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Sample records for children normal anatomy

  1. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 761x736 ... View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  2. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  3. Normal anatomy of the skull base.

    PubMed

    Lustrin, E S; Robertson, R L; Tilak, S

    1994-08-01

    CT and MR imaging increasingly are being used for the evaluation of the skull base. New innovative techniques have revolutionized radiologic understanding of normal skull base anatomy. Thus, normal anatomic relationships with radiographic correlation are vital for accurate pathologic assessment.

  4. Anal anatomy and normal histology.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Priti

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this article is the anatomy and histology of the anal canal, and its clinical relevance to anal cancers. The article also highlights the recent histological and anatomical changes to the traditional terminology of the anal canal. The terminology has been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, separating the anal region into the anal canal, the perianal region and the skin. This paper describes the gross anatomy of the anal canal, along with its associated blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage, and nerve supply. The new terminology referred to in this article may assist clinicians and health care providers to identify lesions more precisely through naked eye observation and without the need for instrumentation. Knowledge of the regional anatomy of the anus will also assist in management decisions.

  5. Pediatric cervical spine: normal anatomy, variants, and trauma.

    PubMed

    Lustrin, Elizabeth Susan; Karakas, Sabiha Pinar; Ortiz, A Orlando; Cinnamon, Jay; Castillo, Mauricio; Vaheesan, Kirubahara; Brown, James H; Diamond, Alan S; Black, Karen; Singh, Sudha

    2003-01-01

    Emergency radiologic evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine can be challenging because of the confusing appearance of synchondroses, normal anatomic variants, and injuries that are unique to children. Cervical spine injuries in children are usually seen in the upper cervical region owing to the unique biomechanics and anatomy of the pediatric cervical spine. Knowledge of the normal embryologic development and anatomy of the cervical spine is important to avoid mistaking synchondroses for fractures in the setting of trauma. Familiarity with anatomic variants is also important for correct image interpretation. These variants include pseudosubluxation, absence of cervical lordosis, wedging of the C3 vertebra, widening of the predental space, prevertebral soft-tissue widening, intervertebral widening, and "pseudo-Jefferson fracture." In addition, familiarity with mechanisms of injury and appropriate imaging modalities will aid in the correct interpretation of radiologic images of the pediatric cervical spine.

  6. Normal anatomy and biomechanics of the knee.

    PubMed

    Flandry, Fred; Hommel, Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    Functionally, the knee comprises 2 articulations-the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral. Stability of the joint is governed by a combination of static ligaments, dynamic muscular forces, meniscocapsular aponeurosis, bony topography, and joint load. The surgeon is ill equipped to undertake surgical treatment of a dislocated knee without a sound footing in the anatomic complexities of this joint. We review the normal anatomy of the knee, emphasizing connective tissue structures and common injury patterns.

  7. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region.

  8. Normal shoulder ultrasound: anatomy and technique.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Harun; Robinson, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Shoulder ultrasound (US) is one of the most common applications of musculoskeletal US due to the high incidence of rotator cuff disorders. It can be used effectively for the diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases, and several studies have shown very high sensitivity and specificity for rotator cuff tears comparable with that of MRI. Shoulder US has several advantages over MRI such as lower cost, comparatively easier availability, short examination duration, dynamic capability, and ability to perform guided injection at the same appointment. However, it depends on the skill of the operator and therefore requires a standardized detailed protocol to avoid errors in diagnosis. A symptomatic area-only focused examination should not be performed because it is not uncommon to have symptoms away from the actual site of pathology. Detailed understanding of what anatomy can be evaluated is required, and this article discusses the relevant anatomy covering the rotator cuff, subacromial bursa, and acromioclavicular joint. The equipment requirements and technique of examination of different anatomical structures with transducer positions and normal sonographic appearances are described. Pitfalls and artifacts associated with shoulder US are covered; understanding them is crucial to avoid misinterpretation of findings.

  9. CT of Normal Developmental and Variant Anatomy of the Pediatric Skull: Distinguishing Trauma from Normality.

    PubMed

    Idriz, Sanjin; Patel, Jaymin H; Ameli Renani, Seyed; Allan, Rosemary; Vlahos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice has been increasing rapidly, with the number of CT examinations performed in adults and children rising by 10% per year in England. Because the radiology community strives to reduce the radiation dose associated with pediatric examinations, external factors, including guidelines for pediatric head injury, are raising expectations for use of cranial CT in the pediatric population. Thus, radiologists are increasingly likely to encounter pediatric head CT examinations in daily practice. The variable appearance of cranial sutures at different ages can be confusing for inexperienced readers of radiologic images. The evolution of multidetector CT with thin-section acquisition increases the clarity of some of these sutures, which may be misinterpreted as fractures. Familiarity with the normal anatomy of the pediatric skull, how it changes with age, and normal variants can assist in translating the increased resolution of multidetector CT into more accurate detection of fractures and confident determination of normality, thereby reducing prolonged hospitalization of children with normal developmental structures that have been misinterpreted as fractures. More important, the potential morbidity and mortality related to false-negative interpretation of fractures as normal sutures may be avoided. The authors describe the normal anatomy of all standard pediatric sutures, common variants, and sutural mimics, thereby providing an accurate and safe framework for CT evaluation of skull trauma in pediatric patients.

  10. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, David

    1995-01-01

    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  11. The Ventricular System of the Brain: Anatomy and Normal Variations.

    PubMed

    Stratchko, Lindsay; Filatova, Irina; Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-04-01

    The cerebral ventricular system is intimately associated with the forebrain and brainstem. The ventricular system functions to produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid, which plays an important role in mechanical protection and regulation of homeostasis in the central nervous system. This article discusses anatomy and neuroimaging of the ventricular system and highlights normal anatomical variations that may be mistaken for pathology. Applied surgical anatomy is reviewed with emphasis on operative approach and potential risk to adjacent central nervous system structures.

  12. Normal venous anatomy and physiology of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Notowitz, L B

    1993-06-01

    Venous disease of the lower extremities is common but is often misunderstood. It seems that the focus is on the exciting world of arterial anatomy and pathology, while the topic of venous anatomy and pathology comes in second place. However, venous diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency, leg ulcers, and varicose veins affect much of the population and may lead to disability and death. Nurses are often required to answer complex questions from the patients and his or her family about the patient's disease. Patients depend on nurses to provide accurate information in terms they can understand. Therefore it is important to have an understanding of the normal venous system of the legs before one can understand the complexities of venous diseases and treatments. This presents an overview of normal venous anatomy and physiology.

  13. Gastrohepatic ligament: normal and pathologic CT anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Balfe, D.M.; Mauro, M.A.; Koehler, R.E.; Lee, J.K.T.; Weyman, P.J.; Picus, D.; Peterson, R.R.

    1984-02-01

    In a review of 200 consecutive CT scans of the upper abdomen, the structures within the gastrohepatic ligament (GHL) were well seen in 182 (91%). In 85% of these 182 patients, the largest structure visible within the GHL was 6mm or smaller. A total of 27 patients had a structure larger than 6 mm within the GHL;this finding could be explained in 13 by the presence of a normal anatomic variant. Of the 14 others, 12 had known tumor arising in or known to have spread to the upper abdomen. Two patients had no obvious explanation. Fourteen patients with cancers of the stomach (9 patients), pancreas (3 patients), and esophagus (2 patients) had 57 intact nodes that were evaluated pathologically. Of these 40/40 benign nodes and 10/17 malignant nodes were less than or equal to 8 mm in size. When anatomic variants are excluded, the finding of rounded structures greater than 8 mm in the GHL is a reliable indicator of left gastric node involvement by carcinoma or lymphoma or of coronary venous dilatation.

  14. Equine thoracoscopy: normal anatomy and surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Peroni, J F; Horner, N T; Robinson, N E; Stick, J A

    2001-05-01

    Six normal, healthy horses age 3-10 years underwent left and right thoracoscopic examination using a rigid telescope. A minimum of 30 days was allowed between procedures. Horses were restrained in stocks and sedated with a continuous detomidine infusion. After surgical preparation of the hemithorax elected for surgery, and administration of local or regional anaesthesia of the surgery sites, thoracoscopy was completed during two 15 min pneumothorax periods. During the procedures, the thoracic structures were viewed using a 57 cm, 10 mm diameter, 30 degrees rigid telescope connected to a digital camcorder to allow computer capture of digital images. The telescope was inserted into the thoracic cavity via 3 different intercostal spaces. The 8th, 10th and 12th intercostal spaces were randomly selected and used among horses. The exploration of each hemithorax started from the dorsal-caudal quadrant continued toward the cranial thorax and was completed by observing the diaphragmatic and caudal pulmonary region. Collapsed lung, aorta, oesophagus and diaphragm were viewed readily in either hemithorax. On exploration of the right hemithorax, the azygos vein, thoracic duct and pulmonary veins were also identified. Horses tolerated thoracoscopy well. Signs of discomfort, such as increased respiratory rate, coughing and decreased level of sedation, were associated with lung collapse in one horse, with pneumothorax on 2 occasions, and when the thorax was approached through the 8th intercostal space. Surgery performed via the 8th intercostal space was hindered by the rigidity of the 8th and 9th ribs, and by the presence of a greater musculature, which did not allow easy cranial and caudal movements of the telescope.

  15. Are Children "Normal"?

    PubMed

    Black, Dan A; Kolesnikova, Natalia; Sanders, Seth G; Taylor, Lowell J

    2013-03-01

    We examine Becker's (1960) contention that children are "normal." For the cross section of non-Hispanic white married couples in the U.S., we show that when we restrict comparisons to similarly-educated women living in similarly-expensive locations, completed fertility is positively correlated with the husband's income. The empirical evidence is consistent with children being "normal." In an effort to show causal effects, we analyze the localized impact on fertility of the mid-1970s increase in world energy prices - an exogenous shock that substantially increased men's incomes in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Empirical evidence for that population indicates that fertility increases in men's income.

  16. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs.

  17. Carpal tunnel: Normal anatomy, anatomical variants and ultrasound technique.

    PubMed

    Presazzi, A; Bortolotto, C; Zacchino, M; Madonia, L; Draghi, F

    2011-03-01

    The carpal tunnel is an osteofibrous canal situated in the volar wrist. The boundaries are the carpal bones and the flexor retinaculum. In addition to the medial nerve, the carpal tunnel contains nine tendons: the flexor pollicis longus, the four flexor digitorum superficialis and the four flexor digitorum profundus. Ultrasound (US) study of the carpal tunnel generally involves short-axis imaging of the tendons, and in the presence of disease, long-axis imaging and dynamic maneuvers are added. There are numerous reports of anatomical variants of the wrist involving vessels, nerves, tendons and muscles, and they can all be studied by US. Some are particularly relevant from a clinical point of view and will therefore be accurately described. The anatomy is complex, and the US operator should therefore be thoroughly familiar with the normal anatomy as well as the anatomical variants that may have a role in the pathogenesis of carpal tunnel syndrome or influence treatment.

  18. Radiology of external ear: indications, normal anatomy, and pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Mazón, M; Pont, E; Montesinos, P; Carreres-Polo, J; Más-Estellés, F

    2016-01-01

    The external ear is accessible to direct examination; the clinical history and otoscopy are sufficient to diagnose and treat most diseases of the external ear. We aim to describe the normal anatomy of the external ear, specify the indications for imaging tests, and review the clinical and radiological manifestations of the most common diseases affecting the external ear. We classify these diseases according to their origin into congenital, inflammatory, infectious, or traumatic disease or benign bone tumors or malignant tumors. Imaging does not play an important role in diseases of the external ear, but in certain clinical scenarios it can be crucial for reaching a concrete diagnosis and establishing the best treatment. Computed tomography is the first-choice technique for most diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging complements computed tomography and makes it possible to differentiate among different tissue types and to evaluate the extension of disease accurately.

  19. When Young Children Explore Anatomy: Dilemma or Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Offers advice to parents and teachers on addressing children's natural curiosities about their own bodies and those of others. Recommends using anatomically correct terms and dolls, and children's anatomy books; advises what to do when children engage in sex play, self-exploration, and masturbation, or use toilet language. (DLH)

  20. Normal anatomy and histology of the adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Menke, Aswin L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish has been shown to be an excellent vertebrate model for studying the roles of specific genes and signaling pathways. The sequencing of its genome and the relative ease with which gene modifications can be performed have led to the creation of numerous human disease models that can be used for testing the potential and the toxicity of new pharmaceutical compounds. Many pharmaceutical companies already use the zebrafish for prescreening purposes. So far, the focus has been on ecotoxicity and the effects on embryonic development, but there is a trend to expand the use of the zebrafish with acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies that are currently still carried out with the more conventional test animals such as rodents. However, before we can fully realize the potential of the zebrafish as an animal model for understanding human development, disease, and toxicology, we must first greatly advance our knowledge of normal zebrafish physiology, anatomy, and histology. To further this knowledge, we describe, in the present article, location and histology of the major zebrafish organ systems with a brief description of their function.

  1. Pediatric cervical spine in emergency: radiographic features of normal anatomy, variants and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Adib, Omar; Berthier, Emeline; Loisel, Didier; Aubé, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Injuries of the cervical spine are uncommon in children. The distribution of injuries, when they do occur, differs according to age. Young children aged less than 8 years usually have upper cervical injuries because of the anatomic and biomechanical properties of their immature spine, whereas older children, whose biomechanics more closely resemble those of adults, are prone to lower cervical injuries. In all cases, the pediatric cervical spine has distinct radiographic features, making the emergency radiological analysis of it difficult. Such features as hypermobility between C2 and C3, pseudospread of the atlas on the axis, pseudosubluxation, the absence of lordosis, anterior wedging of vertebral bodies, pseudowidening of prevertebral soft tissue and incomplete ossification of synchondrosis can be mistaken for traumatic injuries. The interpretation of a plain radiograph of the pediatric cervical spine following trauma must take into account the age of the child, the location of the injury and the mechanism of trauma. Comprehensive knowledge of the specific anatomy and biomechanics of the childhood spine is essential for the diagnosis of suspected cervical spine injury. With it, the physician can, on one hand, differentiate normal physes or synchondroses from pathological fractures or ligamentous disruptions and, on the other, identify any possible congenital anomalies that may also be mistaken for injury. Thus, in the present work, we discuss normal radiological features of the pediatric cervical spine, variants that may be encountered and pitfalls that must be avoided when interpreting plain radiographs taken in an emergency setting following trauma.

  2. Pathogenesis of urinary tract infections with normal female anatomy.

    PubMed

    Finer, Gal; Landau, Daniel

    2004-10-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among girls and young women who are healthy and have anatomically normal urinary tracts. These infections are a main source of morbidity and health-care costs in this population. The interaction between specific infecting bacteria and urinary tract epithelium characteristics underlies the pathogenesis of this disease. Several pathogen-related factors predispose people to recurrent UTI, including periurethral bacterial colonisation and Escherichia coli virulence. Host behavioural risk factors include voiding dysfunction, high intercourse frequency, and oral contraceptive and spermicide use. The role of vesicoureteral reflux in recurrent childhood UTI is probably overestimated in the medical literature and is important only in a small group of children with high-grade reflux. Family pedigree analysis suggests a familial genetic predisposition for UTI among young females. Animal models show the multigenic nature of recurrent UTI. Putative candidate genes for the disease include ABH blood groups, interleukin-8 receptor (CXCR1), the human leucocyte antigen locus, toll-like receptors, tumour necrosis factor, and Tamm-Horsfall protein.

  3. Normal Vulvovaginal, Perineal, and Pelvic Anatomy with Reconstructive Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Yavagal, Sujata; de Farias, Thais F.; Medina, Carlos A.; Takacs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A thorough insight into the female genital anatomy is crucial for understanding and performing pelvic reconstructive procedures. The intimate relationship between the genitalia and the muscles, ligaments, and fascia that provide support is complex, but critical to restore during surgery for correction of prolapse or aesthetic reasons. The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule with glands, perineal body, and the muscles and fascia surrounding these structures. Through the perineal membrane and the perineal body, these superficial vulvar structures are structurally related to the deep pelvic muscle levator ani with its fascia. The levator ani forms the pelvic floor with the coccygeus muscle and provides vital support to all the pelvic organs and stability to the perineum. The internal female genital organs include the vagina, cervix, uterus, tubes, and ovaries with their visceral fascia. The visceral fascia also called the endopelvic fascia, surrounds the pelvic organs and connects them to the pelvic walls. It is continuous with the paraurethral and paravaginal fascia, which is attached to the perineal membrane. Thus, the internal and external genitalia are closely related to the muscles and fascia, and work as one functioning unit. PMID:22547969

  4. Atlas of computed body tomography: normal and abnormal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.C.; Schapiro, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas contains comparative sections on normal and abnormal computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower limbs, fascia, and peritoneum. Also included is a subject index to aid in the identification of abnormal scans. (DLS)

  5. Masterpiece Me: Children's Activities in Anatomy and Development. Children's Activity Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Sally

    The supplemental teaching resources provided in this book offer a variety of concrete, visual activities designed for the use of classroom and daycare center teachers to help young children feel proud and comfortable about their changing bodies. The lessons help children develop a healthy, age-appropriate foundation in anatomy and development.…

  6. Normal anatomy and imaging of the hip: emphasis on impingement assessment.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Mary Kristen; Petersen, Brian; Strickland, Colin; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2013-07-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of normal hip anatomy and imaging techniques is essential in the evaluation and assessment of the patient with hip pain. This article reviews the osseous, soft tissue, and vascular components of the hip and the normal anatomical variants encountered in routine hip imaging. Basic and advanced hip imaging is discussed with particular emphasis on radiographic and computed tomography measurements and their utility in evaluating patients with developmental hip dysplasia and femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.

  7. Ultrasound anatomy and normal ECD of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Rosi, Paolo; Del Zingaro, Michele; Porena, Massimo

    2005-03-01

    The adult kidney is studied using convex-array probes with a frequency of 3.5 MHz, whereas in children higher frequencies are advisable (5 MHz). The study of the organ may be carried out with three possible approaches (access routes): abdominal (anterior), lumbar (lateral), dorsal (posterior). For a correct and complete study of the renal echostructure 5 fundamental parameters need to be evaluated: shape, size, parenchymal echotexture, renal sinus and renal hilum. The most common anatomical variants need to be identified and namely, dromedary humps, foetal lobation, hypertrophied column of Berten, hypertrophied renal tubercles and labia. The use of colour-Doppler ultrasound equipment permits assessment of the main renal arteries, the segmentary branches at the level of the hilum, the interlobar arteries, the arcuate arteries, and the interlobular arteries (inconsistently). Colour and duplex ultrasound enable identification of flow signals from arteries that are not directly visible at B-mode sonography, since frequency resolution (related to the Doppler-shift) is greater than spatial and contrast resolution. Power doppler provides a detailed visualisation of the distribution of vascular structures and blood circulation in the different regions of the kidney parenchyma, affording a perfusion study similar to angiographic parenchymography. Unlike colour Doppler, power Doppler allows identification of the cortical circulation. The Doppler pattern of the renal arteries is typical of arteries with parenchyma destination, which show a systolic peak and a well-depicted diastolic curve due to low peripheral resistance. The parameters to be analysed are peak systolic velocity, acceleration time, pulsatility index, and resistive index.

  8. [Balanoplasty in accordance with the normal anatomy--the key to successful correction of hypospadias].

    PubMed

    Rudin, Iu É; Marukhnenko, D V; Garmanova, T N; Saĭedov, K M

    2013-01-01

    The features of the normal anatomy of the balanus and distal urethra were evaluated. It was found that there is a physiological mechanism of stretching of distal urethra during urination owing to the scaphoid fossa, bridle and hippocrepiform-located corpus spongiosum of balanus. Based on these data, modified balanoplasty was proposed, which consisted in mobilization and increase the length of corpus spongiosum of wings of balanus by longitudinal incisions, followed by suturing wings of balanus with separate inside sutures on a short distance not above 3-5 mm and their dipping at a depth not above 1-2 mm. Between 2005 and 2010, 410 patients aged 1 to 18 years underwent surgeries. 90 (22%) patients underwent reoperation. Boys with glandular and coronal hypospadias (n = 69) underwent MAGPI surgery. Patients with penile hypospadias (n = 243) underwent TIP-Snodgrass (n = 72), onlay (n = 23), Mathuie (n = 123), and GTIP (n = 25) surgeries. In children with scrotal and perineal hypospadias (n = 98), method of transverse tubularized foreskin flap was used. All patients were arbitrarily divided into two groups. The study group consisted of patients (n = 210) who underwent modified balanoplasty. The comparison group consisted of 200 patients who underwent conventional balanoplasty. Complication rate after hypospadias correction was reduced from 18 to 12% in penile hypospadias, and from 28 to 18% in scrotal and perineal hypospadias. It is shown that modified balanoplasty excludes formation of obstructive ring of corpus spongiosum in the distal urethra. The results of urodynamic examinations in follow-up period showed improvement of mean urinary flow rates.

  9. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is frequently used for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. Part I of this article series described in detail the characteristic USG picture of peripheral nerves and the proper examination technique, following the example of the median nerve. This nerve is among the most often examined peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part presents describes the normal anatomy and ultrasound picture of the remaining large nerve branches in the upper extremity and neck – the spinal accessory nerve, the brachial plexus, the suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves. Their normal anatomy and ultrasonographic appearance have been described, including the division into individual branches. For each of them, specific reference points have been presented, to facilitate the location of the set trunk and its further monitoring. Sites for the application of the ultrasonographic probe at each reference point have been indicated. In the case of the ulnar nerve, the dynamic component of the examination was emphasized. The text is illustrated with images of probe positioning, diagrams of the normal course of the nerves as well as a series of ultrasonographic pictures of normal nerves of the upper limb. This article aims to serve as a guide in the ultrasound examination of the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. It should be remembered that a thorough knowledge of the area's topographic anatomy is required for this type of examination. PMID:26674017

  10. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of short umbilical cord in a dichorionic twin with normal fetal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Sherer, David M; Dalloul, Mudar; Ajayi, Olusegun; Kheyman, Mila; Sokolovski, Margarita; Abulafia, Ovadia

    2010-02-01

    Short umbilical cords are associated with fetal anomalies, often including those with decreased or absent fetal movement, fetal akinesia/hypokinesia sequence, and restrictive dermopathies and aneuploidy. In normal fetuses, abnormally short umbilical cords have been associated with an increased risk of umbilical vessel hematomas, thrombosis, rupture, thrombocytopenia, cord compression, variable fetal heart rate decelerations, instrumental and operative deliveries, and fetal demise. We report a 24-year-old gravida 2, para 0 with a concordant dichorionic twin gestation, at 26 weeks' gestation, in whom sonography depicted fetuses with normal-appearing anatomy as well as short umbilical cord of the 1st twin. Increased fetal surveillance was conducted. Following delivery at 36 weeks' gestation, the presence of a short umbilical cord of the 1st twin measuring 19 cm was confirmed. Systematic review of the literature confirms that this is the first report of prenatal diagnosis of a short umbilical cord in an otherwise normal fetus.

  11. Computed tomography of cervical and retropharyngeal lymph nodes: normal anatomy, variants of normal, and applications in staging head and neck cancer. Part 1. Normal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, A.A.; Harnsberger, H.R.; Muraki, A.S.; Stevens, M.H.

    1983-09-01

    The retropharyngeal and cervical lymph-node-bearing areas in 30 patients were examined with computed tomography (CT) to determine the range of normal variation in these nodal groups. The data agree with those in the pathologic, anatomic, and surgical literature, and indicate that CT can very precisely determine the size and gross morphology of normal nodes in the retropharyngeal region and the neck. This should have important applications in the management of patients with head and neck cancer.

  12. US of the elbow: indications, technique, normal anatomy, and pathologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Konin, Gabrielle P; Nazarian, Levon N; Walz, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    The elbow, a synovial hinge joint, is a common site of disease. Ultrasonography (US) has become an important imaging modality for evaluating pathologic conditions of the elbow. This powerful imaging tool has the advantages of outstanding spatial resolution, clinical correlation with direct patient interaction, dynamic assessment of disease, and the ability to guide interventions. Unlike most other imaging modalities, US allows the contralateral elbow to be imaged simultaneously, providing an internal control and comparison with normal anatomy. A useful approach to US evaluation of the elbow is to divide it into four compartments: anterior, lateral, medial, and posterior. US of the elbow has varied clinical applications, including evaluation and treatment of lateral and medial epicondylitis, imaging of biceps and triceps musculotendinous injuries, evaluation of ulnar collateral ligament laxity, diagnosis of joint effusions and intraarticular bodies, and evaluation of peripheral nerves for neuropathy and subluxation. US can also be used to evaluate soft-tissue masses about the elbow. Knowledge of the normal US anatomy of the elbow, familiarity with the technique of elbow US, and awareness of the US appearances of common pathologic conditions of the elbow along with their potential treatment options will optimize radiologists' diagnostic assessment and improve patient care. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/rg.334125059/-/DC1.

  13. Ultrasound anatomy of normal nails unit with 18 mhz linear transducer.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Andrea; Montella, Andrea; Ena, Pasquale; Meloni, Giovanni Battista; Mazzarello, Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    Interest is growing in non-invasive diagnostic methods for nails in dermatological pathology. Currently, nail disease diagnosis is based mostly on clinical evaluation; instrumental examination, traditionally, has been performed by magnetic resonance. Ultrasound (US) can be proposed as an easier and more available method for the study of the nail apparatus. In this study, the nail unit normal ultrasound anatomy was investigated to obtain data on adult normal parameters. On 35 healthy volunteers (20 women and 15 men--average age of 27 years) we performed an ultrasonographic study on the nail plate (dorsal and ventral), nail matrix and nail bed of all fingers of the hands using a 18 MHz linear transducer with Esaote Mylab 50. A thick gel layer allowed for appropriate transmission of ultrasound without any additional device. Macroscopic nail features were studied by clinical examination and photographic analysis. The following ultrasound parameters were investigated: nail thickness; nail bed thickness; matrix lenght; matrix-bone distance. Blood flow was studied with the use of colour and power colour Doppler. The nail apparatus echographic anatomy consists in: (a) nail plate, represented by two hyperechoic bands (dorsal and ventral) with an hypoechoic or anechoic space between them; (b) nail bed, represented by an area of dys-homogeneous hypo-echogeneity; (c) nail matrix, represented by a markedly hypoechoic area corresponding to the region under the nail sulcus; (d) ligaments, sometimes well detectable and formed by a specialized connective tissue; and (e) vessels, well evaluable through doppler examination.

  14. Ultrasound of tibialis anterior muscle and tendon: anatomy, technique of examination, normal and pathologic appearance.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Ajay; Bianchi, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    Lesions of the tibialis anterior muscle and tendon are not frequently reported in international literature although pathology is not rare. Pathology can be spontaneous, associated with arthropathy or more generalized conditions. Clinical assessment may not be sufficient for distinguishing conditions like tendinopathy, tears, bursitis, etc. Therefore, imaging studies are necessary to plan appropriate therapy. US has a number of advantages, including widespread availability, absence of contraindications and low cost. It can also be used for dynamic studies of the muscle during contraction and relaxation. This article reviews the anatomy of the tibialis anterior, normal variants, the technique used for standard US examination of this muscle and tendon, its normal appearance on US and the sonographic characteristics of the most common lesions that affect it including tips on US-guided injections used for treatment.

  15. Computed and conventional arthrotomography of the glenohumeral joint: normal anatomy and clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, A.L.; Resnick, D.; Mink, J.H.; Berman, J.L.; Cone, R.O. III; Resnik, C.S.; Danzig, L.; Guerra, J. Jr.

    1984-12-01

    The glenohumeral joint was studied in 25 cadavers and 136 patients using computed arthrotomography (CAT) and conventional arthrotomography (AT) to assess shoulder instability. Cadaver shoulders were injected with air or latex, sectioned with a band saw, and normal articular anatomy outlined. CAT was performed in 81 patients and characterized the glenoid labrum as normal, abnormal, or detached. Hill-Sachs defects were seen in 20 out of 29 patients with anterior labral abnormalities, while bicipital tendon abnormalities were evident on CAT in 6. Of 55 patients who had AT, the status of the labrum was clarified in 13 of the 16 patients who had surgery or arthroscopy. Both methods can characterize the labrum; however, CAT is more comprehensive and appears ideal for both detection of Hill-Sachs defects and imaging the bicipital tendon. CAT requires less technical expertise and radiation than AT and is tolerated better by patients in pain.

  16. Developmental pragmatics in normal and abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Bara, B G; Bosco, F M; Bucciarelli, M

    1999-07-01

    We propose a critical review of current theories of developmental pragmatics. The underlying assumption is that such a theory ought to account for both normal and abnormal development. From a clinical point of view, we are concerned with the effects of brain damage on the emergence of pragmatic competence. In particular, the paper deals with direct speech acts, indirect speech acts, irony, and deceit in children with head injury, closed head injury, hydrocephalus, focal brain damage, and autism. Since no single theory covers systematically the emergence of pragmatic capacity in normal children, it is not surprising that we have not found a systematic account of deficits in the communicative performance of brain injured children. In our view, the challenge for a pragmatic theory is the determination of the normal developmental pattern within which different pragmatic phenomena may find a precise role. Such a framework of normal behavior would then permit the systematic study of abnormal pragmatic development.

  17. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Berta; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-06-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is currently increasingly used in imaging peripheral nerves, serving to supplement the physical examination, electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive and well-tolerated by patients. The typical ultrasonographic picture of peripheral nerves as well as the examination technique have been discussed in part I of this article series, following the example of the median nerve. Part II of the series presented the normal anatomy and the technique for examining the peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part of the article series focuses on the anatomy and technique for examining twelve normal peripheral nerves of the lower extremity: the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, the pudendal, sciatic, tibial, sural, medial plantar, lateral plantar, common peroneal, deep peroneal and superficial peroneal nerves. It includes diagrams showing the proper positioning of the sonographic probe, plus USG images of the successively discussed nerves and their surrounding structures. The ultrasonographic appearance of the peripheral nerves in the lower limb is identical to the nerves in the upper limb. However, when imaging the lower extremity, convex probes are more often utilized, to capture deeply-seated nerves. The examination technique, similarly to that used in visualizing the nerves of upper extremity, consists of locating the nerve at a characteristic anatomic reference point and tracking it using the "elevator technique". All 3 parts of the article series should serve as an introduction to a discussion of peripheral nerve pathologies, which will be presented in subsequent issues of the "Journal of Ultrasonography".

  18. Renal-vertebral index in normal children.

    PubMed Central

    Bacopoulos, C; Papahatzi-Kalmadi, M; Karpathios, T; Thomaidis, T; Matsaniotis, N

    1981-01-01

    The renal-vertebral index is a simple method of evaluating the renal length in children and is convenient for everyday clinical work. The results of 822 normal children aged between 3 days and 14 years are reported. Infants of up to 1 year were found to have an index of about 4 to 5, pre-school children are an index of 3 1/2 to 4 1/2, and schoolchildren an index of 3 1/2 to 4. There was no significant difference in renal-vertebral index between boys and girls. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7259261

  19. Gaze aversion in autistic and normal children.

    PubMed

    Richer, J M; Coss, R G

    1976-03-01

    Autistic children rarely engage in eye contact, and whilst observation suggests this is due to a specific avoidance of eye contact, some experimental studies have challenged this. In this study the effects on autistic and normal children of an adult looking at them with both eyes, with one eye covered, or apparently not looking at them (both eyes covered) were investigated. As expected, autistic children looked more at the adult with his eyes covered, and also engaged in less flight behaviour. They looked less when two eyes were exposed than one, confirming the potency of the two-eye pattern in provoking gaze aversion. Normal children engaged in much more eye contact than the autistic children, with fewer flight behaviours and stereotypies, supporting the hypothesis that autistic children are predominatly flight motivated. Other, sometimes conflicting, results of previous studies are discussed. Teachers and nurses are recommened not to make efforts to engage autistic children even in friendly eye contact as this provokes more flight behaviour.

  20. Normal Anatomy and Compression Areas of Nerves of the Foot and Ankle: US and MR Imaging with Anatomic Correlation.

    PubMed

    De Maeseneer, Michel; Madani, Hardi; Lenchik, Leon; Kalume Brigido, Monica; Shahabpour, Maryam; Marcelis, Stefaan; de Mey, Johan; Scafoglieri, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the nerves of the foot and ankle is complex, and familiarity with the normal anatomy and course of these nerves as well as common anatomic variants is essential for correct identification at imaging. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allow visualization of these nerves and may facilitate diagnosis of various compression syndromes, such as "jogger's heel," Baxter neuropathy, and Morton neuroma. It may be difficult to distinguish the nerves from adjacent vasculature at MR imaging, and US can help in differentiation. The authors review the normal anatomy and common variants of the nerves of the foot and ankle, with use of dissected specimens and correlative US and MR imaging findings. In addition, the authors illustrate proper probe positioning, which is essential for visualizing the nerves at US. The authors' discussion focuses on the superficial and deep peroneal, sural, saphenous, tibial, medial and lateral plantar, medial and inferior calcaneal, common digital, and medial proper plantar digital nerves.

  1. Sinus Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  2. Nasal Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  3. Imaging and examination strategies of normal male and female sex development and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Wünsch, Lutz; Schober, Justine M

    2007-09-01

    Over recent years a variety of new details on the developmental biology of sexual differentiation has been discovered. Moreover, important advances have been made in imaging and examination strategies for urogenital organs, and these have added new knowledge to our understanding of the 'normal' anatomy of the sexes. Both aspects contribute to the comprehension of phenotypic sex development, but they are not commonly presented in the same context. This will be attempted in this chapter, which aims to link discoveries in developmental biology to anatomical details shown by modern examination techniques. A review of the literature concerning the link between sexual development and imaging of urogenital organs was performed. Genes, proteins and pathways related to sexual differentiation were related to some organotypic features revealed by clinical examination techniques. Early 'organotypic' patterns can be identified in prostatic, urethral and genital development and followed into postnatal life. New imaging and endoscopy techniques allow for detailed descriptive anatomical studies, hopefully resulting in a broader understanding of sex development and a better genotype-phenotype correlation in defined disorders. Clinical description relying on imaging techniques should be related to knowledge of the genetic and endocrine factors influencing sex development in a specific and stepwise manner.

  4. Elementary Anatomy: Activities Designed to Teach Preschool Children about the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raven, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that children may not be able to conceptualize some of the topics associated with anatomy, including internal organs and involuntary muscles, because the concepts are too abstract and are not easily visualized. Thus, this article presents activities that incorporate a variety of models and hands-on activities designed to provide…

  5. Visualization of anatomy in normal and pathologic middle ears by cone beam CT.

    PubMed

    Güldner, Christian; Diogo, Isabell; Bernd, Eva; Dräger, Stephanie; Mandapathil, Magis; Teymoortash, Afshin; Negm, Hesham; Wilhelm, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, syn. digital volume tomography = DVT) was introduced into ENT imaging more than 10 years ago. The main focus was on imaging of the paranasal sinuses and traumatology of the mid face. In recent years, it has also been used in imaging of chronic ear diseases (especially in visualizing middle and inner ear implants), but an exact description of the advantages and limitations of visualizing precise anatomy in a relevant number of patients is still missing. The data sets of CBCT imaging of the middle and inner ear of 204 patients were analyzed regarding the visualization of 18 different anatomic structures. A three-step scale (excellent visible, partial visible, not visible) was taken. All analyses were performed by two surgeons experienced in otology and imaging. The indications for imaging were chronic middle ear disease or conductive hearing loss. Previously operated patients were excluded to rule out possible confounders. In dependence of a radiological pathology/opacity of the middle ear, two groups (with and without pathology) were built. Regarding the possibility of excellent visualization, significant differences were only found for small bony structures: incu-stapedial joint (25.8 vs. 63.5 %), long process of incus (42.7 vs. 88.8 %), head of stapes (27.0 vs. 62.6 %), anterior crus of stapes (16.9 vs. 40.9 %) and posterior crus of stapes (19.1 vs. 42.6 %). The other structures (semicircular canals, skull base at mastoid and middle ear, jugular bulb, sinus sigmoideus, facial nerve) could be visualized well in both groups with rates around 85-100 %. Even CBCT shows little limitations in visualization of the small structures of the middle and inner ear. Big bony structures can be visualized in normal as well as in pathologic ears. Overall, due to pathology of middle ear, an additional limitation of evaluation of the ossicular chain exists. In future, studies should focus on comparative evaluation of different diseases

  6. Metabolic Cost, Mechanical Work, and Efficiency during Normal Walking in Obese and Normal-Weight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Zhang, Yanxin; Walt, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood obesity on energetic cost during normal walking and to determine if obese children choose a walking strategy optimizing their gait pattern. Method: Sixteen obese children with no functional abnormalities were matched by age and gender with 16 normal-weight children. All…

  7. Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia. PMID:27047403

  8. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants *

    PubMed Central

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Duarte, Cláudia Martina Araújo; Borges, Rafael Farias; de Magalhães, Ana Guardiana Ximenes

    2016-01-01

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications. PMID:26929461

  9. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants.

    PubMed

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Duarte, Cláudia Martina Araújo; Borges, Rafael Farias; de Magalhães, Ana Guardiana Ximenes

    2016-01-01

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications.

  10. Atypical sulcal anatomy in young children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Auzias, G.; Viellard, M.; Takerkart, S.; Villeneuve, N.; Poinso, F.; Fonséca, D. Da; Girard, N.; Deruelle, C.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is associated with an altered early brain development. However, the specific cortical structure abnormalities underlying this disorder remain largely unknown. Nonetheless, atypical cortical folding provides lingering evidence of early disruptions in neurodevelopmental processes and identifying changes in the geometry of cortical sulci is of primary interest for characterizing these structural abnormalities in autism and their evolution over the first stages of brain development. Here, we applied state-of-the-art sulcus-based morphometry methods to a large highly-selective cohort of 73 young male children of age spanning from 18 to 108 months. Moreover, such large cohort was selected through extensive behavioral assessments and stringent inclusion criteria for the group of 59 children with autism. After manual labeling of 59 different sulci in each hemisphere, we computed multiple shape descriptors for each single sulcus element, hereby separating the folding measurement into distinct factors such as the length and depth of the sulcus. We demonstrated that the central, intraparietal and frontal medial sulci showed a significant and consistent pattern of abnormalities across our different geometrical indices. We also found that autistic and control children exhibited strikingly different relationships between age and structural changes in brain morphology. Lastly, the different measures of sulcus shapes were correlated with the CARS and ADOS scores that are specific to the autistic pathology and indices of symptom severity. Inherently, these structural abnormalities are confined to regions that are functionally relevant with respect to cognitive disorders in ASD. In contrast to those previously reported in adults, it is very unlikely that these abnormalities originate from general compensatory mechanisms unrelated to the primary pathology. Rather, they most probably reflect an early disruption on developmental trajectory that could be part

  11. Atypical sulcal anatomy in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Auzias, G; Viellard, M; Takerkart, S; Villeneuve, N; Poinso, F; Fonséca, D Da; Girard, N; Deruelle, C

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is associated with an altered early brain development. However, the specific cortical structure abnormalities underlying this disorder remain largely unknown. Nonetheless, atypical cortical folding provides lingering evidence of early disruptions in neurodevelopmental processes and identifying changes in the geometry of cortical sulci is of primary interest for characterizing these structural abnormalities in autism and their evolution over the first stages of brain development. Here, we applied state-of-the-art sulcus-based morphometry methods to a large highly-selective cohort of 73 young male children of age spanning from 18 to 108 months. Moreover, such large cohort was selected through extensive behavioral assessments and stringent inclusion criteria for the group of 59 children with autism. After manual labeling of 59 different sulci in each hemisphere, we computed multiple shape descriptors for each single sulcus element, hereby separating the folding measurement into distinct factors such as the length and depth of the sulcus. We demonstrated that the central, intraparietal and frontal medial sulci showed a significant and consistent pattern of abnormalities across our different geometrical indices. We also found that autistic and control children exhibited strikingly different relationships between age and structural changes in brain morphology. Lastly, the different measures of sulcus shapes were correlated with the CARS and ADOS scores that are specific to the autistic pathology and indices of symptom severity. Inherently, these structural abnormalities are confined to regions that are functionally relevant with respect to cognitive disorders in ASD. In contrast to those previously reported in adults, it is very unlikely that these abnormalities originate from general compensatory mechanisms unrelated to the primary pathology. Rather, they most probably reflect an early disruption on developmental trajectory that could be part

  12. Transesophageal Echocardiography in Healthy Young Adult Male Baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis): Normal Cardiac Anatomy and Function in Subhuman Primates Compared to Humans.

    PubMed

    Bert, Arthur A; Drake, William B; Quinn, Rachael W; Brasky, Kathleen M; O'Brien, James E; Lofland, Gary K; Hopkins, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    Implantable, viable tissue engineered cardiovascular constructs are rapidly approaching clinical translation. Species typically utilized as preclinical large animal models are food stock ungulates for which cross species biological and genomic differences with humans are great. Multiple authorities have recommended developing subhuman primate models for testing regenerative surgical strategies to mitigate xenotransplant inflammation. However, there is a lack of specific quantitative cardiac imaging comparisons between humans and the genomically similar baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). This study was undertaken to translate to baboons transesophageal echocardiographic functional and dimensional criteria defined as necessary for defining cardiac anatomy and function in the perioperative setting. Seventeen young, healthy baboons (approximately 30 kg, similar to 5 year old children) were studied to determine whether the requisite 11 views and 52 measurement parameters could be reliably acquired by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The obtained measurements were compared to human adult normative literature values and to a large relational database of pediatric "normal heart" echo measurements. Comparisons to humans, when normalized to BSA, revealed a trend in baboons toward larger mitral and aortic valve effective orifice areas and much larger left ventricular muscle mass and wall thickness, but similar pulmonary and tricuspid valves. By modifying probe positioning relative to human techniques, all recommended TEE views except transgastric could be replicated. To supplement, two transthoracic apical views were discovered that in baboons could reliably replace the transgastric TEE view. Thus, all requisite echo views could be obtained for a complete cardiac evaluation in Papio hamadryas anubis to noninvasively quantify cardiac structural anatomy, physiology, and dimensions. Despite similarities between the species, there are subtle and important physiologic and

  13. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the renal arteries: normal anatomy and its variations*

    PubMed Central

    de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Carvalho Junior, Arlindo Monteiro; Rebouças, Rafael Batista; Negromonte, Gustavo Ramalho Pessoa; de Oliveira, Carollyne Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Conventional angiography is still considered the gold standard for the study of the anatomy and of vascular diseases of the abdomen. However, the advent of multidetector computed tomography and techniques of digital image reconstruction has provided an alternative means of performing angiography, without the risks inherent to invasive angiographic examinations. Therefore, within the field of radiology, there is an ever-increasing demand for deeper knowledge of the anatomy of the regional vasculature and its variations. Variations in the renal vascular system are relatively prevalent in the venous and arterial vessels. For various conditions in which surgical planning is crucial to the success of the procedure, knowledge of this topic is important. The aim of this study was to familiarize the general radiologist with variations in the renal vascular system. To that end, we prepared a pictorial essay comprising multidetector computed tomography images obtained in a series of cases. We show patterns representative of the most common anatomical variations in the arterial blood supply to the kidneys, calling attention to the nomenclature, as well as to the clinical and surgical implications of such variations. PMID:27403020

  14. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the renal arteries: normal anatomy and its variations.

    PubMed

    de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Carvalho Junior, Arlindo Monteiro; Rebouças, Rafael Batista; Negromonte, Gustavo Ramalho Pessoa; de Oliveira, Carollyne Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Conventional angiography is still considered the gold standard for the study of the anatomy and of vascular diseases of the abdomen. However, the advent of multidetector computed tomography and techniques of digital image reconstruction has provided an alternative means of performing angiography, without the risks inherent to invasive angiographic examinations. Therefore, within the field of radiology, there is an ever-increasing demand for deeper knowledge of the anatomy of the regional vasculature and its variations. Variations in the renal vascular system are relatively prevalent in the venous and arterial vessels. For various conditions in which surgical planning is crucial to the success of the procedure, knowledge of this topic is important. The aim of this study was to familiarize the general radiologist with variations in the renal vascular system. To that end, we prepared a pictorial essay comprising multidetector computed tomography images obtained in a series of cases. We show patterns representative of the most common anatomical variations in the arterial blood supply to the kidneys, calling attention to the nomenclature, as well as to the clinical and surgical implications of such variations.

  15. Cochlear implantation in children with anomalous cochleovestibular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Pakdaman, Michael N; Herrmann, Barbara S; Curtin, Hugh D; Van Beek-King, Jessica; Lee, Daniel J

    2012-02-01

    Our aim was to determine the influence of inner-ear anomalies on surgical difficulty and postoperative audiologic outcomes among pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients at our institution. We reviewed medical and audiologic records from 78 consecutive pediatric CI cases between 1985 and June 2009. Thirty patients had high-resolution temporal bone computed tomography imaging available for retrospective interpretation. Seven of these 30 patients (23%) had cochleovestibular dysplasia. Fifty percent of patients with severe dysplasia had a cerebrospinal fluid gusher intraoperatively, compared with 13% of patients with no dysplasia. Of patients with available audiologic outcome data, 17 of 26 patients with normal/mild/moderate dysplasia were able to complete CNC testing, whereas neither of the 2 patients with severe dysplasia could complete the open set test. Our experience suggests that surgical difficulty and audiologic outcomes in pediatric CI recipients may be affected by the presence and severity of a cochleovestibular anomaly.

  16. Comparison of anatomy and composition distribution between normal and compression wood of Pinus bungeana Zucc. revealed by microscopic imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiheng; Ma, Jianfeng; Ji, Zhe; Xu, Feng

    2012-12-01

    The anatomy and topochemistry in normal and compression wood tracheid cell wall of Pinus bungeana Zucc. were investigated by fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy. Using fluorescence microscopy, the severity of compression wood was classed as a mild type for the reason that it did not contain all compression wood features. Chemical imaging by confocal Raman microscopy was used for analyzing the distribution of lignin and cellulose, as well as the functional groups of lignin in tracheid cell walls. By comparison with normal wood, highly lignified outer S2 layer [S2(L)], thicker S1 layer, and obviously reduced lignification in the middle lamella were characteristic of compression wood. In addition, smaller microfibril angle was observed in the S2(L) region. The distribution of coniferyl alcohol and coniferyl aldehyde in normal and compression wood was enriched in S1 and S2 layers but lack in cell corner and/or S2L regions, which showed an opposite pattern to lignin distribution. Confocal Raman microscopy with high spatial resolution contributes to a further understanding of the differences between normal and compression wood in polymers distribution and molecules orientation in situ.

  17. Differences Between Children with Attention Deficit Disorder, Children with Specific Learning Disabilities, and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehne, Cheryl; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated power of five measures to differentiate between normal children and children with Attention Deficit Disorder or Specific Learning Disabilities. Discriminant analysis revealed that Connors Parent Questionnaire was best predictor of group membership, followed in order by Connors Teacher Questionnaire, Porteus Mazes Test, and Matching…

  18. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys.

  19. Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Anatomy of the Normal Orbit and Eye of the Horse.

