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Sample records for children population dejstvoto

  1. Population variation in children's behavioral symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Brewis, A A; Piñeda, D

    2001-01-01

    Previous anthropological studies identified significant interpopulation consistencies in the frequency and symptoms of adult depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Tests of the degree of variation of such behavioral phenomena across contemporary populations are significant for the study of human evolution because universality or near universality suggests specific evolved aspects of human behavior. The aim of this research was to provide a preliminary test of whether cross-cultural consistencies in symptomatology associated with some psychiatric conditions are observable in children as they are in adults. We tested for interpopulation variation in degrees (intensity and frequency) of anxiety, depression, withdrawal, and somatization symptomatology in normal samples of children. Psychometric ratings scales allowed assessment of characteristic symptomatology of each child in the different contexts of home and school. The study populations comprised 1,208 6-11-year-old children from the Paisa community in Antioquia, Colombia, and African-American, Euro-American, and Hispanic children in the United States. We found interpopulation consistencies in some aspects of child behavioral symptomatology, especially depression and withdrawal. Mean degrees of symptomatology and percentages of children with clinically significant levels of symptomatology were consistent for both across populations, in home and school contexts, and for both girls and boys. Anxiety and somatization displayed more cross-cultural variability in expression. These patterns are in accordance with current understandings of cross-cultural variability and universals of adult psychiatric symptomatology.

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin in children.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Martín, V; Paulus, S; Siner, S; Scott, E; Padmore, K; Newland, P; Drew, R J; Felton, T W; Docobo-Pérez, F; Pizer, B; Pea, F; Peak, M; Turner, M A; Beresford, M W; Hope, W W

    2014-11-01

    Teicoplanin is frequently administered to treat Gram-positive infections in pediatric patients. However, not enough is known about the pharmacokinetics (PK) of teicoplanin in children to justify the optimal dosing regimen. The aim of this study was to determine the population PK of teicoplanin in children and evaluate the current dosage regimens. A PK hospital-based study was conducted. Current dosage recommendations were used for children up to 16 years of age. Thirty-nine children were recruited. Serum samples were collected at the first dose interval (1, 3, 6, and 24 h) and at steady state. A standard 2-compartment PK model was developed, followed by structural models that incorporated weight. Weight was allowed to affect clearance (CL) using linear and allometric scaling terms. The linear model best accounted for the observed data and was subsequently chosen for Monte Carlo simulations. The PK parameter medians/means (standard deviation [SD]) were as follows: CL, [0.019/0.023 (0.01)] × weight liters/h/kg of body weight; volume, 2.282/4.138 liters (4.14 liters); first-order rate constant from the central to peripheral compartment (Kcp), 0.474/3.876 h(-1) (8.16 h(-1)); and first-order rate constant from peripheral to central compartment (Kpc), 0.292/3.994 h(-1) (8.93 h(-1)). The percentage of patients with a minimum concentration of drug in serum (Cmin) of <10 mg/liter was 53.85%. The median/mean (SD) total population area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was 619/527.05 mg · h/liter (166.03 mg · h/liter). Based on Monte Carlo simulations, only 30.04% (median AUC, 507.04 mg · h/liter), 44.88% (494.1 mg · h/liter), and 60.54% (452.03 mg · h/liter) of patients weighing 50, 25, and 10 kg, respectively, attained trough concentrations of >10 mg/liter by day 4 of treatment. The teicoplanin population PK is highly variable in children, with a wider AUC distribution spread than for adults. Therapeutic drug monitoring should be a routine requirement to

  3. Obesity Rates in Special Populations of Children and Potential Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.; McIntosh, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States, but much of the research has focused on prevention and intervention programs, which target the general population of school children. Overlooked in the literature are children with special needs (including autism, genetic disorders, Down syndrome, and Prader-Willi…

  4. Children's Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Jason

    As part of the 2002 Current Population Survey, this report presents information on several characteristics of children, covering different aspects of their lives. It focuses on demographic characteristics of the child population of the United States and family living arrangements, including single parent families, cohabiting parent families, and…

  5. Anthropometric data peculiarities in early school children population.

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, L; Karseladze, R; Vekua, M; Chkhartishvili, E; Bigvava, T

    2011-01-01

    The anthropometric data were studied in early school aged (6-7 years old) children and the degree of harmonization during physical development was evaluated. Representative population of 400 otherwise healthy early school aged children was included in study group. Study period covered the end of school year. In the selected under observation focused population the level of individual anthropometric data was determined in percentile intervals according its position. Anthropometric data assessments by using percentile method it was revealed in early school aged (6-7 years of old children) excess in body height and weight in comparison with normal values. This phenomenon indicates the prevalence of acceleration and weight gain. Anthropometric data in boys were increased while comparing with physical development data in girls. This result difference has the tendency to statistically insignificant. Physical development harmonization values were studied in 200 children. Harmonized physical development revealed in 50 children (25%); disharmonized physical development I 50 children (15%), among them with I degree weight gain were 48 (24%), and with I degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). Markedly disharmonized development had 100 children (50%), among them with II degree weight gain were 98 (49%), and with II degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). According to the children's anthropometric data and assessment by physical development harmonization percentiles tables three groups of children were organized: main, risk group and the group with deviation in physical development. On the basis of resulted data the study of early school age children's physical development gives possibility for risk groups stratification, which in turn itself makes a strong basis for reasonable preventive measurements and stepwise monitoring implementation. PMID:21873758

  6. Anthropometric data peculiarities in early school children population.

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, L; Karseladze, R; Vekua, M; Chkhartishvili, E; Bigvava, T

    2011-01-01

    The anthropometric data were studied in early school aged (6-7 years old) children and the degree of harmonization during physical development was evaluated. Representative population of 400 otherwise healthy early school aged children was included in study group. Study period covered the end of school year. In the selected under observation focused population the level of individual anthropometric data was determined in percentile intervals according its position. Anthropometric data assessments by using percentile method it was revealed in early school aged (6-7 years of old children) excess in body height and weight in comparison with normal values. This phenomenon indicates the prevalence of acceleration and weight gain. Anthropometric data in boys were increased while comparing with physical development data in girls. This result difference has the tendency to statistically insignificant. Physical development harmonization values were studied in 200 children. Harmonized physical development revealed in 50 children (25%); disharmonized physical development I 50 children (15%), among them with I degree weight gain were 48 (24%), and with I degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). Markedly disharmonized development had 100 children (50%), among them with II degree weight gain were 98 (49%), and with II degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). According to the children's anthropometric data and assessment by physical development harmonization percentiles tables three groups of children were organized: main, risk group and the group with deviation in physical development. On the basis of resulted data the study of early school age children's physical development gives possibility for risk groups stratification, which in turn itself makes a strong basis for reasonable preventive measurements and stepwise monitoring implementation.

  7. Costs of children--benefit theory and population control.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1989-01-01

    fertile women are also important. The State's population policy of rewards and penalties also affects the costs and benefits. Administrative intervention to implement the FP program have been effectively and adequately used in the past to control population growth, even though it is recognized that social and economic development is another way of affecting population growth. Parents still need to be guaranteed that 1 child will indeed be a benefit. Children's economic value has been accepted, and policy is moving in the direction of correcting the imbalances between children's costs and benefits, such as increasing fines along with improving education and income distribution.

  8. Infections in a Children's Hospital autopsy population.

    PubMed

    Craver, Randall; Springer, Jeffery; Begue, Rodolfo

    2014-06-01

    We reviewed our Children's Hospital autopsies (1986-2009, 3-8 year groups) to determine the contribution of infections/inflammation to death and trends over time. Infections were categorized as (1) underlying cause of death, (2) mechanism of death complicating another underlying cause of death, (3) contributing (4) agonal or (5) incidental. Of 608 autopsies (44% of deaths), 401 had 691 infections (66%, 1.72 infections/infected child). In categories 1-5, there were 85 (12.3%), 237(34.3%), 231 (33.4%), 82 (11.9%) and 56(8.1%) infections. Leading infections include bronchopneumonia (188), sepsis (144- Enterococcus most common with 22), meningitis (35- Streptococcus pneumoniae most common with 10), pneumonitis (33), peritonitis (29). Sepsis declined in 2002-2009, attributed to fluid resuscitation standardization. Meningitis declined after 1993, and may be partially attributed to vaccines (Hemophilus influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae). Despite advances in anti-microbial therapy, 66% of pediatric autopsies had inflammatory lesions, predominately as the mechanism or contributing factor rather than the underlying cause of death. PMID:24527833

  9. Quality assessment of restorations in a population of school children.

    PubMed Central

    Bagramian, R A; Jenny, J; Woodbury, P J; Proshek, J

    1975-01-01

    An index to measure quality of dental restorative care was devised and utilized on a population of 838 Caucasian school children in a large midwestern city. Quality was measured using a four-point scale. All restorations present were considered as part of the entire mouth. Quality was tested in relation to socioeconomic status. Based on this index the problem of poor quality dental restorations is significant and not necessarily related to socioeconomic status as represented by income or education. Evidence of high quality dentistry as evidenced by stainless steel crowns, space maintainers, and orthodontic appliances was limited to children whose families reported incomes over $6,000. Further use of this quality index is recommended to improve and refine measurements in the area of dental care. PMID:1119639

  10. Carbamazepine population pharmacokinetics in children: mixed-effect models.

    PubMed

    Delgado Iribarnegaray, M F; Santo Bueldga, D; García Sánchez, M J; Otero, M J; Falcão, A C; Domínguez-Gil, A

    1997-04-01

    The aim of the authors' study was to investigate the factors affecting carbamazepine (CBZ) clearance (CL) in children with epilepsy. The factors evaluated were total body weight (TBW), age, dose, sex, and phenobarbital (PB) and valproic acid (VA) comedication. A total of 387 steady-state serum concentration samples was analyzed. These were collected during CBZ therapy from 201 children, aged 1-14 years and weighting 9-78 kg. Population CL was calculated by using NONMEM, with a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The absorption rate, bioavailability, and volume of distribution were set at values found in the literature. The model found best to describe the data was CL = (0.0122 TBW + 0.0467 Dose) Age0.331 (1.289 PB). The interindividual variability in CL had a variation coefficient (CV) of 11.8%, and the residual error, described by using an additive model, was 1.5 mg/l. The results show that CL increases linearly with TBW and nonlinearly with age; thus older children have a lower CL with respect to TBW than do younger ones. Likewise CL was seen to increase with the increase in the CBZ dose, suggesting a dose-dependent autoinduction of CBZ metabolism. Concomitant PB administration affected CL: however, sex and VA comedication did not affect it significantly. The final regression model for CL, was validated in a different group of 74 children. The standarized prediction error (SPE) was not significantly different from zero (SPE = 0.028), indicating that the model proposed for CL can be used to make accurate dosage recommendations. With these population estimates, CBZ doses that would be suitable for pediatric patients of different ages are proposed.

  11. A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Depression in Children with Developmental Disabilities in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooshtari, Shahin; Brownell, Marni; Dik, Natalia; Chateau, Dan; Yu, C. T.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Burchill, Charles A.; Wetzel, Monika

    2014-01-01

    In this population-based study, prevalence of depression was estimated and compared between children with and without developmental disability (DD). Twelve years of administrative data were linked to identify a cohort of children with DD living in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Children in the study cohort were matched with children without DD…

  12. Nutritional status of urban Nigerian school children relative to the NCHS reference population.

    PubMed

    Ukoli, F A; Adams-Campbell, L L; Ononu, J; Nwankwo, M U; Chanetsa, F

    1993-07-01

    The present study assessed the growth problems in an indigenous African population of Nigerian urban public school children. The study population consisted of 1390 Nigerian children (predominantly Igbo), 718 boys and 672 girls, ages 4-10 years. Compared to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference population, the Nigerian children had an excess prevalence of both short stature and underweight. The prevalence of short stature was 14.2% for the boys and 17.4% for the girls. Approximately 20% of the children were underweight whereas less than 1% were considered overweight. These data demonstrate an excess of both acute and chronic malnutrition relative to the NCHS reference population.

  13. Psychopathology in a Swedish Population of School Children with Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Najah; Von Knorring, Anne-Liis

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of psychiatric comorbid disorders and associated problems in a school population of children with tic disorders. Method: From a total population of 4,479 children, 25 with Tourette's disorder (TD), 34 with chronic motor tics (CMT), 24 with chronic vocal tics (CVT), and 214 with transient tics (TT) during the past…

  14. Validation of the Social Communication Questionnaire in a Population Cohort of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Loucas, Tom; Meldrum, David; Scott, Mimi; Pickles, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the properties of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in a population cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and in the general population. Method: SCQ data were collected from three samples: the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP) cohort of 9- to 10-year-old children with special educational…

  15. Relationship Status among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Brian H.; Kalb, Luther G.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite speculation about an 80% divorce rate among parents of children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), very little empirical and no epidemiological research has addressed the issue of separation and divorce among this population. Data for this study was taken from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a population-based,…

  16. Parenting Children With Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Unique Risk Population

    PubMed Central

    Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Jason K.; Baker, Bruce L.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting was examined among families of children with borderline intelligence in comparison to families of typically developing children and children with developmental delays. Parenting data were obtained at child age 5 via naturalistic home observation. Mothers of children with borderline intelligence exhibited less positive and less sensitive parenting behaviors than did other mothers and were least likely to display a style of positive engagement. Children with borderline intelligence were not observed to be more behaviorally problematic than other children; however, their mothers perceived more externalizing symptoms than did mothers of typically developing children. Findings suggest the importance of mothers’ explanatory models for child difficulties and highlight children with borderline intelligence as uniquely at risk for poor parenting. PMID:17295551

  17. [Life style of children and obesity in a population of 5-year-old children].

    PubMed

    Locard, E; Mamelle, N; Munoz, F; Miginiac, M; Billette, A; Rey, S

    1992-01-01

    The increasing level of childhood obesity has prompted some research into the early risk factors likely to lead to preventive measures. A case-control study was conducted of a five year-old population in the Rhône and Isère administrative "départements" of France during the children's first visit to primary school, with the participation of 327 obese children and 704 controls. Anthropometric data on the children since birth, together with data on their lifestyles, were collected in interviews with parents. "Family obesity" and "obesity at birth" were found to be closely related to the child's obesity at five years old (adjusted OR = 2.7 and 2.1 respectively). Of the environmental factors, the hypothesis tested paid specific attention to television viewing, snacks between meals and lack of sleep. These three variables were all found to be risk factors of obesity at five years old. However after allowing for parental obesity, the only remaining significant risk factor for obesity at five was lack of sleep (adjusted OR = 1.4). The pathogenic assumptions raised by these results are discussed.

  18. Chronically Ill Children: A Psychologically and Emotionally Deviant Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavormina, J. B.; And Others

    To investigate vulnerability to psychological and emotional stress among chronically ill children, a battery of personality tests was selectively administered to 144 children (5- to 19-years-old) afflicted with one of the following conditions: diabetes, asthma, cystic fibrosis, or hearing impairment. Analyses centered on comparisons of norms…

  19. Dental health of children with autism spectrum disorders: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Waldman, H Barry; Zablotsky, Nevin; Perlman, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were used to investigate how autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom severity and comorbidity are associated with the dental health needs of children. The results of this study help provide insights into the greater oral needs of the increasing population of children with ASD that reside in our communities and their dependency upon local practitioners for treatment. PMID:23930328

  20. A Staged Approach for Identifying Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder from the Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Cairney, John; Pollock, Nancy; Russell, Dianne; Macdonald, Kathryn; Cousins, Martha; Veldhuizen, Scott; Schmidt, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the motor, attention and intellectual characteristics of a population-based sample of children first screened for motor impairment and to discuss the recruitment and identification methods employed. A two stage cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted to screen for children with motor…

  1. Chronic Physical Illness and Mental Health in Children. Results from a Large-Scale Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hysing, Mari; Elgen, Irene; Gillberg, Christopher; Lie, Stein Atle; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in detecting emotional and behavioural problems among children with chronic illness (CI). Methods: Parents and teachers of a population of primary school children in Norway (n = 9430) completed a…

  2. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  3. Associated Medical Disorders and Disabilities in Children with Autistic Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielinen, Marko; Rantala, Heikki; Timonen, Eija; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Moilanen, Irma

    2004-01-01

    A population-based survey was conducted among 152,732 Finnish children and adolescents aged under 16 years and living in northern Finland. Diagnoses and associated medical conditions were derived from the hospital and institutional records of this area. One hundred and eighty-seven children with DSM-IV autistic disorder were identified. Associated…

  4. Chicago Children and Youth 1990-2010: Changing Population Trends and their Implications for Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerge, Robert; Dilts, John; Yang, Duck-Hye; Wasserman, Miriam; Clary, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This report draws on demographic data to examine and project trends in the size and composition of the child population in all seventy-seven Chicago communities up to the year 2010. The report highlights the changing age mix of Chicago children and provides some context in which to consider these demographic trends. It describes population changes…

  5. Population migration and children's school enrollments in China, 1990-2005.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Zhuoni

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the impact of migration on children's school enrollment by analyzing the micro-data from Chinese population censuses in 1990 and 2000 and mini-census in 2005. We match school-age children (7-14 years old) with their parents, and examine how migration status and parents' absence affect children's school enrollment in urban China. We also compare rural-urban migrant children with their peers in both origin counties and destination districts. Results show that migrant children are less likely to be enrolled in school than urban local children and that children of rural registration status are particularly disadvantaged in school enrollment over the whole examined period in urban China. Rural-urban migrant children fare significantly worse than non-migrant children in both origins and destinations and noticeably they are even less likely than left-behind children to be enrolled in school. The likelihood of being enrolled in school increases for rural-urban migrant children as they spend more time in destinations.

  6. Emotional development in children with tics: a longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, P J; Lundervold, A J; Lie, S A; Gillberg, C; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2013-03-01

    Children with tics often experience accompanying problems that may have more impact on their well being and quality of life than the tics themselves. The present study investigates characteristics and the course of associated problems. In a population-based follow-up study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of children with and without tics when they were 7-9 years old. Parents and teachers completed the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) when the children were 7-9 years (wave 1) and 4 years later (wave 2). Using strict criteria, we identified 38 children with tics in the cohort of 4,025 children (0.94% of the total cohort) with a preponderance of boys (78.9%). 22 children (57.9%) in the group with tics had only motor tics, and 16 (42.1%) had both motor and vocal tics. Children with tics had significantly higher parent- and teacher-rated SDQ total difficulty scores and subscale scores in both waves. Children with tics experienced an increase in emotional problems and in peer problems between the first and the second wave. This study in a general population indicates that the presence of tics is associated with a range of internalizing and externalizing difficulties, as well as problems in peer relationships. Moreover, our study indicates that emotional and peer problems tend to increase over time in the group of children with tics.

  7. The prevalence of food hypersensitivity in an unselected population of children and adults.

    PubMed

    Osterballe, M; Hansen, T K; Mortz, C G; Høst, A; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2005-11-01

    A rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and severe allergic reactions to food has been reported the last decade. To estimate the prevalence of FHS to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of children and adults. We investigated a cohort of 111 children <3 yr of age, 486 children 3 yr of age, 301 children older than 3 yr of age and 936 adults by questionnaire, skin prick test, histamine release test and specific immunoglobulin E followed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods. In total, 698 cases of possible FHS were recorded in 304 (16.6%) participants. The prevalence of FHS confirmed by oral challenge was 2.3% in the children 3 yr of age, 1% in children older than 3 yr of age and 3.2% in adults. The most common allergenic foods were hen's egg affecting 1.6% of the children 3 yr of age and peanut in 0.4% of the adults. Of the adults, 0.2% was allergic to codfish and 0.3% to shrimp, whereas no challenges with codfish and shrimp were positive in the children. The prevalence of clinical reactions to pollen-related foods in pollen-sensitized adults was estimated to 32%. This study demonstrates the prevalence of FHS confirmed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of children and adults.

  8. Methods for Developing Resiliency in Children from Disadvantaged Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Paul D.

    Protective factors that contribute to the development of resiliency in children, defined as "unusually good adaptation in the face of severe stress, and an ability of the stressed person to rebound to the prestress level of adaptation," are discussed. The biological, psychological, familial, and social factors related to disadvantages that…

  9. Psychosocial Development in a Danish Population of Children with Cochlear Implants and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20% to 50% among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires measuring sign language, spoken language, hearing…

  10. Optimizing Population Screening of Bullying in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…

  11. Predictive Performance of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Renally Cleared Drugs in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, W; Johnson, TN; Xu, H; Cheung, SYA; Bui, KH; Li, J; Al‐Huniti, N

    2016-01-01

    Predictive performance of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) models of drugs predominantly eliminated through kidney in the pediatric population was evaluated. After optimization using adult clinical data, the verified PBPK models can predict 33 of 34 drug clearance within twofold of the observed values in children 1 month and older. More specifically, 10 of 11 of predicted clearance values were within 1.5‐fold of those observed in children between 1 month and 2 years old. The PopPK approach also predicted 19 of 21 drug clearance within twofold of the observed values in children. In summary, our analysis demonstrated both PBPK and PopPK adult models, after verification with additional adult pharmacokinetic (PK) studies and incorporation of known ontogeny of renal filtration, could be applied for dosing regimen recommendation in children 1 month and older for renally eliminated drugs in a first‐in‐pediatric study. PMID:27566992

  12. Translating research on healthy lifestyles for children: meeting the needs of diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Christine; Floriani, Victoria

    2008-09-01

    This article provides two examples of approaches nursing can take to reach diverse populations of children and their families to enhance health lifestyles. First, a descriptive summary of a brief after-school intervention program aimed at influencing 8- and 9-year-old children's media habits and the prevention of negative health behaviors is presented. Design consideration for translating health lifestyles research findings into a nurse-managed inner city primary care practice is reviewed in the second example.

  13. Population pharmacokinetics and dosing optimization of teicoplanin in children with malignant haematological disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Daolun; Storme, Thomas; Baruchel, André; Declèves, Xavier; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    Aim Children with haematological malignancy represent an identified subgroup of the paediatric population with specific pharmacokinetic parameters. In these patients, inadequate empirical antibacterial therapy may result in infection-related morbidity and increased mortality, making optimization of the dosing regimen essential. As paediatric data are limited, our aim was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin in order to define the appropriate dosing regimen in this high risk population. Methods The current dose of teicoplanin was evaluated in children with haematological malignancy. Population pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin were analyzed using nonmem software. The dosing regimen was optimized based on the final model. Results Eighty-five children (age range 0.5 to 16.9 years) were included. Therapeutic drug monitoring and opportunistic samples (n = 143) were available for analysis. With the current recommended dose of 10 mg kg–1 day–1, 41 children (48%) had sub-therapeutic steady-state trough concentrations (Css,min<10 mg l–1). A two compartment pharmacokinetic model with first order elimination was developed. Systematic covariate analysis identified that bodyweight (size) and creatinine clearance significantly influenced teicoplanin clearance. The model was validated internally. Its predictive performance was further confirmed in an external validation. In order to reach the target AUC of 750 mg l–1 h 18 mg kg–1 was required for infants, 14 mg kg–1 for children and 12 mg kg–1 for adolescents. A patient-tailored dose regimen was further developed and reduced variability in AUC and Css,min values compared with the mg kg–1 basis dose, making the modelling approach an important tool for dosing individualization. Conclusions This first population pharmacokinetic study of teicoplanin in children with haematological malignancy provided evidence-based support to individualize teicoplanin therapy in this vulnerable

  14. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygiene status of 1267 girls and 1348 boys was fair, whereas 821 girls and 937 boys was good and 263 girls and 493 boys was poor. It has been shown that fair oral hygiene practices were being followed by the children. Conclusion: Children using twigs and other materials for oral hygiene had nearly equally good oral hygiene when compared to the tooth brush and tooth paste, though children using toothbrush and tooth paste had slightly better oral hygiene. PMID:26229382

  15. Learning from Caries-Free Children in a High Caries American Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Albino, Judith; Tiwari, Tamanna; Henderson, William G.; Thomas, Jacob; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Batliner, Terrence S.; Braun, Patricia A.; Wilson, Anne; Quissell, David O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to identify salutogenic patterns of parental knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs that may support resistance to Early Childhood Caries (ECC) among a high caries population of preschool American Indian (AI) children. Method Participants were 981 child-parent dyads living on a Southwestern reservation who completed baseline assessments for an ongoing randomized clinical trial. T-tests were used to assess differences between reported knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of parents whose children were caries-free (10.7%) and those whose children had caries (89.3%). Chi-square analyses were used for categorical variables. Results Although there were no socio-demographic differences, parents of caries-free children viewed oral health as more important and reported more oral health knowledge and adherence to caries-preventing behaviors for their children. Parents of caries-free children were more likely to have higher internal locus of control, to perceive their children as less susceptible to caries, and to perceive fewer barriers to prevention. These parents also had higher Sense of Coherence scores and reported lower levels of personal distress and community-related stress. Conclusions Effective interventions for ECC prevention in high-caries AI populations may benefit from approaches that support and model naturally salutogenic behaviors. PMID:24961881

  16. Violence against children in humanitarian settings: A literature review of population-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Stark, Lindsay; Landis, Debbie

    2016-03-01

    Children in humanitarian settings are thought to experience increased exposure to violence, which can impair their physical, emotional, and social development. Violence against children has important economic and social consequences for nations as a whole. The purpose of this review is to examine population-based approaches measuring violence against children in humanitarian settings. The authors reviewed prevalence studies of violence against children in humanitarian contexts appearing in peer-reviewed journals within the past twenty years. A Boolean search procedure was conducted in October 2014 of the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and PsychInfo. If abstracts contained evidence of the study's four primary themes--violence, children, humanitarian contexts and population-based measurement--a full document review was undertaken to confirm relevance. Out of 2634 identified articles, 22 met the final inclusion criteria. Across studies, there was varying quality and no standardization in measurement approach. Nine out of 22 studies demonstrated a relationship between conflict exposure and adverse health or mental health outcomes. Among studies that compared rates of violence between boys and girls, boys reported higher rates of physical violence, while girls reported higher rates of sexual violence. Children in infancy and early childhood were found to be among the most under-researched. Ultimately, the body of evidence in this review offers an incomplete picture regarding the prevalence, nature and impact of violence against children in emergencies, demonstrating a weak evidence base for some of the basic assumptions underpinning humanitarian practice. The development of standardized approaches to more rigorously measure violence against children is urgently needed in order to understand trends of violence against children in humanitarian contexts, and to promote children's healthy development and well-being.

  17. [Antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides among the children population in the Ustí Region].

    PubMed

    Richter, J; Stiborová, I; Pohorská, J; Dobiásová, L; Král, V

    2005-11-01

    A group of 156 children aged between 10 and 12 years were screened for IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides. The study subjects were 64 children of Romany origin and 92 children from the majority population. IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides were detected in 112 (71.8%) children. No difference in the prevalence of IgG antibodies was found between Romany children and those from the majority population. As many as 34.1% of the study subjects had IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides, again with no difference between the two ethnic groups. Children with IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides had significantly higher total IgE levels compared to those who had tested IgG negative. To demonstrate induction of a non-specific IgE response was one of the study objectives. The high prevalence rates of IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides are suggestive of a high frequency of cross- and non-specific reactions. Possible effect of cross-reactivity to other antigens on the specific IgG and IgE antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides is discussed.

  18. Epilepsy Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokiranta, Elina; Sourander, Andre; Suominen, Auli; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Brown, Alan S.; Sillanpää, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The present population-based study examines associations between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cohort includes register data of 4,705 children born between 1987 and 2005 and diagnosed as cases of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. Each case was matched to…

  19. Physical Activity in a Total Population of Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauruschkus, Katarina; Westbom, Lena; Hallstrom, Inger; Wagner, Philippe; Nordmark, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the participation in physical activity of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at school and during leisure time and to identify characteristics associated with physical activity. The frequency of receiving physiotherapeutic interventions were described as a variable of interest. A total population of 364…

  20. The Factor Structure of ADHD in a General Population of Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullebo, Anne Karin; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors. Methods: Child mental health questionnaires were…

  1. Prevalence of Psychopathology across a Service Population of Parents with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaw, Sue; Shaw, Tom; Beckley, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    This study identified and investigated the incidence of childhood trauma and psychopathology across a population of parents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) known to a parenting service in the United Kingdom over a 5-year period and examined the emotional and physical welfare of their children. Data were gathered from 49 parents with ID and 58…

  2. Passive Range of Motion in a Population-Based Sample of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Who Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Brona C.; Salazar-Torres, Jose J.; Kerr, Claire; Cosgrove, Aidan P.

    2012-01-01

    -While passive range of motion (PROM) is commonly used to inform decisions on therapeutic management, knowledge of PROM of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) is limited. A population-based sample of 178 children with spastic CP (110 male; unilateral, n = 94; bilateral, n = 84; age range 4-17 years) and 68 typically developing children (24…

  3. Population Pharmacokinetics and Dosing Optimization of Vancomycin in Children with Malignant Hematological Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Daolun; Fakhoury, May; Fahd, Mony; Duquesne, Frédérique; Storme, Thomas; Baruchel, André

    2014-01-01

    An increase in vancomycin dose has been proposed in adults with malignant hematological disease. As pediatric data are limited, our aim was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in order to define the appropriate dosing regimen in children with malignant hematological disease. Vancomycin concentrations were collected prospectively during therapeutic monitoring. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM software. Seventy children (age range, 0.3 to 17.7 years) were included. With the current recommended dosing regimen of 40 to 60 mg/kg/day, 53 children (76%) had subtherapeutic steady-state trough concentrations (Css/min of <10 mg/liter). A one-compartment model with first-order elimination was developed. Systematic covariate analysis identified that weight significantly influenced clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (V) with power functions of 0.677 for CL and 0.838 for V. Vancomycin CL also significantly increased with increases in creatinine clearance and seemed to be higher in children with malignant hematological disease than in the general pediatric population. The model was validated internally. Its predictive performance was further confirmed in an external validation by Bayesian estimation. A patient-tailored dosing regimen was developed based on the final pharmacokinetic model and showed that a higher proportion of patients reached the target Css/min than with the traditional mg/kg-basis dose (60% versus 49%) and that the risks associated with underdosing or overdosing were reduced. This is the first population pharmacokinetic study of vancomycin in children with malignant hematological disease. An optimized dosing regimen, taking into account patient weight, creatinine clearance, and susceptibility of the pathogens involved, could routinely be used to individualize vancomycin therapy in this vulnerable population. PMID:24663023

  4. Increased risk of herpes zoster in children with cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chao, Yu-Hua; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Yen, Ting-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jhong-Lin; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster is rare in healthy children, but immunocompromised persons have an increased risk of herpes zoster and severe diseases. Considering the very limited information on herpes zoster in children with cancer, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to estimate the incidence of herpes zoster in children with cancer and to explore the association between the 2 diseases.Data were obtained from the National Health Research Institutes Database in Taiwan. A total of 4432 children with newly diagnosed cancer between 2000 and 2007 were identified as the cancer cohort, and 17,653 children without cancer frequency-matched by sex and age at entry were considered the noncancer cohort. The association between herpes zoster and childhood cancer was determined.Children with cancer had a higher risk of herpes zoster. The incidence rate of herpes zoster was higher in the cancer cohort than in the noncancer cohort (20.7 vs 2.4 per 10,000 person-years; IRR = 8.6; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6). The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the cancer cohort (P < 0.0001). Leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumor were all associated with the increased risk, and leukemia had the highest magnitude of strength of association.This nationwide population-based cohort study demonstrated that children with cancer were associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster. In addition to early antiviral treatment, vaccination with heat-treated zoster vaccine or adjuvanted subunit vaccine could be an appropriate policy to decrease the incidence in children with cancer. PMID:27472677

  5. Increased risk of herpes zoster in children with cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chao, Yu-Hua; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Yen, Ting-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jhong-Lin; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster is rare in healthy children, but immunocompromised persons have an increased risk of herpes zoster and severe diseases. Considering the very limited information on herpes zoster in children with cancer, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to estimate the incidence of herpes zoster in children with cancer and to explore the association between the 2 diseases.Data were obtained from the National Health Research Institutes Database in Taiwan. A total of 4432 children with newly diagnosed cancer between 2000 and 2007 were identified as the cancer cohort, and 17,653 children without cancer frequency-matched by sex and age at entry were considered the noncancer cohort. The association between herpes zoster and childhood cancer was determined.Children with cancer had a higher risk of herpes zoster. The incidence rate of herpes zoster was higher in the cancer cohort than in the noncancer cohort (20.7 vs 2.4 per 10,000 person-years; IRR = 8.6; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6). The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the cancer cohort (P < 0.0001). Leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumor were all associated with the increased risk, and leukemia had the highest magnitude of strength of association.This nationwide population-based cohort study demonstrated that children with cancer were associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster. In addition to early antiviral treatment, vaccination with heat-treated zoster vaccine or adjuvanted subunit vaccine could be an appropriate policy to decrease the incidence in children with cancer.

  6. Sensory Processing Difficulties, Behavioral Problems, and Parental Stress in a Clinical Population of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Wind, Carina; Henninger, Erin M.; Chinitz, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between sensory processing difficulties, parental stress, and behavioral problems in a clinical sample of young children with developmental and behavioral difficulties. We hypothesized that a high rate of sensory processing difficulties would be found, that there would be a high rate of comorbidity between sensory processing difficulties and behavioral problems, and that children’s sensory processing difficulties and parental stress would be highly correlated. Parents of 59 children ages two to five who attended an out-patient clinic in a low income, urban community completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Parental Stress Inventory-Short Form and the Short Sensory Profile. Children in this clinical population showed a high prevalence (55.9%) of sensory processing difficulties, a significantly higher rate than previously reported. Sensory processing deficits were correlated with behavioral difficulties and parental stress levels-suggesting that as sensory processing difficulties increase, so do behavioral difficulties and parental stress. Parents of children with sensory processing deficits had significantly higher levels of parental stress than parents of children without sensory deficits. Parenting stress levels were also clinically elevated for the cohort of children in which sensory processing difficulties and behavioral concerns co-existed. These findings suggest that treatment outcomes might improve and parental stress could be reduced if mental health clinicians were trained to identify and address sensory problems. This could result in more children being screened and treated for sensory processing difficulties and an eventual reduction in the rates of parental stress. PMID:24443636

  7. Elevated arterial blood pressure and body mass index among Nigerian preschool children population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arterial blood pressure tends to rise with growth and development. Elevated blood pressure (EBP) in children usually occurs during the first two decades of life, and the children with hypertension tend to grow into adulthood with the high level of blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension in children is increasing, the causes likely to be of different combination of factors. In this study we ascertained the prevalence of EBP in pre-school children in Enugu metropolis, South-East Nigeria and also determined its association with some factors like the Body Mass Index (BMI), urinalysis finding, family history, gender, age and socioeconomic class. Method A Stratified method of sampling was used to select subjects from registered nursery schools (Pre- elementary school) within Enugu metropolis. Physical examination of the recruited pupils was done with emphasis on arterial blood pressure, anthropometric measurements and urinalysis. Result Six hundred and thirty children (630) were studied out of which 345 (54.8%) were males and 285 (45.2%) were females. Sustained EBP (mainly systolic) were recorded in 12 pupils (1.9%) giving a prevalence of 1.9% of the pre-school population. The twelve (1.9%) pupils were all 5 years of age (p value = 0.001) and 11 (1.72%) of them were of under-weight BMI. The prevalence of obesity is 0.5% and that of under-weight is 92% of the studied population. There is no association between EBP and obesity (p value = 0.679). All the pupils with EBP had protein-free urine and no hematuria. Conclusions EBP and under-weight malnutrition is common in children in 5 years age group. EBP in preschool children is not influenced by their body mass index, urinalysis finding, gender, family history of hypertension or socioeconomic class. PMID:24593321

  8. Effects of Malnutrition on Left Ventricular Mass in a North-Malagasy Children Population

    PubMed Central

    Di Gioia, Giuseppe; Creta, Antonio; Fittipaldi, Mario; Giorgino, Riccardo; Quintarelli, Fabio; Satriano, Umberto; Cruciani, Alessandro; Antinolfi, Vincenzo; Di Berardino, Stefano; Costanzo, Davide; Bettini, Ranieri; Mangiameli, Giuseppe; Caricato, Marco; Mottini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition among children population of less developed countries is a major health problem. Inadequate food intake and infectious diseases are combined to increase further the prevalence. Malnourishment brings to muscle cells loss with development of cardiac complications, like arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy and sudden death. In developed countries, malnutrition has generally a different etiology, like chronic diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between malnutrition and left ventricular mass in an African children population. Methods 313 children were studied, in the region of Antsiranana, Madagascar, with age ranging from 4 to 16 years old (mean 7,8 ± 3 years). A clinical and echocardiographic evaluation was performed with annotation of anthropometric and left ventricle parameters. Malnutrition was defined as a body mass index (BMI) value age- and sex-specific of 16, 17 and 18,5 at the age of 18, or under the 15th percentile. Left ventricle mass was indexed by height2.7 (LVMI). Results We identified a very high prevalence of children malnutrition: 124 children, according to BMI values, and 100 children under the 15th percentile. LVMI values have shown to be increased in proportion to BMI percentiles ranging from 29,8 ± 10,8 g/m2.7 in the malnutrition group to 45 ± 15,1 g/m2.7 in >95th percentile group. LVMI values in children < 15th BMI percentile were significantly lower compared to normal nutritional status (29,8 ± 10,8 g/m2,7 vs. 32,9 ± 12,1 g/m2,7, p = 0.02). Also with BMI values evaluation, malnourished children showed statistically lower values of LVMI (29,3 ± 10,1 g/m2,7 vs. 33,6 ± 12,5 g/m2,7, p = 0.001). Conclusion In African children population, the malnourishment status is correlated with cardiac muscle mass decrease, which appears to be reduced in proportion to the decrease in body size. PMID:27140179

  9. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated developmental disorders in preschool children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Pia; Equit, Monika; Schmidt, Karin; von Gontard, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Depression is an incapacitating disorder, which is often overlooked in preschool children. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of depressive symptoms and co-occurring risk factors in a large, population-based sample of preschool children. All 653 children (of a total of 731) in a defined geographical area were assessed during the school-entry exam by community care paediatricians. In addition to clinical appraisal, parents filled out the Preschool Feelings Checklist, a 16-item screening instrument with good psychometric properties. The mean age was 6.2 years (range 5.0-7.6 years) and the sample included 344 boys and 305 girls. The prevalence of depressive symptoms of clinical relevance (total score ≥3) was 5.7% (37). There were no differences between boys and girls, and between younger (<6 years) and older (>6 years) children. Depressive symptoms were associated with parental separation and comorbid behavioural problems, but especially with developmental motor and speech problems and disorders. Migration to Germany had no influence. Depressive symptoms are common in preschool children and associated with developmental problems. Depression should be considered in children with speech and motor problems who are at special risk. Early detection and treatment are recommended. PMID:23839066

  10. Prevalence of Children's Mental Health Problems and the Effectiveness of Population-Level Family Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kato, Noriko; Yanagawa, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Takeo; Morawska, Alina

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents is of growing importance. Intervening in children's mental health early in life has been shown to be more effective than trying to resolve these problems when children are older. With respect to prevention activities in community settings, the prevalence of problems should be estimated, and the required level of services should be delivered. The prevalence of children's mental health disorders has been reported for many countries. Preventive intervention has emphasized optimizing the environment. Because parents are the primary influence on their children's development, considerable attention has been placed on the development of parent training to strengthen parenting skills. However, a public-health approach is necessary to confirm that the benefits of parent-training interventions lead to an impact at the societal level. This literature review clarifies that the prevalence of mental health problems is measured at the national level in many countries and that population-level parenting interventions can lower the prevalence of mental health problems among children in the community. PMID:26250791

  11. The Severity of Injury in Children Resulting From Acts Against Civilian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa D.; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Peleg, Kobi; Waisman, Yehezkel

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the injuries to children by acts against civilian populations (AACP). Summary Background Data: Only 2 articles have focused on the spectrum and severity of injuries to children by AACP. Methods: A retrospective case study of children 0 to 18 years old who were entered into the Israel National Trauma Registry as a result of AACP between September 29, 2000, and June 30, 2002. Results: A total of 158 children were hospitalized for injuries caused by AACP, accounting for 1.4% of all hospitalized injured children but for 10.9% of all in-hospital deaths for trauma. Explosions injured 114 (72.2%); shootings, 34 (21.5%); and other mechanisms such as stoning or stabbing, 10 (6.3%). Older children were injured by explosions more frequently than younger children (86.1% of 15- to 18-year-olds, 73.7% of 10- to 14-year-olds, 63.2% of 0- to 9-year-olds, P = 0.02). A higher percentage of children injured by explosions rather than by shootings were severely or critically injured (33.9% versus 18.8%, P = 0.10). The most frequently injured body regions were extremities (62.8%), head/face (47.3%), chest and abdomen (37.2%), and brain (18.2%). More than 1 body region was injured in 63.0%. Children injured by explosions as compared with shootings had a lower incidence of abdominal trauma (14.9% versus 20.6%), a similar incidence of chest trauma (16.7% versus 14.7%), but a higher incidence of extremity trauma (65.8% versus 53.0%). There were 7 in-hospital deaths, 6 due to severe head injury and 1 due to severe abdominal trauma; 6 of the 7 deaths were caused by explosions, and all but 1 occurred in children 15 to 18 years old. Conclusions: AACP cause significant morbidity and mortality in children, especially adolescents. Injury severity is significantly higher among children who are injured by explosions rather than by shootings. PMID:15798470

  12. Prevalence of autism-caused disability among Chinese children: a national population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Chen, Gong; Song, Xinming; Du, Wei; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2011-12-01

    Few articles in English have discussed the prevalence of autism in China. The work described here was aimed at estimating the prevalence rate of autism-caused disability among Chinese children and exploring family environmental factors associated with autism based on a national population sample. Data for this study were derived from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability. A weighted number of 77,301 disabled children affected by autism were identified, yielding a prevalence rate of 2.38/10,000. A history of mental disorders in adults was strongly associated with autism. The prevalence of autism in Chinese children was underestimated, and the lack of qualified professionals able to identify and diagnose autism was the main reason. Countermeasures are warranted to obtain a more precise overview of autism in China.

  13. Parental stress and satisfaction during children's hospitalization: differences between immigrant and autochthonous population.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Vílchez-Lara, Maria J; López-Naranjo, Isabel

    2013-02-01

    This study explored the relation between parents' stress and satisfaction during children's hospitalization, seeking possible differences between immigrant and autochthonous population and also as a function of gender in a sample of parents of hospitalized children in Andalusia, Spain. A total of 1347 parents participated in this study. Of the sample, 50% were immigrants and the other 50% were autochthonous. The assessment instruments were the Hospitalization Stress Scale and the Satisfaction with Hospitalization Scale. The results show that stress was associated with the manifestations of the child's illness, the alteration of family life or of parental roles during the process and some aspects of the clinical staff's work. General satisfaction in immigrant parents was higher than in the autochthonous population and the levels of satisfaction were higher in men than in women. Small changes and initiatives in relation to care could substantially improve the satisfaction of patients and their relatives during the process of hospitalization.

  14. Health Behaviour in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Compared to a Representative Reference Population

    PubMed Central

    Kummer, Sebastian; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Castillo, Katty; Bächle, Christina; Graf, Christine; Straßburger, Klaus; Salgin, Burak; Mayatepek, Ertan; Giani, Guido; Holl, Reinhard W.; Meissner, Thomas; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Objective We provide a population-based overview of health behaviours of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in comparison to the general population, and analyse their relevance for glycaemic control and self-rated health status. Methods Data from questionnaires of 11- to 17-year-old children and adolescents with diabetes (n = 629) were compared to a representative sample (n = 6,813). Results Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes had a significantly increased odds of infrequent physical activity (adjusted OR 1.56), short overall duration of physical activity per week (OR 1.55, difference -1.3 hours/week), and high daily computer use (OR 2.51). They had a lower odds of active and passive smoking (OR 0.31 and OR 0.29), and high daily television time (OR 0.68). The odds of an at least good and excellent self-rated health status was increased with intense physical activity, and decreased with active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer and television. Active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer were associated with higher HbA1c. Conclusions Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes showed a different profile of health behaviour. Their overall health may improve if their education stresses specifically frequent physical activity with longer overall duration and less frequent television or computer use. PMID:25384048

  15. Postoperative outcomes in children with intermittent exotropia from a population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ekdawi, Noha S.; Nusz, Kevin J.; Diehl, Nancy N.; Mohney, Brian G.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe the long-term surgical outcomes in a population-based cohort of children with intermittent exotropia. METHODS The medical records of all children (<19 years) who were diagnosed with intermittent exotropia as residents of Olmsted County Minnesota, from January 1, 1975, through December 31, 1994, and managed with surgery were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS Of 184 patients with intermittent exotropia, 61 (33%) underwent surgery at a mean age of 7.6 years (range, 3.2 to 23 years). Twelve of the 61 children (19.7%) underwent a second surgery (10 for recurrent exotropia and 2 for consecutive esotropia), and no patient received 3 or more surgeries during a mean follow-up of 10 years from the first surgery. The final postoperative measurements were recorded in 56 of 61 patients (92%) at a mean of 7.4 years (range, 0 to 18 years) after the first surgery: 31 of the 56 (55%) were within 9Δ of orthotropia at distance and 25 of 55 (45%) had better than 60 seconds of stereopsis. The Kaplan-Meier rate of developing ≥10Δ of misalignment after the first surgery was 54% by 5 years, 76% by 10 years, and 86% by 15 years. CONCLUSIONS In this population-based study of surgery in children with intermittent exotropia, although only 1 in 5 received a second surgery, after a mean follow-up of 8 years, approximately half were successfully aligned and 45% had high-grade stereopsis. PMID:18848478

  16. Electric current perception of the general population including children and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N; Schroettner, J; Cech, R

    2005-01-01

    Although the 50 Hz electric current perception threshold is a key parameter for limiting electric touch currents in electrical technology and for limiting indirect effects of external electromagnetic fields, the data available mainly reflect men's perception ability; with only sparse data for women and almost none for children or the elderly. Measurements with 240 children aged 9 - 16 years, and 123 elderly people, allow this gap of knowledge to be filled. Taking into account the demographic age distribution, it was possible to generate a probability distribution representing the perception ability of the overall general population, and thus to provide a more established basis for deriving safety limits. The results show that the existing limit values for electric touch currents are considerably too high if compared with results derived from the new data with the same criteria. On the other hand, it appeared that children do not exhibit such a high sensitivity to electricity as assumed to date. Therefore, former rule-of-thumb estimates to account for higher sensitivities of children lie on the safe side. The presented assessment of the general population's electric current perception ability should stimulate a critical review of the existing regulations.

  17. Subjective and objective sleep and self-harm behaviors in young children: a general population study.

    PubMed

    Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L; Shaffer, Michele L; Bixler, Edward O

    2013-10-30

    Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5-12 yr old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7312) was sent a screening questionnaire. Randomly selected children from this sample underwent a comprehensive history, physical examination, a 9-h overnight polysomnogram and completed several questionnaires. Among the final sample (n=693), 27 children had SHB with adjusted prevalence of 3%. There was no difference in age, gender, obesity, or socioeconomic status in subjects with or without SHB. Significantly more children with SHB had subjective sleep difficulty and depression. Difficulty maintaining sleep and frequent nightmares were associated with SHB independent of depression or demographics. Polysomnographic %REM-sleep was significantly higher in the SHB group after adjusting for demographics and depression. These data indicate that parent reported sleep disturbances are independently associated with SHB. It is possible that higher REM-sleep is a non-invasive biomarker for risk of self-harm behaviors in young children. PMID:23623452

  18. ECG is an inefficient screening-tool for left ventricular hypertrophy in normotensive African children population

    PubMed Central

    Creta, Antonio; Campanale, Cosimo Marco; Fittipaldi, Mario; Giorgino, Riccardo; Quintarelli, Fabio; Satriano, Umberto; Cruciani, Alessandro; Antinolfi, Vincenzo; Di Berardino, Stefano; Costanzo, Davide; Bettini, Ranieri; Mangiameli, Giuseppe; Caricato, Marco; Mottini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a marker of pediatric hypertension and predicts development of cardiovascular events. Electrocardiography (ECG) screening is used in pediatrics to detect LVH thanks to major accessibility, reproducibility and easy to use compared to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), that remains the standard technique. Several diseases were previously investigated, but no data exists regarding our study population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between electrocardiographic and echocardiographic criteria of LVH in normotensive African children. Methods We studied 313 children (mean age 7,8 ± 3 yo), in north-Madagascar. They underwent ECG and TTE. Sokolow-Lyon index was calculated to identify ECG-LVH (>35 mm). Left ventricle mass (LVM) with TTE was calculated and indexed by height2.7 (LVMI2.7) and weight (LVMIw). We report the prevalence of TTE-LVH using three methods: (1) calculating percentiles age- and sex- specific with values >95th percentile identifying LVH; (2) LVMI2.7 >51 g/m2.7; (3) LVMIw >3.4 g/weight. Results 40 (13%) children showed LVMI values >95th percentile, 24 children (8%) an LVMI2.7 >51 g/m2.7 while 19 children (6%) an LVMIw >3.4 g/kg. LVH-ECG by Sokolow-Lyon index was present in five, three and three children respectively, with poor values of sensitivity (ranging from 13 to 16%), positive predictive value (from 11 to 18%) and high values of specificity (up to 92%). The effects of anthropometrics parameters on Sokolow-Lyon were analyzed and showed poor correlation. Conclusion ECG is a poor screening test for detecting LVH in children. In clinical practice, TTE remains the only tool to be used to exclude LVH.

  19. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children in a General Population Sample: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bixler, Edward O.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Lin, Hung-Mo; Liao, Duanping; Calhoun, Susan; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Fedok, Fred; Vlasic, Vukmir; Graff, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Assess the prevalence based on clinically meaningful criteria (i.e., blood pressure) and identify risk factors of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in a representative sample of elementary school children. Design: A random sample of the local elementary school children (K-5) were assessed using a two-phased strategy. In phase I a brief questionnaire was completed by a parent of each child in local elementary schools (N = 5,740), with a response rate of 78.5%. In phase II, randomly selected children and their parent spent a night in our sleep laboratory (N = 700) with a response rate of 70.0%. Setting: University sleep laboratory Participants: Children enrolled in local elementary schools. Intervention: None Measurement & Results: Each child was assessed with a full polysomnogram and completed a history/physical examination including an electrocardiogram, otolaryngology examination, and pulmonary evaluation. The prevalence of moderate SDB (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5) was 1.2%. The independent risk factors included nasal abnormalities and minority associated only with mild (1 < AHI < 5) SDB and snoring and waist circumference associated with all levels of SDB. Tonsil size, based on visual inspection, was not an independent risk factor. Conclusion: The prevalence of AHI ≥ 5 was 1.2% in a representative sample of elementary school children. Risk factors for SDB included waist circumference, nasal abnormalities (e.g., chronic sinusitis/rhinitis), and minority. The strong linear relationship between waist circumference and BMI across all degrees of severity of SDB suggests that, as in adults, metabolic factors may be among the most important risk factors for SDB in children. Citation: Bixler EO; Vgontzas AN; Lin HM; Liao D; Calhoun S; Vela-Bueno A; Fedok F; Vlasic V. Sleep disordered breathing in children in a general population sample: prevalence and risk factors. SLEEP 2009;32(6):731-736. PMID:19544748

  20. ECG is an inefficient screening-tool for left ventricular hypertrophy in normotensive African children population

    PubMed Central

    Creta, Antonio; Campanale, Cosimo Marco; Fittipaldi, Mario; Giorgino, Riccardo; Quintarelli, Fabio; Satriano, Umberto; Cruciani, Alessandro; Antinolfi, Vincenzo; Di Berardino, Stefano; Costanzo, Davide; Bettini, Ranieri; Mangiameli, Giuseppe; Caricato, Marco; Mottini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a marker of pediatric hypertension and predicts development of cardiovascular events. Electrocardiography (ECG) screening is used in pediatrics to detect LVH thanks to major accessibility, reproducibility and easy to use compared to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), that remains the standard technique. Several diseases were previously investigated, but no data exists regarding our study population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between electrocardiographic and echocardiographic criteria of LVH in normotensive African children. Methods We studied 313 children (mean age 7,8 ± 3 yo), in north-Madagascar. They underwent ECG and TTE. Sokolow-Lyon index was calculated to identify ECG-LVH (>35 mm). Left ventricle mass (LVM) with TTE was calculated and indexed by height2.7 (LVMI2.7) and weight (LVMIw). We report the prevalence of TTE-LVH using three methods: (1) calculating percentiles age- and sex- specific with values >95th percentile identifying LVH; (2) LVMI2.7 >51 g/m2.7; (3) LVMIw >3.4 g/weight. Results 40 (13%) children showed LVMI values >95th percentile, 24 children (8%) an LVMI2.7 >51 g/m2.7 while 19 children (6%) an LVMIw >3.4 g/kg. LVH-ECG by Sokolow-Lyon index was present in five, three and three children respectively, with poor values of sensitivity (ranging from 13 to 16%), positive predictive value (from 11 to 18%) and high values of specificity (up to 92%). The effects of anthropometrics parameters on Sokolow-Lyon were analyzed and showed poor correlation. Conclusion ECG is a poor screening test for detecting LVH in children. In clinical practice, TTE remains the only tool to be used to exclude LVH. PMID:27651998

  1. Children's head injuries in the Vietnamese refugee population in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Goh, K Y; Poon, W S

    1995-10-01

    All Vietnamese patients with head injuries from two of the largest refugee camps in Hong Kong are routinely referred to the Neurosurgical Unit of the Prince of Wales Hospital for management. In order to determine the epidemiology of head injuries in this population group, we have retrospectively reviewed all hospitalized cases over a 4 year period from January 1990 to December 1993. We have found a unique social situation in this population group, with an unusually high proportion of paediatric cases (2253 per 100,000 children aged 5 years or less), compared with other epidemiological studies. The most common mechanism of injury in between 57 and 75 per cent of cases was a fall from bed. Based on this information, appropriate preventive measures have been recommended and have successfully decreased the incidence of head injuries. This study demonstrates the value and effectiveness of epidemiological studies in identifying a previously unrecognized health risk in a specified population group. PMID:8550142

  2. Prevalence and Predictors of Drooling in 7- to 14-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Susan M.; McCutcheon, Jennifer; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Johnson, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To establish a prevalence estimate for drooling and explore factors associated with drooling in a population sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 7 to 14 years living in Victoria, Australia. Method: A self-report questionnaire was used to collect data on drooling from parents of children born between 1996 and 2001, and registered…

  3. Developmental Regression in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder Identified by a Population-Based Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Rice, Catherine E.; Baio, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the phenomenon of autistic regression using population-based data. The sample comprised 285 children who met the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) case definition within an ongoing surveillance program. Results indicated that children with a previously documented ASD diagnosis had higher rates of autistic regression than children…

  4. Dental age assessment validity of radiographic methods on Serbian children population.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Ksenija; Zelic, Ksenija; Milenkovic, Petar; Nedeljkovic, Nenad; Djuric, Marija

    2013-09-10

    In order to establish reliable age estimation method based on dental development, various correlations between chronological age and real growth were tested. Demirjian's scheme was mostly used, but lately the Willems' method has been found to be more reliable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Demirjian's and Willems' methods for dental age estimation in Serbian children population. The study sample encompassed panoramic radiographs of 686 children (322 boys and 364 girls) with age range from 4 to 15 years. The dental age was assed using Demirjian's and Willems' maturity scores. Statistical analysis was performed to test the accuracy of investigated methods by comparing the mean chronological and mean estimated age in total sample, as well as in each group comprising individuals within one-year-age-interval. Both methods showed discrepancy between obtained and chronological age. The Demirjian's method overestimated age with a mean accuracy of 0.45 in boys and 0.42 in girls, while Willems' method showed lower discrepancy (0.12 and 0.16 in boys and girls, respectively). Overall, both methods were unsatisfactory in some age groups, however, Willems' method provided more accurate age estimation in majority of categories. In summary, our results suggest that Willem's method was more accurate for estimating dental age in contemporary Serbian children population. PMID:23835078

  5. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

    PubMed

    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration. PMID:25650596

  6. Nutritional Status Of Under-Five Children In Libya; A National Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Adel, El Taguri; Marie-Françoise, Rolland-Cachera; Mahmud Salaheddin, M; Najeeb, Elmrzougi; Ahmed, Abdel Monem; Ibrahim, Betilmal; Gerard, Lenoir

    2008-01-01

    Aim To describe the nutritional status of children under-five years of age in Libya. Population and methods A secondary analysis of data of 5348 children taken from a national representative, two-stage, cluster-sample survey that was performed in 1995. Results: Prevalence rates of underweight, wasting, stunting, and overweight were determined using standard definitions in reference to newly established WHO growth charts. The study revealed that 4.3% of children were underweight, 3.7% wasted, 20.7% stunted, and 16.2% overweight. Seventy percent of children had normal weight. Undernutrition was more likely to be found in males, in rural areas, and in underprivileged groups. Overweight was more likely found in urban, privileged groups. Wasting was more common in arid regions; stunting was more common in mountainous regions of Al-Akhdar, Al-Gharbi, and in Sirt. Al-Akhdar had the highest prevalence of overweight. Conclusion The country had a low prevalence of underweight and wasting, moderate prevalence of stunting, and high prevalence of overweight. The country is in the early stages of transition with evidence of dual-burden in some regions. Similar surveys are needed to verify secular trends of these nutritional problems, particularly overweight. PMID:21499476

  7. Do standard burn mortality formulae work on a population of severely burned children and adults?

    PubMed

    Tsurumi, Amy; Que, Yok-Ai; Yan, Shuangchun; Tompkins, Ronald G; Rahme, Laurence G; Ryan, Colleen M

    2015-08-01

    Accurate prediction of mortality following burns is useful as an audit tool, and for providing treatment plan and resource allocation criteria. Common burn formulae (Ryan Score, Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI), classic and revised Baux) have not been compared with the standard Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHEII) or re-validated in a severely (≥20% total burn surface area) burned population. Furthermore, the revised Baux (R-Baux) has been externally validated thoroughly only once and the pediatric Baux (P-Baux) has yet to be. Using 522 severely burned patients, we show that burn formulae (ABSI, Baux, revised Baux) outperform APACHEII among adults (AUROC increase p<0.001 adults; p>0.5 children). The Ryan Score performs well especially among the most at-risk populations (estimated mortality [90% CI] original versus current study: 33% [26-41%] versus 30.18% [24.25-36.86%] for Ryan Score 2; 87% [78-93%] versus 66.48% [51.31-78.87%] for Ryan Score 3). The R-Baux shows accurate discrimination (AUROC 0.908 [0.869-0.947]) and is well-calibrated. However, the ABSI and P-Baux, although showing high measures of discrimination (AUROC 0.826 [0.737-0.916] and 0.848 [0.758-0.938]) in children), exceedingly overestimates mortality, indicating poor calibration. We highlight challenges in designing and employing scores that are applicable to a wide range of populations.

  8. Fixation Preference and Visual Acuity Testing in a Population-based Cohort of Preschool Children with Amblyopia Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Susan A.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Song, Erin; Lin, Jesse; Borchert, Mark; Azen, Stanley P.; Varma, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare the clinical assessment of fixation preference (FP) to visual acuity (VA) in a population-based sample of preschool children with amblyopia risk factors. Design Evaluation of diagnostic test in a population-based study. Participants Two hundred forty-three children with amblyopia and/or strabismus, aged 30–72 months, living in Los Angeles County, California. Methods Before measuring VA, FP testing was performed at near and usually without correction, using the binocular fixation pattern in children with strabismus >10 diopters (D), or the induced tropia test for children with strabismus ≤10D, or without strabismus. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of FP testing for predicting unilateral amblyopia, defined by optotype VA, among children with amblyopia risk factors. Main Outcome Measure Grade of FP. Results Sensitivity of FP testing for amblyopia among children with anisometropia was 20% (9/44) and specificity was 94% (102/109). Among strabismic children, sensitivity was 69% (9/13; worse in children 30–47 than 48–72 months old) and specificity was 79% (70/89), with similar findings for esotropia and exotropia. Conclusion The ability of FP testing to correctly identify amblyopia in preschool children with amblyopia risk factors is poor. Clinicians should be wary of using FP as a surrogate measure of intraocular difference in VA in young children. PMID:18962921

  9. Advertising of ultra-processed foods and beverages: children as a vulnerable population.

    PubMed

    Mallarino, Christina; Gómez, Luis F; González-Zapata, Laura; Cadena, Yazmín; Parra, Diana C

    2013-10-01

    The rapid nutrition transition occurring in Latin America has resulted in a sharp increase of childhood overweight and obesity. Recent evidence has shown that food and beverage advertising has a great influence on children's eating behavior. This population has become a key target market for the ultra-processed foods and beverages industry, which is marketing products in an aggressive way. Evidence shows that Latin American countries have poor regulation of ultra-processed foods and beverages advertising, where the discourse of self-regulation still prevails over statutory regulations. The following commentary explores how advertising might play an important role in developing unhealthy dietary patterns and obesity in Latin American children, as well as the urgent need for government action and the involvement of civil society to tackle this public health issue.

  10. A population-based twin study of parentally reported tactile and auditory defensiveness in young children.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, H H; Van Hulle, C A; Arneson, C L; Schreiber, J E; Gernsbacher, M A

    2006-06-01

    Some adults and children exhibit defensive behaviors to tactile or auditory stimulation. These symptoms occur not only in subsets of children with ADHD, autism, and Fragile X syndrome, but also in the apparent absence of accompanying disorders. Relatively little research explores the correlates and antecedents of sensory defensiveness. Using a population-based sample of 1,394 toddler-aged twins, mothers reported on tactile and auditory defensiveness, temperament, and behavior problems. The incidence of defensive symptoms was widely distributed, with some accumulation of cases in the extreme range. Girls were overrepresented in the extreme tactile defensiveness group. Both auditory and tactile defensiveness were modestly associated with fearful temperament and anxiety, but they were relatively distinct from other common dimensions of childhood behavioral dysfunction. Twin correlations for the full range of scores and concordance rates for the extremes suggested moderate genetic influences, with some indication that the tactile domain might be more heritable than the auditory domain.

  11. Advertising of ultra-processed foods and beverages: children as a vulnerable population.

    PubMed

    Mallarino, Christina; Gómez, Luis F; González-Zapata, Laura; Cadena, Yazmín; Parra, Diana C

    2013-10-01

    The rapid nutrition transition occurring in Latin America has resulted in a sharp increase of childhood overweight and obesity. Recent evidence has shown that food and beverage advertising has a great influence on children's eating behavior. This population has become a key target market for the ultra-processed foods and beverages industry, which is marketing products in an aggressive way. Evidence shows that Latin American countries have poor regulation of ultra-processed foods and beverages advertising, where the discourse of self-regulation still prevails over statutory regulations. The following commentary explores how advertising might play an important role in developing unhealthy dietary patterns and obesity in Latin American children, as well as the urgent need for government action and the involvement of civil society to tackle this public health issue. PMID:24626507

  12. [The scientometric analysis of dissertation studies in the field of specialty public health and health care concerning children population].

    PubMed

    Albitskiy, V S; Ustinova, N V; Antonova, Ye V

    2014-01-01

    The article considers trends and priority directions of research studies of the field of public health and health care of children population. The interpretative content analysis was applied to study dissertations in the field of public health and health care in 1991-2012. The sampling included 4194 units of information. The first stage of study established that problems of children population are considered in 14.8% dissertations defended on the mentioned specialty. The next stage the categories of content-analysis were examined. They were divided on the following axes: axis I "Main problem of study", axis II "Localization of study", axis III "Examined age groups", axis IV "Distribution of studies on gender of examined contingent", axis V "Examined contingent", axis VI "Additional medical specialty". It is established that in dissertations on public health and health care of children population on axis I prevails organizational subject matter (27.2%). The health condition of various contingents of children population (16.8%), preventive aspects of pediatrics (12.2%), examination of particular conditions/diseases/classes of diseases (10.8%) are fixed as priority directions. In the most dissertations the regional character of studies is presented (98.2%). The prevailing age group in studies is the adolescent group (19.9%). The inter-disciplinary relationships of dissertations on problems of public health and health care of children population are revealed with such specialties as "Pediatrics" (16.2%), "Obstetrics and gynecology" (3.8%) and "Hygiene" (3.4%). With consideration for recognition of health promotion and optimization of health care of children population as priority directions of public health policy amount of research studies in this field is to be admitted as inadequate. With purpose of optimization of scientific knowledge and development of system of medical social care to children population it is needed to promote research studies of problems of

  13. Allergen Sensitization Profiles in a Population-Based Cohort of Children Hospitalized for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; McLinden, Daniel J.; Lierl, Michelle B.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Allergen sensitization is associated with asthma morbidity. A better understanding of allergen sensitization patterns among children hospitalized for asthma could help clinicians tailor care more effectively. To our knowledge, however, sensitization profiles among children hospitalized for asthma are unknown. Objectives: We sought to describe allergen sensitization profiles and the distribution of self-reported in-home exposures among children hospitalized for asthma. We also sought to assess how sensitization profiles varied by sociodemographic and clinical factors. Methods: This population-based cohort study includes data for 478 children, aged 4–16 years, hospitalized for an asthma exacerbation. Predictors included child age, race, sex, insurance status, reported income, salivary cotinine, exposure to traffic-related air pollution, asthma and atopic history, and season of admission. Outcomes included serum IgE specific to Alternaria alternata/A. tenuis, Aspergillus fumigatus, American cockroach, mouse epithelium, dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and farinae), cat dander, and dog dander (deemed sensitive if IgE ≥ 0.35). Self-reported adverse exposures included mold/mildew, water leaks, cockroaches, rodents, and cracks or holes in the walls or ceiling. Presence of carpeting and furry pets was also assessed. Measurements and Main Results: More than 50% of included patients were sensitized to each of Alternaria, Aspergillus, dust mite, cat dander, and dog dander; 28% were sensitized to cockroach and 18% to mouse. Roughly 68% were sensitized to three or more allergens with evidence of clustering. African American children, compared with white children, were more likely to be sensitized to Alternaria, Aspergillus, cockroach, and dust mite (all P < 0.01). White children were more likely to be sensitized to mouse, cat, and dog (all P < 0.01). Lower income was associated with cockroach sensitization whereas higher income was associated

  14. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Bennett, Deborah H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual’s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68–0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend

  15. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and adults in California.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Calafat, Antonia M; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E; Tancredi, Daniel J; Tulve, Nicolle S; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual's exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2-8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26-0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68-0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend. Children had

  16. Translating Research on Healthy Lifestyles for Children: Meeting the Needs of Diverse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Christine; Floriani, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis This paper provides two examples of approaches nursing can take to reach diverse populations of children and their families to enhance health lifestyles. First a descriptive summary of a brief after-school intervention program aimed at influencing 8 and 9 year-old children’s media habits and the prevention of negative health behaviors will be presented. Design consideration for translating health lifestyles research findings into a Nurse managed inner city primary care practice will be reviewed in the 2nd example. PMID:18674672

  17. Composition and stability of intestinal microbiota of healthy children within a Dutch population.

    PubMed

    de Meij, Tim G J; Budding, Andries E; de Groot, Evelien F J; Jansen, Fenna M; Frank Kneepkens, C M; Benninga, Marc A; Penders, John; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A; Savelkoul, Paul H M

    2016-04-01

    Numerous diseases linked to microbial imbalance can be traced back to childhood, illustrating the impact of the juvenile microbiota development from infancy toward adulthood. However, knowledge on this subject is currently very limited. The primary aim of this study was to characterize composition and short- and long-term stability of the intestinal microbiota in healthy children. Between November 2011 and June 2014, 61 children 2 to 18 yr of age from different areas in The Netherlands were included and instructed to collect fecal samples weekly, for 6 wk, and a follow-up sample after 18 mo. The intergenic spacer profiling technique (IS-pro) was used to analyze all available fecal samples. Microbial diversity was calculated by the Shannon diversity index and individual compositional stability by comparing all collection time points. Microbial stability varied per phylum (P< 0.0005), declined rapidly in a short time period, and subsequently stabilized on the long run with very gradual variation, leading to an overall compositional stability of 70% on average over a period of 18 mo. Higher species diversity was correlated to a higher overall compositional stability (P< 0.001). We observed an age-independent bacterial shared core consisting of a limited number of species. In conclusion, in this study, we showed that microbial composition stability in children varied per phylum, at both short-term and long-term intervals. Healthy children seem to share a microbiome core consisting of a limited number of species.-De Meij, T. G. J., Budding, A. E., de Groot, E. F. J., Jansen, F. M., Kneepkens, C. M. F., Benninga, M. A., Penders, J., van Bodegraven, A. A., Savelkoul, P. H. M. Composition and stability of intestinal microbiota of healthy children within a Dutch population. PMID:26655704

  18. Underlying Factors Associated with Anemia in Amazonian Children: A Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Marly A.; Scopel, Kézia K.G.; Muniz, Pascoal T.; Villamor, Eduardo; Ferreira, Marcelo U.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although iron deficiency is considered to be the main cause of anemia in children worldwide, other contributors to childhood anemia remain little studied in developing countries. We estimated the relative contributions of different factors to anemia in a population-based, cross-sectional survey. Methodology We obtained venous blood samples from 1111 children aged 6 months to 10 years living in the frontier town of Acrelândia, northwest Brazil, to estimate the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency by measuring hemoglobin, erythrocyte indices, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Children were simultaneously screened for vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies; intestinal parasite infections; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; and sickle cell trait carriage. Multiple Poisson regression and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were used to describe associations between anemia and the independent variables. Principal Findings The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and iron-deficiency anemia were 13.6%, 45.4%, and 10.3%, respectively. Children whose families were in the highest income quartile, compared with the lowest, had a lower risk of anemia (aPR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.37–0.98). Child age (<24 months, 2.90; 2.01–4.20) and maternal parity (>2 pregnancies, 2.01; 1.40–2.87) were positively associated with anemia. Other associated correlates were iron deficiency (2.1; 1.4–3.0), vitamin B12 (1.4; 1.0–2.2), and folate (2.0; 1.3–3.1) deficiencies, and C-reactive protein concentrations (>5 mg/L, 1.5; 1.1–2.2). Conclusions Addressing morbidities and multiple nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers and improving the purchasing power of poorer families are potentially important interventions to reduce the burden of anemia. PMID:22574149

  19. Cross-sectional study of coeliac autoimmunity in a population of Vietnamese children

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Sara; De Leo, Luigina; Nguyen-Ngoc-Quynh, Le; Nguyen-Duy, Bo; Not, Tarcisio; Tran-Thi-Chi, Mai; Phung-Duc, Son; Le-Thanh, Hai; Malaventura, Cristina; Vatta, Serena; Ziberna, Fabiana; Mazzocco, Martina; Volpato, Stefano; Phung-Tuyet, Lan; Le-Thi-Minh, Huong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) in Vietnam is unknown. To fill this void, we assessed the prevalence of serological markers of CD autoimmunity in a population of children in Hanoi. Setting The outpatient blood drawing laboratory of the largest paediatric hospital in North Vietnam was used for the study, which was part of an international project of collaboration between Italy and Vietnam. Participants Children having blood drawn for any reason were included. Exclusion criteria were age younger than 2 years, acquired or congenital immune deficiency and inadequate sample. A total of 1961 children (96%) were enrolled (838 females, 1123 males, median age 5.3 years). Outcomes Primary outcome was the prevalence of positive autoimmunity to both IgA antitransglutaminase antibodies (anti-tTG) assessed with an ELISA test and antiendomysial antibodies (EMA). Secondary outcome was the prevalence of CD predisposing human leucocyte antigens (HLA) (HLA DQ2/8) in the positive children and in a random group of samples negative for IgA anti-tTG. Results The IgA anti-tTG test was positive in 21/1961 (1%; 95% CI 0.61% to 1.53%); however, EMA antibodies were negative in all. HLA DQ2/8 was present in 7/21 (33%; 95% CI 14.5% to 56.9%) of the anti-tTG-positive children and in 72/275 (26%; 95% CI 21% to 32%) of those who were negative. Conclusions Coeliac autoimmunity is rare in Vietnam, although prevalence of HLA DQ2/8 is similar to that of other countries. We hypothesise that the scarce exposure to gluten could be responsible for these findings. PMID:27329441

  20. Composition and stability of intestinal microbiota of healthy children within a Dutch population.

    PubMed

    de Meij, Tim G J; Budding, Andries E; de Groot, Evelien F J; Jansen, Fenna M; Frank Kneepkens, C M; Benninga, Marc A; Penders, John; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A; Savelkoul, Paul H M

    2016-04-01

    Numerous diseases linked to microbial imbalance can be traced back to childhood, illustrating the impact of the juvenile microbiota development from infancy toward adulthood. However, knowledge on this subject is currently very limited. The primary aim of this study was to characterize composition and short- and long-term stability of the intestinal microbiota in healthy children. Between November 2011 and June 2014, 61 children 2 to 18 yr of age from different areas in The Netherlands were included and instructed to collect fecal samples weekly, for 6 wk, and a follow-up sample after 18 mo. The intergenic spacer profiling technique (IS-pro) was used to analyze all available fecal samples. Microbial diversity was calculated by the Shannon diversity index and individual compositional stability by comparing all collection time points. Microbial stability varied per phylum (P< 0.0005), declined rapidly in a short time period, and subsequently stabilized on the long run with very gradual variation, leading to an overall compositional stability of 70% on average over a period of 18 mo. Higher species diversity was correlated to a higher overall compositional stability (P< 0.001). We observed an age-independent bacterial shared core consisting of a limited number of species. In conclusion, in this study, we showed that microbial composition stability in children varied per phylum, at both short-term and long-term intervals. Healthy children seem to share a microbiome core consisting of a limited number of species.-De Meij, T. G. J., Budding, A. E., de Groot, E. F. J., Jansen, F. M., Kneepkens, C. M. F., Benninga, M. A., Penders, J., van Bodegraven, A. A., Savelkoul, P. H. M. Composition and stability of intestinal microbiota of healthy children within a Dutch population.

  1. An awareness-raising E-learning approach for children living in a high diabetic population.

    PubMed

    Shaalan, Khaled; Al-Mansoori, Mona; Tawfik, Hissam

    2014-03-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown an increased incidence of diabetes worldwide. In United Arab Emirates (UAE), where this study on Emirati children was conducted, over 20% of the population has diabetes. With such a high incidence, there is a need to raise the awareness of the disease in order to reduce the growing number of cases and manage the disease more effectively. This research aims to identify the needs of affected children and proposes a design for an E-learning prototype that can pedagogically raise their awareness and knowledge of the disease. The use of a prototype was chosen in order to validate and refine the usability of the system, and to quickly evaluate user-interface designs without the need for an expensive working model to help refine and develop the system design. The system requirements were identified through a set of interviews with kindergarten teachers, curriculum design experts in UAE, and diabetes nutrition specialists and clinicians. The rationale behind the interview was to identify the optimal age group, describe the appropriate level of the instructional materials and activities, and propose a suitable learning approach that could facilitate and improve diabetes awareness among this age group. The prototype was evaluated by children, teachers, parents (or guardians) and nutrition specialists. We followed a three-stage software development based on a user-informed approach model for stepwise refinement that ranged from prototype to final design. The evaluation results indicate that the proposed computer-supported learning approach can generate positive learning and behavior in children while reducing the time needed to complete awareness tasks when compared to traditional methods; thus making learning more engaging and allowing children to learn at their own pace.

  2. Dental fear among children and adolescents in a multicultural population--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fägerstad, Anida; Lundgren, Jesper; Arnrup, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore dental fear in a multicultural population of child and adolescent dental patients, with background, gender, age, and socioeconomic status taken into account. A specific aim was to investigate whether the level of DF differed between patients with a non- Swedish background and patients with a Swedish background. In conjunction with a routine visit to the dental clinic, 301 patients (8-19 years old) assessed their dental fear on the Children's Fear Survey Schedule - Dental Subscale, using self-ratings. Following an interview protocol, patients' and their parents' country of birth, and parents' education and occupation/employment were registered. An interpreter was present when needed. Self-rated dental fear was almost equal among patients coming from a non-Swedish background and patients with a Swedish background. Girls scored higher than boys and younger children scored slightly higher compared to older children, but the pattern of dental fear variation was inconsistent. Socioeconomic status differed between the groups with a non-Swedish vs. a Swedish background, but no impact on dental fear was revealed. When children and adolescents with a non-Swedish vs. a Swedish background were modelled separately, female gender and younger age had an impact on dental fear only in the group with a Swedish background. No differences in dental fear were found between children and adolescents from non-Swedish vs. Swedish backgrounds. Dental fear variations according to gender and age were more pronounced in the group with a Swedish background compared to the group with a non-Swedish background. No impact of socioeconomic status could be revealed. PMID:26529836

  3. "Every Family": A Population Approach to Reducing Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Children Making the Transition to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Ralph, Alan; Sofronoff, Kate; Gardiner, Paul; Thompson, Rachel; Dwyer, Sarah; Bidwell, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale population trial using the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program (TPS) was evaluated. The target population was all parents of 4- to 7-year-old children residing in ten geographical catchment areas in Brisbane (intervention communities) and ten sociodemographically matched catchment areas from Sydney (5) and Melbourne (5), care as…

  4. An overview of children as a special population-Relevance to predictive biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, Gary L. . E-mail: glkimmel@comcast.net

    2005-08-07

    There has been an increasing focus on children as a special population in the fields of toxicology and epidemiology. At the same time, there has been considerable improvement in the technology for defining normal development and pathways of pathogenesis. Increased support of these areas has culminated in stronger research programs and greater professional involvement in addressing the specific challenges of applying new techniques and data to the improvement of children's health. Part of these challenges relates to the ever changing environment of the child. Not only does a child's anatomy, physiology, and metabolism change with time, but their lifestyle and awareness change as well. All of these can have a significant impact on a child's exposure and the potential of that exposure to have an effect on health and development. This paper will provide a brief overview of the susceptibility of the child relative to sensitive developmental life stages, the changing nature of exposure parameters during development, and how these factors can impact the relevance of predictive biomarkers of chemical toxicity in children.

  5. Respiratory health effects of the indoor environment in a population of Dutch children

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkstra, L.; Houthuijs, D.; Brunekreef, B.; Akkerman, I.; Boleij, J.S. )

    1990-11-01

    The effect of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide on respiratory health was studied over a period of 2 yr in a population of nonsmoking Dutch children 6 to 12 yr of age. Lung function was measured at the schools, and information on respiratory symptoms was collected from a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents of the children. Nitrogen dioxide was measured in the homes of all children with Palmes' diffusion tubes. In addition, information on smoking and dampness in the home was collected by questionnaire. There was no relationship between exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the home and respiratory symptoms. Respiratory symptoms were found to be associated with exposure to tobacco smoke and home dampness. There was a weak, negative association between maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF) and exposure to nitrogen dioxide. FEV1, peak expiratory flow, and MMEF were all negatively associated with exposure to tobacco smoke. Home dampness was not associated with pulmonary function. Lung function growth, measured over a period of 2 yr, was not consistently associated with any of the indoor exposure variables. The development of respiratory symptoms over time was not associated with indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide. There was a significant association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the home and the development of wheeze. There was also a significant association between home dampness and the development of cough.

  6. Population pharmacokinetics of piperaquine in young Ugandan children treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for uncomplicated malaria

    PubMed Central

    Sambol, Nancy C.; Yan, Li; Creek, Darren J.; McCormack, Shelley A.; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Bigira, Victor; Wanzira, Humphrey; Kakuru, Abel; Tappero, Jordan W.; Lindegardh, Niklas; Tarning, Joel; Nosten, Francois; Aweeka, Francesca T.; Parikh, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    This prospective trial investigated the population pharmacokinetics of piperaquine, given with dihydroartemisinin to treat uncomplicated malaria in 107 Ugandan children 6 months to 2 years old, an age group previously unstudied. Current weight-based dosing does not adequately address physiological changes in early childhood. Patients were administered standard three-day oral doses and provided 1,282 capillary plasma concentrations from 218 malaria episodes. Less than 30% of treatments achieved 57 ng/mL on day 7. A three-compartment model with first-order absorption described the data well. Age had a statistically significant effect (p<0.005) on clearance/bioavailability in a model that accounts for allometric scaling. Simulations demonstrated that higher doses in all children, but especially in those with lower weight for age, are required for adequate piperaquine exposure, though safety and tolerance will need to be established. These findings support other evidence that both weight and age-specific guidelines for piperaquine dosing in children are urgently needed. PMID:25732044

  7. Cancer and congenital abnormalities in Asian children: a population-based study from the West Midlands.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J. E.; Kelly, A. M.; Parkes, S. E.; Cole, T. R.; Mann, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Cancer and associated congenital abnormalities were investigated in Muslim and non-Muslim Asian children from the West Midlands. Cancer incidence rates were calculated for Indian (non-Muslim), Pakistani/Bangladeshi (Muslim) and white children diagnosed from 1978 to 1992. Incidence was significantly higher in the Pakistanis, with an age-standardised rate (ASR) of 163 cases per million per year, compared with 115 for Indian and 125 for white children. Among Asian cancer patients, congenital malformations were significantly more common in Muslim (21%) compared with non-Muslim (7%). In Muslims the malformation excess was caused by autosomal recessive and dominant disorders (in 8% and 5% of cases respectively). Cancer malformation/predisposition syndromes were found in 10% of Muslims, compared with 2% of non-Muslims. In 33% of the Muslims with malformations, childhood cancer and a malformation were also present in a close relative. None of the non-Muslims with malformations had a relative with childhood cancer. The cancer excess in Muslims may be partly related to inherited genes causing both malformations and cancer. The prevalence of autosomal recessive disorders may be related to consanguinity, which is common in the Pakistani Muslim population. The high incidence of autosomal dominant disorders may be related to older paternal age at conception, giving rise to spontaneous mutations. PMID:8519679

  8. High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil.

  9. Where children and adolescents drown in Queensland: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Belinda A; Watt, Kerrianne; Franklin, Richard C; Nixon, James W; Kimble, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This retrospective population-based study examined drowning location by the site of immersion for both fatal and non-fatal drowning events in Queensland. Drowning location is not routinely collected, and this study used data linkage to identify drowning sites. The resulting enhanced quality data quantify drowning incidence for specific locations by geographic region, age group and by severity for the first time. Design Linked data were accessed from the continuum of care (prehospital, emergency, hospital admission and death data) on fatal and non-fatal drowning episodes in children aged 0–19 years in Queensland for the years 2002–2008 inclusive. Results Drowning locations ranked in order of overall incidence were pools, inland water, coastal water, baths and other man-made water hazards. Swimming pools produced the highest incidence rates (7.31/100 000) for overall drowning events and were more often privately owned pools and in affluent neighbourhoods. Toddlers 0–4 years were most at risk around pools (23.94/100 000), and static water bodies such as dams and buckets—the fatality ratios were highest at these 2 locations for this age group. Children 5–14 years incurred the lowest incidence rates regardless of drowning location. Adolescents 15–19 years were more frequently involved in a drowning incident on the coast shoreline, followed by inland dynamic water bodies. Conclusions Linked data have resulted in the most comprehensive data collection on drowning location and severity to date for children in the state of Queensland. Most mortality and morbidity could have been prevented by improving water safety through engaged supervision around pools and bath time, and a heightened awareness of buckets and man-made water hazards around the farm home for young children. These data provide a different approach to inform prevention strategies. PMID:26610762

  10. Blood Lead Levels and Associated Factors among Children in Guiyu of China: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Pi; Xu, Xijin; Huang, Binliang; Sun, Di; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children's health problems caused by the electronic waste (e-waste) lead exposure in China remains. To assess children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in Guiyu of China and investigate risk factors of children's elevated BLLs in Guiyu. Material and Methods 842 children under 11 years of age from Guiyu and Haojiang were enrolled in this population-based study during 2011–2013. Participants completed a lifestyle and residential environment questionnaire and their physical growth indices were measured, and blood samples taken. Blood samples were tested to assess BLLs. Children's BLLs between the two groups were compared and factors associated with elevated BLLs among Guiyu children were analyzed by group Lasso logistic regression model. Results Children living in Guiyu had significant higher BLLs (7.06 µg/dL) than the quantity (5.89 µg/dL) of Haojiang children (P<0.05). Subgroup analyses of BLLs exceeding 10 µg/dL showed the proportion (24.80%) of high-level BLLs for Guiyu children was greater than that (12.84%) in Haojiang (P<0.05). Boys had greater BLLs than girls, irrespectively of areas (P<0.05). The number of e-waste piles or recycling workshops around the house (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 3.87) significantly contributed to the elevated BLLs of children in Guiyu, and girls had less risk (odds ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.83) of e-waste lead exposure than boys. Conclusions This analysis reinforces the importance of shifting e-waste recycling piles or workshops to non-populated areas as part of a comprehensive response to e-waste lead exposure control in Guiyu. To correct the problem of lead poisoning in children in Guiyu should be a long-term mission. PMID:25136795

  11. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  12. Structured Approaches to Participatory Design for Children: Can Targeting the Needs of Children with Autism Provide Benefits for a Broader Child Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Laura; Johnson, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    In the past technology products created to overcome accessibility and usability issues experienced by individuals with special needs have also resulted in greater usability for the wider population. Technology is increasingly being seen as a key component within the education of children with special needs and recently researchers have developed…

  13. Anthelmintics residues in raw milk. Assessing intake by a children population.

    PubMed

    Tsiboukis, D; Sazakli, E; Jelastopulu, E; Leotsinidis, M

    2013-01-01

    Anthelmintics, such as benzimidazoles and probenzimidazoles, are veterinary drugs used against endoparasites in food producing animals. A number of these drugs are considered responsible for embryotoxicity and teratogenicity. The residue levels of Albendazole, Febantel, Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and some of their metabolites (Albendazole sulphoxide, Albendazole sulphone, Fenbendazole sulfone) were assessed in 123 (42 goat, 69 sheep, 12 bovine) raw milk samples collected from all farms throughout Southern Greece. Sample analysis was performed by HPLC with Diode Array Detector. A high percentage (27.6%) of the samples examined was found to be positive for the investigated compounds. In 14 samples (11.4%), the residues' concentration exceeded the established Maximum Residue Limits. Estimated Daily Intakes were calculated for a population of 723 children aged 10-12 years. Data on milk consumption were obtained by personal interview through a 7-day food frequency questionnaire. The maximum Estimated Daily Intakes for the anthelmintic residues, concerning raw milk, did not exceed the current Acceptable Daily Intake.

  14. [Risk factors for children's population health in stressed environmental conditions of lead pollition].

    PubMed

    Baidaulet, I O; Namazbaeva, Z I; Dasybayeva, G N; Bazeluk, L T; Sabirov, Zh V; Kusainova, D S

    2013-01-01

    Adverse environmental conditions in Shymkent significantly increase the risk of accumulation of lead in the bodies of the children of the third generation of the population residing in the contaminated areas, cause deteriorations of antioxidant defense in the respiratory system, greatly decline barrier-protective properties of cellular systems of the local immunity, disturb the process of hematopoiesis. Performed statistical analysis of the data permitted to identify a correlation relationship between the accumulation of lead in the soil and the change in the functional activity of the cells of buccal cheek epithelium, catalase activity in expired breath condensate. Haematological signs of lead poisoning include not only the number of reticulocytes, but also the correction (RPI) for the alteration with allowances made for the maturation of reticulocytes in peripheral blood circulation as early criterion for toxic anemia.

  15. Cortical thickness and prosocial behavior in school-age children: A population-based MRI study.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, Sandra; Wildeboer, Andrea; Muetzel, Ryan L; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; El Marroun, Hanan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; van der Lugt, Aad; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; White, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Prosocial behavior plays an important role in establishing and maintaining relationships with others and thus may have important developmental implications. This study examines the association between cortical thickness and prosocial behavior in a population-based sample of 6- to 9-year-old children. The present study was embedded within the Generation R Study. Magnetic resonance scans were acquired from 464 children whose parents had completed the prosocial scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. To study the association between cortical thickness and prosocial behavior, we performed whole-brain surface-based analyses. Prosocial behavior was related to a thicker cortex in a cluster that covers part of the left superior frontal and rostral middle frontal cortex (p < .001). Gender moderated the association between prosocial behavior and cortical thickness in a cluster including the right rostral middle frontal and superior frontal cortex (p < .001) as well as in a cluster covering the right superior parietal cortex, cuneus, and precuneus (p < .001). Our results suggest that prosocial behavior is associated with cortical thickness in regions related to theory of mind (superior frontal cortex, rostral middle frontal cortex cuneus, and precuneus) and inhibitory control (superior frontal and rostral middle frontal cortex).

  16. Pathological Demand Avoidance in a population-based cohort of children with epilepsy: four case studies.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Menlove, Leanne; Gillberg, Christopher; O'Nions, Elizabeth; Happé, Francesca; Neville, Brian G R

    2014-12-01

    Childhood epilepsy is associated with a range of neurobehavioural comorbidities including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), motor impairments and emotional problems. These difficulties frequently have a greater impact on quality of life than seizures. Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA) is a term increasingly in use in the UK and Europe to describe behaviours associated with an extreme resistance to demands and requests and the need to be in control in social interactions. In a population-based group of 85 children with epilepsy, four (5%) were identified as displaying significant symptoms of PDA, were assessed using the Extreme Demand Avoidance Questionnaire (EDA-Q) and are described in detail. As well as significant symptoms of PDA, the four children met criteria for a range of neurobehavioural disorders; all four had cognitive impairment (IQ<85) and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD. Three, in addition, met criteria for ASD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and two for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). All four experienced their first seizure before 5 years of age. School and parent reports indicated very significant functional impairment and management concerns, particularly with respect to complying with everyday demands. Symptoms of PDA should be considered when evaluating neurobehavioural comorbidity in childhood epilepsy.

  17. Committee report: Method for evaluating conditions nominated for population-based screening of newborns and children.

    PubMed

    Calonge, Ned; Green, Nancy S; Rinaldo, Piero; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele; Dougherty, Denise; Boyle, Coleen; Watson, Michael; Trotter, Tracy; Terry, Sharon F; Howell, R Rodney

    2010-03-01

    The Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children is charged with evaluating conditions nominated for addition to the uniform screening panel and consequently making recommendations to the secretary of the US Department of Health and Human Services. This report describes the framework by which the committee approaches its task. Key decision nodes include initial review of every nomination to determine whether conditions are amenable for systematic evidence review, review of systematic evidence reviews conducted by the committee's external review group, and deliberation and formal recommendation for addition or exclusion to the uniform panel. Data analyzed include the accuracy and specificity of screening and diagnostic tests for nominated disorders, the extent of predicted health benefits, harms impact on disease course, and cost from early diagnosis and treatment. The committee process is guided by approaches used by similar entities, but more flexible criteria are sometimes needed to accommodate data limitations stemming from the rarity of many of these conditions. Possible outcomes of committee review range from recommendation to add a nominated condition to the uniform panel; provide feedback on specific gaps in evidence that must be addressed before making a decision; or rejection of a nomination (e.g., because of identified harms). The committee's structured evidence-based assessment of nominated conditions supports a consistently rigorous, iterative and transparent approach to its making recommendations regarding broad population-based screening programs for rare conditions in infants and children.

  18. Children With Medical Complexity: An Emerging Population for Clinical and Research Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Dennis Z.; Agrawal, Rishi; Berry, Jay G.; Bhagat, Santi K. M.; Simon, Tamara D.; Srivastava, Rajendu

    2011-01-01

    Children with medical complexity (CMC) have medical fragility and intensive care needs that are not easily met by existing health care models. CMC may have a congenital or acquired multisystem disease, a severe neurologic condition with marked functional impairment, and/or technology dependence for activities of daily living. Although these children are at risk of poor health and family outcomes, there are few well-characterized clinical initiatives and research efforts devoted to improving their care. In this article, we present a definitional framework of CMC that consists of substantial family-identified service needs, characteristic chronic and severe conditions, functional limitations, and high health care use. We explore the diversity of existing care models and apply the principles of the chronic care model to address the clinical needs of CMC. Finally, we suggest a research agenda that uses a uniform definition to accurately describe the population and to evaluate outcomes from the perspectives of the child, the family, and the broader health care system. PMID:21339266

  19. Multidimensional morphometric 3D MRI analyses for detecting brain abnormalities in children: impact of control population.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Marko; Rose, Douglas F; Holland, Scott K; Leach, James L

    2014-07-01

    Automated morphometric approaches are used to detect epileptogenic structural abnormalities in 3D MR images in adults, using the variance of a control population to obtain z-score maps in an individual patient. Due to the substantial changes the developing human brain undergoes, performing such analyses in children is challenging. This study investigated six features derived from high-resolution T1 datasets in four groups: normal children (1.5T or 3T data), normal clinical scans (3T data), and patients with structural brain lesions (3T data), with each n = 10. Normative control data were obtained from the NIH study on normal brain development (n = 401). We show that control group size substantially influences the captured variance, directly impacting the patient's z-scores. Interestingly, matching on gender does not seem to be beneficial, which was unexpected. Using data obtained at higher field scanners produces slightly different base rates of suprathreshold voxels, as does using clinically derived normal studies, suggesting a subtle but systematic effect of both factors. Two approaches for controlling suprathreshold voxels in a multidimensional approach (combining features and requiring a minimum cluster size) were shown to be substantial and effective in reducing this number. Finally, specific strengths and limitations of such an approach could be demonstrated in individual cases. PMID:25050423

  20. Population pharmacokinetic study of methotrexate in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Zhai, S; Yang, L; Wu, H; Zhang, J; Ke, X

    2010-01-01

    A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe the factors that may affect the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX) in Chinese child patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and to predict the individual pharmacokinetic parameters in these patients. One hundred and eighteen children with ALL who received MTX at the dose of 2 - 3.5 g/m(2) were enrolled in this study. 96 children were enrolled in the index group and 22 children in the validation group. The data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM) software. A linear two-compartment model with linear elimination best described the data. The forward inclusion-backward elimination method was used to investigate the different covariates, including age, body weight, gender, etc. The Bayesian method was used to predict the individual pharmacokinetic parameters. Validation was applied using an internal and external approach. The population pharmacokinetic parameters and 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained as follows: The clearance of central compartment (CL1), apparent volume of distribution of central compartment (V1), the clearance between central and peripheral compartment (CL2), and apparent volume of distribution of peripheral compartment (V2) were 5.04 (3.93 - 6.15) l/min, 16.1 (12.5 - 19.7) l, 0.203 (0.102 - 0.304) l/min and 7.05 (3.86 - 10.20) l, respectively. The inter-individual variability of CL1, V1, CL2, and V2 were 49.60%, 29.36%, 137.64%, and 107.70%, respectively. Gender, body surface area and the amount of alkalinization agent during 24 hours before MTX administration had significant effects on CL1. A strong relationship was found in this study between CL2 and age, as well as between V2 and age. A good correlation was further proved through the validation model. Moreover, some secondary pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated: the elimination half-life t1/2 was 2.34 h (CV = 36.7%), elimination constant k(e) was 0.33 h(-1) (CV = 33.2%), and the area under

  1. Central obesity in Yemeni children: A population based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Massetti, Luciano; Aklan, Hameed; Al-Karewany, Mahdi; Goshae, Husni Al; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To establish percentile curves and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity among Yemeni children in a population based cross-sectional study. METHODS: A representative sample of 3114 Yemeni children (1564 boys, 1550 girls) aged 6-19 years participating in the HYpertension and Diabetes in Yemen study was studied. Data collection was conducted at home by survey teams composed of two investigators of both genders. Study questionnaire included questions about demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumferences. Waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were then calculated. Age and gender specific smoothed percentiles of WC, WHR, and WHtR were obtained using lambda-mu-sigma parameters (LMS method). The independent predictors of central obesity defined as (1) WC percentile ≥ 90th; (2) WHtR ≥ 0.5; or (3) WC percentile ≥ 90th and WHtR ≥ 0.5, were identified at multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, urban/rural location, years of school education, sedentary/active life-style. RESULTS: Percentile curves for WC, WHR and WHtR are presented. Average WC increased with age for both genders. Boys had a higher WC than girls until early adolescence and thereafter girls had higher values than boys. WHR decreased both in boys and girls until early adolescence. Thereafter while in boys it plateaued in girls it continued to decrease. Mean WHtR decreased until early adolescence with no gender related differences and thereafter increased more in girls than in boys towards adult age. Prevalence of central obesity largely varied according to the definition used which was 10.9% for WC ≥ 90th percentile, 18.3% for WHtR ≥ 0.5, and 8.6% when fulfilling both criteria. At adjusted logistic regression WC ≥ 90th percentiles and WHtR ≥ 0.5 were less prevalent in rural than in urban areas (OR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.41-0.67 and

  2. Social environment elicits lateralized navigational paths in two populations of typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Gillian S; Crawley, Molly; Palmer, Casey

    2014-11-01

    The current study provides the first evidence of human lateralized navigation of a social space within a naturalistic environment. We employed a quantitative, observational approach and report on a detailed set of nearly 700 independent navigational routes from two separate child populations consisting of over 300 typically developing children, aged five to fourteen years. The navigational path was considered across the sagittal plane (left, right) around three distinct target types (peer, adult and object). Both child populations expressed a significant bias for choosing a rightward navigational path around a human target (e.g., peer, adult) and no lateral preference for navigation around fixed, inanimate objects. A rightward navigational path provides an advantage for the left visual field and the right hemisphere, facilitating both the production and perception of social-emotion stimuli. The findings are consistent with evidence from studies of non-human animal species demonstrating that the social environment elicits predictable lateralized behavior, and support an early evolutionary delineation of functional processing by the two hemispheres. PMID:25164992

  3. Population intervention models to estimate ambient NO2 health effects in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Jonathan M; Mortimer, Kathleen M; Kang Dufour, Mi-Suk; Tager, Ira B

    2015-01-01

    Health effects of ambient air pollution are most frequently expressed in individual studies as responses to a standardized unit of air pollution changes (e.g., an interquartile interval), which is thought to enable comparison of findings across studies. However, this approach does not necessarily convey health effects in terms of a real-world air pollution scenario. In the present study, we use population intervention modeling to estimate the effect of an air pollution intervention that makes explicit reference to the observed exposure data and is identifiable in those data. We calculate the association between ambient summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25-75) in a cohort of children with asthma in Fresno, California. We scale the effect size to reflect NO2 abatement on a majority of summer days. The effect estimates were small, imprecise, and consistently indicated improved pulmonary function with decreased NO2. The effects ranged from -0.8% of mean FEF25-75 (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.4, 1.7) to -3.3% (95% CI: -7.5, 0.9). We conclude by discussing the nature and feasibility of the exposure change analyzed here given the observed air pollution profile, and we propose additional applications of population intervention models in environmental epidemiology.

  4. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  5. A preliminary examination of child well-being of physically abused and neglected children compared to a normative pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Paul; Kohl, Patricia L; Raghavan, Ramesh; Auslander, Wendy

    2015-02-01

    Federal mandates require state child welfare systems to monitor and improve outcomes for children in three areas: safety, permanency, and well-being. Research across separate domains of child well-being indicates maltreated children may experience lower pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study assessed well-being in maltreated children using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0), a widely used measure of pediatric HRQL. The PedsQL 4.0 was used to assess well-being in a sample of children (N = 129) receiving child welfare services following reports of alleged physical abuse or neglect. We compared total scores and domain scores for this maltreated sample to those of a published normative sample. Within the maltreated sample, we also compared well-being by child and family demographic characteristics. As compared with a normative pediatric population, maltreated children reported significantly lower total, physical, and psychosocial health. We found no significant differences in total and domain scores based on child and parent demographics within the maltreated sample. This preliminary exploration indicates children receiving child welfare services have significantly lower well-being status than the general child population and have considerable deficits in social and emotional functioning. These findings support continued investment in maltreatment prevention and services to improve the well-being of victims of maltreatment.

  6. The Combined Burden of Cognitive, Executive Function, and Psychosocial Problems in Children with Epilepsy: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoie, B.; Sommerfelt, K.; Waaler, P. E.; Alsaker, F. D.; Skeidsvoll, H.; Mykletun, A.

    2008-01-01

    The combined burden of psychosocial (Achenbach scales), cognitive (Raven matrices), and executive function (EF) problems was studied in a population-based sample of 6- to 12-year-old children with epilepsy (n = 162; 99 males, 63 females) and in an age- and sex-matched control group (n = 107; 62 males, 45 females). Approximately 35% of the children…

  7. The Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers: A Population Study of 2-Year-Old Swedish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Gudrun; Cederlund, Mats; Sandberg, Eva; Gillstedt, Fredrik; Arvidsson, Thomas; Gillberg, I. Carina; Andersson, Gunilla Westman; Gillberg, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is more common than previously believed. ASD is increasingly diagnosed at very young ages. We report estimated ASD prevalence rates from a population study of 2-year-old children conducted in 2010 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Screening for ASD had been introduced at all child health centers at child age 21/2 years. All…

  8. Interobserver Agreement of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in an Ambulant Population of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Brona C.; Kerr, Claire; Parkes, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level was reported by three independent assessors in a population of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 4 and 18 years (n=184; 112 males, 72 females; mean age 10y 10mo [SD 3y 7mo]). A software algorithm also provided a computed GMFCS level from a regional CP registry. Participants had…

  9. A prospective assessment of food and nutrient intake in a population of Malawian children at risk for kwashiorkor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine what foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns are associated with development of kwashiorkor in populations of vulnerable 1- to 3-year-old Malawian children. This was a prospective observational study conducted in 8 rural villages. Upon enrollment, demographic, anthropom...

  10. Does Universally Accessible Child Care Protect Children from Late Talking? Results from a Norwegian Population-Based Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekhal, Ratib; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Wang, Mari Vaage; Schjolberg, Synnve; von Soest, Tilmann

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between type of child care arrangement at age 1, 1.5 and 3 years and late talking (LT). The data were from 19,919 children in the population-based prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and included information about child care arrangement, LT and a variety of covariates. Attendance at…

  11. The Impact of Population Density on the Likelihood of Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) Clients Becoming Economically Self-Sufficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendixen-Noe, Mary K.; And Others

    The impact of population density on the likelihood of Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) clients becoming economically self-sufficient was examined through a study of 2,647 ADC recipients referred to a total of 8 comprehensive vocational assessment centers (CVACs) for ADC clients that were established in Ohio in 1992. Of the CVACs, two were from each…

  12. New Insights into the Molecular Epidemiology and Population Genetics of Schistosoma mansoni in Ugandan Pre-school Children and Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Betson, Martha; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Stothard, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Significant numbers of pre-school children are infected with Schistosoma mansoni in sub-Saharan Africa and are likely to play a role in parasite transmission. However, they are currently excluded from control programmes. Molecular phylogenetic studies have provided insights into the evolutionary origins and transmission dynamics of S. mansoni, but there has been no research into schistosome molecular epidemiology in pre-school children. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of S. mansoni in pre-school children and mothers living in lakeshore communities in Uganda and monitored for changes over time after praziquantel treatment. Parasites were sampled from children (<6 years) and mothers enrolled in the longitudinal Schistosomiasis Mothers and Infants Study at baseline and at 6-, 12- and 18-month follow-up surveys. 1347 parasites from 35 mothers and 45 children were genotyped by direct sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase (cox1) gene. The cox1 region was highly diverse with over 230 unique sequences identified. Parasite populations were genetically differentiated between lakes and non-synonymous mutations were more diverse at Lake Victoria than Lake Albert. Surprisingly, parasite populations sampled from children showed a similar genetic diversity to those sampled from mothers, pointing towards a non-linear relationship between duration of exposure and accumulation of parasite diversity. The genetic diversity six months after praziquantel treatment was similar to pre-treatment diversity. Our results confirm the substantial genetic diversity of S. mansoni in East Africa and provide significant insights into transmission dynamics within young children and mothers, important information for schistosomiasis control programmes. PMID:24349589

  13. Using Electronic Health Records to Examine Disease Risk in Small Populations: Obesity Among American Indian Children, Wisconsin, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Tomayko, Emily J.; Weinert, Bethany A.; Godfrey, Liz; Adams, Alexandra K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tribe-based or reservation-based data consistently show disproportionately high obesity rates among American Indian children, but little is known about the approximately 75% of American Indian children living off-reservation. We examined obesity among American Indian children seeking care off-reservation by using a database of de-identified electronic health records linked to community-level census variables. Methods Data from electronic health records from American Indian children and a reference sample of non-Hispanic white children collected from 2007 through 2012 were abstracted to determine obesity prevalence. Related community-level and individual-level risk factors (eg, economic hardship, demographics) were examined using logistic regression. Results The obesity rate for American Indian children (n = 1,482) was double the rate among non-Hispanic white children (n = 81,042) (20.0% vs 10.6%, P < .001). American Indian children were less likely to have had a well-child visit (55.9% vs 67.1%, P < .001) during which body mass index (BMI) was measured, which may partially explain why BMI was more likely to be missing from American Indian records (18.3% vs 14.6%, P < .001). Logistic regression demonstrated significantly increased obesity risk among American Indian children (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.6–2.1) independent of age, sex, economic hardship, insurance status, and geographic designation. Conclusion An electronic health record data set demonstrated high obesity rates for nonreservation-based American Indian children, rates that had not been previously assessed. This low-cost method may be used for assessing health risk for other understudied populations and to plan and evaluate targeted interventions. PMID:26916900

  14. Survival of children with trisomy 13 and trisomy 18: A multi-state population-based study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Robert E; Liu, Gang; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Ethen, Mary K; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Powell, Cynthia M; Flood, Timothy J; Mai, Cara T; Wang, Ying; Canfield, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Trisomy 13 (T13) and trisomy 18 (T18) are among the most prevalent autosomal trisomies. Both are associated with a very high risk of mortality. Numerous instances, however, of long-term survival of children with T13 or T18 have prompted some clinicians to pursue aggressive treatment instead of the traditional approach of palliative care. The purpose of this study is to assess current mortality data for these conditions. This multi-state, population-based study examined data obtained from birth defect surveillance programs in nine states on live-born infants delivered during 1999-2007 with T13 or T18. Information on children's vital status and selected maternal and infant risk factors were obtained using matched birth and death certificates and other data sources. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate age-specific survival probabilities and predictors of survival up to age five. There were 693 children with T13 and 1,113 children with T18 identified from the participating states. Among children with T13, 5-year survival was 9.7%; among children with T18, it was 12.3%. For both trisomies, gestational age was the strongest predictor of mortality. Females and children of non-Hispanic black mothers had the lowest mortality. Omphalocele and congenital heart defects were associated with an increased risk of death for children with T18 but not T13. This study found survival among children with T13 and T18 to be somewhat higher than those previously reported in the literature, consistent with recent studies reporting improved survival following more aggressive medical intervention for these children. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663415

  15. Septic system density and infectious diarrhea in a defined population of children.

    PubMed Central

    Borchardt, Mark A; Chyou, Po-Huang; DeVries, Edna O; Belongia, Edward A

    2003-01-01

    One-quarter of U.S. households use a septic system for wastewater disposal. In this study we investigated whether septic system density was associated with endemic diarrheal illness in children. Cases--children 1 to < 19 years old seeking medical care for acute diarrhea--and controls resided in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area, a population-based cohort in central Wisconsin. Enrollment was from February 1997 through September 1998. Study participants completed a structured interview, and septic system density was determined from county sanitary permits. Household wells were sampled for bacterial pathogens and indicators of water sanitary quality. Risk factors were assessed for cases grouped by diarrhea etiology. In multivariate analyses, viral diarrhea was associated with the number of holding tank septic systems in the 640-acre section surrounding the case residence [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.15; p = 0.008], and bacterial diarrhea was associated with the number of holding tanks per 40-acre quarter-quarter section (AOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02-1.46; p = 0.026). Diarrhea of unknown etiology was independently associated with drinking from a household well contaminated with fecal enterococci (AOR, 6.18; 95% CI, 1.22-31.46; p = 0.028). Septic system densities were associated with endemic diarrheal illness in central Wisconsin. The association should be investigated in other regions, and standards for septic systems should be evaluated to ensure that the public health is protected. PMID:12727604

  16. Malocclusion and early orthodontic treatment requirements in the mixed dentitions of a population of Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    daCosta, Oluranti Olatokunbo; Aikins, Elfleda Angelina; Isiekwe, Gerald Ikenna; Adediran, Virginia Efunyemi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of dental features that indicate a need for early intervention and to ascertain the prevalence of different methods of early treatment among a population of Nigerian children in mixed dentition. Methods: Occlusal relationships were evaluated in 101 children in mixed dentition between the ages of 6 and 12 years who presented at the Orthodontic Unit, Department of Child Dental Health, Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a 2 years period. The need for different modes of early orthodontic treatment was also recorded. Results: Anterior tooth rotations (61.4%) and increased overjet (44.6%) were the most prevalent occlusal anomalies. Others included deep bite (31.7%), reverse overjet (13.9%), and anterior open bite (14.8%). Severe maxillary spacing and crowding were exhibited in 12.0% and 5.0%, respectively. About a third (35.7%) of the subjects presented with crossbite while lip incompetence was observed in 43.6% of the subjects. About 44% of the subjects also presented with various oral habits with digit (15.8%) and lip sucking (9.9%) being the most prevalent. Subjects were recommended for treatment with 2 by 4 fixed orthodontic appliances (22.3%), habit breakers (20.7%), removable orthodontic appliances (16.5%), and extractions (15.7%). Conclusions: Increased overjet and anterior tooth rotation were the majority of occlusal anomalies seen, which are not only esthetically displeasing but may also cause an increased susceptibility to trauma to these teeth. Treatment options varied from extractions only to the use of appliance therapy. PMID:27556019

  17. Population based, controlled study of behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders in low birthweight children at 11 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Elgen, I; Sommerfelt, K; Markestad, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the risk of long term behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders associated with being born with low birth weight. Design/study groups: A population based, controlled follow up study at 11 years of age of 130 low birthweight (LBW) children weighing less than 2000 g at birth who were without major handicaps, and a random sample of 131 normal birthweight (NBW) children born at term weighing over 3000 g. Main outcome measures: Validated questionnaires addressing behaviour completed by mothers and teachers and child evaluation by child psychiatrist using a semistructured interview. Results: Behavioural problems, as defined by abnormal scores on more than four of 32 measures, were found in 40% of LBW children compared with 7% of NBW children (odds ratio (OR) 8.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3 to 25, p = 0001). A psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 27% of the LBW children compared with 9% of the NBW children (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.5 to 6.5, p = 0.001). The LBW children were more often inattentive, had social problems, and low self esteem. None of the pre-, neo-, or peri-natal variables in the LBW group were statistically significant predictors of behavioural outcomes or the presence of psychiatric disorders. Behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders were as common in those with birth weight less than 1500 g as those with birth weight 1500–2000 g. Conclusion: An increased risk of behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders persists in LBW adolescents. PMID:12193521

  18. Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lumefantrine in Young Ugandan Children Treated With Artemether-Lumefantrine for Uncomplicated Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tchaparian, Eskouhie; Sambol, Nancy C.; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; McCormack, Shelley A.; Bigira, Victor; Wanzira, Humphrey; Muhindo, Mary; Creek, Darren J.; Sukumar, Nitin; Blessborn, Daniel; Tappero, Jordan W.; Kakuru, Abel; Bergqvist, Yngve; Aweeka, Francesca T.; Parikh, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Background. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lumefantrine, a component of the most widely used treatment for malaria, artemether-lumefantrine, has not been adequately characterized in young children. Methods. Capillary whole-blood lumefantrine concentration and treatment outcomes were determined in 105 Ugandan children, ages 6 months to 2 years, who were treated for 249 episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine. Results. Population pharmacokinetics for lumefantrine used a 2-compartment open model with first-order absorption. Age had a significant positive correlation with bioavailability in a model that included allometric scaling. Children not receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with capillary whole blood concentrations <200 ng/mL had a 3-fold higher hazard of 28-day recurrent parasitemia, compared with those with concentrations >200 ng/mL (P = .0007). However, for children receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the risk of recurrent parasitemia did not differ significantly on the basis of this threshold. Day 3 concentrations were a stronger predictor of 28-day recurrence than day 7 concentrations. Conclusions. We demonstrate that age, in addition to weight, is a determinant of lumefantrine exposure, and in the absence of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, lumefantrine exposure is a determinant of recurrent parasitemia. Exposure levels in children aged 6 months to 2 years was generally lower than levels published for older children and adults. Further refinement of artemether-lumefantrine dosing to improve exposure in infants and very young children may be warranted. PMID:27471317

  19. Population Pharmacokinetics Study of Recommended Zidovudine Doses in HIV-1-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Frange, Pierre; Urien, Saik; Foissac, Frantz; Bouazza, Naim; Benaboud, Sihem; Blanche, Stephane; Hirt, Déborah

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the pharmacokinetics of zidovudine (ZDV) and its biotransformation to its metabolite, 3*-azido-3*-deoxy-5*-glucuronylthymidine (G-ZDV), in HIV-infected children, to identify factors that influence the pharmacokinetics of ZDV, and to compare and evaluate the doses recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). ZDV concentrations in 782 samples and G-ZDV concentrations in 554 samples from 247 children ranging in age from 0.5 to 18 years were retrospectively measured. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with NONMEM software (version 6.2), and the pharmacokinetics of ZDV were best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The effect of body weight on the apparent elimination clearance and volume of distribution was significant. The mean population parameter estimates were as follows: absorption rate, 2.86 h−1; apparent elimination clearance, 89.7 liters · h−1 (between-subject variability, 0.701 liters · h−1); apparent volume of distribution, 229 liters (between-subject variability, 0.807 liters); metabolic formation rate constant, 12.6 h−1 (between-subject variability, 0.352 h−1); and elimination rate constant of G-ZDV, 2.27 h−1. On the basis of simulations with FDA and WHO dosing recommendations, the probabilities of observing efficient exposures (doses resulting in exposures of between 3 and 5 mg/liter · h) with less adverse events (doses resulting in exposures below 8.4 mg/liter · h) were higher when the FDA recommendations than when the WHO recommendations were followed. In order to improve the FDA recommendations, ZDV doses should be reconsidered for the weight band (WB) of 20 to 40 kg. The most appropriate doses should be decreased from 9 to 8 mg/kg of body weight twice a day (BID) for the WB from 20 to 29.9 kg and from 300 to 250 mg BID for the WB from 30 to 39.9 kg. The highest dose, 300 mg BID, should be

  20. Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Extended-Infusion Piperacillin and Tazobactam in Critically Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun Kyoung; Knoderer, Chad A.; Buenger, Lauren E.; Healy, Daniel P.; Dees, Jennifer; Crumby, Ashley S.; Kays, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam in children hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Seventy-two serum samples were collected at steady state from 12 patients who received piperacillin-tazobactam at 100/12.5 mg/kg of body weight every 8 h infused over 4 h. Population pharmacokinetic analyses were performed using NONMEM, and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate the piperacillin pharmacokinetic profiles for dosing regimens of 80 to 100 mg/kg of the piperacillin component given every 6 to 8 h and infused over 0.5, 3, or 4 h. The probability of target attainment (PTA) for a cumulative percentage of the dosing interval that the drug concentration exceeds the MIC under steady-state pharmacokinetic conditions (TMIC) of ≥50% was calculated at MICs ranging from 0.25 to 64 mg/liter. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age, weight, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were 5 ± 3 years, 17 ± 6.2 kg, and 118 ± 41 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A one-compartment model with zero-order input and first-order elimination best fit the pharmacokinetic data for both drugs. Weight was significantly associated with piperacillin clearance, and weight and sex were significantly associated with tazobactam clearance. Pharmacokinetic parameters (mean ± SD) for piperacillin and tazobactam were as follows: clearance, 0.22 ± 0.07 and 0.19 ± 0.07 liter/h/kg, respectively; volume of distribution, 0.43 ± 0.16 and 0.37 ± 0.14 liter/kg, respectively. All extended-infusion regimens achieved PTAs of >90% at MICs of ≤16 mg/liter. Only the 3-h infusion regimens given every 6 h achieved PTAs of >90% at an MIC of 32 mg/liter. For susceptible bacterial pathogens, piperacillin-tazobactam doses of ≥80/10 mg/kg given every 8 h and infused over 4 h achieve adequate pharmacodynamic exposures in critically ill children. PMID:26552978

  1. Frequency of Usher Syndrome in Two Pediatric Populations: Implications for genetic screening of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

    PubMed Central

    Kimberling, William J.; Hildebrand, Michael S.; Shearer, A. Eliot; Jensen, Maren L.; Halder, Jennifer A.; Cohn, Edward S.; Weleber, Richard G.; Stone, Edwin M.; Smith, Richard J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Usher syndrome is a major cause of genetic deafblindness. The hearing loss is usually congenital and the retinitis pigmentosa is progressive and first noticed in early childhood to the middle teenage years. Its frequency may be underestimated. Newly developed molecular technologies can detect the underlying gene mutation of this disorder early in life providing estimation of its prevalence in at risk pediatric populations and laying a foundation for its incorporation as an adjunct to newborn hearing screening programs. Methods A total of 133 children from two deaf and hard of hearing pediatric populations were genotyped first for GJB2/6 and, if negative, then for Usher syndrome. Children were scored as positive if the test revealed ≥1 pathogenic mutations in any Usher gene. Results Fifteen children carried pathogenic mutations in one of the Usher genes; the number of deaf and hard of hearing children carrying Usher syndrome mutations was 15/133 (11.3%). The population prevalence was estimated to be 1/6000. Conclusion Usher syndrome is more prevalent than has been reported prior to the genome project era. Early diagnosis of Usher syndrome has important positive implications for childhood safety, educational planning, genetic counseling, and treatment. The results demonstrate that DNA testing for Usher syndrome is feasible and may be a useful addition to newborn hearing screening programs. PMID:20613545

  2. Saccades and Vergence Performance in a Population of Children with Vertigo and Clinically Assessed Abnormal Vergence Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Kapoula, Zoï; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bouet, Aurelie; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Early studies reported some abnormalities in saccade and vergence eye movements in children with vertigo and vergence deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to further examine saccade and vergence performance in a population of 44 children (mean age: 12.3±1.6 years) with vertigo symptoms and with different levels of vergence abnormalities, as assessed by static orthoptic examination (near point of convergence, prism bar and cover-uncover test). Methods Three groups were identified on the basis of the orthoptic tests: group 1 (n = 13) with vergence spasms and mildly perturbed orthoptic scores, group 2 (n = 14) with moderately perturbed orthoptic scores, and group 3 (n = 17) with severely perturbed orthoptic scores. Data were compared to those recorded from 28 healthy children of similar ages. Latency, accuracy and peak velocity of saccades and vergence movements were measured in two different conditions: gap (fixation offset 200 ms prior to target onset) and simultaneous paradigms. Binocular horizontal movements were recorded by a photoelectric device. Results Group 2 of children with vergence abnormalities showed significantly longer latency than normal children in several types of eye movements recorded. For all three groups of children with vergence abnormalities, the gain was poor, particularly for vergence movement. The peak velocity values did not differ between the different groups of children examined. Interpretation Eye movement measures together with static orthoptic evaluation allowed us to better identify children with vergence abnormalities based on their slow initiation of eye movements. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis of a central deficit in the programming and triggering of saccades and vergence in these children. PMID:21858007

  3. Pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drug varies with formulation in the target population of children with HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Kasirye, P; Kendall, L; Adkison, K K; Tumusiime, C; Ssenyonga, M; Bakeera-Kitaka, S; Nahirya-Ntege, P; Mhute, T; Kekitiinwa, A; Snowden, W; Burger, D M; Gibb, D M; Walker, A S

    2012-02-01

    The bioequivalence of formulations is usually evaluated in healthy adult volunteers. In our study in 19 HIV-1-infected Ugandan children (1.8-4 years of age, weight 12 to <15 kg) receiving zidovudine, lamivudine, and abacavir solutions twice a day for ≥24 weeks, the use of scored tablets allowed comparison of plasma pharmacokinetics of oral solutions vs. tablets. Samples were collected 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h after each child's last morning dose of oral solution before changing to scored tablets of Combivir (coformulated zidovudine + lamivudine) and abacavir; this was repeated 4 weeks later. Dose-normalized area under curve (AUC)(0-12) and peak concentration (C(max)) for the tablet formulation were bioequivalent with those of the oral solution with respect to zidovudine and abacavir (e.g., dose-normalized geometric mean ratio (dnGMR) (tablet:solution) for zidovudine and abacavir AUC(0-12) were 1.01 (90% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.18) and 0.96 (0.83-1.12), respectively). However, lamivudine exposure was ~55% higher with the tablet formulation (AUC(0-12) dnGMR = 1.58 (1.37-1.81), C(max) dnGMR = 1.55 (1.33-1.81)). Although the clinical relevance of this finding is unclear, it highlights the impact of the formulation and the importance of conducting bioequivalence studies in target pediatric populations.

  4. School Injury among Ottawa-Area Children: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josse, Jonathan M.; MacKay, Morag; Osmond, Martin H.; MacPherson, Alison K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Injuries are the leading cause of death among Canadian children and are responsible for a substantial proportion of hospitalizations and emergency department visits. This investigation sought to identify the factors associated with the likelihood of sustaining an injury at school among Ottawa-area children. Methods: Children presenting…

  5. School-Age Children of Fathers with Substance Use Disorder: Are They a High Risk Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental substance use and the increased risk among school-age children to developing psychosocial problems. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 from urban areas in Israel. The following variables were assessed by four self-report questionnaires administered to the children: …

  6. Determinants of cadmium burden levels in a population of children living in the vicinity of nonferrous smelters.

    PubMed

    Leroyer, A; Hemon, D; Nisse, C; Auque, G; Mazzuca, M; Haguenoer, J M

    2001-12-01

    This report covers part of the assessment of a site in northern France polluted by industrial metal emissions. Our objectives were to assess the cadmium burden in children aged 8 to 11 years and look for factors that affected it. A cross-sectional population-based study took place in 1996-1997 and included 400 children (200 in the metal-polluted area). The geometric mean of the blood cadmium (CdB) levels of children living on the polluted site was 0.51 microg/L (95% CI=[0.49-0.53]); that of the nonexposed children was 0.47 microg/L (95% CI=[0.45-0.49]) (P<0.01). The geometric mean of the urinary cadmium (CdU) levels of children living on the polluted site was 1.16 microg/g creatinine (95% CI=[1.01-1.34]); that of the nonexposed children was 0.99 microg/g creatinine (95% CI=[0.86-1.14]) (P=0.10). Mean CdB was higher among children within 4 km of a zinc smelter and consuming > or =500 ml of tap water daily (x1.34; 95% CI=[1.14-1.51]) compared with children living more than 4 km away and consuming <500 ml of tap water daily. Independently of this association, consumption of fish and shellfish (> or =once a week vs. or =once daily vs.

  7. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  8. Determinants of cadmium burden levels in a population of children living in the vicinity of nonferrous smelters.

    PubMed

    Leroyer, A; Hemon, D; Nisse, C; Auque, G; Mazzuca, M; Haguenoer, J M

    2001-12-01

    This report covers part of the assessment of a site in northern France polluted by industrial metal emissions. Our objectives were to assess the cadmium burden in children aged 8 to 11 years and look for factors that affected it. A cross-sectional population-based study took place in 1996-1997 and included 400 children (200 in the metal-polluted area). The geometric mean of the blood cadmium (CdB) levels of children living on the polluted site was 0.51 microg/L (95% CI=[0.49-0.53]); that of the nonexposed children was 0.47 microg/L (95% CI=[0.45-0.49]) (P<0.01). The geometric mean of the urinary cadmium (CdU) levels of children living on the polluted site was 1.16 microg/g creatinine (95% CI=[1.01-1.34]); that of the nonexposed children was 0.99 microg/g creatinine (95% CI=[0.86-1.14]) (P=0.10). Mean CdB was higher among children within 4 km of a zinc smelter and consuming > or =500 ml of tap water daily (x1.34; 95% CI=[1.14-1.51]) compared with children living more than 4 km away and consuming <500 ml of tap water daily. Independently of this association, consumption of fish and shellfish (> or =once a week vs. or =once daily vs.

  9. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-06-25

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation.

  10. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  11. Children on the move and vaccination coverage in a low-income, urban Latino population.

    PubMed Central

    Findley, S E; Irigoyen, M; Schulman, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of childhood moves and foreign birth on vaccination coverage among Latino children in New York City. METHODS: Vaccination coverage was assessed in a survey of 314 children younger than 5 years at 2 immunization clinics. RESULTS: Forty-seven percent of the study children had moved abroad. After adjustment for health insurance, regular source of care, and country of birth, child moves had no independent effect on vaccination coverage. Foreign-born children had diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, oral polio vaccine, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination coverage rates similar to those of US-born children, but they were underimmunized in regard to Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis B. CONCLUSIONS: Foreign birth, but not childhood moves, is a barrier to vaccinations among low-income, urban Latino children. PMID:10553396

  12. Every family: a population approach to reducing behavioral and emotional problems in children making the transition to school.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Matthew R; Ralph, Alan; Sofronoff, Kate; Gardiner, Paul; Thompson, Rachel; Dwyer, Sarah; Bidwell, Kerry

    2008-05-01

    A large-scale population trial using the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program (TPS) was evaluated. The target population was all parents of 4- to 7-year-old children residing in ten geographical catchment areas in Brisbane (intervention communities) and ten sociodemographically matched catchment areas from Sydney (5) and Melbourne (5), care as usual (CAU) comparison communities. All five levels of the Triple P multilevel system of intervention were employed; including a local mass media strategy, a primary care strategy, and three more intensive levels of parenting intervention delivered by a range of service providers (e.g., health, education, and welfare sectors). Program outcomes were assessed through a computer-assisted telephone interview of a random sample of households (N = 3000) in each community at pre-intervention and again at two years post-intervention. At post-intervention there were significantly greater reductions in the TPS communities in the number of children with clinically elevated and borderline behavioral and emotional problems compared to the CAU communities. Similarly parents reported a greater reduction in the prevalence of depression, stress and coercive parenting. Findings show the feasibility of targeting dysfunctional parenting practices in a cost-effective manner and the public acceptance of an approach that blends universal and targeted program elements. Editors' Strategic Implications: This is the first positive parenting program to demonstrate longitudinal, population-level effects for parents and children. The authors provide an excellent example of multilevel prevention planning, coordination, execution, and evaluation. PMID:18461457

  13. Hospitalization risk factors for children's lower respiratory tract infection: A population-based, cross-sectional study in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Dagvadorj, Amarjargal; Ota, Erika; Shahrook, Sadequa; Baljinnyam Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Takehara, Kenji; Hikita, Naoko; Bavuusuren, Bayasgalantai; Mori, Rintaro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential risk factors for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)-related hospital admissions in Mongolian children. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in rural Mongolia in 2013, and 1,013 mother-child pairs were included. Of the participating children, 38.9% were admitted to hospital with LRTIs. Home smoking, low birthweight, being a male child, exclusive breastfeeding and healthcare-seeking behaviour showed substantial association with LRTI-related hospital admissions. Number of cigarettes smoked by family members showed a dose-response relationship and increased hospital admissions. Strategies to prevent second-hand-smoke exposure from adult smokers, especially inside the home, are crucial to preventing LRTI-related hospital admissions for children in Mongolia. Improving rates of exclusive breastfeeding and increasing birthweight have great potential to decrease the likelihood of children acquiring a LRTI. Educational initiatives are also necessary for women who are less likely to seek out care for their children's symptoms. PMID:27090182

  14. The prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors for children's developmental coordination disorder: a population study in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jing; Gu, Guixiong; Jiang, Peiqi; Zhang, Lijun; Zhu, Liping; Meng, Wei

    2014-03-01

    We initially conducted a population-based study on developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in mainland China to explore the prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors on DCD. A total of 4001 children were selected from 160 classes in 15 public nursery schools. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2) was used to assess the children's motor function. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated to determine the strength of association using a multilevel logistic regression model with a random intercept. Three hundred and thirty children out of 4001 subjects met the DSM-IV criteria for DCD, and 3671 children were non-DCD. Maternal age, threatened abortion, fetal distress during labor, preterm birth, chronic lung disease and newborn pathological jaundice were related with DCD (OR=1.72, 2.72, 9.14, 5.17, 1.43, and 2.54, respectively, each p<0.05). Considered collectively, these risk factors may provide clues to an etiology of DCD. Additionally, the practitioners of maternity and child health care should improve the assessment and monitoring of the prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors for DCD. PMID:24480608

  15. Speech Characteristics of 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from a Prospective Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L.; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical…

  16. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  17. [Prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a population of Mexican children].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Bustamante, R; Ramirez Mayans, J A; Jiron Castro, R; Navarrete Delgadillo, N M; Oyervides Garcia, C I; Mata Rivera, N; Zárate Mondragón, F; Sosa Martinez, M C

    1996-01-01

    We studied 450 healthy children between 3 months old and 17 years old who were seen at the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría during a period of one year (September 1992 June 1993). The EUSA test was positive in 4/450, 0.9%. The RIBA test was positive in these four children.

  18. A Population-Based Twin Study of Parentally Reported Tactile and Auditory Defensiveness in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, H. H.; Van Hulle, C. A.; Arneson, C. L.; Schreiber, J. E.; Gernsbacher, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Some adults and children exhibit defensive behaviors to tactile or auditory stimulation. These symptoms occur not only in subsets of children with ADHD, autism, and Fragile X syndrome, but also in the apparent absence of accompanying disorders. Relatively little research explores the correlates and antecedents of sensory defensiveness. Using a…

  19. Extending the Parameters: An Inquiry into Teaching Practices for Children from Diverse Populations and Homeless Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Grace Ann

    2012-01-01

    The number of homeless children in the United States is increasing. The National Center on Family Homelessness (2010) reports that on average one in 50 children in the United States have experienced homelessness, defined as unstable housing. The needs of this student demographic are varied and complex. For the purpose of this study, the homeless…

  20. A Population Study of Children's Acquisition of Hong Kong Cantonese Consonants, Vowels, and Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated children's acquisition of Hong Kong Cantonese. Method: Participants were 1,726 children ages 2;4 to 12;4 (years;months). Single-word speech samples were collected to examine 4 measures: initial consonants, final consonants, vowels/diphthongs, and lexical tones. A 2-way analysis of variance was performed to examine…

  1. A Model of Communicative Perspective-Taking for Typical and Atypical Populations of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Fecica, Agnieszka M.

    2011-01-01

    Successful communication requires that individuals attend to the perspective of their conversational partners and use this information to modify their behavior accordingly. This paper presents a framework by which to understand children's communicative perspective-taking skills and, within this framework, outlines three routes by which children's…

  2. Children Living without Their Fathers: Population Estimates and Indicators of Educational Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBell, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the number of American children in grades K-12 who live without their biological fathers and examines the association of absent-father status with children's well-being. The 2003 Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (n = 12,426) shows that 28% percent of White…

  3. Divorce in Families of Children with Down Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the nature, timing, and correlates of divorce in families of children with Down syndrome (647), other birth defects (10,283) and no identified disability (361,154). Divorce rates among families of children with Down syndrome were lower than in the other two groups. When divorce did occur in the Down syndrome group,…

  4. Assessment of environmental health children's population living in environmental injustice scenarios.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Cortinas, Gabriela; Cifuentes, Enrique; Escobar, Edna Rico; Martínez, Fernando Díaz-Barriga

    2012-12-01

    We conducted a cross sectional study, involving 145 children randomly selected from three different socioeconomic locations. We selected social, environment and health indicators and measured the prevalence and prevalence odds ratios. Children from the brick producing site (segregation index 5), are exposed to high levels of multiple toxic agents, and showed the highest morbidity rates and malnutrition, anemia, dental fluorosis, and the lowest IQ, followed by children from municipal garbage dump (segregation index 4), where we detected the highest prevalence of dermatological and enteric diseases. Children from the Central Zone (segregation index 2) showed the lowest rates of malnutrition and higher IQ than the other two groups. A unified vision of social, health and environmental indicators opens the possibility of novel intervention programs and a legal framework that specifically protect children against environmental exposures.

  5. Short-term heart rate variability in a population-based sample of 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Jarrin, Denise C; McGrath, Jennifer J; Poirier, Paul; Séguin, Louise; Tremblay, Richard E; Montplaisir, Jacques Y; Paradis, Gilles; Séguin, Jean R

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a non-invasive quantitative marker of cardiac autonomic function derived from continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. Normative HRV values and development factors have not been established in pediatric populations. The objective was to derive referent time- and frequency-domain HRV values for a population-based sample of children. Children aged 9-11 years (N = 1,036) participated in the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development cohort cardiovascular health screening. Registered nurses measured anthropometrics (height, weight) and children wore an ambulatory Holter monitor to continuously record an ECG signal. HRV variables included time (SDNN, pNN50, RMSSD, SDANN) and frequency (HF, LF, LF/HF ratio) domain variables. Normative HRV values, stratified by age, sex, and heart rate, are presented. Greater heart rate (β avg  = -0.60, R avg (2)  = 0.39), pubertal maturation (β avg = -0.11, R avg (2)  = 0.01), later ECG recording times (β avg = -0.19, R avg (2)  = 0.07), and higher diastolic blood pressure (β avg = -0.11, R avg (2)  = 0.01) were significantly associated with reduced HRV in 10-year-old children. The normative HRV values permit clinicians to monitor, describe, and establish pediatric nosologies in primary care and research settings, which may improve treatment of diseases associated with HRV in children. By better understanding existing values, the practical applicability of HRV among clinicians will be enhanced. Lastly, developmental (e.g., puberty) and procedural (e.g., recording time) factors were identified that will improve recording procedures and interpretation of results. PMID:25056158

  6. Should urinary iodine concentrations of school-aged children continue to be used as proxy for different populations? Analysis of data from Chinese national surveys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Su, Xiaohui; Li, Mu; Shen, Hongmei; Yu, Jun; Kelly, Patrick J; Meng, Fangang; Liu, Lixiang; Fan, Lijun; Li, Ming; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-09-01

    I deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Median urinary I concentration in school-aged children has been used globally as a proxy for all populations. This study aims to determine whether median urinary I concentration of school-aged children is an appropriate indicator of I nutritional status in different adult populations. This is a secondary data analysis of two national I Deficiency Disorder surveys (2011, 2014) and two regional surveys (in coastal areas, 2009, and in high-risk areas, 2009-2014). Population groups included in these surveys were school-aged children (8-10 years), pregnant women, lactating women, women of childbearing age and adults (men and women, 18-45 years). All participants were self-reported healthy without history of thyroid diseases or were not using thyroid medicines. The median urinary I concentration of school-aged children was matched with that of the other population at the county level. The matched populations had similar iodised salt supply, food and water I, food composition and I content in salt. Weak or moderate correlation of median urinary I concentrations was observed between school-aged children and pregnant women and between children and lactating women. However, the agreement was stronger between children and women of childbearing age and between children and adult men and women. The results could be affected by cut-off values, data aggregation level and sample size. Using median urinary I concentration of school-aged children tends to overestimate that of pregnant women and lactating women. Median urinary I concentration of school-aged children can be used for assessing I nutrition in the adult population. PMID:27498626

  7. WIC Eligibles and Coverage--1994 To 2007: Estimates of the Population of Women, Infants, and Children Eligible for WIC Benefits. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides food, nutrition education, breastfeeding support, and health care and social service referrals to nutritionally at-risk low-income pregnant women, new mothers, infants, and children through age 4. This report offers updated estimates of the population that…

  8. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

  9. Oppositional Defiant Disorder--Gender Differences in Co-Occurring Symptoms of Mental Health Problems in a General Population of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munkvold, Linda Helen; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Manger, Terje

    2011-01-01

    Informant- and gender-specific characteristics of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and how these might relate to patterns of comorbidity need to be further clarified. We collected data from 7,007 children (aged 7-9) who participated in the Bergen Child Study (BCS), an ongoing population-based study of children's development and mental health. A…

  10. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Bonilla, Miguel; Lorenzana, Rodolpho; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; de Reyes, Gladys; Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Ortiz-Fernández, Antonio; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. Diagnosis: All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and unspecified leukemias (UL). The annual incidence rate (AIR) and average annual incidence rate (AAIR) were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1) <1 year; 2) 1–4 years; 3) 5–9 years, or 4) 10–14 or 10–11 years, for Mexico City and El Salvador, respectively. Results The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0–11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadoran group of 0–11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Conclusion Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in

  11. Sociodemographic factors and health in a population of children living in families infected with HIV in Fortaleza and Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Maria do Socorro; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Silva, Diorlene de Oliveira; Dourado, Inês; Galvão, Marli Terezinha Gimeniz; Kendall, Carl

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between demographic, socioeconomic and health statuses of children whose parents were HIV positive in two cities in Northeast Brazil. We conducted a multisite exploratory study in HIV/AIDS referral services for HIV/AIDS in Fortaleza, the capital of Ceará State, and Salvador, the capital of Bahia State, between June 2008 and March 2009. The study population consisted of 562 HIV+ adults - or caretakers of children of HIV+ adults - who provided information about a single index child under 13 years of age of either sex in their household. A structured questionnaire was used for to the adult parent or caretaker. We used multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), as implemented in the software SPAD (Portable Système pour l'Analyse des données). This analysis enabled us to identify the relationships between a large number of variables simultaneously. Of the 562 children, 311 (55.3%) lived in Fortaleza and 251 (44.7%) lived in Salvador. The proportion of HIV-infected children in Fortaleza was 14.2%, and 61.4% (27/44) of these had progressed to AIDS. In Salvador 34.7% of children were seropositive and 95% (83/87) were diagnosed with AIDS. The most important factors that emerged from the study were city and serostatus of the children. These two active variables accounted for 75.3% of the variance. Results are grouped into four profiles that describe the complex of socioeconomic variables closely associated with these families, and the complex and multiple epidemics of HIV, discrimination and poverty associated with these AIDS-affected families.

  12. Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Praziquantel in Ugandan Children with Intestinal Schistosomiasis: Higher Dosages Are Required for Maximal Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, David; de Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C.; Roberts, Stephen A.; Atuhaire, Aaron; Van Dam, Govert J.; Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.; Scott, Janet T.; Stanton, Michelle C.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Ward, Stephen; Hope, William W.; Stothard, J. Russell

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Each year, millions of African children receive praziquantel (PZQ) by mass drug administration (MDA) to treat schistosomiasis at a standard single dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight, a direct extrapolation from studies of adults. A higher dose of 60 mg/kg is also acceptable for refractory cases. We conducted the first PZQ pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) study in young children comparing dosing. Sixty Ugandan children aged 3 to 8 years old with egg patent Schistosoma mansoni received PZQ at either 40 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg. PK parameters of PZQ racemate and enantiomers (R and S) were quantified. PD outcomes were assessed by standard fecal egg counts and novel schistosome-specific serum (circulating anodic antigen [CAA]) and urine (circulating cathodic antigen [CCA]) antigen assays. Population PK and PD analyses were performed to estimate drug exposure in individual children, and the relationship between drug exposure and parasitological cure was estimated using logistic regression. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to identify better, future dosing regimens. There was marked PK variability between children, but the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of PZQ was strongly predictive of the parasitological cure rate (CR). Although no child achieved antigenic cure, which is suggestive of an important residual adult worm burden, higher AUC was associated with greater CAA antigenic decline at 24 days. To optimize the performance of PZQ, analysis of our simulations suggest that higher doses (>60 mg/kg) are needed, particularly in smaller children. PMID:27507822

  13. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Bone Mineral Status in a Population of Newcomer Children in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Nisbet, Christine; Gushulak, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low levels of circulating vitamin D are more likely to be found in those with darker skin pigmentation, who live in areas of high latitude, and who wear more clothing. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in newcomer immigrant and refugee children. Methods: We evaluated circulating vitamin D status of immigrant children at the national level. Subsequently, we investigated vitamin D intake, circulating vitamin D status, and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) in newcomer children living in Saskatchewan. Results: In the sample of newcomer children in Saskatchewan, the prevalence of inadequacy in calcium and vitamin D intakes was 76% and 89.4%, respectively. Vitamin D intake from food/supplement was significantly higher in immigrants compared to refugees, which accords with the significant difference in serum status. Circulating vitamin D status indicated that 29% of participants were deficient and another 44% had inadequate levels of serum 25(OH)D for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake, sex, region of origin, and length of stay in Canada were significant predictors of serum vitamin D status. Results for TBBMC revealed that 38.6% were found to have low TBBMC compared to estimated values for age, sex, and ethnicity. In the regression model, after controlling for possible confounders, children who were taller and had greater circulating vitamin D also had greater TBBMC. Nationally, immigrant children, particularly girls, have significantly lower plasma 25(OH)D than non-immigrant children. Interpretation: Newcomer immigrant and refugee children are at a high risk of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, which may have serious negative consequences for their health. PMID:23673607

  14. Children Whose Fathers Seek Help for Partner Violence Victimization: Descriptive Characteristics and Their Behavioral Health as Compared to a Population-Based Sample.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily M; Hines, Denise A

    2016-01-01

    Children whose parents seek help for partner violence (PV) victimization are at an increased risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral health problems. The literature has examined this phenomenon primarily among children of battered women. This study examines the sociodemographic characteristics and behavioral health of children whose fathers have sought help for PV victimization and compares them to children of men from the general population. Children whose fathers sought help for PV victimization were less likely to live with their fathers. Bivariate analyses showed that children of male victims had elevated scores in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-related areas of behavioral health; many of these findings remain in multivariate analyses, especially among older children. The implications of the results are discussed for researchers and social service practitioners.

  15. Children Whose Fathers Seek Help for Partner Violence Victimization: Descriptive Characteristics and Their Behavioral Health as Compared to a Population-Based Sample.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily M; Hines, Denise A

    2016-01-01

    Children whose parents seek help for partner violence (PV) victimization are at an increased risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral health problems. The literature has examined this phenomenon primarily among children of battered women. This study examines the sociodemographic characteristics and behavioral health of children whose fathers have sought help for PV victimization and compares them to children of men from the general population. Children whose fathers sought help for PV victimization were less likely to live with their fathers. Bivariate analyses showed that children of male victims had elevated scores in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-related areas of behavioral health; many of these findings remain in multivariate analyses, especially among older children. The implications of the results are discussed for researchers and social service practitioners. PMID:26822486

  16. Predictors of severe disease in a hospitalized population of children with acute viral lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Bernal, Angela M; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Acuña-Cordero, Ranniery

    2016-05-01

    Although predictors of severe viral acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) in children have been reported, there have been few research studies performed in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of the present study was to determine predictors of disease severity in a population of Colombian children <5 years of age with ALRI. In a prospective cohort study, we determined independent predictors of severe ALRI in a hospitalized population of children under 5 years old with ALRI during a 1-year period. We included both underlying disease conditions and the infecting respiratory viruses as predictor variables of severe disease. We defined severe disease as the necessity of pediatric intensive care unit admission. Of a total of 1,180 patients admitted with a diagnosis of ALRI, 416 (35.3%) were included because they were positive for any kind of respiratory virus. After controlling for potential confounders, it was found that a history of pulmonary hypertension (RR 3.62; CI 95% 2.38-5.52; P < 0.001) and a history of recurrent wheezing (RR 1.77; CI 95% 1.12-2.79; P = 0.015) were independent predictors of severe disease. The present study shows that respiratory viruses are significant causes of ALRI in infants and young children in Colombia, a typical tropical LMIC, especially during the rainy season. Additionally, the results of the present study show that clinical variables such as a history of pulmonary hypertension and a history of recurrent wheezing are more relevant for predicting ALRI severity than the infecting respiratory viruses.

  17. Predictors of severe disease in a hospitalized population of children with acute viral lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Bernal, Angela M; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Acuña-Cordero, Ranniery

    2016-05-01

    Although predictors of severe viral acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) in children have been reported, there have been few research studies performed in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of the present study was to determine predictors of disease severity in a population of Colombian children <5 years of age with ALRI. In a prospective cohort study, we determined independent predictors of severe ALRI in a hospitalized population of children under 5 years old with ALRI during a 1-year period. We included both underlying disease conditions and the infecting respiratory viruses as predictor variables of severe disease. We defined severe disease as the necessity of pediatric intensive care unit admission. Of a total of 1,180 patients admitted with a diagnosis of ALRI, 416 (35.3%) were included because they were positive for any kind of respiratory virus. After controlling for potential confounders, it was found that a history of pulmonary hypertension (RR 3.62; CI 95% 2.38-5.52; P < 0.001) and a history of recurrent wheezing (RR 1.77; CI 95% 1.12-2.79; P = 0.015) were independent predictors of severe disease. The present study shows that respiratory viruses are significant causes of ALRI in infants and young children in Colombia, a typical tropical LMIC, especially during the rainy season. Additionally, the results of the present study show that clinical variables such as a history of pulmonary hypertension and a history of recurrent wheezing are more relevant for predicting ALRI severity than the infecting respiratory viruses. PMID:26403374

  18. Physician consultation in young children with recurrent pain—a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wager, J; Zernikow, B

    2015-01-01

    Background. Recurrent pain is a common experience in childhood, but only few children with recurrent pain attend a physician. Previous studies yielded conflicting findings with regard to predictors of health care utilization in children with recurrent pain. Methods. The present study analyzes data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) study comprising n = 2,149 children (3–10 years old) with recurrent pain to find robust predictors. We used multiple logistic regressions to investigate age, gender, socio-economic status (SES), migration background, pain intensity, pain frequency, pain-related disability, mental health problems, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) as predictors for visiting a doctor due to pain. Results. Overall, young girls with high pain-related disability, intensity, frequency, and migration background were more likely to attend a physician. Pain-related disability had the largest impact. Socioeconomic status, health-related quality of life and mental health problems were not systematically related to health care utilization. An analysis of the variability of these results indicated that several hundred participants are needed until the results stabilize. Conclusions. Our findings highlight the importance of pain-related disability and frequency in assessing the severity of recurrent pain. Generic predictors and demographic variables are of lesser relevance to children with recurrent pain. On a methodological level, our results show that large-scale studies are need to reliably identify predictors of health care utilization. PMID:25945310

  19. Anxiety disorders and behavioral inhibition in preschool children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Frank W; Backes, Aline; Sander, Charlotte S; Weber, Monika; von Gontard, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of anxiety disorders in preschool children and their associations with behavioral inhibition as a temperamental precursor. A representative sample of 1,342 children aged 4–7 years (M = 6;1, SD = 4.80) was examined with a standardized parental questionnaire, including items referring to anxiety disorders at the current age and behavioral inhibition at the age of 2 years. The total prevalence of anxiety disorders was 22.2 %. Separation anxiety (SAD) affected 7 %, social phobia (SOC) 10.7 %, specific phobia (PHOB) 9.8 % and depression/generalized anxiety (MDD/GAD) 3.4 % of children. The prevalence of most types of anxiety was higher in girls except for separation anxiety, which affected more boys. Behavioral inhibition in the second year of life was associated with all types of anxiety. Anxiety disorders are common but frequently overlooked in preschool children. Different subtypes can be differentiated and are often preceded by behavioral inhibition. Assessment, prevention and treatment of anxiety disorders are recommended in preschool children. PMID:24659133

  20. Impact of malocclusion on oral health-related quality of life among Brazilian preschool children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Anita Cruz; Paiva, Saul Martins; Viegas, Claudia Marina; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of malocclusion on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children and their families. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. A representative sample of 1069 male and female preschoolers aged 60 to 71 months was randomly selected from public and private preschools and daycare centers. Data were collected using the B-ECOHIS. In addition, a questionnaire addressing socioeconomic and demographic data was self-administered by the parents/guardians. The criteria used to diagnose malocclusion were based on Foster and Hamilton (1969), Graboswki et al. (2007) and Oliveira et al. (2008). Descriptive, univariate and multiple Poison logistic regression analyses were carried out. The prevalence of malocclusion was observed in 46.2% of the children and deep overbite was the most prevalent type of malocclusion (19.7%), followed by posterior crossbite (13.1%), accentuated overjet (10.5%), anterior open bite (7.9%) and anterior crossbite (6.7%). The impact of malocclusion on OHRQoL was 32.7% among the children and 27.1% among the families. In Poisson multiple regression model adjusted for socioeconomic status, no significant association was found between malocclusion and OHRQoL of the children (PR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.96-1.24) and their families (PR=1.11, 95% CI: 0.94-1.31). It is concluded that children with malocclusion in this sample did not have a negative impact on their OHRQoL and of their families.

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea and periodic limb movement disorder in a population of children with hypertension and/or nocturnal nondipping blood pressures.

    PubMed

    Hartzell, Kimberly; Avis, Kristin; Lozano, David; Feig, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    There is a reported association between hypertension (HTN) and sleep disorders. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends screening children with HTN for sleep disorders because sleep disorders increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. We quantified the frequency and severity of sleep disorders within our institution's hypertensive pediatric population and evaluated the effectiveness of performing nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). In the hypertensive pediatric population referred for NPSG at our institution, 64% were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and/or periodic limb movement disorder. Thirty-three percent of those children with HTN had moderate to severe OSA, whereas only 20% of all children evaluated by NPSG had moderate to severe OSA. Those children with HTN were also two times more likely to be diagnosed with periodic limb movement disorder. Screening for sleep disorders and obtaining NPSG in children with HTN increase the identification of comorbid sleep disorders and reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease.

  2. Autistic Features in a Total Population of 7-9-Year-Old Children Assessed by the ASSQ (Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri J.; Gillberg, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of autism is reported to be on the rise worldwide. Change of diagnostic criteria and a broadening of the concept of autism have been mentioned as contributing factors. Further studies of general populations are needed. The present study assessed the distribution of autistic features in a total population of children 7-9…

  3. Divorce in families of children with Down syndrome: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Richard C; Hodapp, Robert M

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we examined the nature, timing, and correlates of divorce in families of children with Down syndrome (647), other birth defects (10,283) and no identified disability (361,154). Divorce rates among families of children with Down syndrome were lower than in the other two groups. When divorce did occur in the Down syndrome group, however, a higher proportion occurred within the first 2 years after the child's birth. Mothers and fathers of children with Down syndrome were much more likely to divorce if they were younger, had not graduated from high school, and if fathers were less educated and lived in a rural area. Few effects on divorce were noted for a variety of family structure variables.

  4. Factor analysis of the pediatric symptom checklist in a population of children with voiding dysfunction and/or nocturnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Fedele, David A; Grant, DeMond; Veenstra, Amy L; Kovacevic, Larisa G; Elder, Jack S; Lakshmanan, Yegappan

    2014-03-01

    The research objective was to identify the factor structure of the pediatric symptom checklist (PSC) in children with voiding dysfunction and/or nocturnal enuresis who were seen in a pediatric urology clinic. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted for 498 consecutive patients, ages 6-16, who were seen over a 13-month period. The PSC, a 35-item measure used to screen for psychosocial difficulties, was completed by the patient's caregiver. Confirmatory factor analyses using three previous models were conducted. A four factor model comprised of internalizing, externalizing, attention problems, and chronic illness factors represented the best fit to the data. Within this population, the PSC appears to capture internalizing and externalizing problems, difficulties with attention, and possible side effects of a medical condition. This information could aid clinicians in assessing adjustment difficulties within this population and concurrently allow researchers to examine whether these specific factors are related to other relevant outcomes.

  5. Quantifying the distribution of inhalation exposure in human populations: distribution of minute volumes in adults and children.

    PubMed Central

    Beals, J A; Funk, L M; Fountain, R; Sedman, R

    1996-01-01

    Assessments of inhalation exposure to environmental agents necessitate quantitative estimates of pulmonary ventilation rates. Estimating a range of exposures in a given population requires an understanding of the variability of ventilation rates in the population. Distributions of ventilation rates (Ve) were described based on the results of a large study where Ve were measured while subjects performed a variety of physical tasks. Three distinct ventilation levels were identified using cluster analyses of the mean Ve and then various activities were assigned to the three levels using a k-means procedure. Separate distributions were identified for the three Ve levels for adult males, adult females, and children. The variability of Ve was consistent with a lognormal distribution for all groups. An aggregate daily inhalation rate can be estimated based on the distributions of Ve. Images Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. PMID:8899377

  6. The Missing Children: Mortality and Fertility in a Southeast Asian Refugee Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Linda W.

    1989-01-01

    Presents the age-sex structures of refugee populations arriving in the United States from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam from 1975 through 1986. Differences in the composition of these young populations reflect varying flight and resettlement experiences and changing factors influencing migration. High fertility rates predict a generation of rapid…

  7. Mass population screening for celiac disease in children: the experience in Republic of San Marino from 1993 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence of celiac disease in developed countries is assessed about 1:100–1:150. The real prevalence is unknown because mass screenings are expensive and difficult to organize. Moreover celiac disease can affect people at every age and studies on asymptomatic subjects at different ages are not comparable. In this study we wanted to know the real prevalence of celiac disease in children in the Republic of San Marino. We also analysed concordance of different tests used and costs of mass screening. Methods The study started in 1993. From 1993 to 1997 children aged 6, 10 and 14 were screened. Since 1997 only children aged 6 were monitored, in order to have a homogeneous population. In fact, every child born since 1980 was taken into account. Children were recruited by classroom lists of students for general paediatric examination. Until 2005 the screening test was based on dosage of antibodies anti-gliadin (AGA) IgA and IgG on venous blood. Since 2006 these tests were replaced by anti-transglutaminase IgA antibodies (ATTG). Anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA) were performed if result of any between either AGA or ATTG tests was positive or borderline; if EMA was positive, then an endoscopy with histological examination was performed to confirm the final diagnosis. Results Attendance to paediatric examination was 96%, submission to blood test was 87%. 42 on 5092 (0,8%; 1:125) children resulted affected by celiac disease. Histology always confirmed diagnosis by serology except for two cases. AGA test (until 2005) yielded 28 on 4304 (0,7% 1:143); ATTG test (since 2006) revealed 14 positive cases on 788 (1,8%; 1:55) leading to a larger percentage of diagnosis. EMA antibodies always confirmed positivity of ATTG. Conclusions Prevalence of celiac disease in children of Republic of San Marino is comparable to other North-European Countries. Sensitivity of ATTG proved much higher than that of anti-gliadin antibodies. Concordance between ATTG and EMA was 100

  8. Music Therapy with Children: A Review of Clinical Utility and Application to Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaw, John David Andrew

    This paper reviews the effectiveness of music therapy in treating children with psychiatric and developmental problems. The clinical utility of music therapy is first evaluated by examining the foundational effects of music on affect and behavior. Next, the two broad approaches to music therapy, active and passive music therapy, are discussed.…

  9. Emotional Symptoms in Inattentive Primary School Children: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Lin; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Lundervold, Astri Johansen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates teacher and parent reports of inattention and emotional symptoms in 6,229 primary school children. Method: The assessment included the Emotional Symptoms subscale and the Impact scale from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the inattention items from the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham IV…

  10. A Study of 571 Children with Developmental Disorders in a Slum-Population of Bombay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Madhuri; And Others

    This paper summarizes a study of 571 children with developmental disabilities between 6 weeks and 12 years of age living in the largest slum in Asia, the Dharavi neighborhood of Bombay, India. Each child was administered developmental and psychological tests, diagnosed, and treated by a special early intervention clinic. Most had not had their…

  11. The Comorbidity of ADHD in the General Population of Saudi Arabian School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate comorbidity of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), anxiety, and depression and to investigate the impaired social and academic developments among children with ADHD in primary school settings in Saudi Arabia. Method: Data for the purpose of this study are obtained from parent and teachers of 652…

  12. Abusive Head Trauma in Young Children: Characteristics and Medical Charges in a Hospitalized Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettaro, L.; Berger, R. P.; Songer, T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the presenting characteristics, hospital course, and hospital charges associated with hospital admissions for head trauma in young children at a regional pediatric trauma center, and to examine whether these factors differ among abused and non-abused subjects. Method: Comparative case series study involving a retrospective…

  13. Children Interactions in Literacy Tutoring Situations: A Study with Urban Marginalized Populations in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata; Alam, Florencia; Stein, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzed the conversational exchanges through which child tutors mediated literacy abilities and knowledge with young children in the framework of the project "From Child to Child: A Tutor-Child Literacy Program," that is being conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The analysis considered the conversational moves deployed by…

  14. Blood Pressure Associated With Sleep-Disordered Breathing in a Population Sample of Children

    PubMed Central

    Bixler, Edward O.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Lin, Hung-Mo; Liao, Duanping; Calhoun, Susan; Fedok, Fred; Vlasic, Vukmir; Graff, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    The current criteria for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children are not based on a clinically relevant outcome. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of blood pressure with SDB in a random sample of the local elementary school children (kindergarten through grade 5) using a 2-phased strategy. During phase 1, a brief questionnaire was completed for all of the children (N=5740) with a response rate of 78.5%. During phase 2, 700 randomly selected children from phase 1 with a response rate of 70.0% were assessed with a full polysomnograph and a history/physical, including an ECG; ear, nose, and throat; and pulmonary evaluation. We observed a significantly elevated systolic blood pressure associated with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI): AHI ≥1 (2.9 mm Hg); AHI ≥3 (7.1 mm Hg); and AHI ≥5 (12.9 mm Hg). The SDB and blood pressure association remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index percentile or waist circumference, sleep efficiency, percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, and snoring. In addition, older age, body mass index percentile, waist circumference, and snoring were significantly associated with blood pressure, independent of SDB. Based on these findings, our study suggests that SDB is significantly associated with higher levels of systolic blood pressure in children aged 5 to 12 years even after adjusting for the various confounding factors. Clinically, the data support the threshold of AHI ≥5 for the initiation of treatment for SDB. Additional research is indicated to assess the efficacy of SDB treatment on reducing blood pressure. PMID:18838624

  15. Prevalence of aberrant dental morphological details in 6-10 year old school children in an Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Kirthiga, M.; Manju, M.; Praveen, R.; Umesh, W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Variations in the structure of teeth have always been a great curiosity to the dentist from the scientific and practical point of view. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of a few aberrant morphological features namely, cusp of Carabelli in primary maxillary second molar and in permanent first molar, five cusp in primary maxillary second molar and permanent first molar, shoveling and double shoveling with respect to permanent maxillary central incisors, four cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar, six cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar and seven cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar in 6–10 year old children belonging to the East Bengaluru, a City in India. Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2111 children by two stage sampling method. Type III examination was performed. The findings were subjected to Chi-square test. Results: 83.8% of the studied population had one or more of the variations checked for, as mentioned above. The variation most commonly seen was double shoveling (66.6%) followed by shoveling (65.7%). No significant results were observed in any trait with respect to gender. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind, providing a baseline data of the prevalence of morphological details in the pediatric Indian population. PMID:26604571

  16. Population Pharmacokinetics of Cyclophosphamide and Metabolites in Children with Neuroblastoma: a Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    McCune, Jeannine S.; Salinger, David H.; Vicini, Paolo; Oglesby, Celeste; Blough, David K.; Park, Julie R.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide-based regimens are front-line treatment for numerous pediatric malignancies, however current dosing methods result in considerable interpatient variability in tumor response and toxicity. In this pediatric population, our objectives were to 1. quantify and explain the pharmacokinetic variability of cyclophosphamide, and two of its metabolites, hydroxycyclophosphamide (HCY) and carboxyethylphosphoramide mustard (CEPM); 2. apply a population pharmacokinetic model to describe the disposition of cyclophosphamide and these metabolites. A total of 196 blood samples were obtained from 22 children with neuroblastoma receiving intravenous (IV) cyclophosphamide (400 mg/m2/day) and topotecan. Blood samples were quantitated for concentrations of cyclophosphamide, HCY and CEPM using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and analyzed using nonlinear mixed effects modeling with NONMEM software system. After model building was complete, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was computed using NONMEM. Cyclophosphamide elimination was described by noninducible and inducible routes with the latter producing HCY. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was a covariate for the fractional elimination of HCY and its conversion to CEPM. Considerable interpatient variability was observed in the AUC of cyclophosphamide, HCY and CEPM. These results represent a critical first step in developing pharmacokinetic-linked pharmacodynamic studies in children receiving cyclophosphamide to determine the clinical relevance of the pharmacokinetic variability in cyclophosphamide and its metabolites. PMID:18927240

  17. Prevalence of Decreased Visual Acuity among Preschool Aged Children in an American Urban Population: The Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study, Methods and Results

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, David S.; Repka, Michael X.; Katz, Joanne; Giordano, Lydia; Ibironke, Josephine; Hawes, Patricia; Burkom, Diane; Tielsch, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the age- and ethnicity-specific prevalence of decreased visual acuity (VA) in White and African-American preschool aged children. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants The Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study is a population-based evaluation of the prevalence of ocular disorders in children aged 6 through 71 months in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Among 4,132 children identified, 3,990 eligible children (97%) were enrolled and 2,546 children (62%) were examined. This report focuses on 1,714 of 2,546 examined children (67%) who were aged 30 through 71 months. Methods Field staff identified 63,737 occupied dwelling units in 54 census tracts. Parents or guardians of eligible participants underwent an in-home interview and eligible children underwent a comprehensive eye examination including optotype VA in children aged 30 months and older with protocol-specified retesting of children with VA worse than an age-appropriate standard. Main Outcome Measures The proportion of children aged 30 through 71 months testable for VA and the proportion with decreased VA as defined by preset criteria. Results VA was testable in 1,504 of 1,714 children (87.7%) 30 through 71 months of age. It was decreased at the initial test (wearing glasses if brought to the clinic) in both eyes of 7 of 577 White children (1.21%, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.49, 2.50) and 13 of 725 African-American children (1.79%, 95% CI = 0.95, 3.08), a difference that is not statistically significant. Decreased VA in both eyes after retesting was found in 3 of 598 White children (0.50%, 95% CI = 0.10, 1.48) and 8 of 757 African-American children (1.06%, 95% CI = 0.45, 2.10), also not statistically significantly different. Uncorrected ametropia explained the decreased VA on initial testing in ten of the twenty children. Conclusions Decreased VA in both eyes of children 30 through 71 months of age at presentation in urban Baltimore was 1.2% among White children and 1.8% among

  18. Associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in a population based sample of German children.

    PubMed

    Thiering, E; Brüske, I; Kratzsch, J; Hofbauer, L C; Berdel, D; von Berg, A; Lehmann, I; Hoffmann, B; Bauer, C P; Koletzko, S; Heinrich, J

    2015-01-01

    Severe vitamin D deficiency is known to cause rickets, however epidemiological studies and RCTs did not reveal conclusive associations for other parameters of bone health. In our study, we aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and bone turnover markers in a population-based sample of children. 25(OH)D, calcium (Ca), osteocalcin (OC), and β-Crosslaps (β-CTx) were measured in 2798 ten-year-old children from the German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus. Linear regression was used to determine the association between bone turnover markers and 25(OH)D levels. 25(OH)D, OC, and β-CTx showed a clear seasonal variation. A 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D was significantly associated with a 10.5 ng/l decrease (p < 0.001) in β-CTx after adjustment for design, sex, fasting status, time of blood drawn, BMI, growth rate, and detectable testosterone/estradiol. For OC alone no significant association with 25(OH)D was observed, whereas the β-CTx-to-OC ratio was inversely associated with 25(OH)D (-1.7% change, p < 0.001). When stratifying the analyses by serum calcium levels, associations were stronger in children with Ca levels below the median. This study in school-aged children showed a seasonal variation of 25(OH)D and the bone turnover markers OC and β-CTx. Furthermore a negative association between 25(OH)D and the bone resorption marker β-CTx was observed. PMID:26667774

  19. Prevention of behavior problems in a selected population: Stepping stones triple P for parents of young children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Cheri J; Kilburn, Janice; Hardin, James W

    2014-11-01

    Because young children with disabilities are at elevated risk for development of challenging behaviors, and caregivers of these children typically lack access to evidence-based parenting interventions, two randomized trials were conducted to examine the impact of an evidence-based parenting intervention, Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP), as a selective preventive intervention. Both studies targeted parents of children under two with a variety of disabilities who were enrolled in the IDEA Part C Early Intervention (EI) system in one state. SSTP was delivered in family homes. In Study One, 49 families were randomly assigned to EI services as usual, with or without SSTP; a 52% attrition rate from treatment was seen. No significant between-group differences were seen aside from a trend toward reduced symptoms of parental depression at follow-up. Intervention group children demonstrated significant decline in behavior problems from post treatment to follow-up, and there was a trend toward improved parenting style in the intervention group during this same time frame. Study Two incorporated a separate workforce intervention for EI service coordinators; 40 families on their caseloads were then randomly assigned to receive EI services as usual with or without SSTP. Attrition from treatment was limited to 20%. No differential impact was seen on child behavior; a trend was noted post-treatment on parent symptoms of depression and on the observed parent-child relationship. At 12-month follow-up, there was a trend favoring improvement in the intervention group in parenting style; statistically significant impact was also seen on the observed quality of the parent-child relationship. SSTP shows promise as a selective preventive intervention for an early intervention population. Reasons for the differential findings between the two studies are explored and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:25124695

  20. Musical hallucinations in normal children and adult non-psychiatric population

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Victor

    2009-01-01

    A descriptive account of musical hallucinations of a series of 19 people is presented. Five people reported the onset of hallucination before adulthood. In this paper we demonstrate that musical hallucinations are not necessarily pathological and can occur as a normal experience in people (children and adults) who have no contact with mental health services and no concurrent mental disorder. This is also the first paper to recognise that children can experience musical hallucinations. Also, we show that musical hallucinations are more common than previously thought, but people do not report their occurrence. It seems plausible that in musical hallucinations there is an insult to the ear or brain that produces a change in quality of these images, converting them to a psychotic experience. Musical hallucinations should be regarded as a continuum with normal experiences and clinical syndromes. PMID:21686956

  1. Genetic and environmental determinants of growth of school-aged children in a rural Colombian population.

    PubMed

    Mueller, W H; Titcomb, M

    1977-01-01

    Parent-offspring correlations and heritabilities of body measurements from midparent-offspring regressions are presented for school-aged children from the village of Tenza, Colombia (N = 403 families). Parent-child correlations and midparent regressions in this subsistence farming sample, are similar in magnitude to those for well nourished, urban industrial samples, suggesting that the environmental component of variability in body size is the same regardless of the environment. Tenza children are significantly shorter and lighter than upper class Bogota children, and Tenza parents have mean heights and weights similar to those of other lower class Colombian samples. Thus, chronic undernutrition has affected the growth of parents and continues to affect the growth of the present generation. Although it has been hypothesized that heritability of growth might be reduced in samples experiencing malnutrition and its sequelae, such a reduction may only be observable where environment of parents during their development is different from that of their offspring, which is not the case here. The pattern of heritabilities with respect to different body measurements in Tenza, is similar to that seen in well nourished samples, except that measurements of breadth (biacromial, bicristal, bicondylar) have heritabilities similar in magnitude to those of linear measurements (height, sitting-height, subischial length) especially in males; and heritabilities of some measurements related to adiposity are significantly higher in daughters than in sons.

  2. Obesity prevalence estimates in a Canadian regional population of preschool children using variant growth references

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a public health problem in Canada. Accurate measurement of a health problem is crucial in defining its burden. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity in preschool children using three growth references. Methods Weights and heights were measured on 1026 preschool children born in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada, and body mass index calculated. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined and statistical comparisons conducted among the three growth references; the Centres for Disease Control (CDC), the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Results CDC and IOTF produced similar estimates of the prevalence of overweight, 19.1% versus 18.2% while the WHO reported a higher prevalence 26.7% (p < .001). The CDC classified twice as many children as obese compared to the IOTF 16.6% versus 8.3% (p < .001) and a third more than the WHO 16.6% versus 11.3% (p < .01). There was variable level of agreement between methods. Conclusions The CDC reported a much higher prevalence of obesity compared to the other references. The prevalence of childhood obesity is dependent on the growth reference used. PMID:21356057

  3. [EEG correlates of geno-phenotypical features of the brain development in children of the native and newcomers' population of the Russian North-East].

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Bekshaev, S S; Rozhkov, V P

    2012-01-01

    Traditional and original methods of EEG analysis were used to study the brain electrical activity maturation in 156 children and adolescents from 7 to 17 years old who represented the native (Koryaks and Evenks) and newcomers' populations living in severe climatic and geographic conditions of the Russian North-East. New data revealing age-, sex- and ethnic-related features in quantitative EEG parameters are presented. Markers are obtained that characterize alterations in the structure of interaction between different EEG rhythms. The results demonstrate age-dependent transformation of this structure separated in time for both different cortical areas and different EEG frequency bands. These alterations show time lag from 2 to 3 years in children of native population compared to the newcomers. The revealed differences are assumed to reflect geno-phenotypical features of morpho-functional CNS development in children of the native and newcomers' population that depend on strong adaptation tension for extreme environmental conditions.

  4. Housefly Population Density Correlates with Shigellosis among Children in Mirzapur, Bangladesh: A Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Tamer H.; Faruque, Abu S.; Wu, Yukun; Das, Sumon K.; Hossain, Anowar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Ahmed, Dilruba; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kotloff, Karen L.; Panchilangam, Sandra; Nataro, James P.; Cohen, Dani; Blackwelder, William C.; Levine, Myron M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Shigella infections are a public health problem in developing and transitional countries because of high transmissibility, severity of clinical disease, widespread antibiotic resistance and lack of a licensed vaccine. Whereas Shigellae are known to be transmitted primarily by direct fecal-oral contact and less commonly by contaminated food and water, the role of the housefly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector of transmission is less appreciated. We sought to assess the contribution of houseflies to Shigella-associated moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) among children less than five years old in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, a site where shigellosis is hyperendemic, and to model the potential impact of a housefly control intervention. Methods Stool samples from 843 children presenting to Kumudini Hospital during 2009–2010 with new episodes of MSD (diarrhea accompanied by dehydration, dysentery or hospitalization) were analyzed. Housefly density was measured twice weekly in six randomly selected sentinel households. Poisson time series regression was performed and autoregression-adjusted attributable fractions (AFs) were calculated using the Bruzzi method, with standard errors via jackknife procedure. Findings Dramatic springtime peaks in housefly density in 2009 and 2010 were followed one to two months later by peaks of Shigella-associated MSD among toddlers and pre-school children. Poisson time series regression showed that housefly density was associated with Shigella cases at three lags (six weeks) (Incidence Rate Ratio = 1.39 [95% CI: 1.23 to 1.58] for each log increase in fly count), an association that was not confounded by ambient air temperature. Autocorrelation-adjusted AF calculations showed that a housefly control intervention could have prevented approximately 37% of the Shigella cases over the study period. Interpretation Houseflies may play an important role in the seasonal transmission of Shigella in some developing country ecologies

  5. Assessing the safety of influenza vaccination in specific populations: children and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger

    2012-08-01

    Comprehensive monitoring of the safety of influenza vaccines remains a public health priority, particularly as immunization coverage increases across different age groups at the global level. In this review, the authors provide state-of-the-art knowledge on the safety of influenza immunization among children and the elderly. The authors review the safety information in each group separately for inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines. Adverse events of special concern including febrile seizure, narcolepsy, asthma and Guillain-Barré syndrome are covered under specific considerations. The authors discuss the current status of the field, particularly the use of new technologies for influenza vaccines and their potential safety profile.

  6. Preventing young children's injuries: analysis of data from a population-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Toblin, Robin L; Brenner, Ruth A; Taneja, Gitanjali S; Rossi, Maryann W; Collins, Millicent; Mickalide, Angela D; Overpeck, Mary D; Clinton-Reid, Yvette; Dever, Jill A; Boyle, Kerrie; Trumble, Ann C; Scheidt, Peter C

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine prevention strategies for potentially serious injury events among children younger than 3 years of age based upon circumstances surrounding injury events. Surveillance was conducted on all injuries to District of Columbia (DC) residents less than 3 years old that resulted in an Emergency Department (ED) visit, hospitalization, or death for 1 year. Data were collected through abstraction of medical records and interviews with a subset of parents of injured children. Investigators coded injury-related events for the potential for death or disability. Potential prevention strategies were then determined for all injury events that had at least a moderate potential for death or disability and sufficient detail for coding (n = 425). Injury-related events included 10 deaths, 163 hospitalizations, and 2,868 ED visits (3,041 events in total). Of the hospitalizations, 88% were coded as moderate or high potential for disability or death, versus only 21% of the coded ED visits. For potentially serious events, environmental change strategies were identified for 47%, behavior change strategies for 77%, and policy change strategies for 24%. For 46% of the events more than one type of prevention strategy was identified. Only 8% had no identifiable prevention strategy. Prevention strategies varied by specific cause of injury. Potential prevention strategies were identifiable for nearly all potentially serious injury events, with multiple potential prevention strategies identified for a large fraction of the events. These findings support developing multifaceted prevention approaches informed by community-based injury surveillance.

  7. Assessment of neuropsychological trajectories in longitudinal population-based studies of children

    PubMed Central

    White, R F; Campbell, R; Echeverria, D; Knox, S S; Janulewicz, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a strategy for the assessment of brain function in longitudinal cohort studies of children. The proposed strategy invokes both domain-specific and omnibus intelligence test approaches. In order to minimise testing burden and practice effects, the cohort is divided into four groups with one-quarter tested at 6-monthly intervals in the 0–2-year age range (at ages 6 months, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 years) and at annual intervals from ages 3–20 (one-quarter of the children at age 3, another at age 4, etc). This strategy allows investigation of cognitive development and of the relationship between environmental influences and development at each age. It also allows introduction of new domains of function when age-appropriate. As far as possible, tests are used that will provide a rich source of both longitudinal and cross-sectional data. The testing strategy allows the introduction of novel tests and new domains as well as piloting of tests when the test burden is relatively light. In addition to the recommended tests for each age and domain, alternative tests are described. Assessment methodology and knowledge about child cognitive development will change over the next 20 years, and strategies are suggested for altering the proposed test schedule as appropriate. PMID:19098136

  8. [T lymphocyte populations of the intestinal mucosa in celiac disease in children. Immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Olives, J P; Voigt, J J; al Saati, T; Nonnenmacher, L; Brousset, P; Delsol, G; Ghisolfi, J

    1990-01-01

    In order to study the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in a pathologic intestinal mucosa, the authors, instead of using the classic method by counting the number of lymphocytes, present an original method permitting the exploitation of quantified data from labelled surface cells by texture analyser coupled with a computerized system. We investigated 25 children presenting with chronic diarrhea and villous atrophy and 5 control subjects. Fifteen of the 25 children had celiac disease (10 active with total villous atrophy and 5, celiac disease in remission with healing mucosa), 5 cow's milk protein intolerance with total or partial villous atrophy and 5, chronic diarrhea with partial villous atrophy. Immunohistochemical study with monoclonal antibodies was carried out on frozen sections using a three-step immunoperoxidase technique. Compared with the 5 controls, patients with food intolerance (celiac disease and cow's milk protein intolerance) showed a significant increase of T suppressor lymphocytes (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05) in the epithelium, whereas there were more T helper lymphocytes in the lamina propria (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.01). Non-treated celiac disease was distinguished from treated celiac disease by a marked increase in intra-epithelial T cytotoxic-suppressors. These results suggest that T cytotoxic-suppressors may be the mediators of the lesions observed in celiac disease. PMID:2179007

  9. Back pain prevalence and associated factors in children and adolescents: an epidemiological population study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Matias; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; da Rosa, Bruna Nichele; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of back pain among Brazilian school children and the factors associated with this pain. METHODS All 1,720 schoolchildren from the fifth to the eight grade attending schools from the city of Teutonia, RS, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. From these, 1,597 children participated. We applied the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument. The dependent variable was back pain, while the independent one were demographic, socioeconomic, behavior and heredity data. The prevalence ratio was estimated by multivariate analysis using the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain in the last three months was 55.7% (n = 802). The multivariate analysis showed that back pain is associated with the variables: sex, parents with back pain, weekly frequency of physical activity, daily time spent watching television, studying in bed, sitting posture to write and use the computer, and way of carrying the backpack. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren is high and it is associated with demographic, behavior and heredity aspects. PMID:27305406

  10. Preventing young children's injuries: analysis of data from a population-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Toblin, Robin L; Brenner, Ruth A; Taneja, Gitanjali S; Rossi, Maryann W; Collins, Millicent; Mickalide, Angela D; Overpeck, Mary D; Clinton-Reid, Yvette; Dever, Jill A; Boyle, Kerrie; Trumble, Ann C; Scheidt, Peter C

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine prevention strategies for potentially serious injury events among children younger than 3 years of age based upon circumstances surrounding injury events. Surveillance was conducted on all injuries to District of Columbia (DC) residents less than 3 years old that resulted in an Emergency Department (ED) visit, hospitalization, or death for 1 year. Data were collected through abstraction of medical records and interviews with a subset of parents of injured children. Investigators coded injury-related events for the potential for death or disability. Potential prevention strategies were then determined for all injury events that had at least a moderate potential for death or disability and sufficient detail for coding (n = 425). Injury-related events included 10 deaths, 163 hospitalizations, and 2,868 ED visits (3,041 events in total). Of the hospitalizations, 88% were coded as moderate or high potential for disability or death, versus only 21% of the coded ED visits. For potentially serious events, environmental change strategies were identified for 47%, behavior change strategies for 77%, and policy change strategies for 24%. For 46% of the events more than one type of prevention strategy was identified. Only 8% had no identifiable prevention strategy. Prevention strategies varied by specific cause of injury. Potential prevention strategies were identifiable for nearly all potentially serious injury events, with multiple potential prevention strategies identified for a large fraction of the events. These findings support developing multifaceted prevention approaches informed by community-based injury surveillance. PMID:21904860

  11. Video game violence use among "vulnerable" populations: the impact of violent games on delinquency and bullying among children with clinically elevated depression or attention deficit symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Olson, Cheryl K

    2014-01-01

    The issue of children's exposure to violent video games has been a source of considerable debate for several decades. Questions persist whether children with pre-existing mental health problems may be influenced adversely by exposure to violent games, even if other children are not. We explored this issue with 377 children (62 % female, mixed ethnicity, mean age = 12.93) displaying clinically elevated attention deficit or depressive symptoms on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Results from our study found no evidence for increased bullying or delinquent behaviors among youth with clinically elevated mental health symptoms who also played violent video games. Our results did not support the hypothesis that children with elevated mental health symptoms constitute a "vulnerable" population for video game violence effects. Implications and suggestions for further research are provided.

  12. Video game violence use among "vulnerable" populations: the impact of violent games on delinquency and bullying among children with clinically elevated depression or attention deficit symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Olson, Cheryl K

    2014-01-01

    The issue of children's exposure to violent video games has been a source of considerable debate for several decades. Questions persist whether children with pre-existing mental health problems may be influenced adversely by exposure to violent games, even if other children are not. We explored this issue with 377 children (62 % female, mixed ethnicity, mean age = 12.93) displaying clinically elevated attention deficit or depressive symptoms on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Results from our study found no evidence for increased bullying or delinquent behaviors among youth with clinically elevated mental health symptoms who also played violent video games. Our results did not support the hypothesis that children with elevated mental health symptoms constitute a "vulnerable" population for video game violence effects. Implications and suggestions for further research are provided. PMID:23975351

  13. Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with celiac disease: survey of a population from central Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Celiac Disease (CD) is an increasingly common autoimmune disorder. It requires a strict lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) which can influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study assesses HRQOL in children and adolescents with CD and explores how several demographic and clinical characteristics and GFD adherence affect their perceived health status. Methods We recruited 140 consecutive children and adolescents with CD confirmed by small bowel biopsy. HRQOL was assessed using the SF-12 questionnaire plus some CD-specific questions exploring wellbeing and lifestyle. Patients, aged 10 to 18 years, were identified by pediatric gastroenterologists and guided in filling out the questionnaire by trained psychologists. Parametric or non-parametric tests were applied to analyze continuous variables and frequencies as appropriate. Results The SF-12 mean mental component summary score (MCS12) was lower than in the general Italian population (p < 0.001), whereas differences in terms of physical health were not significant (p = 0.220). More than one third of those interviewed reported feeling angry “always” or “most of the time” about having to follow the GFD, and nearly 20% reported feeling different from others and misunderstood because of CD “always” or “most of the time”. Conclusions Our findings highlight the need for health professionals to identify adolescents with major disease-related problems. The food industry should improve its range of gluten-free food products and public bodies and institutions should promote informative campaigns and help promote the overall quality of life of children and adolescents with CD. PMID:24304679

  14. Temporal trends in mucocutaneous findings among human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected children in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Sturt, Amy S; Anglemyer, Andrew; Berk, David R; Maldonado, Yvonne A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) mucocutaneous manifestations in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We conducted population-based, prospective, multicenter pediatric HIV-1 surveillance in 276 children with perinatally acquired HIV-1 from 1988 to 2009. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-defined HIV-1 related mucocutaneous conditions among the 276 children were: category A (n = 152), B (n = 60), and C (n = 1). Nearly half of the category A and B diagnoses (43.4% [66/152] and 35.0% [21/60], respectively) occurred in the first year of life, with 59.2% (90/152) and 61.7% (37/60), respectively, occurring in the first 2 years of life. The most frequent infectious diagnosis was oropharyngeal thrush (n = 117, 42.4%); the most common inflammatory diagnosis was diaper dermatitis (n = 71, 25.7%). There was a temporal decline in the prevalence of A (pre-HAART cohort, 123; post-HAART cohort, 29; p < 0.01) and B (pre-HAART, 55; post-HAART, 5; p < 0.01) mucocutaneous diagnoses. In children with perinatal HIV-1, there was a significant decline in CDC category A and B mucocutaneous diagnoses by temporal cohort, consistent with the introduction of antiretroviral medications and HAART. Clinical category A and B mucocutaneous diagnoses were most common in the first 2 years of life, emphasizing the importance of early HIV-1 testing and HAART initiation. PMID:23131130

  15. Prevalence of physical violence against children in Haiti: A national population-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Flynn-O'Brien, Katherine T; Rivara, Frederick P; Weiss, Noel S; Lea, Veronica A; Marcelin, Louis H; Vertefeuille, John; Mercy, James A

    2016-01-01

    Although physical violence against children is common worldwide, there are no national estimates in Haiti. To establish baseline national estimates, a three-stage clustered sampling design was utilized to administer a population-based household survey about victimization due to physical violence to 13-24 year old Haitians (n=2,916), including those residing in camps or settlements. Descriptive statistics and weighted analysis techniques were used to estimate national lifetime prevalence and characteristics of physical violence against children. About two-thirds of respondents reported having experienced physical violence during childhood (67.0%; 95% CI 63.4-70.4), the percentage being similar in males and females. More than one-third of 13-17 year old respondents were victimized in the 12 months prior to survey administration (37.8%; 95% CI 33.6-42.1). The majority of violence was committed by parents and teachers; and the perceived intent was often punishment or discipline. While virtually all (98.8%; 95% CI 98.0-99.3) victims of childhood physical violence were punched, kicked, whipped or beaten; 11.0% (95% CI 9.2-13.2) were subject to abuse by a knife or other weapon. Injuries sustained from violence varied by victim gender and perpetrator, with twice as many females (9.6%; 95% CI 7.1-12.7) than males (4.0%; 95% CI 2.6-6.1) sustaining permanent injury or disfigurement by a family member or caregiver (p-value<.001). Our findings suggest that physical violence against children in Haiti is common, and may lead to severe injury. Characterization of the frequency and nature of this violence provides baseline estimates to inform interventions.

  16. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in pregnant women and birth outcomes of their children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Ács, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the possible association of pregnant women with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) with the possible risk for adverse birth outcomes, particularly different congenital abnormalities (CAs) in their children. Prospectively and medically recorded PSVT was evaluated in 103 pregnant women who later had offspring with CA (case group) and 149 pregnant women who later delivered newborn infants without CA (control group) and matched to cases in the population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. Of 252 pregnant women with PSVT, 115 (45.6%) had the onset of this condition before the study pregnancy, that is, their PSVT was a chronic condition, while the rest (N = 137) of PSVT was considered as new onset in the study pregnancy. The comparison of occurrence of PSVT in pregnant women who had offspring with different CA groups and in control mothers showed a higher risk for cardiovascular CAs (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 2.1, 1.1-3.8) explained mainly by secundum atrial septal defect. This association was confirmed in pregnant women with PSVT in the second and/or third gestational month, that is, critical period of cardiovascular CAs. In conclusion PSVT in pregnant women associates with a higher risk of secundum atrial septal defect in their children.

  17. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of the Shape, Height, and Location of the Mandibular Lingula in a Population of Children

    PubMed Central

    Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Cantekin, Kenan; Aydinbelge, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

     Objectives. This is the first study to identify and classify the different morphological shapes of the mandibular lingula (ML) in children using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the shape, height, and location of the ML in relation to the surrounding structures using CBCT images of mandibles obtained from 269 children. The shape of the ML was classified into triangular, truncated, nodular, or assimilated types. The location was determined by five distances. The height of the lingula was also measured from the lingular tip to the mandibular foramen. Results. A nodular shape of the ML was most commonly found (48.3%, n = 260) followed by truncated (23.4%, n = 126), assimilated (14.4%, n = 78), and triangular (13.7%, n = 74). The mean distance of ML from the anterior and posterior borders of mandibular ramus was 13.3 ± 2.3 mm and 10.2 ± 1.6 mm, respectively. In the majority of the mandibles studied, the ML was located above the occlusal plane. Conclusion. The present study provides new information to the literature concerning the shape, height, and location of the lingula in a Turkish pediatric population. This finding may assist clinicians to localize the lingula and avoid intraoperative complications. PMID:24490173

  18. HLA-A*33:01 as Protective Allele for Severe Dengue in a Population of Filipino Children

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Edelwisa Segubre; Espino, Fe Esperanza; Perez, Ma. Lucila M.; Bilar, Josie M.; Bajaro, Jemimah Dawn P.; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Baello, Benilda Q; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Hirayama, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is a leading cause of morbidity among children in the Philippines in recent years. In order to investigate the association of HLA Class I and II alleles and dengue disease severity in a cohort of Filipino children, we performed a case control study in 2 hospitals in Metro Manila from June 2008 to December 2009. A total of 250 laboratory confirmed dengue patients and 300 healthy individuals aged 5 to 15 years old were typed for HLA-A, B and DRB1 alleles. The frequency of HLA-A*33:01 was significantly decreased in severe dengue (DHF/ DSS; Pc = 0.0016)) and DSS (Pc = 0.0032) compared to the background population. These findings support a previous study that this allele may confer protection against the severe form of dengue and provide the first evidence of HLA association with dengue in the Philippines. Future studies should be directed in investigating the possible mechanisms of protection. PMID:25659158

  19. Bone mineral density and body composition in a myelomeningocele children population: effects of walking ability and sport activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, E; Focarelli, B; Tabacco, F; Fortunelli, G; Caradonna, P; Massimi, L; Sigismondi, M; Salvaggio, E; Rendeli, C

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele causes serious locomotor disability, osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, bone mineral density, walking ability and sport activity in myelomeningocele children. 60 patients aged between 5 and 14 yrs with myelomeningocele (22 ambulatory and 38 non-ambulatory), were studied. Fat mass and fat-free-mass were calculated by anthropometry. The bone mineral density at lumbar and femoral neck were evaluated. Bone mineral density at the lumbar and femoral neck was lower than in the normal population. In the non-ambulaty group, bone mineral density was approximately 1 SD lower than in the ambulatory one (p < 0.01). Fat mass was greater than expected but without significantly differences between walking group (mean 26%) and wheel-chair users (25%). Patients practised sport activity had a better bone mineral density and body fat compared with other patients with the same disability. Patients with myelomeningocele have decreased bone mineral density and are at higher risk of pathologic bone fractures. All subjects showed an excess of fat as percentage of body weight and are shorter than normal children. The measurement of bone mineral density may help to identify those patients at greatest risk of suffering of multiple fractures. Walk ability and sport activity, associated with the development of muscle mass, are important factors in promoting bone and body growth, to reduce the risk of obesity and of pathological fractures. PMID:19146196

  20. Risk factors for chronic undernutrition among children in India: Estimating relative importance, population attributable risk and fractions.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Daniel J; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 40% of the world's stunted children live in India and the prevalence of undernutrition has been persistently high in recent decades. Given numerous available interventions for reducing undernutrition in children, it is not clear of the relative importance of each within a multifactorial framework. We assess the simultaneous contribution of 15 known risk factors for child chronic undernutrition in India. Data are from the 3rd Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2005-2006. The study population consisted of children aged 6-59 months [n = 26,842 (stunting/low height-for-age), n = 27,483 (underweight/low weight-for-age)]. Risk factors examined for their association with undernutrition were: vitamin A supplementation, vaccination, use of iodized salt, household air quality, improved sanitary facilities, safe disposal of stools, improved drinking water, prevalence of infectious disease, initiation of breastfeeding, dietary diversity, age at marriage, maternal BMI, height, education, and household wealth. Age/sex-adjusted and multivariable adjusted effect sizes (odds ratios) were calculated for risk factors along with Population Attributable Risks (PAR) and Fractions (PAF) using logistic regression. In the mutually adjusted models, the five most important predictors of childhood stunting/underweight were short maternal stature, mother having no education, households in lowest wealth quintile, poor dietary diversity, and maternal underweight. These five factors had a combined PAR of 67.2% (95% CI: 63.3-70.7) and 69.7% (95% CI: 66.3-72.8) for stunting and underweight, respectively. The remaining factors were associated with a combined PAR of 11.7% (95% CI: 6.0-17.4) and 15.1% (95% CI: 8.9-21.3) for stunting and underweight, respectively. Implementing strategies focused on broader progress on social circumstances and infrastructural domains as well as investments in nutrition specific

  1. Risk factors for chronic undernutrition among children in India: Estimating relative importance, population attributable risk and fractions.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Daniel J; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 40% of the world's stunted children live in India and the prevalence of undernutrition has been persistently high in recent decades. Given numerous available interventions for reducing undernutrition in children, it is not clear of the relative importance of each within a multifactorial framework. We assess the simultaneous contribution of 15 known risk factors for child chronic undernutrition in India. Data are from the 3rd Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2005-2006. The study population consisted of children aged 6-59 months [n = 26,842 (stunting/low height-for-age), n = 27,483 (underweight/low weight-for-age)]. Risk factors examined for their association with undernutrition were: vitamin A supplementation, vaccination, use of iodized salt, household air quality, improved sanitary facilities, safe disposal of stools, improved drinking water, prevalence of infectious disease, initiation of breastfeeding, dietary diversity, age at marriage, maternal BMI, height, education, and household wealth. Age/sex-adjusted and multivariable adjusted effect sizes (odds ratios) were calculated for risk factors along with Population Attributable Risks (PAR) and Fractions (PAF) using logistic regression. In the mutually adjusted models, the five most important predictors of childhood stunting/underweight were short maternal stature, mother having no education, households in lowest wealth quintile, poor dietary diversity, and maternal underweight. These five factors had a combined PAR of 67.2% (95% CI: 63.3-70.7) and 69.7% (95% CI: 66.3-72.8) for stunting and underweight, respectively. The remaining factors were associated with a combined PAR of 11.7% (95% CI: 6.0-17.4) and 15.1% (95% CI: 8.9-21.3) for stunting and underweight, respectively. Implementing strategies focused on broader progress on social circumstances and infrastructural domains as well as investments in nutrition specific

  2. Prevention of dislocation of the hip in children with cerebral palsy: 20-year results of a population-based prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, G; Alriksson-Schmidt, A; Lauge-Pedersen, H; Rodby-Bousquet, E; Wagner, P; Westbom, L

    2014-11-01

    In 1994 a cerebral palsy (CP) register and healthcare programme was established in southern Sweden with the primary aim of preventing dislocation of the hip in these children. The results from the first ten years were published in 2005 and showed a decrease in the incidence of dislocation of the hip, from 8% in a historical control group of 103 children born between 1990 and 1991 to 0.5% in a group of 258 children born between 1992 and 1997. These two cohorts have now been re-evaluated and an additional group of 431 children born between 1998 and 2007 has been added. By 1 January 2014, nine children in the control group, two in the first study group and none in the second study group had developed a dislocated hip (p < 0.001). The two children in the first study group who developed a dislocated hip were too unwell to undergo preventive surgery. Every child with a dislocated hip reported severe pain, at least periodically, and four underwent salvage surgery. Of the 689 children in the study groups, 91 (13%) underwent preventive surgery. A population-based hip surveillance programme enables the early identification and preventive treatment, which can result in a significantly lower incidence of dislocation of the hip in children with CP.

  3. Do Children in Rural Areas Still Have Different Access to Health Care? Results from a Statewide Survey of Oregon's Food Stamp Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devoe, Jennifer E.; Krois, Lisa; Stenger, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if rural residence is independently associated with different access to health care services for children eligible for public health insurance. Methods: We conducted a mail-return survey of 10,175 families randomly selected from Oregon's food stamp population (46% rural and 54% urban). With a response rate of 31%, we used a…

  4. Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had…

  5. A parent motivational interviewing program for dental care in children of a rural population

    PubMed Central

    González-Del-Castillo-McGrath, Mauricio; Madrigal-Orozco, Catalina; Anguiano-Flores, Laura; Amador-Licona, Norma

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based educational program in reducing the number and intensity of new caries and bacterial dental plaque levels at 6 months post randomization. Study Design: A randomized and single blind clinical trial in 100 schoolchildren between 6-10 years of age presenting the highest risk score of caries according to the Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) criteria was performed. These patients were randomized to two groups: control (in which the mothers initially received an oral prevention informative session) and experimental (in which the mothers received the initial informative session, followed by individual motivational interviewing sessions during a period of 6 months). The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) scores and bacterial plaque were evaluated at baseline, at 6 and 12 months. Results: After 12 months, children in the experimental group had 2.12 ± 0.8 new caries versus 3.5 ± 0.9 in the control group (t=7.39; p<0.001). Caries in the experimental group was seen to be limited to the enamel, with a median intensity of 2 (range 0-3) versus 3 (0-6) in the control group (U=1594; p<0.0001). Bacterial plaque determined by the O’Leary index decreased in both groups; however, it decreased more in the experimental than in the control group (34.3 vs. 20.6; t=-3.12, p= 0.002) respectively. Conclusions: Motivational interviewing is better than traditional educational programs in preventing caries and decreasing bacterial plaque. Key words:Health educational, motivational interviewing, caries risk. PMID:25674320

  6. Lung function growth and ambient ozone: a three-year population study in school children.

    PubMed

    Frischer, T; Studnicka, M; Gartner, C; Tauber, E; Horak, F; Veiter, A; Spengler, J; Kühr, J; Urbanek, R

    1999-08-01

    We followed a cohort of 1,150 children for 3 yr to investigate long-term effects of ambient ozone. Nine study sites were selected on the basis of air-quality data to represent a broad range of ozone exposure. In 1994, 1995, and 1996 lung function was recorded biannually, always before and after summertime. The effect of ozone was analyzed with regression analyses and study-site, a child's sex, atopy, passive smoking, baseline lung function, and increase in height were considered as confounding variables. A negative effect of summertime ozone on the pre- to post-summer-time change in FEV(1) (ml/d) was present in 1994 (beta = -0.019 ml/d/ppb; p < 0.01) and in 1995 (beta = -0.017 ml/d/ ppb; p < 0.05), but not in 1996 (beta = 0. 004 ml/d/ppb; p = 0.6); corresponding estimates for FVC were in 1994: beta = -0.022 ml/d/ppb, p < 0.005; 1995: beta = -0.018 ml/d/ppb, p < 0.05; and 1996: beta = 0.006 ml/d/ppb, p = 0.46. When all three study years were considered simultaneously, i.e., the changes in lung function between each of two subsequent surveys being the dependent variable, summertime ozone was associated with a lesser increase in FEV(1) (beta = -0.029 ml/d/ppb; p < 0.001), FVC (beta = -0.018 ml/d/ppb; p < 0.001), and MEF(50) (beta = -0.076 ml/s/d; p = 0.001). No consistent associations were observed for lung function and NO(2), SO(2) and PM(10). Long-term ambient ozone exposure might negatively influence lung function growth.

  7. Antibiotic Exposure and IBD Development Among Children: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Haynes, Kevin; Feng, Rui; Coffin, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether childhood antianaerobic antibiotic exposure is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study employed data from 464 UK ambulatory practices participating in The Health Improvement Network. All children with ≥2 years of follow-up from 1994 to 2009 were followed between practice enrollment and IBD development, practice deregistration, 19 years of age, or death; those with previous IBD were excluded. All antibiotic prescriptions were captured. Antianaerobic antibiotic agents were defined as penicillin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, tetracyclines, clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin, carbapenems, and oral vancomycin. RESULTS: A total of 1 072 426 subjects contributed 6.6 million person-years of follow-up; 748 developed IBD. IBD incidence rates among antianaerobic antibiotic unexposed and exposed subjects were 0.83 and 1.52/10 000 person-years, respectively, for an 84% relative risk increase. Exposure throughout childhood was associated with developing IBD, but this relationship decreased with increasing age at exposure. Exposure before 1 year of age had an adjusted hazard ratio of 5.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.66–18.28) but decreased to 2.62 (95% CI: 1.61–4.25) and 1.57 (95% CI: 1.35–1.84) by 5 and 15 years, respectively. Each antibiotic course increased the IBD hazard by 6% (4%–8%). A dose-response effect existed, with receipt of >2 antibiotic courses more highly associated with IBD development than receipt of 1 to 2 courses, with adjusted hazard ratios of 4.77 (95% CI: 2.13–10.68) versus 3.33 (95% CI: 1.69–6.58). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood antianaerobic antibiotic exposure is associated with IBD development. PMID:23008454

  8. Safety and Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Intravenous Acetaminophen in Neonates, Infants, Children, and Adolescents With Pain or Fever

    PubMed Central

    Zuppa, Athena F.; Hammer, Gregory B.; Barrett, Jeffrey S.; Kenney, Brian F.; Kassir, Nastya; Mouksassi, Samer; Royal, Mike A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The administration of acetaminophen via the oral and rectal routes may be contraindicated in specific clinical settings. Intravenous administration provides an alternative route for fever reduction and analgesia. This phase 1 study of intravenous acetaminophen (Ofirmev, Cadence Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, CA) in inpatient pediatric patients with pain or fever requiring intravenous therapy was designed to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of repeated doses over 48 hours. METHODS Neonates (full-term to 28 days) received either 12.5 mg/kg every 6 hours or 15 mg/kg every 8 hours. Infants (29 days to <2 years), children (2 to <12 years) and adolescents (≥12 years) received either 12.5 mg/kg every 4 hours or 15 mg/kg every 6 hours. Both noncompartmental and population nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approaches were used. Urinary metabolite data were analyzed, and safety and tolerability were assessed. RESULTS Pharmacokinetic parameters of acetaminophen were estimated using a two-compartment disposition model with weight allometrically expressed on clearances and central and peripheral volumes of distribution (Vds). Postnatal age, with a maturation function, was a significant covariate on clearance. Total systemic normalized clearance was 18.4 L/hr per 70 kg, with a plateau reached at approximately 2 years. Total central and peripheral Vds of acetaminophen were 16 and 59.5 L/70 kg, respectively. The drug was well tolerated based on the incidence of adverse events. The primary and minor pathways of elimination were acetaminophen glucuronidation, sulfation, and glutathione conjugate metabolites across all age groups. CONCLUSIONS Intravenous acetaminophen in infants, children, and adolescents was well tolerated and achieved plasma concentrations similar to those achieved with labeled 15 mg/kg body weight doses by oral or rectal administration. PMID:22768009

  9. [Prevalence of no alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a population of obese children in Valencia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Pontiles de Sánchez, Milagros; Morón de Salim, Alba; Rodríguez de Perdomo, Henny; Perdomo Oramas, Germán

    2014-06-01

    No Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of fat in hepatocytes, without alcohol, where overweight and obesity are determinants. Ecosonografia evaluated the prevalence of fatty liver in obese pediatric patients and its relation to nutritional assessment. The sample consisted of 85 children (51 females, 34 males), age 3-17. The abdominal ecosonography, BMI, waist circumference were performed; Godard Test for physical activity, history of diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity and cardiovascular disease were questioned. Lipid profile, glucose and insulin resistance were determined. Data analyzed from descriptive and comparative tables. We obtained: mean age 9.8 ± 2.7 females and males 9.6 ± 2.7 years. The ecosonography indicated 50% and 50% fatty liver-pancreas fatty liver in children aged 3-6 years; 7-11 years 39.7% fatty liver-pancreas; 12-17yrs 31.6% fatty liver-pancreas (p > 0.05); BMI > 26 kg/m2 42.9% fatty liver-pancreas; 21 to 25 kg/m2 44.7% fatty liver; 15 to 20 kg/m2 60%fatty liver-pancreas (p> 0.05). 97.6% with high CC; 68.2% with inadequate physical activity; high frequency of history of chronic non-communicable diseases. We concluded that this population had predominantly fatty liver fatty replacement of the pancreas (HG-RGP) in the groups with higher BMI, CC and high male unrelated insulin resistance, altered lipid profile and diagnosis HG. We inferred that the anthropometric assessment of waist circumference and abdominal ecosonography indicate the presence of visceral obesity, a condition that predisposes to hepatic steatosis, pancreas and/or liver-pancreas.

  10. Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines acceptable for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Klein, B; Damiani-Taraba, G; Koster, A; Campbell, J; Scholz, C

    2015-03-01

    Children involved with child protection services (CPS) are diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at higher rates than the general population. Children with maltreatment histories are much more likely to have other factors contributing to behavioural and attentional regulation difficulties that may overlap with or mimic ADHD-like symptoms, including language and learning problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment difficulties, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. A higher number of children in the child welfare system are diagnosed with ADHD and provided with psychotropic medications under a group care setting compared with family-based, foster care and kinship care settings. However, children's behavioural trajectories change over time while in care. A reassessment in the approach to ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to confirmed (or suspected) maltreatment (e.g. neglect, abuse) is required. Diagnosis should be conducted within a multidisciplinary team and practice guidelines regarding ADHD diagnostic and management practices for children in CPS care are warranted both in the USA and in Canada. Increased education for caregivers, teachers and child welfare staff on the effects of maltreatment and often perplexing relationship with ADHD-like symptoms and co-morbid disorders is also necessary. Increased partnerships are needed to ensure the mental well-being of children with child protection involvement.

  11. Short-term population-based and spatiotemporal nonlinear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and children's respiratory clinic visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2014-05-01

    Advert health impacts associated with the PM2.5 exposure have been confirmed in mortality and cardiovascular diseases; however, findings of the influence of PM2.5 on respiratory diseases investigated among previous studies are still inconsistent. We investigated the short-term population-based associations between the respiratory clinic visits of children population and the PM2.5 exposure levels with considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of the ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between daily children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. The analysis was performed separately on the four selected respiratory disease categories of the population-based dataset, obtained from Taiwan National Health Insurance database, covering the 41 districts in Taipei area during the period of 2005 to 2007. This study reveals a strong nonlinear C-R pattern that the PM2.5 increment can significantly affect respiratory health at PM2.5 concentration ≤ 18.17µg/m3 for both preschool children and schoolchildren. The elevated risks are especially present in the category of acute respiratory infections. PM2.5 increase is mostly non-significant to the more severe respiratory diseases, e.g., COPD and pneumonia, over the ranges of 8.85-92.45µg/m3. The significantly higher relative rate of respiratory clinic visit most likely concentrated at populated areas. We highlight the nonlinearity of the respiratory health impacts of PM2.5 on children's populations from the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate this population-based association. The strong nonlinearity can possibly cause the inconsistency of PM2.5 health impact assessments with linear assumptions.

  12. Respiratory muscle force and lung volume changes in a population of children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Ong, Bruce A; Caboot, Jason; Jawad, Abbas; McDonough, Joseph; Jackson, Tannoa; Arens, Raanan; Marcus, Carole L; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Mason, Thornton B A; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Allen, Julian L

    2013-10-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a disorder known to impact the respiratory system. We sought to identify respiratory muscle force and lung volume relationships in a paediatric SCD population. Thirty-four SCD-SS subjects underwent pulmonary function testing. Height, weight, age, and gender-adjusted percent predicted maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) values were compared to spirometry and lung volumes. Statistical analyses were performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and paired two-tailed t-test. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) MIP and MEP was 69·6 ± 31·6 cm H2 O and 66·9 ± 22·9 cm H2 O, respectively, and mean ± SD percent predicted MIP (101·3 ± 45·9) exceeded MEP (72·1 ± 26·0) (P = 0·002). MIP correlated with forced vital capacity (FVC; r = 0·51, P = 0·001) and TLC (r = 0·54, P < 0·0001). MEP also correlated with FVC (r = 0·43, P = 0·011) and total lung capacity (TLC; r = 0·42, P = 0·013). Pearson's correlation coefficient testing yielded relationships between MIP and MEP (r = 0·64, P < 0·0001). SCD-SS patients showed correlations between respiratory muscle force and lung volume, and reduced percent predicted expiratory muscle force compared to inspiratory muscle force. Respiratory muscle strength may affect lung volumes in these patients, and expiratory muscles may be more susceptible than the diaphragm to SCD-induced vaso-occlusive damage.

  13. Vaccination coverage against 2009 seasonal influenza in chronically ill children and adults: analysis of population registries in primary care in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rieiro, Cristina; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; Sánchez-Perruca, Luis; Astray-Mochales, Jenaro; Fornies, Domingo Iniesta; Ordoñez, Dolores Barranco; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2010-08-31

    Using electronic clinical records in primary care (ECRPC) of the entire population living in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain (5,102,568 persons) as a data source, this study aimed to ascertain seasonal anti-influenza vaccination coverage in the chronically ill at-risk children (aged 6 months to 14 years) and adults (15-59 years). Of the total population aged 6 months to 59 years with a medical card in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, 10.3% (n=528,095 patients) had a chronic condition for which anti-influenza vaccination was indicated. In children with chronic conditions, coverage was 27.1% and it was particularly high among diabetics (41.1%) and particularly low in children with "other pulmonary conditions" (15.2%). In adults with chronic conditions, coverage was 22.1% and in patients with diagnosed heart failure coverage reached 39.1%; with the lowest coverage was observed in patients suffering neuromuscular diseases (12.8%). The factors associated with vaccination among children and adults suffering a chronic condition included: having been vaccinated during the previous campaign, national origin (lower among immigrants), and having more than one chronic condition. In conclusion, our study shows that vaccination coverage for 2009 seasonal influenza in children and adults with chronic conditions living in Madrid (Spain) was less than acceptable.

  14. Do children who receive an ‘early dose’ of MMR vaccine during a measles outbreak return for their regularly scheduled dose? A retrospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Simmonds, Kimberley A; Svenson, Jill; MacDonald, Shannon E

    2016-01-01

    Background Children under the age of 12 months may receive an early dose of measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine to provide short-term protection in the case of a disease outbreak. Following a measles outbreak in Alberta, Canada, there was concern that children who received an early dose may not be returning for their routinely scheduled dose at 12 months, leaving them vulnerable to disease in the long term. Methods This population-based study of children born between 2006 and 2014 used administrative health data to assess coverage and timeliness of the first routine dose of MMR vaccine administered at age 12–24 months for children who received an early dose of the vaccine due to a disease outbreak. We compared this group to children who received an early dose due to travel to a measles-endemic region and to children who did not receive an early dose. Results Only 5.5% of 366 351 children received an early dose. Coverage for the routine dose at age 24 months was 96.5% for children receiving an outbreak dose, 92.2% for those travelling to measles-endemic regions and 86.6% for those without an early dose (p<0.0001). The multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis, controlling for neighbourhood income, place of residence and interaction effects, determined that, as compared to the general cohort, the outbreak group was most likely to obtain the first routine dose (adjusted HR (aHR): 1.52, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.60), followed by the travel group (aHR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.34). Conclusions It is reassuring that the majority of children who received an early dose returned for their routine dose and did so in a timely manner. PMID:27580838

  15. A ban on marketing of foods/beverages to children: the who, why, what and how of a population health intervention.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Daniel J; Campbell, Norman R C; Elliott, Charlene; McLaren, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing recognition in Canada and elsewhere of the need for population-level interventions related to diet. One example of such an intervention is a ban on the marketing of foods/beverages to children, for which several health organizations have or are in the process of developing position statements. Considering the federal government's inaction to impose restrictions that would yield meaningful impact, there is opportunity for the health community to unite in support of a stronger set of policies. However, several issues and challenges exist, some of which we outline in this commentary. We emphasize that, despite challenges, the present and predicted future of diet-related illness in Canadian children is such that population-level intervention is necessary and becoming increasingly urgent, and there is an important role for the health community in facilitating action.

  16. Integrating primary care and behavioral health with four special populations: Children with special needs, people with serious mental illness, refugees, and deaf people.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Robert Q; Betts, William R; Carroll, Jennifer K; Waxmonsky, Jeanette A; Barnett, Steven; deGruy, Frank V; Pickler, Laura L; Kellar-Guenther, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Special patient populations can present unique opportunities and challenges to integrating primary care and behavioral health services. This article focuses on four special populations: children with special needs, persons with severe and persistent mental illness, refugees, and deaf people who communicate via sign language. The current state of primary care and behavioral health collaboration regarding each of these four populations is examined via Doherty, McDaniel, and Baird's (1996) five-level collaboration model. The section on children with special needs offers contrasting case studies that highlight the consequences of effective versus ineffective service integration. The challenges and potential benefits of service integration for the severely mentally ill are examined via description of PRICARe (Promoting Resources for Integrated Care and Recovery), a model program in Colorado. The discussion regarding a refugee population focuses on service integration needs and emerging collaborative models as well as ways in which refugee mental health research can be improved. The section on deaf individuals examines how sign language users are typically marginalized in health care settings and offers suggestions for improving the health care experiences and outcomes of deaf persons. A well-integrated model program for deaf persons in Austria is described. All four of these special populations will benefit from further integration of primary care and mental health services.

  17. Integrating primary care and behavioral health with four special populations: Children with special needs, people with serious mental illness, refugees, and deaf people.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Robert Q; Betts, William R; Carroll, Jennifer K; Waxmonsky, Jeanette A; Barnett, Steven; deGruy, Frank V; Pickler, Laura L; Kellar-Guenther, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Special patient populations can present unique opportunities and challenges to integrating primary care and behavioral health services. This article focuses on four special populations: children with special needs, persons with severe and persistent mental illness, refugees, and deaf people who communicate via sign language. The current state of primary care and behavioral health collaboration regarding each of these four populations is examined via Doherty, McDaniel, and Baird's (1996) five-level collaboration model. The section on children with special needs offers contrasting case studies that highlight the consequences of effective versus ineffective service integration. The challenges and potential benefits of service integration for the severely mentally ill are examined via description of PRICARe (Promoting Resources for Integrated Care and Recovery), a model program in Colorado. The discussion regarding a refugee population focuses on service integration needs and emerging collaborative models as well as ways in which refugee mental health research can be improved. The section on deaf individuals examines how sign language users are typically marginalized in health care settings and offers suggestions for improving the health care experiences and outcomes of deaf persons. A well-integrated model program for deaf persons in Austria is described. All four of these special populations will benefit from further integration of primary care and mental health services. PMID:24820687

  18. Acculturation, dietary practices and risk for childhood obesity in an ethnically heterogeneous population of Latino school children in the San Francisco bay area.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Schwartz, Norah; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies have found increased acculturation to the US lifestyle increases risk for obesity in Latinos. However, methodologies differ, and results in children are inconsistent. Moreover, previous studies have not evaluated risk factors within the heterogeneous US population. We recruited 144 self-identified Latino school children and their mother or father in grades 4-6 in San Francisco parochial schools and South San Francisco public schools using an information letter distributed to all students. Children and parents had weights, heights, demographic information, dietary patterns and lifestyle variables collected in English or Spanish through an interview format. A high percentage of our children were overweight [≥85th percentile body mass index (BMI)] (62.5%) and obese (≥95th percentile BMI) (45.2%). Correspondingly parents also had a high percentage of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 & <30) (40.8%) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) (45.3%). Mexico was the country of origin for 62.2% of parents, and 26.6% were from Central or South America. In multivariate logistic analysis, speaking Spanish at home was an independent risk factor for obesity [odds ratio (OR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.86]. Eating breakfast daily (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.78) and consumption of tortas (a Mexican fast food sandwich) (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-1.00) were associated with decreased risk. In stratified analysis, significant differences in risk factors existed between Mexican origin versus Central/South American Latino children. The processes of acculturation likely impact eating and lifestyle practices differentially among Latino groups. Interventions should focus on ensuring that all children eat a nutritious breakfast and take into consideration ethnicity when working with Latino populations. PMID:22101726

  19. Acculturation, dietary practices and risk for childhood obesity in an ethnically heterogeneous population of Latino school children in the San Francisco bay area.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Schwartz, Norah; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies have found increased acculturation to the US lifestyle increases risk for obesity in Latinos. However, methodologies differ, and results in children are inconsistent. Moreover, previous studies have not evaluated risk factors within the heterogeneous US population. We recruited 144 self-identified Latino school children and their mother or father in grades 4-6 in San Francisco parochial schools and South San Francisco public schools using an information letter distributed to all students. Children and parents had weights, heights, demographic information, dietary patterns and lifestyle variables collected in English or Spanish through an interview format. A high percentage of our children were overweight [≥85th percentile body mass index (BMI)] (62.5%) and obese (≥95th percentile BMI) (45.2%). Correspondingly parents also had a high percentage of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 & <30) (40.8%) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) (45.3%). Mexico was the country of origin for 62.2% of parents, and 26.6% were from Central or South America. In multivariate logistic analysis, speaking Spanish at home was an independent risk factor for obesity [odds ratio (OR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.86]. Eating breakfast daily (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.78) and consumption of tortas (a Mexican fast food sandwich) (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-1.00) were associated with decreased risk. In stratified analysis, significant differences in risk factors existed between Mexican origin versus Central/South American Latino children. The processes of acculturation likely impact eating and lifestyle practices differentially among Latino groups. Interventions should focus on ensuring that all children eat a nutritious breakfast and take into consideration ethnicity when working with Latino populations.

  20. The reliability of Fishman method of skeletal maturation for age estimation in children of South Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Kalyan, V. Siva; Tircouveluri, Saritha; Vegesna, Goutham Chakravarthy; Chirla, Anil; Varma, D. Maruthi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Determining the age of a person in the absence of documentary evidence of birth is essential for legal and medico-legal purpose. Fishman method of skeletal maturation is widely used for this purpose; however, the reliability of this method for people with all geographic locations is not well-established. Aims and Objectives: In this study, we assessed various stages of carpal and metacarpal bone maturation and tested the reliability of Fishman method of skeletal maturation to estimate the age in South Indian population. We also evaluated the correlation between the chronological age (CA) and predicted age based on the Fishman method of skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: Digital right hand-wrist radiographs of 330 individuals aged 9-20 years were obtained and the skeletal maturity stage for each subject was determined using Fishman method. The skeletal maturation indicator scores were obtained and analyzed with reference to CA and sex. Data was analyzed using the SPSS software package (version 12, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: The study subjects had a tendency toward late maturation with the mean skeletal age (SA) estimated being significantly lowers (P < 0.05) than the mean CA at various skeletal maturity stages. Nevertheless, significant correlation was observed in this study between SA and CA for males (r = 0.82) and females (r = 0.85). Interestingly, female subjects were observed to be advanced in SA compared with males. Conclusion: Fishman method of skeletal maturation can be used as an alternative tool for the assessment of mean age of an individual of unknown CA in South Indian children. PMID:25097402

  1. General intelligence is associated with subclinical inflammation in Nepalese children: A population-based plasma proteomics study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Eun; West, Keith P; Cole, Robert N; Schulze, Kerry J; Wu, Lee Shu-Fune; Yager, James D; Groopman, John; Christian, Parul

    2016-08-01

    Improving child cognition in impoverished countries is a public health priority. Yet, biological pathways and associated biomarkers of impaired cognition remain poorly understood and largely unknown, respectively. This study aimed to explore and quantify associations between functional plasma protein biomarkers and childhood intellectual test performance. We applied proteomics to quantify proteins in plasma samples of 249 rural Nepalese children, 6-8years of age who, 1year later at 7-9years of age, were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT). Among 751 plasma proteins quantified, 22 were associated with UNIT scores, passing a false discovery rate threshold of 5.0% (q<0.05). UNIT scores were higher by 2.3-9.2 points for every 50% increase in relative abundance of two insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), six subclasses of apolipoprotein (Apo) and transthyretin, and lower by 4.0-15.3 points for each 50% increase in relative abundance of 13 proteins predominantly involved in inflammation. Among them, IGFBP-acid labile subunit, orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), Apo C-I, and pyruvate kinase isoenzymes M1/M2 jointly explained 37% of the variance in UNIT scores. After additional adjustment for height-for-age Z-score and household socio-economic status as indicators of long-term nutritional and social stress, associations with 6 proteins involved in inflammation, including ORM1, α-1-antichymotrypsin, reticulocalbin 1, and 3 components of the complement cascade, remained significant (q<0.05). Using untargeted proteomics, stable, constitutive facets of subclinical inflammation were associated with lower developmental test performance in this rural South Asian child population. Plasma proteomics may offer opportunities to identify functional, antecedent biomarkers of child cognitive development.

  2. Anthropometric predictors of body fat in a large population of 9‐year‐old school‐aged children

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, José M; Mascarenhas, Paulo; Ferraz, Maria E; Silva, Luís R; Ferreira, José C; Monteiro, Mariana; Vilanova, Manuel; Ferraz, Fernando P

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective To develop and cross‐validate predictive models for percentage body fat (%BF) from anthropometric measurements [including BMI z‐score (zBMI) and calf circumference (CC)] excluding skinfold thickness. Methods A descriptive study was carried out in 3,084 pre‐pubertal children. Regression models and neural network were developed with %BF measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) as the dependent variables and age, sex and anthropometric measurements as independent predictors. Results All %BF grade predictive models presented a good global accuracy (≥91.3%) for obesity discrimination. Both overfat/obese and obese prediction models presented respectively good sensitivity (78.6% and 71.0%), specificity (98.0% and 99.2%) and reliability for positive or negative test results (≥82% and ≥96%). For boys, the order of parameters, by relative weight in the predictive model, was zBMI, height, waist‐circumference‐to‐height‐ratio (WHtR) squared variable (_Q), age, weight, CC_Q and hip circumference (HC)_Q (adjusted r 2 = 0.847 and RMSE = 2.852); for girls it was zBMI, WHtR_Q, height, age, HC_Q and CC_Q (adjusted r 2 = 0.872 and RMSE = 2.171). Conclusion %BF can be graded and predicted with relative accuracy from anthropometric measurements excluding skinfold thickness. Fitness and cross‐validation results showed that our multivariable regression model performed better in this population than did some previously published models. PMID:27708844

  3. Anthropometric predictors of body fat in a large population of 9‐year‐old school‐aged children

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, José M; Mascarenhas, Paulo; Ferraz, Maria E; Silva, Luís R; Ferreira, José C; Monteiro, Mariana; Vilanova, Manuel; Ferraz, Fernando P

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective To develop and cross‐validate predictive models for percentage body fat (%BF) from anthropometric measurements [including BMI z‐score (zBMI) and calf circumference (CC)] excluding skinfold thickness. Methods A descriptive study was carried out in 3,084 pre‐pubertal children. Regression models and neural network were developed with %BF measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) as the dependent variables and age, sex and anthropometric measurements as independent predictors. Results All %BF grade predictive models presented a good global accuracy (≥91.3%) for obesity discrimination. Both overfat/obese and obese prediction models presented respectively good sensitivity (78.6% and 71.0%), specificity (98.0% and 99.2%) and reliability for positive or negative test results (≥82% and ≥96%). For boys, the order of parameters, by relative weight in the predictive model, was zBMI, height, waist‐circumference‐to‐height‐ratio (WHtR) squared variable (_Q), age, weight, CC_Q and hip circumference (HC)_Q (adjusted r 2 = 0.847 and RMSE = 2.852); for girls it was zBMI, WHtR_Q, height, age, HC_Q and CC_Q (adjusted r 2 = 0.872 and RMSE = 2.171). Conclusion %BF can be graded and predicted with relative accuracy from anthropometric measurements excluding skinfold thickness. Fitness and cross‐validation results showed that our multivariable regression model performed better in this population than did some previously published models.

  4. General intelligence is associated with subclinical inflammation in Nepalese children: A population-based plasma proteomics study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Eun; West, Keith P; Cole, Robert N; Schulze, Kerry J; Wu, Lee Shu-Fune; Yager, James D; Groopman, John; Christian, Parul

    2016-08-01

    Improving child cognition in impoverished countries is a public health priority. Yet, biological pathways and associated biomarkers of impaired cognition remain poorly understood and largely unknown, respectively. This study aimed to explore and quantify associations between functional plasma protein biomarkers and childhood intellectual test performance. We applied proteomics to quantify proteins in plasma samples of 249 rural Nepalese children, 6-8years of age who, 1year later at 7-9years of age, were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT). Among 751 plasma proteins quantified, 22 were associated with UNIT scores, passing a false discovery rate threshold of 5.0% (q<0.05). UNIT scores were higher by 2.3-9.2 points for every 50% increase in relative abundance of two insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), six subclasses of apolipoprotein (Apo) and transthyretin, and lower by 4.0-15.3 points for each 50% increase in relative abundance of 13 proteins predominantly involved in inflammation. Among them, IGFBP-acid labile subunit, orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), Apo C-I, and pyruvate kinase isoenzymes M1/M2 jointly explained 37% of the variance in UNIT scores. After additional adjustment for height-for-age Z-score and household socio-economic status as indicators of long-term nutritional and social stress, associations with 6 proteins involved in inflammation, including ORM1, α-1-antichymotrypsin, reticulocalbin 1, and 3 components of the complement cascade, remained significant (q<0.05). Using untargeted proteomics, stable, constitutive facets of subclinical inflammation were associated with lower developmental test performance in this rural South Asian child population. Plasma proteomics may offer opportunities to identify functional, antecedent biomarkers of child cognitive development. PMID:27039242

  5. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Raltegravir Pediatric Formulations in HIV-infected Children 4 weeks to 18 years of age†

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Matthew L.; Du, Lihong; Bennetto-Hood, Chantelle; Wenning, Larissa; Teppler, Hedy; Homony, Brenda; Graham, Bobbie; Fry, Carrie; Nachman, Sharon; Wiznia, Andrew; Worrell, Carol; Smith, Betsy; Acosta, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    P1066 is an open-label study of raltegravir in HIV+ youth, ages 4 weeks-18 years. Here we summarize P1066 pharmacokinetic (PK) data and a population PK model for the pediatric chewable tablet and oral granules. Raltegravir PK parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. A two-compartment model was developed using data from P1066 and an adult study of the pediatric formulations. Inter-individual variability was described by an exponential error model, and residual variability was captured by an additive/proportional error model. Twelve-hour concentrations (C12hr) were calculated from the model-derived elimination rate constant and 8-hour observed concentration. Simulated steady-state concentrations were analyzed by non-compartmental analysis. Target area-under-the-curve (AUC0-12hr) and C12hr were achieved in each cohort. For the pediatric formulations, geometric mean AUC0-12hr values were 18.0–22.6 μM*hr across cohorts, and C12hr values were 71–130 nM, with lower coefficients of variation vs the film-coated tablet. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption adequately described raltegravir plasma PK in pediatric and adult patients. Weight was a covariate on clearance and central volume, and incorporated using allometric scaling. Raltegravir chewable tablets and oral granules exhibited PK parameters consistent with those from prior adult studies and older children in P1066, as well as lower variability than the film-coated tablet. PMID:25753401

  6. Viewing behavior and related clinical characteristics in a population of children with visual impairments in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kooiker, M J G; Pel, J J M; van der Steen, J

    2014-06-01

    Children with visual impairments are very heterogeneous in terms of the extent of visual and developmental etiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible correlation between prevalence of clinical risk factors of visual processing impairments and characteristics of viewing behavior. We tested 149 children with visual information processing impairments (90 boys, 59 girls; mean age (SD)=7.3 (3.3)) and 127 children without visual impairments (63 boys and 64 girls, mean age (SD)=7.9 (2.8)). Visual processing impairments were classified based on the time it took to complete orienting responses to various visual stimuli (form, contrast, motion detection, motion coherence, color and a cartoon). Within the risk group, children were divided into a fast, medium or slow group based on the response times to a highly salient stimulus. The relationship between group specific response times and clinical risk factors was assessed. The fast responding children in the risk group were significantly slower than children in the control group. Within the risk group, the prevalence of cerebral visual impairment, brain damage and intellectual disabilities was significantly higher in slow responding children compared to faster responding children. The presence of nystagmus, perceptual dysfunctions, mean visual acuity and mean age did not significantly differ between the subgroups. Orienting responses are related to risk factors for visual processing impairments known to be prevalent in visual rehabilitation practice. The proposed method may contribute to assessing the effectiveness of visual information processing in children.

  7. Association of inflammatory sialoproteins, lipid peroxides and serum magnesium levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children of South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, G; Anitha, D; Srinivasan, A R; Velu, V Kuzhandai; Venkatesh, C; Babu, M Sathish; Ramesh, R; Saha, S

    2014-06-01

    The Incidence of childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing even in rural and semi-urban regions of India. Adipose tissue mass secretes several inflammatory proteins, which could potentially alter the metabolic processes, leading to several complications at the later stages of life. With limited studies on protein bound sialic acid (PBSA) as a marker of oxidative stress mediated inflammation in obese children, this study was aimed to assess and correlate PBSA with lipid peroxidation and other cardiometabolic risk factors like Insulin Resistance (IR), serum magnesium, and high sensitive C reactive Protein (hsCRP) levels in order to provide an insight into the degree of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. This study included 62 obese children (≥95% percentile of the CDC chart) and 60 non obese controls. This study documents significant higher levels of PBSA, IR, Malondialdehyde (MDA), hsCRP and uric acid in obese children (p<0.001). PBSA was associated with IR, hsCRP, uric acid, hypomagnesaemia. Higher degrees of oxidative stress, Insulin resistance and low serum magnesium levels were noted in obese children. PBSA and hsCRP levels were elevated and were associated with Insulin resistance in obese children of South Indian population. PMID:25018680

  8. Association of Inflammatory Sialoproteins, Lipid Peroxides and Serum Magnesium Levels with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Obese Children of South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Niranjan, G.; Anitha, D.; Srinivasan, A. R.; Velu, V. Kuzhandai; Venkatesh, C.; Babu, M. Sathish; Ramesh, R.; Saha, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Incidence of childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing even in rural and semi-urban regions of India. Adipose tissue mass secretes several inflammatory proteins, which could potentially alter the metabolic processes, leading to several complications at the later stages of life. With limited studies on protein bound sialic acid (PBSA) as a marker of oxidative stress mediated inflammation in obese children, this study was aimed to assess and correlate PBSA with lipid peroxidation and other cardiometabolic risk factors like Insulin Resistance (IR), serum magnesium, and high sensitive C reactive Protein (hsCRP) levels in order to provide an insight into the degree of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. This study included 62 obese children (≥95% percentile of the CDC chart) and 60 non obese controls. This study documents significant higher levels of PBSA, IR, Malondialdehyde (MDA), hsCRP and uric acid in obese children (p<0.001). PBSA was associated with IR, hsCRP, uric acid, hypomagnesaemia. Higher degrees of oxidative stress, Insulin resistance and low serum magnesium levels were noted in obese children. PBSA and hsCRP levels were elevated and were associated with Insulin resistance in obese children of South Indian population. PMID:25018680

  9. Birth data accessibility via primary care health records to classify health status in a multi-ethnic population of children: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Rachel; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Stocks, Janet; Harding, Seeromanie; Wade, Angela; Griffiths, Chris; Sears, David; Fothergill, Helen; Slevin, Hannah; Lum, Sooky

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to reliable birth data (birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA)) is essential for the identification of individuals who are at subsequent health risk. Aims: This study aimed to explore the feasibility of retrospectively collecting birth data for schoolchildren from parental questionnaires (PQ) and general practitioners (GPs) in primary care clinics, in inner city neighbourhoods with high density of ethnic minority and disadvantaged populations. Methods: Attempts were made to obtain birth data from parents and GPs for 2,171 London primary schoolchildren (34% White, 29% Black African origin, 25% South Asians, 12% Other) as part of a larger study of respiratory health. Results: Information on BW and/or GA were obtained from parents for 2,052 (95%) children. Almost all parents (2,045) gave consent to access their children’s health records held by GPs. On the basis of parental information, GPs of 1,785 children were successfully contacted, and GPs of 1,202 children responded. Birth data were retrieved for only 482 children (22% of 2,052). Missing birth data from GPs were associated with non-white ethnicity, non-UK born, English not the dominant language at home or socioeconomic disadvantage. Paired data were available in 376 children for BW and in 407 children for GA. No significant difference in BW or GA was observed between PQ and GP data, with <5% difference between sources regardless of normal or low birth weight, or term or preterm status. Conclusions: Parental recall of birth data for primary schoolchildren yields high quality and rapid return of data, and it should be considered as a viable alternative in which there is limited access to birth records. It provides the potential to include children with an increased risk of health problems within epidemiological studies. PMID:25612149

  10. Incidence, Characteristics and Risk Factors for Household and Neighborhood Injury among Young Children in Semi-Urban Ghana: A Population-Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gyedu, A.; Nakua, E. K; Otupiri, E.; Mock, C.; Donkor, P.; Ebel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few population-based studies on household child injury in African countries. Objectives To determine the incidence, characteristics and risk factors of household and neighborhood injury among children in semi-urban communities in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional population–weighted survey of 200 randomly selected caregivers of children under-18, representing 6801 households. Caregivers were interviewed about moderate to severe childhood injuries occurring within the past 6 months, for which the child staying home from school or activity, and/or required medical care. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with injury risk. Results Annual injury incidence was 593.5 injuries per 1000 children. Common causes of injury were falls (315.7 injuries per 1000 children), followed by cuts/lacerations and burns. Most injuries (93.8%) were of moderate severity. Children whose caregivers were hourly workers (AOR=1.97;95% CI:1.06,3.68) had increased odds of sustaining an injury compared to those of unemployed caregivers. Girls had decreased odds of injury (AOR=0.59;95% CI:0.39,0.91). Cooking outdoors (AOR=0.45;95% CI:0.27,0.76) and presence of cabinet/cupboards (AOR=0.41;95% CI:0.24,0.70) in the house were protective. Among children under 5 years of age, living in uncompleted accommodation was associated with higher odds of injury compared to living in a rented single room (AOR=3.67;95% CI 1.17,11.48). Conclusions The incidence of household and neighborhood child injury is high in semi-urban Kumasi. We identified several novel injury risk factors (hourly work, younger children) and protective factors (cooking outdoors, presence of cabinet/cupboards). These data may identify priorities for household injury prevention. PMID:24914101

  11. Thoracic spine pain in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and associated factors in children, adolescents and adults. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Andrew M; Smith, Anne J; Straker, Leon M; Bragge, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Thoracic spine pain (TSP) is experienced across the lifespan by healthy individuals and is a common presentation in primary healthcare clinical practice. However, the epidemiological characteristics of TSP are not well documented compared to neck and low back pain. A rigorous evaluation of the prevalence, incidence, correlates and risk factors needs to be undertaken in order for epidemiologic data to be meaningfully used to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment recommendations for TSP. Methods A systematic review method was followed to report the evidence describing prevalence, incidence, associated factors and risk factors for TSP among the general population. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies that reported either prevalence, incidence, associated factors (cross-sectional study) or risk factors (prospective study) for TSP in healthy children, adolescents or adults. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and method quality. Results Of the 1389 studies identified in the literature, 33 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The mean (SD) quality score (out of 15) for the included studies was 10.5 (2.0). TSP prevalence data ranged from 4.0–72.0% (point), 0.5–51.4% (7-day), 1.4–34.8% (1-month), 4.8–7.0% (3-month), 3.5–34.8% (1-year) and 15.6–19.5% (lifetime). TSP prevalence varied according to the operational definition of TSP. Prevalence for any TSP ranged from 0.5–23.0%, 15.8–34.8%, 15.0–27.5% and 12.0–31.2% for 7-day, 1-month, 1-year and lifetime periods, respectively. TSP associated with backpack use varied from 6.0–72.0% and 22.9–51.4% for point and 7-day periods, respectively. TSP interfering with school or leisure ranged from 3.5–9.7% for 1-year prevalence. Generally, studies reported a higher prevalence for TSP in child and adolescent populations, and particularly for females. The 1 month, 6 month, 1 year and 25 year incidences were 0–0.9%, 10.3%, 3

  12. Caregiver Report of Executive Functioning in a Population-Based Sample of Young Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Fidler, Deborah J.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Daunhauer, Lisa; Robinson, Cordelia; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study describes everyday executive function (EF) profiles in young children with Down syndrome. Caregivers of children with Down syndrome (n = 26; chronological ages = 4-10 years; mental ages = 2-4 years) completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool (BRIEF-P; G. A. Gioia, K. A. Espy, & P. K. Isquith, 2003), a…

  13. Mealtime Energy Intake and Feeding Behaviour in Children Who Fail to Thrive: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Drewett, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The essential link between energy needs and energy intake is feeding behaviour, yet few studies have directly observed feeding behaviour in children who have failed to thrive. A cohort of 961 term infants was screened to identify children with first year weight gain below the 5th centile in order to examine their feeding behaviour and…

  14. Prevalence of Autism in Children of Somali Origin Living in Stockholm: Brief Report of an At-Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This work was a follow-up study (birth years 1999-2003) of the prevalence of autism in children of Somali background living in the county of Stockholm, Sweden. In a previous study (birth years 1988-98), the prevalence of autism associated with learning disability was found to be three to four times higher among Somali children compared with other…

  15. Determinants of Substance Abuse in a Population of Children and Adolescents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…

  16. Atopic dermatitis and association of risk for primary immune thrombocytopenia and autoimmune diseases among children: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chang-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Shen, Te-Chun; Tsai, Jeng-Dau

    2016-07-01

    Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is currently defined as an acquired autoimmune disorder with persistent thrombocytopenia. However, the temporal interaction between T helper type 2 cell (Th2)-mediated allergic diseases and T helper type 1 cell (Th1)-mediated ITP remains unknown. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is considered one of the first steps in the atopic march. Herein, we conducted a population-based cohort analysis to investigate the risk of ITP in children with AD in comparison with non-AD controls. We subsequently compared the occurrence of other autoimmune diseases in ITP children in both AD and non-AD cohorts. From 2000 to 2007, 120,704 children with newly diagnosed AD and 241,408 randomly selected non-AD controls were included in the study. By the end of 2008, incidences of ITP in both cohorts and the AD cohort to non-AD cohort hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were measured. Comparison of the occurrence of other autoimmune diseases in ITP between children with and without AD was analyzed. The incidence of ITP during the study period was 1.72-fold greater (95% CI: 1.13-2.62) in the AD cohort than in the non-AD cohort (6.96 vs 4.00 per 100,000 person-years). The risk was greatest among male children, children >2 years, those in densely populated areas, and those with white-collar parents. The HR of ITP in AD children increased significantly with the number of AD-related clinical visits (P < 0.001). The risk of developing ITP in the AD cohort was highest within the first 3 years after the diagnosis of AD (HR: 1.78; CI: 1.14-2.78). The AD cohort with ITP had a higher occurrence rate of other autoimmune diseases than the non-AD cohort with ITP. AD children had a greater risk of developing ITP and other autoimmune diseases. Further research is needed to clarify the role of allergy in the pathogenesis of ITP and autoimmune diseases. PMID:27442647

  17. Utilization Patterns of Conventional and Complementary/Alternative Treatments in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities in a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Akins, CDR Roger Scott; Krakowiak, Paula; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hansen, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compared the utilization of conventional treatments to utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD). Methods Participants were 578 children who were part of an ongoing population-based, case-control study of 2 to 5 year-olds with ASD, DD, and the general population. Parents completed an interview on past and current services. Results Four hundred fifty-three children with ASD and 125 DD children were included. ASD families received more hours of conventional services compared to DD (17.8 vs. 11; p<0.001). The use of psychotropic medications was low in both groups (~3%). CAM use overall was not significantly different in ASD (39%) versus DD (30%). Hispanic families in both groups used CAM less often than non-Hispanics. Variables such as level of function, immunization status, and presence of an identified neurogenetic disorder were not predictive of CAM use. A higher level of parental education was associated with increased CAM use in ASD and DD. Families who utilized >20 hours per week of conventional services were more likely to use CAM, including potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Under-immunized children were marginally more likely to use CAM, but not more likely to have received potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Conclusion CAM use is common in families of young children with neurodevelopmental disorders and is predicted by higher parental education and non-Hispanic ethnicity but not developmental characteristics. Further research should address how healthcare providers can support families in making decisions about CAM use. PMID:24399100

  18. The consumption of flavored milk among a children population. The influence of beliefs and the association of brands with emotions.

    PubMed

    De Pelsmaeker, Sara; Schouteten, Joachim; Gellynck, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    Although milk and dairy products are seen as an important part of a child's diet, their consumption is declining. The aim of this study is to investigate the consumption of milk and flavored milk among a sample of 513 Belgian children aged between 8 and 13 years. In addition, the association between flavored milk brands and emotions is examined. Children prefer and consume more flavored than plain milk. They indicate that consumption is a self-made choice and that parents mainly ensure the availability of these products. Children prefer flavored milk to plain milk, although it is perceived to be less healthy. No correlation could be found between brand awareness and the consumption of flavored milk. Brands of flavored milk evoke divergent emotions and can be classified into different groups based upon their association with a type of emotion (i.e. positive/negative). This study demonstrates that taste is an important factor in flavored milk consumption by children and shows a strong relationship between brands and emotions. Consequently, the taste needs to be appealing for children, but it is equally important that children associate the brand with positive emotions, as this will lead to a higher preference. Milk producers who target children can use the insights gained from this study in the development of new products. PMID:24001396

  19. Epidemiology of meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b in children in Bulgaria: a prospective, population-based surveillance study.

    PubMed Central

    Kojouharova, Mira; Gatcheva, Nina; Setchanova, Lena; Robertson, Susan E.; Wenger, Jay D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) among children in Bulgaria and to provide evidence for an informed decision on the use of Hib vaccines in Bulgaria. METHODS: From 1 July 1997 to 31 December 1999, active surveillance for meningitis was conducted in six regions. For children with suspected meningitis, a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen was sent for cytology, chemistry, latex agglutination testing, culture and sensitivity. FINDINGS: During the 2.5-year study period, surveillance was conducted among 138 249 children aged <5 years - a sample representing 40% of all Bulgarian children in this age group. Overall, 285 children with suspected meningitis were identified. In eight children, clinical symptoms of meningitis resolved rapidly before a CSF specimen could be obtained. Of the remaining 277 children, 121 (44%) were classified as having probable bacterial meningitis on the basis of a CSF examination. An organism was identified for 88 (73%) of the 121 cases with probable bacterial meningitis. There were 21 cases of Hib, giving a mean annual incidence of 6.1 Hib meningitis cases per 100 000 children <5 years; the case-fatality rate was 10%. Nearly 60% of Hib isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics, but they were not resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. CONCLUSION: On the basis of these findings, Hib conjugate vaccines have been included in the list of vaccines recommended for children by the Bulgarian Ministry of Health. The recommended initial treatment for paediatric bacterial meningitis has been changed to third-generation cephalosporins. PMID:12378285

  20. Residential movement patterns of families of young children with chronic conditions in Ontario, Canada: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Care giving for children with chronic diseases can lead to financial strain and compromised family well being. Little is known about whether these stresses lead to changes in residential movement patterns as they relate to income adequacy and proximity to care. Methods We compared the residential movement patterns and associated changes in neighbourhood income of children with mild to severe chronic diseases compared with those that are healthy. A cohort of infants born from 2002–2007 in Ontario, Canada was followed for 5 years and divided into those with single- or multiple- body system complex chronic conditions (CCCs); low birth weight (LBW); asthma/recurrent wheeze (A/RW) and the control group of otherwise healthy children. Results Of 598,716 children studied, 15,207 had a single CCC, 3,600 multiple CCCs, 33,206 LBW, 57,137 A/RW and 489,566 were healthy. Lowest income quintile children were most likely to move residence. Compared with healthy controls, chronic disease cohorts, apart from those with asthma, were more likely to be born in the lowest income quintile neighbourhood and to move. Among children who moved, all chronic disease cohorts were significantly more likely to move to a low income quintile neighborhood (adjusted odds ratios for all chronic disease cohorts of 1.1-1.2). There were no differences across cohorts in residential movement close to a children’s hospital. Conclusions Young children with chronic conditions, particularly those born in low income neighbourhoods, are more likely to move residence than other healthy young children. However, it does not seem that proximity to specialized care is driving this movement. Further research is required to determine if these movement patterns impact the ability of children with chronic conditions to secure health services. PMID:23962036

  1. Changing Trends within the Population of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Flanders (Belgium): Effects of 12 Years of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Early Intervention, and Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Raeve, Leo; Lichtert, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the changing trends within the population of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Belgium over the last 12 years. The combination of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, early intervention, and cochlear implants have tremendously influenced the education and support of children who are deaf or…

  2. Determinants of linear growth from infancy to school-aged years: a population-based follow-up study in urban Amazonian children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although linear growth during childhood may be affected by early-life exposures, few studies have examined whether the effects of these exposures linger on during school age, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Methods We conducted a population-based longitudinal study of 256 children living in the Brazilian Amazon, aged 0.1 y to 5.5 y in 2003. Data regarding socioeconomic and maternal characteristics, infant feeding practices, morbidities, and birth weight and length were collected at baseline of the study (2003). Child body length/height was measured at baseline and at follow-up visits (in 2007 and 2009). Restricted cubic splines were used to construct average height-for-age Z score (HAZ) growth curves, yielding estimated HAZ differences among exposure categories at ages 0.5 y, 1 y, 2 y, 5 y, 7 y, and 10 y. Results At baseline, median age was 2.6 y (interquartile range, 1.4 y–3.8 y), and mean HAZ was −0.53 (standard deviation, 1.15); 10.2% of children were stunted. In multivariable analysis, children in households above the household wealth index median were 0.30 Z taller at age 5 y (P = 0.017), and children whose families owned land were 0.34 Z taller by age 10 y (P = 0.023), when compared with poorer children. Mothers in the highest tertile for height had children whose HAZ were significantly higher compared with those of children from mothers in the lowest height tertile at all ages. Birth weight and length were positively related to linear growth throughout childhood; by age 10 y, children weighing >3500 g at birth were 0.31 Z taller than those weighing 2501 g to 3500 g (P = 0.022) at birth, and children measuring ≥51 cm at birth were 0.51 Z taller than those measuring ≤48 cm (P = 0.005). Conclusions Results suggest socioeconomic background is a potentially modifiable predictor of linear growth during the school-aged years. Maternal height and child’s anthropometric characteristics at birth are positively

  3. Prognosis and Risk Factors for Congenital Airway Anomalies in Children with Congenital Heart Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Sheng; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Tsao, Pei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background The mortality risk associated with congenital airway anomalies (CAA) in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with CAA, and the associated mortality risk, among children with CHD. Methods This nationwide, population-based study evaluated 39,652 children with CHD aged 0–5 years between 2000 and 2011, using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We performed descriptive, logistic regression, Kaplan–Meier, and Cox regression analyses of the data. Results Among the children with CHD, 1,591 (4.0%) had concomitant CAA. Children with CHD had an increased likelihood of CAA if they were boys (odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33–1.64), infants (OR, 5.42; 95%CI, 4.06–7.24), or had a congenital musculoskeletal anomaly (OR, 3.19; 95%CI, 2.67–3.81), and were typically identified 0–3 years after CHD diagnosis (OR, 1.33; 95%CI 1.17–1.51). The mortality risk was increased in children with CHD and CAA (crude hazard ratio [HR], 2.05; 95%CI, 1.77–2.37), even after adjusting for confounders (adjusted HR, 1.76; 95%CI, 1.51–2.04). Mortality risk also changed by age and sex (adjusted HR and 95%CI are quoted): neonates, infants, and toddlers and preschool children, 1.67 (1.40–2.00), 1.93 (1.47–2.55), and 4.77 (1.39–16.44), respectively; and boys and girls, 1.62 (1.32–1.98) and 2.01 (1.61–2.50), respectively. Conclusion The mortality risk is significantly increased among children with CHD and comorbid CAA. Clinicians should actively seek CAA during the follow-up of children with CHD. PMID:26334302

  4. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  5. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:27383358

  6. Depression, Somatization, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Born of Occupation After World War II in Comparison With a General Population.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2015-10-01

    At the end of World War II and during the first decade after the war, roughly 200,000 children were fathered in intimate contacts between German women and foreign soldiers. The experiences of these German occupation children (GOC) have been so far described in case reports and from historical perspective only. Research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as a GOC has been missing so far. This study examined traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization, and depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire. Findings have then been compared with a representative birth cohort-matched sample from the German general population (N = 977). German occupation children showed significantly higher prevalence rates of most traumatic experiences, higher point prevalence rates of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and somatization than the control group. In summary, GOC often grew up under difficult conditions (e.g., poverty, single mothers, and stigmatization). Even decades later, they showed higher rates of different mental disorders and higher comorbidity. These findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their burdened social, financial, and familial conditions. The results underpin the importance of conceptualizing occupation children as a vulnerable group in postconflict settings.

  7. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children. PMID:26501305

  8. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69) compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children. PMID:26501305

  9. Fluconazole population pharmacokinetics and dosing for prevention and treatment of invasive Candidiasis in children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Watt, Kevin M; Gonzalez, Daniel; Benjamin, Daniel K; Brouwer, Kim L R; Wade, Kelly C; Capparelli, Edmund; Barrett, Jeffrey; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Candida infections are a leading cause of infectious disease-related death in children supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The ECMO circuit can alter drug pharmacokinetics (PK); thus, standard fluconazole dosing may result in suboptimal drug exposures. The objective of our study was to determine the PK of fluconazole in children on ECMO. Forty children with 367 PK samples were included in the analysis. The PK data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM). A one-compartment model best described the data. Weight was included in the base model for clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (V). The final model included the effect of serum creatinine (SCR) level on CL and the effect of ECMO on V as follows: CL (in liters per hour) = 0.019 × weight × (SCR/0.4)(-0.29) × exp(ηCL) and V (in liters) = 0.93 × weight × 1.4(ECMO) × exp(ηV). The fluconazole V was increased in children supported by ECMO. Consequently, children on ECMO require a higher fluconazole loading dose for prophylaxis (12 mg/kg of body weight) and treatment (35 mg/kg) paired with standard maintenance doses to achieve exposures similar to those of children not on ECMO.

  10. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-10-16

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  11. Risk of Fatal Injury in Young Children Following Abuse Allegations: Evidence From a Prospective, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Cleves, Mario A.; Licht, Robyn; Needell, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined variations in children’s risk of an unintentional or intentional fatal injury following an allegation of physical abuse, neglect, or other maltreatment. Methods. We linked records of 514 232 children born in California from 1999 to 2006 and referred to child protective services for maltreatment to vital birth and death data. We used multivariable Cox regression models to estimate variations in risk of fatal injury before age 5 years and modeled maltreatment allegations as time-varying covariates. Results. Children with a previous allegation of physical abuse sustained fatal injuries at 1.7 times the rate of children referred for neglect. Stratification by manner of injury showed that children with an allegation of physical abuse died from intentional injuries at a rate 5 times as high as that for children with an allegation of neglect, yet faced a significantly lower risk of unintentional fatal injury. Conclusions. These data suggest conceptual differences between physical abuse and neglect. Findings indicate that interventions consistent with the form of alleged maltreatment may be appropriate, and heightened monitoring of young children referred for physical abuse may advance child protection. PMID:23947328

  12. Memory outcomes following cognitive interventions in children with neurological deficits: A review with a focus on under-studied populations.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Yael; Geva, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Given the primary role of memory in children's learning and well-being, the aim of this review was to examine the outcomes of memory remediation interventions in children with neurological deficits as a function of the affected memory system and intervention method. Fifty-seven studies that evaluated the outcome of memory interventions in children were identified. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, and were included in a systematic review. Diverse rehabilitation methods for improving explicit and implicit memory in children were reviewed. The analysis indicates that teaching restoration strategies may improve, and result in the generalisation of, semantic memory and working memory performance in children older than 7 years with mild to moderate memory deficits. Factors such as longer protocols, emotional support, and personal feedback contribute to intervention efficacy. In addition, the use of compensation aids seems to be highly effective in prospective memory tasks. Finally, the review unveiled a lack of studies with young children and the absence of group interventions. These findings point to the importance of future evidence-based intervention protocols in these areas.

  13. Developmental trajectories of sex-typed behavior in boys and girls: a longitudinal general population study of children aged 2.5-8 years.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Croudace, Tim; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The stability of sex-typed behavior from the preschool to the middle school years was examined. The Preschool Activities Inventory, a measure of within-sex variation in sex-typed behavior, was completed by the primary caregiver when the child was 2.5, 3.5, and 5 years, and a modified version, the Child Activities Inventory, was completed by the child at age 8. The investigation involved a general population sample of 2,726 boys and 2,775 girls. Sex-typed behavior increased through the preschool years, and those children who were the most sex typed at age 2.5 were still the most sex typed at age 5, with those children who showed the highest levels of sex-typed behavior during the preschool years continuing to do so at age 8.

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children in Italy: Testing the Validity among a General and Clinical Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Erica; Elliot, Catherine; Varnier, Maurizio; Carraro, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess an Italian version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C-It). Three separate studies were conducted, whereby testing general psychometric properties, construct validity, concurrent validity and the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It among general and clinical pediatric population. Study 1 (n = 1170) examined the psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) and construct validity with enjoyment perception during physical activity. Study 2 (n = 59) reported on reliability, construct validity with enjoyment and BMI, and on cross-sectional concurrent validity with objectively measured MVPA (tri-axial accelerometry) over the span of seven consecutive days. Study 3 (n = 58) examined the PAQ-C-It reliability, construct validity with BMI and VO2max as the objective measurement among a population of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). In study 2 and 3, the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It was then re-examined with an EFA. The PAQ-C-It showed acceptable to good reliability (alpha .70 to .83). Results on construct validity showed moderate but significant association with enjoyment perception (r = .30 and .36), with BMI (r = -.30 and -.79 for CHD simple form), and with the VO2max (r = .55 for CHD simple form). Significant concurrent validity with the objectively measured MVPA was reported (rho = .30, p < .05). Findings of the EFA suggested a two-factor structure for the PAQ-C-It, with items 2, 3, and 4 contributing little to the total score. This study supports the PAQ-C-It as an appropriate instrument to assess the MVPA levels of Italian children, including children with simple forms of CHD. Support is given to the possible instrument effectiveness on a large international perspective in order to level out data gathering across the globe. PMID:27228050

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children in Italy: Testing the Validity among a General and Clinical Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Erica; Elliot, Catherine; Varnier, Maurizio; Carraro, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess an Italian version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C-It). Three separate studies were conducted, whereby testing general psychometric properties, construct validity, concurrent validity and the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It among general and clinical pediatric population. Study 1 (n = 1170) examined the psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) and construct validity with enjoyment perception during physical activity. Study 2 (n = 59) reported on reliability, construct validity with enjoyment and BMI, and on cross-sectional concurrent validity with objectively measured MVPA (tri-axial accelerometry) over the span of seven consecutive days. Study 3 (n = 58) examined the PAQ-C-It reliability, construct validity with BMI and VO2max as the objective measurement among a population of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). In study 2 and 3, the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It was then re-examined with an EFA. The PAQ-C-It showed acceptable to good reliability (alpha .70 to .83). Results on construct validity showed moderate but significant association with enjoyment perception (r = .30 and .36), with BMI (r = -.30 and -.79 for CHD simple form), and with the VO2max (r = .55 for CHD simple form). Significant concurrent validity with the objectively measured MVPA was reported (rho = .30, p < .05). Findings of the EFA suggested a two-factor structure for the PAQ-C-It, with items 2, 3, and 4 contributing little to the total score. This study supports the PAQ-C-It as an appropriate instrument to assess the MVPA levels of Italian children, including children with simple forms of CHD. Support is given to the possible instrument effectiveness on a large international perspective in order to level out data gathering across the globe.

  16. Is Emmetropia the Natural Endpoint for Human Refractive Development? An Analysis of Population-based Data from the Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC)

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Ian G.; Rose, Kathryn A.; Ellwein, Leon B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the natural end-point for refractive development during childhood. Methods Cycloplegic (1% cyclopentolate) autorefraction was performed on 38,811 children aged 5 and 15 in population-based samples at eight sites in the Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC). Refractions (right eye) were categorized as myopic (≤ −0.5D), emmetropic (> −0.5D to ≤ +0.5D), mildly hyperopic (> +0.5D to ≤ +2.0D and hyperopic (> +2.0D). Results At 5 sites (Jhapa – rural Nepal, New Delhi -urban India, Mahabubnagar - rural India, Durban - semi-urban South Africa, and La Florida – urban Chile), there was <20% myopia by age 15. Mild hyperopia was the most prevalent category at all ages, except for Mahabubnagar where emmetropia became the marginally most prevalent category at ages 14 and 15. At the other sites (Gombak – semi-urban Malaysia, Shunyi – semi-rural China, and Guangzhou - urban China) there was substantial (>35%) myopia by age 15. At these sites, mild hyperopia was the most prevalent category during early childhood, and myopia became the predominant category later. In Gombak district and Guangzhou, emmetropia was a minor category at all ages, with myopia increasing as mild hyperopia decreased. In Shunyi district, emmetropia was the most prevalent category over the ages 11-14. Conclusion Emmetropia was not the predominant outcome for refractive development in children. Instead, populations were either predominantly mildly hyperopic, or substantial amounts of myopia appeared. This suggests that mild hyperopia is the natural state of refractive development in children, and that emmetropia during childhood carries the risk of subsequent progression to myopia. PMID:19958289

  17. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Giallo, Rebecca; Bahreinian, Salma; Brown, Stephanie; Cooklin, Amanda; Kingston, Dawn; Kozyrskyj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  18. Unchanged incidence and increased survival in children with neuroblastoma in Denmark 1981–2000: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, H; Wacher, J; Larsson, H; Rosthoej, S; Rechnitzer, C; Pedersen, B L; Carlsen, N L T

    2009-01-01

    Treatment results for neuroblastoma in Denmark have been poorer than in other Nordic countries, so we investigated whether a change in incidence, stage distribution and survival had occurred between 1981 and 2000. Clinical data were retrieved from the medical charts of 160 children <15 years of age with extra-cranial neuroblastoma (n=139) or ganglioneuroblastoma (n=21) diagnosed in Denmark between 1981 and 2000. The minimal follow-up time was 52 months. Statistical analyses were performed in STATA. The incidence was 8.55 per million children below 15 years of age (world standard 9.6) and 42.6 per million children below 12 months of age, and it has remained unchanged since 1970. The median age at diagnosis was 27 months. In all, 32% of the children were aged below 12 months at diagnosis, 53% had metastatic disease and in 12% the diagnosis was made incidentally. Prognostic factors such as age, stage and site of primary tumour were the same as in other studies and did not change. During the study period, the mortality rate decreased steadily, and the 5-year survival rate increased from 38% in 1981–1985 to 59% in 1996–2000, corresponding to the level found in other Western countries. Increased survival was also seen in children with metastatic disease. Participation in international studies, better supportive care and possibly postoperative autologous stem cell transplantation may have contributed to the increased survival. PMID:19223904

  19. Validating the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) questionnaire for use in Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, H-Y; Cheng, C-C; Hung, J-W; Ju, Y-H; Lin, J-H; Lo, S-K

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) questionnaire. We performed forward (into Chinese) and backward translation of the CP QOL-Child for: (1) the primary caregiver form (for parents of children with CP aged 4-12 years); and (2) the child self-report form (for children with cerebral palsy aged 9-12 years). Psychometric properties assessed included test-retest reliability, internal consistency, item discrimination, construct validity, and concordance between the forms of questionnaire. The Chinese CP QOL-Child was completed by 145 caregivers and 44 children. Excellent test-retest reliability and internal consistency were obtained. Item discrimination analysis revealed a majority of the items have moderate to good discriminating power. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated distinguishable domain structure as on the original English version. Significant associations were found between lower QOL and more severe motor disability. Consistent with the English version, the highest correlation between the primary caregiver and child forms on QOL was in the domain of functioning. Results of this study indicate that the Chinese CP QOL-Child appears to be valid for use in Mandarin-Chinese speaking children with cerebral palsy.

  20. Zinc Deficiency: Descriptive Epidemiology and Morbidity among Preschool Children in Peri-urban Population in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Usha; Hiremath, Girish; Menon, Venugopal P.; Dhingra, Pratibha; Sarkar, Archana

    2009-01-01

    Community-based data relating to factors influencing zinc deficiency among preschool children in India are inadequate. Data of a large, double-blinded, randomized, controlled zinc-supplementation trial were used for assessing the descriptive epidemiology of zinc deficiency among children aged 6–35 months (n=940). In total, 609 children were followed up for 120 days for information on morbidity. Of these children, 116 from the control group belonging to the upper and the lower 25th quartile of plasma zinc status at baseline were selected for assessing the association of zinc deficiency with prospective morbidity. At baseline, demographic, socioeconomic and dietary information was collected, and anthropometric measurements and levels of plasma zinc were assessed. At baseline, 73.3% of the children were zinc-deficient (plasma zinc <70 µg/dL), of which 33.8% had levels of plasma zinc below 60 µg/dL. A significantly higher risk of morbidity was prevalent among the subjects with lower plasma zinc compared to those with higher levels of plasma zinc. PMID:19902798

  1. Risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis in populations of children from nine cities in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, A A; Colli, C M; Ferreira, É C; Viol, B M; Araújo, S M; Falavigna-Guilherme, A L

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the epidemiological factors that contribute to the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. in children from Paraná state, Brazil. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to T. gondii were detected using indirect immunofluorescence, and IgG antibodies to Toxocara were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For each individual, a questionnaire was completed that contained epidemiological and clinical data. The data analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression. Of the 544 children investigated, 3.2% presented co-infection with T. gondii and Toxocara spp. Of this total, 7.4% were positive for antibodies to T. gondii, and 25% were positive for antibodies to Toxocara spp. The presence of antibodies to Toxocara spp. increased the risk of T. gondii infection (P = 0.029). Children who were 1-8 years of age were less infected by T. gondii than those who were 9-12 years of age. The variables that influenced positivity for anti-Toxocara spp. were the origin of the children and contact with sand. Children with positive serology for Toxocara spp. presented more eosinophilia compared with those with non-reactive serology. Infection with both parasites reveals the need for preventive measures, such as guidance about modes of infection, parasite control and monitoring recreational areas. PMID:24725417

  2. How important are community characteristics in influencing children׳s nutritional status? Evidence from Malawi population-based household and community surveys.

    PubMed

    Chikhungu, Lana Clara; Madise, Nyovani Janet; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2014-11-01

    Using the 2004 data from the Malawi Integrated Household Survey and the Malawi Community Survey, this study investigates the influence of community characteristics on stunting among children under five years of age in a rural context. Multilevel logistic regression modelling on 4284 children with stunting as the dependent variable shows that availability of daily markets and lineage defined in terms of patrilineal or matrilineal communities were significant community determinants of childhood stunting in Malawi. There were significant differences in socio-economic status between household heads from matrilineal and patrilineal communities. Implementation of strategies that empower communities and households economically such as supporting the establishment of community daily markets and promoting household income generating opportunities can effectively reduce the burden of childhood stunting in Malawi.

  3. Examining the social determinants of children's developmental health: protocol for building a pan-Canadian population-based monitoring system for early childhood development

    PubMed Central

    Guhn, Martin; Janus, Magdalena; Enns, Jennifer; Brownell, Marni; Forer, Barry; Duku, Eric; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Raos, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood is a key period to establish policies and practices that optimise children's health and development, but Canada lacks nationally representative data on social indicators of children's well-being. To address this gap, the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher-administered questionnaire completed for kindergarten-age children, has been implemented across most Canadian provinces over the past 10 years. The purpose of this protocol is to describe the Canadian Neighbourhoods and Early Child Development (CanNECD) Study, the aims of which are to create a pan-Canadian EDI database to monitor trends over time in children's developmental health and to advance research examining the social determinants of health. Methods and analysis Canada-wide EDI records from 2004 to 2014 (representing over 700 000 children) will be linked to Canada Census and Income Taxfiler data. Variables of socioeconomic status derived from these databases will be used to predict neighbourhood-level EDI vulnerability rates by conducting a series of regression analyses and latent variable models at provincial/territorial and national levels. Where data are available, we will measure the neighbourhood-level change in developmental vulnerability rates over time and model the socioeconomic factors associated with those trends. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for this study was granted by the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia. Study findings will be disseminated to key partners, including provincial and federal ministries, schools and school districts, collaborative community groups and the early childhood development research community. The database created as part of this longitudinal population-level monitoring system will allow researchers to associate practices, programmes and policies at school and community levels with trends in developmental health outcomes. The CanNECD Study will guide future early childhood

  4. Usefulness of inflammatory biomarkers in discriminating between bacterial and aseptic meningitis in hospitalized children from a population with low vaccination coverage

    PubMed Central

    Wysocki, Jacek; Avonts, Dirk; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most frequent pathogens responsible for meningitis beyond the neonatal period. Aseptic meningitis is a disabling condition, but bacterial meningitis if left untreated is 100% fatal. The aim of the study was to analyze the usefulness of biochemical and hematological parameters in distinguishing between bacterial and non-bacterial meningitis in children with meningitis from a population with low rates of vaccination against S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis. Material and methods This study is a retrospective chart review of children hospitalized with meningitis. In patients with aseptic and bacterial meningitis the following parameters were compared: C-reactive protein, D-dimers, fibrinogen, glucose level, and leukocyte level, and in cerebrospinal fluid, protein, glucose, and leukocyte concentrations were analyzed. Number of points in the Bacterial Meningitis Score (BMS) was calculated. The predictive value of each parameter to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis was evaluated. Results In total, 129 patients were included in the study: 65 diagnosed with bacterial meningitis and 64 with aseptic meningitis. Bacterial and aseptic meningitis were statistically significantly different based on each analyzed parameter (p < 0.000001). Among children with aseptic meningitis 42 (66%) scored 0 points in the BMS, while all the children with bacterial meningitis had at least one point. Conclusions In children with meningitis inflammatory biomarkers differ statistically significantly depending on the etiology – bacterial or aseptic. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein higher than 80 mg/dl is a useful marker of bacterial etiology of meningitis. A high Bacterial Meningitis Score is indicative for bacterial meningitis. PMID:27186188

  5. Incidence and Classification of New-Onset Epilepsy and Epilepsy Syndromes in Children in Olmsted County, Minnesota from 1980–2004: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wirrell, Elaine C.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.-L.; Nickels, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence and classification of new-onset epilepsy, as well as the distribution of epilepsy syndromes in a population-based group of children, using the newly proposed Report of the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology 2005–2009. Methods We identified all children residing in Olmsted County, MN, 1 month through 17 years with newly diagnosed epilepsy from 1980–2004. For each patient, epilepsy was classified into mode of onset, etiology, and syndrome or constellation (if present). Incidence rates were calculated overall and also separately for categories of mode of onset and etiology. Results The adjusted incidence rate of new-onset epilepsy in children was 44.5 cases per 100,000 persons per year. Incidence rates were highest in the first year of life and diminished with age. Mode of onset was focal in 68%, generalized/bilateral in 23%, spasms in 3% and unknown in 5%. Approximately half of children had an unknown etiology for their epilepsy, and of the remainder, 78 (22%) were genetic and 101 (28%) were structural/metabolic. A specific epilepsy syndrome could be defined at initial diagnosis in 99/359 (28%) children, but only 9/359 (3%) had a defined constellation. