cochlear implants were predicted by the discontinuity hypothesis. Methods: Four groups participated: 8 adults, 8 children with normal hearing (ages 5-7 years), 8 children with normal hearing (ages 3.5-4…

  9. Perceptual Development of Nasal Consonants in Children with Normal Hearing and in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillot, Kathryn M.; Ohde, Ralph N.; Hedrick, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to determine whether the perceptions of nasal consonants in children with normal hearing and children with cochlear implants were predicted by the discontinuity hypothesis. Methods: Four groups participated: 8 adults, 8 children with normal hearing (ages 5-7 years), 8 children with normal hearing (ages 3.5-4…

  10. Pharynx Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  11. Vulva Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  12. Larynx Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1350x1200 View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows ...

  13. Normal echocardiographic mitral and aortic valve thickness in children

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Rachel H; Culliford-Semmens, Nicola; Sidhu, Karishma; Wilson, Nigel J

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to define the normal range of aortic and mitral valve thickness in healthy schoolchildren from a high prevalence rheumatic heart disease (RHD) region, using a standardised protocol for imaging and measurement. Methods Measurements were performed in 288 children without RHD. Anterior mitral valve leaflet (AMVL) thickness measurements were performed at the midpoint and tip of the leaflet in the parasternal long axis (PSLA) in diastole, when the AMVL was approximately parallel to the ventricular septum. Thickness of the aortic valve was measured from PSLA imaging in systole when the leaflets were at maximum excursion. The right coronary and non-coronary closure lines of the aortic valve were measured in diastole in parasternal short axis (PSSA) imaging. Results were compared with 51 children with RHD classified by World Heart Federation diagnostic criteria. Results In normal children, median AMVL tip thickness was 2.0 mm (IQR 1.7–2.4) and median AMVL midpoint thickness 2.0 mm (IQR 1.7–2.4). The median aortic valve thickness was 1.5 mm (IQR 1.3–1.6) in the PSLA view and 1.4 mm (IQR 1.2–1.6) in the PSSA view. The interclass correlation coefficient for the AMVL tip was 0.85 (0.71 to 0.92) and for the AMVL midpoint was 0.77 (0.54 to 0.87). Conclusions We have described a standardised method for mitral and aortic valve measurement in children which is objective and reproducible. Normal ranges of left heart valve thickness in a high prevalence RHD population are established. These results provide a reference range for school-age children in high prevalence RHD regions undergoing echocardiographic screening. PMID:28405228

  14. Spatial hearing of normally hearing and cochlear implanted children

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, John; Summerfield, A. Quentin; O’Donoghue, Gerard M.; Moore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Spatial hearing uses both monaural and binaural mechanisms that require sensitive hearing for normal function. Deaf children using either bilateral (BCI) or unilateral (UCI) cochlear implants would thus be expected to have poorer spatial hearing than normally hearing (NH) children. However, the relationship between spatial hearing in these various listener groups has not previously been extensively tested under ecologically valid conditions using a homogeneous group of children who are UCI users. We predicted that NH listeners would outperform BCI listeners who would, in turn, outperform UCI listeners. Methods We tested two methods of spatial hearing to provide norms for NH and UCI using children and preliminary data for BCI users. NH children (n = 40) were age matched (6–15 years) to UCI (n = 12) and BCI (n = 6) listeners. Testing used a horizontal ring of loudspeakers within a booth in a hospital outpatient clinic. In a ‘lateral release’ task, single nouns were presented frontally, and masking noises were presented frontally, or 90° left or right. In a ‘localization’ task, allowing head movements, nouns were presented from loudspeakers separated by 30°, 60° or 120° about the midline. Results Normally hearing children improved with age in speech detection in noise, but not in quiet or in lateral release. Implant users performed more poorly on all tasks. For frontal signals and noise, UCI and BCI listeners did not differ. For lateral noise, BCI listeners performed better on both sides (within ∼2 dB of NH), whereas UCI listeners benefited only when the noise was opposite the unimplanted ear. Both the BCI and, surprisingly, the UCI listeners performed better than chance at all loudspeaker separations on the ecologically valid, localization task. However, the BCI listeners performed about twice as well and, in two cases, approached the performance of NH children. Conclusion Children using either UCI or BCI have useful spatial hearing

  15. Visual scanning and reading ability in normal and dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, G; Mazzotti, S; Brizzolara, D

    2008-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated the development of visual search of aligned stimuli in relation to normal reading acquisition and in developmental dyslexia. In this study we used a new computerised experimental task which requires a visuo-motor response (RT) to a target appearing unpredictably in one out of seven different spatial positions on a horizontally aligned array of 18 geometrical figures. The aims of the study were to investigate: 1) the visual scanning development in normal children from pre-school to school age; 2) whether visual scanning performance in kindergarten children could predict reading acquisition; 3) the visual scanning abilities in a group of developmental dyslexic children. The main results were: 1) a significant decrement of RTs with age and a progressive increase of the left-to-right gradient with reading experience; 2) visual scanning abilities in kindergarten proved to be a good predictor of reading acquisition; 3) dyslexics were slow scanners and did not present the left-to-right strategy typical of normal readers. The results support the hypothesis of a relationship between visual scanning and reading abilities.

  16. Ultrasound anatomy in the normal neonatal and infant foot: an anatomic introduction to ultrasound assessment of foot deformities.

    PubMed

    Aurell, Y; Johansson, A; Hansson, G; Wallander, H; Jonsson, K

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish guidelines for US assessment of the talo-crural, the talo-navicular and the calcaneo-cuboid joints during the first year of life, which could serve as a reference while studying foot deformities. The feet of 54 healthy children were examined at birth and at the age of 4, 7 and 12 months by using three easily defined and reproducible US projections. With a medial projection the relation of the navicular in relation to the medial malleolus and the head of the talus was studied. A lateral projection revealed the calcaneo-cuboid relationship and a dorsal projection the talo-navicular alignment in the sagittal plane. Normal values for measurements of these cartilaginous relationships were established for the different age groups. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was assessed and found to be acceptable ( r=0.53-0.90, Pearson correlation coefficient). With US it is possible to obtain reproducible planes of investigation that give reliable information about the talo-crural, the talo-navicular and the calcaneo-cuboid relationships during the first year of life.

  17. Substance abuse disorders in the parents of ADHD children, and parents of normal children.

    PubMed

    Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Ahmad; Rostami, Reza; Dehestani, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  18. Microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy in children, adolescents, and adults: surgical anatomy and anatomically justified technique.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, Petros; Mentessidou, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Microsurgical varicocelectomy has become the gold standard in adults because of low recurrence and postoperative hydrocele rates; it is increasingly applied in children and adolescents. This review aims to provide the surgeon with the necessary surgical anatomy of the spermatic cord and with a step-by-step, anatomically justified description of technique, toward clearer comprehension and improved application. The anatomic compartments of the spermatic cord are delineated by the external and internal spermatic fasciae. Venous drainage of testis-epididymis is accomplished by the internal spermatic, deferential, and external spermatic (cremasteric) veins. All 3 anastomose at the caudal pole of testis, and then via gubernacular veins with the posterior scrotal veins. Another anastomosis exists between a cremasteric branch and anterior scrotal veins, which gives the external pudendal vein. Subinguinal approach offers access to varicose spermatic veins and collaterals. Use of surgical microscope offers identification of small veins, preservation of arteries, lymphatics, and nerves, and appreciation of spermatic cord fasciae, which permits the development of two surgical planes. In the surgical plane of internal spermatic vessels, internal spermatic veins are ligated, whereas the testicular artery and innervation, as well as lymphatics, are preserved. In the plane of cremasteric vessels and vas, cremasteric veins are ligated, whereas the cremasteric artery, vas deferens and its vasculature, lymphatics, and the genital branch of genitofemoral nerve are preserved. Delivery of the testis to ligate gubernacular veins is at the discretion of the surgeon. Finally, venous return is effected by deferential and scrotal veins, or, when gubernacular veins are ligated, by deferential veins only.

  19. Parenting Self Efficacy in Mothers of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder vs. Normal Children

    PubMed Central

    Gohari, Zahra; Dehghani, Fatemeh; Rajabi, Gilda

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The main purpose of this study was to compare parenting self efficacy between mothers of children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mothers of normal children. Method One hundred twenty mothers including 60 mothers of children with ADHD and 62 mothers of normal children were selected. In each group the participants were allocated between three subgroups of preschool, first and second grade of primary school. The participants were evaluated for ADHD symptom severity and parenting self efficacy, using Conner’s Parents Rating Scales-Revised Short (CPRS-R:S) and Berkeley Parenting Self-efficacy scale. Data were analyzed using independent sample T test, Chi square, Pearson and Spearman correlation and stepwise linear regression statistical analysis when appropriate. Results The results of this study did not show any significant difference between self efficiency in mothers of children with ADHD and mothers of normal children in preschool and first grade of primary school. However, between group differences were significant in mothers of children in second grade of primary school. The most associated factors with parenting self efficacy were Children’s age, and education level. Conclusion No difference was observed in self efficacy of parents of ADHD children and parents of normal children in pre-school and first grade of primary school. However, parenting self efficacy was significantly lower in parents of the second grade ADHD children compared to the normal group. Increment in age and education level of children with ADHD may be associated with lower level of parenting self efficacy. PMID:22952546

  20. Disciplinary Choices of Mothers of Deaf Children and Mothers of Normally Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, John F.; Johnson, Christina R.; Sullivan, Patricia M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the disciplinary preferences of mothers of profoundly deaf children and normally hearing children in a test of the hypothesized link between child disabilities and punitive parenting. Method: Disciplinary preferences of mothers seeking a cochlear implant for their profoundly deaf child (n = 57), mothers not seeking an implant…

  1. Comparison Balance and Footprint Parameters in Normal and Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Amir Hossein; Bagheri, Ahmad; Azimi, Reza; Darchini, Mohsen Ali; Nik, Hossein Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was done in order to compare balance and footprint parameters in two groups of normal and overweight children. Methods: This semi-experimental study included randomly selected 22 male children (11 normal and 11 overweight boys). To measure the footprint parameters, an ink paper system was used, i.e., after putting their feet in the ink, the subjects were asked to stand comfortably on paper and their footprints were recorded. Then, with the use of ImageJ software, the areas of anterior, middle, and posterior parts, the total area, and the arch index parameter were calculated. For measuring balance in three posterolateral, posteromedial, and anterior directions as well as the total balance, Y-balance test was done. Finally, to analyze the data, mean and standard deviation were calculated and ANOVA test was used to compare the parameters. Results: Data analysis showed a significant difference between normal and overweight subjects in the anterior and posterior areas, whereas, in balance test, only the anterior areas showed significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that area parameters in these two groups do not have significant difference; hence, it cannot be used as the criteria for analyzing the effects of being overweight on these parameters. In addition, it is probable that, in a dynamic situation, recorded footprints are more valid parameters for analyzing foot structure. PMID:23717778

  2. Effective pulmonary blood flow in normal children at rest.

    PubMed Central

    Bowyer, J J; Warner, J O; Denison, D M

    1988-01-01

    Effective pulmonary blood flow was measured with a soluble inert gas uptake method (10% argon, 3.5% freon-22, 35% oxygen, balance nitrogen) in 98 apparently healthy children aged 5-14 years. None had any evidence of cardiorespiratory disease and all had normal values for absolute and dynamic lung volumes and transfer factor for carbon monoxide. Values of blood flow measured by a rebreathing method correlated reasonably closely with height, weight, body surface area, and lung volumes, and to a lesser extent with hand and foot size. The mean (SD) effective pulmonary blood flow index was 2.7 (0.31) 1 min-1 m-2. Small children found a single breath method of measuring flow more difficult to perform and the results were more variable. PMID:3238641

  3. Smooth pursuit eye movements in normal and dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Black, J L; Collins, D W; De Roach, J N; Zubrick, S R

    1984-08-01

    This paper describes a detailed study of horizontal eye movements associated with visual tracking of a smoothly moving target. Essentially all children, even at target velocities as low as 5 degrees/sec., show some saccadic eye movements superimposed on smooth tracking movements. Detailed analysis of pursuit eye-movements from a group of 26 poor readers and 34 normal controls (8 to 13 yr.) showed that about 25% of poor readers have an abnormally raised saccadic component in smooth pursuit. This suggests that studies of eye movements during tracking of smoothly moving targets at low velocity, combined with a quantitative approach to data analysis, may be useful for early detection of a significant proportion of poor-reading children.

  4. The prelexical development in children implanted by 16 months compared with normal hearing children.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Bianka; Bohnert, Andrea; Keilmann, Annerose

    2009-12-01

    Few studies exist which document the early speech development of German-speaking children or German-speaking children who are deaf and using cochlear implants. The current study aims to: (1) document the pre-canonical and canonical speech development of German-speaking children who are deaf and receive cochlear implants by the age of 16 months and (2) compare these children's results with those of children with normal hearing. This longitudinal study included 5 German-speaking children with normal hearing and 5 with sensorineural deafness. All children from the deaf group received hearing amplification before cochlear implantation, received their first implant by 16 months of age, and became bilateral implant users by 31 months of age. The pre-canonical and canonical vocalisations of each child were recorded on video- and audiotapes in a semi-standardised playing situation every 4 weeks over a span of 1 year. In the cochlear implant group, the recording started 4-5 days postoperatively (first implant); in the normal hearing group it began between the ages of 4 and 5 months. The video and audio recordings were analysed using EUDICO Linguistic Annotator version 2.4 (Nijmegen, The Netherlands) and International Phonetic Alphabet transcription. Both groups showed individual patterns of babbling acquisition, though the groups' patterns of acquisition were similar when analysed for consonant manner and place. Some children started with plosives and others, with nasals, but all acquired fricatives and laterals next. Onset of canonical babbling for children in the cochlear implant group began 0-4 months after first fitting of the first device, while children from the normal hearing group demonstrated an onset of canonical babbling between 4 and 9 months of age. Our results show that deaf children who receive cochlear implants at an early age are capable of reaching the canonical babbling milestone in a shorter time than children with normal hearing typically do and that

  5. Revisiting the surface anatomy of the sciatic nerve in the gluteal region in children using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Selkirk, Gregory D; Mclaughlin, Andrew C; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2016-03-01

    No anatomy text specifically describes the course of the sciatic nerve (SN) in the gluteal region in children. Anatomical information is largely derived from cadaveric studies of adults, so accurate anatomical information about the location of the SN in children is required. The aim of this study is to assess the surface anatomy of the SN in children using computed tomography (CT). After excluding studies with pelvic pathology, 75 CT scans were analyzed. Three groups were selected for analysis (0-2, 4-6, and 8-10 years). The position of the SN was measured between the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and the ischial tuberosity (IT) and between the IT and the greater trochanter (GT) using 3-dimensional images. In the 0-2 age group, the SN crossed the middle third of a line between the PSIS and the IT in 94% and the GT and the IT in 80% of cases. In the 4-6 age group, the SN crossed the middle third of a line between the PSIS and the IT in 96% and the GT and the IT in 87%. In the 8-10 age group, the SN crossed the middle third of a line between the PSIS and the IT in 100% and the GT and the IT in 71%. The findings indicate that the SN in children is most accurately located in the middle third along a line drawn from the PSIS to the IT and the GT to the IT. Our study is the first to provide anatomical CT data from living children to guide interventions in the gluteal region. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparison of Children with Joint Angles in Spastic Diplegia with Those of Normal Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Ju; Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Dong Dae

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare joint angles between normal children and those with spastic diplegia using three-dimensional gait analysis. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were eight patients with spastic diplegia and eight normal children. Three-dimensional gait analysis was used for the survey. The measured gait variables were the joints of the lower extremity in the sagittal plane, frontal plane, and transverse planes and the maximum and minimum angles of their stance phase and swing phases. [Results] In the sagittal plane, the maximum angles of both the right and left pelvis and hip joint in the stance phase and swing phases were significantly greater for children with spastic diplegia than for normal children. In the stance phase of the right side of the hip joint, the maximum angles of the hip in the swing phase and the knee joint’s minimum angles in the stance phase differed significantly. In the transverse plane, there were a significant differences on the left side of the pelvis in the maximum angles in the swing and stance phases. There were also significant differences on the right side pelvis, in the maximum and minimum angles in the stance phase and minimum angles in the swing phase. [Conclusion] Children with spastic diplegia employ a different gait strategy and pattern from normal children. PMID:25276040

  7. Comparison of Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters between Children with Normal Development and Children with Diplegic Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Ju; Son, Sung Min

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters between children with spastic diplegic CP and children with normal development (ND). [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen children (eight children with spastic diplegic CP and eight ND children) were recruited for participation as volunteers in this study. The children with CP had a Gross Motor Function Classification (GMFC) System level of between I and II. [Results] Walking velocity, cadence, stride length, and step width of children with CP with a GMFC of between I and II were a level of 60%, 77%, 73%, and 160%, respectively, of those of ND children. The percentages of right and left double-limb support were 188% and 179% higher, respectively, and the proportion of single limb support was shorter by 83% and 82%. [Conclusion] Our results provide objective evidence of distinct differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters between children with spastic diplegic CP with a GMFC level I or II and ND children and would be helpful to persons involved in the care of these children. PMID:25276007

  8. Normal Variation of Talar Tilt of the Ankle in Children

    PubMed Central

    St-Jacques, Robert; Laurin, Carroll A.

    1965-01-01

    Sixty normal children were examined clinically and radiologically, using a special apparatus with a goniometer and a tensometer to standardize stress tests when applying valgus and varus forces to the ankle. It was noted that the clinical movement of inversion is not entirely due to a subtalar movement; indeed a talar tilt appears to be physiological. The range of normal in these patients, age range 6 to 15 years, was 0 to 27° with an average talar tilt of 7°. The talar tilt is not necessarily the same in both ankles of any one individual and it is never noted in eversion. The talar tilt is more marked in younger children in the position of equinus. When interpreting radiographs of recently injured ankles, it is wise to recall that a talar tilt need not be the result of trauma and that it may be physiological and yet unequal on both sides. ImagesFig. 1Figs. 2a and bFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7 PMID:5828942

  9. Hemispheric lateralization of bilaterally presented homologous visual and auditory stimuli in normal adults, normal children, and children with central auditory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Teri James; Billiet, Cassie; Ross, Jody

    2008-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the performance of normal adults, normal children, and children diagnosed with central auditory dysfunction presumed to involve the interhemispheric pathways on a dichotic digits test in common clinical use for the diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and its corresponding visual analog. Results of the first experiment revealed a significant right ear advantage (REA) for the dichotic listening task and a left-visual-field advantage (LVFA) for the corresponding visual analog in normal adults and children. In the second experiment, results revealed a significantly larger REA in the children with CAPD as compared to the normal children. Results also revealed a reversed cerebral asymmetry (RVFA) for the children with CAPD on the visual task. Significant cross-modal correlations suggest that the two tasks may reflect, at least in part, similar interhemispheric processing mechanisms in children. Findings are discussed in relation to differential diagnosis and modality-specificity of CAPD.

  10. The education of physically handicapped children in normal schools.

    PubMed

    Barry, C; Garvey, C; Byrne, M M

    1975-01-01

    This paper is based on our experience in the Central Remedial Clinic over a number of years that physically handicapped children do not in general do well in ordinary schools. An attempt is made to delineate some of the problems that may confront a handicapped child of generally average intelligence who attends a normal school. These problems are associated with the following conditions: specific learning difficulties, emotional problems, poor school attendance, large classes, limitations in ordinary teacher training and lack of remedial teachers and other special staff. The need for early and continued psychological and educational assessments is emphasized, and it is suggested that most young physically handicapped children of average intelligence would benefit from starting in a special assessment unit, to ensure as far as possible, correct school placement. This view is not currently held by a number of educational authorities who generally advise that physically handicapped children should go to ordinary schools if possible. We feel that this advice is not always in the best interests of the child. There is need for continuing friendly and informal communications between parents and members of the special school team.

  11. Anatomy of the collecting system of lower pole of the kidney in patients with a single renal stone: a comparative study with individuals with normal kidneys.

    PubMed

    Zomorrodi, Afshar; Buhluli, Abulfazel; Fathi, Samad

    2010-07-01

    At least 5% of women and 12% of men during their lives will experience renal colic, at least once. Many theories have been suggested for the etiology of renal stones and variations in the anatomy of the collecting system have been suggested to have a role in stone formation. This study was conducted to examine the role of variation of lower pole collecting system in patients with lower pole kidney stone and compared the same in normal persons (kidney donors). Investigation for the anatomy of the lower pole of the kidney (angle between lower infundibulum and pelvis, length and diameter of the infundibulum and number and pattern distribution of calyces) was carried out using intravenous pyelogram (IVP) in 100 cases with urinary stone (study cases) and 400 persons with normal kidneys (control subjects). The study was a retrospective cross-sectional case control study. Results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney and independent sample chi square tests. The mean infundibulum-pelvic angle (IPA) in control subjects and in patients was 112.5 +/- 10.7 and 96.6 +/- 28.8, respectively. There was significant correlation between reduced angle and stone formation (P= < 0.001). The mean infundibulum-uretero-pelvic angle (IUPA) in control subjects and study cases was 53.5 +/- 12.7 and 42.6 +/- 13.4, respectively. There was significant correlation between decreased angle and stone formation (P = or < 0.001). The mean length of infundibulum of lower pole of kidney (IPIL) in controls and study patients was 22.5 +/- 4.1 and 27.5 +/- 7.7, respectively, which was statistically significant (P< 0.001). The mean number of calyces in lower pole of the kidney (LPCN) in controls and study patients was 2.6 +/- 0.6 and 3 +/- 0.9, respectively, which was statistically significant (P = or < 0.002). There was no significant correlation between distribution of calyces and stone formation (P= 0.366). Our study suggests that abnormal renal anatomy was more common in patients with lower pole kidney stone

  12. Nasalance scores for normal Korean-speaking adults and children.

    PubMed

    Park, Mikyong; Baek, William S; Lee, Eunkyung; Koh, Kyung S; Kim, Baek-Kyu; Baek, Rongmin

    2014-02-01

    There are numerous nasometric studies to date, including normative nasalance scores for various languages as well as nasometric differences in age, gender, race and region except the Korean language. In this regard, we sought to establish normative nasalance scores for Koreans. We created speech samples based on the everyday use of phonemes in the Korean language which were syntactically simple for children. In addition, we analysed nasometric features based on age and gender and confirmed test-retest reliability. The study included 108 children (54 girls and 54 boys, aged 7-11 years) and 108 adults (54 women and 54 men, aged 18-29 years) with normal articulation, resonance, voice and hearing. Nasometer II 6400 was used to measure the nasalance scores. The subjects read or repeated three speech stimuli, each consisting of 33, 36 and 24 syllables: (1) an oral passage devoid of nasal consonants, (2) an oro-nasal passage and (3) nasal sentences. For each stimulus, mean nasalance scores were obtained and gender or age dependence was analysed, using two-way analyses of variance. The mean nasalance scores for the oral passage, oro-nasal passage and nasal sentences were 11.69% (standard deviation (SD) 3.68), 34.04% (SD 4.88) and 63.72% (SD 6.07), respectively. Female speakers exhibited significantly higher nasalance scores than male speakers on the oro-nasal passage (p = 0.000) and nasal sentences (p = 0.004). Children exhibited significantly higher nasalance scores than adults on nasal sentences (p = 0.000). The nasalance scores in children and females were a little higher. Korean normative data will provide reference information in the evaluation and treatment of resonance problems. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hemispheric Lateralization of Bilaterally Presented Homologous Visual and Auditory Stimuli in Normal Adults, Normal Children, and Children with Central Auditory Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, Teri James; Billiet, Cassie; Ross, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the performance of normal adults, normal children, and children diagnosed with central auditory dysfunction presumed to involve the interhemispheric pathways on a dichotic digits test in common clinical use for the diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and its corresponding visual…

  14. Hemispheric Lateralization of Bilaterally Presented Homologous Visual and Auditory Stimuli in Normal Adults, Normal Children, and Children with Central Auditory Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, Teri James; Billiet, Cassie; Ross, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the performance of normal adults, normal children, and children diagnosed with central auditory dysfunction presumed to involve the interhemispheric pathways on a dichotic digits test in common clinical use for the diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and its corresponding visual…

  15. Georg N. Koskinas (1885-1975) and his scientific contributions to the normal and pathological anatomy of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2005-12-30

    Georg N. Koskinas is invariably recognised by neuroanatomists as Constantin von Economo's co-author on the celebrated Die Cytoarchitektonik der Hirnrinde des erwachsenen Menschen, published 80 years ago in Vienna and Berlin. That text and Atlas are generally accepted as a monumental landmark in the evolution of morphological brain research. A number of neuroanatomists and neurophysiologists continue to use to this day the parcellation scheme of the cerebral cortex into 107 areas, proposed by von Economo and Koskinas (and logically denoted by alphabetical characters from the initials of the respective lobes), despite the commoner adoption of Brodmann's scheme of 52, randomly numbered, areas. Several works have been written about the life and work of von Economo; on the other hand, virtually nothing can be found in the biomedical literature about Koskinas. This study aims at posthumously restoring part of the fame due this illustrious man of 20th century science -- and giant figure of brain anatomy -- whom history has not treated in the fairest of ways. We present newly gathered biographical data, as well as lesser known aspects of his scientific productivity. Koskinas' neuropathological studies, in collaboration with Ernst Sträussler -- of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease fame -- include findings from patients inoculated with malaria as a form of therapy for progressive general paresis (research related to psychiatrist Wagner von Jauregg's 1927 Nobel Prize), colloid degeneration, and the laminar distribution of status spongiosus lesions. Koskinas' neuropsychiatric activities in Greece upon his return from Vienna in 1927, and until his parting in 1975, are further related, including his successful -- and "Hippocratic" -- practice in the suburbs of Athens, his association with the Vogt Institute for Brain Research at Neustadt, and lesser known neuroanatomical works.

  16. An Analysis of the Hyperactive Syndrome: A Comparison of Hyperactive, Behavior Problem, Asthmatic and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Philip; Martin, Jaclynn E.

    This study attempted to identify cognitive and behavioral deficits which might be unique to hyperactive children. Fifty children between the ages of 5 and 12 were subjects of the investigation. Four experimental groups were formed: Hyperactive (HA), Behavior Problem Children (BP), Severely Asthmatic Children (AC), and Normal Control Children (NC).…

  17. Development of Auditory Evoked Responses in Normally Developing Preschool Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Julia M; Hill, Dina E; Peters, Amanda; Flynn, Lucinda; Zhang, Tongsheng; Okada, Yoshio

    2017-08-04

    The cortical responses to auditory stimuli undergo rapid and dramatic changes during the first 3 years of life in normally developing (ND) children, with decreases in latency and changes in amplitude in the primary peaks. However, most previous studies have focused on children >3 years of age. The analysis of data from the early stages of development is challenging because the temporal pattern of the evoked responses changes with age (e.g., additional peaks emerge with increasing age) and peak latency decreases with age. This study used the topography of the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF) to identify the auditory components in ND children between 6 and 68 months (n = 48). The latencies of the peaks in the AEF produced by a tone burst (ISI 2 ± 0.2 s) during sleep decreased with age, consistent with previous reports in awake children. The peak latencies of the AEFs in ND children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were compared. Previous studies indicate that the latencies of the initial components of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) and the AEF are delayed in children with ASD when compared to age-matched ND children >4 years of age. We speculated whether the AEF latencies decrease with age in children diagnosed with ASD as in ND children, but with uniformly longer latencies before the age of about 4 years. Contrary to this hypothesis, the peak latencies did not decrease with age in the ASD group (24-62 months, n = 16) during sleep (unlike in the age-matched controls), although the mean latencies were longer in the ASD group as in previous studies. These results are consistent with previous studies indicating delays in auditory latencies, and they indicate a different maturational pattern in ASD children and ND children. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm whether the AEF latencies diverge with age, starting at around 3 years, in these 2 groups of children. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Some aspects of language development in normal-hearing children and children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Szagun, G

    1997-11-01

    This article presents some important processes of normal child language acquisition and applies them to language acquisition data of children with cochlear implants. Modern studies of language acquisition, covering various languages, have demonstrated a close link between linguistic and cognitive development. Sensorimotor intelligence provides a construction of reality on which the first grammatical structures are built, encoding a number of relations which hold between objects, persons, events, and localizations. When acquiring the more complex morphological and syntactic aspects of their mother-tongue, children use a number of characteristic information processing strategies which make some formal markings easier to learn than others. There is considerable variability across children with respect to rate of acquisition, the use of imitation, and analytic versus holistic processing strategies. Caregivers' language input can facilitate language acquisition, notably the use of expansions and reformulations, and a generally accepting style. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CHILDREN WITH COCHLEAR IMPLANTS: Language acquisition data from two children with cochlear implants show great differences with respect to rate of acquisition, construction of the German case system, and syntax. Whereas one child discovers the regularities of the case inflectional system quickly, the other child appears to prefer holistic and rote learning processes and uses a sequential strategy for combining words. It is suggested that variability between children with cochlear implants may be due to different frequencies of actually processed linguistic items. Future research should compare language development in children with cochlear implants and those with normal hearing making use of psycholinguistic methods of research design and analysis.

  19. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  20. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  1. Tooth anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  2. A metasynthesis: mothering other-than-normal children.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Antonia M

    2002-04-01

    The author used Noblit and Hare's 1988 comparative method of synthesizing qualitative studies to address the need for collective knowledge development related to mothering other-than-normal children. Twelve studies were included in a metasynthesis for a total sample of 79. The nature of the child's disability, demographics, and methodology used varied widely. Initially, 13 common themes were extracted using reciprocal translation. Further analysis revealed 4 steps common to the mothering experience under which themes were categorized. Suggestions for application to practice include keeping in mind qualities of a supportive health professional from the mothers' perspective, encouraging mothers to challenge societal definitions of normalcy, and recognizing the significance of hope in fueling maternal caregiving.

  3. Diaper area skin microflora of normal children and children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Keswick, B H; Seymour, J L; Milligan, M C

    1987-01-01

    In vitro studies established that neither cloth nor disposable diapers demonstrably contributed to the growth of Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans when urine was present as a growth medium. In a clinical study of 166 children, the microbial skin flora of children with atopic dermatitis was compared with the flora of children with normal skin to determine the influence of diaper type. No biologically significant differences were detected between groups wearing disposable or cloth diapers in terms of frequency of isolation or log mean recovery of selected skin flora. Repeated isolation of S. aureus correlated with atopic dermatitis. The log mean recovery of S. aureus was higher in the atopic groups. The effects of each diaper type on skin microflora were equivalent in the normal and atopic populations. PMID:3546360

  4. Crowded visual search in children with normal vision and children with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Huurneman, Bianca; Cox, Ralf F A; Vlaskamp, Björn N S; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of oculomotor control, crowding, and attentional factors on visual search in children with normal vision ([NV], n=11), children with visual impairment without nystagmus ([VI-nys], n=11), and children with VI with accompanying nystagmus ([VI+nys], n=26). Exclusion criteria for children with VI were: multiple impairments and visual acuity poorer than 20/400 or better than 20/50. Three search conditions were presented: a row with homogeneous distractors, a matrix with homogeneous distractors, and a matrix with heterogeneous distractors. Element spacing was manipulated in 5 steps from 2 to 32 minutes of arc. Symbols were sized 2 times the threshold acuity to guarantee visibility for the VI groups. During simple row and matrix search with homogeneous distractors children in the VI+nys group were less accurate than children with NV at smaller spacings. Group differences were even more pronounced during matrix search with heterogeneous distractors. Search times were longer in children with VI compared to children with NV. The more extended impairments during serial search reveal greater dependence on oculomotor control during serial compared to parallel search.

  5. The functional anatomy of recovery from auditory agnosia. A PET study of sound categorization in a neurological patient and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Engelien, A; Silbersweig, D; Stern, E; Huber, W; Döring, W; Frith, C; Frackowiak, R S

    1995-12-01

    H2(15)O-PET was used to investigate the functional anatomy of recovery in a patient (J.B.) with bilateral perisylvian strokes and auditory agnosia, who partially regained the ability to recognize environmental sounds, but remained clinically word-deaf. The patient and a group of six normal volunteers were scanned in the following three conditions: (i) passive listening to environmental sounds; (ii) categorization of environmental sounds; (iii) at rest. In normal subjects, passive listening as compared with rest was associated with significant activations in the auditory cortices and posterior thalami, and in the inferior parietal lobe and anterior insula/frontal opercular region on the right. In J.B., activations were observed in the spared auditory cortex and inferior parietal lobe of the right hemisphere and in regions adjacent to the perisylvian lesion in the left hemisphere (anterior insula/frontal opercular region, middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobe). The recovered function, as measured by categorization of sounds compared with passive listening, in J.B. was associated with bilateral activation of a distributed network comprising (pre)frontal, middle temporal and inferior parietal cortices, as well as the right cerebellum and the right caudate nucleus. In addition, there was a left-sided activation of the anterior cingulate gyrus. In normal subjects, the same categorization task led to activation of a network comprising (pre)frontal, middle temporal and inferior parietal cortices in the left hemisphere only. These results suggest that bilateral activation (with recruitment of areas homologous to those known to be responsible for normal function), the engagement of peri-infarct regions, and the involvement of a more widespread neocortical network, are mechanisms of functional reorganization after injury that may enable recovery from, or compensation for, cognitive deficits.

  6. A Comparative Study of Language Development of Normal and Linguistically Deviant Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Smitha K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the author attempts to describe the actual linguistic problems of the retardates, compare their language with that of normal children and thereby tries to illustrate that although the language of retardates delay, they acquire language in the same sequence, as compared with the normal children. Three moderately retarded children with…

  7. Differential Production of Positive and Negative Discriminative Stimuli by Normal and Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Dallas E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two normal and two mentally retarded children were trained to earn pennies by pressing a key according to a multiple variable-interval extinction schedule of reinforcement. Retarded children differed from normal children by producing more positive than negative discriminative stimuli. (Author/DB)

  8. Anatomy atlases.

    PubMed

    Rosse, C

    1999-01-01

    Anatomy atlases are unlike other knowledge sources in the health sciences in that they communicate knowledge through annotated images without the support of narrative text. An analysis of the knowledge component represented by images and the history of anatomy atlases suggest some distinctions that should be made between atlas and textbook illustrations. Textbook and atlas should synergistically promote the generation of a mental model of anatomy. The objective of such a model is to support anatomical reasoning and thereby replace memorization of anatomical facts. Criteria are suggested for selecting anatomy texts and atlases that complement one another, and the advantages and disadvantages of hard copy and computer-based anatomy atlases are considered.

  9. Lateralized auditory brain function in children with normal reading ability and in children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Blake W; McArthur, Genevieve; Hautus, Michael; Reid, Melanie; Brock, Jon; Castles, Anne; Crain, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    We examined central auditory processing in typically- and atypically-developing readers. Concurrent EEG and MEG brain measurements were obtained from a group of 16 children with dyslexia aged 8-12 years, and a group of 16 age-matched children with normal reading ability. Auditory responses were elicited using 500ms duration broadband noise. These responses were strongly lateralized in control children. Children with dyslexia showed significantly less lateralisation of auditory cortical functioning, and a different pattern of development of auditory lateralization with age. These results provide further evidence that the core neurophysiological deficit of dyslexia is a problem in the balance of auditory function between the two hemispheres. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The normal post-surgical anatomy of the male pelvis following radical prostatectomy as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Allen, Steven D; Thompson, Alan; Sohaib, S Aslam

    2008-06-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of recurrent prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy have been documented in the radiology literature; however little has been written on the range of normal post-operative appearances. Common routes of surgical access for radical prostatectomy include retropubic and transperineal, although newer minimally invasive methods are gaining increasing acceptance. Specifically the range of appearances of the anastomotic site, the prostatic bed, the position of the bladder base, periurethral tissue, levator sling, rectum and residual seminal vesicles (if present) are demonstrated. A non-enhancing low signal nodule is frequently seen at the vesicourethral anastomosis or within the seminal vesicle remnant and usually represents fibrosis. Appearances following different surgical accesses do not differ tremendously, although the retropubic fat pad is reduced or absent following a retropubic approach. Anterior rectal-wall scarring may be present following a transperineal approach. Other post-surgical findings that may mimic disease include a lymphocoele and injected bladder-neck bulking agent. Many patients referred for MRI following radical prostatectomy will have a pathological study showing disease recurrence, although in non-pathological studies the radiological features can differ significantly. It is important for the radiologist to be aware of the spectrum of normal post-surgical appearances so not to confuse these with locally recurrent disease.

  11. Cognition in anxious children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a comparison with clinical and normal children

    PubMed Central

    Manassis, Katharina; Tannock, Rosemary; Young, Arlene; Francis-John, Shonna

    2007-01-01

    Background Cognition in children with anxiety disorders (ANX) and comorbid Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD) has received little attention, potentially impacting clinical and academic interventions in this highly disabled group. This study examined several cognitive features relative to children with either pure condition and to normal controls. Methods One hundred and eight children ages 8–12 and parents were diagnosed by semi-structured parent interview and teacher report as having: ANX (any anxiety disorder except OCD or PTSD; n = 52), ADHD (n = 21), or ANX + ADHD (n = 35). All completed measures of academic ability, emotional perception, and working memory. Clinical subjects were compared to 35 normal controls from local schools. Results Groups did not differ significantly on age, gender, or estimated IQ. On analyses of variance, groups differed on academic functioning (Wide Range Achievement Test, p < .001), perception of emotion (auditory perception of anger, p < .05), and working memory (backwards digits, p < .01; backwards finger windows, p < .05; Chipasat task, p < .001). ANX + ADHD and children with ADHD did poorly relative to controls on all differentiating measures except auditory perception of anger, where ANX + ADHD showed less sensitivity than children with ANX or with ADHD. Conclusion Though requiring replication, findings suggest that ANX + ADHD relates to greater cognitive and academic vulnerability than ANX, but may relate to reduced perception of anger. PMID:17224054

  12. Normal values of inner canthal distance, interpupillary distance and palpebral fissure length in normal Chinese children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, K H; Tsai, F J; Li, T C; Tsai, C H; Peng, C T; Wang, T R

    2000-01-01

    Ocular measurements, including inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance, interpupillary distance, and palpebral fissure length are important in the evaluation of congenital deformities and posttraumatic telecanthus. In this research, 4446 normal Chinese children in Taiwan were enrolled in our study. The sample of 284 full term neonates, 2742 infants and children aged from 1 month to 3 years, and 1420 preschool children were measured for inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance, interpupillary distance and palpebral fissure length. We calculated the mean value and standard deviation of the ocular measurements in normal Chinese newborns, infants and preschool children in Taiwan under 5 years. No significant sex differences were observed. Compared with previous studies, inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance and interpupillary distance in Chinese children in Taiwan were wider than those in Caucasian children, but the palpebral fissure length was not significantly different. We also found that inner canthal distance was wider than palpebral fissure length at the same age; therefore it was not correct to diagnose hypertelorism in Chinese children in Taiwan; as if an imaginary third eye could fit between the eyes. Thus, we suggest that measurements should be adjusted with normal standards specific for race. Consideration of the position of eyes is relevant for the diagnosis of a large number of syndromes.