    PubMed

    D'Août, C; Nisolle, J F; Navez, M; Perrin, R; Launois, T; Brogniez, L; Clegg, P; Hontoir, F; Vandeweerd, J M

    2015-10-01

    Traumatic and infectious diseases of the eye and orbit can occur in horses. For diagnosis and monitoring of such diseases, medical imaging is useful including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of the current study was to describe CT and MRI anatomy of the equine orbit and ocular globe. The heads from four adult horses were scanned with a 6-slice Emotion 6 CT (Siemens, Erlangen), and a 3.0 Tesla Siemens Verio 6 MRI using T1 and T2-weighted sequences. To validate CT and MR reference images, these were compared with anatomical models and gross anatomical sections. The bony limits of the orbital cavity, the relationship of the orbit with sinuses and foramina of the skull were well identified by CT. MRI was useful to observe soft tissues and was able to identify adnexae of the ocular globe (eyelids, periorbital fat, extraocular muscles, lacrymal and tarsal glands). Although MRI was able to identify all components of the eye (including the posterior chamber), it could not differentiate sclera from choroid and retina. The only nerve identified was the optic nerve. Vessels were not seen in this series of cadaver heads. This study showed that CT and MRI are useful techniques to image the equine orbit and eye that can have clinical applications.

  20. Parasitic diarrhea in normal and malnourished children.

    PubMed

    Gendrel, D; Treluyer, J M; Richard-Lenoble, D

    2003-04-01

    Diarrhea is only one of the many manifestations of intestinal parasites. Environmental influences are inescapable, regardless of an individual's state of health: in a highly endemic region, intestinal parasitic colonization is almost the rule. The clinical expression of the parasitoses, however, is largely determined by host defenses; and when they are weakened, parasitic diarrhea is frequent and severe. Protein-energy malnutrition is by far the most important cause of immune deficiency in developing countries. Diarrhea caused by Strongyloides or Giardia is common and severe in malnourished children, while well-nourished children remain healthy carriers. These parasites require specific treatment in the malnourished; and the well-nourished should have preventive treatment when they are to receive corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents. Diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium spp. may be severe in malnourished or immunodeficient children, and recovery is achieved only after renutrition or treatment of the immunodeficiency.

  1. Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. Results The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Conclusions Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera. PMID:23800301

  2. Facial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery.

  3. A Comparative Dermatoglyphic Study of Autistic, Retarded, and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartin, Phillip J.; Barry, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    Significant differences were found between the autistic and normal children for distribution of dermal patterns and ridge line disruption, but no significant differences were found for the total mean ridge counts or mean ridge count rankings. (Author)

  4. The Assessment of Effectance Motivation in Normal and Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; Zigler, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Several measures of effectance motivation were constructed; their validity was assessed by administering them to groups of subjects whose effectance motivation was assumed to differ: normal, noninstitutionalized retarded, and institutionalized children matched on mental age. (CS)

  5. The anatomy at the lamina cribrosa in the normal cat eye.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Bade, B

    1982-10-01

    In normal cat eyes, the mean cross-sectional area of the nerve fiber bundles is greater in the temporal than in the nasal lamina cribrosa. The area occupied by the interbundle trabeculae is less in the temporal sectors than in the nasal sectors of the nerve. The number and the shape of the laminar pores are similar in all nerve sectors.

  6. Visual and Auditory Learning Processes in Normal Children and Children with Specific Learning Disabilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrady, Harold J.; Olson, Don A.

    To describe and compare the psychosensory functioning of normal children and children with specific learning disabilities, 62 learning disabled and 68 normal children were studied. Each child was given a battery of thirteen subtests on an automated psychosensory system representing various combinations of auditory and visual intra- and…

  7. Racial Variations in Velopharyngeal and Craniometric Morphology in Children: An Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollara, Lakshmi; Perry, Jamie L.; Hudson, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine craniometric and velopharyngeal anatomy among young children (4-8 years of age) with normal anatomy across Black and White racial groups. Method: Thirty-two healthy children (16 White and 16 Black) with normal velopharyngeal anatomy participated and successfully completed the magnetic resonance…

  8. Adolescents' Perceptions of Normal and Voice-Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This investigation compared 19 adolescents' perceptions of the nonspeech personality characteristics of voice-disordered and normal-speaking children. Listeners, who rated recorded speech samples, showed a significant tendency to judge the normal speakers more positively than the voice-disordered speakers. Results suggest developmental trends in…

  9. Cephalic Index in the First Three Years of Life: Study of Children with Normal Brain Development Based on Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bajor, Grzegorz; Gruszczyńska, Katrzyna; Baron, Jan; Markowski, Jarosław; Machnikowska-Sokołowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Cephalic index is a highly useful method for planning surgical procedures, as well as assessing their effectiveness in correcting cranial deformations in children. There are relatively very few studies measuring cephalic index in healthy Caucasian young children. The aim of our study was to develop a classification of current cephalic index for healthy Caucasian children up to 3 years of age with normal brain development, using axial slice computer tomography performed with very thin slices (0.5 mm) resulting in more accurate measurements. 180 healthy infants (83 females and 97 males) were divided into 5 age categories: 0–3, 4–6, 7–12, 13–24, and 25–36 months. The average value of cephalic index in children up to 3 years of age amounted to 81.45 ± 7.06. The index value in case of children under 3 months was 80.19, 4 to 6 months was 81.45, 7 to 12 months was 83.15, in children under 2 years was 81.05, and in children under 3 years was 79.76. Mesocephaly is the dominating skull shape in children. In this study, we formulated a classification of current cephalic indices of children with normal brain development. Our date appears to be of utmost importance in anthropology, anatomy forensic medicine, and genetics. PMID:24688395

  10. Optic radiation structure and anatomy in the normally developing brain determined using diffusion MRI and tractography.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Michael; Munoz, Monica; Jentschke, Sebastian; Chadwick, Martin J; Cooper, Janine M; Riney, Kate; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Clark, Chris A

    2015-01-01

    The optic radiation (OR) is a component of the visual system known to be myelin mature very early in life. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and its unique ability to reconstruct the OR in vivo were used to study structural maturation through analysis of DTI metrics in a cohort of 90 children aged 5-18 years. As the OR is at risk of damage during epilepsy surgery, we measured its position relative to characteristic anatomical landmarks. Anatomical distances, DTI metrics and volume of the OR were investigated for age, gender and hemisphere effects. We observed changes in DTI metrics with age comparable to known trajectories in other white matter tracts. Left lateralization of DTI metrics was observed that showed a gender effect in lateralization. Sexual dimorphism of DTI metrics in the right hemisphere was also found. With respect to OR dimensions, volume was shown to be right lateralised and sexual dimorphism demonstrated for the extent of the left OR. The anatomical results presented for the OR have potentially important applications for neurosurgical planning.

  11. [Ultrasound and color Doppler applications in nephrology. The normal kidney: anatomy, vessels and congenital anomalies].

    PubMed

    Meola, Mario; Petrucci, Ilaria; Giovannini, Lisa; Samoni, Sara; Dellafiore, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Gray-scale ultrasound is the diagnostic technique of choice in patients with suspected or known renal disease. Knowledge of the normal and abnormal sonographic morphology of the kidney and urinary tract is essential for a successful diagnosis. Conventional sonography must always be complemented by Doppler sampling of the principal arterial and venous vessels. B-mode scanning is performed with the patient in supine, prone or side position. The kidney can be imaged by the anterior, lateral or posterior approach using coronal, transverse and oblique scanning planes. Morphological parameters that must be evaluated are the coronal diameter, the parenchymal thickness and echogenicity, the structure and state of the urinary tract, and the presence of congenital anomalies that may mimic a pseudomass. The main renal artery and the hilar-intraparenchymal branches of the arterial and venous vessels should be accurately evaluated using color Doppler. Measurement of intraparenchymal resistance indices (IP, IR) provides an indirect and quantitative parameter of the stiffness and eutrophic or dystrophic remodeling of the intrarenal microvasculature. These parameters differ depending on age, diabetic and hypertensive disease, chronic renal glomerular disease, and interstitial, vascular and obstructive nephropathy.

  12. Defining the surface anatomy of the central venous system in children.

    PubMed

    Tarr, Gregory P; Pak, Neda; Taghavi, Kiarash; Iwan, Tom; Dumble, Charlotte; Davies-Payne, David; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2016-03-01

    Pediatric emergency physicians, pediatric critical care specialists, and pediatric surgeons perform central venous catheterization in many clinical settings. Complications of the procedure are not uncommon and can be fatal. Despite the frequency of application, the evidence-base describing the surface landmarks involved is missing. The aim of the current study was to critically investigate the surface markings of the central venous system in children. The superior vena cava/right atrial (SVC/RA) junction, superior vena cava (SVC) formation, and brachiocephalic vein (BCV) formation were examined independently by two investigators. Three hundred computed tomography (CT) scans collected across multiple centers were categorized by age group into: 0-3 years, 4-7 years, and 8-11 years. Scans with pathology that distorted or obscured the regional anatomy were excluded. The BCV formation was commonly found behind the ipsilateral medial clavicular head throughout childhood. This contrasts with the variable levels of SVC formation, SVC length, and SVC/RA junction. In the youngest group, SVC formation was most commonly at the second costal cartilage (CC), but moved to the first CC/first intercostal space (ICS) as the child grew. The SVC/RA junction was at the fourth CC in the youngest group and moved to the third CC/third ICS as the child grew. This study demonstrates the variable anatomy of SVC formation and the SVC/RA junction with respect to rib level. This variability underscores the unreliability of surface anatomical landmarks of the SVC/RA junction as a guide to catheter tip position.

  13. The anatomic basis for ventricular arrhythmia in the normal heart: what the student of anatomy needs to know.

    PubMed

    Hai, Jo Jo; Lachman, Nirusha; Syed, Faisal F; Desimone, Christopher V; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2014-09-01

    The traditional route for teaching cardiac anatomy involves didactic instruction, cadaver dissections, and familiarization with the main structure and relationships of the cardiac chambers, valves, and vasculature. In contemporary cardiac electrophysiology, however, a very different view of anatomy is required including details rarely appreciated with a general overview. In this review, we discuss the critical advances in cardiac electrophysiology that were possible only because of understanding detailed anatomic relationships. While we briefly discuss the clinical relevance, we explain in depth the necessary structural information for the student of clinical anatomy. Interspersed through the text are boxes that highlight and summarize the critical pieces of knowledge to be borne in mind while studying the fascinating structural anatomy of the human heart.

  14. Longitudinal Changes in Auditory Discrimination in Normal Children and Children with Language-Learning Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Lois L.; Hammer, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    Using a set of fine-grained auditory discrimination tasks, 21 children with language-learning problems were compared with 21 normal children, aged six-nine. Across three years, children with language-learning problems showed poorer auditory discrimination for temporally based acoustic differences, poorer receptive vocabulary and language…

  15. RESPONSES OF BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN TO LEARNING TASKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARRIER, NEIL A.; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE VARIABLES OF INTELLIGENCE, LEARNING TASK PERFORMANCE, EMOTIONAL TENSION, AND TASK MOTIVATION WERE STUDIED. ABOUT 120 BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN PERFORMED SIX TRIALS OF NUMBER LEARNING, CONCEPT FORMATION, PROBLEM SOLVING, PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION, AND VERBAL LEARNING TASKS. DURING THE LEARNING SESSIONS,…

  16. Diabetic Children Need Care but Can Lead Normal Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Children with diabetes can take part in normal school activities as long as they maintain control over their blood sugar level through a technique called self blood-glucose monitoring. Parents can work with teachers to see that dietary and medicinal needs are accommodated. (PP)

  17. Anticipatory Imagery Ability in Normal and Language-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Patricia A.

    1984-01-01

    five spatial tasks were administered to two groups of seven and one-half to nine and one-half year olds: 18 language-disabled and 18 children with normal language development. The language-disabled were less accurate on all tasks which involved anticipation or prediction of mental rotations, movements, or other transformations. (Author/CL)

  18. Listeners' Perceptions of Nonspeech Characteristics of Normal and Dysarthric Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The comparison of listeners' evaluations of nonspeech characteristics of eight dysarthric (due to cerebral palsy) and eight normal speaking children (ages 6-11) found that dysarthric speech adversely affected listeners' perceptions of the dysarthric speakers' personality and physical appearance characteristics. (Author/DB)

  19. Perceptual Development of Nasal Consonants in Children with Normal Hearing and in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillot, Kathryn M.; Ohde, Ralph N.; Hedrick, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to determine whether the perceptions of nasal consonants in children with normal hearing and children with cochlear implants were predicted by the discontinuity hypothesis. Methods: Four groups participated: 8 adults, 8 children with normal hearing (ages 5-7 years), 8 children with normal hearing (ages 3.5-4…

  20. Sylvian Fissure and Parietal Anatomy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Foundas, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social functioning and language and communication, with restricted interests or stereotyped behaviors. Anatomical differences have been found in the parietal cortex in children with ASD, but parietal subregions and associations between Sylvian fissure (SF) and parietal anatomy have not been explored. In this study, SF length and anterior and posterior parietal volumes were measured on MRI in 30 right-handed boys with ASD and 30 right-handed typically developing boys (7–14 years), matched on age and non-verbal IQ. There was leftward SF and anterior parietal asymmetry, and rightward posterior parietal asymmetry, across groups. There were associations between SF and parietal asymmetries, with slight group differences. Typical SF asymmetry was associated with typical anterior and posterior parietal asymmetry, in both groups. In the atypical SF asymmetry group, controls had atypical parietal asymmetry, whereas in ASD there were more equal numbers of individuals with typical as atypical anterior parietal asymmetry. We did not find significant anatomical-behavioral associations. Our findings of more individuals in the ASD group having a dissociation between cortical asymmetries warrants further investigation of these subgroups and emphasizes the importance of investigating anatomical relationships in addition to group differences in individual regions. PMID:22713374

  1. [Berger's disease in children: its form of presentation, pathological anatomy and evolution in 22 cases].

    PubMed

    Cabot Dalmau, A; Callis, L; Lara, E; Carreras, M

    1993-09-01

    We have reviewed 22 cases of Berger's disease in children (glomerular nephritis with mesangial IgA deposits), all of which were diagnosed by renal biopsy between 1976 and the present time. We describe the clinical and pathological findings in these patients. In addition, we put special emphasis on the evolution of the disease in relationship to some of the parameters that have been reported in the literature as being related to a bad prognosis of glomerular function such as, massive proteinuria at the onset of the disease, histological classification, presence of deposits of IgM or fibrinogen derivatives and glomerular sclerosis. All of the patients started with hematuria, 21 of which had gross hematuria (95%). Fourteen patients (63%) showed proteinuria (2 of which also had a temporary nephrotic syndrome). Five children showed some transient decrease in glomerular filtration rate and another patient rapidly developed renal failure and then end stage renal disease. We were able to follow 15 children for 3 years: 8 (53%) still showed outbreaks of gross hematuria, 5 (33%) only had microhematuria and 2 (14%) showed no signs of hematuria. Four children (27%) still had proteinuria. The glomerular filtration rate was still normal in all but two children (one with rapid evolution to end stage renal disease and another with a glomerular filtration decrease of 20%). Ten children were followed for 6 to 13 years. After 6 years, 2 (20%) still showed outbreaks of gross hematuria, 1 (10%) still had proteinuria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Substance abuse disorders in the parents of ADHD children, and parents of normal children.

    PubMed

    Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Ahmad; Rostami, Reza; Dehestani, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  3. Normal echocardiographic mitral and aortic valve thickness in children

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Rachel H; Culliford-Semmens, Nicola; Sidhu, Karishma; Wilson, Nigel J

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to define the normal range of aortic and mitral valve thickness in healthy schoolchildren from a high prevalence rheumatic heart disease (RHD) region, using a standardised protocol for imaging and measurement. Methods Measurements were performed in 288 children without RHD. Anterior mitral valve leaflet (AMVL) thickness measurements were performed at the midpoint and tip of the leaflet in the parasternal long axis (PSLA) in diastole, when the AMVL was approximately parallel to the ventricular septum. Thickness of the aortic valve was measured from PSLA imaging in systole when the leaflets were at maximum excursion. The right coronary and non-coronary closure lines of the aortic valve were measured in diastole in parasternal short axis (PSSA) imaging. Results were compared with 51 children with RHD classified by World Heart Federation diagnostic criteria. Results In normal children, median AMVL tip thickness was 2.0 mm (IQR 1.7–2.4) and median AMVL midpoint thickness 2.0 mm (IQR 1.7–2.4). The median aortic valve thickness was 1.5 mm (IQR 1.3–1.6) in the PSLA view and 1.4 mm (IQR 1.2–1.6) in the PSSA view. The interclass correlation coefficient for the AMVL tip was 0.85 (0.71 to 0.92) and for the AMVL midpoint was 0.77 (0.54 to 0.87). Conclusions We have described a standardised method for mitral and aortic valve measurement in children which is objective and reproducible. Normal ranges of left heart valve thickness in a high prevalence RHD population are established. These results provide a reference range for school-age children in high prevalence RHD regions undergoing echocardiographic screening.

  4. Visual scanning and reading ability in normal and dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, G; Mazzotti, S; Brizzolara, D

    2008-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated the development of visual search of aligned stimuli in relation to normal reading acquisition and in developmental dyslexia. In this study we used a new computerised experimental task which requires a visuo-motor response (RT) to a target appearing unpredictably in one out of seven different spatial positions on a horizontally aligned array of 18 geometrical figures. The aims of the study were to investigate: 1) the visual scanning development in normal children from pre-school to school age; 2) whether visual scanning performance in kindergarten children could predict reading acquisition; 3) the visual scanning abilities in a group of developmental dyslexic children. The main results were: 1) a significant decrement of RTs with age and a progressive increase of the left-to-right gradient with reading experience; 2) visual scanning abilities in kindergarten proved to be a good predictor of reading acquisition; 3) dyslexics were slow scanners and did not present the left-to-right strategy typical of normal readers. The results support the hypothesis of a relationship between visual scanning and reading abilities.

  5. Disciplinary Choices of Mothers of Deaf Children and Mothers of Normally Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, John F.; Johnson, Christina R.; Sullivan, Patricia M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the disciplinary preferences of mothers of profoundly deaf children and normally hearing children in a test of the hypothesized link between child disabilities and punitive parenting. Method: Disciplinary preferences of mothers seeking a cochlear implant for their profoundly deaf child (n = 57), mothers not seeking an implant…

  6. Patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Seth L; Plackis, Andreas C; Nuelle, Clayton W

    2014-07-01

    Patellofemoral disorders are common. There is a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from patellofemoral pain and instability to focal cartilage disease and arthritis. Regardless of the specific condition, abnormal anatomy and biomechanics are often the root cause of patellofemoral dysfunction. A thorough understanding of normal patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics is critical for the treating physician. Recognizing and addressing abnormal anatomy will optimize patellofemoral biomechanics and may ultimately translate into clinical success.

  7. Microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy in children, adolescents, and adults: surgical anatomy and anatomically justified technique.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, Petros; Mentessidou, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Microsurgical varicocelectomy has become the gold standard in adults because of low recurrence and postoperative hydrocele rates; it is increasingly applied in children and adolescents. This review aims to provide the surgeon with the necessary surgical anatomy of the spermatic cord and with a step-by-step, anatomically justified description of technique, toward clearer comprehension and improved application. The anatomic compartments of the spermatic cord are delineated by the external and internal spermatic fasciae. Venous drainage of testis-epididymis is accomplished by the internal spermatic, deferential, and external spermatic (cremasteric) veins. All 3 anastomose at the caudal pole of testis, and then via gubernacular veins with the posterior scrotal veins. Another anastomosis exists between a cremasteric branch and anterior scrotal veins, which gives the external pudendal vein. Subinguinal approach offers access to varicose spermatic veins and collaterals. Use of surgical microscope offers identification of small veins, preservation of arteries, lymphatics, and nerves, and appreciation of spermatic cord fasciae, which permits the development of two surgical planes. In the surgical plane of internal spermatic vessels, internal spermatic veins are ligated, whereas the testicular artery and innervation, as well as lymphatics, are preserved. In the plane of cremasteric vessels and vas, cremasteric veins are ligated, whereas the cremasteric artery, vas deferens and its vasculature, lymphatics, and the genital branch of genitofemoral nerve are preserved. Delivery of the testis to ligate gubernacular veins is at the discretion of the surgeon. Finally, venous return is effected by deferential and scrotal veins, or, when gubernacular veins are ligated, by deferential veins only.

  8. Comparison Balance and Footprint Parameters in Normal and Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Amir Hossein; Bagheri, Ahmad; Azimi, Reza; Darchini, Mohsen Ali; Nik, Hossein Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was done in order to compare balance and footprint parameters in two groups of normal and overweight children. Methods: This semi-experimental study included randomly selected 22 male children (11 normal and 11 overweight boys). To measure the footprint parameters, an ink paper system was used, i.e., after putting their feet in the ink, the subjects were asked to stand comfortably on paper and their footprints were recorded. Then, with the use of ImageJ software, the areas of anterior, middle, and posterior parts, the total area, and the arch index parameter were calculated. For measuring balance in three posterolateral, posteromedial, and anterior directions as well as the total balance, Y-balance test was done. Finally, to analyze the data, mean and standard deviation were calculated and ANOVA test was used to compare the parameters. Results: Data analysis showed a significant difference between normal and overweight subjects in the anterior and posterior areas, whereas, in balance test, only the anterior areas showed significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that area parameters in these two groups do not have significant difference; hence, it cannot be used as the criteria for analyzing the effects of being overweight on these parameters. In addition, it is probable that, in a dynamic situation, recorded footprints are more valid parameters for analyzing foot structure. PMID:23717778

  9. Comparison of Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters between Children with Normal Development and Children with Diplegic Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Ju; Son, Sung Min

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters between children with spastic diplegic CP and children with normal development (ND). [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen children (eight children with spastic diplegic CP and eight ND children) were recruited for participation as volunteers in this study. The children with CP had a Gross Motor Function Classification (GMFC) System level of between I and II. [Results] Walking velocity, cadence, stride length, and step width of children with CP with a GMFC of between I and II were a level of 60%, 77%, 73%, and 160%, respectively, of those of ND children. The percentages of right and left double-limb support were 188% and 179% higher, respectively, and the proportion of single limb support was shorter by 83% and 82%. [Conclusion] Our results provide objective evidence of distinct differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters between children with spastic diplegic CP with a GMFC level I or II and ND children and would be helpful to persons involved in the care of these children. PMID:25276007

  10. Larynx Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1350x1200 View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows ...

  11. Vulva Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  12. Hand Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is a term used to ... of the parts together. Learn more about the anatomy of the upper extremity using the links in ...

  13. Pharynx Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  14. Comparison of Children with Joint Angles in Spastic Diplegia with Those of Normal Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Ju; Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Dong Dae

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare joint angles between normal children and those with spastic diplegia using three-dimensional gait analysis. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were eight patients with spastic diplegia and eight normal children. Three-dimensional gait analysis was used for the survey. The measured gait variables were the joints of the lower extremity in the sagittal plane, frontal plane, and transverse planes and the maximum and minimum angles of their stance phase and swing phases. [Results] In the sagittal plane, the maximum angles of both the right and left pelvis and hip joint in the stance phase and swing phases were significantly greater for children with spastic diplegia than for normal children. In the stance phase of the right side of the hip joint, the maximum angles of the hip in the swing phase and the knee joint’s minimum angles in the stance phase differed significantly. In the transverse plane, there were a significant differences on the left side of the pelvis in the maximum angles in the swing and stance phases. There were also significant differences on the right side pelvis, in the maximum and minimum angles in the stance phase and minimum angles in the swing phase. [Conclusion] Children with spastic diplegia employ a different gait strategy and pattern from normal children. PMID:25276040

  15. Ultrasound anatomy in the normal neonatal and infant foot: an anatomic introduction to ultrasound assessment of foot deformities.

    PubMed

    Aurell, Y; Johansson, A; Hansson, G; Wallander, H; Jonsson, K

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish guidelines for US assessment of the talo-crural, the talo-navicular and the calcaneo-cuboid joints during the first year of life, which could serve as a reference while studying foot deformities. The feet of 54 healthy children were examined at birth and at the age of 4, 7 and 12 months by using three easily defined and reproducible US projections. With a medial projection the relation of the navicular in relation to the medial malleolus and the head of the talus was studied. A lateral projection revealed the calcaneo-cuboid relationship and a dorsal projection the talo-navicular alignment in the sagittal plane. Normal values for measurements of these cartilaginous relationships were established for the different age groups. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was assessed and found to be acceptable ( r=0.53-0.90, Pearson correlation coefficient). With US it is possible to obtain reproducible planes of investigation that give reliable information about the talo-crural, the talo-navicular and the calcaneo-cuboid relationships during the first year of life.

  16. Hemispheric lateralization of bilaterally presented homologous visual and auditory stimuli in normal adults, normal children, and children with central auditory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Teri James; Billiet, Cassie; Ross, Jody

    2008-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the performance of normal adults, normal children, and children diagnosed with central auditory dysfunction presumed to involve the interhemispheric pathways on a dichotic digits test in common clinical use for the diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and its corresponding visual analog. Results of the first experiment revealed a significant right ear advantage (REA) for the dichotic listening task and a left-visual-field advantage (LVFA) for the corresponding visual analog in normal adults and children. In the second experiment, results revealed a significantly larger REA in the children with CAPD as compared to the normal children. Results also revealed a reversed cerebral asymmetry (RVFA) for the children with CAPD on the visual task. Significant cross-modal correlations suggest that the two tasks may reflect, at least in part, similar interhemispheric processing mechanisms in children. Findings are discussed in relation to differential diagnosis and modality-specificity of CAPD.

  17. Hemispheric Lateralization of Bilaterally Presented Homologous Visual and Auditory Stimuli in Normal Adults, Normal Children, and Children with Central Auditory Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, Teri James; Billiet, Cassie; Ross, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the performance of normal adults, normal children, and children diagnosed with central auditory dysfunction presumed to involve the interhemispheric pathways on a dichotic digits test in common clinical use for the diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and its corresponding visual…

  18. Crowded visual search in children with normal vision and children with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Huurneman, Bianca; Cox, Ralf F A; Vlaskamp, Björn N S; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of oculomotor control, crowding, and attentional factors on visual search in children with normal vision ([NV], n=11), children with visual impairment without nystagmus ([VI-nys], n=11), and children with VI with accompanying nystagmus ([VI+nys], n=26). Exclusion criteria for children with VI were: multiple impairments and visual acuity poorer than 20/400 or better than 20/50. Three search conditions were presented: a row with homogeneous distractors, a matrix with homogeneous distractors, and a matrix with heterogeneous distractors. Element spacing was manipulated in 5 steps from 2 to 32 minutes of arc. Symbols were sized 2 times the threshold acuity to guarantee visibility for the VI groups. During simple row and matrix search with homogeneous distractors children in the VI+nys group were less accurate than children with NV at smaller spacings. Group differences were even more pronounced during matrix search with heterogeneous distractors. Search times were longer in children with VI compared to children with NV. The more extended impairments during serial search reveal greater dependence on oculomotor control during serial compared to parallel search.

  19. Diaper area skin microflora of normal children and children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Keswick, B H; Seymour, J L; Milligan, M C

    1987-01-01

    In vitro studies established that neither cloth nor disposable diapers demonstrably contributed to the growth of Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans when urine was present as a growth medium. In a clinical study of 166 children, the microbial skin flora of children with atopic dermatitis was compared with the flora of children with normal skin to determine the influence of diaper type. No biologically significant differences were detected between groups wearing disposable or cloth diapers in terms of frequency of isolation or log mean recovery of selected skin flora. Repeated isolation of S. aureus correlated with atopic dermatitis. The log mean recovery of S. aureus was higher in the atopic groups. The effects of each diaper type on skin microflora were equivalent in the normal and atopic populations. PMID:3546360

  20. Differential Production of Positive and Negative Discriminative Stimuli by Normal and Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Dallas E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two normal and two mentally retarded children were trained to earn pennies by pressing a key according to a multiple variable-interval extinction schedule of reinforcement. Retarded children differed from normal children by producing more positive than negative discriminative stimuli. (Author/DB)

  1. Anatomy of the collecting system of lower pole of the kidney in patients with a single renal stone: a comparative study with individuals with normal kidneys.

    PubMed

    Zomorrodi, Afshar; Buhluli, Abulfazel; Fathi, Samad

    2010-07-01

    At least 5% of women and 12% of men during their lives will experience renal colic, at least once. Many theories have been suggested for the etiology of renal stones and variations in the anatomy of the collecting system have been suggested to have a role in stone formation. This study was conducted to examine the role of variation of lower pole collecting system in patients with lower pole kidney stone and compared the same in normal persons (kidney donors). Investigation for the anatomy of the lower pole of the kidney (angle between lower infundibulum and pelvis, length and diameter of the infundibulum and number and pattern distribution of calyces) was carried out using intravenous pyelogram (IVP) in 100 cases with urinary stone (study cases) and 400 persons with normal kidneys (control subjects). The study was a retrospective cross-sectional case control study. Results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney and independent sample chi square tests. The mean infundibulum-pelvic angle (IPA) in control subjects and in patients was 112.5 +/- 10.7 and 96.6 +/- 28.8, respectively. There was significant correlation between reduced angle and stone formation (P= < 0.001). The mean infundibulum-uretero-pelvic angle (IUPA) in control subjects and study cases was 53.5 +/- 12.7 and 42.6 +/- 13.4, respectively. There was significant correlation between decreased angle and stone formation (P = or < 0.001). The mean length of infundibulum of lower pole of kidney (IPIL) in controls and study patients was 22.5 +/- 4.1 and 27.5 +/- 7.7, respectively, which was statistically significant (P< 0.001). The mean number of calyces in lower pole of the kidney (LPCN) in controls and study patients was 2.6 +/- 0.6 and 3 +/- 0.9, respectively, which was statistically significant (P = or < 0.002). There was no significant correlation between distribution of calyces and stone formation (P= 0.366). Our study suggests that abnormal renal anatomy was more common in patients with lower pole kidney stone

  2. Cognition in anxious children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a comparison with clinical and normal children

    PubMed Central

    Manassis, Katharina; Tannock, Rosemary; Young, Arlene; Francis-John, Shonna

    2007-01-01

    Background Cognition in children with anxiety disorders (ANX) and comorbid Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD) has received little attention, potentially impacting clinical and academic interventions in this highly disabled group. This study examined several cognitive features relative to children with either pure condition and to normal controls. Methods One hundred and eight children ages 8–12 and parents were diagnosed by semi-structured parent interview and teacher report as having: ANX (any anxiety disorder except OCD or PTSD; n = 52), ADHD (n = 21), or ANX + ADHD (n = 35). All completed measures of academic ability, emotional perception, and working memory. Clinical subjects were compared to 35 normal controls from local schools. Results Groups did not differ significantly on age, gender, or estimated IQ. On analyses of variance, groups differed on academic functioning (Wide Range Achievement Test, p < .001), perception of emotion (auditory perception of anger, p < .05), and working memory (backwards digits, p < .01; backwards finger windows, p < .05; Chipasat task, p < .001). ANX + ADHD and children with ADHD did poorly relative to controls on all differentiating measures except auditory perception of anger, where ANX + ADHD showed less sensitivity than children with ANX or with ADHD. Conclusion Though requiring replication, findings suggest that ANX + ADHD relates to greater cognitive and academic vulnerability than ANX, but may relate to reduced perception of anger. PMID:17224054

  3. Development of Communicative Function in Young Hearing-Impaired and Normally Hearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Johanna G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study found that, although normally hearing children produced more communicative acts than 9 agemates (age 14-34 months) with severe hearing impairments, the hearing-impaired children produced more than hearing children matched for verbal language age. Results reveal that preverbal hearing-impaired children make significant strides that can…

  4. Georg N. Koskinas (1885-1975) and his scientific contributions to the normal and pathological anatomy of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2005-12-30

    Georg N. Koskinas is invariably recognised by neuroanatomists as Constantin von Economo's co-author on the celebrated Die Cytoarchitektonik der Hirnrinde des erwachsenen Menschen, published 80 years ago in Vienna and Berlin. That text and Atlas are generally accepted as a monumental landmark in the evolution of morphological brain research. A number of neuroanatomists and neurophysiologists continue to use to this day the parcellation scheme of the cerebral cortex into 107 areas, proposed by von Economo and Koskinas (and logically denoted by alphabetical characters from the initials of the respective lobes), despite the commoner adoption of Brodmann's scheme of 52, randomly numbered, areas. Several works have been written about the life and work of von Economo; on the other hand, virtually nothing can be found in the biomedical literature about Koskinas. This study aims at posthumously restoring part of the fame due this illustrious man of 20th century science -- and giant figure of brain anatomy -- whom history has not treated in the fairest of ways. We present newly gathered biographical data, as well as lesser known aspects of his scientific productivity. Koskinas' neuropathological studies, in collaboration with Ernst Sträussler -- of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease fame -- include findings from patients inoculated with malaria as a form of therapy for progressive general paresis (research related to psychiatrist Wagner von Jauregg's 1927 Nobel Prize), colloid degeneration, and the laminar distribution of status spongiosus lesions. Koskinas' neuropsychiatric activities in Greece upon his return from Vienna in 1927, and until his parting in 1975, are further related, including his successful -- and "Hippocratic" -- practice in the suburbs of Athens, his association with the Vogt Institute for Brain Research at Neustadt, and lesser known neuroanatomical works.

  5. Normal values of inner canthal distance, interpupillary distance and palpebral fissure length in normal Chinese children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, K H; Tsai, F J; Li, T C; Tsai, C H; Peng, C T; Wang, T R

    2000-01-01

    Ocular measurements, including inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance, interpupillary distance, and palpebral fissure length are important in the evaluation of congenital deformities and posttraumatic telecanthus. In this research, 4446 normal Chinese children in Taiwan were enrolled in our study. The sample of 284 full term neonates, 2742 infants and children aged from 1 month to 3 years, and 1420 preschool children were measured for inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance, interpupillary distance and palpebral fissure length. We calculated the mean value and standard deviation of the ocular measurements in normal Chinese newborns, infants and preschool children in Taiwan under 5 years. No significant sex differences were observed. Compared with previous studies, inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance and interpupillary distance in Chinese children in Taiwan were wider than those in Caucasian children, but the palpebral fissure length was not significantly different. We also found that inner canthal distance was wider than palpebral fissure length at the same age; therefore it was not correct to diagnose hypertelorism in Chinese children in Taiwan; as if an imaginary third eye could fit between the eyes. Thus, we suggest that measurements should be adjusted with normal standards specific for race. Consideration of the position of eyes is relevant for the diagnosis of a large number of syndromes.

  6. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  7. Tooth anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  8. The functional anatomy of recovery from auditory agnosia. A PET study of sound categorization in a neurological patient and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Engelien, A; Silbersweig, D; Stern, E; Huber, W; Döring, W; Frith, C; Frackowiak, R S

    1995-12-01

    H2(15)O-PET was used to investigate the functional anatomy of recovery in a patient (J.B.) with bilateral perisylvian strokes and auditory agnosia, who partially regained the ability to recognize environmental sounds, but remained clinically word-deaf. The patient and a group of six normal volunteers were scanned in the following three conditions: (i) passive listening to environmental sounds; (ii) categorization of environmental sounds; (iii) at rest. In normal subjects, passive listening as compared with rest was associated with significant activations in the auditory cortices and posterior thalami, and in the inferior parietal lobe and anterior insula/frontal opercular region on the right. In J.B., activations were observed in the spared auditory cortex and inferior parietal lobe of the right hemisphere and in regions adjacent to the perisylvian lesion in the left hemisphere (anterior insula/frontal opercular region, middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobe). The recovered function, as measured by categorization of sounds compared with passive listening, in J.B. was associated with bilateral activation of a distributed network comprising (pre)frontal, middle temporal and inferior parietal cortices, as well as the right cerebellum and the right caudate nucleus. In addition, there was a left-sided activation of the anterior cingulate gyrus. In normal subjects, the same categorization task led to activation of a network comprising (pre)frontal, middle temporal and inferior parietal cortices in the left hemisphere only. These results suggest that bilateral activation (with recruitment of areas homologous to those known to be responsible for normal function), the engagement of peri-infarct regions, and the involvement of a more widespread neocortical network, are mechanisms of functional reorganization after injury that may enable recovery from, or compensation for, cognitive deficits.

  9. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perceptions of Emotions by Young Children with Hearing Loss versus Children with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Most, Tova; Michaelis, Hilit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of hearing loss (HL) on emotion-perception ability among young children with and without HL. Method: A total of 26 children 4.0-6.6 years of age with prelingual sensory-neural HL ranging from moderate to profound and 14 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. They were asked to identify…

  10. Anatomy atlases.

    PubMed

    Rosse, C

    1999-01-01

    Anatomy atlases are unlike other knowledge sources in the health sciences in that they communicate knowledge through annotated images without the support of narrative text. An analysis of the knowledge component represented by images and the history of anatomy atlases suggest some distinctions that should be made between atlas and textbook illustrations. Textbook and atlas should synergistically promote the generation of a mental model of anatomy. The objective of such a model is to support anatomical reasoning and thereby replace memorization of anatomical facts. Criteria are suggested for selecting anatomy texts and atlases that complement one another, and the advantages and disadvantages of hard copy and computer-based anatomy atlases are considered.

  11. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either <75th percentile (normal weight) or >95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  12. Conductive Hearing Loss in Autistic, Learning-Disabled, and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald E. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Repeated impedance measures were given over five weeks to 11 autistic, 20 learning-disabled, and 20 normal children. A repeated measures analysis of variance led to the conclusion that fluctuating, negative middle ear pressure greater than normal characterizes both autistic and learning-disabled children with the more abnormal pressures typical in…

  13. Relation Between Body-Esteem and Self-Esteem of Obese and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Beverley Katz; White, Donna Romano

    1982-01-01

    Normal and obese children completed self-esteem and body-esteem questionnaires. Body-esteem was significantly correlated with self-esteem and percentage overweight. Body-esteem and relative weight were correlated; self-esteem and relative weight were not related. The body/self-esteem relation was the same for normal and obese children. (Author/RD)

  14. Attentional Bias and the Development of Cerebral Dominance in Normal and Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    The magnitude of the dichotic right ear advantage was assessed in 48 normal and 48 learning disabled (LD) children (mean age 8.3 years). Ss were matched according to age, sex, and handedness. An analysis of results indicated a significant right ear advantage in both the normal and LD children, but revealed no developmental trend for either group.…

  15. A Comparative Study of Adolescents' Perceptions of Normal-Speaking and Dysarthric Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study compared the ratings of 19 adolescents when listening to recordings of the speech of eight children with cerebral palsy and eight normal-speaking children. For all 22 adjective pairs, the normal speakers were rated significantly more positively. (Author/DB)

  16. Story stem narratives of clinical and normal kindergarten children: are content and performance associated with children's social competence?

    PubMed

    von Klitzing, Kai; Stadelmann, Stephanie; Perren, Sonja

    2007-09-01

    This study examined whether content and performance in story stem narratives were associated with children's social competence, and whether children's symptom levels moderated these associations. Five-year-old children from a clinically enriched Swiss sample completed eight stories (N = 187). Teachers rated children's social competence. Parents and teachers rated behavioral/emotional symptoms that were used to categorize children into clinical (n = 80), borderline (n = 31), and normal (n = 74). Controlling for gender and verbal competence, no differences were found in story responses between normal and clinical children. However, pro-social/moral and disciplinary themes, and coherence and quality of narration were significantly associated with children's social competence. The associations between narratives and social competence were prominent in the clinical children, suggesting that narrative assessments may help to identify resources on which psychotherapeutic approaches can build.

  17. The normal post-surgical anatomy of the male pelvis following radical prostatectomy as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Allen, Steven D; Thompson, Alan; Sohaib, S Aslam

    2008-06-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of recurrent prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy have been documented in the radiology literature; however little has been written on the range of normal post-operative appearances. Common routes of surgical access for radical prostatectomy include retropubic and transperineal, although newer minimally invasive methods are gaining increasing acceptance. Specifically the range of appearances of the anastomotic site, the prostatic bed, the position of the bladder base, periurethral tissue, levator sling, rectum and residual seminal vesicles (if present) are demonstrated. A non-enhancing low signal nodule is frequently seen at the vesicourethral anastomosis or within the seminal vesicle remnant and usually represents fibrosis. Appearances following different surgical accesses do not differ tremendously, although the retropubic fat pad is reduced or absent following a retropubic approach. Anterior rectal-wall scarring may be present following a transperineal approach. Other post-surgical findings that may mimic disease include a lymphocoele and injected bladder-neck bulking agent. Many patients referred for MRI following radical prostatectomy will have a pathological study showing disease recurrence, although in non-pathological studies the radiological features can differ significantly. It is important for the radiologist to be aware of the spectrum of normal post-surgical appearances so not to confuse these with locally recurrent disease.

  18. Nonword Repetition by Children with Cochlear Implants: Accuracy Ratings from Normal-Hearing Listeners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; Burkholder, Rose A.; Cleary, Miranda; Pisoni, David B.

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-six children with cochlear implants completed a nonword repetition task. The children were presented with 20 nonword auditory patterns over a loudspeaker and were asked to repeat them aloud to the experimenter. The children's responses were recorded on digital audiotape and then played back to normal-hearing adult listeners to obtain…

  19. Nasalance Scores of Children with Repaired Cleft Palate Who Exhibit Normal Velopharyngeal Closure during Aerodynamic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if children with repaired cleft palate and normal velopharyngeal (VP) closure as determined by aerodynamic testing exhibit greater acoustic nasalance than control children without cleft palate. Method: Pressure-flow procedures were used to identify 2 groups of children based on VP closure during the production of /p/ in the…

  20. Event-Related EEG Oscillations to Semantically Unrelated Words in Normal and Learning Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Thalia; Harmony, Thalia; Mendoza, Omar; Lopez-Alanis, Paula; Marroquin, Jose Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that…

  1. [Comparative EEG study in normal and autistic children].

    PubMed

    Lushchekina, E A; Podreznaia, E D; Lushchekin, V S; Strelets, V B

    2010-01-01

    The work represents the results of a comparative study of spectral power as well as averaged coherence in alpha, beta and gamma EEG bands in 5-to-7-year-old autistic and healthy boys in the state of rest and under cognitive load (mental calculation). The mean age of the examined children was 6 years 4 months. In both healthy and autistic children, there was a clear-cut baseline frontal-occipital gradient of the alpha activity. Performance of the cognitive task led to enhancement of spectral power in the alpha1 band and shifting its maximum to the left hemisphere, did not change the activity in the alpha2 band, and considerably increased the spectral power in the alpha3 band. In healthy children, the spectral power and average coherence of the fast rhythms increased in the central and frontal areas of the left hemisphere. The right-side dominance of the spectral power of the alpha band was revealed in autistic children both in the baseline and during cognitive task. The spectral power of the gamma band was higher in autistic children than in healthy children in the baseline. The cognitive task did not change this fast activity in autistic children.

  2. Motor Circuit Anatomy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder With or Without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Crocetti, Deana; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the morphology of frontal-parietal regions relevant to motor functions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We also explored its associations with autism severity and motor skills, and the impact of comorbid ADHD on these associations. Participants included 126 school-age children: 30 had ASD only, 33 had ASD with ADHD, and 63 were typically developing. High resolution 3T MPRAGE images were acquired to examine the cortical morphology (gray matter volume, GMV, surface area, SA, and cortical thickness, CT) in three regions of interest (ROI): precentral gyrus (M1), postcentral gyrus (S1), and inferior parietal cortex (IPC). Children with ASD showed abnormal increases in GMV and SA in all three ROIs: (a) increased GMV in S1 bilaterally and in right M1 was specific to children with ASD without ADHD; (b) all children with ASD (with or without ADHD) showed increases in the left IPC SA. Furthermore, on measures of motor function, impaired praxis was associated with increased GMV in right S1 in the ASD group with ADHD. Children with ASD with ADHD showed a positive relationship between bilateral S1 GMV and manual dexterity, whereas children with ASD without ADHD showed a negative relationship. Our findings suggest that (a) ASD is associated with abnormal morphology of cortical circuits crucial to motor control and learning; (b) anomalous overgrowth of these regions, particularly S1, may contribute to impaired motor skill development, and (c) functional and morphological differences are apparent between children with ASD with or without ADHD.

  3. The adolescent female: Breast and reproductive embryology and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lemaine, Valerie; Simmons, Patricia S

    2013-01-01

    Congenital breast and genital tract anomalies are seen frequently in the care of children and adolescents. Breast and internal gynecologic anomalies more often present in adolescence than in early childhood. Management is best delivered through a multidisciplinary team approach. Carefully timed surgical intervention is of importance to optimize psychological, aesthetic and functional outcomes. An understanding of the female breast and genital tract embryology and anatomy is important for a meticulous clinical examination and appropriate surgical treatment. This article will review the normal embryology and anatomy of the adolescent female breast and genital tract.

  4. Responses to methylphenidate in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and normal children: update 2002.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, J L; Inoff-Germain, G

    2002-01-01

    Since the positive effects of stimulants on disruptive behavior were described (Bradley & Bowen, 1941), further pediatric studyhas been limited almost exclusively to samples of hyperkinetic school-age children. Because these agents normally were viewed as arousing in their effects on the central nervous system, but were calming in their therapeutic effects on these children, stimulant effects on Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) were interpreted as being 'paradoxical.' Investigation of effects in normal children and adolescents and in those with disorders unrelated to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as well as in young adult samples, however, indicate that stimulants appear to have similar behavioral effects in normal and in hyperactive children. This brief report is an update (as of August 2002) on studies of stimulants in ADHD and normal children, with particular focus on MPH.

  5. Integer anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Doolittle, R.

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  6. Normalizing Heterosexuality: Mothers' Assumptions, Talk, and Strategies with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Karin A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for…

  7. Normal and retarded children's understanding of semantic relations in different verbal contexts.

    PubMed

    Duchan, J F; Erickson, J G

    1976-12-01

    The effect of different semantic relations presented in different verbal contexts to language retarded and normal children at the one-and two-word stage of development was studied. No significant difference was found between the performance of mentally retarded language-disordered and normal children on the verbal comprehension task. Both groups of children performed best on the possessive, next on the agent-object, then actor-action, and poorest on the locative relations. Finally, nonsense, telegraphic, and expanded contexts did make a difference in the children's understandings with expanded being the best, telegraphic next, and nonsense contexts poorest. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  8. Automatic anatomy recognition in post-tonsillectomy MR images of obese children with OSAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan

    2015-03-01

    Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) is a recently developed approach for the automatic whole body wide organ segmentation. We previously tested that methodology on image cases with some pathology where the organs were not distorted significantly. In this paper, we present an advancement of AAR to handle organs which may have been modified or resected by surgical intervention. We focus on MRI of the neck in pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). The proposed method consists of an AAR step followed by support vector machine techniques to detect the presence/absence of organs. The AAR step employs a hierarchical organization of the organs for model building. For each organ, a fuzzy model over a population is built. The model of the body region is then described in terms of the fuzzy models and a host of other descriptors which include parent to offspring relationship estimated over the population. Organs are recognized following the organ hierarchy by using an optimal threshold based search. The SVM step subsequently checks for evidence of the presence of organs. Experimental results show that AAR techniques can be combined with machine learning strategies within the AAR recognition framework for good performance in recognizing missing organs, in our case missing tonsils in post-tonsillectomy images as well as in simulating tonsillectomy images. The previous recognition performance is maintained achieving an organ localization accuracy of within 1 voxel when the organ is actually not removed. To our knowledge, no methods have been reported to date for handling significantly deformed or missing organs, especially in neck MRI.

  9. Denied Access: Using African American Children's Literature to Examine the Anatomy of Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Loraine Moses; Marshall, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Cynthia Tyson and Sung Choon Park's powerful article, "From Theory to Practice: Teaching for Social Justice," addressed many key points for educators to consider when discussing issues of social justice and injustice. They offered a variety of multicultural children's books and strategies for using them that can be helpful to educators.…

  10. A Comparison of the Speech and Language Skills of Children with Cochlear Implants and Children with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Efrat A.; Roth, Froma P.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the language skills of children with cochlear implants (CIs) compared to normal hearing (NH) peers. Standardized speech and language measures, including speech articulation, receptive and expressive vocabulary, syntax and morphology, and metalinguistics, were administered to 39 congenitally deaf children, ages 5 to 14, and a…

  11. Comprehension Monitoring in Normal and Language-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollaghan, Christine A.

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews the literature on metacomprehension, offers a model of the process of comprehension monitoring, and suggests guidelines for assessment and intervention with language-disordered children such as controlling the complexity of monitoring tasks by manipulating message and listener variables. (DB)

  12. Symbolic Play and Early Language Development in Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogura, Tamiko

    Examined in a longitudinal study of children were correspondences and correlations between early language development on the one hand, and the manipulation of objects and play development on the other. There were developmental correspondences between the onset of five language landmarks (the emergence of first word, referential word, demonstrative…

  13. Validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR normalization in Suaeda aralocaspica, an annual halophyte with heteromorphism and C4 pathway without Kranz anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jing; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a powerful analytical technique for the measurement of gene expression, which depends on the stability of the reference gene used for data normalization. Suaeda aralocaspica, an annual halophyte with heteromorphic seeds and possessing C4 photosynthesis pathway without Kranz anatomy, is an ideal plant species to identify stress tolerance-related genes and compare relative expression at transcriptional level. So far, no molecular information is available for this species. In the present study, six traditionally used reference genes were selected and their expression stability in two types of seeds of S. aralocaspica under different experimental conditions was evaluated. Three analytical programs, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, were used to assess and rank the stability of reference gene expression. Results revealed that although some reference genes may display different transcriptional profiles between the two types of seeds, β-TUB and GAPDH appeared to be the most suitable references under different developmental stages and tissues. GAPDH was the appropriate reference gene under different germination time points and salt stress conditions, and ACTIN was suitable for various abiotic stress treatments for the two types of seeds. For all the sample pools, β-TUB served as the most stable reference gene, whereas 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA performed poorly and presented as the least stable genes in our study. UBQ seemed to be unsuitable as internal control under different salt treatments. In addition, the expression of a photosynthesis-related gene (PPDK) of C4 pathway and a salt tolerance-related gene (SAT) of S. aralocaspica were used to validate the best performance reference genes. This is the first systematic comparison of reference gene selection for qRT-PCR work in S. aralocaspica and these data will facilitate further studies on gene expression in this species and other

  14. The functional anatomy of single-digit arithmetic in children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tanya M; Flowers, D Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M; Olulade, Olumide A; Eden, Guinevere F

    2014-11-01

    Some arithmetic procedures, such as addition of small numbers, rely on fact retrieval mechanisms supported by left hemisphere perisylvian language areas, while others, such as subtraction, rely on procedural-based mechanisms subserved by bilateral parietal cortices. Previous work suggests that developmental dyslexia, a reading disability, is accompanied by subtle deficits in retrieval-based arithmetic, possibly because of compromised left hemisphere function. To test this prediction, we compared brain activity underlying arithmetic problem solving in children with and without dyslexia during addition and subtraction operations using a factorial design. The main effect of arithmetic operation (addition versus subtraction) for both groups combined revealed activity during addition in the left superior temporal gyrus and activity during subtraction in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus, the right supramarginal gyrus and the anterior cingulate, consistent with prior studies. For the main effect of diagnostic group (dyslexics versus controls), we found less activity in dyslexic children in the left supramarginal gyrus. Finally, the interaction analysis revealed that while the control group showed a strong response in the right supramarginal gyrus for subtraction but not for addition, the dyslexic group engaged this region for both operations. This provides physiological evidence in support of the theory that children with dyslexia, because of disruption to left hemisphere language areas, use a less optimal route for retrieval-based arithmetic, engaging right hemisphere parietal regions typically used by good readers for procedural-based arithmetic. Our results highlight the importance of language processing for mathematical processing and illustrate that children with dyslexia have impairments that extend beyond reading.

  15. Memory Strategies Used by Young Normal and Retarded Children in a Directed Forgetting Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Norman W.; Ferguson, Robert P.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the possibility that normal children (sixteen 6- to 7-year-olds) and retarded children (sixteen 9- to 10-year-olds) equated for immediate memory performance may not use effective strategies to eliminate interference from irrelevant information in memory. (Author/JH)

  16. Development of Spatial Release from Masking in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Kevin C. P.; Yuan, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the development of spatial release from masking in children using closed-set Mandarin disyllabic words and monosyllabic words carrying lexical tones as test stimuli and speech spectrum-weighted noise as a masker. Method: Twenty-six children ages 4-9 years and 12 adults, all with normal hearing, participated in…

  17. Developmental Effects in the Cerebral Lateralization of Autistic Retarded, and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Angela L.; Barry, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Using magnitude of dominant ear advantage as an indicator of relative cerebral dominance, unwarned simple reaction time (RT) to monaural presentation of tones was investigated in matched groups of autistic, retarded, and normal children. Autistic children showed significant developmental delay in both RT and the establishment of cerebral…

  18. Dynamic Characteristics of Saccadic Eye Movements in Normal and Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Teruko; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of saccadic eye movements in 10 normal and 10 mentally retarded children (ages 13-15) suggested that retarded children may have difficulty in visual orientation. They followed a visual target on fewer than 50 percent of the trials, displaying frequent undershoot patterns and an average rising latency that was much longer than that of…

  19. The Developmental Trajectory of Spatial Listening Skills in Normal-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Rosemary Elizabeth Susan; Kitterick, Padraig Thomas; Huang, Shan; Summerfield, Arthur Quentin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the age at which children can complete tests of spatial listening and to measure the normative relationship between age and performance. Method: Fifty-six normal-hearing children, ages 1.5-7.9 years, attempted tests of the ability to discriminate a sound source on the left from one on the right, to localize a source, to track…

  20. Behavioral Profiles in 4-5 Year-Old Children: Normal and Pathological Variants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Jan-Olov; Bergman, Lars R.; Earls, Felton; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2004-01-01

    Normal and psychopathological patterns of behavior symptoms in preschool children were described by a classification approach using cluster analysis. The behavior of 406 children, average age 4 years 9 months, from the general population was evaluated at home visits. Seven clusters were identified based on empirically defined dimensions:…

  1. AN INVESTIGATION OF DISCRIMINATION LEARNING ABILITY IN MONGOLOID AND NORMAL CHILDREN OF COMPARABLE MENTAL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CANTOR, GORDON N.; GIRARDEAU, FREDERIC L.

    THIS INQUIRY INVESTIGATED DISCRIMINATION LEARNING PROCESSES IN TRAINABLE MONGOLOID CHILDREN AS COMPARED WITH NORMAL PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. ITS PURPOSE WAS TO CONTRIBUTE TO GENERAL BEHAVIOR THEORY AND TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY BY SEEING IF SUCH VARIABLES AS TRANSFER OF TRAINING, ACQUIRED DISTINCTIVENESS OF CUES, AND ACQUIRED EQUIVALENCE OF…

  2. Looking at Images with Human Figures: Comparison between Autistic and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Geest, J. N.; Kemner, C.; Camfferman, G.; Verbaten, M. N.; van Engeland, H.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the looking behavior of 16 autistic and 14 non-autistic children toward cartoon-like scenes that included a human figure was measured quantitatively using an infrared eye-tracking device. Fixation behavior of autistic children was similar to that of their age-and IQ-matched normal peers. Results do not support the idea that autistic…

  3. Development of Communicative Gestures in Normally Developing Children between 8 and 18 Months: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veena, Kadiyali D; Bellur, Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Children who have not developed speech tend to use gestures to communicate. Since gestures are not encouraged and suppressed in the Indian traditional context while speaking, this study focused on profiling the developing gestures in children to explore whether they use the gestures before development of speech. Eight normally developing…

  4. Differences in left ventricular mass between overweight and normal-weight preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Huertas, Jose; Livingstone, Kristina; Banach, Alayna; Klentrou, Panagiota; O'Leary, Deborah

    2008-12-01

    This study examined cardiac and arterial differences between overweight and normal-weight preadolescent children. Twenty children (10.2 +/- 0.4 years of age) classified as overweight, on the basis of age-appropriate body mass index (BMI) cutoffs, were compared with 43 normal-weight controls. Height, mass, and body surface area were measured. Relative body fat and lean body mass were estimated from skinfold thickness. Each child's weekly physical activity metabolic equivalent (PAME) was calculated using a standardized questionnaire, and his or her sexual maturation was self-assessed using the Tanner scale. Peak aerobic power was assessed using a cycle ergometer and normalized to lean body mass. Mean arterial pressure was calculated from systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurements taken with a Finapres. Cardiac dimensions were measured, using Mu-mode 2-dimensional echocardiography, and normalized to body surface area and height2.7. Left carotid artery pulse pressure (CaPP) was assessed with applanation tomometry. Overweight boys and girls had a higher left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVMHT2.7 than normal-weight boys and girls. CaPP was signficantly lower in the overweight than in the normal-weight groups, whereas PAME and relative peak aerobic power were significantly higher in the boys than the girls. Although overweight children had significantly higher stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than normal-weight children, ejection fraction was similar in the weight groups. Adjusted LVMHT2.7 was associated with cardiac volume measurements, BMI, and DBP in normal-weight children, whereas in the overweight children LVMHT2.7 did not significantly correlate with any variable. In conclusion, we found that cardiovascular adaptations can be seen in prepubescent overweight children as young as 10 years of age.

  5. Chromosomes and clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Robert James McKinlay

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome abnormalities may cast light on the nature of mechanisms whereby normal anatomy evolves, and abnormal anatomy arises. Correlating genotype to phenotype is an exercise in which the geneticist and the anatomist can collaborate. The increasing power of the new genetic methodologies is enabling an increasing precision in the delineation of chromosome imbalances, even to the nucleotide level; but the classical skills of careful observation and recording remain as crucial as they always have been. Clin. Anat. 29:540-546, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Motor performance is better than normal in preschool children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Wolfgang; Orenstein, David M; Paul, Karl; Hüls, Gerd; Braumann, Klaus M

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the motor performance in preschool children with a reliable and valid test battery developed to identify motor dysfunction and normal motor development in children aged from 4 to 6 years. Several aspects of motor performance were examined in 29 preschool children with cystic fibrosis (CF) age range 4-6 years (mean 5.2 +/- 0.8 years), FEV(1) 97.2 +/- 15.3pred and compared to with 22 healthy children of the same age 5.5 +/- 0.8 years. All children performed the "Motoriktest fuer 4-6jaehrige Kinder" (MOT) assessing seven different aspects of motor performance. Compared to healthy children, test score "Motor Quotient" (MQ) as the mean of all test items was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in children with CF (108.1 +/- 16 vs. 93.5 +/- 17.9). In both groups, the MQ can be classified as normal. Children with CF scored higher in MOT subtests "Agility and Coordination" (P < 0.05) and "Balance" (P < 0.01) than healthy children but not in the other subtests. We speculate that chest physiotherapy in preschool children with CF may have an effect on motor performance in general and in some aspects of motor performance.

  7. Surgical anatomy of donor extended right trisegmentectomy before orthotopic liver transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Tan, K C; Malcolm, G P; Reece, A S; Calne, R Y

    1991-07-01

    Liver transplantation is now accepted as the treatment of choice for children with end stage liver disease. A major constraint has been the shortage of donor organs of appropriate size. The use of reduced size adult organs has partially alleviated this problem but the previous technique employed was limited to a donor:recipient body-weight disparity of not greater than 3:1. Recently a new technique has been described that allows safe transplantation with a donor:recipient weight ratio of greater than 10:1. This should greatly increase the paediatric donor pool. Anatomical landmarks and techniques necessary for donor reduction hepatectomy are described from the dissection of 50 adult cadaveric livers. Variations in all important biliary and vascular structures necessitated adjustments in operative technique.

  8. Normal hematologic values and prevalence of anemia in children living on selected Pacific atolls.

    PubMed

    Dungy, C I; Morgan, B C; Heotis, P M; Branson, H E; Adams, W H

    1987-01-01

    The hematologic status of infants and children living on the small islands of the Pacific basin has been poorly documented. This report determines the normal ranges for hemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) for children residing on four of the small atolls of the Republic of the Marshall Islands in the archipelago of Micronesia. The difficulty in establishing normal hematologic values in pediatric populations is discussed and a methodology suggested that does not exclude any Hb value above the mean in determining the normal range for Hb. The study population was comprised of 563 Marshallese children representing approximately 3.4% of all children less than 16 years of age living in the Marshall Islands. The local prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency was also established.

  9. Short-Term Word-Learning Rate in Children with Normal Hearing and Children with Hearing Loss in Limited and Extended High-Frequency Bandwidths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Andrea L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined children's word learning in limited and extended high-frequency bandwidth conditions. These conditions represent typical listening environments for children with hearing loss (HL) and children with normal hearing (NH), respectively. Method: Thirty-six children with NH and 14 children with moderate-to-severe HL served…

  10. Normal values for inspiratory muscle function in children.

    PubMed

    Mellies, Uwe; Stehling, Florian; Dohna-Schwake, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of inspiratory muscle function (IMF) is limited in children with neuromuscular disorders, because respiratory muscle tests are poorly standardized and valid normative data are unavailable. We investigated maximum inspiratory pressure after exhalation to residual volume (MIP), mouth occlusion pressure (P0.1) and time of inspiration during quiet breathing and derived inspiratory muscle load (P0.1/MIP), and tension time index (TTI) in 301 healthy schoolchildren 6-16 years old. Gender-specific and age-dependent percentile curves for MIP were drawn with the median, 5%, 10%, 25%, 75% and 95% percentile. P0.1 was equal in boys and girls (0.23  ±  0.11 kPa), while MIP was significantly higher in boys (6.8  ±  2.2 versus 5.8  ±  2.4 kPa). Consequently, P0.1/MIP (4.8% ± 3.2% versus 4.0% ± 3.1%) and TTI (0.2  ±  0.14 versus 0.16  ±  0.14) were significantly higher in girls. MIP was 2.90 + 0.36 × age (kPa) and 3.19 + 0.24 × age (kPa) in boys and girls, respectively. The 95% confidence intervals for boys and girls, respectively, were MIP, 6.3-7.3 kPA and 5.4-6.2 kPa; P0.1/MIP, 3.5%-4.5% and 4.3%-5.3%; TTI, 0.14-0.18 and 0.18-0.22; and P0.1, 0.20-0.24 kPa for both. IMF in children has a wide interindividual variability; however percentile curves facilitate a longitudinal assessment of individual patients. Furthermore, narrow confidence intervals allow for comparisons of study populations, making IMF an appropriate endpoint for clinical trials.

  11. Joint attention studies in normal and autistic children using NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Hall, Michael; Gutierrez, Anibal; Messinger, Daniel; Rey, Gustavo; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2011-03-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic. In this study Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is being applied for the first time to study the difference in activation and connectivity in the frontal cortex of typically developing (TD) and autistic children between 4-8 years of age in response to joint attention task. The optical measurements are acquired in real time from frontal cortex using Imagent (ISS Inc.) - a frequency domain based NIRS system in response to video clips which engenders a feeling of joint attention experience in the subjects. A block design consisting of 5 blocks of following sequence 30 sec joint attention clip (J), 30 sec non-joint attention clip (NJ) and 30 sec rest condition is used. Preliminary results from TD child shows difference in brain activation (in terms of oxy-hemoglobin, HbO) during joint attention interaction compared to the nonjoint interaction and rest. Similar activation study did not reveal significant differences in HbO across the stimuli in, unlike in an autistic child. Extensive studies are carried out to validate the initial observations from both brain activation as well as connectivity analysis. The result has significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using NIRS.

  12. The role of vision in obese and normal-weight children's gait control.

    PubMed

    D'Hondt, Eva; Segers, Veerle; Deforche, Benedicte; Shultz, Sarah P; Tanghe, Ann; Gentier, Ilse; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Clercq, Dirk; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2011-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that perceptual-motor difficulties may account for obese children's lower motor competence; however, specific evidence is currently lacking. Therefore, this study examined the effect of altered visual conditions on spatiotemporal and kinematic gait parameters in obese versus normal-weight children. Thirty-two obese and normal-weight children (11.2±1.5 years) walked barefoot on an instrumented walkway at constant self-selected speed during LIGHT and DARK conditions. Three-dimensional motion analysis was performed to calculate spatiotemporal parameters, as well as sagittal trunk segment and lower extremity joint angles at heel-strike and toe-off. Self-selected speed did not significantly differ between groups. In the DARK condition, all participants walked at a significantly slower speed, decreased stride length, and increased stride width. Without normal vision, obese children had a more pronounced increase in relative double support time compared to the normal-weight group, resulting in a significantly greater percentage of the gait cycle spent in stance. Walking in the DARK, both groups showed greater forward tilt of the trunk and restricted hip movement. All participants had increased knee flexion at heel-strike, as well as decreased knee extension and ankle plantarflexion at toe-off in the DARK condition. The removal of normal vision affected obese children's temporal gait pattern to a larger extent than that of normal-weight peers. Results suggest an increased dependency on vision in obese children to control locomotion. Next to the mechanical problem of moving excess mass, a different coupling between perception and action appears to be governing obese children's motor coordination and control.

  13. Pneumocystis carinii infection: evidence for high prevalence in normal and immunosuppressed children.

    PubMed

    Pifer, L L; Hughes, W T; Stagno, S; Woods, D

    1978-01-01

    Using Pneumocystis carinii organisms propagated through three passages in embryonic chick epithelial lung cultures, specific antigens and antisera were prepared for use in counterimmunoelectrophoresis and indirect immunofluorescent antibody techniques. These methods proved to be specific and sensitive for the detection of P. carinii antigen and antibody, respectively, in sera, and were applied to the study of cancer patients with P. carinii pneumonitis (PCP), cancer patients without pneumonitis, and normal children. Antigenemia was detected in 95% of patients with PCP, in 15% of cancer patients without pneumonitis, and in none of the normal children tested. In cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of normal infants and children, acquisition of serum antibody to P. carinii was demonstrated to occur progressively with increase in age. By 4 years of age two thirds of the normal children were found to have antibody to P. carinii in titers of 1:16 or greater. These studies indicate that subclinical P. carinii infection is highly prevalent in normal children, analogous to other opportunistic infections where active disease is manifest predominantly in the compromised host.

  14. Children's eating behavior: comparison between normal and overweight children from a school in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, Darlise Rodrigues; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Maciel, Francine Villela; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in children's eating behavior in relation to their nutritional status, gender and age. METHODS: Male and female children aged six to ten years were included. They were recruited from a private school in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in 2012. Children´s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) subscales were used to assess eating behaviors: Food Responsiveness (FR), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Desire to Drink (DD), Emotional Overeating (EOE), Emotional Undereating (EUE), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE). Age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated according to the WHO recommendations to assess nutritional status. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 335 children aged 87.9±10.4 months and 49.3% had normal weight (n=163), 26% were overweight (n=86), 15% were obese (n=50) and 9.7% were severely obese (n=32). Children with excess weight showed higher scores at the CEBQ subscales associated with "food approach" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p<0.001) and lower scores on two "food avoidance" subscales (SR and SE, p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively) compared to normal weight children. Differences in the eating behavior related to gender and age were not found. CONCLUSIONS: "Food approach" subscales were positively associated to excess weight in children, but no associations with gender and age were found. PMID:25662562

  15. A Comparison Study of Gross Motor Development Skills of Normal, Hearing-Impaired and Down Syndrome Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilir, Sule; And Others

    This study, conducted in Ankara, Turkey, compared motor development in 48 normal children (ages 3 to 6), 12 children (ages 5 to 7) with Down syndrome, and 33 children (ages 3 to 7) with hearing impairments. The Motor Development Section of the Portage Early Childhood Educational Program checklist was administered to all the children. Results…

  16. Interaural asymmetries revealed by dichotic listening tests in normal and dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Moncrieff, Deborah W; Musiek, Frank E

    2002-09-01

    Normal and dyslexic right-handed children were assessed with three dichotic listening tests, the Dichotic Digits test, the Competing Words subtest of the SCAN, and the Dichotic Consonant-Vowel test. Performance was measured as both number and percentage of correct responses in the right and left ears. Laterality was defined as a simple difference in percentage between the two ears. Differences across the tests were revealed for all children, with the greatest differences occurring for left-ear responses. Only one dichotic listening test, Competing Words from the SCAN, produced a consistent right-ear advantage across all of the children tested. Between groups of children, differences in performance and in laterality were demonstrated. Using a criterion of poorer than 76 percent correct for the left ear, the Competing Words subtest of the SCAN identified 7 of the 10 dyslexic children as abnormal, with no false alarms in the control group.

  17. Cranial index of children with normal and abnormal brain development in Sokoto, Nigeria: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Muhammad Awwal; Zagga, Abdullahi Daudu; Danfulani, Mohammed; Tadros, Aziz Abdo; Ahmed, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal brain development due to neurodevelopmental disorders in children has always been an important concern, but yet has to be considered as a significant public health problem, especially in the low- and middle-income countries including Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine whether abnormal brain development in the form of neurodevelopmental disorders causes any deviation in the cranial index of affected children. Materials and Methods: This is a comparative study on the head length, head width, and cranial index of 112 children (72 males and 40 females) diagnosed with at least one abnormal problem in brain development, in the form of a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), in comparison with that of 218 normal growing children without any form of NDD (121 males and 97 females), aged 0-18 years old seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, over a period of six months, June to December, 2012. The head length and head width of the children was measured using standard anatomical landmarks and cranial index calculated. The data obtained was entered into the Microsoft excel worksheet and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The mean Cephalic Index for normal growing children with normal brain development was 79.82 ± 3.35 and that of the children with abnormal brain development was 77.78 ± 2.95 and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It can be deduced from this present study that the cranial index does not change in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24966551

  18. Human ocular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes.

  19. Development of the Parent Form of the Preschool Children's Communication Skills Scale and Comparison of the Communication Skills of Children with Normal Development and with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Aydan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at developing an assessment scale for identifying preschool children's communication skills, at distinguishing children with communication deficiencies and at comparing the communication skills of children with normal development (ND) and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 427 children of up to 6 years of…

  20. How Children with Normal Hearing and Children with a Cochlear Implant Use Mentalizing Vocabulary and Other Evaluative Expressions in Their Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Kerttu; Ryder, Nuala

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of mental state and emotion terms and other evaluative expressions in the story generation of 65 children (aged 2-8 years) with normal hearing (NH) and 11 children (aged 3-7 years) using a cochlear implant (CI). Children generated stories on the basis of sets of sequential pictures. The stories of the children with CI…

  1. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... carotid artery. It may also form along nerve pathways in the head and neck and in other parts of the body. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Nervous System Type: Color, Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute Creator: Terese Winslow (Illustrator) AV Number: CDR739011 ...

  2. Heart Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... español An Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The Heart Valves The Heartbeat Vasculature of the Arm Vasculature of the Head Vasculature of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso ...

  3. Hey! It was just a joke! Understanding propositions and propositional attitudes by normally developing children and children with autism.

    PubMed

    Baron-Cohen, S

    1997-01-01

    Two- and three-year-old children were asked why a speaker named objects falsely. Most produced explanations in terms of the speaker's intention to joke. This implies a sensitivity to two distinct levels in language: the proposition itself and the propositional attitude. Children with learning difficulties showed a similar competence. In contrast, most children with autism failed to explain such false statements in these terms, instead merely describing them as "wrong." This was not simply due to a metalinguistic deficit, as they correctly answered questions about what a speaker had said the object was. These results suggest the normally developing toddler has a remarkable facility in processing propositional attitudes, while children with autism do not; and that such an ability is broadly independent of general intelligence.

  4. Anatomy of the ethmoid: CT, endoscopic, and macroscopic

    SciTech Connect

    Terrier, F.; Weber, W.; Ruefenacht, D.; Porcellini, B.

    1985-03-01

    The authors illustrate the normal CT anatomy of the ethmoid region and correlate it with the endoscopic and macroscopic anatomy to define landmarks that can be recognized on CT and during endoscopically controlled transnasal ethmoidectomy.

  5. Effects of Instructional Set on Bender Recall Performance of Learning Disabled and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sczechowicz, Edward; Hinrichsen, James J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-eight normal and 28 learning disabled children were given the Bender-Gestalt Test under instructional sets of low (standard) attention or high attention. Results failed to support the hypothesis that high attention instructions would lead to differential recall performance of the diagnostic groups.

  6. Increases in Language Lateralization in Normal Children as Observed Using Magnetoencephalography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ressel, Volker; Wilke, Marko; Lidzba, Karen; Lutzenberger, Werner; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2008-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating hemispheric dominance for language have shown that hemispheric specialization increases with age. We employed magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate these effects as a function of normal development. In sum, 22 healthy children aged 7-16 years were investigated using…

  7. Social norms in food intake among normal weight and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-06-01

    This experimental study investigated whether children's food intake is influenced by a peer's intake directly and over time and whether this depends upon weight status. The study consisted of two sessions taking place at Dutch primary schools. During the first (social modeling) session, the participants (N=223) were asked to solve a puzzle with a same-sex normal weight confederate who was instructed to either eat nothing, a small or large amount. In the second session (about two days later), the participants had to solve the puzzle alone while they could freely eat. The study involved a three (no, low, high confederate intake) by two (normal weight, overweight) between-participants design. An interaction effect in the first session suggested that overweight children might be triggered to (over)eat when a peer eats a high amount of snack food, whereas the food intake of normal weight children seemed to depend on whether the confederate did actually eat, regardless of the amount. The guideline set during the first session persisted over time and influenced food intake during the second session, while differences between normal- and overweight children became insignificant. Peers can set an example as to what food intake is appropriate which could affect long-term food intake.

  8. Communicative Interactions of Mildly Delayed and Normally Developing Preschool Children: Effects of Listener's Developmental Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Paul-Brown, Diane

    1986-01-01

    The communicative interactions of 32 mildly delayed and normally developing preschoolers were recorded during free play in a mainstreamed program. Analyses of syntactic complexity, semantic diversity, functional aspects of speech, and the use of selected discourse devices indicated that mildly delayed children adjusted important characteristics of…

  9. Domain Specificity and Everyday Biological, Physical, and Psychological Thinking in Normal, Autistic, and Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Siegal, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Examined reasoning in normal, autistic, and deaf individuals. Found that deaf individuals who grow up in hearing homes without fluent signers show selective impairments in theory of mind similar to those of autistic individuals. Results suggest that conversational differences in the language children hear accounts for distinctive patterns of…

  10. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  11. So This is Normal Too? Teachers and Parents Working Out Developmental Issues in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Deborah

    Intended to facilitate communication between parents and child care providers through creative problem solving, this guide explains young children's normal developmental behaviors that frequently cause concern, and identifies factors parents and caregivers can control in the environment that may have an immediate positive response from a child.…

  12. Hemispheric Language Dominance of Language-Disordered, Articulation-Disordered, and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, John M.; Helms, Suzanne B.

    1979-01-01

    The hemispheric dominance for language of three groups of six- to nine- year-olds (ten language-disordered, ten articulation-disordered, and ten normal children) was compared, and two dichotic listening tests (digits and animal names) were administered. (Author/CL)

  13. Attitudes toward Life and Death in Suicidal, Normal, and Chronically Ill Children: An Extended Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbach, Israel; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated attitudes toward life and death held by suicidal, chronically ill, and normal children (N=84) by obtaining answers to questions about fairy tales representing attraction or repulsion by life or death. Each group had a unique response profile that differentiated it from the others. (BH)

  14. Emotional Representation in Facial Expression and Script: A Comparison between Normal and Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balconi, Michela; Carrera, Alba

    2007-01-01

    The paper explored conceptual and lexical skills with regard to emotional correlates of facial stimuli and scripts. In two different experimental phases normal and autistic children observed six facial expressions of emotions (happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, and disgust) and six emotional scripts (contextualized facial expressions). In…

  15. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Children with Hearing Impairment versus Age and Height Matched Normal Hearing Peers.

    PubMed

    Das, Barshapriya; Chatterjee, Indranil; Kumar, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Lack of proper auditory feedback in hearing-impaired subjects results in functional voice disorder. It is directly related to discoordination of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles and disturbed contraction and relaxation of antagonistic muscles. A total of twenty children in the age range of 5-10 years were considered for the study. They were divided into two groups: normal hearing children and hearing aid user children. Results showed a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, and fast adduction abduction rate having equal variance for normal and hearing aid user children, respectively, but no significant difference was found in the peak flow value with being statistically significant. A reduced vital capacity in hearing aid user children suggests a limited use of the lung volume for speech production. It may be inferred from the study that the hearing aid user children have poor vocal proficiency which is reflected in their voice. The use of voicing component in hearing impaired subjects is seen due to improper auditory feedback. It was found that there was a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation (MSP), and fast adduction abduction rate and no significant difference in the peak flow.

  16. Measurements of normal inner ear on computed tomography in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ming-Ying; Shiao, Jiun-Yih; Ho, Ching-Yin; Hung, Hao-Chun

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study is to use standardized measurements of the inner ear to see whether there are subtle bony malformations in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) whose temporal bone computed tomography (CT) are grossly normal. The study includes 45 ears with congenital SNHL and grossly normal temporal bone CT scans and 45 ears with normal inner ear structures and normal hearing. Standardized measurements of the inner ear structures were made on axial temporal bone CT scans. Student's t test was performed to compare the measurements of the two groups. There were significant differences in the measurements of the bony island width of the superior semicircular canal, bony island width of the lateral semicircular canal and maximal height of cochlea between two groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, standardized measurements of bony labyrinth of inner ear on temporal bone CT can identify subtle abnormalities of inner ear in patients with congenital SNHL having grossly normal radiological images.

  17. Recognition of faux pas by normally developing children and children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Baron-Cohen, S; O'Riordan, M; Stone, V; Jones, R; Plaisted, K

    1999-10-01

    Most theory of mind (ToM) tests are designed for subjects with a mental age of 4-6 years. There are very few ToM tests for subjects who are older or more able than this. We report a new test of ToM, designed for children 7-11 years old. The task involves recognizing faux pas. Study 1 tested 7-9, and 11-year-old normal children. Results showed that the ability to detect faux pas developed with age and that there was a differential developmental profile between the two sexes (female superiority). Study 2 tested children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), selected for being able to pass traditional 4- to 6-year level (first- and second-order) false belief tests. Results showed that whereas normal 9- to 11-year-old children were skilled at detecting faux pas, children with AS or HFA were impaired on this task. Study 3 reports a refinement in the test, employing control stimuli. This replicated the results from Study 2. Some patients with AS or HFA were able to recognize faux pas but still produced them. Future research should assess faux pas production.

  18. Exercises in anatomy: cardiac isomerism.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne E; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that the patients with the most complex cardiac malformations are those with so-called visceral heterotaxy. At present, it remains a fact that most investigators segregate these patients on the basis of their splenic anatomy, describing syndromes of so-called asplenia and polysplenia. It has also been known for quite some time, nonetheless, that the morphology of the tracheobronchial tree is usually isomeric in the setting of heterotaxy. And it has been shown that the isomerism found in terms of bronchial arrangement correlates in a better fashion with the cardiac anatomy than does the presence of multiple spleens, or the absence of any splenic tissue. In this exercise in anatomy, we use hearts from the Idriss archive of Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to demonstrate the isomeric features found in the hearts obtained from patients known to have had heterotaxy. We first demonstrate the normal arrangements, showing how it is the extent of the pectinate muscles in the atrial appendages relative to the atrioventricular junctions that distinguishes between morphologically right and left atrial chambers. We also show the asymmetry of the normal bronchial tree, and the relationships of the first bronchial branches to the pulmonary arteries supplying the lower lobes of the lungs. We then demonstrate that diagnosis of multiple spleens requires the finding of splenic tissue on either side of the dorsal mesogastrium. Turning to hearts obtained from patients with heterotaxy, we illustrate isomeric right and left atrial appendages. We emphasize that it is only the appendages that are universally isomeric, but point out that other features support the notion of cardiac isomerism. We then show that description also requires a full account of veno-atrial connections, since these can seemingly be mirror-imaged when the arrangement within the heart is one of isomerism of the atrial appendages. We show how failure to recognize the presence of such isomeric

  19. Intracranial Arteries - Anatomy and Collaterals.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, David S; Caplan, Louis R

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology are inextricably linked in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. Knowledge of abnormal or pathological conditions such as intracranial atherosclerosis stems from detailed recognition of the normal pattern of vascular anatomy. The vascular anatomy of the intracranial arteries, both at the level of the vessel wall and as a larger structure or conduit, is a reflection of physiology over time, from in utero stages through adult life. The unique characteristics of arteries at the base of the brain may help our understanding of atherosclerotic lesions that tend to afflict specific arterial segments. Although much of the knowledge regarding intracranial arteries originates from pathology and angiography series over several centuries, evolving noninvasive techniques have rapidly expanded our perspective. As each imaging modality provides a depiction that combines anatomy and flow physiology, it is important to interpret each image with a solid understanding of typical arterial anatomy and corresponding collateral routes. Compensatory collateral perfusion and downstream flow status have recently emerged as pivotal variables in the clinical management of patients with atherosclerosis. Ongoing studies that illustrate the anatomy and pathophysiology of these proximal arterial segments across modalities will help refine our knowledge of the interplay between vascular anatomy and cerebral blood flow. Future studies may help elucidate pivotal arterial factors far beyond the degree of stenosis, examining downstream influences on cerebral perfusion, artery-to-artery thromboembolic potential, amenability to endovascular therapies and stent conformation, and the propensity for restenosis due to biophysical factors.

  20. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  1. Syntactic and Semantic Characteristics in the Written Language of Hearing Impaired and Normally Hearing School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinaga, Christine

    To investigate semantic and syntactic variables in the written language of normally hearing and hearing impaired children, 49 hearing impaired and 49 normally hearing children (10-14 years old) were asked to write compositions based on the Accident/Emergency Picture in the Peabody Language Development Kit. In addition, syntactic characteristics…

  2. Performance-intensity functions for normal-hearing adults and children using CASPA

    PubMed Central

    McCreery, Ryan; Ito, Rindy; Spratford, Merry; Lewis, Dawna; Hoover, Brenda; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The Computer Aided Speech Perception Assessment (CASPA) is a clinical measure of speech recognition that uses ten-item, isophonemic word lists to derive performance-intensity (PI) functions for adult listeners. Because CASPA was developed for adults, the ability to obtain PI functions in children has not been directly evaluated. The current study sought to evaluate PI functions for adults and four age groups of children with normal hearing to compare speech recognition as a function of age using CASPA. Comparisons between age groups for scoring by words and phonemes correct were made to determine the relative benefits of available scoring methods in CASPA. Design Speech recognition using CASPA was completed with twelve adults and four age groups of children (5-6, 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12 year-olds), each with twelve participants. Results were scored by the percentage of words, phonemes, consonants and vowels correct. All participants had normal hearing and age-appropriate speech production skills. Results Adults had higher mean speech recognition scores than children in the 5-6 year-old and 7-8 year-old age groups when responses were scored by the percentage of words correct. However, only differences between the 5-6 year-olds and adults were statistically significant when responses were scored by the percentage of phonemes correct. Speech recognition scores decreased as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for both children and adults. However, the magnitude of degradation at poorer SNRs did not vary between adults and children, suggesting that mean differences could not be explained by interference from noise. Conclusions Obtaining PI functions in noise using CASPA is feasible with children as young as 5 years-old. Statistically significant differences in speech recognition were observed between adults and the two youngest age groups of children when scored by the percentage of words correct. When results were scored by the percentage of phonemes

  3. Comparison of oral health status between children with cerebral palsy and normal children in India: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Bijay; Chhabra, Kumar Gaurav; Patil, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present research was to describe and compare the oral health of children with cerebral palsy (CP) with the normal children in India. Materials and Methods: Fifty children with CP of the age range 7-17 years and fifty normal children were selected for the study. An oral examination was carried out and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) index, oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) index, Angles malocclusion were charted along with other significant dental findings. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Kruskal–Wallis one-way ANOVA test. Results: The mean dmft/DMFT of the CP group was 4.11 ± 2.62, while that of controls was 2.95 ± 2.75, which showed higher caries prevalence in the CP group. There was a significant association between the dmft/DMFT (P = 0.03), OHI-S (P = 0.001), and Angles Class 2 malocclusion and CP. Conclusions: Cerebral palsy group had higher caries, poor oral hygiene and Class 2 malocclusion when compared to controls primarily because of their compromised general health condition and also less dental awareness. Effort should be made for better organization of preventive dental care and promoting dental health of this challenged population. PMID:25810598

  4. Normal intellectual development in children born from women with hypothyroxinemia during their pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Grau, Gema; Aguayo, Anibal; Vela, Amaia; Aniel-Quiroga, Angeles; Espada, Mercedes; Miranda, Gorka; Martinez-Indart, Lorea; Martul, Pedro; Castaño, Luis; Rica, Itxaso

    2015-01-01

    Proper maternal thyroid function is known to be essential for neural differentiation and migration in the fetus during the first half of pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between thyroxin levels, in pregnant women with no thyroid disease and the intellectual development of their offspring in a non-iodine-deficient area, and to know specifically whether or not isolated hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy was associated with a lower intelligence in the offspring. Previously we had publicated values TSH, FT4, free T3 (FT3), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO Abs) and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in 1322 pregnant women in our hospital area. Now we presented results of intelligence quotient in children born from these pregnancies. We assessed 455 children at one year of age using Brunet-Lezine scale. Of these, 289 children were evaluated again at 6-8 years of age using the WISC-IV. From the total group of children recruited, we established as control subgroup, children born of rigorously normal pregnancies (women with UIC > 150 μg/L, FT4>10th percentile and TPO-Ab negative in both trimesters). The remaining children were divided into two subgroups: those born to mothers with FT4 below the 10th percentile and the rest. No correlation was found between FT4 maternal levels, in either of trimesters studied, and the intellectual scores of offspring. No differences were found in intellectual scores comparing children born to mothers with hypothyroxinemia and those whose mothers were euthyroxinemic in both trimesters, or with the control subgroup. As conclusions we did not find any association between the levels of maternal FT4 during pregnancy and the subsequent intellectual development the offspring from these pregnancies. We attribute this result to the fact that all the pregnant women included had normal thyroid function.

  5. Assessment of metallothionein and antibodies to metallothionein in normal and autistic children having exposure to vaccine-derived thimerosal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijendra K; Hanson, Jeff

    2006-06-01

    Allergic autoimmune reaction after exposure to heavy metals such as mercury may play a causal role in autism, a developmental disorder of the central nervous system. As metallothionein (MT) is the primary metal-detoxifying protein in the body, we conducted a study of the MT protein and antibodies to metallothionein (anti-MT) in normal and autistic children whose exposure to mercury was only from thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by immunoassays revealed that the serum level of MT did not significantly differ between normal and autistic children. Furthermore, autistic children harboured normal levels of anti-MT, including antibodies to isoform MT-I (anti-MT-I) and MT-II (anti-MT-II), without any significant difference between normal and autistic children. Our findings indicate that because autistic children have a normal profile of MT and anti-MT, the mercury-induced autoimmunity to MT may not be implicated in the pathogenesis of autism.

  6. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  7. Differences in assertive speech acts produced by children with autism, Asperger syndrome, specific language impairment, and normal development.

    PubMed

    Ziatas, Kathryn; Durkin, Kevin; Pratt, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The assertive speech acts of children with autism (n = 12) and Asperger syndrome (n = 12), individually matched to children with specific language impairment (SLI; n = 24) and children with normal development (n = 24) were studied in the context of gently structured conversation. These children also completed the false belief test of theory of mind. The children with autism used significantly lower proportions of assertions involving explanations and descriptions than the children with SLI or normal development and significantly lower proportions of assertions involving internal state and explanations than the children with Asperger syndrome. The children with autism used a higher proportion of assertions involving identifications than any other group. The assertions of the children with Asperger syndrome were generally not different than those of the children with SLI or normal development except for a higher proportion of assertions involving own internal state. Further analysis of the mental assertions revealed that the children with autism and Asperger syndrome predominantly referred to desire and made few references to thought and belief, whereas the children with SLI and those with normal development used a higher proportion of references to thought and belief.

  8. Parental Perception of Sleep Problems in Children of Normal Intelligence with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Prevalence, Severity, and Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couturier, Jennifer L.; Speechley, Kathy N.; Steele, Margaret; Norman, Ross; Stringer, Bernadette; Nicolson, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study compares parents' perceptions of the prevalence, severity, and pattern of sleep problems in children of normal intelligence with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) with a normative comparison group of children. Method: A survey including the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was mailed to a sample of parents of…

  9. Analysing the Peer Relationships of Obese and Normal-Weight Preschool Children Aged between Five and Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seçer, Zarife; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Önder, Alev

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal whether the peer relationships of preschool children who are determined to be obese, based on their body mass index (BMI), differentiate or not. The study was conducted within the frame of a relational survey model. A total of 114 five- to six-year-old children (57 normal-weight children and 57 obese…

  10. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colds Prevention Treatment Children Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose ... cm (3/8 inch) per minute. What a Common Cold Is A common cold is an illness caused ...

  11. Looking at images with human figures: comparison between autistic and normal children.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, J N; Kemner, C; Camfferman, G; Verbaten, M N; van Engeland, H

    2002-04-01

    Based on clinical observations of abnormal gaze behavior of autistic children, it has been suggested that autistic children have a problem in processing social information. Several studies on eye movements have indeed found indications that children with autism show particularly abnormal gaze behavior in relation to social stimuli. However, the methodology used in such investigations did not allow for precise gaze analysis. In the present study, the looking behavior of autistic children toward cartoon-like scenes that included a human figure was measured quantitatively using an infrared eye-tracking device. Fixation behavior of autistic children was similar to that of their age- and IQ-matched normal peers. These results do not support the notion that autistic children have a specific problem in processing socially loaded visual stimuli. Also, there is no indication for an abnormality in gaze behavior in relation to neutral objects. It is suggested that the often-reported abnormal use of gaze in everyday life is not related to the nature of the visual stimuli but that other factors, like social interaction, may play a decisive role.

  12. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part I: Sonohistology and general principles of examination, following the example of the median nerve

    PubMed Central

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonography is an established method for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. It enables the identification of post-traumatic changes of nerves, neuropathies secondary to compression syndromes, inflammatory or neoplastic nerve lesions as well as the evaluation of postoperative complications. In certain situations, this technique is the imaging method of choice. It is increasingly used in anesthesiology for regional anesthesia. As in the case of other ultrasound imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. This article presents the histological structure of peripheral nerves and their appearance in ultrasonography. It also presents the examination technique, following the example of the median nerve, and includes a series of diagrams and ultrasound images. The interpretation of the shape, echogenicity, thickness and vascularity of nerves is described, as well as their relation to the surrounding tissues. The “elevator technique”, which consists of locating a set nerve at a characteristic anatomic point, and following it proximally or distally, has been explained. The undisputed benefits of the ultrasound examination have been presented, including its advantages over other diagnostic methods. These advantages include the dynamic component of the ultrasound examination and the possibility of correlating the patient's symptoms with the ultrasound images. As an example, the proper anatomy and the ultrasonographic appearance of the median nerve were described. This nerve's course is presented, its divisions, and characteristic reference points, so as to facilitate its location and identification, and enable subsequent use of the aforementioned “elevator technique”. This article opens a series of publications concerning anatomy, technique of examination and pathologies of peripheral nerves

  13. Increases in language lateralization in normal children as observed using magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Ressel, Volker; Wilke, Marko; Lidzba, Karen; Lutzenberger, Werner; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2008-09-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating hemispheric dominance for language have shown that hemispheric specialization increases with age. We employed magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate these effects as a function of normal development. In sum, 22 healthy children aged 7-16 years were investigated using two language tasks: a verb-generation (VG) task and a vowel-identification (VI) task. Significant hemispheric differences were found for both tasks in cerebral language areas using oscillatory MEG spectral analyses, confirming the MEG's ability to detect hemispheric specialization for language in children. Additionally, a significant increase of this lateralization as a function of age was observed for both tasks. As performance in the VI task showed no correlation with age, this increase seems to be unrelated to performance. These results confirm an increase in hemispheric specialization as a function of normal brain maturation.

  14. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  15. Analysis of spiral ganglion cell populations in children with normal and pathological ears.

    PubMed

    Miura, Makoto; Sando, Isamu; Hirsch, Barry E; Orita, Yorihisa

    2002-12-01

    This study analyzed features of total and segmental spiral ganglion cell populations in children with normal ears and those with various pathological conditions. Sixty-three human temporal bone specimens, obtained from 43 children 4 days to 9 years of age, were studied histopathologically. These specimens were divided into 5 diagnostic groups: group 1, normal ears (13 ears); group 2, congenital infectious diseases (13 ears); group 3, chromosomal aberrations (11 ears); group 4, multiple craniofacial anomalies with hereditary or genetic causes (21 ears); and group 5, perinatal and postnatal asphyxia (5 ears). Eighteen of the 63 ears had documented profound deafness. In either normal ears (group 1) or those with various pathological conditions (groups 2 through 5), the total number of ganglion cells did not change as a function of age during the first 10 years. The total number of ganglion cells was significantly larger in group 1 (33,702) than in each of groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 (p < .01), and the number was significantly larger in group 2 than in each of groups 4 and 5 (p < .01 and p < .05, respectively). The ratio of basal to apical ganglion cell populations remained constant in both normal and pathological ears. Each ratio of the number of basal and apical ganglion cells in groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 to the mean number in group 1 (basal and apical survival ratios) was at least approximately 40%. There was no statistical difference between these two ratios in groups 2, 3, 4, and 5. The mean (+/-SD) total number of ganglion cells in ears with documented profound deafness was 15,417 +/- 5,944, which is approximately 40% of those present in normal ears. Our results suggest that normally, cochlear neurons are completely present at birth and minimally regress during the first decade of life. In addition, although intergroup differences among various pathological groups were present, the majority of pathological ears had more than 10,000 spiral ganglion cells present. Cochlear

  16. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments.

    PubMed

    Bourelle, Sophie; Taiar, Redha; Berge, Benoit; Gautheron, Vincent; Cottalorda, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning) and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon) school on regular school days using the Balance Master® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P < 0.05). By end of afternoon, the body weight was borne mainly on the left side with the knee fully extended and at various degrees of knee flexion. A significantly better directional control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P < 0.05). In summary, most of our findings are inconsistent with results from previous studies in adults, suggesting age-related differences in posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training) or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders), be better performed late in the afternoon.

  17. Eye and head movements in reading-disabled and normal children.

    PubMed

    Petri, J L; Anderson, M E

    1980-12-01

    Coordination of eye and head movements on nonreading tasks was investigated in 16 reading-disabled and 18 normal children aged 6 to 11 years. Types of eye movements are described and mechanisms controlling eye and head movement are reviewed. Significant differences were found between the two groups in sequencing of eye and head movements that were made in response to the appearance of visual stimuli at unexpected times and positions. Some reading-disabled children also were found to require more eye movements to achieve fixation on targets at known positions. It is suggested that the vestibular system may be implicated as a factor in the results obtained from the reading-disabled children and that the atypical eye-head movement patterns observed may did in stabilizing their visual world.

  18. An investigation into kana reading development in normal and dyslexic Japanese children using length and lexicality effects.

    PubMed

    Sambai, Ami; Uno, Akira; Kurokawa, Suzuko; Haruhara, Noriko; Kaneko, Masato; Awaya, Noriko; Kozuka, Junko; Goto, Takashi; Tsutamori, Eishi; Nakagawa, Kazumi; Wydell, Taeko N

    2012-06-01

    This is the first study to report differences between Japanese children with and without dyslexia in the way string-length and lexicality effects are manifested when reading Japanese kana. These children were asked to read kana words and non-words consisting of either two or five kana characters. The results showed that the error rates of the normal Preschoolers and Primary-School children with dyslexia were higher than those of the normal Primary-School children. Further, the reading latencies of the normal Preschoolers, First-graders and dyslexics were significantly longer than those of the normal Second, Third and Fifth/Sixth graders. Moreover, reading latencies became shorter as the age of the participants increased. Both normal and dyslexic children showed significant effects of length and lexicality on reading latencies. However, the interaction between the length and lexicality was only seen in normal children from the Second-grade onwards. These results suggest that (1) normal First-graders reach a ceiling in terms of reading accuracy and that (2) as Japanese normal children become older, they become better at lexical reading processes, which leads to fluent kana reading, but that (3) the dyslexics, even at Fifth/Sixth grades, have not developed sufficient lexical reading processes.

  19. Genetic approach identifies distinct asthma pathways in overweight vs normal weight children.

    PubMed

    Butsch Kovacic, M; Martin, L J; Biagini Myers, J M; He, H; Lindsey, M; Mersha, T B; Khurana Hershey, G K

    2015-08-01

    The pathogenesis of asthma in the context of excess body weight may be distinct from asthma that develops in normal weight children. The study's objective was to explore the biology of asthma in the context of obesity and normal weight status using genetic methodologies. Associations between asthma and SNPs in 49 genes were assessed, as well as, interactions between SNPs and overweight status in child participants of the Greater Cincinnati Pediatric Clinic Repository. Asthma was significantly associated with weight (OR = 1.38; P = 0.037). The number of genes and the magnitude of their associations with asthma were notably greater when considering overweight children alone vs normal weight and overweight children together. When considering weight, distinct sets of asthma-associated genes were observed, many times with opposing effects. We demonstrated that the underlying heterogeneity of asthma is likely due in part to distinct pathogenetic pathways that depend on preceding/comorbid overweight and/or allergy. It is therefore important to consider both obesity and asthma when conducting studies of asthma.

  20. Results of loading doses of aspartame by two phenylketonuric (PKU) children compared with two normal children.

    PubMed

    Koch, R; Schaeffler, G; Shaw, N F

    1976-11-01

    Separate tolerance tests with aspartame at 34 mg/kg-day and phenylalanine at 19 mg/kg-day were compared. The results reveal that slight serum elevation of phenylalanine and tyrosine occurred in the two PKU and the normal healthy adolescents. It would appear that the phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame is small enough to be of little clinical significance.

  1. Families with children who are technology dependent: normalization and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M; Carl, John C

    2012-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined family functioning and normalization in 103 mothers of children ≤16 years of age dependent on medical technology (mechanical ventilation, intravenous nutrition/medication, respiratory/nutritional support) following initiation of home care. Differences in outcomes (mother's depressive symptoms, normalization, family functioning), based on the type of technology used, were also examined. Participants were interviewed face-to-face using the Demographic Characteristics Questionnaire, the Functional Status II-Revised Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, a Normalization Scale subscale, and the Feetham Family Functioning Survey. Thirty-five percent of the variance in family functioning was explained primarily by the mothers' level of depressive symptoms. Several variables were significant predictors of normalization. Analysis of variance revealed no significant difference in outcomes based on the type of technology used. Mothers of technology-dependent children are at high risk for clinical depression that may affect family functioning. This article concludes with clinical practice and policy implications.

  2. Reality Testing in Children with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Normal Children: A Comparison using the Ego Impairment Index on the Rorschach

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Borjali, Ahmad; Mazandarani, Amir Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine reality testing in schizophrenic children and compare it with normal children using minus responses subcomponent in ego impairment index of the Rorschach test. Methods In a descriptive design, 20 accidentally sampled children, including 10 schizophrenic and 10 normal children, were recruited in to two groups and were compared in terms of reality testing subcomponent of Ego Impairment Index (EII). After initial interview, the Rorschach inkblot test was administered on the two groups, and Distorted Quality responses (FQ-) were calculated. The results were then analyzed by independent t-test and Cohen's d for effect size. Results The result of independent t-test revealed that the mean of minus responses in schizophrenic children was significantly higher than that of normal children. In addition, the usefulness of the Rorschach ego impairment index (EII) in evaluating reality testing in schizophrenic children was confirmed. In addition, it was found that defect in reality testing is one of the prominent characteristics of schizophrenic children. Conclusion The higher minus responses in schizophrenic children indicate that schizophrenic children have weaker functioning in reality testing compared with normal children. PMID:23682251

  3. Neural correlates of deception in social contexts in normally developing children

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Susumu; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Tanaka, Mari; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Deception is related to the ability to inhibit prepotent responses and to engage in mental tasks such as anticipating responses and inferring what another person knows, especially in social contexts. However, the neural correlates of deception processing, which requires mentalizing, remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of deception, including mentalization, in social contexts in normally developing children. Healthy right-handed children (aged 8–9 years) were scanned while performing interactive games involving deception. The games varied along two dimensions: the type of reply (deception and truth) and the type of context (social and less social). Participants were instructed to deceive a witch and to tell the truth to a girl. Under the social-context conditions, participants were asked to consider what they inferred about protagonists' preferences from their facial expressions when responding to questions. Under the less-social-context conditions, participants did not need to consider others' preferences. We found a significantly greater response in the right precuneus under the social-context than under less-social-context conditions. Additionally, we found marginally greater activation in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) under the deception than under the truth condition. These results suggest that deception in a social context requires not only inhibition of prepotent responses but also engagement in mentalizing processes. This study provides the first evidence of the neural correlates of the mentalizing processes involved in deception in normally developing children. PMID:23730281

  4. Development of temporal and distance parameters of gait in normal children.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Susan J; Stansfield, Benedict W; Richardson, Alison M; Robb, James E

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and distance parameters of 33 normal children were obtained from instrumented gait analysis prospectively over five consecutive years. The parameters were normalised to minimise the confounding effects of increasing height and leg length. Rank correlations were performed on normalised speed, normalised stride length, normalised cadence and normalised walk ratio across consecutive pairs of years to examine the ranking of these parameters for an individual child over time. Consistent trends of increasing rank correlation were observed in normalised stride length and normalised walk ratio suggesting that individual children were continuing to adjust these gait parameters towards their own characteristic position within the normal range. Consistent trends were not observed in the rank correlations for normalised speed and normalised cadence. These findings support the concept that individual children predominantly adjusted their cadence to effect changes in speed, while the development of stride length was dictated by other factors specific to the individual child. Rank correlation coefficients for walk ratio between consecutive years increased from the ages of 7-11 years of age and hence walk ratio appears be a feature of gait that matures beyond the age of 7 years. This accords with the proposal that it is an invariant parameter for an individual.

  5. [Cognitive functions of school children with normal IQ and histories of severe and early malnutrition].

    PubMed

    Perales, C G; Heresi, E; Pizarro, F; Colombo, M

    1996-12-01

    This is a cross section study designed to evaluate the long lasting consequences of early and severe undernutrition on the development of basic cognitive functions. Attention, memory and problem-solving capacity were assessed in a group of 16 school children, who were severely undernourished during the first two years of age. They were compared with a group of 16 children with a normal growth. All subjects, age 8 to 10, had a normal intellectual coefficient and they belonged to the me same socioeconomical level. Memory was measured with a modified version of subtest of digits from WISC; attention was evaluated with a modified version of the Continuous Performance Task and problem-solving was measured with the Anstey Domino Test. A personal computer was used to assess the cognitive functions. The children who were undernourished during infancy presented lower scores in memory (number of the digits) and in problems solving (number of correct answers). They also had a worse performance than the control group in the same response time, when attention was evaluated. These results suggest that early severe undernutrition had deletereous effects on basic cognitive functions.

  6. Foot contact event detection using kinematic data in cerebral palsy children and normal adults gait.

    PubMed

    Desailly, Eric; Daniel, Yepremian; Sardain, Philippe; Lacouture, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Initial contact (IC) and toe off (TO) times are essential measurements in the analysis of temporal gait parameters, especially in cerebral palsy (CP) gait analysis. A new gait event detection algorithm, called the high pass algorithm (HPA) has been developed and is discussed in this paper. Kinematics of markers on the heel and metatarsal are used. Their forward components are high pass filtered, to amplify the contact discontinuities, thus the local extrema of the processed signal correspond to IC and TO. The accuracy and precision of HPA are compared with the gold standard of foot contact event detection, that is, force plate measurements. Furthermore HPA is compared with two other kinematics methods. This study has been conducted on 20 CP children and on eight normal adults. For normal subjects all the methods performed equally well. True errors in HPA (mean+/-standard deviation) were found to be 1+/-23 ms for IC and 2+/-25 ms for TO in CP children. These results were significantly (p<0.05) more accurate and precise than those obtained using the other algorithms. Moreover, in the case of pathological gaits, the other methods are not suitable for IC detection when IC is flatfoot or forefoot. In conclusion, the HPA is a simple and robust algorithm, which performs equally well for adults and actually performs better when applied to the gait of CP children. It is therefore recommended as the method of choice.

  7. Differential negative air ion effects on learning disabled and normal-achieving children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, L. L.; Kershner, J. R.

    1990-03-01

    Forty normal-achieving and 33 learning disabled (LD) children were assigned randomly to either a negative ion or placebo test condition. On a dichotic listening task using consonant-vowel (CV) combinations, both groups showed an ioninduced increase in the normal right ear advantage (REA). However, the mechanisms for this effect were different for each group. The LDs showed the effect at the right ear/left hemisphere (enhancement). The normal achievers showed the effect at the left ear/right hemisphere (inhibition). The results are consistent with an activation-inhibition model of cerebral function and suggest a functional relationship between arousal, interhemispheric activation-inhibition, and learning disabilities. The LDs may have an interhemispheric dysfunction. Both groups showed superior right ear report and the normal achiever showed overall superiority. Normal achievers showed higher consonant intrusion scores, probably due to a greater cognitive capacity. Age was a significant covariate reflecting developmental capacity changes. Negative air ions are seen to be a tool with potential theoretical and remedial applications.

  8. Regulatory Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced through these logics as well as to consider the sometimes unintended consequences of such safety work. In fact, the EU rules have been giving rise to complaints from practitioners finding the directives problematic and inadequate. In this article, I explore the problems practitioners face and why they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape. PMID:26139952

  9. [Forbidden anatomy].

    PubMed

    Holck, Per

    2004-12-16

    Since centuries anatomists have used any course of action in order to get hold of material for dissections, and at the same time avoid prosecution for grave robbery, at times the only way to get hold of cadavers. Stealing newly dead people from the churchyards and offering them for sale to anatomical institutions was not uncommon in the 19th century. "Resurrectionists"--as these thieves were called, as they made the dead "alive"--were seen as necessary for the teaching of anatomy in Victorian Britain. In the 1820s a scandal was revealed in Scotland, when it was discovered that some people even committed murder to make money from supplying anatomists with human cadavers. Two men, William Burke and William Hare, became particularly notorious because of their "business" with the celebrated anatomist Robert Knox in Edinburgh.

  10. Sonographic Growth Charts for Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children: a Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Min-Su; Hwang, Geol; Han, Sanghoon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Young Don; Kang, Ki-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Sue; Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Guk Myung; Han, Kyoung Hee

    2016-07-01

    Kidney length is the most useful parameter for clinical measurement of kidney size, and is useful to distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease. In this prospective observational study of 437 normal children aged between 0 and < 13 years, kidney length was measured using sonography. There were good correlations between kidney length and somatic values, including age, weight, height, and body surface area. The rapid growth of height during the first 2 years of life was intimately associated with a similar increase in kidney length, suggesting that height should be considered an important factor correlating with kidney length. Based on our findings, the following regression equation for the reference values of bilateral kidney length for Korean children was obtained: kidney length of the right kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.102; kidney length of the left kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.280. This equation may aid in the diagnosis of various kidney disorders.

  11. Exercises in anatomy: tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    It is axiomatic that those performing surgery on the congenitally malformed heart require a thorough knowledge of the lesions they will be called upon to correct. The necessary anatomical knowledge is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain at first hand, since relatively few centres now hold archives of specimens obtained in an appropriately legal fashion from the patients unfortunately dying in previous years. One centre with such an archive is Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago, known previously as Chicago Memorial Children's Hospital. The archive was established by Farouk S. Idriss, and was subsequently enhanced and consolidated by his son, Rachid. It is now under the care of Carl L. Backer, the current chief of paediatric cardiothoracic surgery at Lurie Children's. With the support of Carl, the archive has been triaged and catalogued by Diane E. Spicer and Robert H. Anderson. It has now been used to create a series of video presentations, illustrating the salient features of surgical anatomy of selected entities, with the videoclips being edited and prepared for publication by Anne Sarwark. This video contains the fruits of the first of these exercises in anatomy, and is devoted to tetralogy of Fallot.We begin the exercise by making comparisons between the normal heart and the arrangement seen in typical tetralogy. We emphasize the need to recognize the 'building blocks' of the normal outflow tracts, and show how they come apart in tetralogy. We then show the variations to be found in the specific morphology of the borders of the hole between the ventricles, with the crest of the apical ventricular septum being overridden by the orifice of the aortic valve such that the latter structure has a biventricular connection. We emphasize that it is the squeeze between the deviated muscular outlet septum and septoparietal trabeculations that is the essential phenotypic feature of the lesion. We then proceed to demonstrate the further variation to

  12. Anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal mechanism.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jamie L

    2011-05-01

    Understanding the normal anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal mechanism is the first step in providing appropriate diagnosis and treatment for children born with cleft lip and palate. The velopharyngeal mechanism consists of a muscular valve that extends from the posterior surface of the hard palate (roof of mouth) to the posterior pharyngeal wall and includes the velum (soft palate), lateral pharyngeal walls (sides of the throat), and the posterior pharyngeal wall (back wall of the throat). The function of the velopharyngeal mechanism is to create a tight seal between the velum and pharyngeal walls to separate the oral and nasal cavities for various purposes, including speech. Velopharyngeal closure is accomplished through the contraction of several velopharyngeal muscles including the levator veli palatini, musculus uvulae, superior pharyngeal constrictor, palatopharyngeus, palatoglossus, and salpingopharyngeus. The tensor veli palatini is thought to be responsible for eustachian tube function.

  13. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    PubMed

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  14. Ventricular tachycardia and exercise related syncope in children with structurally normal hearts: emphasis on repolarisation abnormality.

    PubMed Central

    Noh, C. I.; Song, J. Y.; Kim, H. S.; Choi, J. Y.; Yun, Y. S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To emphasize the importance of ventricular tachycardia associated with repolarisation abnormality in syncope associated with exercise. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of data on children presenting with syncope between 1985 and 1993. PATIENTS--5 apparently normal children with recurrent exercise related syncope associated with electrocardiographically abnormal TU complexes. RESULTS--3 children were diagnosed as having an intermediate form of the long QT syndrome and catecholamine sensitive ventricular tachycardia because the abnormal TU complexes were associated with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that was not typical of torsades de pointes. Tachycardia was induced by exercise in all patients and by isoprenaline in the one patient who was tested. One patient also had sinus node dysfunction. One child had incessant salvos of polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias and intermittent abnormal TU complexes suggestive of repolarisation abnormalities. The other had typical congenital long QT syndrome. Treatment was effective in three patients; two patients took a beta blocker alone and one took a beta blocker and low doses of amiodarone. One patient died suddenly, death being associated with sinus node dysfunction. In one patient with incessant ventricular arrhythmias treatment with a beta blocker, amiodarone, or Ic drugs was ineffective and always associated with proarrhythmia or syncope. He was not given further treatment and was asymptomatic despite having mild cardiomegaly. CONCLUSIONS--Ventricular tachycardia associated with repolarisation abnormality was an important cause of exercise related syncope in apparently normal children. TU complex abnormalities can be identified by repeated electrocardiography. beta Blockers are effective in preventing recurrent episodes. The role of amiodarone in this type of ventricular tachycardia needs further evaluation. PMID:7626354

  15. Odds, prevalence and predictors of sleep problems in school-age normal children.

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Karen; O'Brien, Louise M; Cluydts, Raymond; Verleye, Gino Benjamin; Ferri, Raffaele

    2005-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the prevalence, odds, and predictors of 36 paediatric sleep behaviours and describe their coexistence in a school-age normal population. The design was community-based questionnaire survey of sleep-wake patterns, sleep environment, and 36 sleep behaviours indicative of six sleep disorder-subscales using the Health-Behaviour Questionnaire. A caregivers' report of 3045 children aged 6-13 years in Belgium constituted the participants. Prevalence of each sleep behaviour was calculated. Log-linear modelling within and between the sleep disorder-subscales was used to screen for coexistence. The effect size of selected night-time parameters to the likelihood of sleep behaviours and disorder-subscale was expressed as odds ratios via logit regression analysis. Significant differences in sleep-wake patterns were found between weekday and weekend. Ranking by odds showed that: (1) sleep problems such as 'tired when waking up', 'repetitive limb movements', 'going to bed reluctantly', and 'sleep paralysis' and; (2) the disorder-subscale 'excessive somnolence' are common in children. Coexistences within and between disorder-subscales of sleep problems are evident in a school-age, normal population. These results suggest that disorders of excessive somnolence (DES) are highly prevalent in a non-clinical sample of school-age children. Furthermore, sleep-onset latency and a noisy, not well-darkened room are predictive towards the odds for exhibiting sleep problems and disorders. It is advocated that more information on the importance of good sleep-wake hygiene should reach parents and children.

  16. Serum LH and FSH Responses to Synthetic LH-RH in Normal Infants, Children and Patients With Turner's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwa, Seizo; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) on LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release were studied in 26 normal children and six patients (from 1-to 14-years-old) with Turner's syndrome. (Author)

  17. Effects of Rate of Stimulus Presentation and Penalty Conditions on the Discrimination Learning of Normal and Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; Zigler, Edward

    1972-01-01

    The effects of rate of stimulus presentation and reinforcement conditions on the two-choice discrimination learning performance of MA matched normal and familial retarded children were examined. (Authors)

  18. The obscure object of desire: 'nearly, but clearly not, like me': contingency preference in normal children versus children with autism.

    PubMed

    Gergely, G

    2001-01-01

    The author describes the central role of contingency detection in early socioemotional development. It has been proposed (Gergely & Watson, 1999) that infants are innately equipped with a complex perceptual mechanism, the "contingency detection module," which functions to establish the primary representation of the bodily self as well as the later orientation toward reactive social objects. According to the "contingency switch" model, the target value of the module that is initially genetically set to preferentially explore perfectly response-contingent stimulation is "switched" at around 3 months toward a preference for less-than-perfect social contingencies. It is hypothesized that the primary cause of childhood autism is a genetic defect, due to which the normal process of switching contingency preference at around 3 months does not take place. Preliminary results from an experimental study to test this model are reported. The study contrasts the preferential reactions of normal children and children with autism to perfect versus imitative (high-but-imperfect) contingencies. The results provide support for the contingency switch hypothesis of the etiology of childhood autism.

  19. Are short normal children at a disadvantage? The Wessex growth study.

    PubMed Central

    Downie, A. B.; Mulligan, J.; Stratford, R. J.; Betts, P. R.; Voss, L. D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether short stature through childhood represents a disadvantage at around 12 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal non-intervention study of the physical and psychological development of children recruited from the community in 1986-7 after entry into primary school at age 5-6 years; this is the second psychometric assessment made in 1994-5 after entry into secondary school at age 11-13 years. SETTING: Southampton and Winchester health districts. SUBJECTS: 106 short normal children (< 3rd centile for height when recruited) and 119 controls of average stature (10th-90th centile). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychometric measures of cognitive development, self concept development, behaviour, and locus of control. RESULTS: The short children did not differ significantly from the control children on measures of self esteem (19.4 v 20.2), self perception (104.2 v 102.4), parents' perception (46.9 v 47.0), or behaviour (6.8 v 5.3). The short children achieved significantly lower scores on measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) (102.6 v 108.6; P < 0.005), reading attainment (44.3 v 47.9; P < 0.002), and basic number skills (40.2 v 43.5; P < 0.003) and displayed less internalisation of control (16.6 v 14.3; P < 0.001) and less satisfaction with their height (P < 0.0001). More short than control children, however, came from working class homes (P < 0.05). Social class was a better predictor than height of all measures except that of body satisfaction. Attainment scores were predicted by class and IQ together rather than by height. Height accounted for some of the variance in IQ and locus of control scores. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide only limited support for the hypothesis that short children are disadvantaged, at least up until 11-13 years old. Social class seems to have more influence than height on children's psychological development. PMID:9006466

  20. Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J Max; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL). Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%), 30 normal-weight children (46.2%), 12 overweight children (18.4%), and 21 obese children (32.3%). The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma concentration were essentially zero. Diagnostic analysis indicated a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 90%, and a sensitivity and specificity both of approximately 75%. The salivary glucose concentration did not vary with saliva flow rate. Conclusion Taking into account the threshold response characteristics of the salivary glucose concentration response, these results suggest that testing salivary glucose levels may be useful as a screening assay for high fasting plasma glucose levels. The low false positive value is important to assure a low fraction of missed diagnoses. PMID:25565874

  1. Clinical NMR imaging of the brain in children: normal and neurologic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.A,; Pennock, J.M.; Bydder, G.M.; Steiner, R.E.; Thomas, D.J.; Hayward, R.; Bryant, D.R.T.; Payne, J.A.; Levene, M.I.; Whitelaw, A.; Dubowitz, L.M.S.; Dubowitz, V.

    1983-11-01

    The results of initial clinical nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in eight normal and 52 children with a wide variety of neurologic diseases were reviewed. The high level of gray-white matter contrast available with inversion-recovery sequences provided a basis for visualizing normal myelination as well as delays or deficits in this process. The appearances seen in cases of parenchymal hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, and proencephalic cysts are described. Ventricular enlargement was readily identified and marginal edema was demonstrated with spin-echo sequences. Abnormalities were seen in cerebral palsy, congenital malformations, Hallervorden-Spatz disease, aminoaciduria, and meningitis. Space-occupying lesions were identified by virtue of their increased relaxation times and mass effects. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging has considerable potential in pediatric neuroradiologic practice, in some conditions supplying information not available by computed tomography or sonography.

  2. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein in normal pineal gland in children and young adult.

    PubMed

    Marcol, Wiesław; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Malinowska-Kołodziej, Izabela; Mandera, Marek; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    The Bcl family contains both pro and antiapoptotic proteins participating in the regulation of neuronal cell death in several pathological conditions. However, very little is known about physiological profiles of Bcl-2/Bax expression in normal brain. In this study, we examined expression profile of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in normal pineal gland in children. The material for analysis was obtained by biopsy of pineal parenchyma during surgery of pineal cysts. All specimens were labeled immunohistochemically and analyzed by means of confocal laser scanning microscope. We found only few Bcl-2 expressing (0.7%) and no Bax-immunopositive (0.0%) pinealocytes. Bcl-2-positive cells were mature neurons, neither young ones nor glia.

  3. Serum salicylic acid and fruit and vegetable consumption in obese and normal-weight children: a pilot-study.

    PubMed

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Mariani, Benedetta; Battezzati, Alberto; Diaferio, Lucia; Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Radaelli, Giovanni; Verduci, Elvira

    2016-11-02

    Salicylic acid (SA), a phenolic compound produced by plants, may play a beneficial role on health. This pilot study evaluated whether there might be an association between serum SA and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in obese and normal-weight children. Thirty-four obese children (17 boys and 17 girls) and 34 normal-weight children were recruited. Dietary intake was evaluated by the 7-day dietary record. Serum SA was measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. FV intake in obese and normal-weight children was not different between groups (175.00 (97.66) g versus 192.29 (90.54) g, p = .455). Obese children had lower serum SA than normal-weight children [mean difference, -0.025; 95% CI (-0.044; -0.006) μmol/L]. Serum SA was not associated with daily intake of FV in obese (p = .111) and normal-weight (p = .092) children. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of FV on serum SA, taking into account also the quantity and the type.

  4. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children: Intercorrelations for Normal Youngsters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattrocchi, Mary M.; Golden, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children was examined utilizing 86 normal children, including 55 females and 31 males from middle-class families. Significant relationships were predicted between the PPVT-R and the receptive scale on the…

  5. Coding Processes in Normal and Learning-Disabled Children: Evidence for Modality-Specific Pathways to the Cognitive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceci, Stephen J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Normal and learning disabled children were presented with visual and auditory items for free and cued recall. Deficits in semantically cued recall for children with one impaired modality originated at presentation time, perhaps because of separate pathways linking the auditory and visual modalities to the semantic system. (Author/RD)

  6. Initial Stop Voicing in Bilingual Children with Cochlear Implants and Their Typically Developing Peers with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunta, Ferenc; Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth; Procter, Amanda; Hernandez, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study focuses on stop voicing differentiation in bilingual children with normal hearing (NH) and their bilingual peers with hearing loss who use cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Twenty-two bilingual children participated in our study (11 with NH, "M" age = 5;1 [years;months], and 11 with CIs, "M" hearing age =…

  7. Imaging the Normal and Abnormal Anatomy of the Female Pelvis Using (18)F FDG-PET/CT, Including Pitfalls and Artifacts.

    PubMed

    Even-Sapir, Einat

    2010-10-01

    This article summarizes the normal biodistribution of (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose in the pelvis, physiologic changes in the female reproductive system and benign adnexal and uterine lesions which may be associated with increased tracer uptake that should be appreciated when PET/CT studies of female patients, mainly those with gynecologic malignancies are reviewed.

  8. Children of parents with alcohol problems performing normality: A qualitative interview study about unmet needs for professional support

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Anne; Malterud, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Background Children of parents with alcohol problems are at risk for serious long-term health consequences. Knowledge is limited about how to recognize those in need of support and how to offer respectful services. Method From nine interviews with adult children from families with alcohol problems, we explored childhood experiences, emphasizing issues concerning potentially unmet needs for professional support. Smart's perspective on family secrets and Goffman's dramaturgical metaphor on social order of the family focusing on the social drama and the dramaturgy enacted by the children supported our cross-case thematic analysis. Findings The social interaction in the family was disrupted during childhood because of the parent's drinking problems. An everyday drama characterized by tension and threats, blame and manipulation was the backstage of their everyday life. Dealing with the drama, the children experienced limited parental support. Some children felt betrayed by the other parent who might trivialize the problems and excuse the drinking parent. Family activities and routines were disturbed, and uncertainty and insecurity was created. The children struggled to restore social order within the family and to act as normally as possible outside the family. It was a dilemma for the children to disclose the difficulties of the family. Conclusion Altogether, the children worked hard to perform a normally functioning family, managing a situation characterized by unmet needs for professional support. Adequate support requires recognition of the children's efforts to perform a normally functioning family. PMID:27104341

  9. Single or dual orthographic representations for reading and spelling? A study of Italian dyslexic-dysgraphic and normal children.

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2010-01-01

    Italian children with surface dyslexia and dysgraphia show defective orthographic lexical processing in both reading and spelling. It is unclear whether this parallelism is due to impairment of separate orthographic input and output lexicons or to a unique defective lexicon. The main aim of the present study was to compare the single- versus dual-lexicon accounts in dyslexic/dysgraphic children (and in normal but younger children). In the first experiment, 9 Italian children with surface dyslexia and dysgraphia judged the orthographic correctness (input lexicon) of their phonologically plausible misspellings (output lexicon) and of phonologically plausible spellings experimentally introduced for words they consistently spelt correctly. The children were generally impaired in recognizing phonologically plausible misspellings. Parallel deficits in reading and spelling also emerged: Children were more impaired in judging items they consistently misspelt and more accurate in judging items they always spelt correctly. In a second experiment, younger normal children with reading/spelling ability similar to that of the dyslexic/dysgraphic children in the first experiment (but younger) were examined. The results confirmed a close parallelism between the orthographic lexical representations used for reading and spelling. Overall, findings support the hypothesis that a single orthographic lexicon is responsible for reading and spelling performance in both dyslexic/dysgraphic and normal (but younger) children.

  10. [Normal values of serum IgD in children depending on their age].

    PubMed

    Siwińska-Gołebiowska, H; Borysewicz, G

    1981-01-01

    In the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw there were determined normal values of IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE for different ages of children and youth. The determination of normal IgD levels is the last stage in this kind of studies concerning immunoglobulins. IgD levels were estimated in 372 cases in 19 age groups: in the cord sera, infant sera and older healthy children as well as in healthy adults sera. The IgD concentration was determined by Mancini method and given in I.U/ml. The results were statistically analysed. In all samples of cord sera no IgD traces were found. In infant sera (up to one year) IgD level is very low and was detected in 27% of cases. The percentage of detectability as well as the mean IgD concentration in serum grows systematically to the age of 15 years. There is high statistically significant correlation between serum IgD concentration and the age both for the arithmetical means (r = 0,33) and for geometrical values (r = 0,39). The correlation coefficients between detectability of serum IgD and age are higher (linear dependence-r = 0,67, square dependence - r = 0,75).

  11. Cognitive levels of performance account for hemispheric lateralisation effects in dyslexic and normally reading children.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Meffert, Elisabeth; Eickhoff, Simon B; Schreiber, Helen; Kukolja, Juraj; Shah, Nadim Jon; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2010-12-01

    Recent theories of developmental dyslexia explain reading deficits in terms of deficient phonological awareness, attention, visual and auditory processing, or automaticity. Since dyslexia has a neurobiological basis, the question arises how the reader's proficiency in these cognitive variables affects the brain regions involved in visual word recognition. This question was addressed in two fMRI experiments with 19 normally reading children (Experiment 1) and 19 children with dyslexia (Experiment 2). First, reading-specific brain activation was assessed by contrasting the BOLD signal for reading aloud words vs. overtly naming pictures of real objects. Next, ANCOVAs with brain activation during reading the individuals' scores for all five cognitive variables assessed outside the scanner as covariates were performed. Whereas the normal readers' brain activation during reading showed co-variation effects predominantly in the right hemisphere, the reverse pattern was observed for the dyslexics. In particular, middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal cortex, and precuneus showed contralateral effects for controls as compared to dyslexics. In line with earlier findings in the literature, these data hint at a global change in hemispheric asymmetry during cognitive processing in dyslexic readers, which, in turn, might affect reading proficiency.

  12. Listening effort and perceived clarity for normal hearing children with the use of digital noise reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Samantha; McCreery, Ryan; Hoover, Brenda; Kopun, Judy G; Stelmachowicz, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate how digital noise reduction (DNR) impacts listening effort and judgment of sound clarity in children with normal hearing. It was hypothesized that, when two DNR algorithms differing in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) output are compared, the algorithm which provides the greatest improvement in overall output SNR will reduce listening effort and receive a better clarity rating from child listeners. A secondary goal was to evaluate the relation between the inversion method measurements and listening effort with DNR processing. Design Twenty-four children with normal hearing (ages 7-12 years) participated in a speech recognition task in which consonant-vowel-consonant nonwords were presented in broadband background noise. Test stimuli were recorded through two hearing aids with DNR-off and DNR-on at 0 dB and +5 dB input SNR. Stimuli were presented to listeners and verbal response time (VRT) and phoneme recognition scores were measured. The underlying assumption was that an increase in VRT reflects an in increase in listening effort. Children rated the sound clarity for each condition. The two commercially available HAs were chosen based on: 1) an inversion technique which was used to quantify the magnitude of change in SNR with the activation of DNR, and 2) a measure of magnitude-squared coherence which was used to ensure that DNR in both devices preserved the spectrum. Results One device provided a greater improvement in overall output SNR than the other. Both DNR algorithms resulted in minimal spectral distortion as measured using coherence. For both devices, VRT decreased for the DNR-on condition suggesting that listening effort decreased with DNR in both devices. Clarity ratings were also better in the DNR-on condition for both devices. The device showing the greatest improvement in output SNR with DNR engaged improved phoneme recognition scores. The magnitude of this improved phoneme recognition was not accurately

  13. Mesiodistal root angulation of permanent teeth in children with mixed dentition and normal occlusion

    PubMed Central

    JESUINO, Flávia A. S.; COSTA, Luciane R.; VALLADARES-NETO, José

    2010-01-01

    Objective There is little information regarding the mesiodistal angulation of permanent teeth in mixed dentition. The aim of this study was to evaluate mesiodistal root angulation of permanent incisors, canines and first molars of 100 Brazilian children, using a new horizontal reference plane based on the midpoint of the intercuspation of primary canines and permanent first molars in panoramic radiographs during the mixed-dentition phase. Material and methods Children were equally divided between the genders with a mean age of 8.9 years (SD=0.76), normal occlusion and no eruptive disturbances. Results The angulation of the permanent maxillary first molars was close to the vertical, whereas the mandibular molars presented approximately 25 degrees of distal root angulation. The maxillary canines were the most distally angulated teeth, whereas the permanent mandibular canines were vertically positioned. The evaluation of the anterior maxillary area showed vertical position of permanent lateral, and central incisors with a slight distal angulation, whereas the permanent mandibular incisors tended to a mesial radicular convergence. Conclusions The proposed reference line could be useful in mixed dentition root angulation evaluation; there was a slight asymmetry in the mesiodistal angulation among homologous teeth, and also a small variation between the male and the female groups, but no difference between 8-and 10-year-old children. PMID:21308295

  14. Significance of plasma lead levels in normal and lead-intoxicated children.

    PubMed

    Rosen, J F; Trinidad, E E

    1974-05-01

    Plasma lead (Pb) levels have been measured in normal and lead-intoxicated children, newborns, and children with sickle cell disease. The results in all groups were contant over a wide range of red cell Pb concentration. These results support the thesis that the red cell represents a large repository for Pb, maintaining plasma Pb concentration within closely defined limits, and that methods other than measurements of plasma Pb will be necessary to uncover a presumably dynamic transport system between red cell and plasma. Indeed, we have demonstrated in vitro that ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) lowers red cell Pb content according to a linear dose-response curve. Ca(2+) may thereby control Pb transport from red cell to plasma, and fluctuations in the concentration of Ca(2+) in serum and extracellular fluid may influence the toxic activities of Pb. In bone organ culture, changes in the concentration of Ca(2+) and phosphate in the medium alter the release of previously incorporated (210)Pb from fetal rat bones in response to parathyroid hormone (PTH). Therefore, both PTH and the ionic milieu of the medium apparently regulate bone Pb metabolism.We would expect that understanding further the dynamics of Pb transport in plasma and bone may lead to a more exact definition of the real hazards of low level Pb toxicity in children.

  15. Nail anatomy.

    PubMed

    de Berker, David

    2013-01-01

    The nail unit comprises the nail plate, the surrounding soft tissues, and their vasculature and innervation based upon the distal phalanx. The nail plate is a laminated keratinized structure lying on the nail matrix (15-25%), the nail bed with its distal onychodermal band (75-85%), and the hyponychium at its free edge. The distal part of the matrix, the lunula characterized by its half-moon shape, can be observed in some digits. The nail plate is embedded by the proximal and lateral folds. From the proximal nail fold, the cuticle (also known as the eponychium), adheres to the superficial surface of the proximal nail plate. The nail unit possesses a complex and abundant vascular network to ensure adequate blood supply. Finally, both the periungual soft tissues and the nail folds are innervated. The shapes, structure, and inter-relationships of these tissues are factors in the way nails present with disease and how we understand and manage those diseases. In particular, an understanding of the surgical anatomy is important for those undertaking diagnostic or curative operations on the nail. With this knowledge, the most appropriate surgery can be planned and the patient can be provided with accurate and clear guidance to enable informed consent.

  16. Outcomes of an Auditory-Verbal Program for Children with Hearing Loss: A Comparative Study with a Matched Group of Children with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornan, Dimity; Hickson, Louise; Murdoch, Bruce; Houston, Todd

    2007-01-01

    The speech and language developmental progress of children with hearing loss educated using an Auditory-Verbal approach was compared to that of a control group of children with normal hearing. The experimental group consisted of 29 children ages 2-6 years with a mean pure tone average in the better ear of 76.17 dB HL at 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz. The 29…

  17. Voice emotion recognition by cochlear-implanted children and their normally-hearing peers

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Monita; Zion, Danielle; Deroche, Mickael L.; Burianek, Brooke; Limb, Charles; Goren, Alison; Kulkarni, Aditya M.; Christensen, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite their remarkable success in bringing spoken language to hearing impaired listeners, the signal transmitted through cochlear implants (CIs) remains impoverished in spectro-temporal fine structure. As a consequence, pitch-dominant information such as voice emotion, is diminished. For young children, the ability to correctly identify the mood/intent of the speaker (which may not always be visible in their facial expression) is an important aspect of social and linguistic development. Previous work in the field has shown that children with cochlear implants (cCI) have significant deficits in voice emotion recognition relative to their normally hearing peers (cNH). Here, we report on voice emotion recognition by a cohort of 36 school-aged cCI. Additionally, we provide for the first time, a comparison of their performance to that of cNH and NH adults (aNH) listening to CI simulations of the same stimuli. We also provide comparisons to the performance of adult listeners with CIs (aCI), most of whom learned language primarily through normal acoustic hearing. Results indicate that, despite strong variability, on average, cCI perform similarly to their adult counterparts; that both groups’ mean performance is similar to aNHs’ performance with 8-channel noise-vocoded speech; that cNH achieve excellent scores in voice emotion recognition with full-spectrum speech, but on average, show significantly poorer scores than aNH with 8-channel noise-vocoded speech. A strong developmental effect was observed in the cNH with noise-vocoded speech in this task. These results point to the considerable benefit obtained by cochlear-implanted children from their devices, but also underscore the need for further research and development in this important and neglected area. PMID:25448167

  18. Pathological studies of cheek teeth apical infections in the horse: 1. Normal endodontic anatomy and dentinal structure of equine cheek teeth.

    PubMed

    Dacre, I T; Kempson, S; Dixon, P M

    2008-12-01

    Morphological examinations were performed on 100 normal equine cheek teeth (CT) of 1-12 years dental age (i.e. time since eruption), using gross examination, dissection microscopy, computerised axial tomography, and decalcified and undecalcified histology. The CT in Triadan 07-10 positions consistently had five pulp horns, but the 06 CT had an additional pulp horn more rostrally. Mandibular and maxillary Triadan 11s had six and seven pulp horns, respectively. Sections of CT taken 2-6mm below the occlusal surface (variation due to normal undulating occlusal surface) showed the presence of pulp in up to 50% of individual maxillary CT pulp horns, and in up to 25% of individual mandibular CT pulp horns. The histological appearances of primary and secondary dentine were described and it is proposed that the type of dentine present most centrally in every pulp chamber examined, currently termed tertiary dentine, should be re-classified as irregular secondary dentine, and that the term tertiary dentine be reserved for the focal areas of dentine laid down following insult to dentine or pulp.

  19. CSF gusher in cochlear implantation: The risk of missing CT evidence of a cochlear base defect in the presence of otherwise normal cochlear anatomy.

    PubMed

    Cabbarzade, Cavid; Sennaroglu, Levent; Süslü, Nilda

    2015-07-01

    Intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakages from the cochleostomy site - known as gushers - are a serious complication of cochlear implantation surgery in cases of congenital deafness. They occur as the result of abnormal communication between CSF in the internal auditory canal and perilymph in the cochlea. Gushers are well recognized as occurring in a proportion of cases in which there is a clearly visible congenital malformation of the cochlea. In this report, we describe two cases in which pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scanning of the cochlea was initially reported as normal but gushers occurred during cochlear implant surgery. In both cases, more detailed review of the CT scans (peroperatively in the first case, pre-operatively in the second case) showed a defect at the cochlear base, in the absence of any other cochlear malformation. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to the risk of missing this abnormality and to encourage careful inspection of the cochlear base on CT scans in all cases, even when the rest of the cochlear appears normal.

  20. Exploration of the microbial anatomy of normal human skin by using plasmid profiles of coagulase-negative staphylococci: search for the reservoir of resident skin flora.

    PubMed

    Brown, E; Wenzel, R P; Hendley, J O

    1989-10-01

    The aerobic bacterial flora of the top 25 layers of the stratum corneum of normal human skin was characterized by sampling glabrous skin with contact plates and analyzing plasmid patterns of coagulase-negative staphylococci (SCN) by agarose gel electrophoresis. The number of colonies of SCN on the skin surface at 12 sites varied from 14 to 838. Removal of five keratinized layers by sequential stripping with cellophane tape reduced the number of colonies by 80% (median; range, 42%-91%). Counts remained constant during removal of 20 additional layers. SCN with six different plasmid patterns were identified at a site on the skin surface. After removal of 25 layers, colonies with a single pattern were clustered in one quadrant of the site. The site was sterilized and covered with a sterile dressing for 18 h. Colonies reappeared in the same quadrant of the site; six of seven had the same pattern seen 18 h previously. Observations at three other sites were similar. Reappearance of the same strain(s) of SCN following sterilization of the site suggests that the reservoir for normal resident skin flora is located below the stratum corneum, perhaps in hair follicles and ducts of sebaceous glands.

  1. Arterial distensibility in children and teenagers: normal evolution and the effect of childhood vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Y; Brogan, P; Pilla, C; Dillon, M; Redington, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: Polyarteritis nodosa is a necrotising vasculitis of the medium sized and small muscular arteries. The inflammatory and subsequent reparative processes may alter the arterial mechanical properties. The effect of vasculitic damage on arterial distensibility has never been explored however. Aim: To determine the normal values and the effect of childhood vasculitis on arterial distensibility in children and teenagers. Methods: Distensibility of the brachioradial arterial segment was studied using pulse wave velocity (PWV ∝1/√distensibility), in 13 children with polyarteritis nodosa at a median age of 11.8 (range 4.9–16) years. As a control group, 155 healthy schoolchildren (6–18 years, 81 boys) were studied. PWV was assessed using a photoplethysmographic technique; blood pressure was measured by an automatic sphygmomanometer (Dinamap). Data from patients were expressed as z scores adjusted for age and compared to a population mean of 0 by a single sample t test. Determinants of PWV in normal children were assessed by univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. Results: Age, height, weight, and systolic blood pressure correlated individually with the brachioradial PWV. Multivariate analysis identified age as the only independent determinant. Ten of the patients were in clinical remission, while three had evidence of disease activity at the time of study. The PWV in the patient group as a whole was significantly greater than those in healthy children (mean z score +0.99). Raised C reactive protein concentration (>2 mg/dl) in the three patients with active disease was associated with a higher PWV when compared to those in remission (z score +2.78 v +0.45). The diastolic blood pressure of the patients was higher than those of the controls (z score +1.04) while the systolic pressure was similar (z score -0.36). Conclusions: PWV in the brachioradial arterial segment increases gradually during childhood independent of body weight, height, mass

  2. Anatomy of the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of ...

  3. Age-related changes in physical examination and gait parameters in normally developing children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, Sang Hyeong; Chung, Chin Youb; Park, Moon Seok; Lee, Kyoung Min; Akhmedov, Bekhzad; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Sung, Ki Hyuk

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlations between physical examinations and gait kinematics, and age-related changes in 47 normally developing children. Physical examinations were not found to be significantly correlated with kinematics, except for Thomas and Staheli tests. Unilateral and bilateral popliteal angles decreased significantly by 2.2 and 1.6° per annum, and ankle dorsiflexion with knee extension and 90° flexion decreased significantly by 0.7 and 0.8°. Physical examinations and gait parameters might represent different dimensions of gait, and care should be taken when assessing gait problems. Age-related changes should be considered when interpreting physical examination and gait kinematics for surgery.

  4. Sonographic Growth Charts for Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children: a Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Kidney length is the most useful parameter for clinical measurement of kidney size, and is useful to distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease. In this prospective observational study of 437 normal children aged between 0 and < 13 years, kidney length was measured using sonography. There were good correlations between kidney length and somatic values, including age, weight, height, and body surface area. The rapid growth of height during the first 2 years of life was intimately associated with a similar increase in kidney length, suggesting that height should be considered an important factor correlating with kidney length. Based on our findings, the following regression equation for the reference values of bilateral kidney length for Korean children was obtained: kidney length of the right kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.102; kidney length of the left kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.280. This equation may aid in the diagnosis of various kidney disorders. PMID:27366007

  5. Nonobese, exercising children diagnosed with dyslipidemia have normal C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Miguel Arturo Salazar; Vázquez, Beatriz Yadira Salazar; Intaglietta, M; Cabrales, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Nonobese children age 10.4 ± 1.1 years diagnosed with dyslipidemia (n = 51) were compared to normal children age 10.8 ± 1.1 years (n = 38). Affected individuals had increased total cholesterol: 223 ± 23 vs 152 ± 17 mg/dl, p < 0.001; and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol: 41.9 ± 4.1 vs 57.6 ± 5.7 mg/dl, p < 0.001 and triglycerides: 90.8 ± 40.5 vs 65.7 ± 25.0 mg/dl, p < 0.002. Fasting glucose was also significantly elevated (p < 0.02). All other parameters, including blood pressure, were not statistically different between groups. The concentration of C-reactive protein was not statistically different between groups. Analysis of medical records showed that this anomaly may be related to this group (as well as the control group) performing regular, daily exercise. This activity was quantified via a self administered questionnaire, and found to be statistically identical in controls and dyslipidemic individuals. Exercise is associated with the release of antiinflammatory cytokines, therefore our results support the contention that it is a significant factor in promoting health conditions from an early stage in life. PMID:19436676

  6. Detecting Brain Growth Patterns in Normal Children using Tensor-Based Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Caplan, Rochelle; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetric studies have shown age-related increases in the volume of total white matter and decreases in the volume of total gray matter of normal children. Recent adaptations of image analysis strategies enable the detection of human brain growth with improved spatial resolution. In this article, we further explore the spatio-temporal complexity of adolescent brain maturation with tensor-based morphometry. By utilizing a novel non-linear elastic intensity-based registration algorithm on the serial structural MRI scans of 13 healthy children, individual Jacobian growth maps are generated and then registered to a common anatomical space. Statistical analyses reveal significant tissue growth in cerebral white matter, contrasted with gray matter loss in parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. In addition, a linear regression with age and gender suggests a slowing down of the growth rate in regions with the greatest white matter growth. We demonstrate that a tensor-based Jacobian map is a sensitive and reliable method to detect regional tissue changes during development. PMID:18064588

  7. "Skinny is prettier and normal: I want to be normal"-Perceived body image of non-Western ethnic minority children in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Te Poel, Fam; Pepping, Rian; Konijn, Elly A; Spekman, Marloes L C

    2017-03-01

    While the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among children of some non-Western ethnic minorities than among their Caucasian counterparts, their body image is understudied. The current study examined the body image of Dutch children of non-Western ethnic minorities (i.e., Surinamese, Antillean, Moroccan, and Turkish). Sociocultural influences from school, media and home environments and their perceptions of overweight prevention programs were taken into account. Fifty-two non-Western ethnic minority children (aged 8-12 years) participated in semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Results showed that the children generally underestimated their current body size, which was often overweight, and preferred thin and 'normal' body sizes. Results further revealed important insights into culturally determined themes, relating to perceived preferences in media, peers, parents, and teachers, nutritional habits, and children's beliefs about school-based health interventions. We conclude that targeting culturally sensitive awareness about actual body size and healthy body images seems paramount in future interventions.

  8. Statistical normal values of visual parameters that characterize binocular function in children.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, R; Pérez, M A; García, J A; González, M D

    2004-11-01

    A wide range of visual parameters used to evaluate binocular function were evaluated in a paediatric population (1056 subjects aged 6-12 years). Mean values are provided for these ages in optometric tests that directly assess the vergence system, horizontal phorias for near and far vision (measured by a modified version of the Thorington method), negative and positive vergence amplitude for near and far vision (step vergence testing), vergence facility (flippers 8 Delta BI/8 Delta BO), and near-point of convergence (penlight push-up technique and red-lens push-up technique), as well as stimulus accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio and stereoacuity (Randot test) which provide an overall evaluation of the vergence, accommodative and oculomotor systems. A statistical comparison (anova and Bonferroni post hoc test) of these values between ages was performed. The differences, although statistically significant, were not clinically meaningful, and therefore we identified two trends in the behaviour of these parameters. For all parameters, except for vergence facility, we established a single mean reference value for the age range studied. The difference between the means for vergence facility indicated the need to divide the population into two age ranges (6-8 and 8-12 years). This study establishes statistical normal values for these parameters in a paediatric population and their means are a valuable instrument for separating children with binocular anomalies from those with normal binocular vision.

  9. The anatomy of the 2009 L'Aquila normal fault system (central Italy) imaged by high resolution foreshock and aftershock locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaraluce, L.; Valoroso, L.; Piccinini, D.; di Stefano, R.; de Gori, P.

    2011-12-01

    On 6 April (01:32 UTC) 2009 a MW 6.1 normal faulting earthquake struck the axial area of the Abruzzo region in central Italy. We study the geometry of fault segments using high resolution foreshock and aftershock locations. Two main SW dipping segments, the L'Aquila and Campotosto faults, forming an en echelon system 40 km long (NW trending). The 16 km long L'Aquila fault shows a planar geometry with constant dip (˜48°) through the entire upper crust down to 10 km depth. The Campotosto fault activated by three events with 5.0 ≤ MW ≤ 5.2 shows a striking listric geometry, composed by planar segments with different dips along depth rather than a smoothly curving single fault surface. The investigation of the spatiotemporal evolution of foreshock activity within the crustal volume where the subsequent L'Aquila main shock nucleated allows us to image the progressive activation of the main fault plane. From the beginning of 2009 the foreshocks activated the deepest portion of the fault until a week before the main shock, when the largest foreshock (MW 4.0) triggered a minor antithetic segment. Seismicity jumped back to the main plane a few hours before the main shock. Secondary synthetic and antithetic fault segments are present both on the hanging and footwall of the system. The stress tensor obtained by inverting focal mechanisms of the largest events reveals a NE trending extension and the majority of the aftershocks are kinematically consistent. Deviations from the dominant extensional strain pattern are observed for those earthquakes activating minor structures.

  10. Preliminary findings on associations between moral emotions and social behavior in young children with normal hearing and with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ketelaar, Lizet; Wiefferink, Carin H; Frijns, Johan H M; Broekhof, Evelien; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-11-01

    Moral emotions such as shame, guilt and pride are the result of an evaluation of the own behavior as (morally) right or wrong. The capacity to experience moral emotions is thought to be an important driving force behind socially appropriate behavior. The relationship between moral emotions and social behavior in young children has not been studied extensively in normally hearing (NH) children, let alone in those with a hearing impairment. This study compared young children with hearing impairments who have a cochlear implant (CI) to NH peers regarding the extent to which they display moral emotions, and how this relates to their social functioning and language skills. Responses of 184 NH children and 60 children with CI (14-61 months old) to shame-/guilt- and pride-inducing events were observed. Parents reported on their children's social competence and externalizing behavior, and experimenters observed children's cooperative behavior. To examine the role of communication in the development of moral emotions and social behavior, children's language skills were assessed. Results show that children with CI displayed moral emotions to a lesser degree than NH children. An association between moral emotions and social functioning was found in the NH group, but not in the CI group. General language skills were unrelated to moral emotions in the CI group, yet emotion vocabulary was related to social functioning in both groups of children. We conclude that facilitating emotion language skills has the potential to promote children's social functioning, and could contribute to a decrease in behavioral problems in children with CI specifically. Future studies should examine in greater detail which factors are associated with the development of moral emotions, particularly in children with CI. Some possible directions for future research are discussed.

  11. The moderating effect of self-efficacy on normal-weight, overweight, and obese children's math achievement: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell

    2015-03-01

    Increased body weight is associated with decreased cognitive function in school-aged children. The role of self-efficacy in shaping the connection between children's educational achievement and obesity-related comorbidities has not been examined to date. Evidence of the predictive ability of self-efficacy in children is demonstrated in cognitive tasks, including math achievement scores. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and math achievement in normal weight, overweight, and obese children. I hypothesized that overweight and obese children with higher self-efficacy will be less affected in math achievement than otherwise comparable children with lower self-efficacy. I tested this prediction with multilevel growth modeling techniques using the ECLS-K 1998-1999 survey data, a nationally representative sample of children. Increased self-efficacy moderates the link between body weight and children's math achievement by buffering the risks that increased weight status poses to children's cognitive function. My findings indicate that self-efficacy moderates math outcomes in overweight, but not obese, children.

  12. Cardiac anatomy and physiology: a review.

    PubMed

    Gavaghan, M

    1998-04-01

    This article reviews the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart. Understanding the normal anatomic and physiologic relationships described in this article will help perioperative nurses care for patients who are undergoing cardiac procedures. Such knowledge also assists nurses in educating patients about cardiac procedures and about activities that can prevent, reverse, or improve cardiac illness.

  13. Preoccupations with Death in "Normal" Children: The Relationship to Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Cynthia R.

    1990-01-01

    Interviewed 101 children (ages 6-12 years) and parents concerning child's behavior, emotions, development, ego functioning, concepts of death, and family history. Approximately 12 percent of children expressed suicidal ideas or acts. Suicidal children had significantly more intense preoccupations with death than did nonsuicidal children. (Includes…

  14. The Effects of Social Reinforcement and Task Difficulty Level on the Pleasure Derived by Normal and Retarded Children from Cognitive Challenge and Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan

    1977-01-01

    In this study, designed to explore the relationship between pleasure and cognitive challenge, 32 normal first grade children and 32 MA-matched familial mentally retarded children were given puzzles representing four difficulty levels. (Author/SB)

  15. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  16. Longitudinal Study of Averaged Auditory Evoked Potentials in Normal Children from Birth to Three Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlrich, Elizabeth S.; And Others

    This study examined individual patterns of the maturation of auditory evoked potential (AEP) in normal infants to determine whether longitudinal data show less variability than cross-sectional data, and to further assess the effect of stage of sleep on AEP. The AEPs for 10 children were examined by repeated testing between the ages of about two…

  17. Saccadic Eye Movements in Normal Children from 8 to 15 Years of Age: A Developmental Study of Visuospatial Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Randal G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study used saccadic eye movements to assess visuospatial attention in 53 normal children (ages 8-15). Saccadic latency, the ability to suppress extraneous saccades during fixation, and the ability to inhibit task-provoked anticipatory saccades all improved with age. Developmental patterns varied by task. Analyses of age-related changes may be…

  18. Coordination of Gaze and Speech in Communication between Children with Hearing Impairment and Normal-Hearing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandgren, Olof; Andersson, Richard; van de Weijer, Joost; Hansson, Kristina; Sahlén, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate gaze behavior during communication between children with hearing impairment (HI) and normal-hearing (NH) peers. Method: Ten HI-NH and 10 NH-NH dyads performed a referential communication task requiring description of faces. During task performance, eye movements and speech were tracked. Using verbal event (questions,…

  19. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    PubMed

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints.

  20. Effects of Stimulus Bandwidth on the Imitation of English Fricatives by Normal-Hearing Children

    PubMed Central

    Stelmachowicz, Patricia G.; Nishi, Kanae; Choi, Sangsook; Lewis, Dawna E.; Hoover, Brenda M.; Dierking, Darcia; Lotto, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies from our laboratory have suggested that reduced audibility in the high frequencies (due to the bandwidth of hearing instruments) may play a role in the delays in phonological development often exhibited by children with hearing impairment. The goal of the current study was to extend previous findings on the effect of bandwidth on fricatives/affricates to more complex stimuli. Method Nine fricatives/affricates embedded in 2-syllable nonsense words were filtered at 5 and 10 kHz and presented to normal-hearing 6–7 year olds who repeated words exactly as heard. Responses were recorded for subsequent phonetic and acoustic analyses. Results Significant effects of talker gender and bandwidth were found, with better performance for the male talker and the wider bandwidth condition. In contrast to previous studies, relatively small (5%) mean bandwidth effects were observed for /s/ and /z/ spoken by the female talker. Acoustic analyses of stimuli used in the previous and the current studies failed to explain this discrepancy. Conclusions It appears likely that a combination of factors (i.e., dynamic cues, prior phonotactic knowledge, and perhaps other unidentified cues to fricative identity) may have facilitated the perception of these complex nonsense words in the current study. PMID:18664693

  1. The influence of supine posture on chest wall volume changes is higher in obese than in normal weight children.

    PubMed

    Silva, Letícia; Barcelar, Jacqueline de Melo; Rattes, Catarina Souza; Sayão, Larissa Bouwman; Reinaux, Cyda Albuquerque; Campos, Shirley L; Brandão, Daniella Cunha; Fregonezi, Guilherme; Aliverti, Andrea; Dornelas de Andrade, Armèle

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze thoraco-abdominal kinematics in obese children in seated and supine positions during spontaneous quiet breathing. An observational study of pulmonary function and chest wall volume assessed by optoelectronic plethysmography was conducted on 35 children aged 8-12 years that were divided into 2 groups according to weight/height ratio percentiles: there were 18 obese children with percentiles greater than 95 and 17 normal weight children with percentiles of 5-85. Pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1); forced vital capacity (FVC); and FEV1/FVC ratio), ventilatory pattern, total and compartment chest wall volume variations, and thoraco-abdominal asynchronies were evaluated. Tidal volume was greater in seated position. Pulmonary and abdominal rib cage tidal volume and their percentage contribution to tidal volume were smaller in supine position in both obese and control children, while abdominal tidal volume and its percentage contribution was greater in the supine position only in obese children and not in controls. No statistically significant differences were found between obese and control children and between supine and seated positions regarding thoraco-abdominal asynchronies. We conclude that in obese children thoraco-abdominal kinematics is influenced by supine posture, with an increase of the abdominal and a decreased rib cage contribution to ventilation, suggesting that in this posture areas of hypoventilation can occur in the lung.

  2. Pocket atlas of normal CT anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, J.B.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a quick reference for interpreting CT scans of the extracranial organs. This collection of 41 CT scans covers all the major organs of the body: neck and larynx; chest; abdomen; male pelvis; and female pelvis.

  3. Development of a Score That Separates Hyperkinetic and Normal Children and Demonstrates Drug Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burleigh, Allison C.; And Others

    It is hypothesized that children with hyperkinesis tend to repeat inappropriate behavior patterns more frequently than do other children. To assess this tendency to perseverate, a new scoring method using the Porteus Maze Test was devised. On a limited sample of children diagnosed as hyperkinetic and not hyperkinetic, analyses indicate that the…

  4. Behavioural, Academic and Neuropsychological Profile of Normally Gifted Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descheemaeker, M.-J.; Ghesquiere, P.; Symons, H.; Fryns, J. P.; Legius, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study the neuropsychological, academic and social-emotional profiles were examined in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) children. Subjects: 17 NF1 children (ages 7-11) with NF1 without serious medical problems and with a full scale IQ (FSIQ) above 70. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), academic tests and an…

  5. NEUROLOGICAL AND MEDICAL FACTORS DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN NORMAL CHILDREN AND THOSE WITH LEARNING DISABILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORREST, THOMAS

    COMPREHENSIVE NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS WERE ADMINISTERED TO THE 264 CHILDREN DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS--EDUCATIONALLY HANDICAPPED (EH), SUCCESSFUL ACADEMIC (SA) CONTROLS, AND THE SIBLINGS OF EACH GROUP (EHS AND SAS). ON SEVERAL MEASURES AND TASKS THE EH CHILDREN WERE DIFFERENTIATED FROM THE SA CHILDREN, AND STRONG SIMILARITIES WERE ALSO FOUND…

  6. Effects of Noise on Speech Recognition and Listening Effort in Children With Normal Hearing and Children With Mild Bilateral or Unilateral Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Kendra; O'Leary, Samantha; Spalding, Jody; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; High, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the effects of stimulus type and hearing status on speech recognition and listening effort in children with normal hearing (NH) and children with mild bilateral hearing loss (MBHL) or unilateral hearing loss (UHL). Method Children (5–12 years of age) with NH (Experiment 1) and children (8–12 years of age) with MBHL, UHL, or NH (Experiment 2) performed consonant identification and word and sentence recognition in background noise. Percentage correct performance and verbal response time (VRT) were assessed (onset time, total duration). Results In general, speech recognition improved as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increased both for children with NH and children with MBHL or UHL. The groups did not differ on measures of VRT. Onset times were longer for incorrect than for correct responses. For correct responses only, there was a general increase in VRT with decreasing SNR. Conclusions Findings indicate poorer sentence recognition in children with NH and MBHL or UHL as SNR decreases. VRT results suggest that greater effort was expended when processing stimuli that were incorrectly identified. Increasing VRT with decreasing SNR for correct responses also supports greater effort in poorer acoustic conditions. The absence of significant hearing status differences suggests that VRT was not differentially affected by MBHL, UHL, or NH for children in this study. PMID:27784030

  7. [Lateral chest X-rays. Radiographic anatomy].

    PubMed

    García Villafañe, C; Pedrosa, C S

    2014-01-01

    Lateral chest views constitute an essential part of chest X-ray examinations, so it is fundamental to know the anatomy on these images and to be able to detect the variations manifested on these images in different diseases. The aim of this article is to review the normal anatomy and main normal variants seen on lateral chest views. For teaching purposes, we divide the thorax into different spaces and analyze each in an orderly way, especially emphasizing the anatomic details that are most helpful for locating lesions that have already been detected in the posteroanterior view or for detecting lesions that can be missed in the posteroanterior view.

  8. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Trærup, Maria; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2017-01-01

    Background Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. Objectives To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2–6 years. Methods Data was obtained from the “Healthy Start” intervention study which included 271 children aged 2–6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders. Results No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P = 0.68) and little picky/non-picky (P = 0.68) children at 15 month follow-up. Picky children had a lower intake of protein (P = 0.01) than non-picky children despite no differences in total energy intake (P = 0.74), or in the other macronutrients, or the intake of fruit and vegetables, though children being a little picky had a lower intake of starch compared to non-picky children (P = 0.05). Results were essentially similar before and after adjustment for key covariates. Conclusion Our study showed that BMI Z-score after 15 months follow-up was similar for picky and non-picky children. Picky children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition. PMID:28296896

  9. The Processing and Interpretation of Verb Phrase Ellipsis Constructions by Children at Normal and Slowed Speech Rates

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Sarah M.; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine children’s comprehension of verb phrase (VP) ellipsis constructions in light of their automatic, online structural processing abilities and conscious, metalinguistic reflective skill. Method Forty-two children ages 5 through 12 years listened to VP ellipsis constructions involving the strict/sloppy ambiguity (e.g., “The janitor untangled himself from the rope and the fireman in the elementary school did too after the accident.”) in which the ellipsis phrase (“did too”) had 2 interpretations: (a) strict (“untangled the janitor”) and (b) sloppy (“untangled the fireman”). We examined these sentences at a normal speech rate with an online cross-modal picture priming task (n = 14) and an offline sentence–picture matching task (n = 11). Both tasks were also given with slowed speech input (n = 17). Results Children showed priming for both the strict and sloppy interpretations at a normal speech rate but only for the strict interpretation with slowed input. Offline, children displayed an adultlike preference for the sloppy interpretation with normal-rate input but a divergent pattern with slowed speech. Conclusions Our results suggest that children and adults rely on a hybrid syntax-discourse model for the online comprehension and offline interpretation of VP ellipsis constructions. This model incorporates a temporally sensitive syntactic process of VP reconstruction (disrupted with slow input) and a temporally protracted discourse effect attributed to parallelism (preserved with slow input). PMID:22223886

  10. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n =53) to normal weight children (n=65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p=0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p=0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r=0.363, p<0.001), but no such association was found between fathers and children (r=0.019, p=0.864). Conclusion This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on

  11. Use of computerized tests to evaluate psychomotor performance in children with specific learning disabilities in comparison to normal children

    PubMed Central

    Taur, Santosh; Karande, Sunil; Saxena, Akriti A.; Gogtay, Nithya J.; Thatte, Urmila M.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) have an unexplained difficulty in acquiring basic academic skills resulting in a significant discrepancy between their academic potential and achievements. This study was undertaken to compare the performance on a battery of six psychomotor tests of children with SpLD and those without any learning disabilities (controls) using computerized tests. Methods: In this study, 25 children with SpLD and 25 controls (matched for age, socio-economic status and medium of instruction) were given three training sessions over one week. Then children were asked to perform on the six computerized psychomotor tests. Results were compared between the two groups. Results: Children with SpLD fared significantly worse on finger tapping test, choice reaction test, digit picture substitution test and card sorting test compared to the controls (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Children with SpLD have impairment of psychomotor skills like attention, sensory-motor coordination and executive functioning. Further research is needed to evaluate if the remedial education plan results in improvement in psychomotor performance of children with SpLD on these selected tests. PMID:25579146

  12. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  13. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  14. Anatomy comic strips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists.

  15. Psychometric data for the revised token test in normally developing Mexican children ages 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Geisa; Guàrdia, Joan; Villaseñor, Teresita; McNeil, Malcolm R

    2011-04-01

    Language comprehension is vital to social and educational development but few pediatric tests are available for its assessment. To approach this problem, two versions of the Token Test (TT), "TT short form" (DeRenzi & Faglioni, 1978) and "Revised Token Test" (RTT), were first compared. Using a sample of 88 normally developing Spanish-speaking children, the tests were compared on their: (a) established psychometric development and (b) internal consistency. The RTT was judged to be superior and was selected for additional experimentation. The RTT was compared with a developmental measure of lexical knowledge on a cross-sectional sample of 250 4-12-year-old normally developing Spanish-speaking children. A significant positive and high correlation supports its concurrent validity. Significant differences across the age groups, along with a principal component analysis that yielded a three-factor structure, support its construct validity. Preliminary normative data across the nine age groups are provided.

  16. Attaining and Maintaining Preparation: A Comparison of Attention in Hyperactive, Normal, and Disturbed Control Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachar, R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study compared performance on the Continuous Performance Task by 18 elementary grade children having attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH), 15 conduct disordered, 26 mixed conduct disorder and ADDH, 15 emotionally disturbed, 22 learning disabled, and 15 nondisabled students. Hyperactive children did not demonstrate a unique…

  17. Performance on a Test of Categorical Perception of Speech in Normal and Communication Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Linda M.; Sussman, Harvey M.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the relationship between production deficits and speech perception abilities. A categorical perception paradigm was administered to a group of communication disordered children and to a matched control group. Group results are tentatively interpreted as showing a moderate perceptual deficit in the communication disordered children of this…

  18. Differentiating Reading Disabled from Normal Children with the Visual Discrimination Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melowsky, Fred; Ray, Joseph B.

    A comparison of test results on the Visual Discrimination Test was made between a group of 22 reading disabled children and 22 children who were reading on or above grade level. Both groups were of average or above-average intelligence and the two groups were matched for age and sex. The mean age was 10 years and 3 months and all the reading…

  19. Cerebral Asymmetry for Verbal and Nonverbal Sounds in Normal Literate and Illiterate Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargha-Khadem, F.; And Others

    A preliminary experiment was conducted to explore the effects of illiteracy on hemispheric specialization. Groups of literate and illiterate Iranian children were tested on three dichotic tapes consisting of monosyllabic animal names, double-digit numbers, and nonverbal environmental sounds. All children were also tested for handedness and for…

  20. Evaluation of sympathetic nervous system and adrenomedullary activity in normal children.

    PubMed

    Armando, I; Levin, G; Barontini, M

    1983-05-01

    In 22 healthy children heart rate, blood pressure and plasma levels of epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) were evaluated under basal conditions and in response to standing (5 min). Basal plasma E and NE levels found in these children were (means +/- S.E.M.) 139 +/- 17.9 pg/ml and 236 +/- 31.0 pg/ml respectively. Ten out of the 22 children reported dizziness and discomfort by the end of the 5 min standing period. These children showed not only a greater decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure but also a lower basal heart rate, a tendency to higher basal NE levels and a blunted plasma NE response (23 +/- 7%) when compared with children not reporting symptoms (60 +/- 9%, P less than 0.01). Plasma E levels also showed an increment although a wide range of individual responses was observed in both groups.

  1. Neural substrates of a schizotypal spectrum in typically-developing children: Further evidence of a normal-pathological continuum.

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Michael, Andrew M; Ularević, Mirko; Lusk, Laina G; Buirkle, Julia M; Moore, Gregory J

    2016-12-15

    Schizophrenia represents the extreme end of a distribution of traits that extends well into the general population. Using a recently developed measure of psychotic-like traits in children, we examined the neural substrates of psychotic (and other psychiatric) symptoms using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-eight typically-developing children (14 males) between the ages of 6-17 years underwent a 3T MRI scan. Parents completed the Psychiatric and Schizotypal Inventory for Children. Results revealed that caudate, amygdala, hippocampal and middle temporal gyrus volumes were associated with quantitative dimensions of psychiatric traits. Furthermore, results suggest a differential a sexually-dimorphic pattern of brain-schizotypy associations. These findings highlight brain-behavior continuities between clinical conditions such as schizophrenia and normal trait variation in typical development.

  2. Investigating the relationship between FMR1 allele length and cognitive ability in children: a subtle effect of the normal allele range on the normal ability range?

    PubMed

    Loat, C S; Craig, G; Plomin, R; Craig, I W

    2006-09-01

    The FMR1 gene contains a trinucleotide repeat tract which can expand from a normal size of around 30 repeats to over 200 repeats, causing mental retardation (Fragile X Syndrome). Evidence suggests that premutation males (55-200 repeats) are susceptible to a late-onset tremor/ataxia syndrome and females to premature ovarian failure, and that intermediate alleles ( approximately 41-55 repeats) and premutations may be in excess in samples with special educational needs. We explored the relationship between FMR1 allele length and cognitive ability in 621 low ability and control children assessed at 4 and 7 years, as well as 122 students with high IQ. The low and high ability and control samples showed no between-group differences in incidence of longer alleles. In males there was a significant negative correlation between allele length and non-verbal ability at 4 years (p = 0.048), academic achievement in maths (p = 0.003) and English (p = 0.011) at 7 years, and IQ in the high ability group (p = 0.018). There was a significant negative correlation between allele length and a standardised score for IQ and general cognitive ability at age 7 in the entire male sample (p = 0.002). This suggests that, within the normal spectrum of allele length, increased repeat numbers may have a limiting influence on cognitive performance.

  3. An Investigation of Spatial Hearing in Children with Normal Hearing and with Cochlear Implants and the Impact of Executive Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misurelli, Sara M.

    The ability to analyze an "auditory scene"---that is, to selectively attend to a target source while simultaneously segregating and ignoring distracting information---is one of the most important and complex skills utilized by normal hearing (NH) adults. The NH adult auditory system and brain work rather well to segregate auditory sources in adverse environments. However, for some children and individuals with hearing loss, selectively attending to one source in noisy environments can be extremely challenging. In a normal auditory system, information arriving at each ear is integrated, and thus these binaural cues aid in speech understanding in noise. A growing number of individuals who are deaf now receive cochlear implants (CIs), which supply hearing through electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. In particular, bilateral cochlear implants (BICIs) are now becoming more prevalent, especially in children. However, because CI sound processing lacks both fine structure cues and coordination between stimulation at the two ears, binaural cues may either be absent or inconsistent. For children with NH and with BiCIs, this difficulty in segregating sources is of particular concern because their learning and development commonly occurs within the context of complex auditory environments. This dissertation intends to explore and understand the ability of children with NH and with BiCIs to function in everyday noisy environments. The goals of this work are to (1) Investigate source segregation abilities in children with NH and with BiCIs; (2) Examine the effect of target-interferer similarity and the benefits of source segregation for children with NH and with BiCIs; (3) Investigate measures of executive function that may predict performance in complex and realistic auditory tasks of source segregation for listeners with NH; and (4) Examine source segregation abilities in NH listeners, from school-age to adults.

  4. Anatomy, development, and physiology of the visual system.

    PubMed

    Edward, Deepak P; Kaufman, Lawrence M

    2003-02-01

    This article serves to familiarize the reader with the normal anatomy, embryology, and physiology of the visual system. Other articles in this issue introduce examination techniques and the pathology of the eyes of pediatric patients.

  5. Body movement and inattention in learning-disabled and normal children.

    PubMed

    Rugel, R P; Cheatam, D; Mitchell, A

    1978-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to test various aspects of an optimal level of arousal model of hyperactivity in learning-disabled children. Vigilance performance and level of body movement were measured while learning-disabled and control children performed in an auditory vigilance task. The results suggested that body movement increased throughout the vigilance task, increased rates of external stimulation result in decreased level of body movement, and learning-disabled children differed from controls in showing higher levels of body movement and poorer vigilance performance. The results were discussed in terms of changes in arousal level and compensatory stimulus-seeking behavior.

  6. Fructose-induced hyperuricemia: observations in normal children and in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance and galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Kogut, M D; Roe, T F; Ng, W; Nonnel, G N

    1975-10-01

    After the infusion of fructose, 0.25 g/kg body wt, the mean peak plasma uric acid level was 5.4 +/- 0.7 (SEM) mg/100 ml in six normal children and was not significantly increased compared with that of the mean basal value of 4.1 +/- 0.5 mg/100 ml. The mean blood inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels were significantly less than the mean fasting value after fructose. Blood glucose, lactic acid, and fructose levels were significantly increased after fructose, but serum magnesium levels did not change. In two patients with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) the peak blood uric acid levels were 12.1 and 7.6 mg/100 ml, respectively, after fructose. In both patients the blood glucose concentrations decreased 69 and 26 mg/100 ml below the fasting levels after fructose. The serum Pi level decreased 2.3 and 1.2 mg/100 ml below fasting values, decrements greater than the mean decrement in serum Pi of 0.8 +/- 0.2 mg/100 ml which occurred in six normal children. The mean uric acid excretion, expressed as milligrams per mg urinary creatinine, was 0.6 +/- 0.1 (SEM) before fructose in the normal children and increased significantly to 1.0 +/- mg/mg creatinine after fructose. In two patients with HFI the uric acid excretion increased four- to fivefold after fructose administration; the increased uric acid excretion in HFI exceeded that of normal children. In three patients with galactosemia, increases in blood uric acid levels after galactose ingestion were similar to those in normal children after fructose, but less than those in patients with HFI after fructose. The serum Pi levels decreased less in galactosemic patients after galactose administration than in patients with HFI after fructose infusion. These studies support the hypothesis that fructose-induced hyperuricemia results from degradation of adenosine monophosphate. This effect appears to be specific for fructose. The lack of hyperruricemia in galactosemia patients after galactose ingestion may be explained by the

  7. Initial Stop Voicing in Bilingual Children With Cochlear Implants and Their Typically Developing Peers With Normal Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth; Procter, Amanda; Hernandez, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study focuses on stop voicing differentiation in bilingual children with normal hearing (NH) and their bilingual peers with hearing loss who use cochlear implants (CIs). Method Twenty-two bilingual children participated in our study (11 with NH, M age = 5;1 [years;months], and 11 with CIs, M hearing age = 5;1). The groups were matched on hearing age and a range of demographic variables. Single-word picture elicitation was used with word-initial singleton stop consonants. Repeated measures analyses of variance with three within-subject factors (language, stop voicing, and stop place of articulation) and one between-subjects factor (NH vs. CI user) were conducted with voice onset time and percentage of prevoiced stops as dependent variables. Results Main effects were statistically significant for language, stop voicing, and stop place of articulation on both voice onset time and prevoicing. There were no significant main effects for NH versus CI groups. Both children with NH and with CIs differentiated stop voicing in their languages and by stop place of articulation. Stop voicing differentiation was commensurate across the groups of children with NH versus CIs. Conclusions Stop voicing differentiation is accomplished in a similar fashion by bilingual children with NH and CIs, and both groups differentiate stop voicing in a language-specific fashion. PMID:27366990

  8. Physical activity during soccer and its contribution to physical activity recommendations in normal weight and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Sacheck, Jennifer M; Nelson, Tara; Ficker, Laura; Kafka, Tamar; Kuder, Julia; Economos, Christina D

    2011-05-01

    Amid the childhood obesity epidemic, understanding how organized sports participation contributes to meeting physical activity recommendations in children is important. Anthropometrics were measured in children (n = 111; 68% female, 9.1 ± 0.8 yr) before one 50-min soccer match. Time spent at different physical activity intensity levels was examined using Actigraph accelerometers. 49% of the match time was spent in sedentary activity (25.4 ± 5.7 min), while 33% of the match (16.9 ± 4.7 min) was spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA; p < .001). 22.5% of the children were overweight/obese and spent more time in sedentary activity (+3.2 ± 1.2 min; p < .05) and less time in MVPA (-3.0 ± 1.0 min; p < .01) compared with the normal weight children. These data demonstrate that playing an organized sport such as soccer only meets a portion (~25%) of the 60 min of MVPA recommended and even less of this recommendation is met by overweight/obese children.

  9. Child temperament, parent affect, and feeding in normal and overweight preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite overwhelming evidence showing that parent emotional affect impacts parenting directives and child outcomes, little research has focused on the influence of parent affect on feeding as a mechanism in shaping children's eating patterns. Utilizing an instrument characterizing parent strategies ...

  10. Evaluation of Serum Lead Levels in Children with Constipation and Normal Controls in Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maleknejad, Shohreh; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Rahbar, Morteza; Safaei, Afshin; Ghomashpasand, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Objective Constipation is a major debilitating problem in children. We aimed to assess the serum lead levels of 2-13 year-old children complaining from constipation who referred to our center in Guilan province, Northern Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was done on ninety 2-13 year-old children referring to 17th Shahrivar Hospital, complaining from constipation (case group) and 90 healthy children The demographic data as well as the children's serum lead levels were evaluated and recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Chi-square test was used as applicable. Findings Lead poisoning was significantly more frequent in the case group (37.8%) compared with the control group (8.9%). The frequency of lead poisoning in the case group compared with the control group, was significantly higher in children <7 years old (40.2% vs. 10%), boys (40.9% vs. 9.3%), girls (34.8% vs 8.3%), residents of old houses (43.1% vs. 9.7%), residents of new houses (28.1% vs. 8.5%), residents of low-traffic areas (26.8% vs. 5.3%), urban residents (40.5% vs. 9.9%), children whose fathers had low risk (33.3% vs. 10.9%) and high risk jobs (40.7% vs. 3.8%). Conclusion The frequency of lead poisoning was higher in children suffering from constipation.No significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to their sex, age, father's job, and living in urban or rural areas. PMID:24427495

  11. Anatomy and physiology of the female pelvis: MR imaging revisited.

    PubMed

    Togashi, K; Nakai, A; Sugimura, K

    2001-06-01

    This article reviews the normal anatomy of the female pelvis and focuses on uterine physiology, presenting the kinematics of the uterus that can be identified on ultra-fast MR imaging. It also discusses the many facets of the junctional zone on MR imaging. Ultra-fast MR imaging seems to be a powerful tool for evaluating normal anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the uterus. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2001;13:842-849.

  12. Disinhibited Social Engagement in Postinstitutionalized Children: Differentiating Normal from Atypical Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, Jamie M.; Hostinar, Camelia E.; Mliner, Shanna B.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly reported socially aberrant behavior in postinstitutionalized (PI) children is disinhibited social engagement (DSE; also known as indiscriminate friendliness). There is no gold standard for measurement of this phenomenon or agreement on how to differentiate it from normative behavior. We adopted a developmental psychopathology approach (Cicchetti, 1984) to study this phenomenon by comparing it to normative social development and by studying its patterns over time in 50 newly adopted PI children (16–36 months at adoption) compared with 41 children adopted early from foster care overseas and 47 nonadopted (NA) controls. Using coded behavioral observations of the child’s interaction with an unfamiliar adult, atypical behaviors were differentiated from normative behaviors. Principal components analysis identified two dimensions of social disinhibition. The nonphysical social dimension (e.g., initiations, proximity) showed wide variation in NA children and is therefore considered a typical form of sociability. Displays of physical contact and intimacy were rare in NA children, suggesting that they represent an atypical pattern of behavior. Both adopted groups demonstrated more physical DSE behavior than NA children. There were no group differences on the nonphysical factor, and it increased over time in all groups. Implications for understanding the etiology of DSE and future directions are discussed. PMID:24621789

  13. Skull Base Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base.

  14. Craniopagus twins: surgical anatomy and embryology and their implications.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, J E

    1976-01-01

    Craniopagus is of two types, partial and total. In the partial form the union is of limited extent, particularly as regards its depth, and separation can be expected to be followed by the survival of both children to lead normal lives. In the total form, of which three varieties can be recognized, the two brains can be regarded as lying within a single cranium and a series of gross intracranial abnormalities develops. These include deformity of the skull base, deformity and displacement of the cerebrum, and a gross circulatory abnormality. It is considered that these and other abnormalities, unlike the primary defect, which is defined, are secondary ones; explanations for them, based on anatomy and embryology, are put forward. The implications of the various anomalies are discussed and the ethical aspects of attempted separation in these major unions considered. Images PMID:1255206

  15. Validity and Reliability of Published Comprehensive Theory of Mind Tests for Normal Preschool Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ziatabar Ahmadi, Seyyede Zohreh; Jalaie, Shohreh; Ashayeri, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Theory of mind (ToM) or mindreading is an aspect of social cognition that evaluates mental states and beliefs of oneself and others. Validity and reliability are very important criteria when evaluating standard tests; and without them, these tests are not usable. The aim of this study was to systematically review the validity and reliability of published English comprehensive ToM tests developed for normal preschool children. Method: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed interface), Web of Science, Science direct, PsycINFO, and also evidence base Medicine (The Cochrane Library) databases from 1990 to June 2015. Search strategy was Latin transcription of ‘Theory of Mind’ AND test AND children. Also, we manually studied the reference lists of all final searched articles and carried out a search of their references. Inclusion criteria were as follows: Valid and reliable diagnostic ToM tests published from 1990 to June 2015 for normal preschool children; and exclusion criteria were as follows: the studies that only used ToM tests and single tasks (false belief tasks) for ToM assessment and/or had no description about structure, validity or reliability of their tests. Methodological quality of the selected articles was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Result: In primary searching, we found 1237 articles in total databases. After removing duplicates and applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 11 tests for this systematic review. Conclusion: There were a few valid, reliable and comprehensive ToM tests for normal preschool children. However, we had limitations concerning the included articles. The defined ToM tests were different in populations, tasks, mode of presentations, scoring, mode of responses, times and other variables. Also, they had various validities and reliabilities. Therefore, it is recommended that the researchers and clinicians select the ToM tests according to their psychometric characteristics

  16. Role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility.

    PubMed

    Harris-Glocker, Miranda; McLaren, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is defined as a couple's failure to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. The etiology of infertility can be due to female factors, male factors, combined male and female factors, or have an unknown etiology. This review focuses on the role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility. Normal anatomy and the physiology of reproduction will be discussed, as well as the anatomic and pathophysiologic processes that cause infertility including ovulatory disorders, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, tubal blockage, mullerian anomalies, and abnormalities affecting the uterine cavity such as leiomyomata and endometrial polyps.

  17. Anatomy and biomechanics of the craniovertebral junction.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Alejandro J; Scheer, Justin K; Leibl, Kayla E; Smith, Zachary A; Dlouhy, Brian J; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2015-04-01

    The craniovertebral junction (CVJ) has unique anatomical structures that separate it from the subaxial cervical spine. In addition to housing vital neural and vascular structures, the majority of cranial flexion, extension, and axial rotation is accomplished at the CVJ. A complex combination of osseous and ligamentous supports allow for stability despite a large degree of motion. An understanding of anatomy and biomechanics is essential to effectively evaluate and address the various pathological processes that may affect this region. Therefore, the authors present an up-to-date narrative review of CVJ anatomy, normal and pathological biomechanics, and fixation techniques.

  18. The contralateral foot in children with unilateral clubfoot, is the unaffected side normal?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Anthony; Chhina, Harpreet; Howren, Alyssa; Alvarez, Christine

    2014-07-01

    The unilateral unaffected clubfoot has previously been used as a control in longitudinal studies of clubfoot outcomes. However, we have observed that the unaffected clubfoot does not necessarily exhibit the same pedobarographic measurements as seen in normal control subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the unaffected foot is indeed normal or if there are differences in the pedobarographic measurements of the unaffected foot compared to healthy normal controls.The Tekscan HR Mat™ was used to dynamically test the walking pattern of 103 subjects with unilateral clubfeet and compare the results to our previously published series of normal controls. Patients were divided into three groups: Group 1 (< 2 years), Group 2 (2-5 years) and Group 3 (>5 years). An unpaired t-test (p < 0.05) was used to compare percentage of stance at initiation of force, the percentage of stance at maximum force, the percentage of stance at termination of force, the maximum percentage force and the average force/time integral between a group of normal age matched controls and the unaffected foot in patients with unilateral clubfoot. Significant differences were identified between the unaffected side and normal controls for the pressure distribution, order of initial contact and foot contact time. These differences evolved and changed with age. The pedobarographic measurements of patients with clubfoot are not normal for the unaffected foot. As such the unaffected foot should not be referred to as normal, nor should it be used as a control.

  19. [Septic arthritis in children with normal initial C-reactive protein: clinical and biological features].

    PubMed

    Basmaci, R; Ilharreborde, B; Bonacorsi, S; Kahil, M; Mallet, C; Aupiais, C; Doit, C; Dugué, S; Lorrot, M

    2014-11-01

    Septic arthritis has to be suspected in children with joint effusion and fever so as to perform joint aspiration, which will confirm the diagnosis by bacteriological methods, and to perform surgical treatment by joint lavage. Since development of current molecular methods, such as real-time PCR, Kingella kingae has become the first microbial agent of osteoarticular infections in young children, whereas Staphylococcus aureus is second. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an aid used to diagnose septic arthritis, but its elevation could be moderate. In a previous study, conducted at our hospital, 10% of children hospitalized for S. aureus or K. kingae septic arthritis had a CRP level<10 mg/L. To determine if diagnosis of septic arthritis could be made by other parameters, we analyzed the clinical and biologic features of these patients and compared them to those of children hospitalized for septic arthritis with initial CRP ≥10 mg/L. Among the 89 children with septic arthritis, 10% (n=9) had initial CRP<10 mg/L (K. kingae, n=5/63 ; S. aureus, n=4/26). Initial temperature and fibrinogen were significantly lower in the CRP<10 mg/L group than in the other (37.3°C vs. 37.9°C, P=0.039 and 4.19 vs. 5.72 g/L, P=0.003, respectively). Age, symptom duration before diagnosis, as well as leukocyte and platelet counts were similar in both groups. Two children (2/89=2.2%) with S. aureus septic arthritis had no fever, CRP elevation, or fibrinogen elevation. In the CRP-negative group, three of four children with S. aureus arthritis and one of five with K. kingae arthritis had a high CRP level (34, 40, 61, and 13 mg/L, respectively) 3 days after surgery and antibiotic treatment. One child with K. kingae septic arthritis and initial CRP<10 mg/L needed a second surgical drainage because of relapse of arthritis. In the S. aureus arthritis group, none of the children with initial CRP<10 mg/L experienced complications, while six of those with initial CRP≥10 mg/L needed a second surgical act

  20. Assessing Multimodal Spoken Word-in-Sentence Recognition in Children with Normal Hearing and Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Rachael Frush; Kirk, Karen Iler; Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children. Method: Two experiments were undertaken. In Experiment 1, the youngest age with which the multimodal sentence recognition materials could be used was evaluated. In Experiment 2, lexical difficulty and presentation modality effects were examined, along with test-retest…

  1. Asymmetric Deterioration of Spatial Awareness with Diminishing Levels of Alertness in Normal Children and Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobler, V. B.; Anker, S.; Gilmore, J.; Robertson, I. H.; Atkinson, J.; Manly, T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is growing literature suggesting that some children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can show a significant bias in attention away from left space. Here we examine mechanisms that may underpin these effects in both clinical and non-clinical child populations. Unilateral spatial inattention…

  2. Establishing and Maintaining Cooperative Behavior Among Autistic Children and Among Normal Children - Both Groups Having Been Classified as "Hopeless."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackel, Denis S. J.

    Two experiments are reported: one with autistic children in a day-care treatment program. the other with "hopeless" rating behavior in a grade six school setting. Although the samples were small (seven in the autistic group, 43 in the sixth grade group), the results indicated conclusively the increased rate of cooperative responses and decrease of…

  3. Different Effects of Adding White Noise on Cognitive Performance of Sub-, Normal and Super-Attentive School Children

    PubMed Central

    Helps, Suzannah K.; Bamford, Susan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Söderlund, Göran B. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), auditory white noise (WN) can alter the “signal to noise” ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA) model postulates different levels of internal “neural noise” in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case–with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability. Methods Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25); normal- (N = 29) and sub-attentive (N = 36) children (aged 8 to 10 years). Two non-executive function (EF) tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task) and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task) were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations. Results There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children’s performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group. Significance The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention. PMID:25393410

  4. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  5. Anatomy and art.

    PubMed

    Laios, Konstantinos; Tsoukalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2013-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci, Jean Falcon, Andreas Vesalius, Henry Gray, Henry Vandyke Carter and Frank Netter created some of the best atlases of anatomy. Their works constitute not only scientific medical projects but also masterpieces of art.

  6. Obesity is positively associated with dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations at 7 y in Chilean children of normal birth weight123

    PubMed Central

    Uauy, Ricardo; Mericq, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    Background: In low-birth-weight girls, obesity increases the risk of premature adrenarche and metabolic complications. However, the consistency of this association in normal-birth-weight children and its potential mediators remain unknown. Objectives: The objectives were to assess the associations between obesity indicators and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) at 7 y of age and to evaluate the role of hormonal markers on these associations. Design: We assessed in 969 participants (6.9 y; 48% girls; all Tanner I) in the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study the associations between DHEAS and weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, skinfold thickness, and percentage total fat (bioimpedance) and determined whether these associations were related to insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and leptin. We also compared BMI and height growth from 0 to 7 y of age in nonobese and obese children with normal and high DHEAS (≥75th percentile) at 7 y. Results: DHEAS concentrations were similar between girls (30.3 ±1.86 μg/dL) and boys (29.4 ±1.73 μg/dL) (P > 0.05); 17.3% of children were obese (BMI-for-age z score ≥2 SD). Adiposity indicators were positively and similarly associated with DHEAS [ie, BMI, β standardized regression coefficient: 0.23 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.29); WC, β standardized regression coefficient: 0.23 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.30)]; these associations were only partially related to IGF-I and leptin. Obese children had twice the risk of high DHEAS (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.51, 3.09); at 7 y, obese children with high DHEAS were fatter and more centrally obese than their counterparts (P < 0.05), although their previous growth was similar (P > 0.05). None of the results differed by sex (P > 0.05). Conclusion: In children of normal birth weight, obesity is positively associated with DHEAS at 7 y of age. PMID:23283497

  7. The Relationship of the Bronchodilator Response (BDR) Phenotype to Poor Asthma Control in Children with Normal Spirometry

    PubMed Central

    Galant, Stanley P.; Morphew, Tricia; Newcomb, Robert L.; Hioe, Kiem; Guijon, Olga; Liao, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of poor asthma control to bronchodilator response (BDR) phenotypes in children with normal spirometry. Methods Asthmatic children were assessed for clinical indices of poorly controlled asthma. Pre and post bronchodilator spirometry were performed and the percent BDR determined. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the relationship of the clinical indices to BDR at ≥8%, ≥10% and ≥12% BDR thresholds. Results There were 510 controller naïve, and 169 on controller medication. In the controller naïve population the mean age (± 1SD) was 9.5 (3.4), 57.1% were male, 85.7% Hispanic. Demographics were similar in both populations. In the adjusted profile, significant clinical relationships were found particularly to positive BDR phenotypes ≥10% and ≥12% versus negative responses including younger age, (odds ratios (OR) 2.0, 2.5; P <.05), atopy (OR 1.9, 2.6;P< .01), nocturnal symptoms in females (OR 3.4, 3.8;P< .01); beta2 agonist use (OR 1.7, 2.8;P< .01); and exercise limitation (OR 2.2, 2.5;P< .01) only in the controller naïve population. Conclusions The BDR phenotype ≥10% is significantly related to poor asthma control providing a potentially useful objective tool in controller naïve children even when prebronchodilator spirometry is normal. PMID:21232757

  8. Stimulating a normal adjustment: misbehavior, amphetamines, and the electroencephalogram at the Bradley Home for children.

    PubMed

    Bromley, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article uses an historical case study to describe the influence of social and contextual factors on the adoption of somatic approaches to children's misbehavior. The child guidance movement and the emergence of medicalized residential treatment facilities for children influenced the theoretical orientations of physicians treating children's behavior disorders in the United States in the 1930s. Charles Bradley and his colleagues at the Bradley Home in Rhode Island defined behavior disorders in social terms but investigated and treated misbehavior with somatic tools. The use of amphetamines and the electroencephalogram reorganized concepts of maladjustment along neurological lines, even as the research relied on the Home's social priorities. Electroencephalographic investigations especially shaped an organic concept of misbehavior. Ultimately, the somatic orientation obscured the central role of local context in Bradley Home physicians' research.

  9. Differences in the perceived music pleasantness between monolateral cochlear implanted and normal hearing children assessed by EEG.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, G; Maglione, A G; Scorpecci, A; Malerba, P; Graziani, I; Cherubino, P; Astolfi, L; Marsella, P; Colosimo, A; Babiloni, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The perception of the music in cochlear implanted (CI) patients is an important aspect of their quality of life. In fact, the pleasantness of the music perception by such CI patients can be analyzed through a particular analysis of EEG rhythms. Studies on healthy subjects show that exists a particular frontal asymmetry of the EEG alpha rhythm which can be correlated with pleasantness of the perceived stimuli (approach-withdrawal theory). In particular, here we describe differences between EEG activities estimated in the alpha frequency band for a monolateral CI group of children and a normal hearing one during the fruition of a musical cartoon. The results of the present analysis showed that the alpha EEG asymmetry patterns related to the normal hearing group refers to a higher pleasantness perception when compared to the cerebral activity of the monolateral CI patients. In fact, the present results support the statement that a monolateral CI group could perceive the music in a less pleasant way when compared to normal hearing children.

  10. Physical activity, aerobic fitness, self-perception, and dietary intake in at risk of overweight and normal weight children.

    PubMed

    Ball, Geoff D C; Marshall, J Dru; McCargar, Linda J

    2005-01-01

    Differences in physical activity, aerobic fitness, self-perception, and dietary intake were examined in a sample of six- to ten-year-olds at risk of overweight, and in normal weight boys and girls. Participants (n=20 at risk of overweight [BMI > or =85th percentile]; n=115 normal weight [BMI <85th percentile]; n=68 boys; n=67 girls) had anthropometric, physical activity, aerobic fitness, self-perception, and dietary intake measurements at zero, three, six, and 12 months. Over the 12-month period, normal weight children were more physically active (F=4.1, p<0.05) and aerobically fit (F=14.3, p<0.001), and possessed higher self-perceptions of social acceptance (F=7.3, p<0.01) than their at risk of overweight peers. Fitness differences between the sexes were not apparent at baseline, but emerged over the long term (F=7.9, p<0.01). Overall, boys consumed more total energy, fat, carbohydrate, and protein than did girls, while the entire sample consumed diets low in vegetables and fruits and meat and alternatives, and high in "other" foods. These observations highlight key disparities in lifestyle-related behaviours and perceptions between groups of children according to overweight status and sex. The findings underscore the importance of longitudinal studies in youth because cross-sectional studies may reflect transient differences.

  11. Normal Rates of Neuroradiological Findings in Children with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasa, Roma A.; Ranta, Marin; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Pinto, Pedro S.; Tillman, Rachael M.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to analyze highly specific volumetric and morphological features of the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, there are few comprehensive studies examining the prevalence of neuroradiologic findings seen on routine MRI scans in children with ASD. This study examined the…

  12. Mathematical Thinking Intervention Programmes for Preschool Children with Normal and Low Number Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunio, Pirjo; Hautamaki, Jarkko; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the level of preschoolers number sense by introducing two intervention programmes, "Lets think!" and "Young children with special educational needs count, too!" Forty-five preschoolers, mean age 66.4 months, were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The…

  13. School: The Normalizing Factor for Children with Childhood Leukemia. Perspectives of Young Survivors and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Nanci A.; Fulmer, Deborah L.; Zigmond, Naomi

    2001-01-01

    A study of 8 children (ages 5-7) with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia found returning to school was a major milestone and that school serves as the mechanism by which young survivors approach the process of living each day. Attendance obstacles are discussed, along with guidelines for maintaining school as a priority. (Contains references.) (CR)

  14. Behavior and Learning Difficulties in Children of Normal Intelligence Born to Alcoholic Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaywitz, Sally E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Children referred to the Learning Disorders Unit of the Yale-New Haven Hospital were evaluated for indications of prenatal exposure to ethanol. Our results suggest a continuum of teratogenic effects of ethanol on the central nervous system. Journal availability The C. V. Mosby Co., 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO 63141. (Author)

  15. The course of childhood anxiety symptoms: developmental trajectories and child-related factors in normal children.

    PubMed

    Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Baker, Jess R

    2013-01-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study explored developmental trajectories for various types of childhood anxiety symptoms (i.e., specific fears, social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and separation anxiety) and examined how these trajectories were associated with several factors thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. Parents of a community sample of 224 children aged 4 to 11 years repeatedly completed a standardized questionnaire of anxiety symptoms during a 2-year period. At Time 1, parents also filled out scales for measuring children's level of behavioral inhibition (BI), internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and prosocial behaviors, while an interview was conducted with children to assess Theory-of-Mind (TOM) ability. Growth Mixture Modeling identified multiple developmental trajectories in childhood anxiety symptoms of which the 'stable-low' or 'stable-medium' reflected the normative trajectories. Further, multinomial regression analyses indicated that the higher developmental trajectories of anxiety were associated with higher levels of BI and internalizing symptoms at Time 1. In sum, results show heterogeneity in the development of anxiety symptoms and underline the importance of early prevention programs for children at high risk for developing an anxiety disorder.

  16. Early Behavioral Intervention Is Associated with Normalized Brain Activity in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Jones, Emily J. H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Faja, Susan; Kamara, Dana; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Smith, Milani; Rogers, Sally J.; Webb, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A previously published randomized clinical trial indicated that a developmental behavioral intervention, the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), resulted in gains in IQ, language, and adaptive behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. This report describes a secondary outcome measurement from this trial, EEG activity. Method:…

  17. Ulnar intrinsic anatomy and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul C; Sforzo, Christopher R

    2005-01-01

    Normal hand function is a balance between the extrinsic and intrinsic musculature. Although individually the intrinsics are small muscles in diameter, collectively they represent a large muscle that contributes approximately 50% of grip strength. Dysfunction of the intrinsics consequently leads to impaired grip and pinch strength as well recognized deformities. Low ulnar nerve palsy preserves ulnar innervated extrinsics resulting in sensory loss, digital clawing, thumb deformity, abduction of the small finger, and asynchronous finger motion. High ulnar nerve palsy is characterized by the above plus paralysis of the ulnar profundi and the flexor carpi ulnaris. Understanding the normal anatomy allows the clinician to identify the site of the lesion and plan appropriate surgical intervention. This article revisits the classic work of Richard J. Smith on ulnar nerve palsy with contemporary perspective.

  18. Multimodal Body Representation of Obese Children and Adolescents before and after Weight-Loss Treatment in Comparison to Normal-Weight Children

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Helene; Dammann, Dirk; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin; Junne, Florian; Enck, Paul; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Mack, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate whether obese children and adolescents have a disturbed body representation as compared to normal-weight participants matched for age and gender and whether their body representation changes in the course of an inpatient weight-reduction program. Methods Sixty obese (OBE) and 27 normal-weight (NW) children and adolescents (age: 9–17) were assessed for body representation using a multi-method approach. Therefore, we assessed body size estimation, tactile size estimation, heartbeat detection accuracy, and attitudes towards one’s own body. OBE were examined upon admission and before discharge of an inpatient weight-reduction program. NW served as cross-sectional control group. Results Body size estimation and heartbeat detection accuracy were similar in OBE and NW. OBE overestimated sizes in tactile size estimation and were more dissatisfied with their body as compared to NW. In OBE but not in NW, several measures of body size estimation correlated with negative body evaluation. After weight-loss treatment, OBE had improved in heartbeat detection accuracy and were less dissatisfied with their body. None of the assessed variables predicted weight-loss success. Conclusions Although OBE children and adolescents generally perceived their body size and internal status of the body accurately, weight reduction improved their heartbeat detection accuracy and body dissatisfaction. PMID:27875563

  19. Attentional capacity, a probe ERP study: differences between children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and normal control children and effects of methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, L M; Kemner, C; Verbaten, M N; Van Engeland, H; Camfferman, G; Buitelaar, J K; Koelega, H S

    2000-05-01

    In the present study it was investigated whether the smaller P3s in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children are caused by a shortage of capacity underlying P3 processes or whether they are due to a capacity allocation problem. Also, effects of methylphenidate on these processes were investigated. Performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) of 14 ADHD and 14 control children were measured using an irrelevant-probe technique. Three types of task irrelevant visual probes (standards, deviants, and novels) were presented against the background of two visual tasks that varied in task difficulty. The parietal P3 wave was measured in response to task stimuli and probes. ADHD subjects made significantly fewer correct detections than normal controls in both the easy and the hard tasks. Controls showed an enhanced P3 to task-relevant stimuli in the hard task, whereas ADHD children did not. Probe (novel) P3 amplitudes decreased from the easy to the hard task to the same extent in both groups. Methylphenidate enhanced the percentage of correct responses and task P3 amplitudes in both the easy and the hard task but probe P3 amplitudes were not influenced by methylphenidate. It was concluded that ADHD children do not suffer from a shortage in attentional capacity; rather, the evidence is in favor of a problem with capacity allocation. Furthermore, methylphenidate had enhancing effects on performance and ERPs, but did not improve the capacity-allocation deficit.

  20. [Nutritional contribution of snacks to food patterns in school children who are overweight or obese compared to school children who are of normal weight in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Ibarra López, Marianela; Llobet León, Laia; Fernández Rojas, Xinia

    2012-12-01

    In order to assess the nutritional contribution of snacks to food patterns in school children, a sample of 80 Costa Rican elementary schoolchildren: 40 children who were overweight or obese (the case group) and 40 children with normal weight (the control group) were evaluated. The anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, and triceps skinfold thickness. Food patterns were determined using a 3-day food diary. Snacks consumed throughout the day were classified and analyzed according to their place of preparation and location of consumption and to the time of the day in which they were consumed. The results of this study revealed that "afternoon snacks" and "snacks prepared and eaten at home" were the most frequently consumed snacks by both case and control groups. The girls in the case group had a significantly larger intake of energy and carbohydrates in their "afternoon snacks" and the "snacks prepared and eaten at home" as compared to girls in the control group. Boys in the case group showed a significantly greater consumption of saturated fat in the "snacks prepared and eaten at home" as compared to boys in the control group. It was concluded that the intake of "afternoon snacks" and of those "prepared and eaten at home" could be related with the incidence of overweight/obesity in the sample of study and therefore nutrition education aimed at parents and children is crucial and could play an important role in its prevention.

  1. [Effects of tilt test and beta-adrenergic stimulation on the QT interval in normal children and pediatric patients with unexplained syncope].

    PubMed

    Arnaiz, Pilar; Dumas, Eduardo; Heusser, Felipe; González, Rolando; Jalil, Jorge

    2004-02-01

    In normal children, any procedure that increases heart rate, such as the tilt test, may shorten the QT interval. The effect of the tilt test on QT interval in children with syncope remains unknown. We analyzed the response of RR and QT intervals during a tilt test in 3 groups of children: 28 healthy children (group 1), 26 with syncope of unknown etiology and negative tilt test results (group 2), and 17 with vasovagal syncope (group 3). During the tilt test, RR and QT intervals were significantly shortened in groups 1 and 2. In group 3, RR interval was lengthened during syncope whereas the QT interval remained constant. QT interval lengthening during the tilt test is not a characteristic finding in normal children or in children with vasovagal syncope.

  2. Effects of ambient ozone on respiratory function in active, normal children

    SciTech Connect

    Spektor, D.M.; Lippmann, M.; Lioy, P.J.; Thurston, G.D.; Citak, K.

    1988-01-01

    Respiratory functions were measured daily by spirometry over four weeks at a summer camp in northwestern New Jersey. Multiple regression analyses indicated that O{sub 3} concentration, cumulative daily O{sub 3} exposure, ambient temperature, and humidity were the most explanatory environmental variables for daily variations in function, and that O{sub 3} concentration had the strongest influence on FVC, PEFR, and MMEf. For FEV1, cumulative daily O{sub 3} exposure and heat stress had greater relative effects. Linear regressions were performed for each child between O{sub 3} concentration and function, and all average slopes were significantly negative (p <0.05) for PVC, FEV1, PEFR and MMEF for all children, and for boys and girls separately. The implications of these short-term effects are unknown. However, the results in these free living children are comparable to those found in chamber studies with comparable exposures.

  3. Neuromotor performance of normally developing left-handed children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rousson, Valentin; Gasser, Theo; Caflisch, Jon; Jenni, Oskar G

    2009-12-01

    Neuromotor functioning - i.e., timed performance and quality of movements - was examined in 66 left-handed children and adolescents between 5 and 18.5 years by means of the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment. Quality of movements was assessed by the degree and the frequency of associated movements. Results were compared to normative data from 593 right-handers. The overall scores for timed motor performance were similar for left-handers and right-handers, while left-handers had more associated movements than right-handers with both sides. In agreement with previous studies in adults, we found that left-handed children were less lateralized than right-handers. They performed faster with their non-dominant side and slower with their dominant side. This finding was roughly independent of age, which may indicate that handedness does not reflect long-term effects of previous motor experience, but may be primarily attributed to genetic factors.

  4. Nerdy, Brainy and Normal: Children's and Parents' Constructions of Those Who Are Highly Engaged with Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise; Osborne, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    There is a continuing international concern about a decline in the pursuit of post-compulsory science. One suggested cause concerns the role that young people's narrow perceptions of scientists may play in deterring them from pursuing science qualifications and careers. Research would suggest that the ages of 10-14 appear to be a critical period for the development of such views. This paper looks at the early part of this period, when general liking for science is high, although views on science careers as `not for me' also appear to be forming. Drawing on data collected from interviews conducted with 92 children and 78 parents (in which children described peers who are `really into' science and parents described those who are likely to pursue a career in science), we examine the constructions children and parents have of those who are highly engaged with science. In the interviews, participants evoked a range of constructions, some of which were closely aligned with traditional stereotypical images of science and scientists (e.g. as `geeky') while others moderated and/or challenged those images. Although very few participants held explicitly `negative' representations of science/scientists, our analysis shows how popular constructions of science as `specialist' and `clever' may feed into an understanding of science as different and not for me. It is argued that more work needs to be done to open up science as a field that is accessible `for all' and to increase students' awareness of the breadth of careers in and from science.

  5. Drawing Insight from Pictures: The Development of Concepts of False Drawing and False Belief in Children with Deafness, Normal Hearing, and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    2002-01-01

    Three studies examined theory-of-mind concepts among children ages 6-13 years with deafness or autism, and 4-year-olds with normal development. Findings indicated that while the children with deafness or autism scored significantly lower on standard tests of false belief understanding, they scored higher on even the most challenging drawing-based…

  6. Learning by ear: on the acquisition of case and gender marking by German-speaking children with normal hearing and with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Szagun, Gisela

    2004-02-01

    The acquisition of case and gender marking on the definite and indefinite article was studied in a sample of 6 normally-hearing children and 9 children xith cochlear implants. Longitudinal spontaneous speech data are used. Children were matched by MLU, with 4 MLU levels: 1.8, 2.8, 3.6, 4.8. Age ranges for normally-hearing children were 1-4 to 3-8 and for children with cochlear implants 1;8 to 7;0. Frequencies of correctly marked article forms increased over MLU but less so in the hearing-impaired group. In both groups error rates were high. However, error patterns were different. In normally-hearing children errors of case predominated, in hearing-impaired children errors of gender and omission. Error patterns suggest that in normally-hearing children syntactic categorization interacts with input frequency and low discriminability of article forms. In the hearing-impaired group the article system is less advanced, despite higher frequencies of definite articles in adult speech. The predominance of article omission is discussed in terms of persisting perceptual problems or a working memory deficit.

  7. Mentally Retarded and Normal Children's Performance on Gross Motor Reaction- and Movement-Time Tasks with Varying Degrees of Uncertainty of Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distefano, Emily A.; Brunt, Denis

    1982-01-01

    The effect of uncertainty of movement increased reaction time and movement time significantly in a simple task of running for mildly retarded eight- and ten-year old children. No change in performance was noted for normal children. (Author/PN)

  8. Verbal Recall of Auditory and Visual Signals by Normal and Deficient Reading Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Maureen Julianne

    Verbal recall of bisensory memory tasks was compared among 48 9- to 12-year old boys in three groups: normal readers, primary deficit readers, and secondary deficit readers. Auditory and visual stimulus pairs composed of digits, which incorporated variations of intersensory and intrasensory conditions were administered to Ss through a Bell and…

  9. COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY TRAINING WITH EDUCABLE RETARDED AND BRIGHT NORMAL CHILDREN OF THE SAME MENTAL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORTER, HAROLD M.; MCKINNEY, JAMES D.

    THE MAJOR PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DEVELOP A COGNITIVE TRAINING PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE MENTALLY RETARDED AND NORMAL SUBJECTS' PERFORMANCES ON FLEXIBILITY-TYPE TASKS AND GENERAL INTELLIGENCE TESTS. A TEST BATTERY OF FIVE TESTS (STENCIL DESIGN, EMBEDDED FIGURES, PICTURE ANOMALIES, OBJECT SORTING, AND TELL ABOUT THIS), DESIGNED TO MEASURE…

  10. The Effects of Rate Controlled Speech on the Listening Comprehension of Learning Disabled and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teach, Joan K.

    The study explored the differences in the abilities of 20 learning disabled (LD) students (6-8 years old) and 19 normal Ss to perform on listening tasks. In phase I, performance levels were assessed on the Goldman Fristoe Woodcock Test of Auditory Discrimination and a listening comprehension skill battery (the Durrell Listening-Reading Series,…

  11. [Laurentius on anatomy].

    PubMed

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2005-03-01

    Andreas Laurentius wrote Opera anatomica (1593) and Historia anatomica (1600). These books were composed of two types of chapters; 'historia' and 'quaestio'. His description is not original, but take from other anatomists. 'Historia' describes the structure, action and usefulness of the body parts clarified after dissection. 'Quaestio' treats those questions which could not be solved only by dissection. Laurentius cited many previous contradicting interpretations to these questions and choose a best interpretation for the individual questions. In most cases, Laurentius preferred Galen's view. Historia anatomica retained almost all the 'historia' and 'quaestio' from Opera anatomica, and added some new 'historia' and 'quaestio', especially in regard to the components of the body, such as ligaments, membranes, vessels, nerves and glands. Other new 'historia' and 'quaestio' in Historia anatomica concerned several topics on anatomy in general to comprehensively analyze the history of anatomy, methods of anatomy, and usefulness of anatomy. Historia anatomica reviewed what was anatomy by describing in 'historia' what was known and in 'quaestio' what was unresolved. Till now Laurentius's anatomical works have attracted little attention because his description contained few original findings and depended on previous books. However, the important fact that Historia anatomica was very popular in the 17th century tells us that people needed non-original and handbook style of this textbook. Historia anatomica is important for further research on the propagation of anatomical knowledge from professional anatomists to non-professionals in the 17th century.

  12. Are There More Bowel Symptoms in Children with Autism Compared to Normal Children and Children with Other Developmental and Neurological Disorders?: A Case Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, R. A.; Farnworth, H.; Wright, B.; Allgar, V.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable controversy as to whether there is an association between bowel disorders and autism. Using a bowel symptom questionnaire we compared 51 children with autism spectrum disorder with control groups of 35 children from special school and 112 from mainstream school. There was a significant difference in the reporting of certain…

  13. Site-specific differences of insulin action in adipose tissue derived from normal prepubertal children

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, Malcolm; Stewart, Claire; Welsh, Gavin; Hunt, Linda; Tavare, Jeremy; Holly, Jeff; Shield, Julian; Sabin, Matt; Crowne, Elizabeth . E-mail: Liz.Crowne@ubht.swest.nhs.uk

    2005-08-15

    Body fat distribution determines obesity-related morbidity in adults but little is known of the aetiology or pathophysiology in children. This study investigates differences in insulin-mediated metabolism in primary cell cultures of subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes derived from prepubertal children. The impact of differentiation and responses to TNF{alpha} exposure was also investigated. Proliferation rates were greater in subcutaneous versus visceral preadipocytes (41 h(3) versus 69 h(4); P = 0.008). Insulin caused a dose-dependent increase in GSK-3 phosphorylation and an increase in MAPK phosphorylation over time, with increased sensitivity in subcutaneous preadipocytes. Post-differentiation, dose-dependent increases in GSK-3 phosphorylation were maintained, while MAPK phosphorylation was identical in both subtypes. No changes were observed in insulin receptor abundance pre-/post-differentiation. GLUT4 abundance was significantly increased in visceral versus subcutaneous adipocytes by 76(4)%; P = 0.03), coincidental with increased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-glucose transport (+150(26)% versus +79(10)%; P = 0.014) and further elevated by acute exposure to TNF{alpha} (+230(52)%; P = 0.019 versus +123(24)%; P = 0.025, respectively). TNF{alpha} also significantly increased basal glucose transport rates (+44(14)%; P = 0.006 versus +34(11)%; P = 0.007) and GLUT1 localisation to the plasma membrane. These data establish site-specific differences in subcutaneous and visceral fat cells from children. Responses to insulin varied with differentiation and TNF{alpha} exposure in the two depots, consistent with parallel changes in GLUT1/4 abundance and localisation.

  14. Site-specific differences of insulin action in adipose tissue derived from normal prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Malcolm; Stewart, Claire; Welsh, Gavin; Hunt, Linda; Tavaré, Jeremy; Holly, Jeff; Shield, Julian; Sabin, Matt; Crowne, Elizabeth

    2005-08-15

    Body fat distribution determines obesity-related morbidity in adults but little is known of the aetiology or pathophysiology in children. This study investigates differences in insulin-mediated metabolism in primary cell cultures of subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes derived from prepubertal children. The impact of differentiation and responses to TNFalpha exposure was also investigated. Proliferation rates were greater in subcutaneous versus visceral preadipocytes (41 h3 versus 69 h4; P=0.008). Insulin caused a dose-dependent increase in GSK-3 phosphorylation and an increase in MAPK phosphorylation over time, with increased sensitivity in subcutaneous preadipocytes. Post-differentiation, dose-dependent increases in GSK-3 phosphorylation were maintained, while MAPK phosphorylation was identical in both subtypes. No changes were observed in insulin receptor abundance pre-/post-differentiation. GLUT4 abundance was significantly increased in visceral versus subcutaneous adipocytes by 76(4)%; P=0.03), coincidental with increased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-glucose transport (+150(26)% versus +79(10)%; P=0.014) and further elevated by acute exposure to TNFalpha (+230(52)%; P=0.019 versus +123(24)%; P=0.025, respectively). TNFalpha also significantly increased basal glucose transport rates (+44(14)%; P=0.006 versus +34(11)%; P=0.007) and GLUT1 localisation to the plasma membrane. These data establish site-specific differences in subcutaneous and visceral fat cells from children. Responses to insulin varied with differentiation and TNFalpha exposure in the two depots, consistent with parallel changes in GLUT1/4 abundance and localisation.

  15. Effects of ambient ozone on respiratory function in active, normal children

    SciTech Connect

    Spektor, D.M.; Lippmann, M.; Lioy, P.J.; Thurston, G.D.; Citak, K.; James, D.J.; Bock, N.; Speizer, F.E.; Hayes, C.

    1988-02-01

    Respiratory functions were measured on a daily basis by spirometry over a period of 4 wk at a summer camp at Fairview Lake in northwestern New Jersey. Fifty-three boys and 38 girls 8 to 15 yr of age participated in the study on at least 7 days; 37 children were in residence for 4 wk, 34 for the first 2 wk only; and 20 for the last 2 wk. There were 72 whites, 15 blacks, 3 Asians, and 1 Hispanic in the study group. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the O/sub 3/ concentration in the previous hour, the cumulative daily O/sub 3/ exposure during the hours between 9 A.M. and the function measurement, ambient temperature, and humidity were the most explanatory environmental variables for daily variations in function, with the 1 - h O/sub 3/ concentration having the strongest influence. Linear regressions were performed for each child between O/sub 3/ concentration and function, and all average slopes were significantly negative (p less than 0.05) for FVC, FEV1, PEFR, and FEF25-75 for all children, and for boys and girls separately. Comparable results were obtained in data subsets (i.e., children studied during the first or second 2 wk only, and for data sets truncated at O/sub 3/ less than 80 and O/sub 3/ less than 60 ppb). The average regression slopes (+/- SE) for FVC and FEV1, respectively, were -1.03 +/- 0.24 and -1.42 +/- 0.17 ml/ppb, whereas for PEFR and FEF25-75 they were -6.78 +/- 0.73 and -2.48 +/- 0.26 ml/s/ppb.

  16. Rhinosinusitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Sukhbir K.

    2012-01-01

    Rhinosinusitis is the inflammation of the mucous membranes of nose and paranasal sinus(es). 5–13% of upper respiratory tract infections in children complicate into acute rhinosinusitis. Though not life threatening, it profoundly affects child's school performance and sleep pattern. If untreated, it could progress to chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The pathogens involved in perpetuation of CRS consist of multidrug-resistant mixed microflora. CRS is challenging to manage and could further extend to cause eye or intracranial complications. In children, CRS diagnosis is often either missed or incomprehensive. Due to this, morbidity and strain on healthcare budget are tremendous. Flexible fiberoptic endoscopy has revolutionized management of CRS. Its utility in children is being increasingly recognized. Optimal management entails specific appropriate antimicrobials as well as treatment of underlying causes. The aim is to normalize sinus anatomy and physiology and regain normal mucociliary function and clearance. PMID:23762621

  17. A Comparison of Emotional-Motivational (A-R-D Theory) Personality Characteristics in Learning Disabled, Normal Achieving, and High Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufano, Linda D.

    The study examined emotional-motivational personality characteristics of 15 learning disabled, 15 normal achieving, and 15 high achieving students (grades 3-5). The study tested the hypothesis derived from the A-R-D (attitude-reinforcer-discriminative) theory of motivation that learning disabled (LD) children differ from normal and high achieving…

  18. Free to Be You and Me: Normal Gender-Role Fluidity--Commentary on Diane Ehrensaft's "Listening and Learning from Gender-Nonconforming Children".

    PubMed

    Knight, Rona

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests that gender role fluidity is a normal self state throughout development. It discusses the nonlinear progression of gender role identity that is constantly fluid and reactive to biological, environmental, and psychological changes. Given the normal fluidity of gender role identity, it argues that giving puberty blockers to young children is against the best interests of the child's development.

  19. [Viennese school of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Angetter, D C

    1999-10-01

    Anatomical science played a minor role in Vienna for centuries until Gerard van Swieten, in the 18th century, recognized the importance of anatomy for medical education. In the 19th century the anatomical school at the University of Vienna development to its height. A new building and a collection of preparations attracted a large number of students. Finally, a second department of anatomy was established. Political ideologies started to affect this institution in the beginning of the 20th century. Anti-Semitism emerged and caused uproars and fights among the students of the two departments. In 1938 both were united under Eduard Pernkopf, a dedicated Nazi and chairman of the department of anatomy, Decan of the medical faculty (1938-1943) and later on President of the University of Vienna (1943-1945). He was suspected of using cadavers of executed persons for the purpose of research and education.

  20. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory.

  1. Anatomy for biomedical engineers.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephen W; Robb, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that were of particular interest to them. Following completion of all the dissections, the students presented what they had learned to the entire class in the anatomy laboratory. This course has fulfilled an important need for our students.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 balance in normal and cystic fibrosis children.

    PubMed Central

    Shmarina, G V; Pukhalsky, A L; Kokarovtseva, S N; Pukhalskaya, D A; Shabalova, L A; Kapranov, N I; Kashirskaja, N J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The balance between tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) is important for immune homeostasis maintenance. Exuberant production of TNF-alpha contributes to overwhelming inflammatory response and tissue damage. But, commonly, increase in TNF-alpha is counterbalanced by simultaneous synthesis of an anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, which suppresses production of many activating and regulatory mediators. AIMS: In the present study, the relationships between TNF-alpha and IL-10 in the plasma of healthy school-children and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have been investigated. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 12 CF patients with chronic pulmonary disease and 18 healthy schoolchildren vaccinated with live attenuated rubella vaccine. IL-10 and TNF-alpha were determined in the plasma samples using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. RESULTS: Before vaccination, most healthy children (13 of 18) demonstrated superiority of pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha over anti-inflammatory IL-10 (TNF-alpha/IL-10 > 1). In these subjects, a significant positive linear association between the cytokine values has been found. Vaccine challenge resulted in a marked reduction of TNF-alpha/IL-10 ratios. In addition, a disappearance of correlation between the cytokine values was observed. Such disturbance was related to exuberant elevation of the IL-10 levels after inoculation. On the contrary, in CF individuals, plasma cytokine values remained in strong linear association independently of TNF-alpha or IL-10 predominance. No spikes in the plasma levels of IL-10 in CF patients during a 6-month observation period have been revealed. CONCLUSIONS: There were no fundamental differences between CF and healthy children in the regulation of TNF-alpha and IL-10 secretion. Thus, immune quiescence seemed to be associated with the predominance of TNF-alpha, whereas immune disturbance was characterized by IL-10 superiority. The only

  3. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  4. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: anatomy and basic approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography. PMID:28260355

  5. Dosimetry estimates for I-123-Orthoiodohippurate in children with normal and diseased kidneys

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, C.S.; Kuperus, J.H.

    1985-05-01

    The radiation exposure to the kidney from I-123-OIH (Orthoiodohippurate) and any associated I-124-OIH contamination may vary by a factor of several hundred depending upon the health of the kidney. Dosimetry calculations were made for newborn, 1y, 5y, 10y, 15y, and 18y-old patients with the following renal states: normal, moderate ATN (Acute Tubular Necrosis), total obstruction with 5% and 50% uptake in each kidney, normal transplant, and transplant with moderate and severe ATN. The calculations were made for pure I-123 and I-123 with 10% contaminant I-124 at time of administration. The dosimetry was based on a minimum practical pediatric dose of 200..mu..Ci, a minimum practical adult dose of 500..mu..Ci, and a pediatric administered activity fraction calculated on the basis of the two-thirds power of body weight. High-grade obstruction of recent onset (i.e. high uptake) and severe ATN are the only disease processes which could result in high exposure doses. In the newborn, an obstructed kidney receives 16 rad (pure I-123) to 79 rad (+10% I-124 contaminant). It was noted that the presence of contaminant I-124 raises the exposures considerably. Care should be taken to ensure that excessive radiation exposures do not occur; in certain cases this means that OIH labeled with pure I-123 is strongly preferable to OIH labeled with I-123 containing I-124 contamination.

  6. Purification and biochemical characterization of glutathione S-transferase from Down syndrome and normal children erythrocytes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ragaa R; Maharem, Tahany M; Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Sabry, Gilane M; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Guneidy, Rasha A

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21. Our study was concerned with the characterization and purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) from normal and Down syndrome (DS) erythrocytes to illustrate the difference in the role of this enzyme in the cell. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione (GSH) was determined in ten DS and ten healthy children matched for age (3-10 years). DS group exhibited significantly lower GST value (2.7 units/gHb) as compared to controls (6.6 units/gHb) (40.9%). GST activity was significantly decreased to 40.9% in the DS group as compared to controls. Also GSH concentration was significantly decreased to 60.6% in the DS group compared to the controls. Glutathione transferase was purified from erythrocytes of normal and DS pooled blood samples by affinity chromatography with specific activity of 23.7% and 7.9%, respectively. The effect of freezing and thawing, storage time of freezing and GSH concentration on the stability of the enzyme were examined. Normal GST exhibited a pH optimum at pH 7 followed by sharp decrease, however DS GST exhibited pH optimum between pH 7.5 and 8. The Km values for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and GSH were 0.205 mM and 0.786 mM, respectively, for normal GST, and 0.318 mM and 1.307 mM, respectively for DS GST. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be 2.25 and 4.25 cal/mol for normal GST and 3.8 cal/mol for DS GST. Normal and DS GST were inhibited by the same inhibitors (hematin, bromosulfophthalein and cibacron blue), but with different degree. On kinetic basis, the individuals with lower overall GST activity and slight differences in some kinetic characters are at greater risk from xenobiotic contamination as compared to those with higher overall GST activity observed in normal individuals.

  7. [VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH NORMAL NUTRITIONAL STATUS].

    PubMed

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Chueca Guindulain, María Jesús; Berrade-Zubiri, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: analizar la prevalencia de la deficiencia de vitamina D a lo largo de un año natural en una población pediátrica con un estado nutricional normal. Material y métodos: estudio transversal clínico y analítico (calcio, fósforo, fosfatasa alcalina, calcidiol y hormona paratiroidea) en 413 sujetos (entre 3,1 y 15,4 años): 227 escolares (96 varones y 131 mujeres) y 186 adolescentes (94 varones y 92 mujeres), de raza caucásica y estado nutricional normal, durante el año 2014. Para definir la deficiencia de vitamina D se han aplicado los criterios de la Sociedad Americana de Endocrinología. Resultados: los niveles de calcidiol eran más bajos en primavera (25,96 ± 6,64 ng/ml) y alcanzaban su máximo nivel en verano (35,33 ± 7,51 ng/ml); mientras que los de PTH eran más bajos en verano (27,13 ± 7,89 pg/ml) y alcanzaban su máximo nivel en otoño (34,73 ± 15,38 pg/ml). La prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina D era del 14,3% en verano y del 75,3% en primavera. En 8 casos (1,9%) existían cifras de PTH compatibles con hiperparatiroidismo secundario. Existía una correlación negativa entre calcidiol y PTH (p < 0,01). No existía correlación entre IMC y calcidiol. Conclusión: en la población pediátrica con una situacion nutricional normal existe una alta prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina D en los meses de otoño e invierno y, especialmente, en primavera, y habría que considerar la necesidad de administrar suplementos vitamínicos y/o ingerir mayores cantidades de sus fuentes dietéticas naturales.

  8. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  9. Anatomy of the Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Ralph

    1977-01-01

    In this insect morphology exercise, students study the external anatomy of the worker honeybee. The structures listed and illustrated are discussed in relation to their functions. A goal of the exercise is to establish the bee as a well-adapted, social insect. (MA)

  10. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  11. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  12. Hyperkalemia after acute metabolic decompensation in two children with vitamin B12-unresponsive methylmalonic acidemia and normal renal function.

    PubMed

    Pela, I; Gasperini, S; Pasquini, E; Donati, M A

    2006-07-01

    The patients affected by vitamin B12-unresponsive methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) on the long run develop chronic renal disease with interstitial nephropathy and progressive renal insufficiency. The mechanism of nephrotoxicity in vitamin B12-unresponsive MMA is not yet known. Chronic hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism has been found in many cases of methylmalonic acidemia, hyperkalemia and renal tubular acidosis type 4. We report 2 patients affected by B12-unresponsive methylmalonic acidemia diagnosed at the age of 23 months and 5 years, respectively, with normal glomerular filtration and function. They showed hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism and significant hyperkalemia requiring sodium potassium exchange resin (Kayexalate) therapy after an episode of metabolic decompensation leading to diagnosis of MMA. In both children, hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism and hyperkalemia disappeared after 6 months of good metabolic control.

  13. A normal ano-genital exam: sexual abuse or not?

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) are at the forefront of providing care to children and families. The PNP is in a unique position to educate patients and families regarding sexual abuse and dispel common myths associated with sexual abuse. One such myth is that a normal ano-genital examination is synonymous with the absence of sexual abuse. This article will provide primary care providers, including PNPs, with a framework for understanding why a normal ano-genital examination does not negate the possibility of sexual abuse/assault. Normal ano-genital anatomy, changes that occur with puberty, and physical properties related to the genitalia and anus will be discussed. Photos will provide visualization of both normal variants of the pre-pubertal hymen and genitalia as well as changes that occur with puberty. Implications for practice for PNPs will be discussed.

  14. A longitudinal study to explain strategies to change weight and muscles among normal weight and overweight children.

    PubMed

    McCabe, M P; Ricciardelli, L A; Holt, K

    2005-12-01

    Previous research has indicated that both boys and girls strive for a slim body, with boys having an additional focus on a muscular body build. The current study was designed to evaluate the utility of a biopsychosocial model to explain body image and body change strategies among children. The study evaluated changes over time in body image and strategies to lose weight and increase muscles among 132 normal weight and 67 overweight boys (mean age = 9.23 years) and 158 normal weight and 55 overweight girls (mean age = 9.33 years). The predictive role of BMI, positive and negative affect, self-esteem and perceived sociocultural pressures to lose weight or increase muscle on body image and body change strategies over a 16 month period was evaluated. All participants completed the questionnaire on both occasions. The results demonstrated that both overweight boys and girls were more likely to be dissatisfied with their weight, place more importance on their weight, engage in more strategies to lose weight as well as perceive more pressure to lose weight. Overweight boys and girls were also more likely to report lower levels of self-esteem and positive affect, and higher levels of negative affect, and reported a reduction in their self-esteem over time. Regression analyses demonstrated that among overweight boys, low self-esteem and high levels of perceived pressure to lose weight predicted weight dissatisfaction; for overweight girls, weight dissatisfaction was also predicted by low levels of self-esteem. The implication of these findings in terms of factors contributing to the adoption of health risk behaviors among children is discussed.

  15. Television viewing and food intake during television viewing in normal-weight, overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if children of different weight status differ in their nutritional habits while watching television. The objective of the present paper was to determine if children who are overweight or obese differ in their frequency of consumption of six food items while watching television compared with their normal-weight counterparts. A cross-sectional study of 550 children (57·1 % female; mean age = 10 years) from Ottawa, Canada was conducted. Children's weight status was categorised using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-points. Questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching per day and the frequency of consumption of six types of foods while watching television. Overweight/obese children watched more television per day than normal-weight children (3·3 v. 2·7 h, respectively; P = 0·001). Obese children consumed fast food and fruits/vegetables more frequently while watching television than normal-weight or overweight children (P < 0·05). Children who watched more than 4 h of television per d had higher odds (OR 3·21; 95% CI 1·14, 9·03; P = 0·03) of being obese, independent of several covariates, but not independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The finding that both television watching and the frequency of consumption of some food items during television watching are higher in children who are obese is concerning. While the nature of the present study does not allow for the determination of causal pathways, future research should investigate these weight-status differences to identify potential areas of intervention.

  16. Effects of an intensive short-term diet and exercise intervention: comparison between normal-weight and obese children

    PubMed Central

    Izadpanah, Ali; Angadi, Siddhartha S.; Barnard, R. James

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle intervention programs currently emphasize weight loss secondary to obesity as the primary determinant of phenotypic changes. We examined whether the effects of a short-term lifestyle intervention program differ in normal-weight versus overweight/obese children. Nineteen overweight/obese (O; BMI = 33.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2) and 14 normal-weight (N; BMI = 19.9 ± 1.5 kg/m2) children participated in a 2-wk program consisting of an ad libitum high-fiber, low-fat diet and daily exercise (2–2.5 h). Fasting serum samples were taken pre- and postintervention for determination of lipids, glucose homeostasis, inflammatory cytokines, and adipokines. Only the O group lost weight (3.9%) but remained overweight/obese (32.3 ± 1.9 kg/m2). Both groups exhibited significant intervention-induced decreases (P < 0.05) in serum insulin (N: 52.5% vs. O: 28.1%; between groups, P = 0.38), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (N: 53.1% vs. O: 28.4%, P = 0.43), leptin (N: 69.3% vs. O: 44.1%, P = 0.10), amylin (N: 28.7% vs. O: 26.1%, P = 0.80), resistin (N: 40.0% vs. O: 35.1%, P = 0.99), plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (N: 30.8% vs. O: 25.6%, P = 0.59), IL-6 (N: 58.8% vs. O: 48.5%, P = 0.78), IL-8 (N: 46.0% vs. O: 42.2%, P = 0.49), and TNFα (N: 45.8% vs. O: 40.8%, P = 0.99). No associations between indices of weight change and phenotypic changes were noted. A short-term, intensive lifestyle modification program is effective in ameliorating metabolic risk factors in N and O children. These results suggest that obesity per se was not the primary driver of the phenotypes noted and that dietary intake and physical inactivity induce the phenotypic abnormalities. These data may have implications for the weight loss-independent management of cardiometabolic risk in pediatric populations. PMID:23883675

  17. Anatomy of female continence.

    PubMed

    Sampselle, C M; DeLancey, J O

    1998-03-01

    Various muscle, connective tissue, and neurologic structures within the pelvic floor play critical roles in the maintenance of both urinary and fecal continence. Recent advances in technology, combined with greater precision during anatomic study, have expanded our understanding of the role played by the pelvic floor in maintaining continence. The goal of this article is to summarize recent research on female pelvic anatomy, with a particular emphasis on the evidence base related to urinary incontinence. The content is organized to accomplish three aims: (1) identify, within the context of pelvic floor anatomy, the structures that comprise the urinary continence system, (2) Describe the functional dynamics of urinary continence, including factors in resting urethral pressure and pressure transmission, and (3) Present the rationale, technique, and interpretation of various methods of measuring pelvic floor function.

  18. Authenticity in Anatomy Art.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Jessica

    2017-01-12

    The aim of this paper is to observe the evolution and evaluate the 'realness' and authenticity in Anatomy Art, an art form I define as one which incorporates accurate anatomical representations of the human body with artistic expression. I examine the art of 17th century wax anatomical models, the preservations of Frederik Ruysch, and Gunther von Hagens' Body Worlds plastinates, giving consideration to authenticity of both body and art. I give extra consideration to the works of Body Worlds since the exhibit creator believes he has created anatomical specimens with more educational value and bodily authenticity than ever before. Ultimately, I argue that von Hagens fails to offer Anatomy Art 'real human bodies,' and that the lack of bodily authenticity of his plastinates results in his creations being less pedagogic than he claims.

  19. Belief term development in children with autism, Asperger syndrome, specific language impairment, and normal development: links to theory of mind development.

    PubMed

    Ziatas, K; Durkin, K; Pratt, C

    1998-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between the development of theory of mind and the development of the belief terms think, know, and guess. Children with autism and Asperger syndrome, matched to children with specific language impairment and normal development, completed false belief, belief term comprehension, and belief term expression tasks. The autistic group's performance on the false belief, belief term comprehension, and belief term expression tasks was significantly poorer than that of the Asperger, language impaired, and normal groups. Across groups an association was found between false belief and belief term performance. Results support a growing body of literature demonstrating links between the development of theory of mind and communicative competence.

  20. The Association of Cytokine Levels With Cognitive Function in Children With Sickle Cell Disease and Normal MRI Studies of the Brain.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Charissa; King, Allison A; Macy, Elizabeth; Compas, Bruce E; DeBaun, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    Children with sickle cell disease, including those without evidence for cerebral infarcts, are at increased risk for cognitive deficits that can contribute to difficulties in academic and social functioning. Chronic inflammatory processes are endemic to sickle cell disease and are apparent in common comorbidities including asthma. Cytokines mediating inflammatory processes can influence cognition. The authors examined the relationship between plasma levels of cytokines commonly associated with asthma and cognitive functioning using standardized neuropsychological measures in 25 children with sickle cell disease with normal magnetic resonance imaging studies of the brain. Children with sickle cell disease performed significantly below the normative mean on tests of cognitive function. Pearson correlations indicated significant negative relations between cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, and IL-13) and standardized tests of executive function (r = -.54 to -.74). Preliminary evidence suggests an association between cytokine levels and executive function in children with sickle cell disease, indicating a potential role for inflammatory processes in cognitive outcomes in these children.

  1. Parenting Stress, Child Behavior Problems, and Dysphoria in Parents of Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, Behavior Disorders, and Normal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Jean E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study of parenting stress, child behavior, and dysphoria among 150 families found that parents of children with autism and behavior disorders reported more stress than parents of Down's syndrome or nondisabled children. Mothers of Down's syndrome children did not differ from mothers of nondisabled children on any measures. No major age or…

  2. Otitis: anatomy every practitioner should know.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Craig

    2009-11-01

    Chronic otitis externa is a difficult, frustrating problem. Four etiologic components must be considered: primary and secondary causes and perpetuating and predisposing factors.1 Usually, these cases are complex and involve more than one component. Perpetuating factors are changes in the anatomy and physiology of the ear that occur in response to inflammation in the ear canal and the perpetuating factors already present. They are self-perpetuating, are not disease specific, and include failure of self-cleaning mechanisms and proliferative changes that create folds and stenosis of the lumen of the ear canal. Elimination of perpetuating factors often requires aggressive cleaning of the ear and long-term therapy. It is important to avoid damaging key structures while aggressively cleaning the ear. Therefore, to adequately diagnose and manage perpetuating factors, veterinarians must recognize normal ear anatomy and physiology.

  3. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome.

  4. The influence of a six-week, high-intensity games intervention on the pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics in prepubertal obese and normal-weight children.

    PubMed

    McNarry, Melitta A; Lambrick, Danielle; Westrupp, Nicole; Faulkner, James

    2015-10-01

    The pulmonary oxygen uptake response is deleteriously influenced by obesity in prepubertal children, as evidenced by a slower phase II response. To date, no studies have investigated the ability of an exercise intervention to ameliorate this. The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of a 6-week, high-intensity, games-orientated intervention on the oxygen uptake kinetic response of prepubertal obese and normal-weight children during heavy-intensity exercise. Thirteen normal-weight and 15 obese children participated in a twice-weekly exercise intervention involving repeated bouts of 6-min high-intensity, games-orientated exercises followed by 2 min of recovery. Sixteen normal-weight and 11 obese children served as a control group. At baseline and post-intervention, each participant completed a graded-exercise test to volitional exhaustion and constant work-rate, heavy-intensity exercise. Post-intervention, obese children demonstrated a reduced phase II τ (pre-intervention: 30 ± 8 cf. post-intervention: 24 ± 7 s), mean response time (pre-intervention: 50 ± 10 cf. post-intervention: 38 ± 9 s) and phase II amplitude (pre-intervention: 1.51 ± 0.30 cf. post-intervention: 1.34 ± 0.27 L·min(-1)). No changes were evident in the normal-weight children. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that a 6-week, high-intensity intervention can have a significant positive impact on the dynamic oxygen uptake response of obese prepubertal children.

  5. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing.

  6. A Longitudinal Analysis of Torque and its Relationship to Achievement and Educational Classification among Normal, Disturbed, and Learning-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberts, Fred L.; Edwards, Ron P.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effect of the presence of torque (clockwise circlings with either hand on a visual-motor task) on academic achievement variables among normal, disturbed, and learning-disabled children (N=948). Results indicated no clear relationship between torque and the various academic variables. (LLL)

  7. Auditory Discrimination of Normal and Learning Disabled Children: A Comparison of Their Performance on the Goldman-Fristoe-Woodcock Test of Auditory Discrimination and Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houck, Cherry K.; And Others

    Examined was the performance of 18 normal and 20 learning disabled (LD) 8- to 9-year-old children on two competitive measures of auditory discrimination. Ss were administered the Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test (1974) and the Goldman, Fristoe, Woodcock Test of Auditory Discrimination (1970). Results suggested that little correlation exists…

  8. An On-Line Imitative Test of Speech-Pattern Contrast Perception (OlimSpac): Developmental Effects in Normally Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boothroyd, Arthur; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Martinez, Amy S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The goal was to assess the effects of maturation and phonological development on performance, by normally hearing children, on an imitative test of auditory capacity (On-Line Imitative Test of Speech-Pattern Contrast Perception [OlimSpac]; Boothroyd, Eisenberg, & Martinez, 2006; Eisenberg, Martinez, & Boothroyd, 2003, 2007). Method:…

  9. Parental Development in First-Time Mothers of Handicapped, At-Risk and Normal Children. Final Report, July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Nancy Ann; Peters, Donald L.

    The two studies reported in this paper explored parental development in first-time mothers of handicapped, at-risk, and normal children. Measures of personality, motivation, belief system, knowledge of infant development, and anticipatory socialization (knowledge, beliefs or expectations of parenting) were used to examine differences between the…

  10. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Qi; Sun, Yimeng; Kruse, Bernd; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens; Lanfermann, Heinrich

    2009-06-01

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay.

  11. Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Gene Expression Patterns and Metabolic Parameters in Habitually Snoring and Non-Snoring Children with Normal Polysomnographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Gharib, Sina A.; Kim, Jinkwan; Capdevila, Oscar Sans; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Hegazi, Mohamed; Gozal, David

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children who snore but do not have gas exchange abnormalities or alterations of sleep architecture have primary snoring (PS). Since increasing evidence suggest that PS may be associated with morbidity, we hypothesized that assessing genome-wide gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) will identify a distinct signature in PS children. Methods: Children (aged 4–9 years) with and without habitual snoring and a normal PSG were designated as either PS or controls. Whole genome expression profiles of PBL and metabolic parameters in 30 children with PS and 30 age-, gender-, ethnicity-, and BMI-matched controls were compared. Pathway-focused gene network analysis of the PBL transcriptome was performed. Metabolic parameters were measured in an independent follow-up cohort of 98 children (64 PS and 34 controls) to evaluate the computationally derived findings. Results: PS was not associated with a distinct transcriptional signature in PBL. Exploratory functional network analysis of enriched gene sets identified a number of putative pathways—including those mapping to insulin signaling, adipocyte differentiation, and obesity—with significant alterations in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity emerging in the follow-up cohort of children with PS, but no differences in lipid profiles. Conclusions: PS children do not exhibit global perturbations in their PBL transcriptional response, suggesting that current normative PSG criteria are overall valid. However, subtle differences in functionally coherent pathways involved in glycemic homeostasis were detected and confirmed in a larger independent pediatric cohort indicating that PS may carry increased risk for end-organ morbidity in susceptible children. Citation: Khalyfa A; Gharib SA; Kim J; Capdevila OS; Kheirandish-Gozal L; Bhattacharjee R; Hegazi M; Gozal D. Peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression patterns and metabolic parameters in habitually snoring and non-snoring children with normal

  12. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  13. [Pandora's box of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Uri; Reis, Shmuel

    2008-05-01

    Physicians in Nazi Germany were among the first to join the Nazi party and the SS, and were considered passionate and active supporters of the regime. Their actions included development and implementation of the racial theory thus legitimizing the development of the Nazi genocide plan, leadership and execution of the sterilization and euthanasia programs as well as atrocious human experimentation. Nazi law allowed the use of humans and their remains in research institutions. One of the physicians whose involvement in the Nazi regime was particularly significant was Eduard Pernkopf. He was the head of the Anatomy Institute at the University of Vienna, and later became the president of the university. Pernkopf was a member of the Nazi party, promoted the idea of "racial hygiene", and in 1938, "purified" the university from all Jews. In Pernkopfs atlas of anatomy, the illustrators expressed their sympathy to Nazism by adding Nazi symbols to their illustrations. In light of the demand stated by the "Yad Vashem" Institute, the sources of the atlas were investigated. The report, which was published in 1998, determined that Pernkopfs Anatomy Institute received almost 1400 corpses from the Gestapo's execution chambers. Copies of Pernkopfs atlas, accidentally exposed at the Rappaport School of Medicine in the Technion, led to dilemmas concerning similar works with a common background. The books initiated a wide debate in Israel and abroad, regarding ethical aspects of using information originated in Nazi crimes. Moreover, these findings are evidence of the evil to which science and medicine can give rise, when they are captured as an unshakable authority.

  14. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Amer, Syed; Horsley-Silva, Jennifer L; Menias, Christine O; Pannala, Rahul

    2015-10-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with surgically altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), can be more challenging compared to those with a normal anatomy. Detailed assessment of cross-sectional imaging features by the radiologist, especially the pancreaticobiliary anatomy, strictures, and stones, is very helpful to the endoscopist in planning the procedure. In addition, any information on enteral anastomoses (for e.g., gastrojejunal strictures and afferent limb obstruction) is also very useful. The endoscopist should review the operative note to understand the exact anatomy prior to procedure. RYGB, which is performed for medically complicated obesity, is the most commonly encountered altered anatomy ERCP procedure. Other situations include patients who have had a pancreaticoduodenectomy or a hepaticojejunostomy. Balloon-assisted deep enteroscopy (single and double-balloon enteroscopy) or rotational endoscopy is often used to traverse the length of the intestine to reach the papilla. In addition, ERCP in these patients is further challenging due to the oblique orientation of the papilla relative to the forward viewing endoscope and the limited enteroscopy-length therapeutic accessories that are currently available. Overall, reported therapeutic success is approximately 70-75% with a complication rate of 3-4%. Alternative approaches include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, laparoscopy-assisted ERCP, or surgery. Given the complexity, ERCP in patients with surgically altered anatomy should be performed in close collaboration with body imagers, interventional radiology, and surgical services.

  15. Language Acquisition and Assessment in Normal and Handicapped Preschool Children: A Review of the Literature. Final Report. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhurst, Thomas M.

    The second of four documents provides a summary of the scientific literature pertaining to spontaneous language acquisition in handicapped preschool children, and reviews and evaluates procedures for assessing language acquisition in these children. Chapter l focuses on language development in nonhandicapped children after they have acquired their…

  16. Psychometric Evaluation of Children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD): Comparison with Normal-Hearing and Clinical Non-APD Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iliadou, Vasiliki; Bamiou, Doris Eva

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical utility of the Children's Auditory Processing Performance Scale (CHAPPS; Smoski, Brunt, & Tannahill, 1992) to evaluate listening ability in 12-year-old children referred for auditory processing assessment. Method: This was a prospective case control study of 97 children (age range = 11;4 [years;months] to…

  17. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  18. Can motivation normalize working memory and task persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? The effects of money and computer-gaming.

    PubMed

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; Van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W; Prins, Pier J M

    2012-07-01

    Visual-spatial Working Memory (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of motivation on the visual-spatial WM of children with- and without ADHD. Studies examining this in executive functions other than WM, show inconsistent results. These inconsistencies may be related to differences in the reinforcement used. The effects of different reinforcers on WM performance were investigated in 30 children with ADHD and 31 non-ADHD controls. A visual-spatial WM task was administered in four reinforcement conditions: Feedback-only, 1 euro, 10 euros, and a computer-game version of the task. In the Feedback-only condition, children with ADHD performed worse on the WM measure than controls. Although incentives significantly improved the WM performance of children with ADHD, even the strongest incentives (10 euros and Gaming) were unable to normalize their performance. Feedback-only provided sufficient reinforcement for controls to reach optimal performance, while children with ADHD required extra reinforcement. Only children with ADHD showed a decrease in performance over time. Importantly, the strongest incentives (10 euros and Gaming) normalized persistence of performance in these children, whereas 1 euro had no such effect. Both executive and motivational deficits give rise to visual-spatial WM deficits in ADHD. Problems with task-persistence in ADHD result from motivational deficits. In ADHD-reinforcement studies and clinical practice (e.g., assessment), reinforcement intensity can be a confounding factor and should be taken into account. Gaming can be a cost-effective way to maximize performance in ADHD.

  19. Radiological sinonasal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Alrumaih, Redha A.; Ashoor, Mona M.; Obidan, Ahmed A.; Al-Khater, Khulood M.; Al-Jubran, Saeed A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of common radiological variants of sinonasal anatomy among Saudi population and compare it with the reported prevalence of these variants in other ethnic and population groups. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 121 computerized tomography scans of the nose and paranasal sinuses of patients presented with sinonasal symptoms to the Department of Otorhinolarngology, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between January 2014 and May 2014. Results: Scans of 121 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria were reviewed. Concha bullosa was found in 55.4%, Haller cell in 39.7%, and Onodi cell in 28.9%. Dehiscence of the internal carotid artery was found in 1.65%. Type-1 and type-2 optic nerve were the prevalent types. Type-II Keros classification of the depth of olfactory fossa was the most common among the sample (52.9%). Frontal cells were found in 79.3%; type I was the most common. Conclusions: There is a difference in the prevalence of some radiological variants of the sinonasal anatomy between Saudi population and other study groups. Surgeon must pay special attention in the preoperative assessment of patients with sinonasal pathology to avoid undesirable complications. PMID:27146614

  20. The quail anatomy portal

    PubMed Central

    Ruparelia, Avnika A.; Simkin, Johanna E.; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F.; Martins, Gabriel G.; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. Database URL: http://quail.anatomyportal.org (For review username: demo, password: quail123) PMID:24715219

  1. The quail anatomy portal.

    PubMed

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Simkin, Johanna E; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F; Martins, Gabriel G; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. DATABASE URL: http://quail.anatomyportal.org (For review username: demo, password: quail123).

  2. Effects of low-pass filtering on the perception of word-final plurality markers in children and adults with normal hearing

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Hodson, Hannah; McCreery, Ryan W.; Calandruccio, Lauren; Buss, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-pass filtering on the detection of word-final /s/ and /z/ for children and adults with normal hearing. Method Stimuli were nouns from the UWO Plurals Test (Glista & Scollie, 2012), low-pass filtered with five different cutoff frequencies: 8000, 5000, 4000, 3000, and 2000 Hz. Listeners were children (age range = 7 to 13 years) and adults with normal hearing. The task was a two-alternative forced-choice with a picture-pointing response. Results Performance was worse for lower than for higher low-pass filter cutoff frequencies, but the effect of low-pass filtering was similar for children and adults. Nearly all listeners achieved 100%-correct performance when stimuli were low-pass filtered with cutoff frequencies of 8000 or 5000 Hz. Performance remained well above chance even for the most severe filtering condition (2000 Hz). Restricting high-frequency audibility influenced performance for plural items to a greater extent than for singular items. Conclusions The results indicate that children and adults with normal hearing can use acoustic information below the spectral range of frication noise typically associated with /s/ and /z/ to discriminate between singular and plural forms of nouns in the context of the UWO Plurals Test. PMID:25036654

  3. Comparative Investigation of Indicators of Growth and Behavioral Disorders in Children with Normal, Low, and Very Low Birth Weight at Pre-school Age in Isfahan during 2015

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Marzieh; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI)] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight) at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents’ and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009) and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10). The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49). Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children. PMID:28382052

  4. Development of a Synergistic Case-Based Micro anatomy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Jennifer M.; Prayson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an interactive approach to teaching and assessing a micro anatomy curriculum in an innovative medical school program. As an alternative to lectures and labs, students are engaged in interactive seminars focused on discussion of clinical and research-based cases matched with normal histology and pathology…

  5. Striving to live a normal life: a review of children and young people's experience of feeling different when living with a long term condition.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of findings from qualitative studies on children's experience of feeling different when living with the long term conditions; diabetes, epilepsy and asthma. Following electronic database and hand searches of reference lists of identified papers, eighteen studies were selected for inclusion in the review. These studies revealed three common themes; participation in everyday life-restrictions and adjustments; treatment regimens-constraining and enabling; and communication-disclosure, stigma and support. Across these themes it was evident that children felt different physically and socially and they grappled constantly with balancing the dilemma of feeling and acting normal or feeling, being and revealing difference.

  6. Differences of biased recall memory for emotional information among children and adolescents of mothers with MDD, children and adolescents with MDD, and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Fattahi Asl, Abouzar; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mollazade, Javad; Aflakseir, Abdolaziz

    2015-08-15

    This study examines explicit memory bias for emotional information in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants were a convenient sample of 28 children and adolescents of mothers with MDD, 28 children and adolescents with MDD, and 29 healthy controls. Their age range was 11-17 years old. The groups were matched for gender ratio, mean age, and the years of educational level. They were assessed by the Recall Task. Emotional stimuli consisted of three sets of words namely sad, happy, and neutral words. Children and adolescents of mothers with MDD similar to children and adolescents with MDD recalled more sadness stimuli in comparison with the controls. In other words, they showed an explicit memory bias towards sad stimuli. Also, healthy children significantly recalled more happy words than the other two groups. There was no significant difference among the three groups for the recall of neutral stimuli. Current findings support that there is a recall memory bias for emotional information in children with MDD. These children more than healthy children recall sad words. Moreover, healthy children recall happy words more than children with MDD.

  7. Anatomy of the Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... picture of the outside of a normal, healthy, human heart. Heart Exterior Figure A shows the location of ... picture of the inside of a normal, healthy, human heart. Heart Interior Figure A shows the location of ...

  8. Developmental anatomy of lampreys.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Michael K; Admiraal, Jeroen; Wright, Glenda M

    2010-02-01

    Lampreys are a group of aquatic chordates whose relationships to hagfishes and jawed vertebrates are still debated. Lamprey embryology is of interest to evolutionary biologists because it may shed light on vertebrate origins. For this and other reasons, lamprey embryology has been extensively researched by biologists from a range of disciplines. However, many of the key studies of lamprey comparative embryology are relatively inaccessible to the modern scientist. Therefore, in view of the current resurgence of interest in lamprey evolution and development, we present here a review of lamprey developmental anatomy. We identify several features of early organogenesis, including the origin of the nephric duct, that need to be re-examined with modern techniques. The homologies of several structures are also unclear, including the intriguing subendothelial pads in the heart. We hope that this review will form the basis for future studies into the phylogenetic embryology of this interesting group of animals.

  9. The Anatomy of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  10. New renal scarring in children who at age 3 and 4 years had had normal scans with dimercaptosuccinic acid: follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, S. J.; Coulthard, M. G.; Lambert, H. J.; Keir, M. J.; Matthews, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine up to what age children remain at risk of developing a new renal scar from a urinary tract infection. DESIGN: Follow up study. Families of children who had normal ultrasound scans and scanning with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) after referral with a urinary tract infection when aged 3 (209) or 4 (220) were invited to bring the children for repeat scans 2-11 years later. A history of infections since the original scan was obtained for children not having a repeat scan. SETTING: Teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: Children from three health districts in whom a normal scan had been obtained at age 3-4 years in 1985-1992 because of a urinary tract infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Frequency of new renal scars in each age group. RESULTS: In each group, about 97% of children either had repeat scanning (over 80%) or were confidently believed by their general practitioner or parent not to have had another urinary infection. The rate of further infections since the original scan was similar in the 3 and 4 year old groups (48/176 (27%)) and 55/179 (31%)). Few children in either group known to have had further urinary infections did not have repeat scanning (3/209 (1.4%) and 4/220 (1.8%)). In the 3 year old group, 2.4% (5/209) had one or more new kidney scars at repeat scanning (one sided 95% confidence interval up to 5.0%), whereas none of the 4 year olds did (one sided 95% confidence interval up to 1.4%). The children who developed scars were all aged under 3.4 years when scanned originally. CONCLUSIONS: Children with a urinary tract infection but unscarred kidneys after the third birthday have about a 1 in 40 risk of developing a scar subsequently, but after the fourth birthday the risk is either very low or zero. Thus the need for urinary surveillance is much reduced in a large number of children. PMID:9361538

  11. Anatomy of female puberty: The clinical relevance of developmental changes in the reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Caroline Wingo; Abdullatif, Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is the period of biologic transition from childhood to adulthood. The changes that occur at this time are related to the increasing concentrations of sex steroid hormones. In females, most pubertal changes are caused by estrogen stimulation that results from the onset of central puberty. Significant development occurs in the organs of the female reproductive system and results in anatomic changes that characterize reproductive maturity. Adrenal and ovarian androgens also increase during puberty, affecting change that includes the promotion of certain secondary sex characteristics. The ability to recognize normal pubertal anatomy and distinguish between estrogen and androgen effects is important in the ability to diagnose and treat disorders of sex development, precocious puberty, pubertal delay, and menstrual irregularities in children and adolescents. An understanding of this developmental process can also help clinicians identify and treat reproductive pathology in adults and across all female life stages.

  12. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  13. Using Social Stories to Decrease Aggression and Increase Positive Peer Interactions in Normally Developing Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benish, Tricia M.; Bramlett, Ronald K.

    2011-01-01

    Social stories have been widely used for children with autism and developmental delays; however, little research has been conducted that examines their effectiveness with pre-school children who have no developmental delays. The present study investigated this previously undocumented use of social stories. Social stories were used to decrease…

  14. The Processing and Interpretation of Verb Phrase Ellipsis Constructions by Children at Normal and Slowed Speech Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Sarah M.; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine children's comprehension of verb phrase (VP) ellipsis constructions in light of their automatic, online structural processing abilities and conscious, metalinguistic reflective skill. Method: Forty-two children ages 5 through 12 years listened to VP ellipsis constructions involving the strict/sloppy ambiguity (e.g., "The…

  15. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  16. Surgical anatomy of selected physes.

    PubMed

    Birch, J G; Herring, J A; Wenger, D R

    1984-03-01

    Recent advances have allowed successful resection of partial physeal arrest in children whose physes have been damaged by trauma, infection, irradiation, and other causes. Underlying physeal anatomy and the relationship of overlying structures to the physis are vital in preparing for precise surgical excision of the bony bar. The cadaver of a 5-year-old child was dissected with special emphasis on the surgical accessibility of the physes and adjacent metaphyses of the distal radius, distal femur, proximal tibia, and distal tibia and fibula. The physis of the distal radius was found to be completely extracapsular. The synovial reflection of the suprapatellar pouch obscured portions of the anterior, medial, and lateral aspects of the distal femur. The capsular attachment extended to the level of the physis anteriorly and posteriorly. The capsular attachment to the medial distal femur was more distal and peripheral than to the lateral. The insertion of the adductor magnus tendon medially and the intermuscular septum laterally served as landmarks to the level of the physis. The physis of the proximal tibia was completely extracapsular. The posterior aspects of the physis and the metaphysis were obscured in the midline by the popliteus muscle, and this posterolateral region was the least surgically accessible of any of the regions studied. The distal tibial physis was entirely extracapsular. The anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments inserted across the anterolateral and posterolateral aspects of the physis of the distal fibula. This physis on its medial aspect lay intraarticularly at the level of the articular cartilage of the distal tibia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Clinical anatomy of the hand.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Angélica; Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Canoso, Juan J; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Kalish, Robert A

    This article reviews the underlying anatomy of trigger finger and thumb (fibrous digital pulleys, sesamoid bones), flexor tenosynovitis, de Quervain's syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, some hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis, the carpal tunnel syndrome and the ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal. Some important syndromes and structures have not been included but such are the nature of these seminars. Rather than being complete, we aim at creating a system in which clinical cases are used to highlight the pertinent anatomy and, in the most important part of the seminar, these pertinent items are demonstrated by cross examination of participants and teachers. Self learning is critical for generating interest and expanding knowledge of clinical anatomy. Just look at your own hand in various positions, move it, feel it, feel also your forearms while you move the fingers, do this repeatedly and inquisitively and after a few tries you will have developed not only a taste, but also a lifelong interest in clinical anatomy.

  18. The anatomy of the mermaid.

    PubMed

    Heppell, D

    Investigation of the anatomy of the mermaid and of mermaid lore has revealed a tangled web of stories, sightings and specimens of the most diverse nature, extending worldwide into the realms of folklore and legend, zoology and cryptozoology, anatomy, physiology, radiography and folk medicine, ethnography, social history and the history of science. The stereotype we know as the mermaid is surely a fit subject for further serious study

  19. Child thyroid anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and ... a major role in regulating the body's metabolism. Thyroid disorders are more common in older children and ...

  20. Quantitative histology of cartilage vascular canals in the human rib. Findings in normal neonates and children and in achondrogenesis II-hypochondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gruber, H E; Lachman, R S; Rimoin, D L

    1990-12-01

    Knowledge of the structure of cartilage vascular canals is important for a more thorough understanding of the development of cartilage and the growth plate in the human neonate and growing child. We have studied the costochondral junction of 6 normal neonates and 12 normal children (age 4 months-16 years) and utilised quantitative histomorphometry to define the percentage tissue area occupied by canals and the number of canals/mm2. Both percentage canal area and the number of canals/mm2 were significantly greater in newborn vs. older children (percentage area: 0.42 +/- 0.15 (mean +/- S.E.M.) vs. 0.08 +/- 0.04, P = 0.003; number/mm2: 0.2 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.04 +/- 0.02, P = 0.02). Eight newborn patients with achondrogenesis II-hypochondrogenesis were also studied. Both percentage canal area and number were significantly elevated above normal (percentage area: 5.22 +/- 1.01, P less than 0.001; number/mm2: 1.45 +/- 0.26, P less than 0.001). Results presented here demonstrate that: (i) quantitative differences in vascular canal area and numbers occur during development; (ii) 10-fold increases in vascular canal area and number are present in achondrogenesis II-hypochondrogenesis. Data from normal subjects will provide normative values against which vascular abnormalities in other skeletal dysplasias can be compared.

  1. Donkey dental anatomy. Part 2: Histological and scanning electron microscopic examinations.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, N; Kempson, S A; Dixon, P M

    2008-06-01

    Ten normal cheek teeth (CT) were extracted at post mortem from donkeys that died or were euthanased for humane reasons. Decalcified histology was performed on three sections (sub-occlusal, mid-tooth and pre-apical) of each tooth, and undecalcified histology undertaken on sub-occlusal sections of the same teeth. The normal histological anatomy of primary, regular and irregular secondary dentine was found to be similar to that of the horse, with no tertiary dentine present. Undecalcified histology demonstrated the normal enamel histology, including the presence of enamel spindles. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on mid-tooth sections of five maxillary CT, five mandibular CT and two incisors. The ultrastructural anatomy of primary and secondary dentine, and equine enamel types-1, -2 and -3 (as described in horses) were identified in donkey teeth. Histological and ultrastructural donkey dental anatomy was found to be very similar to equine dental anatomy with only a few quantitative differences observed.

  2. Comparison of normal and dusty day impacts on fractional exhaled nitric oxide and lung function in healthy children in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Neisi, Abdolkazem; Vosoughi, Mehdi; Idani, Esmaeil; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Takdastan, Afshin; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Ankali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Hazrati, Sadegh; Shoshtari, Maryam Haddadzadeh; Mirr, Iman; Maleki, Heidar

    2017-03-29

    Children are the vulnerable group at risk of adverse health effects related to air pollution due to dust storm in Ahvaz. The purpose of this study was to compare the values of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and lung functions as parameters of adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) in dusty and normal (non-dusty) days in elementary schoolchildren. The study was conducted among elementary school students in Ahvaz. The healthy elementary schoolchildren (N = 105) were selected from different districts for FENO and lung function sampling during the dusty and normal days. The values of PM10 and PM2.5 during dusty days were higher than during normal days. Mean values of FENO during the normal and dusty days were 14.23 and 20.3 ppb, respectively, and the difference between these values was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Lung function results showed a statistically significant difference between the mean values of forced vital capacity during the dusty and normal days (p < 0.05). The results revealed a significant difference both in the values of inflammatory biomarker and in the lung function tests in dusty and normal days. Based on our results, fractional exhaled nitric oxide could be a useful short-term biomarker of particulate pollution effect coupled with spirometry.

  3. Control of Viremia Enables Acquisition of Resting Memory B Cells with Age and Normalization of Activated B Cell Phenotypes in HIV-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Muema, Daniel M.; Macharia, Gladys N.; Hassan, Amin S.; Mwaringa, Shalton M.; Fegan, Greg W.; Berkley, James A.; Urban, Britta C.

    2015-01-01

    HIV affects the function of all lymphocyte populations, including B cells. Phenotypic and functional defects of B cells in HIV-infected adults have been well characterized, but defects in children have not been studied to the same extent. We determined the proportion of B cell subsets and frequencies of Ag-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood from HIV-infected children and healthy controls, using flow cytometry and B cell ELISPOT, respectively. In addition, we measured the quantities and avidities of plasma Abs against various Ags by ELISA. We also determined plasma levels of BAFF and expression of BAFF receptors on B cells. Children with high HIV viremia had increased proportions of activated mature B cells, tissue-like memory B cells and plasmablasts, and low proportions of naive B cells when compared with community controls and children with low HIV viremia, similar to adults infected with HIV. HIV-infected groups had lower proportions of resting memory B cells than did community controls. Notably, high HIV viremia prevented the age-dependent accumulation of class-switched resting memory B cells. HIV-infected children, regardless of the level of viremia, showed lower quantities and avidities of IgG and lower frequencies of memory B cells against Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines. The HIV-infected children had an altered BAFF profile that could have affected their B cell compartment. Therefore, B cell defects in HIV-infected children are similar to those seen in HIV-infected adults. However, control of HIV viremia is associated with normalization of activated B cell subsets and allows age-dependent accumulation of resting memory B cells. PMID:26116511

  4. Anatomy of trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wallisa; Zurada, Anna; Zurada-ZieliŃSka, Agnieszka; Gielecki, Jerzy; Loukas, Marios

    2016-07-01

    Trisomy 18 is the second most common aneuploidy after trisomy 21. Due to its multi-systemic defects, it has a poor prognosis with a 50% chance of survival beyond one week and a <10% chance of survival beyond one year of life. However, this prognosis has been challenged by the introduction of aggressive interventional therapies for patients born with trisomy 18. As a result, a review of the anatomy associated with this defect is imperative. While any of the systems can be affected by trisomy 18, the following areas are the most likely to be affected: craniofacial, musculoskeletal system, cardiac system, abdominal, and nervous system. More specifically, the following features are considered characteristic of trisomy 18: low-set ears, rocker bottom feet, clenched fists, and ventricular septal defect. Of particular interest is the associated cardiac defect, as surgical repairs of these defects have shown an improved survivability. In this article, the anatomical defects associated with each system are reviewed. Clin. Anat. 29:628-632, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-06-29

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  6. Anatomy of an incident

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identified as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.

  7. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; ...

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  8. The Healthy Start project: a randomized, controlled intervention to prevent overweight among normal weight, preschool children at high risk of future overweight

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research shows that obesity prevention has to start early. Targeting interventions towards subgroups of individuals who are predisposed, but yet normal weight, may prove more effective in preventing overweight than interventions towards unselected normal weight subsets. Finally, interventions focused on other factors than diet and activity are lacking. The objectives were to perform a randomized, controlled intervention aiming at preventing overweight in children aged 2–6 years, who are yet normal weight, but have high predisposition for future overweight, and to intervene not only by improving diet and physical activity, but also reduce stress and improve sleep quality and quantity. Methods/Design Based on information from the Danish National Birth Registry and administrative birth forms, children were selected based on having either a high birth weight, a mother who was overweight prior to pregnancy, or a familial low socioeconomic status. Selected children (n = 5,902) were randomized into three groups; an intervention group, a shadow control group followed in registers exclusively, and a control group examined at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Approximately 21% agreed to participate. Children who presented as overweight prior to the intervention were excluded from this study (n = 92). In the intervention group, 271 children were included, and in the control group 272 were included. Information obtained from the shadow control group is on-going, but it is estimated that 394 children will be included. The intervention took place over on average 1½ year between 2009 and 2011, and consisted of optional individual guidance in optimizing diet and physical activity habits, reducing chronic stress and stressful events and improving sleep quality and quantity. The intervention also included participation in cooking classes and play arrangements. Information on dietary intake, meal habits, physical activity, sleep habits, and

  9. Development of oral side preference during chewing and its relation to hand preference in normal 2- to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Gisel, E G

    1988-06-01

    Normative data on skills of the tongue used in eating are presented. Normal children 5 to 8 years old were studied regarding their preference of placing food either on the right or left side of the mouth when starting to eat. A developmental curve spanning 2 to 8 years was generated by including data from an earlier study. Data of oral side preference were correlated with data of preferred hand use. In addition, the ability to move a small piece of food from one side of the mouth to the other was studied. It was found that normal children undergo a transition from placing solid food predominantly on the right side at 2 years of age to placing it on the left side at 4 years of age. The left side preference persists until at least 8 years of age for both viscous and solid food textures. Oral side preference did not correlate with hand preference. The ability to move food from one side of the mouth to the other (lateralizing) was found to undergo a developmental progression: The inability to lateralize in a third of 2-year-olds gave way to rolling movements. Concomitantly, a consistent increase in slow and then smooth movements was found to occur from 2 to 8 years of age. These data provide the clinician with a normative baseline against which eating-impaired children can be compared.

  10. What can we expect of normally-developing children implanted at a young age with respect to their auditory, linguistic and cognitive skills?

    PubMed

    van Wieringen, Astrid; Wouters, Jan

    2015-04-01

    As a result of neonatal hearing screening and subsequent early cochlear implantation (CI) profoundly deaf children have access to important information to process auditory signals and master spoken language skills at a young age. Nevertheless, auditory, linguistic and cognitive outcome measures still reveal great variability in individual achievements: some children with CI(s) perform within normal limits, while others lag behind. Understanding the causes of this variation would allow clinicians to offer better prognoses to CI candidates and efficient follow-up and rehabilitation. This paper summarizes what we can expect of normally developing children with CI(s) with regard to spoken language, bilateral and binaural auditory perception, speech perception and cognitive skills. Predictive factors of performance and factors influencing variability are presented, as well as some novel data on cognitive functioning and speech perception in quiet and in noise. Subsequently, we discuss technical and non-technical issues which should be considered in the future in order to optimally guide the child with profound hearing difficulties. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled .

  11. A reappraisal of adult thoracic surface anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S Ali; Hale, Samuel J M; Buckenham, Tim; Wilson, Ben; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. Numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings exist between and within anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic surface anatomical landmarks in vivo using computed tomographic (CT) imaging. High-resolution thoracic CT scans from 153 supine adults (mean age 63, range 19-89 years; 53% female) taken at end tidal inspiration were analyzed by dual consensus reporting to determine the surface anatomy of the sternal angle, central veins, heart, lungs, and diaphragm. Patients with kyphosis/scoliosis, distorting space-occupying lesions, or visceromegaly were excluded. The position of the cardiac apex, formation of the brachiocephalic veins, and vertebral levels of the sternal angle, xiphisternal joint, and aortic hiatus were consistent with commonly accepted surface markings although there was a wide range of normal variation. In contrast, common surface markings were markedly inaccurate for the following: the position of the tracheal bifurcation, aortic arch, and azygos vein termination (below the plane of the sternal angle at T5-T6 vertebral level in most individuals); the superior vena cava/right atrial junction (most often behind the fourth costal cartilage); the lower border of the lung (adjacent to T12 vertebra posteriorly); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T11 in most). Surface anatomy must be reappraised using modern imaging in vivo if it is to be evidence based and fit for purpose. The effects of gender, age, posture, respiration, build, and ethnicity also deserve greater emphasis.

  12. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-08

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Papilian's anatomy - celebrating six decades.

    PubMed

    Dumitraşcu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincariu, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers' Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra.

  14. [History of anatomy in Lyon].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, A

    1978-06-01

    1. We know very little concerning the teaching of anatomy during the Middle Ages. Only two authors, who both came to live in Lyon, Lanfranc and Guy de Chauliac, wrote on the subject. On the other hand, the important development of printing in Lyon from the sixteenth century onwards, made it possible to spread the translations of classic works and most of the books on Anatomy of the Renaissance. 2. However, Lyonese Anatomy developed very slowly because hospital training was more often badly organized. The only true supporter of Anatomy has been Marc Antoine Petit, chief surgeon of the Hôtel-Dieu before the French Revolution. 3. Apart from the parallel but only transient teaching of the Royal College of Surgery, one will have to wait for the creation of an official teaching first assumed by "schools" (secondary school and preparatory school) and finally by the Faculty of Medicine created in 1877. The names of Testut and of Latarjet contributed to the reknown of the Faculty of Medicine by their anatomical studies of great value for several generations of students. 4. Recently the Faculty of Medicine has been divided into four "universities". The new buildings are larger. The "gift of corpses" has brought a remedy to the shortage of the last twenty years. Anatomical research can be pursued thanks to micro-anatomy and bio-mechanics while conventional teaching is completed by dissection.

  15. Handwriting Development in Grade 2 and Grade 3 Primary School Children with Normal, At Risk, or Dysgraphic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overvelde, Anneloes; Hulstijn, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    The wide variation in prevalence of dysgraphic handwriting (5-33%) is of clinical importance, because poor handwriting has been identified as one of the most common reasons for referring school-age children to occupational therapy or physiotherapy, and is included as an criterion for the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder. This study…

  16. Physical Activity Levels in Normal Weight and Overweight Portuguese Children: An Intervention Study during an Elementary School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Luis; Lopes, Vitor; Pereira, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of an intervention strategy during the school recess on physical activity (PA) levels, by gender, age and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprises 158 Portuguese children aged 6 to 12 years. Weight and height were objectively measured. PA was assessed by accelerometry during the recess in pre-intervention…

  17. Eye-Voice Span during Rapid Automatized Naming of Digits and Dice in Chinese Normal and Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    We measured Chinese dyslexic and control children's eye movements during rapid automatized naming (RAN) with alphanumeric (digits) and symbolic (dice surfaces) stimuli. Both types of stimuli required identical oral responses, controlling for effects associated with speech production. Results showed that naming dice was much slower than naming…

  18. Normal P50 Gating in Children with Autism, Yet Attenuated P50 Amplitude in the Asperger Subcategory.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Gitte Falcher; Bilenberg, Niels; Jepsen, Jens Richardt; Glenthøj, Birte; Cantio, Cathriona; Oranje, Bob

    2015-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia are separate disorders, but there is evidence of conversion or comorbid overlap. The objective of this paper was to explore whether deficits in sensory gating, as seen in some schizophrenia patients, can also be found in a group of ASD children compared to neurotypically developed children. An additional aim was to investigate the possibility of subdividing our ASD sample based on these gating deficits. In a case-control design, we assessed gating of the P50 and N100 amplitude in 31 ASD children and 39 healthy matched controls (8-12 years) and screened for differences between groups and within the ASD group. We did not find disturbances in auditory P50 and N100 filtering in the group of ASD children as a whole, nor did we find abnormal P50 and N100 amplitudes. However, the P50 amplitude to the conditioning stimulus was significantly reduced in the Asperger subgroup compared to healthy controls. In contrast to what is usually reported for patients with schizophrenia, we found no evidence for sensory gating deficits in our group of ASD children taken as a whole. However, reduced P50 amplitude to conditioning stimuli was found in the Asperger group, which is similar to what has been described in some studies in schizophrenia patients. There was a positive correlation between the P50 amplitude of the conditioning stimuli and anxiety score in the pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified group, which indicates a relation between anxiety and sensory registration in this group.

  19. Experience Changes How Emotion in Music Is Judged: Evidence from Children Listening with Bilateral Cochlear Implants, Bimodal Devices, and Normal Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Papsin, Blake C.; Paludetti, Gaetano; Gordon, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Children using unilateral cochlear implants abnormally rely on tempo rather than mode cues to distinguish whether a musical piece is happy or sad. This led us to question how this judgment is affected by the type of experience in early auditory development. We hypothesized that judgments of the emotional content of music would vary by the type and duration of access to sound in early life due to deafness, altered perception of musical cues through new ways of using auditory prostheses bilaterally, and formal music training during childhood. Seventy-five participants completed the Montreal Emotion Identification Test. Thirty-three had normal hearing (aged 6.6 to 40.0 years) and 42 children had hearing loss and used bilateral auditory prostheses (31 bilaterally implanted and 11 unilaterally implanted with contralateral hearing aid use). Reaction time and accuracy were measured. Accurate judgment of emotion in music was achieved across ages and musical experience. Musical training accentuated the reliance on mode cues which developed with age in the normal hearing group. Degrading pitch cues through cochlear implant-mediated hearing induced greater reliance on tempo cues, but mode cues grew in salience when at least partial acoustic information was available through some residual hearing in the contralateral ear. Finally, when pitch cues were experimentally distorted to represent cochlear implant hearing, individuals with normal hearing (including those with musical training) switched to an abnormal dependence on tempo cues. The data indicate that, in a western culture, access to acoustic hearing in early life promotes a preference for mode rather than tempo cues which is enhanced by musical training. The challenge to these preferred strategies during cochlear implant hearing (simulated and real), regardless of musical training, suggests that access to pitch cues for children with hearing loss must be improved by preservation of residual hearing and improvements in

  20. Experience Changes How Emotion in Music Is Judged: Evidence from Children Listening with Bilateral Cochlear Implants, Bimodal Devices, and Normal Hearing.

    PubMed

    Giannantonio, Sara; Polonenko, Melissa J; Papsin, Blake C; Paludetti, Gaetano; Gordon, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Children using unilateral cochlear implants abnormally rely on tempo rather than mode cues to distinguish whether a musical piece is happy or sad. This led us to question how this judgment is affected by the type of experience in early auditory development. We hypothesized that judgments of the emotional content of music would vary by the type and duration of access to sound in early life due to deafness, altered perception of musical cues through new ways of using auditory prostheses bilaterally, and formal music training during childhood. Seventy-five participants completed the Montreal Emotion Identification Test. Thirty-three had normal hearing (aged 6.6 to 40.0 years) and 42 children had hearing loss and used bilateral auditory prostheses (31 bilaterally implanted and 11 unilaterally implanted with contralateral hearing aid use). Reaction time and accuracy were measured. Accurate judgment of emotion in music was achieved across ages and musical experience. Musical training accentuated the reliance on mode cues which developed with age in the normal hearing group. Degrading pitch cues through cochlear implant-mediated hearing induced greater reliance on tempo cues, but mode cues grew in salience when at least partial acoustic information was available through some residual hearing in the contralateral ear. Finally, when pitch cues were experimentally distorted to represent cochlear implant hearing, individuals with normal hearing (including those with musical training) switched to an abnormal dependence on tempo cues. The data indicate that, in a western culture, access to acoustic hearing in early life promotes a preference for mode rather than tempo cues which is enhanced by musical training. The challenge to these preferred strategies during cochlear implant hearing (simulated and real), regardless of musical training, suggests that access to pitch cues for children with hearing loss must be improved by preservation of residual hearing and improvements in

  1. Animating functional anatomy for the web.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, G D

    2000-04-15

    The instructor sometimes has a complex task in explaining the concepts of functional anatomy and embryology to health professional students. However, animations can easily illustrate functional anatomy, clinical procedures, or the developing embryo. Web animation increases the accessibility of this information and makes it much more useful for independent student learning. A modified version of the animation can also be used for patient education. This article defines animation, provides a brief history of animation, discusses the principles of animation, illustrates and evaluates some of the video-editing or movie-making computer software programs, and shows examples of two of the author's animations. These two animations are the inferior alveolar nerve block from the mandibular nerve anesthetics unit and normal temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function from the muscles of the mastication and the TMJ function unit. The software discussed are the industry leaders and have made the job of producing computer-based animations much easier. The programs are Adobe Premiere, Adobe After Effects, Apple QuickTime and Macromedia Flash .

  2. Obscuring surface anatomy in volumetric imaging data.

    PubMed

    Milchenko, Mikhail; Marcus, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The identifying or sensitive anatomical features in MR and CT images used in research raise patient privacy concerns when such data are shared. In order to protect human subject privacy, we developed a method of anatomical surface modification and investigated the effects of such modification on image statistics and common neuroimaging processing tools. Common approaches to obscuring facial features typically remove large portions of the voxels. The approach described here focuses on blurring the anatomical surface instead, to avoid impinging on areas of interest and hard edges that can confuse processing tools. The algorithm proceeds by extracting a thin boundary layer containing surface anatomy from a region of interest. This layer is then "stretched" and "flattened" to fit into a thin "box" volume. After smoothing along a plane roughly parallel to anatomy surface, this volume is transformed back onto the boundary layer of the original data. The above method, named normalized anterior filtering, was coded in MATLAB and applied on a number of high resolution MR and CT scans. To test its effect on automated tools, we compared the output of selected common skull stripping and MR gain field correction methods used on unmodified and obscured data. With this paper, we hope to improve the understanding of the effect of surface deformation approaches on the quality of de-identified data and to provide a useful de-identification tool for MR and CT acquisitions.

  3. Anatomy and Aesthetics of the Labia Minora: The Ideal Vulva?

    PubMed

    Clerico, C; Larry, A; Mojallal, A; Boucher, F

    2017-03-10

    Female genital cosmetic surgery is becoming more and more widespread both in the field of plastic and gynaecological surgery. The increased demand for vulvar surgery is spurred by the belief that the vulva is abnormal in appearance. What is normal in terms of labial anatomy? Labia minora enlargement or hypertrophy remains a clinical diagnosis which is poorly defined as it could be considered a variation of the normal anatomy. Enlarged labia minora can cause functional, aesthetic and psychosocial problems. In reality, given the wide variety of vulvar morphology among people, it is a very subjective issue to define the "normal" vulva. The spread of nudity in the general media plays a major role in creating an artificial image and standards with regard to the ideal form. Physicians should be aware that the patient's self-perception of the normal or ideal vulva is highly influenced by the arguably distorted image related to our socio-psychological environment, as presented to us by the general media and internet. As physicians, we have to educate our patients on the variation of vulvar anatomy and the potential risks of these surgeries. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  4. Anatomy of a microearthquake sequence on an active normal fault

    PubMed Central

    Stabile, T. A.; Satriano, C.; Orefice, A.; Festa, G.; Zollo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of similar earthquakes, such as events in a seismic sequence, is an effective tool with which to monitor and study source processes and to understand the mechanical and dynamic states of active fault systems. We are observing seismicity that is primarily concentrated in very limited regions along the 1980 Irpinia earthquake fault zone in Southern Italy, which is a complex system characterised by extensional stress regime. These zones of weakness produce repeated earthquakes and swarm-like microearthquake sequences, which are concentrated in a few specific zones of the fault system. In this study, we focused on a sequence that occurred along the main fault segment of the 1980 Irpinia earthquake to understand its characteristics and its relation to the loading-unloading mechanisms of the fault system. PMID:22606366

  5. Normal ranges of heart rate and respiratory rate in children from birth to 18 years: a systematic review of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Susannah; Thompson, Matthew; Stevens, Richard; Heneghan, Carl; Plüddemann, Annette; Maconochie, Ian; Tarassenko, Lionel; Mant, David

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Although heart rate and respiratory rate are routinely measured in children in acute settings, current reference ranges are not evidence-based. The aim of this study is to derive new centile charts for heart rate and respiratory rate using systematic review data from existing studies, and to compare these with existing international ranges. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL to April 2009, and reference lists to identify studies which had measured heart rate and/or respiratory rate in normal children between birth and 18 years of age. We used a non-parametric kernel regression method to create centile charts for heart rate and respiratory rate with respect to age. We compared existing reference ranges with those derived from the centile charts. Findings We included 69 studies, 59 of which provided data on the heart rate of 143,346 children, and 20 on the respiratory rate of 3,881 children. Our new centile charts demonstrate the decline in respiratory rate from birth to early adolescence, with the steepest decline apparent in infants under two years; decreasing from a median of 44 breaths/minutes at birth to 26 breaths/minute at the age of two. The heart rate centile chart demonstrates a small peak at one month of age. The median heart rate increases from 127 beats/minute at birth to a maximum of 145 beats/minute at approximately one month of age, before decreasing to 113 beats/minute by the age of two. Comparison of the centile charts with existing published reference ranges for heart rate and respiratory rate show marked disagreement with the centile charts, with limits from published ranges frequently exceeding the 99th and 1st centiles, or crossing the median. Interpretation Our review shows that existing international guidelines for heart rate and respiratory rate in children are not based on evidence. We have created new centile charts based on a systematic review of studies which have measured these vital signs in normal

  6. Failure of normal development of central drive to ankle dorsiflexors relates to gait deficits in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Tue Hvass; Farmer, Simon F; Kliim-Due, Mette; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2013-02-01

    Neurophysiological markers of the central control of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP) are used to assess developmental response to therapy. We measured the central common drive to a leg muscle in children with CP. We recorded electromyograms (EMGs) from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of 40 children with hemiplegic CP and 42 typically developing age-matched controls during static dorsiflexion of the ankle and during the swing phase of treadmill walking. The common drive to TA motoneurons was identified through time- and frequency-domain cross-correlation methods. In control subjects, the common drive consists of frequencies between 1 and 60 Hz with peaks at beta (15-25 Hz) and gamma (30-45 Hz) frequencies known to be caused by activity within sensorimotor cortex networks: this drive to motoneurons strengthens during childhood. Similar to this drive in control subjects, this drive to the least affected TA in the CP children tended to strengthen with age, although compared with that in the control subjects, it was slightly weaker. For CP subjects of all ages, the most affected TA muscle common drive was markedly reduced compared with that of their least affected muscle as well as that of controls. These differences between the least and most affected TA muscles were unrelated to differences in the magnitude of EMG in the two muscles but positively correlated with ankle dorsiflexion velocity and joint angle during gait. Time- and frequency-domain analysis of ongoing EMG recruited during behaviorally relevant lower limb tasks provides a noninvasive and important measure of the central drive to motoneurons in subjects with CP.

  7. Anatomy Adventure: A Board Game for Enhancing Understanding of Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.

    2014-01-01

    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy…

  8. The Anatomy of Anatomy: A Review for Its Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugand, Kapil; Abrahams, Peter; Khurana, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience.…

  9. Tactile Functions in Learning-Disabled and Normal Children: Reliability and Validity Considerations and Commentary and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnealey, Moya; Royeen, Charlotte Brasic

    1989-01-01

    Kinnealey reports on a study comparing tactile functions of 30 learning-disabled and 30 normal eight-year-olds as measured by the Southern California Sensory Integration Tests and the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. Reliability and validity of the two measures were examined. Results showed a significant difference between the tactile…

  10. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase from Down Syndrome and Normal Children Erythrocytes: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Ragaa R.; Maharem, Tahany M.; Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Sabry, Gilane M.; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Guneidy, Rasha A.

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21. Our study was concerned with the characterization and purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) from normal and Down syndrome (DS) erythrocytes to illustrate the difference in the role of this enzyme in the cell. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione (GSH) was…

  11. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    PubMed

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  12. Ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (Caracal caracal).

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B

    2012-09-01

    Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.

  13. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    MedlinePlus

    ... HEALTH 17 Nutrition Newsletters for Parents of Young Children, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service Is My Child’s Appetite Normal? ... HEALTH 17 Nutrition Newsletters for Parents of Young Children, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service

  14. Seroprevalence of hepatitis a antibodies in a group of normal and Down syndrome children in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cristina Targa; Leite, Júlio César; Tanaguchi, Adriano Nori R; Vieira, Sandra Maria G; Pereira-Lima, Jorge; da Silveira, Themis Reverbel

    2002-10-01

    The high incidence of Hepatitis A and B in institutionalized patients with Down Syndrome (DS) is not fully understood. Under poor hygienic conditions, immunological alterations might predispose individuals to these infections. Sixty three DS children between 1 and 12 years old living at home with their families were examined for anti-HAV and compared to age-matched controls (64 healthy children). This cross-sectional study was carried out from May 1999 to April 2000 at the Hospital de Clínicas of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Groups were compared in terms of age, sex, skin color, and family income (> R$ 500 and < R $ 500/month) by the chi-square test, with Yates' correction and for the prevalence of anti-HAV (Fisher's exact test). In the DS group (n=63), the mean age was 4.4 +/- 3.3 years, 94% of the patients were white and 51% were female. Family income was < or = R$ 500/month in 40 cases (63%). In the control group (n=64), the mean age was 4.8 +/- 2.7 years, 81% of the patients were white and 56% were female. Family income was < or = R$ 500 in 20 patients (31%). DS children's families had a significantly lower income (P<0.0005). In the DS group there were 6 positive (9.5%) anti-HAV cases, and all came from low-income families (less than R$ 500/ month). In the control group, 3 cases (4.7%) were positive for anti-HAV (two were from a low-income family and one was from a higher income family). These differences were not significant. Our data indicate that Hepatitis A is not a special risk for mentally retarded DS outpatients, even in a developing country like Brazil.

  15. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  16. On the Anatomy of Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Josephson, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In search for the nature of understanding of basic science in a clinical context, eight medical students were interviewed, with a focus on their view of the discipline of anatomy, in their fourth year of study. Interviews were semi-structured and took place just after the students had finished their surgery rotations. Phenomenographic analysis was…

  17. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  18. Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

  19. Functional Anatomy of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Glenn C.; Chopp, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Movements of the human shoulder represent the result of a complex dynamic interplay of structural bony anatomy and biomechanics, static ligamentous and tendinous restraints, and dynamic muscle forces. Injury to 1 or more of these components through overuse or acute trauma disrupts this complex interrelationship and places the shoulder at increased risk. A thorough understanding of the functional anatomy of the shoulder provides the clinician with a foundation for caring for athletes with shoulder injuries. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE for the years 1980 to 1999, using the key words “shoulder,” “anatomy,” “glenohumeral joint,” “acromioclavicular joint,” “sternoclavicular joint,” “scapulothoracic joint,” and “rotator cuff.” Data Synthesis: We examine human shoulder movement by breaking it down into its structural static and dynamic components. Bony anatomy, including the humerus, scapula, and clavicle, is described, along with the associated articulations, providing the clinician with the structural foundation for understanding how the static ligamentous and dynamic muscle forces exert their effects. Commonly encountered athletic injuries are discussed from an anatomical standpoint. Conclusions/Recommendations: Shoulder injuries represent a significant proportion of athletic injuries seen by the medical provider. A functional understanding of the dynamic interplay of biomechanical forces around the shoulder girdle is necessary and allows for a more structured approach to the treatment of an athlete with a shoulder injury. PMID:16558636

  20. Orbital anatomy for the surgeon.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Timothy A; Golden, Brent A

    2012-11-01

    An anatomic description of the orbit and its contents and the eyelids directed toward surgeons is the focus of this article. The bone and soft tissue anatomic nuances for surgery are highlighted, including a section on osteology, muscles, and the orbital suspensory system. Innervation and vascular anatomy are also addressed.

  1. Twenty-four-hour osteocalcin, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen rhythms in normal and growth-retarded children.

    PubMed

    Saggese, G; Baroncelli, G I; Bertelloni, S; Cinquanta, L; DiNero, G

    1994-04-01

    The relationships between spontaneous variations in serum 24-h osteocalcin (OC), carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) concentrations and GH secretion, measured as GH response to provocative pharmacologic stimuli and spontaneous GH secretion during 24 h, were evaluated in prepubertal normal children and in GH-deficient and GH-secreting short normal children (SNC). All the subjects showed a circadian rhythm in smoothed 24-h OC and PICP mean data with higher nocturnal values in comparison with diurnal values. Conversely, serum PIINP concentrations did not vary throughout the day. In children with classic GH deficiency and nonclassic GH deficiency, mean 24-h serum levels and smoothed 24-h mean data for OC, PICP, and PIIINP were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) with respect to age-matched controls. SNC showed mean 24-h OC concentrations similar (p = NS) to those we found in age-matched controls, but they had significantly lower (p < 0.001) diurnal 12-h mean data in comparison with controls. SNC also showed both 24-h PICP and PIIINP mean data and smoothed 24-h PICP and PIIINP mean data significantly lower (from p < 0.02 to p < 0.001) at all the time points of measurement in comparison with controls. Twenty-four-hour PICP and PIIINP mean data were positively related to spontaneous 24-h GH concentrations (r = 0.77, p < 0.005 and r = 0.69, p < 0.005, respectively) and growth velocity (r = 0.85, p < 0.005, and r = 0.70, p < 0.005, respectively), whereas 24-h OC mean data were not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Misplaced central venous catheters: applied anatomy and practical management.

    PubMed

    Gibson, F; Bodenham, A

    2013-03-01

    Large numbers of central venous catheters (CVCs) are placed each year and misplacement occurs frequently. This review outlines the normal and abnormal anatomy of the central veins in relation to the placement of CVCs. An understanding of normal and variant anatomy enables identification of congenital and acquired abnormalities. Embryological variations such as a persistent left-sided superior vena cava are often diagnosed incidentally only after placement of a CVC, which is seen to take an abnormal course on X-ray. Acquired abnormalities such as stenosis or thrombosis of the central veins can be problematic and can present as a failure to pass a guidewire or catheter or complications after such attempts. Catheters can also be misplaced outside veins in a patient with otherwise normal anatomy with potentially disastrous consequences. We discuss the possible management options for these patients including the various imaging techniques used to verify correct or incorrect catheter placement and the limitations of each. If the course of a misplaced catheter can be correctly identified as not lying within a vulnerable structure then it can be safely removed. If the misplaced catheter is lying within or traversing large and incompressible arteries or veins, it should not be removed before consideration of what is likely to happen when it is removed. Advice and further imaging should be sought, typically in conjunction with interventional radiology or vascular surgery. With regard to misplaced CVCs, in the short term, a useful aide memoir is: 'if in doubt, don't take it out'.

  3. Eye-voice span during rapid automatized naming of digits and dice in Chinese normal and dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-11-01

    We measured Chinese dyslexic and control children's eye movements during rapid automatized naming (RAN) with alphanumeric (digits) and symbolic (dice surfaces) stimuli. Both types of stimuli required identical oral responses, controlling for effects associated with speech production. Results showed that naming dice was much slower than naming digits for both groups, but group differences in eye-movement measures and in the eye-voice span (i.e. the distance between the currently fixated item and the voiced item) were generally larger in digit-RAN than in dice-RAN. In addition, dyslexics were less efficient in parafoveal processing in these RAN tasks. Since the two RAN tasks required the same phonological output and on the assumption that naming dice is less practiced than naming digits in general, the results suggest that the translation of alphanumeric visual symbols into phonological codes is less efficient in dyslexic children. The dissociation of the print-to-sound conversion and phonological representation suggests that the degree of automaticity in translation from visual symbols to phonological codes in addition to phonological processing per se is also critical to understanding dyslexia.

  4. Single point estimation of glucocorticoid receptors in lymphocytes of normal subjects and of children under long term glucocorticoid treatment.

    PubMed

    Lapcík, P; Hampl, R; Bicíková, M

    1992-03-01

    A single point assay of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in human lymphocytes based on the measurement of specific dexamethasone binding has been developed and compared with a common multi-point Scatchard analysis. The assay conditions-concentration of the ligand 20 nmol/l, incubation time 2 h and the cell count 2-6 mil. cells/tube in the assay volume 0.25 ml were found to be optimal. An attempt was also undertaken to use a cell harvester for the separation of cells from unbound ligand. Though specifically bound dexamethasone measured by whole-cell assay and that using cell harvester correlated well, almost by one order lower values obtained with the latter method render it non-applicable for receptor quantitation. The results from 9 healthy volunteers (average GR concentration 7131 +/- 1256 sites/cell) correlated excellently with those obtained by the Scatchard analysis. The single point assay has been also applied for determination of GH in 10 children treated with large doses of prednisone. The average values from healthy volunteers did not differ significantly from those found in these children, though much broader range was found in patients.

  5. Normal radiological unossified hip joint space and femoral head size development during growth in 675 children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Veronika; Jorysz, Gabriele; Arnoldi, Andreas; Utzschneider, Sandra; Wegener, Bernd; Jansson, Volkmar; Heimkes, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation of hip joint space width during child growth is important to aid in the early diagnosis of hip pathology in children. We established reference values for hip joint space and femoral head size for each age. Hip joint space development during growth was retrospectively investigated medial and cranial in 1350 hip joints of children using standard anteroposterior supine plain pelvic radiographs. Maximum capital femoral epiphysis diameter and femoral radii were further more investigated. Hip joint space values show a slow decline during growth. Joint space was statistically significantly (p < 0.006) larger in boys than girls. Our hip joint space measurements on supine subjects seem slightly larger than those reported by Hughes on standing subjects. Evaluation of the femoral head diameter and the radii showed a size curve quite parallel to the known body growth charts. Radii medial and perpendicular to the physis are not statistically significantly different. We recommend to compare measurements of hip joint space at two locations to age dependent charts using the same imaging technique. During growth, a divergence in femoral head size from the expected values or loss of the spherical shape should raise the question of hip disorder. Clin. Anat. 30:267-275, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  7. Auditory function and hearing loss in children and adults with Williams syndrome: cochlear impairment in individuals with otherwise normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Marler, Jeffrey A; Sitcovsky, Jessica L; Mervis, Carolyn B; Kistler, Doris J; Wightman, Frederic L

    2010-05-15

    Hearing loss is common in school-age individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and extensive in adults. Prior studies with relatively small sample sizes suggest that hearing loss in WS has an early onset and may be progressive, yet the auditory phenotype and the scope of the hearing loss have not been adequately characterized. We used standard audiometric tools: Otoscopy, tympanometry, air-conduction (bone conduction when available) behavioral testing, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to measure hearing sensitivity and outer hair cell function. We tested 81 individuals with WS aged 5.33-59.50 years. Sixty-three percent of the school-age and 92% of the adult participants had mild to moderately-severe hearing loss. The hearing loss in at least 50% was sensorineural. DPOAE testing corroborated behavioral results. Strikingly, 12 of 14 participants with hearing within normal limits bilaterally had 4,000-Hz DPOAE input/output (DPOAE IO) functions indicative of outer hair cell damage and impaired cochlear compression. Our results indicate that hearing loss is very common in WS. Furthermore, individuals with WS who have "normal" hearing as defined by behavioral thresholds may actually have sub-clinical impairments or undetected cochlear pathology. Our findings suggest outer hair cell dysfunction in otherwise normal hearing individuals. The DPOAE IO in this same group revealed growth functions typically seen in groups with noise-induced damage. Given this pattern of findings, individuals with WS may be at increased risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Recommendations regarding audiological testing for individuals with WS and accommodations for these individuals in both academic and nonacademic settings are provided.

  8. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    PubMed Central

    Vithoosan, S.; Kokulan, S.; Dissanayake, M. M.; Dissanayake, Vajira; Jayasekara, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n = 77, 48.4%) was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n = 82, 51.6%) was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P < 0.05, CI 95%). Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better. PMID:27579181

  9. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  10. Anatomy of a Bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  11. Anatomy and physiology of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Serlin, Yonatan; Shelef, Ilan; Knyazer, Boris; Friedman, Alon

    2015-02-01

    Essential requisite for the preservation of normal brain activity is to maintain a narrow and stable homeostatic control in the neuronal environment of the CNS. Blood flow alterations and altered vessel permeability are considered key determinants in the pathophysiology of brain injuries. We will review the present-day literature on the anatomy, development and physiological mechanisms of the blood-brain barrier, a distinctive and tightly regulated interface between the CNS and the peripheral circulation, playing a crucial role in the maintenance of the strict environment required for normal brain function.

  12. Anatomy and Physiology of the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Serlin, Yonatan; Shelef, Ilan; Knyazer, Boris; Friedman, Alon

    2015-01-01

    Essential requisite for the preservation of normal brain activity is to maintain a narrow and stable homeostatic control in the neuronal environment of the CNS. Blood flow alterations and altered vessel permeability are considered key determinants in the pathophysiology of brain injuries. We will review the present-day literature on the anatomy, development and physiological mechanisms of the blood-brain barrier, a distinctive and tightly regulated interface between the CNS and the peripheral circulation, playing a crucial role in the maintenance of the strict environment required for normal brain function. PMID:25681530

  13. Controlling the vocabulary for anatomy.

    PubMed Central

    Baud, R. H.; Lovis, C.; Rassinoux, A. M.; Ruch, P.; Geissbuhler, A.

    2002-01-01

    When confronted with the representation of human anatomy, natural language processing (NLP) system designers are facing an unsolved and frequent problem: the lack of a suitable global reference. The available sources in electronic format are numerous, but none fits adequately all the constraints and needs of language analysis. These sources are usually incomplete, difficult to use or tailored to specific needs. The anatomist's or ontologist's view does not necessarily match that of the linguist. The purpose of this paper is to review most recognized sources of knowledge in anatomy usable for linguistic analysis. Their potential and limits are emphasized according to this point of view. Focus is given on the role of the consensus work of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) giving the Terminologia Anatomica. PMID:12463780

  14. [Surgical anatomy of the nose].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Duron, J B; Jallut, Y; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the nose is an essential prerequisite for preoperative analysis and the understanding of surgical techniques. Like a tent supported by its frame, the nose is an osteo-chondral structure covered by a peri-chondroperiosteal envelope, muscle and cutaneous covering tissues. For didactic reasons, we have chosen to treat this chapter in the form of comments from eight key configurations that the surgeon should acquire before performing rhinoplasty.

  15. Anatomy of trisomy 12.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wallisa; Zurada, Anna; Zurada-ZieliŃSka, Agnieszka; Gielecki, Jerzy; Loukas, Marios

    2016-07-01

    Trisomy 12 is a rare aneuploidy and fetuses with this defect tend to spontaneously abort. However, mosaicism allows this anomaly to manifest itself in live births. Due to the fact that mosaicism represents a common genetic abnormality, trisomy 12 is encountered more frequently than expected at a rate of 1 in 500 live births. Thus, it is imperative that medical practitioners are aware of this aneuploidy. Moreover, this genetic disorder may result from a complete or partial duplication of chromosome 12. A partial duplication may refer to a specific segment on the chromosome, or one of the arms. On the other hand, a complete duplication refers to duplication of both arms of chromosome 12. The combination of mosaicism and the variable duplication sites has led to variable phenotypes ranging from normal phenotype to Potter sequence to gross physical defects of the various organ systems. This article provides a review of the common anatomical variation of the different types of trisomy 12. This review revealed that further documentation is needed for trisomy 12q and complete trisomy 12 to clearly delineate the constellation of anomalies that characterize each genetic defect. Clin. Anat. 29:633-637, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Anatomy of the infant head

    SciTech Connect

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ.

  17. Importance of android/gynoid fat ratio in predicting metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in normal weight as well as overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Samsell, Lennie; Regier, Michael; Walton, Cheryl; Cottrell, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that android or truncal obesity is associated with a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, yet there is evidence that gynoid fat distribution may be protective. However, these studies have focused on adults and obese children. The purpose of our study was to determine if the android/gynoid fat ratio is positively correlated with insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR, and dislipidemia in a child sample of varying body sizes. In 7-13-year-old children with BMI percentiles ranging from 0.1 to 99.6, the android/gynoid ratio was closely associated with insulin resistance and combined LDL + VLDL-cholesterol. When separated by sex, it became clear that these relationships were stronger in boys than in girls. Subjects were stratified into BMI percentile based tertiles. For boys, the android/gynoid ratio was significantly related to insulin resistance regardless of BMI tertile with and LDL + VLDL in tertiles 1 and 3. For girls, only LDL + VLDL showed any significance with android/gynoid ratio and only in tertile 2. We conclude that the android/gynoid fat ratio is closely associated with insulin resistance and LDL + VLDL-, "bad," cholesterol in normal weight boys and may provide a measurement of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in that population.

  18. Quantification of IgG subclasses in sera of normal adults and healthy children between 4 and 12 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    van der Giessen, M; Rossouw, E; van Veen, T A; van Loghem, E; Zegers, B J; Sander, P C

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of the four subclasses of IgG was determined in sera of normal adults and healthy children between 4 and 12 years of age, using the radial immunodiffusion technique. A relation between the concentration of IgG subclasses and Gm type was studied in adults. No influence of Gm type on IgG1 concentration could be shown, except that the group of Gm(fb) individuals had a higher level than the others. The mean concentration of IgG2 was higher in sera positive for Gm(n) than in those lacking this genetic marker. High IgG3 concentrations corresponded to the presence of Gm(b). No clearcut evidence was obtained for a relation between IgG4 concentration and Gm factors, although in general Gm(n) positive individuals had higher and Gm (zag) positive individuals lower concentrations of this subclass in their serum. Quantification of IgG subclasses in sera from healthy children of different ages revealed that the amount of IgG2 rises slowly with age, having not yet reached the adult level at the age of 12 years. This also holds for IgG4, although in a lesser degree. No significant differences from the adult level were found for the concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3. PMID:54236

  19. Stimulatory effects of androgens on normal children's bone marrow in culture: effects on BFU-E, CFU-E, and uroporphyrinogen I synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Claustres, M; Sultan, C

    1986-01-01

    We studied the effect of natural and synthetic androgens on children's erythropoietic precursor cells in culture. Cultures of normal marrow were carried out according to a miniaturized methylcellulose method in the presence of erythropoietin. We then evaluated the effects of testosterone, nortestosterone, fluoxymesterone and etiocholanolone (10(-9)-10(-6) M) on erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E) and burst-forming units (BFU-E). Androgen-induced growth of erythroid progenitors was quantified by directly scoring colonies and by a biochemical determination of the uroporphyrinogen I synthase activity (UROS). We observed a significant increase (p less than or equal to 0.05) in the number of CFU-E and BFU-E and in the UROS activity of derived colonies in the presence of androgens (10(-8) or 10(-7)M). This microculture assay could be useful not only to study the effect of androgens on erythroid progenitor cells in culture, but also to predict the best androgenic treatment of anemia in children and adults.

  20. The effect of sleep restriction on neurobehavioural functioning in normally developing children and adolescents: insights from the Attention, Behaviour and Sleep Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Cassoff, J; Bhatti, J A; Gruber, R

    2014-10-01

    In the current paper, we first introduce the research themes of the attention, behaviour and sleep (ABS) laboratory, namely, sleep and ADHD, sleep and obesity, and sleep and academic performance. We then focus in on the topic to be reviewed in the current paper - the association between sleep restriction and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in typically developing children. We review the research thus far conducted by the ABS lab specific to this topic and posit the unique methodological contributions of the ABS lab (e.g. home-based assessment of sleep architecture and patterns, extensive phenotyping, etc.) in terms of advancing this research area. In the second section of the paper, we review 13 studies investigating the causal association between experimental sleep restriction and NBF in normally developing pediatric populations. Eight of the 13 studies found that sleep restriction causes impairments in neurobehavioural functioning. However, given the inconsistency in outcome measures, experimental protocols and statistical power, the studies reviewed herein are difficult to interpret. Strategies used by the ABS including implementing home assessments of sleep, restricting sleep relative to the participants' typical sleep schedules, blinding raters who assess NBF, and using valid and reliable NBF assessments are an attempt to address the gaps in this research area and clarify the causal relationship between sleep restriction and NBF in typically developing children and adolescents.

  1. Determination of fructose metabolic pathways in normal and fructose-intolerant children: A sup 13 C NMR study using (U- sup 13 C)fructose

    SciTech Connect

    Gopher, A.; Lapidot, A. ); Vaisman, N. ); Mandel, H. )

    1990-07-01

    An inborn deficiency in the ability of aldolase B to split fructose 1-phosphate is found in humans with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI). A stable isotope procedure to elucidate the mechanism of conversion of fructose to glucose in normal children and in HFI children has been developed. A constant infusion of D-(U-{sup 13}C)fructose was given nasogastrically to control and to HFI children. Hepatic fructose conversion to glucose was estimated by examination of {sup 13}C NMR spectra of plasma glucose. Significantly lower values ({approx}3-fold) for fructose conversion to glucose were obtained for the HFI patients as compared to the controls. A quantitative determination of the metabolic pathways of fructose conversion to glucose was derived from {sup 13}C NMR measurement of plasma ({sup 13}C)glucose isotopomer populations. The finding of isotopomer populations of three adjacent {sup 13}C atoms at glucose C-4 ({sup 13}C{sub 3}-{sup 13}C{sub 4}-{sup 13}C{sub 5}) suggests that there is a direct pathway from fructose, by-passing fructose-1-phosphate aldolase, to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The metabolism of fructose by fructose-1-phosphate aldolase activity accounts for only {approx}50% of the total amount of hepatic fructose conversion to glucose. In view of the marked decline by 67% in synthesis of glucose from fructose in HFI subjects found in this study, the extent of ({sup 13}C)glucose formation from a trace amount of (U-{sup 13}C)fructose infused into the patient can be used as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic test for inherent faulty fructose metabolism.

  2. Racial Variations in Velopharyngeal and Craniometric Morphology in Children: An Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jamie L.; Hudson, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine craniometric and velopharyngeal anatomy among young children (4–8 years of age) with normal anatomy across Black and White racial groups. Method Thirty-two healthy children (16 White and 16 Black) with normal velopharyngeal anatomy participated and successfully completed the magnetic resonance imaging scans. Measurements included 11 craniofacial and 9 velopharyngeal measures. Results Two-way analysis of covariance was used to determine the effects of race and sex on velopharyngeal measures and all craniometric measures except head circumference. Head circumference was included as a covariate to control for overall cranial size. Sex did not have a significant effect on any of the craniometric measures. Significant racial differences were demonstrated for face height. A significant race effect was also observed for mean velar length, velar thickness, and velopharyngeal ratio. Conclusion The present study provides separate craniofacial and velopharyngeal values for young Black and White children. Data from this study can be used to examine morphological variations with respect to race and sex. PMID:26540447

  3. Anatomy and biomechanics of the spinal column and cord.

    PubMed

    Miele, Vincent J; Panjabi, Manohar M; Benzel, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    The field of biomechanics combines the disciplines of biology and engineering, attempting to quantitatively describe the complicated properties of biological materials. These properties depend not only upon the inherent attributes of its constituents but also upon how the constituents are arranged relative to each other. Its importance in understanding spinal column and spinal cord pathology cannot be overemphasized. This chapter is a primer on the application of biomechanical principles to the normal and pathological spine. The basic concepts of biomechanics will first be reviewed followed by a review of the structural anatomy of the osteoligamentous spinal column and the biomechanics of injury. Relevant spinal cord anatomy will then be addressed as well as current biomechanical theories of spinal cord injury.

  4. Assessment of exposure to PCB 153 from breast feeding and normal food intake in individual children using a system approach model

    PubMed Central

    Trnovec, Tomáš; Dedík, Ladislav; Jusko, Todd A.; Lancz, Kinga; Palkovičová, Ľubica; Kočan, Anton; Šovčíková, Eva; Wimmerová, Soňa; Tihányi, Juraj; Patayová, Henrieta; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2011-01-01

    Investigators have typically relied on a single or few discrete time points as measures of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden, however health effects are more likely to be the result of integrative exposure in time, optionally expressed as an area under the time curve (AUC) of PCB serum concentration. Using data from a subgroup of 93 infants from a birth cohort in eastern Slovakia—a region highly polluted by PCBs—we fit a system type model, customized to our longitudinal measures of serum PCB concentrations in cord, 6, 16, and, 45 month blood specimens. The most abundant congener, PCB 153, was chosen for modeling purposes. In addition to currently used methods of exposure assessment, our approach estimates a concentration time profile for each subject, taking into account mean residence time of PCB 153 molecules in the body, duration of breast feeding, hypothetical PCB 153 concentration in steady-state without breast feeding and alternately without normal food intake. Hypothetical PCB 153 concentration in steady-state without normal food intake correlates with AUC (r=0.84, p<0.001) as well as with duration of breast feeding (r=0.64, p<0.001). It makes possible to determine each subject’s exposure profile expressed as AUC of PCBs serum concentration with a minimum model parameters. PCB body burden in most infants was strongly associated with duration of breast feeding in most, but not all children, was apparent from model output. PMID:22051344

  5. Time-of-day and attentional-order influences on dichotic processing of digits in learning disabled and normal achieving children.

    PubMed

    Morton, L L; Kershner, J R

    1993-01-01

    A heterogeneous group of 26 learning disabled (LD) and 30 normal achieving (NA) children, responded to a dichotic listening task using digits in morning and afternoon settings. Attentional order (i.e., right ear first versus left ear first) interacted with (1) Time-of-Day and (2) Group and Ear Attended. The first interaction revealed, as predicted, higher morning performance for subjects directed to attend right first. Subjects directed left first showed higher afternoon performance. These results are consistent with enhanced left hemisphere involvement after left hemisphere priming in the morning, and after right hemisphere priming in the afternoon. The second interaction indicated the LD had more difficulty than controls switching attention to the right ear when instructed to attend left first. The LD may activate the right hemisphere (via left hemispace attending) and have difficulty with subsequent right hemisphere inhibition, or left hemisphere activation, when shifting to right ear attending. Nonparametric tests revealed a greater incidence of lateralized responders in the morning for normal achievers attending left first. Findings are seen to augment previous research.

  6. Velopharyngeal Anatomy in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Three-Dimensional Cephalometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruotolo, Rachel A.; Veitia, Nestor A.; Corbin, Aaron; McDonough, Joseph; Solot, Cynthia B.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna; Zackai, Elaine H.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Cnaan, Avital; LaRossa, Don; Arens, Raanan; Kirschner, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is the most common genetic cause of velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising method for noninvasive, three-dimensional (3D) assessment of velopharyngeal (VP) anatomy. The purpose of this study was to assess VP structure in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome by using 3D MRI analysis. Design This was a retrospective analysis of magnetic resonance images obtained in patients with VPD associated with a 22q11.2 deletion compared with a normal control group. Setting This study was conducted at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, a pediatric tertiary care center. Patients, Participants The study group consisted of 5 children between the ages of 2.9 and 7.9 years, with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. All had VPD confirmed by nasendoscopy or videofluoroscopy. The control population consisted of 123 unaffected patients who underwent MRI for reasons other than VP assessment. Interventions Axial and sagittal T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images with 3-mm slice thickness were obtained from the orbit to the larynx in all patients by using a 1.5T Siemens Visions system. Outcome Measures Linear, angular, and volumetric measurements of VP structures were obtained from the magnetic resonance images with VIDA image- processing software. Results The study group demonstrated greater anterior and posterior cranial base and atlanto-dental angles. They also demonstrated greater pharyngeal cavity volume and width and lesser tonsillar and adenoid volumes. Conclusion Patients with a 22q11.2 deletion demonstrate significant alterations in VP anatomy that may contribute to VPD. PMID:16854203

  7. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  8. Reduced intrasubject variability with reinforcement in boys, but not girls, with ADHD: Associations with prefrontal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Rosch, Keri S; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the impact of motivational contingencies (reinforcement and punishment) on go/no-go (GNG) task performance in girls and boys with ADHD relative to typically developing (TD) children and associations with prefrontal anatomy. Children ages 8-12 with ADHD (n=107, 36 girls) and TD controls (n=95, 34 girls) completed a standard and a motivational GNG task and associations with prefrontal cortex (PFC) surface area were examined. Intrasubject variability (ISV) was lower during the motivational compared to the standard GNG among TD girls and boys, and boys with ADHD, but not among girls with ADHD. A greater reduction in ISV was associated with greater PFC surface area among children with ADHD. This novel demonstration of improvement in ISV with motivational contingencies for boys, but not girls, with ADHD and associations with PFC anatomy informs our understanding of sex differences and motivational factors contributing to ISV in children with ADHD.

  9. Gross anatomy of network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  10. Temporomandibular Joint Anatomy Assessed by CBCT Images

    PubMed Central

    Storti, Ennio; Nota, Alessandro; Ehsani, Shideh; Gatto, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Aim. Since cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been used for the study of craniofacial morphology, the attention of orthodontists has also focused on the mandibular condyle. The purpose of this brief review is to summarize the recent 3D CBCT images of mandibular condyle. Material and Methods. The eligibility criteria for the studies are (a) studies aimed at evaluating the anatomy of the temporomandibular joint; (b) studies performed with CBCT images; (c) studies on human subjects; (d) studies that were not clinical case-reports and clinical series; (e) studies reporting data on children, adolescents, or young adults (data from individuals with age ≤ 30 years). Sources included PubMed from June 2008 to June 2016. Results. 43 full-text articles were initially screened for eligibility. 13 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. 11 articles were finally included in qualitative synthesis. The main topics treated in the studies are the volume and surface of the mandibular condyle, the bone changes on cortical surface, the facial asymmetry, and the optimum position of the condyle in the glenoid fossa. Conclusion. Additional studies will be necessary in the future, constructed with longitudinal methodology, especially in growing subjects. The limits of CBCT acquisitions are also highlighted. PMID:28261607

  11. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  12. Frank Netter's Legacy: Interprofessional Anatomy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niekrash, Christine E.; Copes, Lynn E.; Gonzalez, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Several medical schools have recently described new innovations in interprofessional interactions in gross anatomy courses. The Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, CT has developed and implemented two contrasting interprofessional experiences in first-year medical student gross anatomy dissection laboratories:…

  13. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  14. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  15. Anatomy essentials for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is performed more and more nowadays. The anatomy of these procedures is totally different from traditional open procedures because they are performed from different direction and in different space. The important anatomy essentials for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair will be discussed in this article. PMID:27826575

  16. Effect of Cytomegalovirus Co-Infection on Normalization of Selected T-Cell Subsets in Children with Perinatally Acquired HIV Infection Treated with Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kapetanovic, Suad; Aaron, Lisa; Montepiedra, Grace; Anthony, Patricia; Thuvamontolrat, Kasalyn; Pahwa, Savita; Burchett, Sandra; Weinberg, Adriana; Kovacs, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the effect of cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection and viremia on reconstitution of selected CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) children ≥ 1-year old who participated in a partially randomized, open-label, 96-week combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-algorithm study. Methods Participants were categorized as CMV-naïve, CMV-positive (CMV+) viremic, and CMV+ aviremic, based on blood, urine, or throat culture, CMV IgG and DNA polymerase chain reaction measured at baseline. At weeks 0, 12, 20 and 40, T-cell subsets including naïve (CD62L+CD45RA+; CD95-CD28+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+) and terminally differentiated (CD62L-CD45RA+; CD95+CD28-) CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were measured by flow cytometry. Results Of the 107 participants included in the analysis, 14% were CMV+ viremic; 49% CMV+ aviremic; 37% CMV-naïve. In longitudinal adjusted models, compared with CMV+ status, baseline CMV-naïve status was significantly associated with faster recovery of CD8+CD62L+CD45RA+% and CD8+CD95-CD28+% and faster decrease of CD8+CD95+CD28-%, independent of HIV VL response to treatment, cART regimen and baseline CD4%. Surprisingly, CMV status did not have a significant impact on longitudinal trends in CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+%. CMV status did not have a significant impact on any CD4+ T-cell subsets. Conclusions In this cohort of PHIV+ children, the normalization of naïve and terminally differentiated CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to cART was detrimentally affected by the presence of CMV co-infection. These findings may have implications for adjunctive treatment strategies targeting CMV co-infection in PHIV+ children, especially those that are now adults or reaching young adulthood and may have accelerated immunologic aging, increased opportunistic infections and aging diseases of the immune system. PMID:25794163

  17. Cardiovascular anatomy and physiology of the fetus, neonate, infant, child, and adolescent.

    PubMed

    Alyn, I B; Baker, L K

    1992-04-01

    Practicing cardiovascular nurses are aware that significant differences exist in the cardiac anatomy and physiology of children and adults. Generally, the younger the child the greater these differences are. The cellular anatomy and physiology are markedly different in the fetus, neonate, and infant. As development progresses, cardiac function begins to more closely approximate that of an adult. This article describes the anatomical and physiologic development of the fetus, neonate, infant, child, and adolescent. The developmental differences in preload, afterload, contractility, and heart rate are summarized.

  18. Brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    McAlonan, Grainne M; Daly, Eileen; Kumari, Veena; Critchley, Hugo D; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Suckling, John; Simmons, Andrew; Sigmundsson, Thordur; Greenwood, Kathyrn; Russell, Ailsa; Schmitz, Nicole; Happe, Francesca; Howlin, Patricia; Murphy, Declan G M

    2002-07-01

    Asperger's syndrome (an autistic disorder) is characterized by stereotyped and obsessional behaviours, and pervasive abnormalities in socio-emotional and communicative behaviour. These symptoms lead to social exclusion and a significant healthcare burden; however, their neurobiological basis is poorly understood. There are few studies on brain anatomy of Asperger's syndrome, and no focal anatomical abnormality has been reliably reported from brain imaging studies of autism, although there is increasing evidence for differences in limbic circuits. These brain regions are important in sensorimotor gating, and impaired 'gating' may partly explain the failure of people with autistic disorders to inhibit repetitive thoughts and actions. Thus, we compared brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in healthy people with Asperger's syndrome and controls. We included 21 adults with Asperger's syndrome and 24 controls. All had normal IQ and were aged 18-49 years. We studied brain anatomy using quantitative MRI, and sensorimotor gating using prepulse inhibition of startle in a subset of 12 individuals with Asperger's syndrome and 14 controls. We found significant age-related differences in volume of cerebral hemispheres and caudate nuclei (controls, but not people with Asperger's syndrome, had age-related reductions in volume). Also, people with Asperger's syndrome had significantly less grey matter in fronto-striatal and cerebellar regions than controls, and widespread differences in white matter. Moreover, sensorimotor gating was significantly impaired in Asperger's syndrome. People with Asperger's syndrome most likely have generalized alterations in brain development, but this is associated with significant differences from controls in the anatomy and function of specific brain regions implicated in behaviours characterizing the disorder. We hypothesize that Asperger's syndrome is associated with abnormalities in fronto-striatal pathways resulting in defective sensorimotor

  19. 16 CFR 1500.18 - Banned toys and other banned articles intended for use by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fingers, toes, or other parts of the anatomy of young children. Included among, but not limited to, the... an infant's finger, toe, or any other part of the anatomy to be inserted, in whole or in part, and... a finger, toe, or any part of the anatomy that could then be injured by the movement of another...

  20. RADIOGRAPHIC THORACIC ANATOMY OF THE RED PANDA (AILURUS FULGENS).

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2016-09-01

    The red panda ( Ailurus fulgens ) is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The natural distribution of the red panda is in the Himalayas and southern China. Thoracic diseases such as dirofilariasis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, tracheal obstruction, lung worm infestation, and pneumonia have been reported in the red panda. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of captive red pandas as a species-specific reference for routine health examinations and clinical cases. Right lateral (RL) and dorsoventral (DV) inspiratory phase views of the thorax were obtained in 11 adult captive red pandas. Measurements were made and ratios calculated to establish reference ranges for the mean vertebral heart score on the RL (8.34 ± 0.25) and DV (8.78 ± 0.34) views and the mean ratios of the caudal vena cava diameter to the vertebral body length above tracheal bifurcation (0.67 ± 0.05) and tracheal diameter to the width of the third rib (2.75 ± 0.24). The majority of animals (10/11) had 14 thoracic vertebrae, except for one animal that had 15 thoracic vertebrae. Rudimentary clavicles were seen in 3/11 animals. The ovoid, oblique cardiac silhouette was more horizontally positioned and elongated in older animals. A redundant aortic arch was seen in the oldest animal. The trachea was seen with mineralized cartilage rings in all animals. The carina was clearly seen in the majority of animals (10/11). Variations exist in the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of different species. Knowledge of the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of the red panda should prove useful for routine health examinations and in the diagnosis of thoracic diseases.

  1. 'Something normal in a very, very abnormal environment'--Nursing work to honour the life of dying infants and children in neonatal and paediatric intensive care in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Melissa J; Endacott, Ruth; Copnell, Beverley; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    The majority of deaths of children and infants occur in paediatric and neonatal intensive care settings. For nurses, managing an infant/child's deterioration and death can be very challenging. Nurses play a vital role in how the death occurs, how families are supported leading up to and after the infant/child's death. This paper describes the nurses' endeavours to create normality amidst the sadness and grief of the death of a child in paediatric and neonatal ICU. Focus groups and individual interviews with registered nurses from NICU and PICU settings gathered data on how neonatal and paediatric intensive care nurses care for families when a child dies and how they perceived their ability and preparedness to provide family care. Four themes emerged from thematic analysis: (1) respecting the child as a person; (2) creating opportunities for family involvement/connection; (3) collecting mementos; and (4) planning for death. Many of the activities described in this study empowered parents to participate in the care of their child as death approached. Further work is required to ensure these principles are translated into practice.

  2. Visual Literacy in Primary Science: Exploring Anatomy Cross-Section Production Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Fernández, Beatriz; Ruiz-Gallardo, José Reyes

    2017-04-01

    Are children competent producing anatomy cross-sections? To answer this question, we carried out a case study research aimed at testing graphic production skills in anatomy of nutrition. The graphics produced by 118 children in the final year of primary education were analysed. The children had to draw a diagram of a human cross section, integrating knowledge of anatomy acquired from longitudinal sections. The results show that they have very limited skills in producing these graphics judging by the dimensions (scale, shape, organs represented and its organization inside the section) and their conception of human anatomy at thoracic level (location of the organs, elements in the spaces between them and connections between organs). The results also indicate that the only exposure to cross-sections in daily life is not enough by itself to draw them correctly, so this type of graphic production should be addressed from the earliest stages of education, since it contributes to the development of visual literacy, and this is a crucial skill when it comes to learning science concepts and developing scientific literacy.

  3. Visual Literacy in Primary Science: Exploring Anatomy Cross-Section Production Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Fernández, Beatriz; Ruiz-Gallardo, José Reyes

    2016-11-01

    Are children competent producing anatomy cross-sections? To answer this question, we carried out a case study research aimed at testing graphic production skills in anatomy of nutrition. The graphics produced by 118 children in the final year of primary education were analysed. The children had to draw a diagram of a human cross section, integrating knowledge of anatomy acquired from longitudinal sections. The results show that they have very limited skills in producing these graphics judging by the dimensions (scale, shape, organs represented and its organization inside the section) and their conception of human anatomy at thoracic level (location of the organs, elements in the spaces between them and connections between organs). The results also indicate that the only exposure to cross-sections in daily life is not enough by itself to draw them correctly, so this type of graphic production should be addressed from the earliest stages of education, since it contributes to the development of visual literacy, and this is a crucial skill when it comes to learning science concepts and developing scientific literacy.

  4. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    PubMed Central

    Ratajska, A.; Gula, G.; Flaht-Zabost, A.; Czarnowska, E.; Ciszek, B.; Jankowska-Steifer, E.; Niderla-Bielinska, J.; Radomska-Lesniewska, D.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting) vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells. PMID:24592145

  5. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2011-05-01

    Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences.

  6. Regional specificity in anatomy at the lamina cribrosa.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L

    1981-03-01

    Specimens cut in cross section at the level of the lamina cribrosa in normal primate eyes are examined by light microscopy. The density of structural elements, consisting of crosswise-oriented connective-tissue trabeculae, is examined in different regions of the nerve head. It is noted that nasal more than temporal more than superior or inferior regions of the lamina cross section contain increased connective-tissue elements. This regional variation in nerve head anatomy is contrasted with susceptibility patterns of nerve head tissue to pressure elevation in both experimental and clinical glaucoma.

  7. Automatic anatomy recognition on CT images with pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lidong; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, Yubing; Odhner, Dewey; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-03-01

    Body-wide anatomy recognition on CT images with pathology becomes crucial for quantifying body-wide disease burden. This, however, is a challenging problem because various diseases result in various abnormalities of objects such as shape and intensity patterns. We previously developed an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system [1] whose applicability was demonstrated on near normal diagnostic CT images in different body regions on 35 organs. The aim of this paper is to investigate strategies for adapting the previous AAR system to diagnostic CT images of patients with various pathologies as a first step toward automated body-wide disease quantification. The AAR approach consists of three main steps - model building, object recognition, and object delineation. In this paper, within the broader AAR framework, we describe a new strategy for object recognition to handle abnormal images. In the model building stage an optimal threshold interval is learned from near-normal training images for each object. This threshold is optimally tuned to the pathological manifestation of the object in the test image. Recognition is performed following a hierarchical representation of the objects. Experimental results for the abdominal body region based on 50 near-normal images used for model building and 20 abnormal images used for object recognition show that object localization accuracy within 2 voxels for liver and spleen and 3 voxels for kidney can be achieved with the new strategy.

  8. Integration of Medical Imaging Including Ultrasound into a New Clinical Anatomy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscova, Michelle; Bryce, Deborah A.; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Young, Noel

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 a new clinical anatomy curriculum with integrated medical imaging component was introduced into the University of Sydney Medical Program. Medical imaging used for teaching the new curriculum included normal radiography, MRI, CT scans, and ultrasound imaging. These techniques were incorporated into teaching over the first two years of the…

  9. Towards an Elastographic Atlas of Brain Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Hirsch, Sebastian; Fehlner, Andreas; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Scheel, Michael; Braun, Juergen; Sack, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral viscoelastic constants can be measured in a noninvasive, image-based way by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for the detection of neurological disorders. However, MRE brain maps of viscoelastic constants are still limited by low spatial resolution. Here we introduce three-dimensional multifrequency MRE of the brain combined with a novel reconstruction algorithm based on a model-free multifrequency inversion for calculating spatially resolved viscoelastic parameter maps of the human brain corresponding to the dynamic range of shear oscillations between 30 and 60 Hz. Maps of two viscoelastic parameters, the magnitude and the phase angle of the complex shear modulus, |G*| and φ, were obtained and normalized to group templates of 23 healthy volunteers in the age range of 22 to 72 years. This atlas of the anatomy of brain mechanics reveals a significant contrast in the stiffness parameter |G*| between different anatomical regions such as white matter (WM; 1.252±0.260 kPa), the corpus callosum genu (CCG; 1.104±0.280 kPa), the thalamus (TH; 1.058±0.208 kPa) and the head of the caudate nucleus (HCN; 0.649±0.101 kPa). φ, which is sensitive to the lossy behavior of the tissue, was in the order of CCG (1.011±0.172), TH (1.037±0.173), CN (0.906±0.257) and WM (0.854±0.169). The proposed method provides the first normalized maps of brain viscoelasticity with anatomical details in subcortical regions and provides useful background data for clinical applications of cerebral MRE. PMID:23977148

  10. Art, antiquarianism and early anatomy.

    PubMed

    Guest, Clare E L

    2014-12-01

    Discussions of the early relationship between art and anatomy are shaped by Vasari's account of Florentine artists who dissected bodies in order to understand the causes of movement, and the end of movement in action. This account eclipses the role of the study of antiquities in Renaissance anatomical illustration. Beyond techniques of presentation, such as sectioning and analytic illustration, or a preoccupation with the mutilated fragment, antiquarianism offered a reflection on the variant and the role of temperament which could be adapted for anatomical purposes. With its play on ambiguities of life and death, idealisation and damage, antiquarianism also provided a way of negotiating the difficulties of content inherent in anatomical illustration. As such, it goes beyond exclusively historical interest to provoke reflection on the modes, possibilities and humane responsibilities of medical illustration.

  11. Facial anatomy of the fetus.

    PubMed

    Jeanty, P; Romero, R; Staudach, A; Hobbins, J C

    1986-11-01

    Real-time ultrasonography was used in this study to demonstrate details of the anatomy of the face and neck of the fetus. Details such as the ocular globe, vitreous body, lens, anterior chamber, rectus muscles, optic nerve and disc, and the ophthalmic artery are visible at the level of the eye. The helix, scaphoid fossa, triangular fossa, concha, antihelix, antitragus, intertragic incisure, and lobule can be seen at the level of the ear. The tip of the nose, the alae nasi, and the columna are also seen. The epiglottis is visible in the vestibulum of the larynx. The fetal face is an important structure that can provide invaluable information in the search for congenital malformations, and possibly also in fetal behavior.

  12. Arterial anatomy of the thumb.

    PubMed

    Ames, E L; Bissonnette, M; Acland, R; Lister, G; Firrell, J

    1993-08-01

    The anatomical literature has indicated that the arterial supply to the thumb comes from the princeps pollicis artery. However, this simplified description does not often correlate with intraoperative findings. The purpose of this study was to investigate and clarify this important area of anatomy by dissection of fresh cadaver hands. 40 dissections were completed on 35 intravascularly injected and five non-injected hands. Five patterns were identified. The most common pattern showed both a superficial and deep vessel to the first web space in 54% of specimens. Dominant vessels included the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery in 8%, first palmar metacarpal artery in 18% and dorsal metacarpal artery in 8%. Only three specimens correlated with the textbook description. We conclude that the term "princeps pollicis" is actually a misnomer.

  13. Surgical anatomy of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, G; Lichtenegger, R

    1997-09-01

    Modern functionally oriented surgery of the larynx increasingly requires exact knowledge of the anatomy and landmarks of the endolaryngeal structures in relation to the laryngeal skeleton. Review of the literature reveals several opposing statements and controversial anatomical definitions regarding several clinically critical points. In order to obtain basic anatomical data morphological measurements were performed on a total of 50 laryngeal specimens. Measurements were taken on whole organs and on cuts in the horizontal and in the frontal plane, as well. The data were evaluated statistically, which resulted in the determination of average configurations and dimensions of cartilages and soft tissues of the larynx. In particular, the projection of the deeper structures on the surface and the distances and angles between the different structures were taken into consideration. In order to make these data clinically applicable a scale model has been developed that will allow a direct correlation and application for individual surgery.

  14. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y

    2003-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  15. The corticotropin-releasing hormone test in normal short children: comparison of plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol responses to human corticotropin-releasing hormone and insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Goji, K

    1989-03-01

    The human corticotropin-releasing hormone (hCRH) tests were performed in twelve normal short children, and the responses of plasma ACTH and cortisol to iv administration of 1 micrograms/kg hCRH were compared with those to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. After administration of hCRH, the mean plasma ACTH level rose from a basal value of 3.3 +/- 0.4 pmol/l (mean +/- SEM) to a peak value of 9.2 +/- 0.8 pmol/l at 30 min, and the mean plasma cortisol level rose from a basal value of 231 +/- 25 nmol/l to a peak value of 546 +/- 30 nmol/l at 30 min. The ACTH response after insulin-induced hypoglycemia was greater than that after hCRH administration; the mean peak level (P less than 0.01), the percent maximum increment (P less than 0.01), and the area under the ACTH response curve (P less than 0.01) were all significantly greater after insulin-induced hypoglycemia than those after hCRH administration. Although the mean peak cortisol level after insulin-induced hypoglycemia was about 1.3-fold higher than that after hCRH administration (P less than 0.01), neither the percent maximum increment in plasma cortisol nor the area under the cortisol response curve after insulin-induced hypoglycemia was significantly different from that after hCRH administration. Consequently, the acute increases in plasma ACTH after the administration of 1 microgram/kg hCRH stimulated the adrenal gland to almost the same cortisol response as that obtained with a much greater increase in plasma ACTH after insulin-induced hypoglycemia. These results suggest that a plasma ACTH peak of 9-11 pmol/l produces near maximum acute stimulation of adrenal steroidogenesis.

  16. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  17. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2011-12-01

    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice.

  18. Curricular Guidelines for Teaching Dental Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeson, Jeffrey; Buckman, James

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Dental Anatomy and Occlusion of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. (MLW)

  19. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment. PMID:27382498

  20. Calculating the hip center of rotation using contralateral pelvic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Durand-Hill, Matthieu; Henckel, Johann; Satchithananda, Keshthra; Sabah, Shiraz; Hua, Jia; Hothi, Harry; Langstaff, Ronald J; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister

    2016-06-01

    Failure to place an artificial hip in the optimal center of rotation results in poor hip function and costly complications. The aim of this study was to develop robust methodology to estimate hip center of rotation (hCoR) from preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, using contralateral anatomy, in patients with unilateral diseased hips. Ten patients (five male, five female) with normal pelvic anatomy, and one patient with a unilateral dysplastic acetabulum were recruited from the London Implant Retrieval center image bank. 3D models of each pelvis were generated using commercial software. Two methods for estimation of hCoR were compared. Method 1 used a mirroring technique alone. Method 2 utilized mirroring and automatic alignment. Predicted versus actual hCoR co-ordinates were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients and paired T-tests. Both methods predicted hCoR with excellent agreement to original co-ordinates (>0.9) in all axes. Both techniques allowed prediction of the hCoR within ± 5 mm in all axes. Both techniques provided useful clinical information for planning acetabular reconstruction in patients with unilateral defects. Method 1 was less complex and is suitable for patients with developmental and degenerative pathologies. Method 2 may provide greater accuracy in a discrete group of patients with normal development prior to pathology (e.g., acetabular fractures). © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1077-1083, 2016.