  13. Development of Communicative Function in Young Hearing-Impaired and Normally Hearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Johanna G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study found that, although normally hearing children produced more communicative acts than 9 agemates (age 14-34 months) with severe hearing impairments, the hearing-impaired children produced more than hearing children matched for verbal language age. Results reveal that preverbal hearing-impaired children make significant strides that can…

  14. Computed tomography of cervical and retropharyngeal lymph nodes: normal anatomy, variants of normal, and applications in staging head and neck cancer. Part 2. Pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, A.A.; Harnsberger, H.R.; Muraki, A.S.; Stevens, M.H.

    1983-09-01

    Forty-one patients were examined (39 prospectively and 2 retrospectively) with computed tomography(CT) to determine its value in staging cervical and retropharyngeal nodal metastases. Precise surgical confirmation of CT findings was available in 25 patients. CT correctly increased the stage of the disease in six necks, and showed extranodal extent more precisely than the clinical examination in six others. The clinical evaluation proved superior to CT at predicting the extent of extranodal disease in two patients. Both CT and the clinical examination failed to detect microscopic tumor in normal-size nodes in two patients and falsely predicted tumor in enlarged nodes in one. CT offers information important for management and prognosis that is not available from the clinical examination in patients who have already been treated for cancer of the neck, and in patients with extranodal spread or retropharyngeal adenopathy. In the untreated neck CT will increase the stage of the disease from N/sub 0/ to N/sub 1/ about 5% of the time. Simple criteria for integrating CT into current clinical-diagnostic staging systems based on this and other experience are presented.

  15. The Guyon's canal in perspective: 3-T MRI assessment of the normal anatomy, the anatomical variations and the Guyon's canal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pierre-Jerome, Claude; Moncayo, Valeria; Terk, Michael R

    2011-12-01

    (1) To revisit the anatomical boundaries of the canal, its contents and its two channels, (2) to describe the anatomical variations of the canal's borders and the variations of its contents, and (3) to discuss the clinical relevance of the Guyon's canal syndrome. Two hundred and fifty MR wrists examinations were reviewed. MR spin echo T1-weighted axial slices were used to analyze the Guyon's canal. The anatomical boundaries, the cross-sectional area and length of the canal were calculated. The anatomical variations of the canal's walls and contents and their prevalence were sought. Changes related to Guyon's canal syndrome were also evaluated. From the 250 wrists, the anatomy of the Guyon's canal was normal in 168 (67.2%) wrists; 73 (29.2%) wrists presented with anatomical variations; and 9 (3.6%) wrists had derangements causing Guyon's canal syndrome. The cross-sectional area of the canal was 33 ± 11 mm² proximally and 45 ± 19 mm² distally. The canal's length was approximately 40 ± 4 mm. Among the 73 wrists with anatomical variations, there were aberrant muscles in 39 (53.4%) wrists, multiple ulnar nerve branching in 22 (30%) cases, increased amount of fat tissue inside the canal in 9 (12.3%) cases and hypoplastic hamulus in 3 (4.1%) cases. There were 9 (3.6%) symptomatic wrists with clinical and radiological features attributed to Guyon's canal syndrome. MRI is an excellent modality for the evaluation of the Guyon's canal.

  16. Comparison of MR-arthrography and CT-arthrography in hyaline cartilage-thickness measurement in radiographically normal cadaver hips with anatomy as gold standard.

    PubMed

    Wyler, A; Bousson, V; Bergot, C; Polivka, M; Leveque, E; Vicaut, E; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2009-01-01

    To compare magnetic resonance (MR)-arthrography and multidetector-spiral-computed-tomography (MDSCT)-arthrography in cartilage-thickness measurement, in hips without cartilage loss, with coronal anatomic slices as gold standard. Institutional review board permission to study cadavers of individuals who willed their bodies to science was obtained. Two independent observers measured femoral and acetabular cartilage thicknesses of 12 radiographically normal hips (six women, five men; age range, 52-98 years; mean age, 76.5 years), on MDSCT-arthrographic and MR-arthrographic reformations, and on coronal anatomic slices, excluding regions of cartilage loss. Inter- and intraobserver reproducibilities were determined. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test differences between MR-arthrographic and MDSCT-arthrographic measurement errors compared to anatomy. By MR-arthrography, cartilage was not measurable at approximately 50% of points on sagittal and transverse sections, compared to 0-6% of the points by MDSCT-arthrography. In the coronal plane, the difference between MDSCT-arthrographic and MR-arthrographic measurement errors was not significant (P=0.93). In the coronal plane, MR-arthrography and MDSCT-arthrography were similarly accurate for measuring hip cartilage thickness.

  17. Cephalometric evaluation of the airway space and hyoid bone in children with normal and atypical deglutition: correlation study.

    PubMed

    Machado, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2012-01-01

    Although there is a close relationship between swallowing and breathing, there are no studies evaluating the radiographic anatomy of the airway and its possible correlation with the radiographic position of the hyoid bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible correlation of the radiographic position of the hyoid bone and airway space (PAS) in lateral radiographs on children with atypical deglutition, in comparison with those with normal swallowing. Cross-sectional analytical study with control group in a public university. Using cephalometric analysis on lateral teleradiographs, the distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane (MP-H) and the distance from the hyoid bone to the tuber (T-H) were correlated with the PAS measurement (airway) in two groups: 55 teleradiographs in the experimental group (with atypical deglutition) and 55 teleradiographs in the control group (normal deglutition). Both groups included subjects at the mixed dentition stage. The variable T-H presented a statistically significant correlation with PAS (0.0286) and the variable MP-H had a significant correlation with the variable PAS (0.0053). This positive correlation was significant only in the control group and not in the group with atypical swallowing. There was a positive correlation between the MP-H and PAS measurements and between the T-H and PAS measurements only in the group with normal swallowing. These correlations were not observed in the group with atypical swallowing.

  18. Perceptual development of nasal consonants in children with normal hearing and in children who use cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Kathryn M; Ohde, Ralph N; Hedrick, Mark

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the perceptions of nasal consonants in children with normal hearing and children with cochlear implants were predicted by the discontinuity hypothesis. Methods Four groups participated: 8 adults, 8 children with normal hearing (ages 5-7 years), 8 children with normal hearing (ages 3.5-4 years), and 5 children with cochlear implants (ages 5-7 years). Stimuli were 128 nasal consonant + vowel (/m/ /n/ + /i/ /æ/ /u/ //) syllables produced by a male adult. Each syllable production was edited into 4 segment types: (a) 50-ms murmur, (b) 25-ms murmur + 25-ms transition, (c) 50-ms transition, and (d) full syllable. Developmental effects were observed across listener groups. The children performed better in the 25-ms murmur + 25-ms transition condition, which suggests that they benefit from an integrated perceptual cue. The children wearing cochlear implants performed poorer than children with normal hearing on all segments. Developmental differences in perception of nasal consonants were evident. Children wearing cochlear implants showed weaker integration and perception abilities compared to younger children with normal hearing. As predicted by the discontinuity hypothesis, the segment with the spectral discontinuity provided the strongest perceptual cues to place of articulation of nasals in children with normal hearing.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and histology of the suspensory ligament origin: a comparative study of normal anatomy of warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Bischofberger, A S; Konar, M; Ohlerth, S; Geyer, H; Lang, J; Ueltschi, G; Lischer, C J

    2006-11-01

    The diagnosis of lameness caused by proximal metacarpal and metatarsal pain can be challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the possibility for further diagnosis but there have been no studies on the normal MRI appearance of the origin of the suspensory ligament (OSL) in conjunction with ultrasonography and histology. To describe the MRI appearance of the OSL in fore- and hindlimbs of sound horses and compare it to the ultrasonographic and histological appearance. The findings can be used as reference values to recognise pathology in the OSL. The OSL in the fore- and hindlimbs of 6 sound horses was examined by ultrasonography prior to death, and MRI and histology post mortem. Qualitative evaluation and morphometry of the OSL were performed and results of all modalities compared. Muscular tissue, artefacts, variable SL size and shape complicated ultrasonographic interpretation. In MRI and histology the forelimb OSL consisted of 2 portions, the lateral being significantly thicker than medial. The hindlimb SL had a single large area of origin. In fore- and hindlimbs, the amount of muscular tissue was significantly larger laterally than medially. Overall SL measurements using MRI were significantly higher than using histology and ultrasonography and histological higher than ultrasonographic measurements. Morphologically, there was a good correlation between MRI and histology. MRI provides more detailed information than ultrasonography regarding muscle fibre detection and OSL dimension and correlates morphologically well with histology. Therefore, ultrasonographic results should be regarded with caution. MRI may be a diagnostic aid when other modalities fail to identify clearly the cause of proximal metacarpal and metatarsal pain; and may improve selection of adequate therapy and prognosis for injuries in this region.

  20. Do children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy have lower IGF-1 and ghrelin levels than the normal children?

    PubMed

    Sen, Tolga Altuğ; Ayçiçek, Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    We aimed to determine serum IGF-1 levels and plasma ghrelin levels in male children with adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy and compare with healthy controls. Forty-four male children with obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy between the ages of 8 and 11.9 years (mean 9.98+/-0.98 years) and age matched 40 healthy male children (between 8 and 12 years old, mean 9.83+/-0.85 years) as control group were enrolled in this study. In both the groups plasma ghrelin and serum IGF-1 levels were measured at 08.30, in the morning. Male children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy had significantly depressed serum IGF-1 levels (227.29+/-83.11 ng/ml) and plasma ghrelin levels (389.67+/-170.94 pg/ml) compared to control group (389.67+/-170.94 ng/ml and 629.76+/-263.62 pg/ml respectively, p<0.05). Body mass indexes of children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy were significantly lower than those of their healthy peers (15.72+/-2.08 kg/m(2) and 19.12+/-2.79 kg/m(2) respectively, p<0.05). Delayed growth in male children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy may be related to the lower serum IGF-1 and plasma ghrelin levels compared to that of normal male controls. Since ghrelin increases hunger and food intake and its levels increase before the meals, lower levels lead to decreased appetite and also swallowing difficulties in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy may lead to suboptimal nutrition. Lower serum levels of IGF-1 in children with adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy may be secondary to deficient growth hormone stimulation by ghrelin. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Liver anatomy.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Misih, Sherif R Z; Bloomston, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the complexities of the liver has been a long-standing challenge to physicians and anatomists. Significant strides in the understanding of hepatic anatomy have facilitated major progress in liver-directed therapies--surgical interventions, such as transplantation, hepatic resection, hepatic artery infusion pumps, and hepatic ablation, and interventional radiologic procedures, such as transarterial chemoembolization, selective internal radiation therapy, and portal vein embolization. Without understanding hepatic anatomy, such progressive interventions would not be feasible. This article reviews the history, general anatomy, and the classification schemes of liver anatomy and their relevance to liver-directed therapies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Integer anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Doolittle, R.

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  3. Can the "Children's Communication Checklist" Differentiate between Children with Autism, Children with ADHD, and Normal Controls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Verte, Sylvie; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert; Hartman, Catharina A.; Mulder, Erik J.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC; Bishop, 1998) is a questionnaire that was developed to measure pragmatic language use and may be completed by parents and teachers. Two studies are reported, which were designed to investigate: (1) whether children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) encounter pragmatic…

  4. Do children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy have lower IGF-1 and ghrelin levels than the normal children?

    PubMed

    Sen, Tolga; Ayçiçek, Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to determine serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and plasma ghrelin levels in male children with adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy and compare them with healthy controls. This study included 29 male prepubertal children between the ages of 6.5 and 10 years (mean age 8.8 +/- 2.5 years) with obstructive adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy and 20 normal male controls between the ages of 5.7 and 10.8 years (mean age 8.2 +/- 2.9 years). Plasma ghrelin and serum IGF-1 levels were measured at 8.30, in the morning. Children with adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy had significantly depressed serum IGF-1 levels (203 +/- 150 ng ml(-1)) and plasma ghrelin levels (175 +/- 66 pg ml(-1)) compared with healthy controls (354 +/- 242 ng ml(-1) and 243 +/- 93 pg ml(-1), respectively, P < 0.05). Depressed levels of ghrelin in children with adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy lead to decreased appetite and insufficient energy intake. Lower serum levels of IGF-1 in children with adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy may be secondary to deficient growth hormone stimulation by ghrelin.

  5. The adolescent female: Breast and reproductive embryology and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lemaine, Valerie; Simmons, Patricia S

    2013-01-01

    Congenital breast and genital tract anomalies are seen frequently in the care of children and adolescents. Breast and internal gynecologic anomalies more often present in adolescence than in early childhood. Management is best delivered through a multidisciplinary team approach. Carefully timed surgical intervention is of importance to optimize psychological, aesthetic and functional outcomes. An understanding of the female breast and genital tract embryology and anatomy is important for a meticulous clinical examination and appropriate surgical treatment. This article will review the normal embryology and anatomy of the adolescent female breast and genital tract.

  6. ''If It's in Your Mind, It's in Your Knowledge'': Children's Developing Anatomy of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corriveau, K.H.; Pasquini, E.S.; Harris, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work has investigated children's developing understanding of the anatomical locus of identity. In two studies, we extend this work by exploring the role of the mind as opposed to the brain in children's conceptualization of identity. In Experiment 1, an analysis of natural language indicated that adults use the term mind more frequently…

  7. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perceptions of Emotions by Young Children with Hearing Loss versus Children with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Most, Tova; Michaelis, Hilit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of hearing loss (HL) on emotion-perception ability among young children with and without HL. Method: A total of 26 children 4.0-6.6 years of age with prelingual sensory-neural HL ranging from moderate to profound and 14 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. They were asked to identify…

  8. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perceptions of Emotions by Young Children with Hearing Loss versus Children with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Most, Tova; Michaelis, Hilit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of hearing loss (HL) on emotion-perception ability among young children with and without HL. Method: A total of 26 children 4.0-6.6 years of age with prelingual sensory-neural HL ranging from moderate to profound and 14 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. They were asked to identify…

  9. A Comparative Study of Adolescents' Perceptions of Normal-Speaking and Dysarthric Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study compared the ratings of 19 adolescents when listening to recordings of the speech of eight children with cerebral palsy and eight normal-speaking children. For all 22 adjective pairs, the normal speakers were rated significantly more positively. (Author/DB)

  10. Attentional Bias and the Development of Cerebral Dominance in Normal and Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    The magnitude of the dichotic right ear advantage was assessed in 48 normal and 48 learning disabled (LD) children (mean age 8.3 years). Ss were matched according to age, sex, and handedness. An analysis of results indicated a significant right ear advantage in both the normal and LD children, but revealed no developmental trend for either group.…

  11. Conductive Hearing Loss in Autistic, Learning-Disabled, and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald E. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Repeated impedance measures were given over five weeks to 11 autistic, 20 learning-disabled, and 20 normal children. A repeated measures analysis of variance led to the conclusion that fluctuating, negative middle ear pressure greater than normal characterizes both autistic and learning-disabled children with the more abnormal pressures typical in…

  12. Relation Between Body-Esteem and Self-Esteem of Obese and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Beverley Katz; White, Donna Romano

    1982-01-01

    Normal and obese children completed self-esteem and body-esteem questionnaires. Body-esteem was significantly correlated with self-esteem and percentage overweight. Body-esteem and relative weight were correlated; self-esteem and relative weight were not related. The body/self-esteem relation was the same for normal and obese children. (Author/RD)

  13. Self-Esteem of Gifted, Normal, and Mild Mentally Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Lian-Hwang

    1990-01-01

    Administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) Form B to elementary school students (N=450) identified as gifted, normal, and mild mentally handicapped (MiMH). Results indicated that both the gifted and normal children had significantly higher self-esteem than did the MiMH children, but there were no differences between gifted and normal…

  14. Conductive Hearing Loss in Autistic, Learning-Disabled, and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald E. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Repeated impedance measures were given over five weeks to 11 autistic, 20 learning-disabled, and 20 normal children. A repeated measures analysis of variance led to the conclusion that fluctuating, negative middle ear pressure greater than normal characterizes both autistic and learning-disabled children with the more abnormal pressures typical in…

  15. Development of Size Judgement Ability among Down Syndrome and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratford, Brian; Metcalfe, John Alban

    Many tests which attempt to produce intelligence quotient or mental age scores for children rely on time taken to complete the task for a valid result to be obtained. A number of tests were carried out with both Down's Syndrome and normal children (128 Down's Syndrome; 162 normal) in order to determine (1) relative abilities to complete the tasks…

  16. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either <75th percentile (normal weight) or >95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  17. Dead space ventilation in normal children and children with obstructive airways diease.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, A A

    1976-01-01

    Anatomical dead space was measured in 72 normal children aged from 5 to 16 years, using the single breath method. There was a linear increase in this measurement with height, weight, and end-inspiratory lung volume. Physiological dead space was measured in 52 normal children using the Bohr equation and substituting a rebreathing PCO2 for alveolar PCO2. There was a parallel increase in this measurement with height, weight, and end-inspiratory lung volume. The difference between the two dead space measurements constitutes the alveolar dead space and was constant over the whole age range at 45 +/- 22 ml. The ratio of physiological dead space to tidal volume was 33-6 +/-4-6% and was unaltered by age or change in lung volume. The effect of airways obstruction on the dead space volumes was studied in 36 children with asthma and 28 with cystic fibrosis. Physiological dead space increased with increasing airways obstruction. Anatomical dead space remained constant in spite of marked increases in lung volume associated with the airways obstruction. PMID:1257940

  18. Nasalance Scores of Children with Repaired Cleft Palate Who Exhibit Normal Velopharyngeal Closure during Aerodynamic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if children with repaired cleft palate and normal velopharyngeal (VP) closure as determined by aerodynamic testing exhibit greater acoustic nasalance than control children without cleft palate. Method: Pressure-flow procedures were used to identify 2 groups of children based on VP closure during the production of /p/ in the…

  19. Nonword Repetition by Children with Cochlear Implants: Accuracy Ratings from Normal-Hearing Listeners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; Burkholder, Rose A.; Cleary, Miranda; Pisoni, David B.

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-six children with cochlear implants completed a nonword repetition task. The children were presented with 20 nonword auditory patterns over a loudspeaker and were asked to repeat them aloud to the experimenter. The children's responses were recorded on digital audiotape and then played back to normal-hearing adult listeners to obtain…

  20. Learning Disabled and Normal Children's Responses to Requests for Clarification Which Vary in Explicitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Ruth A.; And Others

    The study involving 67 learning disabled (LD) children (grades 1 through 8) was designed to track the developmental course of the understanding of the more subtle forms of feedback (i.e., facial expression), to examine LD children's understanding of nonexplicit requests for clarification relative to that of normal achieving children, and to…

  1. Nasalance Scores of Children with Repaired Cleft Palate Who Exhibit Normal Velopharyngeal Closure during Aerodynamic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if children with repaired cleft palate and normal velopharyngeal (VP) closure as determined by aerodynamic testing exhibit greater acoustic nasalance than control children without cleft palate. Method: Pressure-flow procedures were used to identify 2 groups of children based on VP closure during the production of /p/ in the…

  2. Nonword Repetition by Children with Cochlear Implants: Accuracy Ratings from Normal-Hearing Listeners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; Burkholder, Rose A.; Cleary, Miranda; Pisoni, David B.

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-six children with cochlear implants completed a nonword repetition task. The children were presented with 20 nonword auditory patterns over a loudspeaker and were asked to repeat them aloud to the experimenter. The children's responses were recorded on digital audiotape and then played back to normal-hearing adult listeners to obtain…

  3. Event-Related EEG Oscillations to Semantically Unrelated Words in Normal and Learning Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Thalia; Harmony, Thalia; Mendoza, Omar; Lopez-Alanis, Paula; Marroquin, Jose Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that…

  4. Event-Related EEG Oscillations to Semantically Unrelated Words in Normal and Learning Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Thalia; Harmony, Thalia; Mendoza, Omar; Lopez-Alanis, Paula; Marroquin, Jose Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that…

  5. Story stem narratives of clinical and normal kindergarten children: are content and performance associated with children's social competence?

    PubMed

    von Klitzing, Kai; Stadelmann, Stephanie; Perren, Sonja

    2007-09-01

    This study examined whether content and performance in story stem narratives were associated with children's social competence, and whether children's symptom levels moderated these associations. Five-year-old children from a clinically enriched Swiss sample completed eight stories (N = 187). Teachers rated children's social competence. Parents and teachers rated behavioral/emotional symptoms that were used to categorize children into clinical (n = 80), borderline (n = 31), and normal (n = 74). Controlling for gender and verbal competence, no differences were found in story responses between normal and clinical children. However, pro-social/moral and disciplinary themes, and coherence and quality of narration were significantly associated with children's social competence. The associations between narratives and social competence were prominent in the clinical children, suggesting that narrative assessments may help to identify resources on which psychotherapeutic approaches can build.

  6. Validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR normalization in Suaeda aralocaspica, an annual halophyte with heteromorphism and C4 pathway without Kranz anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jing; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a powerful analytical technique for the measurement of gene expression, which depends on the stability of the reference gene used for data normalization. Suaeda aralocaspica, an annual halophyte with heteromorphic seeds and possessing C4 photosynthesis pathway without Kranz anatomy, is an ideal plant species to identify stress tolerance-related genes and compare relative expression at transcriptional level. So far, no molecular information is available for this species. In the present study, six traditionally used reference genes were selected and their expression stability in two types of seeds of S. aralocaspica under different experimental conditions was evaluated. Three analytical programs, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, were used to assess and rank the stability of reference gene expression. Results revealed that although some reference genes may display different transcriptional profiles between the two types of seeds, β-TUB and GAPDH appeared to be the most suitable references under different developmental stages and tissues. GAPDH was the appropriate reference gene under different germination time points and salt stress conditions, and ACTIN was suitable for various abiotic stress treatments for the two types of seeds. For all the sample pools, β-TUB served as the most stable reference gene, whereas 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA performed poorly and presented as the least stable genes in our study. UBQ seemed to be unsuitable as internal control under different salt treatments. In addition, the expression of a photosynthesis-related gene (PPDK) of C4 pathway and a salt tolerance-related gene (SAT) of S. aralocaspica were used to validate the best performance reference genes. This is the first systematic comparison of reference gene selection for qRT-PCR work in S. aralocaspica and these data will facilitate further studies on gene expression in this species and other

  7. Motor Circuit Anatomy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder With or Without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Crocetti, Deana; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the morphology of frontal-parietal regions relevant to motor functions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We also explored its associations with autism severity and motor skills, and the impact of comorbid ADHD on these associations. Participants included 126 school-age children: 30 had ASD only, 33 had ASD with ADHD, and 63 were typically developing. High resolution 3T MPRAGE images were acquired to examine the cortical morphology (gray matter volume, GMV, surface area, SA, and cortical thickness, CT) in three regions of interest (ROI): precentral gyrus (M1), postcentral gyrus (S1), and inferior parietal cortex (IPC). Children with ASD showed abnormal increases in GMV and SA in all three ROIs: (a) increased GMV in S1 bilaterally and in right M1 was specific to children with ASD without ADHD; (b) all children with ASD (with or without ADHD) showed increases in the left IPC SA. Furthermore, on measures of motor function, impaired praxis was associated with increased GMV in right S1 in the ASD group with ADHD. Children with ASD with ADHD showed a positive relationship between bilateral S1 GMV and manual dexterity, whereas children with ASD without ADHD showed a negative relationship. Our findings suggest that (a) ASD is associated with abnormal morphology of cortical circuits crucial to motor control and learning; (b) anomalous overgrowth of these regions, particularly S1, may contribute to impaired motor skill development, and (c) functional and morphological differences are apparent between children with ASD with or without ADHD.

  8. Motor Circuit Anatomy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder With or Without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Crocetti, Deana; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the morphology of frontal-parietal regions relevant to motor functions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We also explored its associations with autism severity and motor skills, and the impact of comorbid ADHD on these associations. Participants included 126 school-age children: 30 had ASD only, 33 had ASD with ADHD, and 63 were typically developing. High resolution 3T MPRAGE images were acquired to examine the cortical morphology (gray matter volume, GMV, surface area, SA, and cortical thickness, CT) in three regions of interest (ROI): precentral gyrus (M1), postcentral gyrus (S1), and inferior parietal cortex (IPC). Children with ASD showed abnormal increases in GMV and SA in all three ROIs: (a) increased GMV in S1 bilaterally and in right M1 was specific to children with ASD without ADHD; (b) all children with ASD (with or without ADHD) showed increases in the left IPC SA. Furthermore, on measures of motor function, impaired praxis was associated with increased GMV in right S1 in the ASD group with ADHD. Children with ASD with ADHD showed a positive relationship between bilateral S1 GMV and manual dexterity, whereas children with ASD without ADHD showed a negative relationship. Our findings suggest that (a) ASD is associated with abnormal morphology of cortical circuits crucial to motor control and learning; (b) anomalous overgrowth of these regions, particularly S1, may contribute to impaired motor skill development, and (c) functional and morphological differences are apparent between children with ASD with or without ADHD. PMID:25962921

  9. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome, and normal vision.

    PubMed

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2013-12-01

    To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Interocular acuity differences and binocular summation ratios were compared between groups. Crowding ratios were calculated by dividing the single Landolt C decimal acuity with the crowded Landolt C decimal acuity mono- and binocularly. A linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the contribution of 5 predictors to the monocular and binocular crowding ratio: nystagmus amplitude, nystagmus frequency, strabismus, astigmatism, and anisometropia. Crowding ratios were higher under mono- and binocular viewing conditions for children with infantile nystagmus syndrome than for children with normal vision. Children with albinism showed higher crowding ratios in their poorer eye and under binocular viewing conditions than children with normal vision. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome showed larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision (0.1 logMAR in our clinical groups and 0.0 logMAR in children with normal vision). Binocular summation ratios did not differ between groups. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude predicted the crowding ratio in the poorer eye (p = 0.015 and p = 0.005, respectively). The crowding ratio in the better eye showed a marginally significant relation with nystagmus frequency and depth of anisometropia (p = 0.082 and p = 0.070, respectively). The binocular crowding ratio was not predicted by any of the variables. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome show larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude are significant predictors of the crowding ratio in the poorer eye.

  10. [Comparative EEG study in normal and autistic children].

    PubMed

    Lushchekina, E A; Podreznaia, E D; Lushchekin, V S; Strelets, V B

    2010-01-01

    The work represents the results of a comparative study of spectral power as well as averaged coherence in alpha, beta and gamma EEG bands in 5-to-7-year-old autistic and healthy boys in the state of rest and under cognitive load (mental calculation). The mean age of the examined children was 6 years 4 months. In both healthy and autistic children, there was a clear-cut baseline frontal-occipital gradient of the alpha activity. Performance of the cognitive task led to enhancement of spectral power in the alpha1 band and shifting its maximum to the left hemisphere, did not change the activity in the alpha2 band, and considerably increased the spectral power in the alpha3 band. In healthy children, the spectral power and average coherence of the fast rhythms increased in the central and frontal areas of the left hemisphere. The right-side dominance of the spectral power of the alpha band was revealed in autistic children both in the baseline and during cognitive task. The spectral power of the gamma band was higher in autistic children than in healthy children in the baseline. The cognitive task did not change this fast activity in autistic children.

  11. Masculinity/Femininity predicts brain volumes in normal healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Belfi, Amy M.; Conrad, Amy L.; Dawson, Jeffrey; Nopoulos, Peg

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown sex differences in brain morphology (De Bellis et al., 2001). However, these studies have not taken gender into account. Gender is a phenotype that describes behavior. In this study, we examined the relationship between gender, sex, and brain volumes in children. One hundred and eight children ages 7 to 17 were administered the Children's Sex Role Inventory (Boldizar, 1991) and obtained volumetric brain data via MRI. We found that in the frontal lobe, higher masculinity predicted greater volumes of white matter. Also, in the temporal lobe, higher femininity predicted greater volumes of gray matter. PMID:24405182

  12. Normalizing Heterosexuality: Mothers' Assumptions, Talk, and Strategies with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Karin A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for…

  13. Normalizing Heterosexuality: Mothers' Assumptions, Talk, and Strategies with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Karin A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for…

  14. Automatic anatomy recognition in post-tonsillectomy MR images of obese children with OSAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan

    2015-03-01

    Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) is a recently developed approach for the automatic whole body wide organ segmentation. We previously tested that methodology on image cases with some pathology where the organs were not distorted significantly. In this paper, we present an advancement of AAR to handle organs which may have been modified or resected by surgical intervention. We focus on MRI of the neck in pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). The proposed method consists of an AAR step followed by support vector machine techniques to detect the presence/absence of organs. The AAR step employs a hierarchical organization of the organs for model building. For each organ, a fuzzy model over a population is built. The model of the body region is then described in terms of the fuzzy models and a host of other descriptors which include parent to offspring relationship estimated over the population. Organs are recognized following the organ hierarchy by using an optimal threshold based search. The SVM step subsequently checks for evidence of the presence of organs. Experimental results show that AAR techniques can be combined with machine learning strategies within the AAR recognition framework for good performance in recognizing missing organs, in our case missing tonsils in post-tonsillectomy images as well as in simulating tonsillectomy images. The previous recognition performance is maintained achieving an organ localization accuracy of within 1 voxel when the organ is actually not removed. To our knowledge, no methods have been reported to date for handling significantly deformed or missing organs, especially in neck MRI.

  15. Responses to methylphenidate in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and normal children: update 2002.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, J L; Inoff-Germain, G

    2002-01-01

    Since the positive effects of stimulants on disruptive behavior were described (Bradley & Bowen, 1941), further pediatric studyhas been limited almost exclusively to samples of hyperkinetic school-age children. Because these agents normally were viewed as arousing in their effects on the central nervous system, but were calming in their therapeutic effects on these children, stimulant effects on Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) were interpreted as being 'paradoxical.' Investigation of effects in normal children and adolescents and in those with disorders unrelated to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as well as in young adult samples, however, indicate that stimulants appear to have similar behavioral effects in normal and in hyperactive children. This brief report is an update (as of August 2002) on studies of stimulants in ADHD and normal children, with particular focus on MPH.

  16. Chromosomes and clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Robert James McKinlay

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome abnormalities may cast light on the nature of mechanisms whereby normal anatomy evolves, and abnormal anatomy arises. Correlating genotype to phenotype is an exercise in which the geneticist and the anatomist can collaborate. The increasing power of the new genetic methodologies is enabling an increasing precision in the delineation of chromosome imbalances, even to the nucleotide level; but the classical skills of careful observation and recording remain as crucial as they always have been. Clin. Anat. 29:540-546, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Denied Access: Using African American Children's Literature to Examine the Anatomy of Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Loraine Moses; Marshall, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Cynthia Tyson and Sung Choon Park's powerful article, "From Theory to Practice: Teaching for Social Justice," addressed many key points for educators to consider when discussing issues of social justice and injustice. They offered a variety of multicultural children's books and strategies for using them that can be helpful to educators.…

  18. Denied Access: Using African American Children's Literature to Examine the Anatomy of Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Loraine Moses; Marshall, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Cynthia Tyson and Sung Choon Park's powerful article, "From Theory to Practice: Teaching for Social Justice," addressed many key points for educators to consider when discussing issues of social justice and injustice. They offered a variety of multicultural children's books and strategies for using them that can be helpful to educators.…

  19. Saccades Improve Postural Control: A Developmental Study in Normal Children

    PubMed Central

    Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dual-task performance is known to affect postural stability in children. This study focused on the effect of oculomotor tasks like saccadic eye movements on postural stability, studied in a large population of children by recording simultaneously their eye movements and posture. Materials and Methods Ninety-five healthy children from 5.8 to 17.6 years old were examined. All children were free of any vestibular, neurological, ophtalmologic and orthoptic abnormalities. Postural control was measured with a force platform TechnoConcept®, and eye movements with video oculography (MobilEBT®). Children performed two oculomotor tasks: fixation of a stable central target and horizontal saccades. We measured the saccade latency and the number of saccades during fixation as well as the surface, length and mean velocity of the center of pressure. Results During postural measurement, we observed a correlation between the age on the one hand and a decrease in saccade latency as well as an improvement in the quality of fixation on the other. Postural sway decreases with age and is reduced in the dual task (saccades) in comparison with a simple task of fixation. Discussion - Conclusion These results suggest a maturation of neural circuits controlling posture and eye movements during childhood. This study also shows the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor system and the postural system. Engaging in oculomotor tasks results in a reduction of postural sway. PMID:24278379

  20. Normal and retarded children's understanding of semantic relations in different verbal contexts.

    PubMed

    Duchan, J F; Erickson, J G

    1976-12-01

    The effect of different semantic relations presented in different verbal contexts to language retarded and normal children at the one-and two-word stage of development was studied. No significant difference was found between the performance of mentally retarded language-disordered and normal children on the verbal comprehension task. Both groups of children performed best on the possessive, next on the agent-object, then actor-action, and poorest on the locative relations. Finally, nonsense, telegraphic, and expanded contexts did make a difference in the children's understandings with expanded being the best, telegraphic next, and nonsense contexts poorest. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  1. The functional anatomy of single-digit arithmetic in children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tanya M; Flowers, D Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M; Olulade, Olumide A; Eden, Guinevere F

    2014-11-01

    Some arithmetic procedures, such as addition of small numbers, rely on fact retrieval mechanisms supported by left hemisphere perisylvian language areas, while others, such as subtraction, rely on procedural-based mechanisms subserved by bilateral parietal cortices. Previous work suggests that developmental dyslexia, a reading disability, is accompanied by subtle deficits in retrieval-based arithmetic, possibly because of compromised left hemisphere function. To test this prediction, we compared brain activity underlying arithmetic problem solving in children with and without dyslexia during addition and subtraction operations using a factorial design. The main effect of arithmetic operation (addition versus subtraction) for both groups combined revealed activity during addition in the left superior temporal gyrus and activity during subtraction in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus, the right supramarginal gyrus and the anterior cingulate, consistent with prior studies. For the main effect of diagnostic group (dyslexics versus controls), we found less activity in dyslexic children in the left supramarginal gyrus. Finally, the interaction analysis revealed that while the control group showed a strong response in the right supramarginal gyrus for subtraction but not for addition, the dyslexic group engaged this region for both operations. This provides physiological evidence in support of the theory that children with dyslexia, because of disruption to left hemisphere language areas, use a less optimal route for retrieval-based arithmetic, engaging right hemisphere parietal regions typically used by good readers for procedural-based arithmetic. Our results highlight the importance of language processing for mathematical processing and illustrate that children with dyslexia have impairments that extend beyond reading.

  2. The Functional Anatomy of Single-Digit Arithmetic in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Tanya M.; Flowers, D. Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M.; Olulade, Olumide A.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2014-01-01

    Some arithmetic procedures, such as addition of small numbers, rely on fact retrieval mechanisms supported by left hemisphere perisylvian language areas, while others, such as subtraction, rely on procedural-based mechanisms subserved by bilateral parietal cortices. Previous work suggests that developmental dyslexia, a reading disability, is accompanied by subtle deficits in retrieval-based arithmetic, possibly because of compromised left hemisphere function. To test this prediction, we compared brain activity underlying arithmetic problem solving in children with and without dyslexia during addition and subtraction operations using a factorial design. The main effect of arithmetic operation (addition versus subtraction) for both groups combined revealed activity during addition in the left superior temporal gyrus and activity during subtraction in bilateral intraparietal sulcus, right supramarginal gyrus and the anterior cingulate, consistent with prior studies. For the main effect of diagnostic group (dyslexics versus controls), we found less activity in dyslexic children in the left supramarginal gyrus. Finally, the interaction analysis revealed that while the control group showed a strong response in right supramarginal gyrus for subtraction but not for addition, the dyslexic group engaged this region for both operations. This provides physiological evidence in support of the theory that children with dyslexia, because of disruption to left hemisphere language areas, use a less optimal route for retrieval-based arithmetic, engaging right hemisphere parietal regions typically used by good readers for procedural-based arithmetic. Our results highlight the importance of language processing for mathematical processing and illustrate that children with dyslexia have impairments that extend beyond reading. PMID:25067820

  3. Linguistic and nonlinguistic features of style in normal and language-impaired children.

    PubMed

    Weiss, A L; Leonard, L B; Rowan, L E; Chapman, K

    1983-05-01

    This study explored two questions concerning the language-learning styles described in recent investigations of early child language. The first question was whether features suggestive of language-learning style, for example, extent of pronoun use, jargon-like speech, formulaic speech, and certain play behaviors occurred in clusters consistent with the specific lexical distribution patterns of young normal children delineated by Nelson (1973). The second portion of the study addressed whether language-impaired children could be characterized as reflecting the same language-learning styles attributed to normal children. Eight children, four normally-developing and four language-impaired, were classified as "referential" or "expressive" speakers on the basis of their lexical distribution. For both the normal and language-impaired children, linguistic features suggested in the literature as correlating to one or another language-learning style were found to exist in clusters consistent with the children's pattern of lexical distribution. In addition, analyses of videotaped samples coded for the focus and context of the normal and language-impaired children's play behaviors revealed object-based and social-interaction-based activities that were generally consistent with the children's lexical distribution.

  4. Symbolic Play and Early Language Development in Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogura, Tamiko

    Examined in a longitudinal study of children were correspondences and correlations between early language development on the one hand, and the manipulation of objects and play development on the other. There were developmental correspondences between the onset of five language landmarks (the emergence of first word, referential word, demonstrative…

  5. Comprehension Monitoring in Normal and Language-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollaghan, Christine A.

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews the literature on metacomprehension, offers a model of the process of comprehension monitoring, and suggests guidelines for assessment and intervention with language-disordered children such as controlling the complexity of monitoring tasks by manipulating message and listener variables. (DB)

  6. [Multiplane postmortem cerebral computed angiotomography--Part II. Normal anatomy of cerebral vessels on the modified coronal, Towne and semisagittal planes].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Satoh, T; Asari, S; Sadamoto, K

    1982-06-01

    In order to obtain a detailed knowledge of the cerebral vasculature on computed tomographic (CT) images, multiplane CT scannings on the axial, coronal, Towne and sagittal planes are required. Previous reports have concerned only the axial CT images of the cerebral vasculature, and no mention has been made about the vasculature on the coronal, Towne or sagittal images. This paper concerns the normal anatomy of the cerebral vessels on the modified coronal, Towne (half-axial) and semisagittal CT planes using 9 fresh cadavers. They received postmortem injection of contrast agents and were scanned by GE-CT/T 8800 as mentioned in Part I. Scanning planes were the modified 50-60 degrees coronal, Towne (40-45 degrees off the canthomeatal line), and the semisagittal (45 degrees toward the sagittal plane). The main vascular structures visualized on the modified coronal CT plane resembled the antero-posterior view of the carotid angiogram, and they were as follows: internal carotid arteries (supra-clinoid portion), posterior communicating arteries, anterior choroidal arteries, anterior cerebral arteries (horizontal and ascending portions, pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries and other cortical branches), middle cerebral arteries (horizontal, insular, opercular and terminal portions with identification of the angiographic Sylvian point), lenticulostriate arteries, posterior cerebral arteries, basal vein of Rosenthal (BVR), internal cerebral veins (ICV), subependymal veins which drain into BVR and ICV, choroid veins, vein of Galen, and venous sinuses. As for the demonstration of the lenticulostriate arteries or the Moyamoya vessels in clinical cases, the modified coronal plane is preferred to the axial one. On Towne plane, the vertebro-basilar arteries and the ascending portion of anterior cerebral artery were demonstrated as linear densities, which were demonstrated as spotty densities on the axial plane. On the semisagittal plane, the median or paramedian vasculatures of

  7. Case studies of pronoun development in two hearing-impaired children: normal, delayed or deviant?

    PubMed

    Cole, E B; Oshima-Takane, Y; Yaremko, R L

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a study of first and second person pronoun development in the spoken language of two young hearing-impaired children. Pronoun development was examined over a period of 11 months, starting at the age of 29 and 28 months, to determine whether the children's acquisition of these pronouns would reflect normal, delayed or deviant patterns of development. Comparison of data from these children with data regarding normally developing children shows the hearing-impaired children's acquisition to be within normal expectations for hearing age and overall linguistic level, and only slightly delayed in terms of chronological age. These results lend support to the view that differences in the hearing-impaired child's language ability are probably the result of a relative lack of auditory and linguistic experience, rather than reorganisation of the hearing-impaired child's psychological and cognitive processing abilities.

  8. Perceptual Categorization and Consistency of Synthesized /r-w/ Continua by Adults, Normal Children and /r/-Misarticulating Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohde, Ralph N.; Sharf, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    Perceptual categorization and consistency of synthesized speech was studied with 10 normally articulating children (aged six-seven), 10 children producing /r/ misarticulations (aged five-eight), and 18 adults. Results revealed that variability in stimulus response was influenced primarily by subjects' productive ability, whereas differences in…

  9. A Comparison of the Speech and Language Skills of Children with Cochlear Implants and Children with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Efrat A.; Roth, Froma P.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the language skills of children with cochlear implants (CIs) compared to normal hearing (NH) peers. Standardized speech and language measures, including speech articulation, receptive and expressive vocabulary, syntax and morphology, and metalinguistics, were administered to 39 congenitally deaf children, ages 5 to 14, and a…

  10. Cognitive Addition: Comparison of Learning Disabled and Academically Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; And Others

    To isolate the process deficits underlying a specific learning disability in mathematics achievement, 77 academically normal and 46 learning disabled (LD) students in second, fourth or sixth grade were presented 140 simple addition problems using a true-false reaction time verification paradigm. (The problems were on a video screen controlled by…

  11. Parental Manipulation of the Behavior of Normal and Deviant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobitz, W. Charles; Johnson, Stephen M.

    Examined was the ability of parents of 12 deviant and 12 nondeviant boys, age 4-8 years, to bias home observation data by influencing their child's behavior in socially desirable and undesirable directions. The parents were given the response set to present their child as "good", "bad", and usual (normal) during six 45-minute observations of…

  12. [Clinical correlation of hypnagogic hypersynchrony during sleep in normal children and those with learning disability].

    PubMed

    Olmos G de Alba, G; Fraire-Martínez, M I; Valenzuela-Romero, R

    One of the electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns that can be mistaken for paroxysmal clinical activity, when not taken into account and especially in children, is hypnagogic hypersynchrony (HH). This consists in generalised, paroxysmal, synchronic, symmetrical, slow, high voltage waves lasting 2 8 seconds, which appear in drowsiness and in stage I. It was observed that this pattern often appeared in children with learning disability (LD). AIMS. To correlate clinical data with the presence of HH during sleep in normal children and those with LD. We assessed 180 children between the ages of 6 12 years with normal neurological development, 130 of which suffered LD and 50 who did not have LD. EEG was performed with sleep deprivation, following the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology guidelines. The presence or absence of HH, together with its characteristics, was assessed. Of the children with LD, 35.38% displayed HH and of the children without LD, only 4% displayed HH. Since the characteristics of HH in the children with LD were different to previous descriptions, we put forward criteria with which to evaluate those differences. HH appeared more often in children with LD than in normal children. Qualitative, quantitative (p< 0.05) and morphological changes were found in the paroxysmal activity of HH during the stages of sleep in children with LD.

  13. Physical fitness of normal, stunted and overweight children 6-13 years in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Malina, R M; Peña Reyes, M E; Tan, S K; Little, B B

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the growth and physical fitness of normal, stunted and overweight/obese (owt/ob) Oaxaca children 6-13 years. This study was a cross-sectional, included 688 school children (grades 1-3, 4-6), aged 6-13 years, from an indigenous rural community (n=361) and colonia popular (n=327) in Oaxaca, southern Mexico. Anthropometry-weight, height, sitting height, limb circumferences, skinfolds. Derived-body mass index, sitting height/height ratio, leg and step lengths, limb muscle areas, sum of skinfolds. Physical fitness-sit and reach, sit-ups, distance run, grip strength, standing long jump, 35 yard dash. Physical activity-steps to and from school, household chores, sports participation. Normal-not stunted, not owt/ob; stunted-not owt/ob; and owt/ob-not stunted were compared with multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for age. Two children were stunted and owt/ob, and were excluded. Age-adjusted means for body size, muscularity, adiposity and grip strength showed a gradient, owt/ob>normal>stunted in both sexes and grade levels (P<0.001). Relative position of stunted and owt/ob children was reversed for strength per unit mass. Stunted and normal children ran a greater distance than owt/ob children (P<0.05). Normal, stunted and owt/ob children did not differ consistently in other fitness items and indicators of activity and inactivity. Size, muscularity, fatness and strength differed significantly, owt/ob>normal>stunted, but owt/ob children had less strength per unit mass and poorer endurance. Normal and stunted children did not differ consistently in fitness. Physical activity and television time did not differ among the three groups.

  14. Comparison of body composition and adipokine levels between thin and normal-weight prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Gajewska, Joanna; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Chełchowska, Magdalena

    Thinness can have substantial consequences for child development and health. Adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, play a significant role in the regulation of important metabolic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between body composition and serum leptin and adiponectin levels in thin and normal-weight children. The authors examined 100 healthy prepubertal children, who were divided into two subgroups: thin (n=50) and normal-weight children (n=50). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. Thin children had a similar body height but significantly lower (p<0.0001) body weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content compared with normal-weight children. Serum concentrations of leptin were about 2-fold lower (p<0.0001) in thin vs. normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of total adiponectin, adiponectin multimers, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) were similar in both groups. The leptin/soluble leptin receptor ratio and leptin/adiponectin ratios were lower (p<0.0001) in thin vs. normal-weight children. In both groups of children, it was found that body composition parameters were positively related with leptin but not with adiponectin levels. Additionally, bone mineral content was positively related with body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and leptin level in thin and normal-weight children. Prepubertal thin children have disturbances in body composition and adipokine profile. Early recognition of thinness and determination of body composition parameters and adipokine levels can be useful in medical and nutritional care of thin children for the optimization of bone mineral accrual. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Differences between Normal-Weight, Overweight, Obese, and Morbidly Obese Children.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian; Johnson, Romaine F; Mitchell Md, Ron B

    2016-05-01

    The severity of obstructive sleep apnea in children determines perioperative management and is an indication for postoperative polysomnography. The relationship between increasing weight and sleep apnea severity in children remains unclear. To compare demographic, clinical, and polysomnography parameters in normal-weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese children, as well as identify demographic factors that predict sleep apnea severity. Case series with chart review. Academic children's hospital. A retrospective chart review of 290 children aged 2 to 18 years who underwent polysomnography at an academic children's hospital was performed. Demographics, clinical findings, and polysomnographic parameters were recorded. Children were categorized as normal weight, overweight, obese, or morbidly obese. Differences were assessed using linear and logistical regression models. Significance was set at P < .05. Morbidly obese were older than normal-weight children (mean, 8.0 ± 0.5 years vs 5.8 ± 0.3 years; P < .001) and less likely to have a normal polysomnogram (16% vs 48%; P = .02). There were no differences in sex, ethnicity, birth status (term or preterm), or tonsil size between normal-weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese children. Sleep efficiency and percentage of time in rapid eye movement were decreased in morbidly obese compared with other children (P < .05). The apnea-hypopnea index was positively correlated with increasing body mass index z score only as a function of increasing age (P < .001). Obstructive sleep apnea severity is correlated with a combination of increasing age and weight but not with either variable independently. This study suggests that obese and morbidly obese older children are most likely to have severe obstructive sleep apnea. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  16. Development of Communicative Gestures in Normally Developing Children between 8 and 18 Months: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veena, Kadiyali D; Bellur, Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Children who have not developed speech tend to use gestures to communicate. Since gestures are not encouraged and suppressed in the Indian traditional context while speaking, this study focused on profiling the developing gestures in children to explore whether they use the gestures before development of speech. Eight normally developing…

  17. Memory Strategies Used by Young Normal and Retarded Children in a Directed Forgetting Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Norman W.; Ferguson, Robert P.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the possibility that normal children (sixteen 6- to 7-year-olds) and retarded children (sixteen 9- to 10-year-olds) equated for immediate memory performance may not use effective strategies to eliminate interference from irrelevant information in memory. (Author/JH)

  18. AN INVESTIGATION OF DISCRIMINATION LEARNING ABILITY IN MONGOLOID AND NORMAL CHILDREN OF COMPARABLE MENTAL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CANTOR, GORDON N.; GIRARDEAU, FREDERIC L.

    THIS INQUIRY INVESTIGATED DISCRIMINATION LEARNING PROCESSES IN TRAINABLE MONGOLOID CHILDREN AS COMPARED WITH NORMAL PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. ITS PURPOSE WAS TO CONTRIBUTE TO GENERAL BEHAVIOR THEORY AND TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY BY SEEING IF SUCH VARIABLES AS TRANSFER OF TRAINING, ACQUIRED DISTINCTIVENESS OF CUES, AND ACQUIRED EQUIVALENCE OF…

  19. Developmental Effects in the Cerebral Lateralization of Autistic Retarded, and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Angela L.; Barry, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Using magnitude of dominant ear advantage as an indicator of relative cerebral dominance, unwarned simple reaction time (RT) to monaural presentation of tones was investigated in matched groups of autistic, retarded, and normal children. Autistic children showed significant developmental delay in both RT and the establishment of cerebral…

  20. Development of Spatial Release from Masking in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Kevin C. P.; Yuan, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the development of spatial release from masking in children using closed-set Mandarin disyllabic words and monosyllabic words carrying lexical tones as test stimuli and speech spectrum-weighted noise as a masker. Method: Twenty-six children ages 4-9 years and 12 adults, all with normal hearing, participated in…

  1. Looking at Images with Human Figures: Comparison between Autistic and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Geest, J. N.; Kemner, C.; Camfferman, G.; Verbaten, M. N.; van Engeland, H.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the looking behavior of 16 autistic and 14 non-autistic children toward cartoon-like scenes that included a human figure was measured quantitatively using an infrared eye-tracking device. Fixation behavior of autistic children was similar to that of their age-and IQ-matched normal peers. Results do not support the idea that autistic…

  2. Behavioral Profiles in 4-5 Year-Old Children: Normal and Pathological Variants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Jan-Olov; Bergman, Lars R.; Earls, Felton; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2004-01-01

    Normal and psychopathological patterns of behavior symptoms in preschool children were described by a classification approach using cluster analysis. The behavior of 406 children, average age 4 years 9 months, from the general population was evaluated at home visits. Seven clusters were identified based on empirically defined dimensions:…

  3. Dynamic Characteristics of Saccadic Eye Movements in Normal and Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Teruko; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of saccadic eye movements in 10 normal and 10 mentally retarded children (ages 13-15) suggested that retarded children may have difficulty in visual orientation. They followed a visual target on fewer than 50 percent of the trials, displaying frequent undershoot patterns and an average rising latency that was much longer than that of…

  4. The Developmental Trajectory of Spatial Listening Skills in Normal-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Rosemary Elizabeth Susan; Kitterick, Padraig Thomas; Huang, Shan; Summerfield, Arthur Quentin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the age at which children can complete tests of spatial listening and to measure the normative relationship between age and performance. Method: Fifty-six normal-hearing children, ages 1.5-7.9 years, attempted tests of the ability to discriminate a sound source on the left from one on the right, to localize a source, to track…

  5. The Developmental Trajectory of Spatial Listening Skills in Normal-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Rosemary Elizabeth Susan; Kitterick, Padraig Thomas; Huang, Shan; Summerfield, Arthur Quentin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the age at which children can complete tests of spatial listening and to measure the normative relationship between age and performance. Method: Fifty-six normal-hearing children, ages 1.5-7.9 years, attempted tests of the ability to discriminate a sound source on the left from one on the right, to localize a source, to track…

  6. Development of Spatial Release from Masking in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Kevin C. P.; Yuan, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the development of spatial release from masking in children using closed-set Mandarin disyllabic words and monosyllabic words carrying lexical tones as test stimuli and speech spectrum-weighted noise as a masker. Method: Twenty-six children ages 4-9 years and 12 adults, all with normal hearing, participated in…

  7. Development of Communicative Gestures in Normally Developing Children between 8 and 18 Months: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veena, Kadiyali D; Bellur, Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Children who have not developed speech tend to use gestures to communicate. Since gestures are not encouraged and suppressed in the Indian traditional context while speaking, this study focused on profiling the developing gestures in children to explore whether they use the gestures before development of speech. Eight normally developing…

  8. Looking at Images with Human Figures: Comparison between Autistic and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Geest, J. N.; Kemner, C.; Camfferman, G.; Verbaten, M. N.; van Engeland, H.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the looking behavior of 16 autistic and 14 non-autistic children toward cartoon-like scenes that included a human figure was measured quantitatively using an infrared eye-tracking device. Fixation behavior of autistic children was similar to that of their age-and IQ-matched normal peers. Results do not support the idea that autistic…

  9. Surgical anatomy of donor extended right trisegmentectomy before orthotopic liver transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Tan, K C; Malcolm, G P; Reece, A S; Calne, R Y

    1991-07-01

    Liver transplantation is now accepted as the treatment of choice for children with end stage liver disease. A major constraint has been the shortage of donor organs of appropriate size. The use of reduced size adult organs has partially alleviated this problem but the previous technique employed was limited to a donor:recipient body-weight disparity of not greater than 3:1. Recently a new technique has been described that allows safe transplantation with a donor:recipient weight ratio of greater than 10:1. This should greatly increase the paediatric donor pool. Anatomical landmarks and techniques necessary for donor reduction hepatectomy are described from the dissection of 50 adult cadaveric livers. Variations in all important biliary and vascular structures necessitated adjustments in operative technique.

  10. Health care utilization from prevalent medical conditions in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Sara F L; Kuhle, Stefan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Colman, Ian; Veugelers, Paul J

    2012-02-01

    To explore the commonly recorded diagnoses in overweight and obese children presenting to a clinical care setting compared with their normal-weight peers. This was a cross-sectional study linking data from 3361 fifth grade students from the 2003 Children's Lifestyle and School Performance Study with Nova Scotia administrative health data over 6 years. Overweight and obese children were more likely to have had a diagnosis of internalizing disorders, asthma, other respiratory disorders, obesity, otitis media, and chronic adenoid/tonsil disorder. Conversely, normal-weight children were more likely to have a diagnosis of conduct disorder or other mental diseases. Except for internalizing disorders, overweight and obese children also had significantly higher health care costs for these conditions. Overweight and obese children had higher health care utilization across a range of diagnoses, further confirming that health care utilization patterns of overweight and obese children differ from those of their normal-weight peers. Greater attention to the relationship between more common childhood conditions and overweight and obesity is needed, given the greater prevalence in overweight and obese children and the fact that some of the more established obesity-related conditions occur less frequently, particularly in younger children. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in left ventricular mass between overweight and normal-weight preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Huertas, Jose; Livingstone, Kristina; Banach, Alayna; Klentrou, Panagiota; O'Leary, Deborah

    2008-12-01

    This study examined cardiac and arterial differences between overweight and normal-weight preadolescent children. Twenty children (10.2 +/- 0.4 years of age) classified as overweight, on the basis of age-appropriate body mass index (BMI) cutoffs, were compared with 43 normal-weight controls. Height, mass, and body surface area were measured. Relative body fat and lean body mass were estimated from skinfold thickness. Each child's weekly physical activity metabolic equivalent (PAME) was calculated using a standardized questionnaire, and his or her sexual maturation was self-assessed using the Tanner scale. Peak aerobic power was assessed using a cycle ergometer and normalized to lean body mass. Mean arterial pressure was calculated from systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurements taken with a Finapres. Cardiac dimensions were measured, using Mu-mode 2-dimensional echocardiography, and normalized to body surface area and height2.7. Left carotid artery pulse pressure (CaPP) was assessed with applanation tomometry. Overweight boys and girls had a higher left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVMHT2.7 than normal-weight boys and girls. CaPP was signficantly lower in the overweight than in the normal-weight groups, whereas PAME and relative peak aerobic power were significantly higher in the boys than the girls. Although overweight children had significantly higher stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than normal-weight children, ejection fraction was similar in the weight groups. Adjusted LVMHT2.7 was associated with cardiac volume measurements, BMI, and DBP in normal-weight children, whereas in the overweight children LVMHT2.7 did not significantly correlate with any variable. In conclusion, we found that cardiovascular adaptations can be seen in prepubescent overweight children as young as 10 years of age.

  12. Comparison of optic disc topography in non-glaucomatous eyes of children with juvenile diabetes mellitus and normal children.

    PubMed

    Elgin, Ufuk; Cankaya, Bülent; Simsek, Tulay; Batman, Aygen

    2010-01-01

    To compare the optic disc topography parameters of children with juvenile diabetes mellitus and normal children using the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT III) (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). The topographic optic disc parameters (cup volume, cup area, rim volume, rim area, disc area, mean cup-to-disc ratio, and mean cup depth) of 28 non-glaucomatous eyes of 28 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 28 eyes of 28 age-matched healthy children were compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. No statistically significant differences were found between cup volume (P = .782), cup area (P = .878), rim volume (P = .853), disc area (P = .452), mean cup-to-disc ratio (P = .852), and mean cup depth (P = .711) of eyes of cases with diabetes mellitus and normal subjects. This result suggests that non-glaucomatous eyes of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects have similar topographic optic disc characteristics. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Normal hematologic values and prevalence of anemia in children living on selected Pacific atolls.

    PubMed

    Dungy, C I; Morgan, B C; Heotis, P M; Branson, H E; Adams, W H

    1987-01-01

    The hematologic status of infants and children living on the small islands of the Pacific basin has been poorly documented. This report determines the normal ranges for hemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) for children residing on four of the small atolls of the Republic of the Marshall Islands in the archipelago of Micronesia. The difficulty in establishing normal hematologic values in pediatric populations is discussed and a methodology suggested that does not exclude any Hb value above the mean in determining the normal range for Hb. The study population was comprised of 563 Marshallese children representing approximately 3.4% of all children less than 16 years of age living in the Marshall Islands. The local prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency was also established.

  14. Motor performance is better than normal in preschool children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Wolfgang; Orenstein, David M; Paul, Karl; Hüls, Gerd; Braumann, Klaus M

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the motor performance in preschool children with a reliable and valid test battery developed to identify motor dysfunction and normal motor development in children aged from 4 to 6 years. Several aspects of motor performance were examined in 29 preschool children with cystic fibrosis (CF) age range 4-6 years (mean 5.2 +/- 0.8 years), FEV(1) 97.2 +/- 15.3pred and compared to with 22 healthy children of the same age 5.5 +/- 0.8 years. All children performed the "Motoriktest fuer 4-6jaehrige Kinder" (MOT) assessing seven different aspects of motor performance. Compared to healthy children, test score "Motor Quotient" (MQ) as the mean of all test items was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in children with CF (108.1 +/- 16 vs. 93.5 +/- 17.9). In both groups, the MQ can be classified as normal. Children with CF scored higher in MOT subtests "Agility and Coordination" (P < 0.05) and "Balance" (P < 0.01) than healthy children but not in the other subtests. We speculate that chest physiotherapy in preschool children with CF may have an effect on motor performance in general and in some aspects of motor performance.

  15. General anatomy of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Oezcelik, Arzu; DeMeester, Steven R

    2011-05-01

    This article reviews the embryology and general anatomy of the esophagus, including the topography and relationships of the esophagus to surrounding structures. The esophagus is the only internal organ that traverses 3 body cavities, and a complete understanding of the anatomy and anatomic relationships of the esophagus in each area is essential for surgeons who address esophageal disorders. Details regarding the normal histology and basic function of the esophagus are also provided. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Error analysis of pronouns by normal and language-impaired children.

    PubMed

    Moore, M E

    1995-03-01

    Recent research has located extraordinary weakness in specifically language-impaired (SLI) children's development other than grammatical morphemes. A problem with pronoun case marking was reported to be more prevalent in SLI children than in normally developing children matched by mean length of utterance. However, results from the present study do not support that finding. Spontaneous utterances from 3 conversational contexts were generated by 3 groups of normal and SLI children and were analyzed for accuracy of pronoun usage. Third person singular pronouns were judged according to case, gender, number, person and cohesion based on their linguistic and nonlinguistic contexts. Results indicated that SLI children exhibited more total errors than their chronological peers, but not more than their language level peers. An analysis of error types indicated a similar pattern in pronoun case marking.

  17. Working memory in Farsi-speaking children with normal development and cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Soleymani, Zahra; Amidfar, Meysam; Dadgar, Hooshang; Jalaie, Shohre

    2014-04-01

    Working memory has an important role in language acquisition and development of cognition skills. The ability of encoding, storage and retrieval of phonological codes, as activities of working memory, acquired by audition sense. Children with cochlear implant experience a period that they are not able to perceive sounds. In order to assess the effect of hearing on working memory, we investigated working memory as a cognition skill in children with normal development and cochlear implant. Fifty students with normal hearing and 50 students with cochlear implant aged 5-7 years participated in this study. Children educated in the preschool, the first and second grades. Children with normal development were matched based on age, gender, and grade of education with cochlear implant. Two components of working memory including phonological loop and central executive were compared between two groups. Phonological loop assessed by nonword repetition task and forward digit span. To assess central executive component backward digit span was used. The developmental trend was studied in children with normal development and cochlear implant as well. The effect of age at implantation in children with cochlear implants on components of working memory was investigated. There are significant differences between children with normal development and cochlear implant in all tasks that assess working memory (p < 0.001). The children's age at implantation was negatively correlated with all tasks (p < 0.001). In contrast, duration of usage of cochlear implant set was positively correlated with all tasks (p < 0.001). The comparison of working memory between different grades showed significant differences both in children with normal development and in children with cochlear implant (p < 0.05). These results implied that children with cochlear implant may experience difficulties in working memory. Therefore, these children have problems in encoding, practicing, and repeating phonological

  18. Normal values for inspiratory muscle function in children.

    PubMed

    Mellies, Uwe; Stehling, Florian; Dohna-Schwake, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of inspiratory muscle function (IMF) is limited in children with neuromuscular disorders, because respiratory muscle tests are poorly standardized and valid normative data are unavailable. We investigated maximum inspiratory pressure after exhalation to residual volume (MIP), mouth occlusion pressure (P0.1) and time of inspiration during quiet breathing and derived inspiratory muscle load (P0.1/MIP), and tension time index (TTI) in 301 healthy schoolchildren 6-16 years old. Gender-specific and age-dependent percentile curves for MIP were drawn with the median, 5%, 10%, 25%, 75% and 95% percentile. P0.1 was equal in boys and girls (0.23  ±  0.11 kPa), while MIP was significantly higher in boys (6.8  ±  2.2 versus 5.8  ±  2.4 kPa). Consequently, P0.1/MIP (4.8% ± 3.2% versus 4.0% ± 3.1%) and TTI (0.2  ±  0.14 versus 0.16  ±  0.14) were significantly higher in girls. MIP was 2.90 + 0.36 × age (kPa) and 3.19 + 0.24 × age (kPa) in boys and girls, respectively. The 95% confidence intervals for boys and girls, respectively, were MIP, 6.3-7.3 kPA and 5.4-6.2 kPa; P0.1/MIP, 3.5%-4.5% and 4.3%-5.3%; TTI, 0.14-0.18 and 0.18-0.22; and P0.1, 0.20-0.24 kPa for both. IMF in children has a wide interindividual variability; however percentile curves facilitate a longitudinal assessment of individual patients. Furthermore, narrow confidence intervals allow for comparisons of study populations, making IMF an appropriate endpoint for clinical trials.

  19. Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids are directly associated with cognition in overweight children but not in normal weight children.

    PubMed

    Haapala, E A; Viitasalo, A; Venäläinen, T; Eloranta, A-M; Ågren, J; Lindi, V; Lakka, T A

    2016-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the normal development of the brain. We investigated the associations between plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in normal weight and overweight children. The study recruited 386 normal weight children and 58 overweight children aged six to eight years and blood samples were drawn after a 12-hour fast. We assessed plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids using gas chromatography, cognition using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and overweight and obesity using the age-specific and sex-specific cut-offs from the International Obesity Task Force. The data were analysed by linear regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. Higher proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.311, p = 0.020, p = 0.029 for interaction) and docosahexaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.281, p = 0.038, p = 0.049 for interaction) were both associated with higher Raven's scores in overweight children but not in normal weight children. Higher eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratios in triacylglycerols (β = 0.317, p = 0.019) and phospholipids (β = 0.273, p = 0.046) were directly associated with the Raven's score in overweight children but not in normal weight children. These findings suggest that increasing the consumption of fish and other sources of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid may improve cognition among overweight children. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Human ocular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes.

  1. Joint attention studies in normal and autistic children using NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Hall, Michael; Gutierrez, Anibal; Messinger, Daniel; Rey, Gustavo; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2011-03-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic. In this study Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is being applied for the first time to study the difference in activation and connectivity in the frontal cortex of typically developing (TD) and autistic children between 4-8 years of age in response to joint attention task. The optical measurements are acquired in real time from frontal cortex using Imagent (ISS Inc.) - a frequency domain based NIRS system in response to video clips which engenders a feeling of joint attention experience in the subjects. A block design consisting of 5 blocks of following sequence 30 sec joint attention clip (J), 30 sec non-joint attention clip (NJ) and 30 sec rest condition is used. Preliminary results from TD child shows difference in brain activation (in terms of oxy-hemoglobin, HbO) during joint attention interaction compared to the nonjoint interaction and rest. Similar activation study did not reveal significant differences in HbO across the stimuli in, unlike in an autistic child. Extensive studies are carried out to validate the initial observations from both brain activation as well as connectivity analysis. The result has significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using NIRS.

  2. Heart Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... español An Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The Heart Valves The Heartbeat Vasculature of the Arm Vasculature of the Head Vasculature of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso ...

  3. Anatomy of the ethmoid: CT, endoscopic, and macroscopic

    SciTech Connect

    Terrier, F.; Weber, W.; Ruefenacht, D.; Porcellini, B.

    1985-03-01

    The authors illustrate the normal CT anatomy of the ethmoid region and correlate it with the endoscopic and macroscopic anatomy to define landmarks that can be recognized on CT and during endoscopically controlled transnasal ethmoidectomy.

  4. Obesity and attenuated adiposity rebound in children with congenital hypothyroidism. Normalization of BMI values in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Livadas, S; Magiakou, M-A; Mengreli, C; Girginoudis, P; Galani, C; Smyrnaki, P; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C; Xekouki, P; Chrousos, G P; Dacou-Voutetakis, C

    2007-07-01

    An earlier adiposity rebound, suggestive of adult obesity, has been reported in children with congenital hypothyroidism. We undertook this study to evaluate the effect of congenital hypothyroidism on: 1) the timing of adiposity rebound, 2) the long-term prognosis of BMI status, and 3) the factors potentially affecting adiposity in subjects with congenital hypothyroidism. We found that in children with congenital hypothyroidism the BMI values were higher during the first years of life compared to normal population, but subsequently normalized. After the initial rise of BMI, the decline (nadir) and subsequent rise (adiposity rebound), usually occurring in normal children at an age greater than 30 months, was less evident in our group of children with congenital hypothyroidism. The severity of hypothyroidism affected BMI values at 6 and 12, but not at 36 months of age. In conclusion, in children with congenital hypothyroidism, 1) the high BMI values in early childhood normalize in adolescence, and 2) the normally expected BMI fluctuations during the first years of life are attenuated. These findings constitute indirect evidence that thyroid function during fetal and neonatal life affects BMI status during the first years of life.

  5. Pneumocystis carinii infection: evidence for high prevalence in normal and immunosuppressed children.

    PubMed

    Pifer, L L; Hughes, W T; Stagno, S; Woods, D

    1978-01-01

    Using Pneumocystis carinii organisms propagated through three passages in embryonic chick epithelial lung cultures, specific antigens and antisera were prepared for use in counterimmunoelectrophoresis and indirect immunofluorescent antibody techniques. These methods proved to be specific and sensitive for the detection of P. carinii antigen and antibody, respectively, in sera, and were applied to the study of cancer patients with P. carinii pneumonitis (PCP), cancer patients without pneumonitis, and normal children. Antigenemia was detected in 95% of patients with PCP, in 15% of cancer patients without pneumonitis, and in none of the normal children tested. In cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of normal infants and children, acquisition of serum antibody to P. carinii was demonstrated to occur progressively with increase in age. By 4 years of age two thirds of the normal children were found to have antibody to P. carinii in titers of 1:16 or greater. These studies indicate that subclinical P. carinii infection is highly prevalent in normal children, analogous to other opportunistic infections where active disease is manifest predominantly in the compromised host.

  6. The role of vision in obese and normal-weight children's gait control.

    PubMed

    D'Hondt, Eva; Segers, Veerle; Deforche, Benedicte; Shultz, Sarah P; Tanghe, Ann; Gentier, Ilse; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Clercq, Dirk; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2011-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that perceptual-motor difficulties may account for obese children's lower motor competence; however, specific evidence is currently lacking. Therefore, this study examined the effect of altered visual conditions on spatiotemporal and kinematic gait parameters in obese versus normal-weight children. Thirty-two obese and normal-weight children (11.2±1.5 years) walked barefoot on an instrumented walkway at constant self-selected speed during LIGHT and DARK conditions. Three-dimensional motion analysis was performed to calculate spatiotemporal parameters, as well as sagittal trunk segment and lower extremity joint angles at heel-strike and toe-off. Self-selected speed did not significantly differ between groups. In the DARK condition, all participants walked at a significantly slower speed, decreased stride length, and increased stride width. Without normal vision, obese children had a more pronounced increase in relative double support time compared to the normal-weight group, resulting in a significantly greater percentage of the gait cycle spent in stance. Walking in the DARK, both groups showed greater forward tilt of the trunk and restricted hip movement. All participants had increased knee flexion at heel-strike, as well as decreased knee extension and ankle plantarflexion at toe-off in the DARK condition. The removal of normal vision affected obese children's temporal gait pattern to a larger extent than that of normal-weight peers. Results suggest an increased dependency on vision in obese children to control locomotion. Next to the mechanical problem of moving excess mass, a different coupling between perception and action appears to be governing obese children's motor coordination and control.

  7. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xiawei; Andres, Aline; Pivik, R T; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-11-01

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either <75(th) percentile (normal weight) or >95(th) percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-dimensional structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare the regional gray and white matter between the normal weight and obese children, and tract-based spatial statistics was used to compare the water diffusion parameters in the white matter between groups. Compared with normal weight children, obese children had significant (P < 0.05, family wise error corrected) regional gray matter reduction in the right middle temporal gyrus, left and right thalami, left superior parietal gyrus, left pre/postcentral gyri, and left cerebellum. Obese children also had higher white matter (P < 0.05, corrected) in multiple regions in the brain and higher DTI measured fractional anisotropy (FA) values (P < 0.05, corrected) in part of the left brain association and projection fibers. There was no difference in mean diffusivity at P < 0.05, corrected. DTI eigenvalues suggested that the FA differences were likely from decreased radial diffusivity (P < 0.1, corrected) and there was no change in axial diffusivity (corrected P > 0.35 for all voxels). Our results indicated that obese but otherwise healthy children have different regional gray and white matter development in the brain and differences in white matter microstructures compared with healthy normal weight children. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Subject case marking and verb morphology in normally developing and specifically language-impaired children.

    PubMed

    Loeb, D F; Leonard, L B

    1991-04-01

    Recent theories of language development propose a direct relationship between children's use of verb morphology and their use of subject case pronouns. Such proposals might contribute to an understanding of specifically language-impaired (SLI) children's difficulties. These children's extraordinary problems with verb morphology are well documented, and preliminary evidence indicates frequent pronoun case errors (e.g., her for she) in their speech. Thus, it is possible that a collection of difficulties may be linked to a common source in these children. The objectives of this study were to determine: (a) whether subject case marking, as well as verb morphology was more limited in the speech of a group of SLI children than in the speech of a younger group of normally developing (ND) children matched for mean utterance length; (b) whether a relationship between the use of subject case marking and the use of verb morphology existed in the speech of the ND children; and, if so, (c) whether this relationship is evident in the SLI children as well, in spite of their more limited use of these features. The results revealed that the SLI children were more limited than the ND children in the use of both subject case marking and verb morphology. However, a relationship between the two types of usage was found in both groups of children.

  9. Short-Term Word-Learning Rate in Children with Normal Hearing and Children with Hearing Loss in Limited and Extended High-Frequency Bandwidths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Andrea L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined children's word learning in limited and extended high-frequency bandwidth conditions. These conditions represent typical listening environments for children with hearing loss (HL) and children with normal hearing (NH), respectively. Method: Thirty-six children with NH and 14 children with moderate-to-severe HL served…

  10. Intracranial Arteries - Anatomy and Collaterals.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, David S; Caplan, Louis R

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology are inextricably linked in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. Knowledge of abnormal or pathological conditions such as intracranial atherosclerosis stems from detailed recognition of the normal pattern of vascular anatomy. The vascular anatomy of the intracranial arteries, both at the level of the vessel wall and as a larger structure or conduit, is a reflection of physiology over time, from in utero stages through adult life. The unique characteristics of arteries at the base of the brain may help our understanding of atherosclerotic lesions that tend to afflict specific arterial segments. Although much of the knowledge regarding intracranial arteries originates from pathology and angiography series over several centuries, evolving noninvasive techniques have rapidly expanded our perspective. As each imaging modality provides a depiction that combines anatomy and flow physiology, it is important to interpret each image with a solid understanding of typical arterial anatomy and corresponding collateral routes. Compensatory collateral perfusion and downstream flow status have recently emerged as pivotal variables in the clinical management of patients with atherosclerosis. Ongoing studies that illustrate the anatomy and pathophysiology of these proximal arterial segments across modalities will help refine our knowledge of the interplay between vascular anatomy and cerebral blood flow. Future studies may help elucidate pivotal arterial factors far beyond the degree of stenosis, examining downstream influences on cerebral perfusion, artery-to-artery thromboembolic potential, amenability to endovascular therapies and stent conformation, and the propensity for restenosis due to biophysical factors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  12. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  13. Influence of Voice Similarity on Talker Discrimination in Children With Normal Hearing and Children With Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Miranda; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler

    2012-01-01

    The perception of voice similarity was examined in 5-year-old children with normal hearing sensitivity and in pediatric cochlear implant users, 5–12 years of age. Recorded sentences were manipulated to form a continuum of similar-sounding voices. An adaptive procedure was then used to determine how acoustically different, in terms of average fundamental and formant frequencies, 2 sentences needed to be for a child to categorize the sentences as spoken by 2 different talkers. The average spectral characteristics of 2 utterances (including their fundamental frequencies) needed to differ by at least 11%–16% (2–2.5 semitones) for normal-hearing children to perceive the voices as belonging to different talkers. Introducing differences in the linguistic content of the 2 sentences to be compared did not change performance. Although several children with cochlear implants performed similarly to normal-hearing children, most found the task very difficult. Pediatric cochlear implant users who scored above the group mean of 64% of words correct on a monosyllabic open-set word identification task categorized the voices more like children with normal hearing sensitivity. PMID:15938065

  14. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Schoeneman, Samantha E; Zhang, Huiyuan; Kwon, Soyang; Rigsby, Cynthia K; Shore, Richard M; Josefson, Jami L

    2015-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of

  15. Imitation of snack food intake among normal-weight and overweight children

    PubMed Central

    Bevelander, Kirsten E.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Anschütz, Doeschka J.; Hermans, Roel C. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether social modeling of palatable food intake might partially be explained by the direct imitation of a peer reaching for snack food and further, assessed the role of the children's own weight status on their likelihood of imitation during the social interaction. Real-time observations during a 10-min play situation in which 68 participants (27.9% overweight) interacted with normal-weight confederates (instructed peers) were conducted. Children's imitated and non-imitated responses to the confederate's food picking movements were compared using a paired sample t-test. In addition, the pattern of likelihood of imitation was tested using multilevel proportional hazard models in a survival analysis framework. Children were more likely to eat after observing a peer reaching for snack food than without such a cue [t(67) = 5.69, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, findings suggest that children may display different imitation responses during a social interaction based on their weight status (HR = 2.6, P = 0.03, 95% CI = 1.09–6.20). Overweight children were almost twice as likely to imitate, whereas normal-weight children had a smaller chance to imitate at the end of the interaction. Further, the mean difference in the likelihood of imitation suggest that overweight children might be less likely to imitate in the beginning of the interaction than normal-weight children. The findings provide preliminary evidence that children's imitation food picking movements may partly contribute to social modeling effects on palatable food intake. That is, a peer reaching for food is likely to trigger children's snack intake. However, the influence of others on food intake is a complex process that might be explained by different theoretical perspectives. PMID:24391612

  16. Exercises in anatomy: cardiac isomerism.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne E; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that the patients with the most complex cardiac malformations are those with so-called visceral heterotaxy. At present, it remains a fact that most investigators segregate these patients on the basis of their splenic anatomy, describing syndromes of so-called asplenia and polysplenia. It has also been known for quite some time, nonetheless, that the morphology of the tracheobronchial tree is usually isomeric in the setting of heterotaxy. And it has been shown that the isomerism found in terms of bronchial arrangement correlates in a better fashion with the cardiac anatomy than does the presence of multiple spleens, or the absence of any splenic tissue. In this exercise in anatomy, we use hearts from the Idriss archive of Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to demonstrate the isomeric features found in the hearts obtained from patients known to have had heterotaxy. We first demonstrate the normal arrangements, showing how it is the extent of the pectinate muscles in the atrial appendages relative to the atrioventricular junctions that distinguishes between morphologically right and left atrial chambers. We also show the asymmetry of the normal bronchial tree, and the relationships of the first bronchial branches to the pulmonary arteries supplying the lower lobes of the lungs. We then demonstrate that diagnosis of multiple spleens requires the finding of splenic tissue on either side of the dorsal mesogastrium. Turning to hearts obtained from patients with heterotaxy, we illustrate isomeric right and left atrial appendages. We emphasize that it is only the appendages that are universally isomeric, but point out that other features support the notion of cardiac isomerism. We then show that description also requires a full account of veno-atrial connections, since these can seemingly be mirror-imaged when the arrangement within the heart is one of isomerism of the atrial appendages. We show how failure to recognize the presence of such isomeric

  17. Secondhand smoke and traffic exhaust confer opposing risks for asthma in normal and overweight children.

    PubMed

    LeMasters, Grace; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David I; Lockey, Stephen D; Lockey, James E; Burkle, Jeff; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Brunst, Kelly; Ryan, Patrick H

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) in secondhand smoke (SHS) and traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may elicit chronic inflammation. It was hypothesized that the association between these exposures would be potentiated in overweight versus normal-weight children. Average lifetime exposure to TRAP and SHS and objective, physician-diagnosed asthma were determined for 575 children at age 7. Overweight was defined as having a body mass index (BMI) >85th percentile for age and gender. The association between TRAP and SHS exposure and asthma was examined by logistic regression stratified by BMI. A total of 131 children were overweight; the prevalence of asthma was 24.4% and 14.2% among overweight and normal-weight children, respectively. Exposure to SHS was significantly associated with asthma among overweight (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 7.4) but not normal-weight children (adjOR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.4, 2.7). In contrast, TRAP was significantly associated with asthma among normal-weight (adjOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.0, 3.4) but not overweight children (adjOR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.4, 2.7). The association between SHS and TRAP exposure and asthma is modified by children's weight. Children's time-activity patterns, including time spent indoors or outdoors, may vary by weight and play an important role in these UFP exposures. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  18. Behaviors and attitudes of normally developing children toward their intellectually disabled siblings.

    PubMed

    Unal, Nazan; Baran, Gülen

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated behaviors of children who have normal development toward their siblings with intellectual disabilities. 9- to 17-year-old normally developing siblings (55 girls, 39 boys) of 94, 5- to 15-year-old mentally disabled children (51 girls, 43 boys) who were attending a special education and rehabilitation center were enrolled in the study. Data were gathered by using a general information form and the Schaeffer Sibling Behavior Rating Scale. Age of the disabled child did not have a significant effect on siblings' behaviors, while knowledge of family about the diagnosis and educational status of their child with intellectual disabilities affected sibling behaviors.

  19. Children's eating behavior: comparison between normal and overweight children from a school in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, Darlise Rodrigues; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Maciel, Francine Villela; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in children's eating behavior in relation to their nutritional status, gender and age. METHODS: Male and female children aged six to ten years were included. They were recruited from a private school in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in 2012. Children´s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) subscales were used to assess eating behaviors: Food Responsiveness (FR), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Desire to Drink (DD), Emotional Overeating (EOE), Emotional Undereating (EUE), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE). Age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated according to the WHO recommendations to assess nutritional status. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 335 children aged 87.9±10.4 months and 49.3% had normal weight (n=163), 26% were overweight (n=86), 15% were obese (n=50) and 9.7% were severely obese (n=32). Children with excess weight showed higher scores at the CEBQ subscales associated with "food approach" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p<0.001) and lower scores on two "food avoidance" subscales (SR and SE, p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively) compared to normal weight children. Differences in the eating behavior related to gender and age were not found. CONCLUSIONS: "Food approach" subscales were positively associated to excess weight in children, but no associations with gender and age were found. PMID:25662562

  20. Study of phonological awareness of preschool and school aged children with cochlear implant and normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Rastegarianzadeh, Niloufar; Shahbodaghi, Mohammadrahim; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2014-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant enables children to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities in their preschool and school years. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether children who had cochlear implantation before 18 months of age will develop better skills in phonological awareness than children who had cochlear implants in 18-36 months of age. A third purpose of this study was to examine whether some factors like the child's age or sex would have any effects on developing of age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities. 48 children with 70 to 95 months of age who had been utilizing their cochlear implant(s) before 36 months of age (CI group) and 30 normal hearing peers (NH group) were enrolled in this study. Child's age had a significant effect on phonological awareness, but sex had absolutely no effect in each group. Children in the cochlear implanted group were outperformed by their normal hearing peers in the area of phonological awareness, especially in phonemic awareness. The age of implantation was another significant variable. Although children with a younger age at implantation got better scores in phonological awareness test, they were outperformed by their normal hearing peers in this area.

  1. Sexual self-esteem in mothers of normal and mentally-retarded children.

    PubMed

    Tavakolizadeh, Jahanshir; Amiri, Mostafa; Nejad, Fahimeh Rastgoo

    2017-06-01

    Sexual self-esteem is negatively influenced by the stressful experiences in lifetime. This study compared the sexual self-esteem and its components in mothers with normal and mentally-retarded children in Qaen city, in 2014. A total of 120 mothers were selected and assigned into two groups of 60 samples based on convenient sampling method and randomized multiple stage sampling. Both groups completed sexual self-esteem questionnaire. The data were analyzed employing t-test through SPSS software version15. The results showed that the rate of sexual self-esteem in mothers of mentally-retarded children decreased significantly compared with that of mothers with normal children (p<0.05). Moreover, the mean scores of all components of sexual self-esteem including skill and experience, attractiveness, control, moral judgment, and adaptiveness in mothers of mentally-retarded children were significantly less than those of mothers with normal children (p <0.05). Therefore, it is recommended that self-esteem, especially the sexual one, be taught to mothers of mentally-retarded children by specialists.

  2. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale in a sample of normal French Children: a research note.

    PubMed

    Fombonne, E; Achard, S

    1993-09-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior scale (survey form) was used in a sample of 151 normal children under age 18. Standardized mean scores of French children were comparable to those of the American normative sample. From the age of 6 onwards, French children scored consistently lower in the Daily Living Skills domain though the magnitude of this difference remained moderate. While the overall findings support the cross-cultural stability of the psychometric properties of this instrument, attention is drawn to potential problems in the use of the Vineland scales, with special reference to autistic samples.

  3. Interaural asymmetries revealed by dichotic listening tests in normal and dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Moncrieff, Deborah W; Musiek, Frank E

    2002-09-01

    Normal and dyslexic right-handed children were assessed with three dichotic listening tests, the Dichotic Digits test, the Competing Words subtest of the SCAN, and the Dichotic Consonant-Vowel test. Performance was measured as both number and percentage of correct responses in the right and left ears. Laterality was defined as a simple difference in percentage between the two ears. Differences across the tests were revealed for all children, with the greatest differences occurring for left-ear responses. Only one dichotic listening test, Competing Words from the SCAN, produced a consistent right-ear advantage across all of the children tested. Between groups of children, differences in performance and in laterality were demonstrated. Using a criterion of poorer than 76 percent correct for the left ear, the Competing Words subtest of the SCAN identified 7 of the 10 dyslexic children as abnormal, with no false alarms in the control group.

  4. Normal Threshold Size of Stimuli in Children Using a Game-Based Visual Field Test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanfang; Ali, Zaria; Subramani, Siddharth; Biswas, Susmito; Fenerty, Cecilia; Henson, David B; Aslam, Tariq

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate and explore the ability of novel game-based perimetry to establish normal visual field thresholds in children. One hundred and eighteen children (aged 8.0 ± 2.8 years old) with no history of visual field loss or significant medical history were recruited. Each child had one eye tested using a game-based visual field test 'Caspar's Castle' at four retinal locations 12.7° (N = 118) from fixation. Thresholds were established repeatedly using up/down staircase algorithms with stimuli of varying diameter (luminance 20 cd/m(2), duration 200 ms, background luminance 10 cd/m(2)). Relationships between threshold and age were determined along with measures of intra- and intersubject variability. The Game-based visual field test was able to establish threshold estimates in the full range of children tested. Threshold size reduced with increasing age in children. Intrasubject variability and intersubject variability were inversely related to age in children. Normal visual field thresholds were established for specific locations in children using a novel game-based visual field test. These could be used as a foundation for developing a game-based perimetry screening test for children.

  5. An initial study of voice characteristics of children using two different sound coding strategies in comparison to normal hearing children.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Ana Cristina; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília

    2015-06-01

    To compare some perceptual and acoustic characteristics of the voices of children who use the advanced combination encoder (ACE) or fine structure processing (FSP) speech coding strategies, and to investigate whether these characteristics differ from children with normal hearing. Acoustic analysis of the sustained vowel /a/ was performed using the multi-dimensional voice program (MDVP). Analyses of sequential and spontaneous speech were performed using the real time pitch. Perceptual analyses of these samples were performed using visual-analogic scales of pre-selected parameters. Seventy-six children from three years to five years and 11 months of age participated. Twenty-eight were users of ACE, 23 were users of FSP, and 25 were children with normal hearing. Although both groups with CI presented with some deviated vocal features, the users of ACE presented with voice quality more like children with normal hearing than the users of FSP. Sound processing of ACE appeared to provide better conditions for auditory monitoring of the voice, and consequently, for better control of the voice production. However, these findings need to be further investigated due to the lack of comparative studies published to understand exactly which attributes of sound processing are responsible for differences in performance.

  6. A Comparison Study of Gross Motor Development Skills of Normal, Hearing-Impaired and Down Syndrome Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilir, Sule; And Others

    This study, conducted in Ankara, Turkey, compared motor development in 48 normal children (ages 3 to 6), 12 children (ages 5 to 7) with Down syndrome, and 33 children (ages 3 to 7) with hearing impairments. The Motor Development Section of the Portage Early Childhood Educational Program checklist was administered to all the children. Results…

  7. A Comparison of the Age-MLU Relation in Normal and Specifically Language-Impaired Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klee, Thomas; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study found that mean length of utterance (MLU) and age were significantly correlated in both language impaired (N=24) and normal preschool children with rates of MLU change also similar for both groups of children. (DB)

  8. Cranial index of children with normal and abnormal brain development in Sokoto, Nigeria: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Muhammad Awwal; Zagga, Abdullahi Daudu; Danfulani, Mohammed; Tadros, Aziz Abdo; Ahmed, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal brain development due to neurodevelopmental disorders in children has always been an important concern, but yet has to be considered as a significant public health problem, especially in the low- and middle-income countries including Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine whether abnormal brain development in the form of neurodevelopmental disorders causes any deviation in the cranial index of affected children. Materials and Methods: This is a comparative study on the head length, head width, and cranial index of 112 children (72 males and 40 females) diagnosed with at least one abnormal problem in brain development, in the form of a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), in comparison with that of 218 normal growing children without any form of NDD (121 males and 97 females), aged 0-18 years old seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, over a period of six months, June to December, 2012. The head length and head width of the children was measured using standard anatomical landmarks and cranial index calculated. The data obtained was entered into the Microsoft excel worksheet and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The mean Cephalic Index for normal growing children with normal brain development was 79.82 ± 3.35 and that of the children with abnormal brain development was 77.78 ± 2.95 and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It can be deduced from this present study that the cranial index does not change in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24966551

  9. The naming of disoriented letters by normal and reading-disabled children.

    PubMed

    Corballis, M C; Macadie, L; Crotty, A; Beale, I L

    1985-11-01

    Normal and reading-disabled children, 11-13 years old, named the letters F, G and R, presented in normal and backward versions, in varying angular orientations, in left and right visual fields. Both groups were faster at naming the normal than the backward letters, even though mental rotation was evidently not required. The results also offered no support for Orton's theory concerning the interrelations between mirror-image equivalence, hemispheric differences and reading disability. The only measures unrelated to reading itself that discriminated the groups were digit span and a special difficulty among the disabled readers in naming the letter G.

  10. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part I: Sonohistology and general principles of examination, following the example of the median nerve

    PubMed Central

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonography is an established method for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. It enables the identification of post-traumatic changes of nerves, neuropathies secondary to compression syndromes, inflammatory or neoplastic nerve lesions as well as the evaluation of postoperative complications. In certain situations, this technique is the imaging method of choice. It is increasingly used in anesthesiology for regional anesthesia. As in the case of other ultrasound imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. This article presents the histological structure of peripheral nerves and their appearance in ultrasonography. It also presents the examination technique, following the example of the median nerve, and includes a series of diagrams and ultrasound images. The interpretation of the shape, echogenicity, thickness and vascularity of nerves is described, as well as their relation to the surrounding tissues. The “elevator technique”, which consists of locating a set nerve at a characteristic anatomic point, and following it proximally or distally, has been explained. The undisputed benefits of the ultrasound examination have been presented, including its advantages over other diagnostic methods. These advantages include the dynamic component of the ultrasound examination and the possibility of correlating the patient's symptoms with the ultrasound images. As an example, the proper anatomy and the ultrasonographic appearance of the median nerve were described. This nerve's course is presented, its divisions, and characteristic reference points, so as to facilitate its location and identification, and enable subsequent use of the aforementioned “elevator technique”. This article opens a series of publications concerning anatomy, technique of examination and pathologies of peripheral nerves

  11. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part I: Sonohistology and general principles of examination, following the example of the median nerve.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Berta; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-06-01

    Ultrasonography is an established method for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. It enables the identification of post-traumatic changes of nerves, neuropathies secondary to compression syndromes, inflammatory or neoplastic nerve lesions as well as the evaluation of postoperative complications. In certain situations, this technique is the imaging method of choice. It is increasingly used in anesthesiology for regional anesthesia. As in the case of other ultrasound imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. This article presents the histological structure of peripheral nerves and their appearance in ultrasonography. It also presents the examination technique, following the example of the median nerve, and includes a series of diagrams and ultrasound images. The interpretation of the shape, echogenicity, thickness and vascularity of nerves is described, as well as their relation to the surrounding tissues. The "elevator technique", which consists of locating a set nerve at a characteristic anatomic point, and following it proximally or distally, has been explained. The undisputed benefits of the ultrasound examination have been presented, including its advantages over other diagnostic methods. These advantages include the dynamic component of the ultrasound examination and the possibility of correlating the patient's symptoms with the ultrasound images. As an example, the proper anatomy and the ultrasonographic appearance of the median nerve were described. This nerve's course is presented, its divisions, and characteristic reference points, so as to facilitate its location and identification, and enable subsequent use of the aforementioned "elevator technique". This article opens a series of publications concerning anatomy, technique of examination and pathologies of peripheral nerves.

  12. Domain Specificity and Everyday Biological, Physical, and Psychological Thinking in Normal, Autistic, and Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Siegal, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Examined reasoning in normal, autistic, and deaf individuals. Found that deaf individuals who grow up in hearing homes without fluent signers show selective impairments in theory of mind similar to those of autistic individuals. Results suggest that conversational differences in the language children hear accounts for distinctive patterns of…

  13. DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN NORMAL AND DISORDERED CHILDREN BY A COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF EMOTIONAL AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALEXANDER, THERON; LEAVERTON, PAUL

    IT HAS BEEN SUGGESTED THAT THE EMOTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PEOPLE CAN BE INVESTIGATED BY STUDYING THEIR VERBAL BEHAVIOR. THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED THE USE OF EMOTIONAL WORDS, BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE, AND THE TOTAL VERBAL OUTPUT OF NORMAL AND DISORDERED CHILDREN TO DETERMINE IF SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN VERBAL EXPRESSION OCCUR. TWO GROUPS OF…

  14. Hemispheric Language Dominance of Language-Disordered, Articulation-Disordered, and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, John M.; Helms, Suzanne B.

    1979-01-01

    The hemispheric dominance for language of three groups of six- to nine- year-olds (ten language-disordered, ten articulation-disordered, and ten normal children) was compared, and two dichotic listening tests (digits and animal names) were administered. (Author/CL)

  15. So This is Normal Too? Teachers and Parents Working Out Developmental Issues in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Deborah

    Intended to facilitate communication between parents and child care providers through creative problem solving, this guide explains young children's normal developmental behaviors that frequently cause concern, and identifies factors parents and caregivers can control in the environment that may have an immediate positive response from a child.…

  16. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  17. Communicative Interactions of Mildly Delayed and Normally Developing Preschool Children: Effects of Listener's Developmental Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Paul-Brown, Diane

    1986-01-01

    The communicative interactions of 32 mildly delayed and normally developing preschoolers were recorded during free play in a mainstreamed program. Analyses of syntactic complexity, semantic diversity, functional aspects of speech, and the use of selected discourse devices indicated that mildly delayed children adjusted important characteristics of…

  18. Social norms in food intake among normal weight and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-06-01

    This experimental study investigated whether children's food intake is influenced by a peer's intake directly and over time and whether this depends upon weight status. The study consisted of two sessions taking place at Dutch primary schools. During the first (social modeling) session, the participants (N=223) were asked to solve a puzzle with a same-sex normal weight confederate who was instructed to either eat nothing, a small or large amount. In the second session (about two days later), the participants had to solve the puzzle alone while they could freely eat. The study involved a three (no, low, high confederate intake) by two (normal weight, overweight) between-participants design. An interaction effect in the first session suggested that overweight children might be triggered to (over)eat when a peer eats a high amount of snack food, whereas the food intake of normal weight children seemed to depend on whether the confederate did actually eat, regardless of the amount. The guideline set during the first session persisted over time and influenced food intake during the second session, while differences between normal- and overweight children became insignificant. Peers can set an example as to what food intake is appropriate which could affect long-term food intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Domain Specificity and Everyday Biological, Physical, and Psychological Thinking in Normal, Autistic, and Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Siegal, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Examined reasoning in normal, autistic, and deaf individuals. Found that deaf individuals who grow up in hearing homes without fluent signers show selective impairments in theory of mind similar to those of autistic individuals. Results suggest that conversational differences in the language children hear accounts for distinctive patterns of…

  20. Increases in Language Lateralization in Normal Children as Observed Using Magnetoencephalography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ressel, Volker; Wilke, Marko; Lidzba, Karen; Lutzenberger, Werner; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2008-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating hemispheric dominance for language have shown that hemispheric specialization increases with age. We employed magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate these effects as a function of normal development. In sum, 22 healthy children aged 7-16 years were investigated using…

  1. Increases in Language Lateralization in Normal Children as Observed Using Magnetoencephalography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ressel, Volker; Wilke, Marko; Lidzba, Karen; Lutzenberger, Werner; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2008-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating hemispheric dominance for language have shown that hemispheric specialization increases with age. We employed magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate these effects as a function of normal development. In sum, 22 healthy children aged 7-16 years were investigated using…

  2. Effects of Instructional Set on Bender Recall Performance of Learning Disabled and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sczechowicz, Edward; Hinrichsen, James J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-eight normal and 28 learning disabled children were given the Bender-Gestalt Test under instructional sets of low (standard) attention or high attention. Results failed to support the hypothesis that high attention instructions would lead to differential recall performance of the diagnostic groups.

  3. So This is Normal Too? Teachers and Parents Working Out Developmental Issues in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Deborah

    Intended to facilitate communication between parents and child care providers through creative problem solving, this guide explains young children's normal developmental behaviors that frequently cause concern, and identifies factors parents and caregivers can control in the environment that may have an immediate positive response from a child.…

  4. Communicative Interactions of Mildly Delayed and Normally Developing Preschool Children: Effects of Listener's Developmental Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Paul-Brown, Diane

    1986-01-01

    The communicative interactions of 32 mildly delayed and normally developing preschoolers were recorded during free play in a mainstreamed program. Analyses of syntactic complexity, semantic diversity, functional aspects of speech, and the use of selected discourse devices indicated that mildly delayed children adjusted important characteristics of…

  5. Visual-Ocular Control of Normal and Learning-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polatajko, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    Differences in visual-ocular function, particularly optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), were compared with 40 learning disabled and 40 normal children (8-12 years-old). No significant differences were found between groups on the variables tested (refixation saccades, smooth ocular pursuit, spontaneous nystagmus, gaze nystagmus, and OKN). (Author/DB)

  6. Consonant Cluster Production in Children with Cochlear Implants: A Comparison with Normally Hearing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faes, Jolien; Gillis, Steven

    2017-01-01

    In early word productions, the same types of errors are manifest in children with cochlear implants (CI) as in their normally hearing (NH) peers with respect to consonant clusters. However, the incidence of those types and their longitudinal development have not been examined or quantified in the literature thus far. Furthermore, studies on the…

  7. Effects of Instructional Set on Bender Recall Performance of Learning Disabled and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sczechowicz, Edward; Hinrichsen, James J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-eight normal and 28 learning disabled children were given the Bender-Gestalt Test under instructional sets of low (standard) attention or high attention. Results failed to support the hypothesis that high attention instructions would lead to differential recall performance of the diagnostic groups.

  8. Attitudes toward Life and Death in Suicidal, Normal, and Chronically Ill Children: An Extended Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbach, Israel; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated attitudes toward life and death held by suicidal, chronically ill, and normal children (N=84) by obtaining answers to questions about fairy tales representing attraction or repulsion by life or death. Each group had a unique response profile that differentiated it from the others. (BH)

  9. Emotional Representation in Facial Expression and Script: A Comparison between Normal and Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balconi, Michela; Carrera, Alba

    2007-01-01

    The paper explored conceptual and lexical skills with regard to emotional correlates of facial stimuli and scripts. In two different experimental phases normal and autistic children observed six facial expressions of emotions (happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, and disgust) and six emotional scripts (contextualized facial expressions). In…

  10. Auditory, speech and language development in young children with cochlear implants compared with children with normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Bianka; Bohnert, Andrea; Keilmann, Annerose

    2010-07-01

    This study had two aims: (1) to document the auditory and lexical development of children who are deaf and received the first cochlear implant (CI) by the age of 16 months and the second CI by the age of 31 months and (2) to compare these children's results with those of children with normal hearing (NH). This longitudinal study included five children with NH and five with sensorineural deafness. All children of the second group were observed for 36 months after the first fitting of the device (cochlear implant). The auditory development of the CI group was documented every 3 months up to the age of two years in hearing age and chronological age and for the NH group in chronological age. The language development of each NH child was assessed at 12, 18, 24 and 36 months of chronological age. Children with CIs were examined at the same age intervals at chronological and hearing age. In both groups, children showed individual patterns of auditory and language development. The children with CIs developed differently in the amount of receptive and expressive vocabulary compared with the NH control group. Three children in the CI group needed almost 6 months to make gains in speech development that were consistent with what would be expected for their chronological age. Overall, the receptive and expressive development in all children of the implanted group increased with their hearing age. These results indicate that early identification and early implantation is advisable to give children with sensorineural hearing loss a realistic chance to develop satisfactory expressive and receptive vocabulary and also to develop stable phonological, morphological and syntactical skills for school life. On the basis of these longitudinal data, we will be able to develop new diagnostic tools that enable clinicians to assess child's progress in hearing and speech development. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Value of neuroimaging in the evaluation of neurologically normal children with recurrent headache.

    PubMed

    Alehan, Füsun Korkmaz

    2002-11-01

    Headache is one of the most frequent physical complaints in children. Although headaches in children are generally benign, neuroimaging studies are frequently performed in clinical practice for the fear of missing a serious underlying disease. Despite this, limited data exist about the utility of neuroimaging in recurrent headache of children with a normal neurologic examination. This prospective study was planned to determine the value of neuroimaging in neurologically normal children with migraine and tension-type headache. Among 95 consecutive patients presenting with headache, 72 patients receiving a diagnosis of migraine or tension-type headache were included in the study. Neuroimaging procedures were performed in 83%. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was abnormal in 11 of 49 cases. Abnormalities consisted of foci of gliosis in four, sinusitis in two, pineal cyst in one, periventricular leukomalacia in one, arachnoid cyst in one, old traumatic changes in one, and cervical syrinx in one. Two of the 11 computed tomographic (CT) scans revealed sinus disease. The percentage of findings causally related to headache was about 10. None of the patients had undergone surgery because of neuroimaging results. In conclusion, the yield of neuroimaging in recurrent headaches of children with a normal neurologic examination is low, and neuroimaging should not be part of a routine initial examination of these patients.

  12. Differences in intermittent postural control between normal-weight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Villarrasa-Sapiña, Israel; García-Massó, Xavier; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Garcia-Lucerga, Consolación; Gonzalez, Luis-Millán; Lurbe, Empar

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine differences in postural control between obese and non-obese children. The study design was cross-sectional, prospective, between-subjects. Postural control variables were obtained from a group of obese children and a normal-weight control group under two different postural conditions: bipedal standing position with eyes open and bipedal standing with eyes closed. Variables were obtained for each balance condition using time domain and sway-density plot analysis of the center of pressure signals acquired by means of a force plate. Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between obese and normal-weight children in mean velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions, ellipse area and mean distance with both eyes open and eyes closed. Normal-weight subjects obtained lower values in all these variables than obese subjects. Furthermore, there were differences between both groups in mean peaks with eyes open and in mean time with eyes closed. Alterations were detected in the intermittent postural control in obese children. According to the results obtained, active anticipatory control produces higher center of pressure displacement responses in obese children and the periods during which balance is maintained by passive control and reflex mechanisms are of shorter duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  14. Measurements of normal inner ear on computed tomography in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ming-Ying; Shiao, Jiun-Yih; Ho, Ching-Yin; Hung, Hao-Chun

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study is to use standardized measurements of the inner ear to see whether there are subtle bony malformations in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) whose temporal bone computed tomography (CT) are grossly normal. The study includes 45 ears with congenital SNHL and grossly normal temporal bone CT scans and 45 ears with normal inner ear structures and normal hearing. Standardized measurements of the inner ear structures were made on axial temporal bone CT scans. Student's t test was performed to compare the measurements of the two groups. There were significant differences in the measurements of the bony island width of the superior semicircular canal, bony island width of the lateral semicircular canal and maximal height of cochlea between two groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, standardized measurements of bony labyrinth of inner ear on temporal bone CT can identify subtle abnormalities of inner ear in patients with congenital SNHL having grossly normal radiological images.

  15. Can training normalize atypical passive auditory ERPs in children with SRD or SLI?

    PubMed

    McArthur, Genevieve M; Atkinson, Carmen M; Ellis, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    This study tested if training can normalize atypical passive auditory event-related potentials in the N1-P2 time window in children with specific reading disability (SRD) or specific language impairment (SLI). Children with SRD or SLI and untrained controls were tested for their behavioral responses and N1-P2 windows to tones, backward-masked tones, vowels, and consonant-vowels. Children with SRD or SLI with poor behavioral responses to one of these sounds trained to discriminate that sound for 30 minutes a day, 4 days a week, for 6 weeks. Post-training measures revealed that training normalized atypical behavioral responses but not atypical N1-P2 windows.

  16. Hey! It was just a joke! Understanding propositions and propositional attitudes by normally developing children and children with autism.

    PubMed

    Baron-Cohen, S

    1997-01-01

    Two- and three-year-old children were asked why a speaker named objects falsely. Most produced explanations in terms of the speaker's intention to joke. This implies a sensitivity to two distinct levels in language: the proposition itself and the propositional attitude. Children with learning difficulties showed a similar competence. In contrast, most children with autism failed to explain such false statements in these terms, instead merely describing them as "wrong." This was not simply due to a metalinguistic deficit, as they correctly answered questions about what a speaker had said the object was. These results suggest the normally developing toddler has a remarkable facility in processing propositional attitudes, while children with autism do not; and that such an ability is broadly independent of general intelligence.

  17. A Comparative Study on Diadochokinetic Skill of Dyslexic, Stuttering, and Normal Children

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Ayyoub; Amiri, Shahrokh; Hekmati, Issa; Pirzadeh, Jaber; Gholizadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Previous studies have shown some motor deficits among stuttering and dyslexic children. While motor deficits in speech articulation of the stuttering children are among the controversial topics, no study on motor deficits of dyslexic children has been documented to date. Methods. 120 children (40 stuttering, 40 dyslexia, and 40 normal) 6–11 years old were matched and compared in terms of diadochokinetic skill. Dyslexia symptoms checklist, reading test, and diadochokinetic task were used as measurement instruments. Results. The data analysis showed that there are significant differences (P < 0.001) in reaction time and the number of syllables in accomplishing diadochokinetic tasks among stuttering children, dyslexics, and the control group. This indicates that stuttering children and dyslexics have poor performance in reaction time and in the number of monosyllable articulation and long syllable articulation. Furthermore, there are significant differences (P < 0.001) in these indices between stuttering children and dyslexics, so that the latter group have better performance than the former one. Conclusion. The findings indicate that stuttering children and dyslexics have deficits in diadochokinetic skill which suggests their low performance in the motor control of speech production and articulation. Such deficits might be due to the role of the tongue in the development of stuttering and dyslexia. PMID:23986872

  18. Language skills and phonological awareness in children with cochlear implants and normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Soleymani, Zahra; Mahmoodabadi, Najmeh; Nouri, Mina Mohammadi

    2016-04-01

    Early auditory experience plays a major role in language acquisition. Linguistic and metalinguistic abilities of children aged 5-5.5 years with cochlear implants (CIs) were compared to age-matched children with normal hearing (NH) to investigate the effect of hearing on development of these two skills. Eighteen children with NH and 18 children with CIs took part in the study. The Test of Language Development-Primary, third edition, was used to assess language and metalinguistic skills by assessment of phonological awareness (PA). Language skills and PA were then compared between groups. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to determine whether the language skills explained the unique variance in PA. There were significant differences between children with NH and those with CIs for language skills and PA (p≤0.001). All language skills (semantics, syntax, listening, spoken language, organizing, and speaking) were uniquely predictive of PA outcome in the CI children. Linear combinations of listening and semantics and listening, semantics, and syntax correlated significantly with PA. The results show that children with CIs may have trouble with language skills and PA. Listening, semantics, and syntax, among other skills, are significant indicators of the variance in PA for children with CIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Children with Hearing Impairment versus Age and Height Matched Normal Hearing Peers.

    PubMed

    Das, Barshapriya; Chatterjee, Indranil; Kumar, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Lack of proper auditory feedback in hearing-impaired subjects results in functional voice disorder. It is directly related to discoordination of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles and disturbed contraction and relaxation of antagonistic muscles. A total of twenty children in the age range of 5-10 years were considered for the study. They were divided into two groups: normal hearing children and hearing aid user children. Results showed a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, and fast adduction abduction rate having equal variance for normal and hearing aid user children, respectively, but no significant difference was found in the peak flow value with being statistically significant. A reduced vital capacity in hearing aid user children suggests a limited use of the lung volume for speech production. It may be inferred from the study that the hearing aid user children have poor vocal proficiency which is reflected in their voice. The use of voicing component in hearing impaired subjects is seen due to improper auditory feedback. It was found that there was a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation (MSP), and fast adduction abduction rate and no significant difference in the peak flow.

  20. Autism spectrum disorders in children with normal intellectual levels: associated impairments and subgroups.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Harald; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2004-07-01

    In order to define potential subgroups pertaining to the spectrum of 'high-functioning' pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) the medical and psychiatric records of 101 children with PDD were reviewed. Ninety-one children had a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome, nine had a PDD not otherwise specified, and one had 'high-functioning' autism. Mean age of the children (71 males, 30 females) was 9 years 8 months (age range 5 to 12 years). Apart from the core dysfunctions of the PDD, i.e. deficient social interaction, communication and repertoires, and restricted interests, 95% had attentional problems, 75% had motor difficulties, 86% had problems with regulation of activity level, and 50% had impulsiveness. About three-quarters had symptoms compatible with mild or severe attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or had deficits in attention, motor control, and perception (DAMP), indicating a considerable overlap between these disorders and high-functioning PDD in children of normal or near-normal intelligence. A combination of affective dysregulation, thought disturbance, and severely restricted social interaction, referred to as a multiple complex developmental disorder (MCDD; a condition possibly related to schizoaffective disorder), was recorded in about 8% of the children. Seventeen percent had another major medical diagnosis or medical syndrome, which highlights the importance of completing a neurological assessment of all children with PDDs.

  1. How Children with Normal Hearing and Children with a Cochlear Implant Use Mentalizing Vocabulary and Other Evaluative Expressions in Their Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Kerttu; Ryder, Nuala

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of mental state and emotion terms and other evaluative expressions in the story generation of 65 children (aged 2-8 years) with normal hearing (NH) and 11 children (aged 3-7 years) using a cochlear implant (CI). Children generated stories on the basis of sets of sequential pictures. The stories of the children with CI…

  2. How Children with Normal Hearing and Children with a Cochlear Implant Use Mentalizing Vocabulary and Other Evaluative Expressions in Their Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Kerttu; Ryder, Nuala

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of mental state and emotion terms and other evaluative expressions in the story generation of 65 children (aged 2-8 years) with normal hearing (NH) and 11 children (aged 3-7 years) using a cochlear implant (CI). Children generated stories on the basis of sets of sequential pictures. The stories of the children with CI…

  3. Development of the Parent Form of the Preschool Children's Communication Skills Scale and Comparison of the Communication Skills of Children with Normal Development and with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Aydan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at developing an assessment scale for identifying preschool children's communication skills, at distinguishing children with communication deficiencies and at comparing the communication skills of children with normal development (ND) and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 427 children of up to 6 years of…

  4. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colds Prevention Treatment Children Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose ... cm (3/8 inch) per minute. What a Common Cold Is A common cold is an illness caused ...

  5. Neurovascular anatomy: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Bell, Randy; Severson, Meryl A; Armonda, Rocco A

    2009-07-01

    Students of cerebrovascular anatomy and physiology tend to model their learning based on normal patterns of blood flow. As such, the focus tends toward arterial physiology and pathology with less than adequate understanding of the significance of the venous system. This article presents a different approach to neurovascular anatomy, starting with the venous system and demonstrating both normal and pathologic states. It reviews the cerebral circulation with attention to the microsurgical relationships, angiographic patterns, and fusion of dual-volume imaging. The importance of bony, sulcal, and ventricular anatomy is presented as it relates to the angiographic representation of pathologic lesions. Examples are given of anatomic variants seen with the operating microscope, biplanar angiography, and three-dimensional rotational angiography." Note that in the synopsis and throughout the article, first person usage has been changed to third person per journal style.

  6. Use of the Griffiths Mental Scales in normal 2 year old Malaysian children.

    PubMed

    Ho, J J; Amar, H S; Ismail, R

    2001-09-01

    The Griffiths Scales for Mental Development were used to assess a group of 60 normal 2-year old Malaysian children (25 Indian, 23 Malay and 12 Chinese). The mean GQ was 104.2 (SD 9.3). This was significantly higher than the test mean of 100, p < 0.001. The mean score for Malaysian children was significantly higher on the locomotor, personal social, performance and practical reasoning subscales while they were significantly lower on the hand eye subscale and did not differ from the test mean on the hearing and speech subscale. There was a significant correlation between GQ and social class, r = -0.39, p < 0.05. Scores were lower than those currently obtained on British children, p < 0.001. Minor difficulties due to language and cultural factors arose over the interpretation of several items but with standardisation of these items the test is useful in Malaysian children.

  7. Recognition of faux pas by normally developing children and children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Baron-Cohen, S; O'Riordan, M; Stone, V; Jones, R; Plaisted, K

    1999-10-01

    Most theory of mind (ToM) tests are designed for subjects with a mental age of 4-6 years. There are very few ToM tests for subjects who are older or more able than this. We report a new test of ToM, designed for children 7-11 years old. The task involves recognizing faux pas. Study 1 tested 7-9, and 11-year-old normal children. Results showed that the ability to detect faux pas developed with age and that there was a differential developmental profile between the two sexes (female superiority). Study 2 tested children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), selected for being able to pass traditional 4- to 6-year level (first- and second-order) false belief tests. Results showed that whereas normal 9- to 11-year-old children were skilled at detecting faux pas, children with AS or HFA were impaired on this task. Study 3 reports a refinement in the test, employing control stimuli. This replicated the results from Study 2. Some patients with AS or HFA were able to recognize faux pas but still produced them. Future research should assess faux pas production.

  8. Perceptual weighting strategies of children with cochlear implants and normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Nittrouer, Susan; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Moberly, Aaron C; Lowenstein, Joanna H

    2014-01-01

    This study compared perceptual weighting strategies of children with cochlear implants (CIs) and children with normal hearing (NH), and asked if strategies are explained solely by degraded spectral representations, or if diminished language experience accounts for some of the effect. Relationships between weighting strategies and other language skills were examined. One hundred 8-year-olds (49 with NH and 51 with CIs) were tested on four measures: (1) labeling of cop-cob and sa-sha stimuli; (2) discrimination of the acoustic cues to the cop-cob decision; (3) phonemic awareness; and (4) word recognition. No differences in weighting of cues to the cop-cob decision were observed between children with CIs and NH, suggesting that language experience was sufficient for the children with CIs. Differences in weighting of cues to the sa-sha decision were found, but were not entirely explained by auditory sensitivity. Weighting strategies were related to phonemic awareness and word recognition. More salient cues facilitate stronger weighting of those cues. Nonetheless, individuals differ in how salient cues need to be to capture perceptual attention. Familiarity with stimuli also affects how reliably children attend to acoustic cues. Training should help children with CIs learn to categorize speech sounds with less-salient cues. After reading this article, the learner should be able to: (1) recognize methods and motivations for studying perceptual weighting strategies in speech perception; (2) explain how signal quality and language experience affect the development of weighting strategies for children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing; and (3) summarize the importance of perceptual weighting strategies for other aspects of language functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Proportional and functional analogical reasoning in normal and language-impaired children.

    PubMed

    Nippold, M A; Erskine, B J; Freed, D B

    1988-11-01

    Teachers often use analogies in classroom settings to clarify new concepts for their students. However, analogies may inadvertently confuse the youngster who has difficulty identifying the one-to-one comparisons underlying them. Although analogical reasoning has been studied extensively in normal children, no information was available concerning this construct in children having a specific language impairment. Thus, it was unknown to what extent they might be deficient in analogical reasoning. Therefore, in the present study, 20 children ages 6-8 years (mean age = 7:6) having normal nonverbal intelligence but deficits in language comprehension were administered tasks of verbal and perceptual proportional analogical reasoning and a problem-solving task of functional analogical reasoning. Compared to a normal-language control group matched on the basis of chronological age and sex, the language-impaired group was deficient in all three tasks of analogical reasoning. However, when the factor of nonverbal intelligence was controlled statistically, the differences between the groups on each of the tasks were removed. Additional findings were that verbal proportional analogical reasoning was significantly correlated to perceptual proportional analogical reasoning and to functional analogical reasoning. Implications for assessment and intervention with young school-age language-impaired children are discussed.

  10. Event-related EEG oscillations to semantically unrelated words in normal and learning disabled children.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Thalía; Harmony, Thalía; Mendoza, Omar; López-Alanís, Paula; Marroquín, José Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2012-10-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that EEG oscillations may be different in LD NOS children versus normal control children that may explain some of the deficits observed in the LD-NOS group. The EEGs were recorded using the 10/20 system. EEG segments were edited by visual inspection 1000ms before and after the stimulus, and only correct responses were considered in the analysis. Time-frequency (1-50Hz) topographic maps were obtained for the increases and decreases of power after the event with respect to the pre-stimulus average values. Significant differences between groups were observed in the behavioral responses. LD-NOS children show less number of correct responses and more omissions and false alarms than the control group. The event-induced EEG responses showed significant differences between groups. The control group showed greater power increases in the frequencies 1-6Hz than the LD-NOS group from 300 to 700ms. These differences were mainly observed in frontal regions, both to related and non-related words. This was interpreted as a deficit in attention, both to internal and external events, deficits in activation of working memory and deficits in encoding and memory retrieval in the LD-NOS children. Differences between groups were also observed in the suppression of alpha and beta rhythms in the occipital regions to related words in frequencies between 8 and 17Hz from 450 to 750ms. LD-NOS children showed shorter durations of the decreases in power than the control group. These results suggest also deficits in attention and memory retrieval. It may be concluded that LD-NOS children showed physiological differences from normal children that may explain

  11. Brain factor-7 extracted from Bombyx mori enhances cognition and attention in normal children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kunwoo; Park, Subin; Yoo, Hanik K; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Do-Hee; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jin-Young; Youn, Young-Chul; Marshall, Maurice R; Kim, Sung-Su; Jeong, Yoonhwa

    2009-06-01

    It has been reported that brain factor-7 (BF-7) extracted from Bombyx mori improves cognitive functions in normal juveniles and adults as well as cognitively impaired patients. Clinical studies with normal children evaluated the role of BF-7 on brain function in these patients. The objective of this study was to improve cognitive functions of normal schoolchildren with BF-7. Forty-six normal healthy children were divided into two treatment groups: BF-7 (9.9 +/- 1.18 years old; 9 boys, 14 girls) and placebo (9.8 +/- 1.03 years old; 10 boys, 13 girls). The Color Trails Making Test was used to measure the efficacy of BF-7 on cognition and attention. Results showed that BF-7 reduced the response time by an average of 23% for the Color Trails Making Test. Moreover, BF-7 improved the accuracy of the task around twofold. The results reveal that BF-7 improves brain function for attention and cognitive flexibility in children.

  12. Thelarche, pubarche, and menarche attainment in children with normal and elevated body mass index.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert L; Lipton, Rebecca B; Drum, Melinda L

    2009-01-01

    The early onset of puberty may be related to obesity, so there is a need to know the prevalence of early pubertal milestones in nonoverweight children. OBJECTIVE. We compared attainment of stage 2 breasts, stage 3 (sexual) pubic hair, and menarche in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sample of children with normal BMI with those with excessive BMI (> or =85th percentile). The ages at which 5%, 50%, and 95% of youth had attained key pubertal stages were estimated by probit models. Logit models were then fit to compare attainment of these milestones in children of excessive and normal BMI. Pubertal signs occurred before 8.0 years of age in <5% of the normal-BMI general and non-Hispanic white female population. However, pubertal milestones generally appeared earlier in normal-BMI non-Hispanic black and Mexican American girls; thelarche occurred before age 8.0 in 12% to 19% of these groups, and the 5th percentile for menarche was 0.8 years earlier for non-Hispanic black than non-Hispanic white subjects. Pubarche was found in < or =3% of 8.0-year-old girls with normal BMI of all of these ethnic groups but was significantly earlier in minority groups. Pubarche appeared before 10.0 years in <2% of normal-BMI boys. Girls with excessive BMI had a significantly higher prevalence of breast appearance from ages 8.0 through 9.6 years and pubarche from ages 8.0 through 10.2 years than those with normal BMI. Menarche was also significantly more likely to occur in preteen girls with an elevated BMI. Prevalence estimates are given for the key pubertal milestones in children with normal BMI. Breast and sexual pubic hair development are premature before 8 years of age in girls with normal BMI in the general population. Adiposity and non-Hispanic black and Mexican American ethnicity are independently associated with earlier pubertal development in girls.

  13. A Comparison of Persian Vowel Production in Hearing-Impaired Children Using a Cochlear Implant and Normal-Hearing Children.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Narges; Drinnan, Michael; Mohamadi, Reyhane; Yadegari, Fariba; Nourbakhsh, Mandana; Torabinezhad, Farhad

    2016-05-01

    Normal-hearing (NH) acuity and auditory feedback control are crucial for human voice production and articulation. The lack of auditory feedback in individuals with profound hearing impairment changes their vowel production. The purpose of this study was to compare Persian vowel production in deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and that in NH children. The participants were 20 children (12 girls and 8 boys) with age range of 5 years; 1 month to 9 years. All patients had congenital hearing loss and received a multichannel CI at an average age of 3 years. They had at least 6 months experience of their current device (CI). The control group consisted of 20 NH children (12 girls and 8 boys) with age range of 5 to 9 years old. The two groups were matched by age. Participants were native Persian speakers who were asked to produce the vowels /i/, /e/, /ӕ/, /u/, /o/, and /a/. The averages for first formant frequency (F1) and second formant frequency (F2) of six vowels were measured using Praat software (Version 5.1.44, Boersma & Weenink, 2012). The independent samples t test was conducted to assess the differences in F1 and F2 values and the area of the vowel space between the two groups. Mean values of F1 were increased in CI children; the mean values of F1 for vowel /i/ and /a/, F2 for vowel /a/ and /o/ were significantly different (P < 0.05). The changes in F1 and F2 showed a centralized vowel space for CI children. F1 is increased in CI children, probably because CI children tend to overarticulate. We hypothesis this is due to a lack of auditory feedback; there is an attempt by hearing-impaired children to compensate via proprioceptive feedback during articulatory process. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sweet Christmas: Do overweight and obese children associate special events more frequently with food than normal weight children?

    PubMed

    Martijn, Carolien; Pasch, Sophie; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined children's spontaneous associations of special events with food. Children in primary education (N = 111, age between 10 and 13 years) at a school in Germany wrote down their first five associations with five special or festive events (Christmas, holidays, weekend, carnival and birthday). After completing the free-word association test, they were offered a choice between a candy and a toy. Finally, their body mass index (BMI) was measured. The first prediction was that overweight and obese children would associate special events more often with food than normal weight and leaner children. The second prediction was that choice for a candy would be predicted by a higher number of food-related associations. The first hypothesis was not supported: BMI was negatively related to number of food-related associations (the lower the BMI, the more food-related associations). The second hypothesis was also not supported: There was no relation between number of food-related associations and choice for a candy or toy. A possible explanation for the finding that leaner children reported more food-related associations is that for them specific sweets and snack food are more exclusively connected to special occasions than for overweight children. Speculatively, this may be the result of differences in food parenting styles between parents of heavier and leaner children. Parents of leaner children often have a more restrictive style, i.e., reserving specific foods for specific, relatively rare occasions whereas parents of overweight children adopt more liberal food rules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Primacy and Recency Effects for Serially Presented Supraspan Information in Normal and Learning Disabled Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Donald B.

    Primacy and recency aspects of short term memory (STM) were investigated with 30 learning disabled (LD) and 30 normal children, all with a mean age of 113 months. The pretest experiment compared the serial position curve performance of LD and normal children when seven-digit series were presented visually or auditorially. The second experiment…

  16. Syntactic and Semantic Characteristics in the Written Language of Hearing Impaired and Normally Hearing School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinaga, Christine

    To investigate semantic and syntactic variables in the written language of normally hearing and hearing impaired children, 49 hearing impaired and 49 normally hearing children (10-14 years old) were asked to write compositions based on the Accident/Emergency Picture in the Peabody Language Development Kit. In addition, syntactic characteristics…

  17. A comparison of vowel productions in prelingually deaf children using cochlear implants, severe hearing-impaired children using conventional hearing aids and normal-hearing children.

    PubMed

    Baudonck, Nele; Van Lierde, K; Dhooge, I; Corthals, P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare vowel productions by deaf cochlear implant (CI) children, hearing-impaired hearing aid (HA) children and normal-hearing (NH) children. 73 children [mean age: 9;14 years (years;months)] participated: 40 deaf CI children, 34 moderately to profoundly hearing-impaired HA children and 42 NH children. For the 3 corner vowels [a], [i] and [u], F(1), F(2) and the intrasubject SD were measured using the Praat software. Spectral separation between these vowel formants and vowel space were calculated. The significant effects in the CI group all pertain to a higher intrasubject variability in formant values, whereas the significant effects in the HA group all pertain to lower formant values. Both hearing-impaired subgroups showed a tendency toward greater intervowel distances and vowel space. Several subtle deviations in the vowel production of deaf CI children and hearing-impaired HA children could be established, using a well-defined acoustic analysis. CI children as well as HA children in this study tended to overarticulate, which hypothetically can be explained by a lack of auditory feedback and an attempt to compensate it by proprioceptive feedback during articulatory maneuvers. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Performance-intensity functions for normal-hearing adults and children using CASPA

    PubMed Central

    McCreery, Ryan; Ito, Rindy; Spratford, Merry; Lewis, Dawna; Hoover, Brenda; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The Computer Aided Speech Perception Assessment (CASPA) is a clinical measure of speech recognition that uses ten-item, isophonemic word lists to derive performance-intensity (PI) functions for adult listeners. Because CASPA was developed for adults, the ability to obtain PI functions in children has not been directly evaluated. The current study sought to evaluate PI functions for adults and four age groups of children with normal hearing to compare speech recognition as a function of age using CASPA. Comparisons between age groups for scoring by words and phonemes correct were made to determine the relative benefits of available scoring methods in CASPA. Design Speech recognition using CASPA was completed with twelve adults and four age groups of children (5-6, 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12 year-olds), each with twelve participants. Results were scored by the percentage of words, phonemes, consonants and vowels correct. All participants had normal hearing and age-appropriate speech production skills. Results Adults had higher mean speech recognition scores than children in the 5-6 year-old and 7-8 year-old age groups when responses were scored by the percentage of words correct. However, only differences between the 5-6 year-olds and adults were statistically significant when responses were scored by the percentage of phonemes correct. Speech recognition scores decreased as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for both children and adults. However, the magnitude of degradation at poorer SNRs did not vary between adults and children, suggesting that mean differences could not be explained by interference from noise. Conclusions Obtaining PI functions in noise using CASPA is feasible with children as young as 5 years-old. Statistically significant differences in speech recognition were observed between adults and the two youngest age groups of children when scored by the percentage of words correct. When results were scored by the percentage of phonemes

  19. Normal intellectual development in children born from women with hypothyroxinemia during their pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Grau, Gema; Aguayo, Anibal; Vela, Amaia; Aniel-Quiroga, Angeles; Espada, Mercedes; Miranda, Gorka; Martinez-Indart, Lorea; Martul, Pedro; Castaño, Luis; Rica, Itxaso

    2015-01-01

    Proper maternal thyroid function is known to be essential for neural differentiation and migration in the fetus during the first half of pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between thyroxin levels, in pregnant women with no thyroid disease and the intellectual development of their offspring in a non-iodine-deficient area, and to know specifically whether or not isolated hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy was associated with a lower intelligence in the offspring. Previously we had publicated values TSH, FT4, free T3 (FT3), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO Abs) and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in 1322 pregnant women in our hospital area. Now we presented results of intelligence quotient in children born from these pregnancies. We assessed 455 children at one year of age using Brunet-Lezine scale. Of these, 289 children were evaluated again at 6-8 years of age using the WISC-IV. From the total group of children recruited, we established as control subgroup, children born of rigorously normal pregnancies (women with UIC > 150 μg/L, FT4>10th percentile and TPO-Ab negative in both trimesters). The remaining children were divided into two subgroups: those born to mothers with FT4 below the 10th percentile and the rest. No correlation was found between FT4 maternal levels, in either of trimesters studied, and the intellectual scores of offspring. No differences were found in intellectual scores comparing children born to mothers with hypothyroxinemia and those whose mothers were euthyroxinemic in both trimesters, or with the control subgroup. As conclusions we did not find any association between the levels of maternal FT4 during pregnancy and the subsequent intellectual development the offspring from these pregnancies. We attribute this result to the fact that all the pregnant women included had normal thyroid function.

  20. Intentional communicative behaviours of Turkish-speaking children with normal and delayed language development.

    PubMed

    Topbaş, S; Maviş, I; Erbaş, D

    2003-09-01

    Language profiles may predict whether children with slower language development will catch up to their peers by overcoming this transient phenomenon or will be at risk for persistent language disorders. The research of the last decade has focused on this topic. Some researchers have emphasized the significance of developing communicative intentions, which provide a potential predictor of later language competence. In Turkey, children with slower language development may not be diagnosed partly because of the lack of sufficient standardized assessment/evaluation tools, educational and therapeutic media, and qualified speech-language therapists. In devising appropriate evaluation instruments, it is necessary to examine cross-linguistic variation in early language acquisition. The purpose of this study therefore is to observe, describe and assess early communicative behaviours of 15-36 months old Turkish-speaking children by using a functional communicative approach. The research was designed within a qualitative-descriptive paradigm, involving qualitative data collection, observation and data analysis procedures. A total of 16 children, eight typically developing and eight language delayed, served as subjects. The classification system used in this study for coding children's communicative intentions was mostly based upon a system used by Dore (1977). Each variable was referred to as one of three intentional categories: regulating behaviours (request for object, request for action and protest), social interaction (direct attention, greeting and acknowledgement) and joint attention (comment/statement, asking for information and responding). A non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test was carried out to verify the descriptive measures in comparing the delayed and normal group performance. As expected, the mode of expressing communicative intentions varied as a function of age for both groups. Children with normal language development were observed to express intentions within

  1. Assessment of metallothionein and antibodies to metallothionein in normal and autistic children having exposure to vaccine-derived thimerosal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijendra K; Hanson, Jeff

    2006-06-01

    Allergic autoimmune reaction after exposure to heavy metals such as mercury may play a causal role in autism, a developmental disorder of the central nervous system. As metallothionein (MT) is the primary metal-detoxifying protein in the body, we conducted a study of the MT protein and antibodies to metallothionein (anti-MT) in normal and autistic children whose exposure to mercury was only from thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by immunoassays revealed that the serum level of MT did not significantly differ between normal and autistic children. Furthermore, autistic children harboured normal levels of anti-MT, including antibodies to isoform MT-I (anti-MT-I) and MT-II (anti-MT-II), without any significant difference between normal and autistic children. Our findings indicate that because autistic children have a normal profile of MT and anti-MT, the mercury-induced autoimmunity to MT may not be implicated in the pathogenesis of autism.

  2. [Forbidden anatomy].

    PubMed

    Holck, Per

    2004-12-16

    Since centuries anatomists have used any course of action in order to get hold of material for dissections, and at the same time avoid prosecution for grave robbery, at times the only way to get hold of cadavers. Stealing newly dead people from the churchyards and offering them for sale to anatomical institutions was not uncommon in the 19th century. "Resurrectionists"--as these thieves were called, as they made the dead "alive"--were seen as necessary for the teaching of anatomy in Victorian Britain. In the 1820s a scandal was revealed in Scotland, when it was discovered that some people even committed murder to make money from supplying anatomists with human cadavers. Two men, William Burke and William Hare, became particularly notorious because of their "business" with the celebrated anatomist Robert Knox in Edinburgh.

  3. Regulatory Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced through these logics as well as to consider the sometimes unintended consequences of such safety work. In fact, the EU rules have been giving rise to complaints from practitioners finding the directives problematic and inadequate. In this article, I explore the problems practitioners face and why they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape. PMID:26139952

  4. Comparison of oral health status between children with cerebral palsy and normal children in India: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Bijay; Chhabra, Kumar Gaurav; Patil, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present research was to describe and compare the oral health of children with cerebral palsy (CP) with the normal children in India. Materials and Methods: Fifty children with CP of the age range 7-17 years and fifty normal children were selected for the study. An oral examination was carried out and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) index, oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) index, Angles malocclusion were charted along with other significant dental findings. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Kruskal–Wallis one-way ANOVA test. Results: The mean dmft/DMFT of the CP group was 4.11 ± 2.62, while that of controls was 2.95 ± 2.75, which showed higher caries prevalence in the CP group. There was a significant association between the dmft/DMFT (P = 0.03), OHI-S (P = 0.001), and Angles Class 2 malocclusion and CP. Conclusions: Cerebral palsy group had higher caries, poor oral hygiene and Class 2 malocclusion when compared to controls primarily because of their compromised general health condition and also less dental awareness. Effort should be made for better organization of preventive dental care and promoting dental health of this challenged population. PMID:25810598

  5. Assessing multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children with normal hearing and children with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Rachael Frush; Kirk, Karen Iler; Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children. Method Two experiments were undertaken. In Experiment I, the youngest age with which the multimodal sentence recognition materials could be used was evaluated. In Experiment II, lexical difficulty and presentation modality effects were examined, along with test-retest reliability and validity in normal-hearing children and those with cochlear implants. Results Normal-hearing children as young as 3.25 years and those with cochlear implants just under 4 years who have used their device for at least 1 year were able to complete the multimodal sentence testing. Both groups identified lexically easy words in sentences more accurately than lexically hard words across modalities, although the largest effects occurred in the auditory-only modality. Both groups displayed audiovisual integration with the highest scores achieved in the audiovisual modality, followed sequentially by auditory-only and visual-only modalities. Recognition of words in sentences was correlated with recognition of words in isolation. Preliminary results suggest fair to good test-retest reliability. Conclusions The results suggest that children’s audiovisual word-in-sentence recognition can be assessed using the materials developed for this investigation. With further development, the materials hold promise for becoming a test of multimodal sentence recognition for children with hearing loss. PMID:20689028

  6. Psychological and emotional development, intellectual capabilities, and body image in short normal children.

    PubMed

    Molinari, E; Sartori, A; Ceccarelli, A; Marchi, S

    2002-04-01

    It is well established that children with short stature frequently have problems in cognitive development, personality, self-esteem and social relations. This is partly due to the fact that many parents view them as more vulnerable than other children of normal stature and do not allow them to face the normal experiences that correspond to their actual age. The aim of the present study was to assess, through the administration of appropriate psychological tools, a series of psychological and cognitive characteristics [i.e. anxiety, depression, good adjustment, social functioning, feeling of guilt, interpersonal relationship, intelligence quotient (IQ)], as well as variables linked to development of body image, in a group of children suffering from normal growth variants [familial short stature (FSS), no. 10, 4 males/6 females; with constitutional growth delay (CGD), no. 4,4 males; height standard deviation score (HSDS) ranging between -2.4 and -1.9] and in a control group children of normal stature (HSDS between -0.1 and +0.1). Children with short stature significantly differed from normal statured controls as far as Colored Progressive Matrices (CPMs, centiles), IQ (IQ, obtained using the Goodenough test), "Good Adjustment" (Draw-a-Person index, DAP), "Feelings of Guilt" (DAP index), "Height" (as emerges from drawings of the body) are concerned. Significant relationships were found between the height of the subjects (in centiles) and cognitive skills, measured both using CPMs (r=0.408; p=0.017) and Draw-a-Man (DAM) (r=0.359; p=0.037) and between height and feelings of guilt (r=0.325; p=0.027), measured using DAP. CPM scores correlated positively with the "Good Adjustment" index of DAP (r=0.354; p=0.05) and negatively with Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) (r=-0.609; p=0.01), "School Anxiety" index (r=-0.427; p=0.05) and "Total Anxiety" index (r=-0.436; p=0.05) of the Anxiety Scale Questionnaire for the Age of Development, and with 2 indices of DAP, namely

  7. Increases in language lateralization in normal children as observed using magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Ressel, Volker; Wilke, Marko; Lidzba, Karen; Lutzenberger, Werner; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2008-09-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating hemispheric dominance for language have shown that hemispheric specialization increases with age. We employed magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate these effects as a function of normal development. In sum, 22 healthy children aged 7-16 years were investigated using two language tasks: a verb-generation (VG) task and a vowel-identification (VI) task. Significant hemispheric differences were found for both tasks in cerebral language areas using oscillatory MEG spectral analyses, confirming the MEG's ability to detect hemispheric specialization for language in children. Additionally, a significant increase of this lateralization as a function of age was observed for both tasks. As performance in the VI task showed no correlation with age, this increase seems to be unrelated to performance. These results confirm an increase in hemispheric specialization as a function of normal brain maturation.

  8. Analysing the Peer Relationships of Obese and Normal-Weight Preschool Children Aged between Five and Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seçer, Zarife; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Önder, Alev

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal whether the peer relationships of preschool children who are determined to be obese, based on their body mass index (BMI), differentiate or not. The study was conducted within the frame of a relational survey model. A total of 114 five- to six-year-old children (57 normal-weight children and 57 obese…

  9. Differences in assertive speech acts produced by children with autism, Asperger syndrome, specific language impairment, and normal development.

    PubMed

    Ziatas, Kathryn; Durkin, Kevin; Pratt, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The assertive speech acts of children with autism (n = 12) and Asperger syndrome (n = 12), individually matched to children with specific language impairment (SLI; n = 24) and children with normal development (n = 24) were studied in the context of gently structured conversation. These children also completed the false belief test of theory of mind. The children with autism used significantly lower proportions of assertions involving explanations and descriptions than the children with SLI or normal development and significantly lower proportions of assertions involving internal state and explanations than the children with Asperger syndrome. The children with autism used a higher proportion of assertions involving identifications than any other group. The assertions of the children with Asperger syndrome were generally not different than those of the children with SLI or normal development except for a higher proportion of assertions involving own internal state. Further analysis of the mental assertions revealed that the children with autism and Asperger syndrome predominantly referred to desire and made few references to thought and belief, whereas the children with SLI and those with normal development used a higher proportion of references to thought and belief.

  10. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  11. Parental Perception of Sleep Problems in Children of Normal Intelligence with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Prevalence, Severity, and Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couturier, Jennifer L.; Speechley, Kathy N.; Steele, Margaret; Norman, Ross; Stringer, Bernadette; Nicolson, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study compares parents' perceptions of the prevalence, severity, and pattern of sleep problems in children of normal intelligence with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) with a normative comparison group of children. Method: A survey including the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was mailed to a sample of parents of…

  12. Parental Perception of Sleep Problems in Children of Normal Intelligence with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Prevalence, Severity, and Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couturier, Jennifer L.; Speechley, Kathy N.; Steele, Margaret; Norman, Ross; Stringer, Bernadette; Nicolson, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study compares parents' perceptions of the prevalence, severity, and pattern of sleep problems in children of normal intelligence with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) with a normative comparison group of children. Method: A survey including the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was mailed to a sample of parents of…

  13. Analysing the Peer Relationships of Obese and Normal-Weight Preschool Children Aged between Five and Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seçer, Zarife; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Önder, Alev

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal whether the peer relationships of preschool children who are determined to be obese, based on their body mass index (BMI), differentiate or not. The study was conducted within the frame of a relational survey model. A total of 114 five- to six-year-old children (57 normal-weight children and 57 obese…

  14. Basic level and superordinate level categorization by autistic, mentally retarded, and normal children.

    PubMed

    Tager-Flusberg, H

    1985-12-01

    Three experiments designed to test autistic children's nonverbal and verbal categorization abilities are reported in this paper. In the first two experiments, 14 autistic children were compared to 14 retarded and 14 normal children matched on verbal mental age. Their ability to categorize pictures from basic level categories and from biological and artifactual superordinate level categories was assessed using a matching-to-sample procedure. The three groups of subjects were similar in their performance. Basic level categorization was easier than more abstract categorization, and for all three groups, prototypicality played a role in categorizing superordinate level concepts; that is, children in all three groups made more errors categorizing peripheral examples. In the third experiment, a subgroup of 7 autistic children showed evidence that their lexicons were well organized and that they appreciated the meaning relationships among words at the superordinate level. These findings suggest that autistic children do not suffer a specific cognitive deficit in the ability to categorize and form abstract concepts, as has been previously suggested in the literature.

  15. Looking at images with human figures: comparison between autistic and normal children.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, J N; Kemner, C; Camfferman, G; Verbaten, M N; van Engeland, H

    2002-04-01

    Based on clinical observations of abnormal gaze behavior of autistic children, it has been suggested that autistic children have a problem in processing social information. Several studies on eye movements have indeed found indications that children with autism show particularly abnormal gaze behavior in relation to social stimuli. However, the methodology used in such investigations did not allow for precise gaze analysis. In the present study, the looking behavior of autistic children toward cartoon-like scenes that included a human figure was measured quantitatively using an infrared eye-tracking device. Fixation behavior of autistic children was similar to that of their age- and IQ-matched normal peers. These results do not support the notion that autistic children have a specific problem in processing socially loaded visual stimuli. Also, there is no indication for an abnormality in gaze behavior in relation to neutral objects. It is suggested that the often-reported abnormal use of gaze in everyday life is not related to the nature of the visual stimuli but that other factors, like social interaction, may play a decisive role.

  16. [Analysis on influence factors of body image dissatisfaction among children and adolescents with normal weight].

    PubMed

    Fu, Lianguo; Wang, Haijun; Sun, Lili; Yang, Yide; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Shuo; Meng, Xiangkun; Wang, Zhenghe; Ma, Jun

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the influence factors of body image dissatisfaction among children and adolescents with normal weight. The primary and middle school students who were selected from Changping district of Bejing city using the stratified cluster sampling method were measured body height, weight, and waist circumference. Body image cognitive attitude of students or their parents was surveyed using 'Ma figural shape'. The cognitive attitude of obesity risk factors was surveyed by self-designed questionnaires. The students with normal weight were selected according to 'reference norm for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents (WGOC) in 2005' and 'reference norm for screening underweight in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-19 years'. The association between body image dissatisfaction and cognitive attitude of obesity risk factors was analyzed for each gender. The study validly surveyed and measured 680 students, and there were 36.6% (249/680) students with overweight or obesity, 4.0% (27/680) students with underweight, and 59.4% (404/680) students with normal weight. Prevalence of body image satisfaction, expecting to be thinner, and to be fatter in students with normal weight was 32.7% (132/404), 35.1% (142/404), and 32.2% (130/404), respectively. The prevalence of expecting to be thinner in females and middle students was higher than that in males and primary students (46.4% (102/220) vs 21.8% (40/184)), (39.8% (88/221) vs 29.5% (54/183)), respectively; χ² values were 26.65 and 4.67 respectively (P < 0.05). The prevalence of expecting to be fatter in males was higher than that in females ((42.9% (79/184) vs 23.2% (51/220)) (χ² = 17.91, P < 0.001). The concordance ratio on body image cognitive attitude between students and their parent was 60.4% (244/404), and the consistency coefficient was 0.41 (P < 0.001). The factors including parents expecting their children to be thinner, the negative attitude on less drinking sugary beverages

  17. Analysis of spiral ganglion cell populations in children with normal and pathological ears.

    PubMed

    Miura, Makoto; Sando, Isamu; Hirsch, Barry E; Orita, Yorihisa

    2002-12-01

    This study analyzed features of total and segmental spiral ganglion cell populations in children with normal ears and those with various pathological conditions. Sixty-three human temporal bone specimens, obtained from 43 children 4 days to 9 years of age, were studied histopathologically. These specimens were divided into 5 diagnostic groups: group 1, normal ears (13 ears); group 2, congenital infectious diseases (13 ears); group 3, chromosomal aberrations (11 ears); group 4, multiple craniofacial anomalies with hereditary or genetic causes (21 ears); and group 5, perinatal and postnatal asphyxia (5 ears). Eighteen of the 63 ears had documented profound deafness. In either normal ears (group 1) or those with various pathological conditions (groups 2 through 5), the total number of ganglion cells did not change as a function of age during the first 10 years. The total number of ganglion cells was significantly larger in group 1 (33,702) than in each of groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 (p < .01), and the number was significantly larger in group 2 than in each of groups 4 and 5 (p < .01 and p < .05, respectively). The ratio of basal to apical ganglion cell populations remained constant in both normal and pathological ears. Each ratio of the number of basal and apical ganglion cells in groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 to the mean number in group 1 (basal and apical survival ratios) was at least approximately 40%. There was no statistical difference between these two ratios in groups 2, 3, 4, and 5. The mean (+/-SD) total number of ganglion cells in ears with documented profound deafness was 15,417 +/- 5,944, which is approximately 40% of those present in normal ears. Our results suggest that normally, cochlear neurons are completely present at birth and minimally regress during the first decade of life. In addition, although intergroup differences among various pathological groups were present, the majority of pathological ears had more than 10,000 spiral ganglion cells present. Cochlear

  18. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments.

    PubMed

    Bourelle, Sophie; Taiar, Redha; Berge, Benoit; Gautheron, Vincent; Cottalorda, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning) and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon) school on regular school days using the Balance Master® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P < 0.05). By end of afternoon, the body weight was borne mainly on the left side with the knee fully extended and at various degrees of knee flexion. A significantly better directional control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P < 0.05). In summary, most of our findings are inconsistent with results from previous studies in adults, suggesting age-related differences in posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training) or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders), be better performed late in the afternoon.

  19. Normal values of offline exhaled and nasal nitric oxide in healthy children and teens using chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Menou, A; Babeanu, D; Paruit, H N; Ordureau, A; Guillard, S; Chambellan, A

    2017-08-21

    Nitric oxide (NO) can be used to detect respiratory or ciliary diseases. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement can reflect ongoing eosinophilic airway inflammation and has a diagnostic utility as a test for asthma screening and follow-up while nasal nitric oxide (nNO) is a valuable screening tool for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia. The possibility of collecting airway gas samples in an offline manner offers the advantage to extend these measures and improve the screening and management of these diseases, but normal values from healthy children and teens remain sparse. Samples were consecutively collected using the offline method for eNO and nNO chemiluminescence measurement in 88 and 31 healthy children and teens, respectively. Offline eNO measurement was also performed in 30 consecutive children with naïve asthma and/or respiratory allergy. The normal offline eNO value was determined by the following regression equation -8.206 + 0.176 × height. The upper limit of the norm for the offline eNO value was 27.4 parts per billion (ppb). A separate analysis was performed in children, pre-teens and teens, for which offline eNO was 13.6 ± 4.7 ppb, 16.3 ± 13.7 ppb and 20.0 ± 7.2 ppb, respectively. The optimal cut-off value of the offline eNO to predict asthma or respiratory allergies was 23.3 ppb, with a sensitivity and specificity of 77% and 91%, respectively. Mean offline nNO was determined at 660 ppb with the lower limit of the norm at 197 ppb. The use of offline eNO and nNO normal values should favour the widespread screening of respiratory diseases in children of school age in their usual environment.

  20. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    PubMed

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  1. Genetic approach identifies distinct asthma pathways in overweight vs normal weight children.

    PubMed

    Butsch Kovacic, M; Martin, L J; Biagini Myers, J M; He, H; Lindsey, M; Mersha, T B; Khurana Hershey, G K

    2015-08-01

    The pathogenesis of asthma in the context of excess body weight may be distinct from asthma that develops in normal weight children. The study's objective was to explore the biology of asthma in the context of obesity and normal weight status using genetic methodologies. Associations between asthma and SNPs in 49 genes were assessed, as well as, interactions between SNPs and overweight status in child participants of the Greater Cincinnati Pediatric Clinic Repository. Asthma was significantly associated with weight (OR = 1.38; P = 0.037). The number of genes and the magnitude of their associations with asthma were notably greater when considering overweight children alone vs normal weight and overweight children together. When considering weight, distinct sets of asthma-associated genes were observed, many times with opposing effects. We demonstrated that the underlying heterogeneity of asthma is likely due in part to distinct pathogenetic pathways that depend on preceding/comorbid overweight and/or allergy. It is therefore important to consider both obesity and asthma when conducting studies of asthma.

  2. Eye and head movements in reading-disabled and normal children.

    PubMed

    Petri, J L; Anderson, M E

    1980-12-01

    Coordination of eye and head movements on nonreading tasks was investigated in 16 reading-disabled and 18 normal children aged 6 to 11 years. Types of eye movements are described and mechanisms controlling eye and head movement are reviewed. Significant differences were found between the two groups in sequencing of eye and head movements that were made in response to the appearance of visual stimuli at unexpected times and positions. Some reading-disabled children also were found to require more eye movements to achieve fixation on targets at known positions. It is suggested that the vestibular system may be implicated as a factor in the results obtained from the reading-disabled children and that the atypical eye-head movement patterns observed may did in stabilizing their visual world.

  3. Beyond stuttering: Speech disfluencies in normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Suaire, Pauline; Moyse, Astrid

    2017-08-24

    The aim of this study was to establish normative data on the speech disfluencies of normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4, an age at which stuttering has begun in 95% of children who stutter (Yairi & Ambrose, 2013). Fifty monolingual French-speaking children who do not stutter participated in the study. Analyses of a conversational speech sample comprising 250-550 words revealed an average of 10% total disfluencies, 2% stuttering-like disfluencies and around 8% non-stuttered disfluencies. Possible explanations for these high speech disfluency frequencies are discussed, including explanations linked to French in particular. The results shed light on the importance of normative data specific to each language.

  4. An investigation into kana reading development in normal and dyslexic Japanese children using length and lexicality effects.

    PubMed

    Sambai, Ami; Uno, Akira; Kurokawa, Suzuko; Haruhara, Noriko; Kaneko, Masato; Awaya, Noriko; Kozuka, Junko; Goto, Takashi; Tsutamori, Eishi; Nakagawa, Kazumi; Wydell, Taeko N

    2012-06-01

    This is the first study to report differences between Japanese children with and without dyslexia in the way string-length and lexicality effects are manifested when reading Japanese kana. These children were asked to read kana words and non-words consisting of either two or five kana characters. The results showed that the error rates of the normal Preschoolers and Primary-School children with dyslexia were higher than those of the normal Primary-School children. Further, the reading latencies of the normal Preschoolers, First-graders and dyslexics were significantly longer than those of the normal Second, Third and Fifth/Sixth graders. Moreover, reading latencies became shorter as the age of the participants increased. Both normal and dyslexic children showed significant effects of length and lexicality on reading latencies. However, the interaction between the length and lexicality was only seen in normal children from the Second-grade onwards. These results suggest that (1) normal First-graders reach a ceiling in terms of reading accuracy and that (2) as Japanese normal children become older, they become better at lexical reading processes, which leads to fluent kana reading, but that (3) the dyslexics, even at Fifth/Sixth grades, have not developed sufficient lexical reading processes.

  5. Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J Max; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL). Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%), 30 normal-weight children (46.2%), 12 overweight children (18.4%), and 21 obese children (32.3%). The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body-weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma concentration were essentially zero. Diagnostic analysis indicated a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 90%, and a sensitivity and specificity both of approximately 75%. The salivary glucose concentration did not vary with saliva flow rate. Taking into account the threshold response characteristics of the salivary glucose concentration response, these results suggest that testing salivary glucose levels may be useful as a screening assay for high fasting plasma glucose levels. The low false positive value is important to assure a low fraction of missed diagnoses.

  6. Standard-Chinese Lexical Neighborhood Test in normal-hearing young children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Sha; Zhang, Ning; Yang, Yilin; Kong, Ying; Zhang, Luo

    2011-06-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the Standard-Chinese version of Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT) and to examine the lexical and age effects on spoken-word recognition in normal-hearing children. Six lists of monosyllabic and six lists of disyllabic words (20 words/list) were selected from the database of daily speech materials for normal-hearing (NH) children of ages 3-5 years. The lists were further divided into "easy" and "hard" halves according to the word frequency and neighborhood density in the database based on the theory of Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM). Ninety-six NH children (age ranged between 4.0 and 7.0 years) were divided into three different age groups of 1-year intervals. Speech-perception tests were conducted using the Standard-Chinese monosyllabic and disyllabic LNT. The inter-list performance was found to be equivalent and inter-rater reliability was high with 92.5-95% consistency. Results of word-recognition scores showed that the lexical effects were all significant. Children scored higher with disyllabic words than with monosyllabic words. "Easy" words scored higher than "hard" words. The word-recognition performance also increased with age in each lexical category. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that neighborhood density, age, and word frequency appeared to have increasingly more contributions to Chinese word recognition. The results of the present study indicated that performances of Chinese word recognition were influenced by word frequency, age, and neighborhood density, with word frequency playing a major role. These results were consistent with those in other languages, supporting the application of NAM in the Chinese language. The development of Standard-Chinese version of LNT and the establishment of a database of children of 4-6 years old can provide a reliable means for spoken-word recognition test in children with hearing impairment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sonographic Biometry of Normal Kidney Dimensions among School-age Children in Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eze, CU; Agwu, KK; Ezeasor, DN; Agwuna, KK; Aronu, AE; Mba, EI

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some kidney diseases are usually associated with changes in kidney size. Objective: To determine sonographically the normal limits and percentile curves of the kidney dimensions according to age, gender and somatometric parameters among school-age children. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional research design and convenience sampling method were utilized. Participants included 947 normal subjects (496 boys and 451 girls) aged 6–17 years old. The sonographic examination was performed on a Shenzhen DP-1100 machine with 3.5 MHz convex transducer. Longitudinal and transverse dimensions of the kidneys were obtained in coronal plane with the subject in the supine or left lateral decubitus position. Results: The means of right and left kidney lengths in mm were 79.6 ± 8.1 and 81.6 ± 8.3, respectively while those of the right and left kidney widths in mm were 35.03 ± 3.6 and 35.09 ± 3.6, respectively. Dimensions of the kidneys were not statistically different in boys and girls (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between right and left kidney length (p < 0.05). Height correlated best with both kidney lengths. Thus the normal limits, prediction models and percentile curves of kidney lengths were established with respect to height. Conclusion: Sonographic determination of pathologic changes in the size of the kidney necessitates knowing the normal ranges of its length especially with respect to height in school-age children. PMID:25303194

  8. Families with children who are technology dependent: normalization and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M; Carl, John C

    2012-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined family functioning and normalization in 103 mothers of children ≤16 years of age dependent on medical technology (mechanical ventilation, intravenous nutrition/medication, respiratory/nutritional support) following initiation of home care. Differences in outcomes (mother's depressive symptoms, normalization, family functioning), based on the type of technology used, were also examined. Participants were interviewed face-to-face using the Demographic Characteristics Questionnaire, the Functional Status II-Revised Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, a Normalization Scale subscale, and the Feetham Family Functioning Survey. Thirty-five percent of the variance in family functioning was explained primarily by the mothers' level of depressive symptoms. Several variables were significant predictors of normalization. Analysis of variance revealed no significant difference in outcomes based on the type of technology used. Mothers of technology-dependent children are at high risk for clinical depression that may affect family functioning. This article concludes with clinical practice and policy implications.

  9. Results of loading doses of aspartame by two phenylketonuric (PKU) children compared with two normal children.

    PubMed

    Koch, R; Schaeffler, G; Shaw, N F

    1976-11-01

    Separate tolerance tests with aspartame at 34 mg/kg-day and phenylalanine at 19 mg/kg-day were compared. The results reveal that slight serum elevation of phenylalanine and tyrosine occurred in the two PKU and the normal healthy adolescents. It would appear that the phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame is small enough to be of little clinical significance.

  10. Relationship between speech perception in noise and phonological awareness skills for children with normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Dawna; Hoover, Brenda; Choi, Sangsook; Stelmachowicz, Patricia

    2010-12-01

    Speech perception difficulties experienced by children in adverse listening environments have been well documented. It has been suggested that phonological awareness may be related to children's ability to understand speech in noise. The goal of this study was to provide data that will allow a clearer characterization of this potential relation in typically developing children. Doing so may result in a better understanding of how children learn to listen in noise as well as providing information to identify children who are at risk for difficulties listening in noise. Thirty-six children (5 to 7 yrs) with normal hearing participated in the study. Three phonological awareness tasks (syllable counting, initial consonant same, and phoneme deletion), representing a range of skills, were administered. For perception in noise tasks, nonsense syllables, monosyllabic words, and meaningful sentences with three key words were presented (50 dB SPL) at three signal to noise ratios (0, +5, and +10 dB). Among the speech in noise tasks, there was a significant effect of signal to noise ratio, with children performing less well at 0-dB signal to noise ratio for all stimuli. A significant age effect occurred only for word recognition, with 7-yr-olds scoring significantly higher than 5-yr olds. For all three phonological awareness tasks, an age effect existed with 7-year-olds again performing significantly better than 5-yr-olds. However, when examining the relation between speech recognition in noise and phonological awareness skills, no single variable accounted for a significant part of the variance in performance on nonsense syllables, words, or sentences. However, there was an association between vocabulary knowledge and speech perception in noise. Although phonological awareness skills are strongly related to reading and some children with reading difficulties also demonstrate poor speech perception in noise, results of this study question a relation between phonological

  11. Exercises in anatomy: tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    It is axiomatic that those performing surgery on the congenitally malformed heart require a thorough knowledge of the lesions they will be called upon to correct. The necessary anatomical knowledge is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain at first hand, since relatively few centres now hold archives of specimens obtained in an appropriately legal fashion from the patients unfortunately dying in previous years. One centre with such an archive is Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago, known previously as Chicago Memorial Children's Hospital. The archive was established by Farouk S. Idriss, and was subsequently enhanced and consolidated by his son, Rachid. It is now under the care of Carl L. Backer, the current chief of paediatric cardiothoracic surgery at Lurie Children's. With the support of Carl, the archive has been triaged and catalogued by Diane E. Spicer and Robert H. Anderson. It has now been used to create a series of video presentations, illustrating the salient features of surgical anatomy of selected entities, with the videoclips being edited and prepared for publication by Anne Sarwark. This video contains the fruits of the first of these exercises in anatomy, and is devoted to tetralogy of Fallot.We begin the exercise by making comparisons between the normal heart and the arrangement seen in typical tetralogy. We emphasize the need to recognize the 'building blocks' of the normal outflow tracts, and show how they come apart in tetralogy. We then show the variations to be found in the specific morphology of the borders of the hole between the ventricles, with the crest of the apical ventricular septum being overridden by the orifice of the aortic valve such that the latter structure has a biventricular connection. We emphasize that it is the squeeze between the deviated muscular outlet septum and septoparietal trabeculations that is the essential phenotypic feature of the lesion. We then proceed to demonstrate the further variation to

  12. Anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal mechanism.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jamie L

    2011-05-01

    Understanding the normal anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal mechanism is the first step in providing appropriate diagnosis and treatment for children born with cleft lip and palate. The velopharyngeal mechanism consists of a muscular valve that extends from the posterior surface of the hard palate (roof of mouth) to the posterior pharyngeal wall and includes the velum (soft palate), lateral pharyngeal walls (sides of the throat), and the posterior pharyngeal wall (back wall of the throat). The function of the velopharyngeal mechanism is to create a tight seal between the velum and pharyngeal walls to separate the oral and nasal cavities for various purposes, including speech. Velopharyngeal closure is accomplished through the contraction of several velopharyngeal muscles including the levator veli palatini, musculus uvulae, superior pharyngeal constrictor, palatopharyngeus, palatoglossus, and salpingopharyngeus. The tensor veli palatini is thought to be responsible for eustachian tube function.

  13. Mental rotation and visual laterality in normal and reading disabled children.

    PubMed

    Corballis, M C; Macadie, L; Beale, I L

    1985-06-01

    Normal and reading disabled children, aged from 11 to 13 years and matched for I.Q., were timed as they discriminated bs from ds. When the letters were presented only in their normal upright orientations, normal readers responded more quickly when they were presented in the right than in the left visual hemifield, while the disabled readers showed a slight but insignificant left hemifield advantage. When the letters were presented in varying angular orientations the reaction times indicated that both groups "mentally rotated" an internal representation of each letter to the upright in order to discriminate them. The two groups did not differ in the accuracy of discrimination or in the estimated rate of mental rotation, and there were no significant hemifield differences in this phase of the experiment. These data offer no support for the view that disabled readers are deficient in spatial ability, but confirm earlier evidence that they may suffer a lack of left-hemispheric specialization.

  14. Hypertonic saline is more effective than normal saline in seasonal allergic rhinitis in children.

    PubMed

    Marchisio, P; Varricchio, A; Baggi, E; Bianchini, S; Capasso, M E; Torretta, S; Capaccio, P; Gasparini, C; Patria, F; Esposito, S; Principi, N

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a very common childhood disease that is associated with a significant reduction in the patients' quality of life. Its treatment combines educating the patients and their parents, immunotherapy and drug administration. However, even the best approach does not relieve the symptoms of a number of patients. Alternative therapies are particularly needed for children because the fear of adverse events frequently reduces parental compliance to the prescribed drugs, and immunotherapy is less easy to administer than in adults. In this prospective investigator-blinded study we evaluated whether children, with a documented history of seasonal grass pollen-related AR, benefit from nasal irrigation by assessing the effects on nasal signs and symptoms, on middle ear effusion and on adenoidal hypertrophy. We randomized children aged 5 to 9 years (median age 82 months) to normal saline or hypertonic saline (a 2.7% sodium chloride solution), administered twice-daily using a disposable 20 ml syringe, or no treatment. Nasal symptoms (rhinorrhea, itching, sneezing, nasal obstruction), swelling of turbinates, adenoid hypertrophy or middle ear effusion were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. Two hundred and twenty children (normal saline: 80; hypertonic saline: 80; no treatment: 60) completed the study. After four weeks, all the considered items were significantly reduced in the group receiving hypertonic saline (P < 0.0001), whereas in the group receiving normal saline only rhinorrhea (P = 0.0002) and sneezing (P = 0.002) were significantly reduced. There was no significant change in any of the items in the control group. The duration of oral antihistamines was significantly lower in the children receiving hypertonic saline than in those treated with normal saline or in controls. No adverse events were reported and parental satisfaction and compliance with the procedure were globally very good, regardless of the solution used. Using our

  15. Imaging the Normal and Abnormal Anatomy of the Female Pelvis Using (18)F FDG-PET/CT, Including Pitfalls and Artifacts.

    PubMed

    Even-Sapir, Einat

    2010-10-01

    This article summarizes the normal biodistribution of (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose in the pelvis, physiologic changes in the female reproductive system and benign adnexal and uterine lesions which may be associated with increased tracer uptake that should be appreciated when PET/CT studies of female patients, mainly those with gynecologic malignancies are reviewed.

  16. New normal ranges of antistreptolysin O and antideoxyribonuclease B titres for Australian children.

    PubMed

    Danchin, M H; Carlin, J B; Devenish, W; Nolan, T M; Carapetis, J R

    2005-11-01

    To determine age-specific upper limit of normal (ULN) values of the ASO and ADB titres in children aged 4-14 years in urban Melbourne. Serology is often used to diagnose a preceding Streptococcus pyogenes infection, particularly in potential cases of rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. The most commonly used antigens are antistreptolysin O (ASO) and antideoxyribonuclease B (ADB). Reference ranges used in Australia for these serological markers are usually based on data in adults from other countries. There are no age-specific reference values for Australian children. Sixty-six sera from children with no history of recent streptococcal infection were obtained in May-June 2002. The children were divided into three age groups for analysis: 4-5 (n = 20), 6-9 (n = 19) and 10-14 (n = 25) years. The geometric mean titre and ULN (defined as the 80th percentile) for the ASO and ADB titres for each age group were determined in both international and log units. The ULN for ASO titres in each age group was 120 (2.08 log units), 480 (2.68) and 320 (2.51). The ULN for ADB titres in each age group was 100 (2.00 log units), 400 (2.60) and 380 (2.58). The ASO and ADB ULN values in school-aged children are higher than the current reference ranges suggest.

  17. Early Behavioral Intervention Is Associated With Normalized Brain Activity in Young Children With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Geraldine; Jones, Emily J.H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Faja, Susan; Kamara, Dana; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Smith, Milani; Rogers, Sally J.; Webb, Sara J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A previously published randomized clinical trial indicated that a developmental behavioral intervention, the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), resulted in gains in IQ, language, and adaptive behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. This report describes a secondary outcome measurement from this trial, EEG activity. Method Forty-eight 18- to 30-month-old children with autism spectrum disorder were randomized to receive the ESDM or referral to community intervention for 2 years. After the intervention (age 48 to 77 months), EEG activity (event-related potentials and spectral power) was measured during the presentation of faces versus objects. Age-matched typical children were also assessed. Results The ESDM group exhibited greater improvements in autism symptoms, IQ, language, and adaptive and social behaviors than the community intervention group. The ESDM group and typical children showed a shorter Nc latency and increased cortical activation (decreased α power and increased θ power) when viewing faces, whereas the community intervention group showed the opposite pattern (shorter latency event-related potential [ERP] and greater cortical activation when viewing objects). Greater cortical activation while viewing faces was associated with improved social behavior. Conclusions This was the first trial to demonstrate that early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized patterns of brain activity, which is associated with improvements in social behavior, in young children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23101741

  18. Arthroscopic knee anatomy in young achondroplasia patients.

    PubMed

    Del Pilar Duque Orozco, M; Record, N C; Rogers, K J; Bober, M B; Mackenzie, W G; Atanda, A

    2017-06-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, affecting more than 250 000 individuals worldwide. In these patients, the developing knee undergoes multiple anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to characterise the intra-articular knee anatomy in children with achondroplasia who underwent knee arthroscopy. Records of achondroplasia patients who underwent knee arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data, operative reports, follow-up notes, MRI and arthroscopy images were reviewed. Bony, cartilaginous and ligamentous changes were noted. The trochlea sulcus angle was measured from intra-operative arthroscopic images. A total of 12 knee arthroscopies in nine patients were performed. The mean age at surgery was 16.9 years (12 to 22). In all patients, the indication for surgery was knee pain and/or mechanical symptoms that were refractory to non-operative treatment. Three anatomical variations involving the distal femur were found in all knees: a deep femoral trochlea; a high A-shaped intercondylar notch; and a vertically oriented anterior cruciate ligament. The average trochlea sulcus angle measured 123°. Pathology included: synovial plica (one knee); chondral lesions (three knees); discoid lateral meniscus (11 knees); and meniscal tears (six knees). All patients were pain-free and returned to normal activity at final follow-up. Children with achondroplasia have characteristic distal femur anatomy noted during knee arthroscopy. These variations should be considered normal during knee arthroscopy in these patients. Arthroscopic findings confirmed previous MRI findings within this specific population with the addition of a deep trochlear groove which was not previously reported.

  19. Arthroscopic knee anatomy in young achondroplasia patients

    PubMed Central

    del Pilar Duque Orozco, M.; Record, N. C.; Rogers, K. J; Bober, M. B.; Mackenzie, W. G.; Atanda, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, affecting more than 250 000 individuals worldwide. In these patients, the developing knee undergoes multiple anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to characterise the intra-articular knee anatomy in children with achondroplasia who underwent knee arthroscopy. Methods Records of achondroplasia patients who underwent knee arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data, operative reports, follow-up notes, MRI and arthroscopy images were reviewed. Bony, cartilaginous and ligamentous changes were noted. The trochlea sulcus angle was measured from intra-operative arthroscopic images. Results A total of 12 knee arthroscopies in nine patients were performed. The mean age at surgery was 16.9 years (12 to 22). In all patients, the indication for surgery was knee pain and/or mechanical symptoms that were refractory to non-operative treatment. Three anatomical variations involving the distal femur were found in all knees: a deep femoral trochlea; a high A-shaped intercondylar notch; and a vertically oriented anterior cruciate ligament. The average trochlea sulcus angle measured 123°. Pathology included: synovial plica (one knee); chondral lesions (three knees); discoid lateral meniscus (11 knees); and meniscal tears (six knees). All patients were pain-free and returned to normal activity at final follow-up. Conclusion Children with achondroplasia have characteristic distal femur anatomy noted during knee arthroscopy. These variations should be considered normal during knee arthroscopy in these patients. Arthroscopic findings confirmed previous MRI findings within this specific population with the addition of a deep trochlear groove which was not previously reported. PMID:28828058

  20. Nutcracker and SMA syndromes: What is the normal SMA angle in children?

    PubMed

    Arthurs, O J; Mehta, U; Set, P A K

    2012-08-01

    The nutcracker and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndromes are rare conditions where the left renal vein or duodenum may be compressed by an unusually acute angle between the SMA and aorta, although the normal angle in children is unknown. We measured the SMA angle to define the normal range in children. We retrospectively measured SMA angles, left renal vein (LRV) distance, and duodenal distance (DD) in 205 consecutive pediatric abdominal CT. Total and visceral intra-abdominal fat at the level of the umbilicus were also assessed. Mean SMA angle was 45.6±19.6° (range 10.6-112.9°), mean LRV distance was 8.6±3.9mm (range 2.0-28.6mm) and mean DD was 11.3±4.8mm (range 3.6-35.3mm). There was a significant but weak correlation between %visceral fat volume (%VF) and SMA angle (R=0.30; p<0.001), LRV distance (R=0.37, p<0.001) and DD (R=0.32; p<0.001). There is a wide range of SMA angle, LRV and DD in normal children, which correlated weakly with visceral fat volume. Using a definition of SMA angle <25° would diagnose 9.3% of asymptomatic children with nutcracker syndrome, and using a DD definition of <8mm would diagnose 20% with SMA compression. Our findings suggest exercising caution when attributing these rare syndromes to an absolute SMA angle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of foot progression angle on the distribution of plantar pressure in normal children.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Pan, Hui-Fen; Chang, Wei-Ning; Hsu, Chien-Jen; Renn, Jenn-Huei

    2014-02-01

    Plantar pressure distribution during walking is affected by several gait factors, most especially the foot progression angle which has been studied in children with neuromuscular diseases. However, this relationship in normal children has only been reported in limited studies. The purpose of this study is to clarify the correlation between foot progression angle and plantar pressure distribution in normal children, as well as the impacts of age and sex on this correlation. This study retrospectively reviewed dynamic pedobarographic data that were included in the gait laboratory database of our institution. In total, 77 normally developed children aged 5-16 years who were treated between 2004 and 2009 were included. Each child's footprint was divided into 5 segments: lateral forefoot, medial forefoot, lateral midfoot, medial midfoot, and heel. The percentages of impulse exerted at the medial foot, forefoot, midfoot, and heel were calculated. The average foot progression angle was 5.03° toe-out. Most of the total impulse was exerted on the forefoot (52.0%). Toe-out gait was positively correlated with high medial (r = 0.274; P < 0.001) and forefoot impulses (r = 0.158; P = 0.012) but negatively correlated with midfoot impulse (r = -0.273; P<0.001). The moderating effects of age and sex on these correlations were insignificant. Foot progression angle demonstrates significant impact on the distribution of foot pressure, regardless of age or sex. Foot progression angle should be taken into consideration when conducting pedobarographic examinations and balancing plantar pressure as part of the treatment of various foot pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of infant scale evaluation (PRISE) in Italian normal hearing children: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Cuda, Domenico; Guerzoni, Letizia; Mariani, Valeria; Murri, Alessandra; Biasucci, Giacomo; Fabrizi, Enrico

    2013-12-01

    Parental questionnaires are important tools in the evaluation of auditory and language skills of very young children affected by sensorineural hearing loss. One of these instruments is the Production on Infant Scale Evaluation (PRISE). The purposes of this study were to adapt and validate the PRISE on Italian children with normal hearing; and to obtain normative data. A back translation technique was used to adapt the Italian version of PRISE. The PRISE was submitted to parents of 234 normal children aged between 3 and 18 months of life. All of them passed local universal newborn hearing screenings and they presented no audiological risk factors. The PRISE internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.87. Split-half reliability indexes were λ(4) = 0.89 and λ(6) = 0.89. Corrected item-total correlation coefficients were significant for all items. The correlation of PRISE with a modified Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS), collected for convergent validity measurement purposes, was good (r = 0.743). A positive correlation of PRISE scores with age was found, reflecting on the age-dependence of pre-verbal skills. These findings demonstrate high reliability and convergent validity of the Italian PRISE version. This questionnaire constitutes a robust tool for assessing early language development in infants and toddlers with normal hearing. It seems particularly sensitive to the normal language development in the first years of life, which can be very useful for early rehabilitation of hearing loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Normal limits for heart rate as established using 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Salameh, Aida; Gebauer, Roman A; Grollmuss, Oswin; Vít, Pavel; Reich, Oleg; Janousek, Jan

    2008-10-01

    To the best of our knowledge, normal limits of heart rate with respect to gender, and as established using 24-hour ambulatory Holter electrocardiography, have yet to be published for the entire age range of children and adolescents. To establish the normal limits for heart rate in newborns, infants, children, and adolescents of both genders. We obtained 24-hour Holter recordings from 616 healthy subjects aged from birth to 20 years with structurally normal hearts. The subjects were not receiving medication, and had not been submitted to prior cardiac intervention. Off-line analysis was performed with Mars 8000 scanners, analysing 5 consecutive RR intervals by the software available for automatic calculation of heart rate. All subjects were in sinus rhythm. Best-fit non-linear regressions were applied to correlate age and gender with minimum and mean heart rate, as well as with maximal RR-interval, and to calculate the 5th, 25th, 75th and 95th percentiles. We observed significant gender-dependent differences in heart rate for persons aged 10 years and older, with the males exhibiting lower minimal and mean heart rates, and higher RR-intervals, than the females. Correlation of heart rate with age and gender could be established with sufficient accuracy using non-linear regression (p less than 0.0001): Minimum heart rate (male: R(2)=0.778, female: R(2) = 0.664) and mean heart rate (male: R(2) = 0.820, female: R(2) = 0.736) decreased with age, while the maximal RR-interval prolonged (male: R(2) = 0.562, female: R(2) = 0.486). Age and gender-related graphs of centiles were constructed. Heart rate, as documented using Holter recodings, can be correlated with age and gender, permitting establishments of normal gender-specific limits for children and adolescents.

  4. Nail anatomy.

    PubMed

    de Berker, David

    2013-01-01

    The nail unit comprises the nail plate, the surrounding soft tissues, and their vasculature and innervation based upon the distal phalanx. The nail plate is a laminated keratinized structure lying on the nail matrix (15-25%), the nail bed with its distal onychodermal band (75-85%), and the hyponychium at its free edge. The distal part of the matrix, the lunula characterized by its half-moon shape, can be observed in some digits. The nail plate is embedded by the proximal and lateral folds. From the proximal nail fold, the cuticle (also known as the eponychium), adheres to the superficial surface of the proximal nail plate. The nail unit possesses a complex and abundant vascular network to ensure adequate blood supply. Finally, both the periungual soft tissues and the nail folds are innervated. The shapes, structure, and inter-relationships of these tissues are factors in the way nails present with disease and how we understand and manage those diseases. In particular, an understanding of the surgical anatomy is important for those undertaking diagnostic or curative operations on the nail. With this knowledge, the most appropriate surgery can be planned and the patient can be provided with accurate and clear guidance to enable informed consent.

  5. Evaluating Coincident Relationships Between Obesity Incidence and Normal Weight Incidence From Birth Through Kindergarten for US Children.

    PubMed

    Yeaton, William H; Shah, Megha K; Moss, Brian G

    2016-11-22

    We examine the concurrent relationship between obesity incidence and normal weight status incidence and prevalence in children between 9 months and kindergarten. Multistage, probability sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort. United States. Representative sample of US preschool children (n = 9950) followed from birth through kindergarten. From direct, anthropometric measures, we reported prevalence and incidence rates across 4 follow-up periods. In addition to prevalence and incidence rates, we reported risk ratios based on multiple definitions and estimated predicted probabilities of obesity and normal weight status using clinically meaningful body mass index (BMI)-for-age percentiles. Obesity prevalence (13%-20%) was much smaller than normal weight status prevalence (66%-70%). Lower socioeconomic status, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic black children had greater risk of obesity. During 9 months to kindergarten, obesity incidence decreased two-thirds (15.6%), while normal weight status incidence decreased almost one-half (44.6%). Coincidently, normal weight status incidence (ranged from 23% to 45%) was consistently and substantially higher than obesity incidence (ranged from 5% to 15%). During 4 years to kindergarten, the obesity risk for overweight children was 13 times higher than that for normal weight status children. Overall rates of obese and normal weight incidence were substantial at 9 months, trended lower, but remained high through kindergarten. At 4 years to kindergarten, children with relatively high initial BMI were very likely to become obese but far less likely to achieve normal weight status. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Respiratory and Polysomnographic Values in 3- to 5-Year-Old Normal Children at Higher Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Casey J.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.; Mettler, Pamela; Gozal, David; Halbower, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine polysomnographic parameter differences in children living at higher altitude to children living near sea level. Design and Setting: Prospective study of non-snoring, normal children recruited from various communities around Denver, CO. In-lab, overnight polysomnograms were performed at a tertiary care children's hospital. All children required residence for greater than one year at an elevation around 1,600 meters. Participants: 45 children (62% female), aged 3-5 years, 88.9% non-Hispanic white with average BMI percentile for age of 47.8% ± 30.7%. Measurements and Results: Standard sleep indices were obtained and compared to previously published normative values in a similar population living near sea level (SLG). In the altitude group (AG), the apnea-hypopnea index was 1.8 ± 1.2 and the central apnea-hypopnea index was 1.7 ± 1.1, as compared to 0.9 ± 0.8 and 0.8 ± 0.7, respectively, (P ≤ 0.005) in SLG. Mean end-tidal CO2 level in AG was 42.3 ± 3.0 mm Hg and 40.6 ± 4.6 mm Hg in SLG (P = 0.049). The ≥ 4% desaturation index was 3.9 ± 2.0 in AG compared to 0.3 ± 0.4 in SLG (P < 0.001). Mean periodic limb movement in series index was 10.1 ± 12.3 in AG and 3.6 ± 5.4 in SLG (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Comparison of altitude and sea level sleep studies in healthy children reveals significant differences in central apnea, apneahypopnea, desaturation, and periodic limb movement in series indices. Clinical providers should be aware of these differences when interpreting sleep studies and incorporate altitude-adjusted normative values in therapeutic-decision making algorithms. Citation: Burg CJ; Montgomery-Downs HE; Mettler P; Gozal D; Halbower AC. Respiratory and polysomnographic values in 3- to 5-year-old normal children at higher altitude. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1707-1714. PMID:24179305

  7. BMI Development of Normal Weight and Overweight Children in the PIAMA Study

    PubMed Central

    Willers, Saskia M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriëtte A.; van der Beek, Eline M.; Gehring, Ulrike; de Jongste, C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is evidence that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is associated with overweight later in life. However, results from studies exploring other critical periods for the development of overweight are inconsistent. Objective The objective was to investigate BMI development to assess at what ages essential differences between normal weight and overweight children occur, and to assess which age intervals the most strongly influence the risk of overweight at 8 years of age. Methods Longitudinal weight and height data were collected by annual questionnaires in a population of 3963 children participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. BMI and BMI standard deviation scores (SDS) were calculated for every year from birth until 8 years of age. BMI, BMI SDS and BMI SDS change in each 1-year-age interval were compared between children with and without overweight at 8 years of age, using t-tests, logistic regression analysis and the analysis of response profiles method. Results At 8 years of age, 10.5% of the children were overweight. Already at the age of 1 year, these children had a significantly higher mean BMI SDS than normal weight 8-year-olds, (0.53 vs 0.04). In each 1-year-age interval the change in BMI SDS was significantly associated with overweight at 8 years with odds ratios increasing from 1.14 (95% CI 1.04–1.24) per 1 SDS increase at 0–1 year to 2.40 (95% CI 2.09–2.76) at 7–8 years. Conclusion At every age, starting already in the first year of life, a rapid increase in BMI SDS was significantly associated with overweight risk at the age of 8 years. There was no evidence for a specific critical period for the development of overweight. Prevention of overweight should start early in life and be continued with age-specific interventions throughout childhood. PMID:22761811

  8. Normal-range albuminuria does not exclude nephropathy in diabetic children.

    PubMed

    Zachwieja, Jacek; Soltysiak, Jolanta; Fichna, Piotr; Lipkowska, Katarzyna; Stankiewicz, Witold; Skowronska, Bogda; Kroll, Pawel; Lewandowska-Stachowiak, Maria

    2010-08-01

    Clinically detectable diabetic nephropathy (DN) begins with the development of microalbuminuria (MA). However, early renal dysfunction may be overlooked despite using that method. On the other hand, the gold standard in DN detection-that is, renal biopsy-is highly invasive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and interleukin (IL)-18 and their relations to albumin excretion rate (AER) in children with normal-range albuminuria, e.g. in those considered as not presenting diabetic nephropathy. The study group consisted of 22 children (age 12.7 +/- 3.5 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Long-term glycemic control was assessed on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels (8.52 +/- 1.78%). All patients presented normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (141 +/- 23 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and normal urinary albumin excretion (13.09 +/- 7.63 mg/24 h). Fourteen healthy children served as a control group. Children with T1DM showed increased NGAL values with respect to controls-interestingly, both in serum (sNGAL) (867.43 +/- 341.98 vs. 655.29 +/- 196.17 ng/ml; p = 0.04) and in urine (uNGAL) (420.04 +/- 374.16 vs. 156.53 +/- 185.18 ng/ml, p = 0.04). IL-18 levels were not different in both groups both in serum (58.52 +/- 20.11 vs. 69.79 +/- 58.76 ng/ml; NS) and in urine (14.53 +/- 12.74 vs. 14.60 +/- 10.92 ng/ml; NS). Despite the relatively small study group, the positive correlation between sNGAL and AER was found [AER (mg/24 h) = 3.1893 + 0.01141 x sNGAL (ng/ml); r = 0.51; p = 0.014] as well as between uNGAL and AER [AER (mg/24 h) = 8.7538 + 0.01032 x uNGAL (ng/ml); r = 0.51; p = 0.016]. No relationship between sNGAL and uNGAL, and GFR and HbA1c were found. Normal-range albuminuria does not exclude diabetic nephropathy defined as increased sNGAL and uNGAL concentration. NGAL measurement can be more sensitive than MA and may become a useful tool for evaluating renal involvement in diabetic children.

  9. Reality Testing in Children with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Normal Children: A Comparison using the Ego Impairment Index on the Rorschach

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Borjali, Ahmad; Mazandarani, Amir Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine reality testing in schizophrenic children and compare it with normal children using minus responses subcomponent in ego impairment index of the Rorschach test. Methods In a descriptive design, 20 accidentally sampled children, including 10 schizophrenic and 10 normal children, were recruited in to two groups and were compared in terms of reality testing subcomponent of Ego Impairment Index (EII). After initial interview, the Rorschach inkblot test was administered on the two groups, and Distorted Quality responses (FQ-) were calculated. The results were then analyzed by independent t-test and Cohen's d for effect size. Results The result of independent t-test revealed that the mean of minus responses in schizophrenic children was significantly higher than that of normal children. In addition, the usefulness of the Rorschach ego impairment index (EII) in evaluating reality testing in schizophrenic children was confirmed. In addition, it was found that defect in reality testing is one of the prominent characteristics of schizophrenic children. Conclusion The higher minus responses in schizophrenic children indicate that schizophrenic children have weaker functioning in reality testing compared with normal children. PMID:23682251

  10. Reality Testing in Children with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Normal Children: A Comparison using the Ego Impairment Index on the Rorschach.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseininasab, Abufazel; Borjali, Ahmad; Mazandarani, Amir Ali

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine reality testing in schizophrenic children and compare it with normal children using minus responses subcomponent in ego impairment index of the Rorschach test. In a descriptive design, 20 accidentally sampled children, including 10 schizophrenic and 10 normal children, were recruited in to two groups and were compared in terms of reality testing subcomponent of Ego Impairment Index (EII). After initial interview, the Rorschach inkblot test was administered on the two groups, and Distorted Quality responses (FQ-) were calculated. The results were then analyzed by independent t-test and Cohen's d for effect size. The result of independent t-test revealed that the mean of minus responses in schizophrenic children was significantly higher than that of normal children. In addition, the usefulness of the Rorschach ego impairment index (EII) in evaluating reality testing in schizophrenic children was confirmed. In addition, it was found that defect in reality testing is one of the prominent characteristics of schizophrenic children. The higher minus responses in schizophrenic children indicate that schizophrenic children have weaker functioning in reality testing compared with normal children.

  11. Global and local development of gray and white matter volume in normal children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Marko; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Holland, Scott K

    2007-04-01

    Over the last decade, non-invasive, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging has allowed investigating normal brain development. However, much is still not known in this context, especially with regard to regional differences in brain morphology between genders. We conducted a large-scale study utilizing fully automated analysis-approaches, using high-resolution MR-imaging data from 200 normal children and aimed at providing reference data for future neuroimaging studies. Global and local aspects of normal development of gray and white matter volume were investigated as a function of age and gender while covarying for known nuisance variables. Global developmental patterns were apparent in both gray and white matter, with gray matter decreasing and white matter increasing significantly with age. Gray matter loss was most pronounced in the parietal lobes and least in the cingulate and in posterior temporal regions. White matter volume gains with age were almost uniform, with an accentuation of the pyramidal tract. Gender influences were detectable for both gray and white matter. Voxel-based analyses confirmed significant differences in brain morphology between genders, like a larger amygdala in boys or a larger caudate in girls. We could demonstrate profound influences of both age and gender on normal brain morphology, confirming and extending earlier studies. The knowledge of such influence allows for the consideration of age- and gender-effects in future pediatric neuroimaging studies and advances our understanding of normal and abnormal brain development.

  12. Differential negative air ion effects on learning disabled and normal-achieving children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, L. L.; Kershner, J. R.

    1990-03-01

    Forty normal-achieving and 33 learning disabled (LD) children were assigned randomly to either a negative ion or placebo test condition. On a dichotic listening task using consonant-vowel (CV) combinations, both groups showed an ioninduced increase in the normal right ear advantage (REA). However, the mechanisms for this effect were different for each group. The LDs showed the effect at the right ear/left hemisphere (enhancement). The normal achievers showed the effect at the left ear/right hemisphere (inhibition). The results are consistent with an activation-inhibition model of cerebral function and suggest a functional relationship between arousal, interhemispheric activation-inhibition, and learning disabilities. The LDs may have an interhemispheric dysfunction. Both groups showed superior right ear report and the normal achiever showed overall superiority. Normal achievers showed higher consonant intrusion scores, probably due to a greater cognitive capacity. Age was a significant covariate reflecting developmental capacity changes. Negative air ions are seen to be a tool with potential theoretical and remedial applications.

  13. Foot contact event detection using kinematic data in cerebral palsy children and normal adults gait.

    PubMed

    Desailly, Eric; Daniel, Yepremian; Sardain, Philippe; Lacouture, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Initial contact (IC) and toe off (TO) times are essential measurements in the analysis of temporal gait parameters, especially in cerebral palsy (CP) gait analysis. A new gait event detection algorithm, called the high pass algorithm (HPA) has been developed and is discussed in this paper. Kinematics of markers on the heel and metatarsal are used. Their forward components are high pass filtered, to amplify the contact discontinuities, thus the local extrema of the processed signal correspond to IC and TO. The accuracy and precision of HPA are compared with the gold standard of foot contact event detection, that is, force plate measurements. Furthermore HPA is compared with two other kinematics methods. This study has been conducted on 20 CP children and on eight normal adults. For normal subjects all the methods performed equally well. True errors in HPA (mean+/-standard deviation) were found to be 1+/-23 ms for IC and 2+/-25 ms for TO in CP children. These results were significantly (p<0.05) more accurate and precise than those obtained using the other algorithms. Moreover, in the case of pathological gaits, the other methods are not suitable for IC detection when IC is flatfoot or forefoot. In conclusion, the HPA is a simple and robust algorithm, which performs equally well for adults and actually performs better when applied to the gait of CP children. It is therefore recommended as the method of choice.

  14. Development of temporal and distance parameters of gait in normal children.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Susan J; Stansfield, Benedict W; Richardson, Alison M; Robb, James E

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and distance parameters of 33 normal children were obtained from instrumented gait analysis prospectively over five consecutive years. The parameters were normalised to minimise the confounding effects of increasing height and leg length. Rank correlations were performed on normalised speed, normalised stride length, normalised cadence and normalised walk ratio across consecutive pairs of years to examine the ranking of these parameters for an individual child over time. Consistent trends of increasing rank correlation were observed in normalised stride length and normalised walk ratio suggesting that individual children were continuing to adjust these gait parameters towards their own characteristic position within the normal range. Consistent trends were not observed in the rank correlations for normalised speed and normalised cadence. These findings support the concept that individual children predominantly adjusted their cadence to effect changes in speed, while the development of stride length was dictated by other factors specific to the individual child. Rank correlation coefficients for walk ratio between consecutive years increased from the ages of 7-11 years of age and hence walk ratio appears be a feature of gait that matures beyond the age of 7 years. This accords with the proposal that it is an invariant parameter for an individual.

  15. Judgments of disfluency by mothers of stuttering and normally fluent children.

    PubMed

    Zebrowski, P M; Conture, E G

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between selected aspects of speech disfluency and perceptual judgments of these events by mothers of young stutterers and mothers of age- and sex-matched normally fluent children. Each mother independently listened to and judged as either "stuttered" or "not stuttered" recorded examples of a young stutterer's imitated productions of: (a) five different types of speech disfluency, (b) sound prolongations, and (c) sound/syllable repetitions of five different durations each, along with a comparable number of fluent utterances. Results indicated that although some between-group differences in judgments were observed, both groups most frequently judged sound/syllable repetitions to be stuttered, followed by whole-word repetitions and broken words. Fluent utterances, interjections, and sound prolongations were most frequently judged to be not stuttered by all mothers. Both groups judged sound prolongations averaging 258 ms in duration to be stuttered an average of 25% of the time, increasing to 68% for sound prolongations averaging 1254 ms; however, both groups of mothers judged sound/syllable repetitions of two or more iterations to be stuttered an average of 93% of the time. Findings suggest that there are not appreciable differences between mothers of stuttering and normally fluent children regarding their perceptual judgments of speech disfluencies, but each group might more frequently judge as stuttered those types of speech disfluencies characteristic of their own children's speech.

  16. Neural correlates of deception in social contexts in normally developing children

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Susumu; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Tanaka, Mari; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Deception is related to the ability to inhibit prepotent responses and to engage in mental tasks such as anticipating responses and inferring what another person knows, especially in social contexts. However, the neural correlates of deception processing, which requires mentalizing, remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of deception, including mentalization, in social contexts in normally developing children. Healthy right-handed children (aged 8–9 years) were scanned while performing interactive games involving deception. The games varied along two dimensions: the type of reply (deception and truth) and the type of context (social and less social). Participants were instructed to deceive a witch and to tell the truth to a girl. Under the social-context conditions, participants were asked to consider what they inferred about protagonists' preferences from their facial expressions when responding to questions. Under the less-social-context conditions, participants did not need to consider others' preferences. We found a significantly greater response in the right precuneus under the social-context than under less-social-context conditions. Additionally, we found marginally greater activation in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) under the deception than under the truth condition. These results suggest that deception in a social context requires not only inhibition of prepotent responses but also engagement in mentalizing processes. This study provides the first evidence of the neural correlates of the mentalizing processes involved in deception in normally developing children. PMID:23730281

  17. [Cognitive functions of school children with normal IQ and histories of severe and early malnutrition].

    PubMed

    Perales, C G; Heresi, E; Pizarro, F; Colombo, M

    1996-12-01

    This is a cross section study designed to evaluate the long lasting consequences of early and severe undernutrition on the development of basic cognitive functions. Attention, memory and problem-solving capacity were assessed in a group of 16 school children, who were severely undernourished during the first two years of age. They were compared with a group of 16 children with a normal growth. All subjects, age 8 to 10, had a normal intellectual coefficient and they belonged to the me same socioeconomical level. Memory was measured with a modified version of subtest of digits from WISC; attention was evaluated with a modified version of the Continuous Performance Task and problem-solving was measured with the Anstey Domino Test. A personal computer was used to assess the cognitive functions. The children who were undernourished during infancy presented lower scores in memory (number of the digits) and in problems solving (number of correct answers). They also had a worse performance than the control group in the same response time, when attention was evaluated. These results suggest that early severe undernutrition had deletereous effects on basic cognitive functions.

  18. Normal Nailfold End Row Loops are Associated with a Shorter Duration of Untreated Disease in Children with Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Rochella A.; Sullivan, Christine L.; Seshadri, Roopa; Morgan, Gabrielle A.; Pachman, Lauren M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of normal end row loops (ERL) at diagnosis of juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) with clinical findings in untreated children and identify predictors of the development of decreased ERL. Methods Clinical and laboratory data of 80 untreated children with JDM were collected. ERL scores were recorded at time of diagnosis, and at 24 months and 36 months thereafter. Twelve children with normal ERL at diagnosis were compared with the remaining 68 children. Outcomes included: duration of untreated disease, time on immunosuppresive medications, family medical history, disease activity score (DAS), and levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase, absolute CD3−CD56+/16+ NK cells, and von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed. Results At diagnosis, children with normal ERL had a shorter duration of untreated disease (p=0.03) and a lower skin DAS (p=0.045). Over time, an increased likelihood for having abnormal ERL was associated with a longer duration of untreated disease and with higher skin DAS. Conclusions The presence of a normal number of ERL in JDM appears to be associated with a shorter duration of symptoms and may be a useful indicator of disease chronicity in the newly diagnosed child. Normal ERL is also associated with lower skin DAS. The lack of association between normal ERL and other variables indicates that normal NFC should not be used as a justification to delay immunosuppressive therapy in children with typical JDM symptoms. PMID:20213809

  19. Pathological studies of cheek teeth apical infections in the horse: 1. Normal endodontic anatomy and dentinal structure of equine cheek teeth.

    PubMed

    Dacre, I T; Kempson, S; Dixon, P M

    2008-12-01

    Morphological examinations were performed on 100 normal equine cheek teeth (CT) of 1-12 years dental age (i.e. time since eruption), using gross examination, dissection microscopy, computerised axial tomography, and decalcified and undecalcified histology. The CT in Triadan 07-10 positions consistently had five pulp horns, but the 06 CT had an additional pulp horn more rostrally. Mandibular and maxillary Triadan 11s had six and seven pulp horns, respectively. Sections of CT taken 2-6mm below the occlusal surface (variation due to normal undulating occlusal surface) showed the presence of pulp in up to 50% of individual maxillary CT pulp horns, and in up to 25% of individual mandibular CT pulp horns. The histological appearances of primary and secondary dentine were described and it is proposed that the type of dentine present most centrally in every pulp chamber examined, currently termed tertiary dentine, should be re-classified as irregular secondary dentine, and that the term tertiary dentine be reserved for the focal areas of dentine laid down following insult to dentine or pulp.

  20. CSF gusher in cochlear implantation: The risk of missing CT evidence of a cochlear base defect in the presence of otherwise normal cochlear anatomy.

    PubMed

    Cabbarzade, Cavid; Sennaroglu, Levent; Süslü, Nilda

    2015-07-01

    Intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakages from the cochleostomy site - known as gushers - are a serious complication of cochlear implantation surgery in cases of congenital deafness. They occur as the result of abnormal communication between CSF in the internal auditory canal and perilymph in the cochlea. Gushers are well recognized as occurring in a proportion of cases in which there is a clearly visible congenital malformation of the cochlea. In this report, we describe two cases in which pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scanning of the cochlea was initially reported as normal but gushers occurred during cochlear implant surgery. In both cases, more detailed review of the CT scans (peroperatively in the first case, pre-operatively in the second case) showed a defect at the cochlear base, in the absence of any other cochlear malformation. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to the risk of missing this abnormality and to encourage careful inspection of the cochlear base on CT scans in all cases, even when the rest of the cochlear appears normal.

  1. Exploration of the microbial anatomy of normal human skin by using plasmid profiles of coagulase-negative staphylococci: search for the reservoir of resident skin flora.

    PubMed

    Brown, E; Wenzel, R P; Hendley, J O

    1989-10-01

    The aerobic bacterial flora of the top 25 layers of the stratum corneum of normal human skin was characterized by sampling glabrous skin with contact plates and analyzing plasmid patterns of coagulase-negative staphylococci (SCN) by agarose gel electrophoresis. The number of colonies of SCN on the skin surface at 12 sites varied from 14 to 838. Removal of five keratinized layers by sequential stripping with cellophane tape reduced the number of colonies by 80% (median; range, 42%-91%). Counts remained constant during removal of 20 additional layers. SCN with six different plasmid patterns were identified at a site on the skin surface. After removal of 25 layers, colonies with a single pattern were clustered in one quadrant of the site. The site was sterilized and covered with a sterile dressing for 18 h. Colonies reappeared in the same quadrant of the site; six of seven had the same pattern seen 18 h previously. Observations at three other sites were similar. Reappearance of the same strain(s) of SCN following sterilization of the site suggests that the reservoir for normal resident skin flora is located below the stratum corneum, perhaps in hair follicles and ducts of sebaceous glands.

  2. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Narrative Abilities in a Group of Italian Normally Developing Children.

    PubMed

    Mozzanica, Francesco; Ambrogi, Federico; Salvadorini, Renata; Sai, Elena; Pozzoli, Raffaella; Barillari, Maria Rosaria; Scarponi, Letizia; Schindler, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Only limited and conflicting information is available regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and narrative abilities. Besides, the role fathers' SES plays in the development of their children's narrative abilities has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between fathers' and mothers' SES and narrative abilities of their children assessed with the Italian version of the Bus Story Test (I-BST). A total of 505 normally developing Italian children were enrolled in the study. Information regarding parents' educational level and employment was collected for each child. Narrative abilities were evaluated using the I-BST. The relationships between parents' employment, educational level, and I-BST scores were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. In univariate analysis, both fathers' and mothers' education and employment were associated with most I-BST subscale scores, especially when higher educational and employment levels were contrasted with the lowest educational and employment levels. In multiple regression analysis, significant associations were found only between the fathers' working status and educational level and I-BST subscale scores. Parental education and employment might impact narrative abilities of children. When both fathers' and mothers' SES variables are considered together, only fathers' education and working status seemed to be associated with I-BST scores. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. A comparison of two procedures to elicit verbal auxiliary and copula in normal kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D; Till, J A

    1982-08-01

    Fourteen normal kindergarten children, all of whom spontaneously used verbal auxiliary and copular forms of BE (VACs) were studied. Two cloze procedures were designed to elicit all three forms of present tense VACs in uncontractible sentence positions. The syntactic elicitation (SE) procedure required the children to observe a syntactic constraint within a descriptive response; the emphatic elicitation (EE) procedure required observation of a stress constraint within a role-playing response. Personal pronouns were used as sentence subjects in both procedures. Results indicated that both procedures were effective in eliciting VACs approximately 75% of the time. The SE procedure was more effective than the EE procedure overall. The procedures did not differ in their ability to elicit auxiliary and copular forms. The effects of subject pronoun person and singular vs. plural verb form are discussed. The procedures have implications for supplementing spontaneous language samples in assessing expressive language.

  4. Sonographic Growth Charts for Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children: a Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Min-Su; Hwang, Geol; Han, Sanghoon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Young Don; Kang, Ki-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Sue; Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Guk Myung; Han, Kyoung Hee

    2016-07-01

    Kidney length is the most useful parameter for clinical measurement of kidney size, and is useful to distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease. In this prospective observational study of 437 normal children aged between 0 and < 13 years, kidney length was measured using sonography. There were good correlations between kidney length and somatic values, including age, weight, height, and body surface area. The rapid growth of height during the first 2 years of life was intimately associated with a similar increase in kidney length, suggesting that height should be considered an important factor correlating with kidney length. Based on our findings, the following regression equation for the reference values of bilateral kidney length for Korean children was obtained: kidney length of the right kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.102; kidney length of the left kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.280. This equation may aid in the diagnosis of various kidney disorders.

  5. Odds, prevalence and predictors of sleep problems in school-age normal children.

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Karen; O'Brien, Louise M; Cluydts, Raymond; Verleye, Gino Benjamin; Ferri, Raffaele

    2005-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the prevalence, odds, and predictors of 36 paediatric sleep behaviours and describe their coexistence in a school-age normal population. The design was community-based questionnaire survey of sleep-wake patterns, sleep environment, and 36 sleep behaviours indicative of six sleep disorder-subscales using the Health-Behaviour Questionnaire. A caregivers' report of 3045 children aged 6-13 years in Belgium constituted the participants. Prevalence of each sleep behaviour was calculated. Log-linear modelling within and between the sleep disorder-subscales was used to screen for coexistence. The effect size of selected night-time parameters to the likelihood of sleep behaviours and disorder-subscale was expressed as odds ratios via logit regression analysis. Significant differences in sleep-wake patterns were found between weekday and weekend. Ranking by odds showed that: (1) sleep problems such as 'tired when waking up', 'repetitive limb movements', 'going to bed reluctantly', and 'sleep paralysis' and; (2) the disorder-subscale 'excessive somnolence' are common in children. Coexistences within and between disorder-subscales of sleep problems are evident in a school-age, normal population. These results suggest that disorders of excessive somnolence (DES) are highly prevalent in a non-clinical sample of school-age children. Furthermore, sleep-onset latency and a noisy, not well-darkened room are predictive towards the odds for exhibiting sleep problems and disorders. It is advocated that more information on the importance of good sleep-wake hygiene should reach parents and children.

  6. Developing a reference of normal lung sounds in healthy Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    Ellington, Laura E; Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Elhilali, Mounya; Gilman, Robert H; Tielsch, James M; Chavez, Miguel A; Marin-Concha, Julio; Figueroa, Dante; West, James; Checkley, William

    2014-10-01

    Lung auscultation has long been a standard of care for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Recent advances in electronic auscultation and signal processing have yet to find clinical acceptance; however, computerized lung sound analysis may be ideal for pediatric populations in settings, where skilled healthcare providers are commonly unavailable. We described features of normal lung sounds in young children using a novel signal processing approach to lay a foundation for identifying pathologic respiratory sounds. 186 healthy children with normal pulmonary exams and without respiratory complaints were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. Lung sounds were recorded at eight thoracic sites using a digital stethoscope. 151 (81%) of the recordings were eligible for further analysis. Heavy-crying segments were automatically rejected and features extracted from spectral and temporal signal representations contributed to profiling of lung sounds. Mean age, height, and weight among study participants were 2.2 years (SD 1.4), 84.7 cm (SD 13.2), and 12.0 kg (SD 3.6), respectively; and, 47% were boys. We identified ten distinct spectral and spectro-temporal signal parameters and most demonstrated linear relationships with age, height, and weight, while no differences with genders were noted. Older children had a faster decaying spectrum than younger ones. Features like spectral peak width, lower-frequency Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, and spectro-temporal modulations also showed variations with recording site. Lung sound extracted features varied significantly with child characteristics and lung site. A comparison with adult studies revealed differences in the extracted features for children. While sound-reduction techniques will improve analysis, we offer a novel, reproducible tool for sound analysis in real-world environments.

  7. Ventricular tachycardia and exercise related syncope in children with structurally normal hearts: emphasis on repolarisation abnormality.

    PubMed Central

    Noh, C. I.; Song, J. Y.; Kim, H. S.; Choi, J. Y.; Yun, Y. S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To emphasize the importance of ventricular tachycardia associated with repolarisation abnormality in syncope associated with exercise. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of data on children presenting with syncope between 1985 and 1993. PATIENTS--5 apparently normal children with recurrent exercise related syncope associated with electrocardiographically abnormal TU complexes. RESULTS--3 children were diagnosed as having an intermediate form of the long QT syndrome and catecholamine sensitive ventricular tachycardia because the abnormal TU complexes were associated with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that was not typical of torsades de pointes. Tachycardia was induced by exercise in all patients and by isoprenaline in the one patient who was tested. One patient also had sinus node dysfunction. One child had incessant salvos of polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias and intermittent abnormal TU complexes suggestive of repolarisation abnormalities. The other had typical congenital long QT syndrome. Treatment was effective in three patients; two patients took a beta blocker alone and one took a beta blocker and low doses of amiodarone. One patient died suddenly, death being associated with sinus node dysfunction. In one patient with incessant ventricular arrhythmias treatment with a beta blocker, amiodarone, or Ic drugs was ineffective and always associated with proarrhythmia or syncope. He was not given further treatment and was asymptomatic despite having mild cardiomegaly. CONCLUSIONS--Ventricular tachycardia associated with repolarisation abnormality was an important cause of exercise related syncope in apparently normal children. TU complex abnormalities can be identified by repeated electrocardiography. beta Blockers are effective in preventing recurrent episodes. The role of amiodarone in this type of ventricular tachycardia needs further evaluation. PMID:7626354

  8. Lexical effects on spoken-word recognition in children with normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Krull, Vidya; Choi, Sangsook; Kirk, Karen Iler; Prusick, Lindsay; French, Brian

    2010-02-01

    This study is the first in a series designed to develop and norm new theoretically motivated sentence tests for children. The purpose was to examine the independent contributions of word frequency (i.e., how often words occur in language) and lexical density (the number of similar sounding words or "neighbors" to a target word) to the perception of key words in the new sentence set. Twenty-four children with normal hearing aged 5 to 12 yrs served as participants; they were divided into four equal age-matched groups. The stimuli consisted of 100 semantically neutral sentences that were 5 to 7 words in length. Each sentence contained 3 key words that were controlled for word frequency and lexical density. Words with few neighbors come from sparse neighborhoods, whereas words with many neighbors come from dense neighborhoods. The key words within a sentence belonged to one of the four lexical categories: (1) high-frequency sparse, (2) low-frequency dense, (3) high-frequency dense, and (4) low-frequency sparse. Participants were administered the sentence list and the 300 key words in isolation at 65 dB SPL. Each participant group was tested in spectrally matched noise at one of the four signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs -2, 0, 2, and 4 dB). The percent of words correctly identified was calculated as a function of SNR, key word context (sentences vs. words), and key word lexical category. SNR had a significant effect on the recognition of key words in sentences and in isolation; performance improved at higher SNRs. There were significant main effects of word frequency and lexical density as well as a significant interaction between the two lexical factors. In isolation, high-frequency words were recognized more accurately than low-frequency words. In both word and sentence contexts, sparse words yielded greater accuracy than dense words, irrespective of word frequency. There was a modest but significant negative correlation between lexical density and the recognition of

  9. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein in normal pineal gland in children and young adult.

    PubMed

    Marcol, Wiesław; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Malinowska-Kołodziej, Izabela; Mandera, Marek; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    The Bcl family contains both pro and antiapoptotic proteins participating in the regulation of neuronal cell death in several pathological conditions. However, very little is known about physiological profiles of Bcl-2/Bax expression in normal brain. In this study, we examined expression profile of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in normal pineal gland in children. The material for analysis was obtained by biopsy of pineal parenchyma during surgery of pineal cysts. All specimens were labeled immunohistochemically and analyzed by means of confocal laser scanning microscope. We found only few Bcl-2 expressing (0.7%) and no Bax-immunopositive (0.0%) pinealocytes. Bcl-2-positive cells were mature neurons, neither young ones nor glia.

  10. Clinical NMR imaging of the brain in children: normal and neurologic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.A,; Pennock, J.M.; Bydder, G.M.; Steiner, R.E.; Thomas, D.J.; Hayward, R.; Bryant, D.R.T.; Payne, J.A.; Levene, M.I.; Whitelaw, A.; Dubowitz, L.M.S.; Dubowitz, V.

    1983-11-01

    The results of initial clinical nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in eight normal and 52 children with a wide variety of neurologic diseases were reviewed. The high level of gray-white matter contrast available with inversion-recovery sequences provided a basis for visualizing normal myelination as well as delays or deficits in this process. The appearances seen in cases of parenchymal hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, and proencephalic cysts are described. Ventricular enlargement was readily identified and marginal edema was demonstrated with spin-echo sequences. Abnormalities were seen in cerebral palsy, congenital malformations, Hallervorden-Spatz disease, aminoaciduria, and meningitis. Space-occupying lesions were identified by virtue of their increased relaxation times and mass effects. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging has considerable potential in pediatric neuroradiologic practice, in some conditions supplying information not available by computed tomography or sonography.

  11. Effects of Rate of Stimulus Presentation and Penalty Conditions on the Discrimination Learning of Normal and Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; Zigler, Edward

    1972-01-01

    The effects of rate of stimulus presentation and reinforcement conditions on the two-choice discrimination learning performance of MA matched normal and familial retarded children were examined. (Authors)

  12. Serum LH and FSH Responses to Synthetic LH-RH in Normal Infants, Children and Patients With Turner's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwa, Seizo; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) on LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release were studied in 26 normal children and six patients (from 1-to 14-years-old) with Turner's syndrome. (Author)

  13. Serum LH and FSH Responses to Synthetic LH-RH in Normal Infants, Children and Patients With Turner's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwa, Seizo; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) on LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release were studied in 26 normal children and six patients (from 1-to 14-years-old) with Turner's syndrome. (Author)

  14. Are short normal children at a disadvantage? The Wessex growth study.

    PubMed Central

    Downie, A. B.; Mulligan, J.; Stratford, R. J.; Betts, P. R.; Voss, L. D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether short stature through childhood represents a disadvantage at around 12 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal non-intervention study of the physical and psychological development of children recruited from the community in 1986-7 after entry into primary school at age 5-6 years; this is the second psychometric assessment made in 1994-5 after entry into secondary school at age 11-13 years. SETTING: Southampton and Winchester health districts. SUBJECTS: 106 short normal children (< 3rd centile for height when recruited) and 119 controls of average stature (10th-90th centile). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychometric measures of cognitive development, self concept development, behaviour, and locus of control. RESULTS: The short children did not differ significantly from the control children on measures of self esteem (19.4 v 20.2), self perception (104.2 v 102.4), parents' perception (46.9 v 47.0), or behaviour (6.8 v 5.3). The short children achieved significantly lower scores on measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) (102.6 v 108.6; P < 0.005), reading attainment (44.3 v 47.9; P < 0.002), and basic number skills (40.2 v 43.5; P < 0.003) and displayed less internalisation of control (16.6 v 14.3; P < 0.001) and less satisfaction with their height (P < 0.0001). More short than control children, however, came from working class homes (P < 0.05). Social class was a better predictor than height of all measures except that of body satisfaction. Attainment scores were predicted by class and IQ together rather than by height. Height accounted for some of the variance in IQ and locus of control scores. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide only limited support for the hypothesis that short children are disadvantaged, at least up until 11-13 years old. Social class seems to have more influence than height on children's psychological development. PMID:9006466

  15. Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J Max; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL). Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%), 30 normal-weight children (46.2%), 12 overweight children (18.4%), and 21 obese children (32.3%). The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma concentration were essentially zero. Diagnostic analysis indicated a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 90%, and a sensitivity and specificity both of approximately 75%. The salivary glucose concentration did not vary with saliva flow rate. Conclusion Taking into account the threshold response characteristics of the salivary glucose concentration response, these results suggest that testing salivary glucose levels may be useful as a screening assay for high fasting plasma glucose levels. The low false positive value is important to assure a low fraction of missed diagnoses. PMID:25565874

  16. The obscure object of desire: 'nearly, but clearly not, like me': contingency preference in normal children versus children with autism.

    PubMed

    Gergely, G

    2001-01-01

    The author describes the central role of contingency detection in early socioemotional development. It has been proposed (Gergely & Watson, 1999) that infants are innately equipped with a complex perceptual mechanism, the "contingency detection module," which functions to establish the primary representation of the bodily self as well as the later orientation toward reactive social objects. According to the "contingency switch" model, the target value of the module that is initially genetically set to preferentially explore perfectly response-contingent stimulation is "switched" at around 3 months toward a preference for less-than-perfect social contingencies. It is hypothesized that the primary cause of childhood autism is a genetic defect, due to which the normal process of switching contingency preference at around 3 months does not take place. Preliminary results from an experimental study to test this model are reported. The study contrasts the preferential reactions of normal children and children with autism to perfect versus imitative (high-but-imperfect) contingencies. The results provide support for the contingency switch hypothesis of the etiology of childhood autism.

  17. Serum salicylic acid and fruit and vegetable consumption in obese and normal-weight children: a pilot-study.

    PubMed

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Mariani, Benedetta; Battezzati, Alberto; Diaferio, Lucia; Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Radaelli, Giovanni; Verduci, Elvira

    2016-11-02

    Salicylic acid (SA), a phenolic compound produced by plants, may play a beneficial role on health. This pilot study evaluated whether there might be an association between serum SA and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in obese and normal-weight children. Thirty-four obese children (17 boys and 17 girls) and 34 normal-weight children were recruited. Dietary intake was evaluated by the 7-day dietary record. Serum SA was measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. FV intake in obese and normal-weight children was not different between groups (175.00 (97.66) g versus 192.29 (90.54) g, p = .455). Obese children had lower serum SA than normal-weight children [mean difference, -0.025; 95% CI (-0.044; -0.006) μmol/L]. Serum SA was not associated with daily intake of FV in obese (p = .111) and normal-weight (p = .092) children. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of FV on serum SA, taking into account also the quantity and the type.

  18. Spatial unmasking and binaural advantage for children with normal hearing, a cochlear implant and a hearing aid, and bilateral implants.

    PubMed

    Mok, Mansze; Galvin, Karyn L; Dowell, Richard C; McKay, Colette M

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if spatial unmasking existed and differed for children with normal hearing, a hearing aid and a cochlear implant (CIHA), and bilateral implants (BICI); (2) determine if binaural advantage and headshadow effect differed between children with CIHA and BICI. Results indicated that most of the CIHA and BICI children demonstrated spatial unmasking, though to a lesser degree than children with normal hearing. Results also indicated that the children with BICI demonstrated greater headshadow effect than those with CIHA. The CIHA and BICI children also differed in binaural advantage, which could be due to the differences in headshadow effect and in detection abilities with the hearing aid versus the second implant.

  19. Initial Stop Voicing in Bilingual Children with Cochlear Implants and Their Typically Developing Peers with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunta, Ferenc; Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth; Procter, Amanda; Hernandez, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study focuses on stop voicing differentiation in bilingual children with normal hearing (NH) and their bilingual peers with hearing loss who use cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Twenty-two bilingual children participated in our study (11 with NH, "M" age = 5;1 [years;months], and 11 with CIs, "M" hearing age =…

  20. Coding Processes in Normal and Learning-Disabled Children: Evidence for Modality-Specific Pathways to the Cognitive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceci, Stephen J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Normal and learning disabled children were presented with visual and auditory items for free and cued recall. Deficits in semantically cued recall for children with one impaired modality originated at presentation time, perhaps because of separate pathways linking the auditory and visual modalities to the semantic system. (Author/RD)

  1. The Development of Base Syntax in Normal and Linguistically Deviant Children. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead, Donald; Ingram, David

    1970-01-01

    Language samples of 15 young normal children actively engaged in learning base syntax were compared with samples of 15 linguistically deviant children of a comparable linguistic level. Mean number of morphemes per utterance was used to determine linguistic level. The two groups were matched according to five linguistic levels previously…

  2. Comparing Autistic and Normal Children along the Dimensions of Reinforcement Maximization, Stimulus Sampling, and Responsiveness to Extinction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Marc; Rincover, Arnold

    1985-01-01

    Compared to mental and chronological age-matched groups of normal children, six autistic children (1) did not maximize reinforcement; (2) sampled less, and less efficiently; and (3) were much less responsive to extinction. Autistic sampling behavior was redirected by stimulus change. Results are viewed as perhaps causally related to many…

  3. Initial Stop Voicing in Bilingual Children with Cochlear Implants and Their Typically Developing Peers with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunta, Ferenc; Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth; Procter, Amanda; Hernandez, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study focuses on stop voicing differentiation in bilingual children with normal hearing (NH) and their bilingual peers with hearing loss who use cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Twenty-two bilingual children participated in our study (11 with NH, "M" age = 5;1 [years;months], and 11 with CIs, "M" hearing age =…

  4. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children: Intercorrelations for Normal Youngsters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattrocchi, Mary M.; Golden, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children was examined utilizing 86 normal children, including 55 females and 31 males from middle-class families. Significant relationships were predicted between the PPVT-R and the receptive scale on the…

  5. [Normal values of serum IgD in children depending on their age].

    PubMed

    Siwińska-Gołebiowska, H; Borysewicz, G

    1981-01-01

    In the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw there were determined normal values of IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE for different ages of children and youth. The determination of normal IgD levels is the last stage in this kind of studies concerning immunoglobulins. IgD levels were estimated in 372 cases in 19 age groups: in the cord sera, infant sera and older healthy children as well as in healthy adults sera. The IgD concentration was determined by Mancini method and given in I.U/ml. The results were statistically analysed. In all samples of cord sera no IgD traces were found. In infant sera (up to one year) IgD level is very low and was detected in 27% of cases. The percentage of detectability as well as the mean IgD concentration in serum grows systematically to the age of 15 years. There is high statistically significant correlation between serum IgD concentration and the age both for the arithmetical means (r = 0,33) and for geometrical values (r = 0,39). The correlation coefficients between detectability of serum IgD and age are higher (linear dependence-r = 0,67, square dependence - r = 0,75).

  6. Cognitive levels of performance account for hemispheric lateralisation effects in dyslexic and normally reading children.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Meffert, Elisabeth; Eickhoff, Simon B; Schreiber, Helen; Kukolja, Juraj; Shah, Nadim Jon; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2010-12-01

    Recent theories of developmental dyslexia explain reading deficits in terms of deficient phonological awareness, attention, visual and auditory processing, or automaticity. Since dyslexia has a neurobiological basis, the question arises how the reader's proficiency in these cognitive variables affects the brain regions involved in visual word recognition. This question was addressed in two fMRI experiments with 19 normally reading children (Experiment 1) and 19 children with dyslexia (Experiment 2). First, reading-specific brain activation was assessed by contrasting the BOLD signal for reading aloud words vs. overtly naming pictures of real objects. Next, ANCOVAs with brain activation during reading the individuals' scores for all five cognitive variables assessed outside the scanner as covariates were performed. Whereas the normal readers' brain activation during reading showed co-variation effects predominantly in the right hemisphere, the reverse pattern was observed for the dyslexics. In particular, middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal cortex, and precuneus showed contralateral effects for controls as compared to dyslexics. In line with earlier findings in the literature, these data hint at a global change in hemispheric asymmetry during cognitive processing in dyslexic readers, which, in turn, might affect reading proficiency.

  7. The anatomy of the 2009 L'Aquila normal fault system (central Italy) imaged by high resolution foreshock and aftershock locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaraluce, L.; Valoroso, L.; Piccinini, D.; di Stefano, R.; de Gori, P.

    2011-12-01

    On 6 April (01:32 UTC) 2009 a MW 6.1 normal faulting earthquake struck the axial area of the Abruzzo region in central Italy. We study the geometry of fault segments using high resolution foreshock and aftershock locations. Two main SW dipping segments, the L'Aquila and Campotosto faults, forming an en echelon system 40 km long (NW trending). The 16 km long L'Aquila fault shows a planar geometry with constant dip (˜48°) through the entire upper crust down to 10 km depth. The Campotosto fault activated by three events with 5.0 ≤ MW ≤ 5.2 shows a striking listric geometry, composed by planar segments with different dips along depth rather than a smoothly curving single fault surface. The investigation of the spatiotemporal evolution of foreshock activity within the crustal volume where the subsequent L'Aquila main shock nucleated allows us to image the progressive activation of the main fault plane. From the beginning of 2009 the foreshocks activated the deepest portion of the fault until a week before the main shock, when the largest foreshock (MW 4.0) triggered a minor antithetic segment. Seismicity jumped back to the main plane a few hours before the main shock. Secondary synthetic and antithetic fault segments are present both on the hanging and footwall of the system. The stress tensor obtained by inverting focal mechanisms of the largest events reveals a NE trending extension and the majority of the aftershocks are kinematically consistent. Deviations from the dominant extensional strain pattern are observed for those earthquakes activating minor structures.

  8. Listening effort and perceived clarity for normal hearing children with the use of digital noise reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Samantha; McCreery, Ryan; Hoover, Brenda; Kopun, Judy G; Stelmachowicz, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate how digital noise reduction (DNR) impacts listening effort and judgment of sound clarity in children with normal hearing. It was hypothesized that, when two DNR algorithms differing in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) output are compared, the algorithm which provides the greatest improvement in overall output SNR will reduce listening effort and receive a better clarity rating from child listeners. A secondary goal was to evaluate the relation between the inversion method measurements and listening effort with DNR processing. Design Twenty-four children with normal hearing (ages 7-12 years) participated in a speech recognition task in which consonant-vowel-consonant nonwords were presented in broadband background noise. Test stimuli were recorded through two hearing aids with DNR-off and DNR-on at 0 dB and +5 dB input SNR. Stimuli were presented to listeners and verbal response time (VRT) and phoneme recognition scores were measured. The underlying assumption was that an increase in VRT reflects an in increase in listening effort. Children rated the sound clarity for each condition. The two commercially available HAs were chosen based on: 1) an inversion technique which was used to quantify the magnitude of change in SNR with the activation of DNR, and 2) a measure of magnitude-squared coherence which was used to ensure that DNR in both devices preserved the spectrum. Results One device provided a greater improvement in overall output SNR than the other. Both DNR algorithms resulted in minimal spectral distortion as measured using coherence. For both devices, VRT decreased for the DNR-on condition suggesting that listening effort decreased with DNR in both devices. Clarity ratings were also better in the DNR-on condition for both devices. The device showing the greatest improvement in output SNR with DNR engaged improved phoneme recognition scores. The magnitude of this improved phoneme recognition was not accurately

  9. Surface electromyographic studies of swallowing in normal children, age 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Segal, Samuel; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2004-01-01

    Surface electromyographic (sEMG) studies were performed on 100 normal children, age 4-12 years, to establish normative database for duration and amplitude of muscle activity during swallowing and continuous drinking. Prospective observational study of healthy volunteers. Parameters evaluated during swallowing include the timing and amplitude (in microV) of activity of m. orbicularis oris, masseter, submental and infrahyoid (laryngeal strap muscles (LSM)) groups covered by platisma. Four tests were examined: voluntary single swallows of saliva ("dry" swallow), voluntary single water swallows as normal, voluntary single swallows of excessive amount of water (up to 15ml), continuous drinking of 50ml of water (duration and number of swallows). Duration of muscle activity during swallowing (mean plus standard deviation (S.D.)) was measured for two age groups: 4-8 and 9-12 years old. The group of 40 adults, age 18-30 years, was taken as a control group. Normative data for duration and amplitude of muscle activity during single swallowing and continuous drinking are established for healthy children. The duration of muscle activity during swallows and drinking in all tests showed decrease with the age, and this tendency is statistically significant (one-dimensional analysis of variance, SPSS, chi(2) criterion, 95% confidence interval). There was no statistically significant difference in amplitude (range) measurements between children and adults (P=0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between male and female children duration of muscle activity during single swallowing and continuous drinking in all age groups (P>/=0.05). Surface EMG of swallowing is a simple and reliable noninvasive method for screening evaluation of swallowing with low level of discomfort of the examination. The normative timing of events data can be used for evaluation of complaints and symptoms, as well as for comparison purposes in pre- and postoperative stages and in

  10. Lexical and age effects on word recognition in noise in normal-hearing children.

    PubMed

    Ren, Cuncun; Liu, Sha; Liu, Haihong; Kong, Ying; Liu, Xin; Li, Shujing

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of the present study were (1) to examine the lexical and age effects on word recognition of normal-hearing (NH) children in noise, and (2) to compare the word-recognition performance in noise to that in quiet listening conditions. Participants were 213 NH children (age ranged between 3 and 6 years old). Eighty-nine and 124 of the participants were tested in noise and quiet listening conditions, respectively. The Standard-Chinese Lexical Neighborhood Test, which contains lists of words in four lexical categories (i.e., dissyllablic easy (DE), dissyllablic hard (DH), monosyllable easy (ME), and monosyllable hard (MH)) was used to evaluate the Mandarin Chinese word recognition in speech spectrum-shaped noise (SSN) with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 0dB. A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine the lexical effects with syllable length and difficulty level as the main factors on word recognition in the quiet and noise listening conditions. The effects of age on word-recognition performance were examined using a regression model. The word-recognition performance in noise was significantly poorer than that in quiet and the individual variations in performance in noise were much greater than those in quiet. Word recognition scores showed that the lexical effects were significant in the SSN. Children scored higher with dissyllabic words than with monosyllabic words; "easy" words scored higher than "hard" words in the noise condition. The scores of the NH children in the SSN (SNR=0dB) for the DE, DH, ME, and MH words were 85.4, 65.9, 71.7, and 46.2% correct, respectively. The word-recognition performance also increased with age in each lexical category for the NH children tested in noise. Both age and lexical characteristics of words had significant influences on the performance of Mandarin-Chinese word recognition in noise. The lexical effects were more obvious under noise listening conditions than in quiet. The word

  11. Single or dual orthographic representations for reading and spelling? A study of Italian dyslexic-dysgraphic and normal children.

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2010-01-01

    Italian children with surface dyslexia and dysgraphia show defective orthographic lexical processing in both reading and spelling. It is unclear whether this parallelism is due to impairment of separate orthographic input and output lexicons or to a unique defective lexicon. The main aim of the present study was to compare the single- versus dual-lexicon accounts in dyslexic/dysgraphic children (and in normal but younger children). In the first experiment, 9 Italian children with surface dyslexia and dysgraphia judged the orthographic correctness (input lexicon) of their phonologically plausible misspellings (output lexicon) and of phonologically plausible spellings experimentally introduced for words they consistently spelt correctly. The children were generally impaired in recognizing phonologically plausible misspellings. Parallel deficits in reading and spelling also emerged: Children were more impaired in judging items they consistently misspelt and more accurate in judging items they always spelt correctly. In a second experiment, younger normal children with reading/spelling ability similar to that of the dyslexic/dysgraphic children in the first experiment (but younger) were examined. The results confirmed a close parallelism between the orthographic lexical representations used for reading and spelling. Overall, findings support the hypothesis that a single orthographic lexicon is responsible for reading and spelling performance in both dyslexic/dysgraphic and normal (but younger) children.

  12. Children of parents with alcohol problems performing normality: A qualitative interview study about unmet needs for professional support

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Anne; Malterud, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Background Children of parents with alcohol problems are at risk for serious long-term health consequences. Knowledge is limited about how to recognize those in need of support and how to offer respectful services. Method From nine interviews with adult children from families with alcohol problems, we explored childhood experiences, emphasizing issues concerning potentially unmet needs for professional support. Smart's perspective on family secrets and Goffman's dramaturgical metaphor on social order of the family focusing on the social drama and the dramaturgy enacted by the children supported our cross-case thematic analysis. Findings The social interaction in the family was disrupted during childhood because of the parent's drinking problems. An everyday drama characterized by tension and threats, blame and manipulation was the backstage of their everyday life. Dealing with the drama, the children experienced limited parental support. Some children felt betrayed by the other parent who might trivialize the problems and excuse the drinking parent. Family activities and routines were disturbed, and uncertainty and insecurity was created. The children struggled to restore social order within the family and to act as normally as possible outside the family. It was a dilemma for the children to disclose the difficulties of the family. Conclusion Altogether, the children worked hard to perform a normally functioning family, managing a situation characterized by unmet needs for professional support. Adequate support requires recognition of the children's efforts to perform a normally functioning family. PMID:27104341

  13. Mesiodistal root angulation of permanent teeth in children with mixed dentition and normal occlusion

    PubMed Central

    JESUINO, Flávia A. S.; COSTA, Luciane R.; VALLADARES-NETO, José

    2010-01-01

    Objective There is little information regarding the mesiodistal angulation of permanent teeth in mixed dentition. The aim of this study was to evaluate mesiodistal root angulation of permanent incisors, canines and first molars of 100 Brazilian children, using a new horizontal reference plane based on the midpoint of the intercuspation of primary canines and permanent first molars in panoramic radiographs during the mixed-dentition phase. Material and methods Children were equally divided between the genders with a mean age of 8.9 years (SD=0.76), normal occlusion and no eruptive disturbances. Results The angulation of the permanent maxillary first molars was close to the vertical, whereas the mandibular molars presented approximately 25 degrees of distal root angulation. The maxillary canines were the most distally angulated teeth, whereas the permanent mandibular canines were vertically positioned. The evaluation of the anterior maxillary area showed vertical position of permanent lateral, and central incisors with a slight distal angulation, whereas the permanent mandibular incisors tended to a mesial radicular convergence. Conclusions The proposed reference line could be useful in mixed dentition root angulation evaluation; there was a slight asymmetry in the mesiodistal angulation among homologous teeth, and also a small variation between the male and the female groups, but no difference between 8-and 10-year-old children. PMID:21308295

  14. Significance of plasma lead levels in normal and lead-intoxicated children.

    PubMed

    Rosen, J F; Trinidad, E E

    1974-05-01

    Plasma lead (Pb) levels have been measured in normal and lead-intoxicated children, newborns, and children with sickle cell disease. The results in all groups were contant over a wide range of red cell Pb concentration. These results support the thesis that the red cell represents a large repository for Pb, maintaining plasma Pb concentration within closely defined limits, and that methods other than measurements of plasma Pb will be necessary to uncover a presumably dynamic transport system between red cell and plasma. Indeed, we have demonstrated in vitro that ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) lowers red cell Pb content according to a linear dose-response curve. Ca(2+) may thereby control Pb transport from red cell to plasma, and fluctuations in the concentration of Ca(2+) in serum and extracellular fluid may influence the toxic activities of Pb. In bone organ culture, changes in the concentration of Ca(2+) and phosphate in the medium alter the release of previously incorporated (210)Pb from fetal rat bones in response to parathyroid hormone (PTH). Therefore, both PTH and the ionic milieu of the medium apparently regulate bone Pb metabolism.We would expect that understanding further the dynamics of Pb transport in plasma and bone may lead to a more exact definition of the real hazards of low level Pb toxicity in children.

  15. The effect of cochlear implantation in development of intelligence quotient of 6-9 deaf children in comparison with normal hearing children (Iran, 2009-2011).

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyed Basir; Monshizadeh, Leila

    2012-06-01

    Before the introduction of cochlear implant (CI) in 1980, hearing aids were the only means by which profoundly deaf children had access to auditory stimuli. Nowadays, CI is firmly established as effective option in speech and language rehabilitation of deaf children, but much of the literature regarding outcomes for children after CI are focused on development of speech and less is known about language acquisition. So, the main aim of this study is the evaluation of verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) of cochlear implanted children in comparison with normal children. 30 cochlear implanted and 30 normal hearing children with similar socio-economic level at the same age were compared by a revised version (in Persian) of WISC test (Wechsler, 1991). Then the data were analyzed through SPSS software 16. In spite of the fact that cochlear implanted children did well in different parameters of WISC test, the average scores of this group was less than normal hearing children. But in similarities (one of the parameters of WISC test) 2 group's performance was approximately the same. CI plays an important role in development of verbal IQ and language acquisition of deaf children. Different researches indicate that most of the cochlear implanted children show less language delay during the time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Voice emotion recognition by cochlear-implanted children and their normally-hearing peers

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Monita; Zion, Danielle; Deroche, Mickael L.; Burianek, Brooke; Limb, Charles; Goren, Alison; Kulkarni, Aditya M.; Christensen, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite their remarkable success in bringing spoken language to hearing impaired listeners, the signal transmitted through cochlear implants (CIs) remains impoverished in spectro-temporal fine structure. As a consequence, pitch-dominant information such as voice emotion, is diminished. For young children, the ability to correctly identify the mood/intent of the speaker (which may not always be visible in their facial expression) is an important aspect of social and linguistic development. Previous work in the field has shown that children with cochlear implants (cCI) have significant deficits in voice emotion recognition relative to their normally hearing peers (cNH). Here, we report on voice emotion recognition by a cohort of 36 school-aged cCI. Additionally, we provide for the first time, a comparison of their performance to that of cNH and NH adults (aNH) listening to CI simulations of the same stimuli. We also provide comparisons to the performance of adult listeners with CIs (aCI), most of whom learned language primarily through normal acoustic hearing. Results indicate that, despite strong variability, on average, cCI perform similarly to their adult counterparts; that both groups’ mean performance is similar to aNHs’ performance with 8-channel noise-vocoded speech; that cNH achieve excellent scores in voice emotion recognition with full-spectrum speech, but on average, show significantly poorer scores than aNH with 8-channel noise-vocoded speech. A strong developmental effect was observed in the cNH with noise-vocoded speech in this task. These results point to the considerable benefit obtained by cochlear-implanted children from their devices, but also underscore the need for further research and development in this important and neglected area. PMID:25448167

  17. Voice emotion recognition by cochlear-implanted children and their normally-hearing peers.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Monita; Zion, Danielle J; Deroche, Mickael L; Burianek, Brooke A; Limb, Charles J; Goren, Alison P; Kulkarni, Aditya M; Christensen, Julie A

    2015-04-01

    Despite their remarkable success in bringing spoken language to hearing impaired listeners, the signal transmitted through cochlear implants (CIs) remains impoverished in spectro-temporal fine structure. As a consequence, pitch-dominant information such as voice emotion, is diminished. For young children, the ability to correctly identify the mood/intent of the speaker (which may not always be visible in their facial expression) is an important aspect of social and linguistic development. Previous work in the field has shown that children with cochlear implants (cCI) have significant deficits in voice emotion recognition relative to their normally hearing peers (cNH). Here, we report on voice emotion recognition by a cohort of 36 school-aged cCI. Additionally, we provide for the first time, a comparison of their performance to that of cNH and NH adults (aNH) listening to CI simulations of the same stimuli. We also provide comparisons to the performance of adult listeners with CIs (aCI), most of whom learned language primarily through normal acoustic hearing. Results indicate that, despite strong variability, on average, cCI perform similarly to their adult counterparts; that both groups' mean performance is similar to aNHs' performance with 8-channel noise-vocoded speech; that cNH achieve excellent scores in voice emotion recognition with full-spectrum speech, but on average, show significantly poorer scores than aNH with 8-channel noise-vocoded speech. A strong developmental effect was observed in the cNH with noise-vocoded speech in this task. These results point to the considerable benefit obtained by cochlear-implanted children from their devices, but also underscore the need for further research and development in this important and neglected area. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of micronutrient levels in children with cerebral palsy and neurologically normal controls.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Swati; Aggarwal, Anju; Chillar, Neelam; Faridi, M M A

    2015-02-01

    To measure levels of micronutrients in children with cerebral palsy and compare them with neurologically normal children of similar nutritional status. Fifty children with cerebral palsy (2-12 y) and 50 age and sex matched controls of similar nutritional status were enrolled. Detailed dietary history was recorded and nutritional status assessed. Venous blood (3 ml) was drawn for analysis. Micronutrient levels were measured as per standard technique. Serum iron was 12.6 ± 5.9 and 20.9 ± 3.3 μmol/L in CP and controls respectively (P < 0.001). Mean copper levels were 106.2 ± 38.3 μg/dl in CP and 128.8 ± 20.2 μg/dl in controls (P < 0.001); magnesium levels were 1.97 ± 0.4 and 2.2 ± 0.3 mg/dl (P = 0.003). Zinc levels were similar in CP and controls (P = 0.979). The mean energy intake was significantly less in CP (P = 0.016). Mean protein intake did not vary significantly (P = 0.847). No correlation was found between energy intake and serum levels of micronutrients (P > 0.05). There was no difference in micronutrient levels with respect to gross motor functional classification system (GMFCS) grades and limb involvement (P > 0.05). The serum levels of iron, copper and magnesium are significantly less in children with cerebral palsy, hence the need for supplementation.

  19. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic development of cochlear implanted children in comparison with normally hearing peers up to age 7.

    PubMed

    Faes, Jolien; Gillis, Joris; Gillis, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Grammatical development is shown to be delayed in CI children. However, the literature has focussed mainly on one aspect of grammatical development, either morphology or syntax, and on standard tests instead of spontaneous speech. The aim of the present study was to compare grammatical development in the spontaneous speech of Dutch-speaking children with cochlear implants and normally hearing peers. Both syntagmatic and paradigmatic development will be assessed and compared with each other. Nine children with cochlear implants were followed yearly between ages 2 and 7. There was a cross-sectional control group of 10 normally hearing peers at each age. Syntactic development is measured by means of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU), morphological development by means of Mean Size of Paradigm (MSP). This last measure is relatively new in child language research. MLU and MSP of children with cochlear implants lag behind that of their normally hearing peers up to age 4 and up to age 6 respectively. By age 5, CI children catch up on MSP and by age 7 they caught up on MLU. Children with cochlear implants catch up with their normally hearing peers for both measures of syntax and morphology. However, it is shown that inflection is earlier age-appropriate than sentence length in CI children. Possible explanations for this difference in developmental pace are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Outcomes of an Auditory-Verbal Program for Children with Hearing Loss: A Comparative Study with a Matched Group of Children with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornan, Dimity; Hickson, Louise; Murdoch, Bruce; Houston, Todd

    2007-01-01

    The speech and language developmental progress of children with hearing loss educated using an Auditory-Verbal approach was compared to that of a control group of children with normal hearing. The experimental group consisted of 29 children ages 2-6 years with a mean pure tone average in the better ear of 76.17 dB HL at 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz. The 29…

  1. Outcomes of an Auditory-Verbal Program for Children with Hearing Loss: A Comparative Study with a Matched Group of Children with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornan, Dimity; Hickson, Louise; Murdoch, Bruce; Houston, Todd

    2007-01-01

    The speech and language developmental progress of children with hearing loss educated using an Auditory-Verbal approach was compared to that of a control group of children with normal hearing. The experimental group consisted of 29 children ages 2-6 years with a mean pure tone average in the better ear of 76.17 dB HL at 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz. The 29…

  2. Cardiac anatomy and physiology: a review.

    PubMed

    Gavaghan, M

    1998-04-01

    This article reviews the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart. Understanding the normal anatomic and physiologic relationships described in this article will help perioperative nurses care for patients who are undergoing cardiac procedures. Such knowledge also assists nurses in educating patients about cardiac procedures and about activities that can prevent, reverse, or improve cardiac illness.

  3. Arterial distensibility in children and teenagers: normal evolution and the effect of childhood vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Y; Brogan, P; Pilla, C; Dillon, M; Redington, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: Polyarteritis nodosa is a necrotising vasculitis of the medium sized and small muscular arteries. The inflammatory and subsequent reparative processes may alter the arterial mechanical properties. The effect of vasculitic damage on arterial distensibility has never been explored however. Aim: To determine the normal values and the effect of childhood vasculitis on arterial distensibility in children and teenagers. Methods: Distensibility of the brachioradial arterial segment was studied using pulse wave velocity (PWV ∝1/√distensibility), in 13 children with polyarteritis nodosa at a median age of 11.8 (range 4.9–16) years. As a control group, 155 healthy schoolchildren (6–18 years, 81 boys) were studied. PWV was assessed using a photoplethysmographic technique; blood pressure was measured by an automatic sphygmomanometer (Dinamap). Data from patients were expressed as z scores adjusted for age and compared to a population mean of 0 by a single sample t test. Determinants of PWV in normal children were assessed by univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. Results: Age, height, weight, and systolic blood pressure correlated individually with the brachioradial PWV. Multivariate analysis identified age as the only independent determinant. Ten of the patients were in clinical remission, while three had evidence of disease activity at the time of study. The PWV in the patient group as a whole was significantly greater than those in healthy children (mean z score +0.99). Raised C reactive protein concentration (>2 mg/dl) in the three patients with active disease was associated with a higher PWV when compared to those in remission (z score +2.78 v +0.45). The diastolic blood pressure of the patients was higher than those of the controls (z score +1.04) while the systolic pressure was similar (z score -0.36). Conclusions: PWV in the brachioradial arterial segment increases gradually during childhood independent of body weight, height, mass

  4. Age-related changes in physical examination and gait parameters in normally developing children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, Sang Hyeong; Chung, Chin Youb; Park, Moon Seok; Lee, Kyoung Min; Akhmedov, Bekhzad; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Sung, Ki Hyuk

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlations between physical examinations and gait kinematics, and age-related changes in 47 normally developing children. Physical examinations were not found to be significantly correlated with kinematics, except for Thomas and Staheli tests. Unilateral and bilateral popliteal angles decreased significantly by 2.2 and 1.6° per annum, and ankle dorsiflexion with knee extension and 90° flexion decreased significantly by 0.7 and 0.8°. Physical examinations and gait parameters might represent different dimensions of gait, and care should be taken when assessing gait problems. Age-related changes should be considered when interpreting physical examination and gait kinematics for surgery.

  5. Performance of normal adults and children on central auditory diagnostic tests and their corresponding visual analogs.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Teri James; Ross, Jody

    2011-09-01

    It has been suggested that, in order to validate a diagnosis of (C)APD (central auditory processing disorder), testing using direct cross-modal analogs should be performed to demonstrate that deficits exist solely or primarily in the auditory modality (McFarland and Cacace, 1995; Cacace and McFarland, 2005). This modality-specific viewpoint is controversial and not universally accepted (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association [ASHA], 2005; Musiek et al, 2005). Further, no such analogs have been developed to date, and neither the feasibility of such testing in normally functioning individuals nor the concurrent validity of cross-modal analogs has been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of cross-modal testing by examining the performance of normal adults and children on four tests of central auditory function and their corresponding visual analogs. In addition, this study investigated the degree to which concurrent validity of auditory and visual versions of these tests could be demonstrated. An experimental repeated measures design was employed. Participants consisted of two groups (adults, n=10; children, n=10) with normal and symmetrical hearing sensitivity, normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no family or personal history of auditory/otologic, language, learning, neurologic, or related disorders. Visual analogs of four tests in common clinical use for the diagnosis of (C)APD were developed (Dichotic Digits [Musiek, 1983]; Frequency Patterns [Pinheiro and Ptacek, 1971]; Duration Patterns [Pinheiro and Musiek, 1985]; and the Random Gap Detection Test [RGDT; Keith, 2000]). Participants underwent two 1 hr test sessions separated by at least 1 wk. Order of sessions (auditory, visual) and tests within each session were counterbalanced across participants. ANOVAs (analyses of variance) were used to examine effects of group, modality, and laterality (for the Dichotic/Dichoptic Digits tests) or response condition

  6. "Skinny is prettier and normal: I want to be normal"-Perceived body image of non-Western ethnic minority children in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Te Poel, Fam; Pepping, Rian; Konijn, Elly A; Spekman, Marloes L C

    2017-03-01

    While the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among children of some non-Western ethnic minorities than among their Caucasian counterparts, their body image is understudied. The current study examined the body image of Dutch children of non-Western ethnic minorities (i.e., Surinamese, Antillean, Moroccan, and Turkish). Sociocultural influences from school, media and home environments and their perceptions of overweight prevention programs were taken into account. Fifty-two non-Western ethnic minority children (aged 8-12 years) participated in semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Results showed that the children generally underestimated their current body size, which was often overweight, and preferred thin and 'normal' body sizes. Results further revealed important insights into culturally determined themes, relating to perceived preferences in media, peers, parents, and teachers, nutritional habits, and children's beliefs about school-based health interventions. We conclude that targeting culturally sensitive awareness about actual body size and healthy body images seems paramount in future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sonographic Growth Charts for Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children: a Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Kidney length is the most useful parameter for clinical measurement of kidney size, and is useful to distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease. In this prospective observational study of 437 normal children aged between 0 and < 13 years, kidney length was measured using sonography. There were good correlations between kidney length and somatic values, including age, weight, height, and body surface area. The rapid growth of height during the first 2 years of life was intimately associated with a similar increase in kidney length, suggesting that height should be considered an important factor correlating with kidney length. Based on our findings, the following regression equation for the reference values of bilateral kidney length for Korean children was obtained: kidney length of the right kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.102; kidney length of the left kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.280. This equation may aid in the diagnosis of various kidney disorders. PMID:27366007

  8. Nonobese, exercising children diagnosed with dyslipidemia have normal C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Miguel Arturo Salazar; Vázquez, Beatriz Yadira Salazar; Intaglietta, M; Cabrales, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Nonobese children age 10.4 ± 1.1 years diagnosed with dyslipidemia (n = 51) were compared to normal children age 10.8 ± 1.1 years (n = 38). Affected individuals had increased total cholesterol: 223 ± 23 vs 152 ± 17 mg/dl, p < 0.001; and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol: 41.9 ± 4.1 vs 57.6 ± 5.7 mg/dl, p < 0.001 and triglycerides: 90.8 ± 40.5 vs 65.7 ± 25.0 mg/dl, p < 0.002. Fasting glucose was also significantly elevated (p < 0.02). All other parameters, including blood pressure, were not statistically different between groups. The concentration of C-reactive protein was not statistically different between groups. Analysis of medical records showed that this anomaly may be related to this group (as well as the control group) performing regular, daily exercise. This activity was quantified via a self administered questionnaire, and found to be statistically identical in controls and dyslipidemic individuals. Exercise is associated with the release of antiinflammatory cytokines, therefore our results support the contention that it is a significant factor in promoting health conditions from an early stage in life. PMID:19436676

  9. Detecting Brain Growth Patterns in Normal Children using Tensor-Based Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Caplan, Rochelle; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetric studies have shown age-related increases in the volume of total white matter and decreases in the volume of total gray matter of normal children. Recent adaptations of image analysis strategies enable the detection of human brain growth with improved spatial resolution. In this article, we further explore the spatio-temporal complexity of adolescent brain maturation with tensor-based morphometry. By utilizing a novel non-linear elastic intensity-based registration algorithm on the serial structural MRI scans of 13 healthy children, individual Jacobian growth maps are generated and then registered to a common anatomical space. Statistical analyses reveal significant tissue growth in cerebral white matter, contrasted with gray matter loss in parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. In addition, a linear regression with age and gender suggests a slowing down of the growth rate in regions with the greatest white matter growth. We demonstrate that a tensor-based Jacobian map is a sensitive and reliable method to detect regional tissue changes during development. PMID:18064588

  10. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    PubMed

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Speech Intonation and Melodic Contour Recognition in Children with Cochlear Implants and with Normal Hearing

    PubMed Central

    See, Rachel L.; Driscoll, Virginia D.; Gfeller, Kate; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Oleson, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Background Cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty perceiving some intonation cues in speech and melodic contours because of poor frequency selectivity in the cochlear implant signal. Objectives To assess perceptual accuracy of normal hearing (NH) children and pediatric CI users on speech intonation (prosody), melodic contour, and pitch ranking, and to determine potential predictors of outcomes. Hypothesis Does perceptual accuracy for speech intonation or melodic contour differ as a function of auditory status (NH, CI), perceptual category (falling vs. rising intonation/contour), pitch perception, or individual differences (e.g., age, hearing history)? Method NH and CI groups were tested on recognition of falling intonation/contour vs. rising intonation/contour presented in both spoken and melodic (sung) conditions. Pitch ranking was also tested. Outcomes were correlated with variables of age, hearing history, HINT, and CNC scores. Results The CI group was significantly less accurate than the NH group in spoken (CI, M=63.1 %; NH, M=82.1%) and melodic (CI, M=61.6%; NH, M=84.2%) conditions. The CI group was more accurate in recognizing rising contour in the melodic condition compared with rising intonation in the spoken condition. Pitch ranking was a significant predictor of outcome for both groups in falling intonation and rising melodic contour; age at testing and hearing history variables were not predictive of outcomes. Conclusions Children with CIs were less accurate than NH children in perception of speech intonation, melodic contour, and pitch ranking. However, the larger pitch excursions of the melodic condition may assist in recognition of the rising inflection associated with the interrogative form. PMID:23442568

  12. Low protein alimentation normalizes renal haemodynamic response to acute protein ingestion in type 1 diabetic children.

    PubMed

    Castellino, P; De Santo, N G; Capasso, G; Anastasio, P; Coppola, S; Capodicasa, G; Perna, A; Torella, R; Salvatore, T; Giordano, C

    1989-02-01

    The effect of an acute protein load (2 g kg-1 bodyweight [BW]) was studied in nine type 1 diabetic children. Patients were maintained on two different dietary regimens. In study one, patients were on a high protein diet providing from 2.7 to 1.8 g of protein/kg of BW per day. In study two, patients were reevaluated after three weeks of a diet providing from 1.0 to 1.2 g kg-1 of BW per day of protein. In study one (High Protein Diet), we failed to observe any rise in GFR and RPF following the protein meal (137 +/- 21 basal vs. 110 +/- 14 and 472 +/- 93 basal vs. 494 +/- 93 ml/1.73 m2 of SA min-1 at 60 min. This is in contrast with results from seven age matched controls consuming a free diet, which showed a significant rise in both GFR and RPF. In study two (low protein diet), basal GFR was significantly reduced. However after the protein load, both GFR (92 +/- 11 vs. 126 +/- 18 ml/1.73 m2 of SA min-1) and RPF (467 +/- 83 vs. 705 +/- 102 ml/1.73 m2 min-1) rose significantly (P less than 0.05 vs. basal). The data indicate that: 1. short term protein restriction reduces significantly GFR in type 1 diabetic children; 2. diabetic children maintained on an high protein intake show an altered haemodynamic response to protein ingestion; 3. a normal response to protein ingestion can be restored by short term dietary protein restriction.

  13. Speech intonation and melodic contour recognition in children with cochlear implants and with normal hearing.

    PubMed

    See, Rachel L; Driscoll, Virginia D; Gfeller, Kate; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Oleson, Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty perceiving some intonation cues in speech and melodic contours because of poor frequency selectivity in the cochlear implant signal. To assess perceptual accuracy of normal hearing (NH) children and pediatric CI users on speech intonation (prosody), melodic contour, and pitch ranking, and to determine potential predictors of outcomes. Does perceptual accuracy for speech intonation or melodic contour differ as a function of auditory status (NH, CI), perceptual category (falling versus rising intonation/contour), pitch perception, or individual differences (e.g., age, hearing history)? NH and CI groups were tested on recognition of falling intonation/contour versus rising intonation/contour presented in both spoken and melodic (sung) conditions. Pitch ranking was also tested. Outcomes were correlated with variables of age, hearing history, HINT, and CNC scores. The CI group was significantly less accurate than the NH group in spoken (CI, M = 63.1%; NH, M = 82.1%) and melodic (CI, M = 61.6%; NH, M = 84.2%) conditions. The CI group was more accurate in recognizing rising contour in the melodic condition compared with rising intonation in the spoken condition. Pitch ranking was a significant predictor of outcome for both groups in falling intonation and rising melodic contour; age at testing and hearing history variables were not predictive of outcomes. Children with CIs were less accurate than NH children in perception of speech intonation, melodic contour, and pitch ranking. However, the larger pitch excursions of the melodic condition may assist in recognition of the rising inflection associated with the interrogative form.

  14. Brain mechanisms for reading in children with and without dyslexia: a review of studies of normal development and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Papanicolaou, Andrew C; Simos, Panagiotis G; Breier, Joshua I; Fletcher, Jack M; Foorman, Barbara R; Francis, David; Castillo, Eduardo M; Davis, Robert N

    2003-01-01

    In this article we review our experience with the application of magnetic source imaging (MSI), the newest of the functional imaging methods, to the study of brain mechanisms for reading among children who read normally and among those with dyslexia. After giving a general description of MSI, we present evidence for reliable and valid maps of the brain mechanism for aural language comprehension as well as for reading. Next, we present data from 39 normal readers, 40 children with dyslexia, and 30 younger children at risk for developing a reading disability. These data show different brain activation maps for individual children with dyslexia and children at risk for dyslexia than for those of normal readers. Such differences most likely reflect aberrant brain organization underlying phonological decoding, rather than variables such as degree of effort. Finally, we present preliminary data demonstrating that the aberrant activation profiles of children with dyslexia may return to normative patterns as a result of a successful reading intervention that enables children to improve phonological decoding skills.

  15. Pocket atlas of normal CT anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, J.B.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a quick reference for interpreting CT scans of the extracranial organs. This collection of 41 CT scans covers all the major organs of the body: neck and larynx; chest; abdomen; male pelvis; and female pelvis.

  16. Objective analysis versus subjective assessment of vowels pronounced by deaf and normal-hearing children.

    PubMed

    Bakkum, M J; Plomp, R; Pols, L W

    1995-08-01

    Objective whole-spectrum and formant analyses have been performed on all 15 Dutch vowels pronounced in /C1VC2/ words by 24 deaf and 24 normal-hearing children, in order to develop a model of pronunciation quality for evaluating (deaf) speech; the results as obtained for adult males by Bakkum et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 1989-2004 (1993)] have been verified and extended. Spectral representations of the vowels were created by determining the output levels of a bank of 16 filters (90-7200 Hz), with 1/3-oct bandwidths and logarithmic spacing of their center frequencies. Spectral differences agree well with subjective differences in pronunciation quality obtained from magnitude estimation and identification experiments. Spectral differences not related to pronunciation quality judgments arise as a consequence of physiological interspeaker differences and variation in fundamental frequency, but these differences can be compensated for by speaker-normalization and F0-compensation procedures. Using principal components analysis (PCA), the vowel spectra can be described by a limited number of dimensions, without losing much information; a description in a two-dimensional PCA subspace still agrees well with the subjective judgments and it also agrees with a description by the first two formants. The whole-spectrum approach provides a determinate, readily interpretable model of pronunciation quality for evaluating vowels. As a practical advantage, its computational requirements are modest and, in conjunction with PCA, the vowel dynamics can be visualized, which makes the approach suitable for vowel training and diagnostics.

  17. Statistical normal values of visual parameters that characterize binocular function in children.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, R; Pérez, M A; García, J A; González, M D

    2004-11-01

    A wide range of visual parameters used to evaluate binocular function were evaluated in a paediatric population (1056 subjects aged 6-12 years). Mean values are provided for these ages in optometric tests that directly assess the vergence system, horizontal phorias for near and far vision (measured by a modified version of the Thorington method), negative and positive vergence amplitude for near and far vision (step vergence testing), vergence facility (flippers 8 Delta BI/8 Delta BO), and near-point of convergence (penlight push-up technique and red-lens push-up technique), as well as stimulus accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio and stereoacuity (Randot test) which provide an overall evaluation of the vergence, accommodative and oculomotor systems. A statistical comparison (anova and Bonferroni post hoc test) of these values between ages was performed. The differences, although statistically significant, were not clinically meaningful, and therefore we identified two trends in the behaviour of these parameters. For all parameters, except for vergence facility, we established a single mean reference value for the age range studied. The difference between the means for vergence facility indicated the need to divide the population into two age ranges (6-8 and 8-12 years). This study establishes statistical normal values for these parameters in a paediatric population and their means are a valuable instrument for separating children with binocular anomalies from those with normal binocular vision.

  18. Hip: Anatomy and US technique

    PubMed Central

    Molini, L.; Precerutti, M.; Gervasio, A.; Draghi, F.; Bianchi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has always had a relatively limited role in the evaluation of the hip due to the deep location of this joint. However, many hip diseases are well detectable at US, but before approaching such a study it is necessary to be thoroughly familiar with the normal anatomy and related US images. The study technique is particularly important as optimization of various parameters is required, such as probe frequency, focalization, positioning of the probe, etc. Also the patient’s position is important, as it varies according to the area requiring examination. For the study of the anterior structures, the patient should be in the supine position; for the medial structures, the leg should be abducted and rotated outward with the knee flexed; for the lateral structures, the patient should be in the controlateral decubitus position; for the posterior structures the patient must be in the prone position. US study of the hip includes assessment of the soft tissues, tendons, ligaments and muscles, and also of the bone structures, joint space and serous bursae. The purpose of this article is to review the normal anatomy of the hip as well as the US anatomy of this joint. PMID:23397030

  19. [VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH NORMAL NUTRITIONAL STATUS].

    PubMed

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Chueca Guindulain, María Jesús; Berrade-Zubiri, Sara

    2015-09-01

    to analyze the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency throughout a natural year in a pediatric population with normal nutrition status. cross sectional clinical and analytical study (calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, calcidiol and parathyroid hormone) in 413 caucasian individuals (aged 3.1 to 15.4 years): 227 school children (96 males and 131 females) and 186 adolescents (94 males and 92 females), all of them in a normal nutrition status, during the year 2014. Vitamin D deficiency was defined according to the United States Endocrine Society guidelines. calcidiol levels were lower during spring (25.96 ± 6.64 ng/ml) and reached its maximum level in summer (35.33 ± 7.51 ng/ml); PTH levels were lower in summer (27.13 ± 7.89 pg/ml) and reached maximum level in autumn (34.73 ± 15.38 pg/ml). Vitamin D deficiency prevalence was 14.3% in summer and 75.3% in spring. PTH levels were compatible with secondary hyperparathyroidism in 8 individuals (1.9%). There was a negative correlation between calcidol and PTH levels (p < 0.01). There was not a correlation between body mass index (BMI) and calcidiol. the pediatric population in normal nutrition status shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency during the months of autumn and winter and, especially, in spring; the addition of vitamin supplements and/ or an increase in the ingestion of their natural dietary sources should be considered. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel 3D stereoscopic anatomy tutorial.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip M; Hamilton, Neil M; Denison, Alan R

    2012-02-01

    Advancement in technology is an important driver for the evolution of the medical curriculum. With continued criticism of medical students' knowledge of anatomy, further investigation into adjuncts for anatomy teaching seems appropriate. This project sought to create an interactive 3D stereoscopic tutorial to bridge the teaching of anatomy and pathology. Anonymised computed tomography (CT) scans were collected of a normal aorta and a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. These scans were rendered into 3D stereoscopic images using open-source software. These images were then annotated with interactive labels and buttons to access information on normal aortic anatomy and the clinical details of abdominal aortic aneurysms. A total of 183 first-year medical students viewed the tutorial, and 160 gave feedback (87%). The students found the 3D system aided their understanding of anatomy and pathology (93 versus 3%), and provided an advantage when compared with current anatomy classes (93 versus 1%). The students highlighted the musculoskeletal system and cerebral vasculature as areas for future 3D visualisation. Of the responders, 96 per cent felt that the curriculum would benefit from further 3D stereoscopic anatomy/pathology tutorials. This technology has the exciting potential to use the radiographic libraries in hospitals for medical education. The computer software, however, has some limitations at present. It is not able to effectively distinguish between tissues of similar densities. Furthermore, not all tissues are amenable to CT scanning of a high enough resolution for presentation. Despite these limitations, the software continues to advance and is capable of producing very high quality anatomy images. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  1. Hearing impairment and vowel production. A comparison between normally hearing, hearing-aided and cochlear implanted Dutch children.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Jo; Hide, Oydis; De Maeyer, Sven; Gillis, San; Gillis, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the acoustic characteristics of the Belgian Standard Dutch vowels in children with hearing impairment and in children with normal hearing. In a balanced experimental design, the 12 vowels of Belgian Standard Dutch were recorded in three groups of children: a group of children with normal hearing, a group with a conventional hearing aid and a group with a cochlear implant. The formants, the surface area of the vowel space and the acoustic differentiation between the vowels were determined. The analyses revealed that many of the vowels in hearing-impaired children showed a reduction of the formant values. This reduction was particularly significant with respect to F2. The size of the vowel space was significantly smaller in the hearing-impaired children. Finally, a smaller acoustic differentiation between the vowels was observed in children with hearing impairment. The results show that even after 5 years of device use, the acoustic characteristics of the vowels in hearing-assisted children remain significantly different as compared to their NH peers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral stereognostic ability among tongue thrusters with interdental lisp, tongue thrusters without interdental lisp and normal children.

    PubMed

    Colletti, E A; Geffner, D; Schlanger, P

    1976-02-01

    30 children, i.e., 10 children per group, 8 yr. of age, were given an oral stereognostic test. This test of 10 geometric forms varying in shape were developed by NIDR. 47 stimuli pairs were used and 10 pairs were repeated to measure test reliability. Subjects were blindfolded and asked to respond whether Items 1 and 2, presented consecutively, were the same or different. Results indicated that both groups of tongue thrusters with and without interdental lisp scored significantly more poorly than did normal children (t = 4.68, P less than .001; t = 5.00, P less than .001), respectively. There were no significant differences, however, between tongue thrusters with and without interdental lisp (t = .33, P greater than .05). Observations indicated that normal children used the tongue tip more frequently and accurately when discriminating the geometric forms than did the other groups.

  3. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland dimensions in school aged children in our local environment.

    PubMed

    Marchie, T T; Oyobere, O; Eze, K C

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the measurement of normal range of ultrasound (US) thyroid gland dimensions in school-aged children (6-16 years) in our environment and compared with what is obtained elsewhere. A prospective ultrasound measurement study done in University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin, Nigeria. A prospective ultrasound (US) study of thyroid dimensions of 500 school-aged children in our environment consisting of 227 boys and 273 girls was done from 1 December 2006 to July 2007. The subjects were examined by the authors and subjects with palpable abnormal thyroid gland were excluded from the study. The thyroid dimensions (length, height, and diameter) were taken for each lobe by means of ultrasound (US). In addition volume of each thyroid lobe was calculated and the summation of volume of the lobes was taken as thyroid gland volume of each subject. Also height and weight of patients were documented from which the subject's body surface was calculated. Incidental thyroid gland lesion in US was excluded from the study. Using the Statistical program of social science (SPSS) and INSTAT (Graph Pad Inc. USA) the data were analyzed. Informed consent was obtained from all the subjects and the study was done in line with the ethical guidelines of the centers. The US thyroid gland volume in school-aged children in Benin City from this study ranges between 1.17 cm 3 and 7.19 cm 3 , mean volume range of 1.76-4.95 cm 3 , median volume range of 1.73-4.73 cm 3 , and range of standard deviation from 0.39 cm 3 to 1.49 cm 3 . The average mean thyroid volume is 2.32 cm 3 with the following average dimensions; anteroposterior right lobe =1.06 cm, mediolateral right lobe = 1.01 cm and craniocaudal right lobe = 2.34 cm, and anteroposterior left lobe = 1.01 cm, mediolateral left lobe = 1.04 cm and craniocaudal left lobe = 2.41 cm for both boys and girls respectively. These data are significantly lower than data obtained by European based World Health

  4. [Lateral chest X-rays. Radiographic anatomy].

    PubMed

    García Villafañe, C; Pedrosa, C S

    2014-01-01

    Lateral chest views constitute an essential part of chest X-ray examinations, so it is fundamental to know the anatomy on these images and to be able to detect the variations manifested on these images in different diseases. The aim of this article is to review the normal anatomy and main normal variants seen on lateral chest views. For teaching purposes, we divide the thorax into different spaces and analyze each in an orderly way, especially emphasizing the anatomic details that are most helpful for locating lesions that have already been detected in the posteroanterior view or for detecting lesions that can be missed in the posteroanterior view.

  5. The moderating effect of self-efficacy on normal-weight, overweight, and obese children's math achievement: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell

    2015-03-01

    Increased body weight is associated with decreased cognitive function in school-aged children. The role of self-efficacy in shaping the connection between children's educational achievement and obesity-related comorbidities has not been examined to date. Evidence of the predictive ability of self-efficacy in children is demonstrated in cognitive tasks, including math achievement scores. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and math achievement in normal weight, overweight, and obese children. I hypothesized that overweight and obese children with higher self-efficacy will be less affected in math achievement than otherwise comparable children with lower self-efficacy. I tested this prediction with multilevel growth modeling techniques using the ECLS-K 1998-1999 survey data, a nationally representative sample of children. Increased self-efficacy moderates the link between body weight and children's math achievement by buffering the risks that increased weight status poses to children's cognitive function. My findings indicate that self-efficacy moderates math outcomes in overweight, but not obese, children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary findings on associations between moral emotions and social behavior in young children with normal hearing and with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ketelaar, Lizet; Wiefferink, Carin H; Frijns, Johan H M; Broekhof, Evelien; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-11-01

    Moral emotions such as shame, guilt and pride are the result of an evaluation of the own behavior as (morally) right or wrong. The capacity to experience moral emotions is thought to be an important driving force behind socially appropriate behavior. The relationship between moral emotions and social behavior in young children has not been studied extensively in normally hearing (NH) children, let alone in those with a hearing impairment. This study compared young children with hearing impairments who have a cochlear implant (CI) to NH peers regarding the extent to which they display moral emotions, and how this relates to their social functioning and language skills. Responses of 184 NH children and 60 children with CI (14-61 months old) to shame-/guilt- and pride-inducing events were observed. Parents reported on their children's social competence and externalizing behavior, and experimenters observed children's cooperative behavior. To examine the role of communication in the development of moral emotions and social behavior, children's language skills were assessed. Results show that children with CI displayed moral emotions to a lesser degree than NH children. An association between moral emotions and social functioning was found in the NH group, but not in the CI group. General language skills were unrelated to moral emotions in the CI group, yet emotion vocabulary was related to social functioning in both groups of children. We conclude that facilitating emotion language skills has the potential to promote children's social functioning, and could contribute to a decrease in behavioral problems in children with CI specifically. Future studies should examine in greater detail which factors are associated with the development of moral emotions, particularly in children with CI. Some possible directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Visual Literacy in Primary Science: Exploring Anatomy Cross-Section Production Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Fernández, Beatriz; Ruiz-Gallardo, José Reyes

    2017-01-01

    Are children competent producing anatomy cross-sections? To answer this question, we carried out a case study research aimed at testing graphic production skills in anatomy of nutrition. The graphics produced by 118 children in the final year of primary education were analysed. The children had to draw a diagram of a human cross section,…

  8. Preoccupations with Death in "Normal" Children: The Relationship to Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Cynthia R.

    1990-01-01

    Interviewed 101 children (ages 6-12 years) and parents concerning child's behavior, emotions, development, ego functioning, concepts of death, and family history. Approximately 12 percent of children expressed suicidal ideas or acts. Suicidal children had significantly more intense preoccupations with death than did nonsuicidal children. (Includes…

  9. Preoccupations with Death in "Normal" Children: The Relationship to Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Cynthia R.

    1990-01-01

    Interviewed 101 children (ages 6-12 years) and parents concerning child's behavior, emotions, development, ego functioning, concepts of death, and family history. Approximately 12 percent of children expressed suicidal ideas or acts. Suicidal children had significantly more intense preoccupations with death than did nonsuicidal children. (Includes…

  10. Hand function with touch screen technology in children with normal hand formation, congenital differences, and neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, David H; Bohn, Deborah K; Agel, Julie; Lindstrom, Katy A; Cronquist, Sara M; Van Heest, Ann E

    2015-05-01

    To measure and compare hand function for children with normal hand development, congenital hand differences (CHD), and neuromuscular disease (NMD) using a function test with touch screen technology designed as an iPhone application. We measured touch screen hand function in 201 children including 113 with normal hand formation, 43 with CHD, and 45 with NMD. The touch screen test was developed on the iOS platform using an Apple iPhone 4. We measured 4 tasks: touching dots on a 3 × 4 grid, dragging shapes, use of the touch screen camera, and typing a line of text. The test takes 60 to 120 seconds and includes a pretest to familiarize the subject with the format. Each task is timed independently and the overall time is recorded. Children with normal hand development took less time to complete all 4 subtests with increasing age. When comparing children with normal hand development with those with CHD or NMD, in children aged less than 5 years we saw minimal differences; those aged 5 to 6 years with CHD took significantly longer total time; those aged 7 to 8 years with NMD took significantly longer total time; those aged 9 to 11 years with CHD took significantly longer total time; and those aged 12 years and older with NMD took significantly longer total time. Touch screen technology has becoming increasingly relevant to hand function in modern society. This study provides standardized age norms and shows that our test discriminates between normal hand development and that in children with CHD or NMD. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Parents' evaluation of aural/oral performance of children (PEACH) scale in the Malay language: data for normal-hearing children.

    PubMed

    Quar, Tian Kar; Ching, Teresa Y C; Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah; Newall, Philip

    2012-04-01

    The parents' evaluation of aural/oral performance of children (PEACH) scale was developed to assess the effectiveness of amplification for children, based on a systematic use of parents' observations of children's performance in real-world environments. The purpose of the present study was to adapt the PEACH scale into the Malay language, and to collect normative data on a group of children with normal hearing. The participants were parents of 74 children aged between 3 months and 13 years of age. Parents were requested to observe their children's auditory/oral behavior in everyday life and to record their observations in the PEACH booklet. High internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.93) and item-total correlation were found (0.52-0.85). Similar to the published norms for English-speaking children, near-perfect scores were achieved by Malaysian children around 40 months of age. The adapted version can be used to evaluate amplification for children in the Malay speaking environment. The normative curve relating age to scores for the Malay PEACH can be used as a reference against which functional aural/oral performance of hearing-impaired Malaysian children can be evaluated.

  12. The Effects of Social Reinforcement and Task Difficulty Level on the Pleasure Derived by Normal and Retarded Children from Cognitive Challenge and Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan

    1977-01-01

    In this study, designed to explore the relationship between pleasure and cognitive challenge, 32 normal first grade children and 32 MA-matched familial mentally retarded children were given puzzles representing four difficulty levels. (Author/SB)

  13. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  14. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  15. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  16. Daily pattern of %VO2max and heart rates in normal and undernourished school children.

    PubMed

    Spurr, G B; Reina, J C

    1990-10-01

    The pattern of usage of the VO2max, expressed as %VO2max during ordinary school days, with minute-by-minute heart rate recording, was studied in 106 boys and 83 girls, 6-16 yr of age divided into three age groups (6-8, 10-12, and 14-16 yr), living under economically deprived conditions in Colombia and classified as nutritionally normal or marginally malnourished. In a 12-h period, the 12 groups of children spent, on the average, 7-10 h at less than 30% VO2max, 1.5-4 h at 30-50% VO2max, and an accumulated time of 20-60 min above 50% VO2max. The latter occurred in short bursts rather than during sustained periods. There was a statistically significant but small decrease (approximately -3%) in the average 12 h %VO2max with age but no effects of sex or nutritional status. The overall average was about 25% VO2max in all groups. The data may suggest the existence of the regulation of physical activity to some level easily sustainable for long periods. Expressing the data as 30 min averages during 5 h of school and 5 h of free-time activity allows for the possibility of seeing group differences during shorter periods of time. This may prove useful in exercise training programs and studies of effort in the workplace.

  17. Effects of Stimulus Bandwidth on the Imitation of English Fricatives by Normal-Hearing Children

    PubMed Central

    Stelmachowicz, Patricia G.; Nishi, Kanae; Choi, Sangsook; Lewis, Dawna E.; Hoover, Brenda M.; Dierking, Darcia; Lotto, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies from our laboratory have suggested that reduced audibility in the high frequencies (due to the bandwidth of hearing instruments) may play a role in the delays in phonological development often exhibited by children with hearing impairment. The goal of the current study was to extend previous findings on the effect of bandwidth on fricatives/affricates to more complex stimuli. Method Nine fricatives/affricates embedded in 2-syllable nonsense words were filtered at 5 and 10 kHz and presented to normal-hearing 6–7 year olds who repeated words exactly as heard. Responses were recorded for subsequent phonetic and acoustic analyses. Results Significant effects of talker gender and bandwidth were found, with better performance for the male talker and the wider bandwidth condition. In contrast to previous studies, relatively small (5%) mean bandwidth effects were observed for /s/ and /z/ spoken by the female talker. Acoustic analyses of stimuli used in the previous and the current studies failed to explain this discrepancy. Conclusions It appears likely that a combination of factors (i.e., dynamic cues, prior phonotactic knowledge, and perhaps other unidentified cues to fricative identity) may have facilitated the perception of these complex nonsense words in the current study. PMID:18664693

  18. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  19. Performance of Normal-Hearing Children on the SSW Test, GFW Noise Subtest, and the GFW Memory for Sequence Subtest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Marilyn

    1984-01-01

    The investigation explored the usefulness of the Noise Subtest of the Test of Auditory Discrimination and the Memory for Sequence subtest of the Goldman-Fristoe Woodcock Auditory Skills Test Battery for initial identification of central auditory function in normal children. (Author/CL)

  20. Longitudinal Study of Averaged Auditory Evoked Potentials in Normal Children from Birth to Three Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlrich, Elizabeth S.; And Others

    This study examined individual patterns of the maturation of auditory evoked potential (AEP) in normal infants to determine whether longitudinal data show less variability than cross-sectional data, and to further assess the effect of stage of sleep on AEP. The AEPs for 10 children were examined by repeated testing between the ages of about two…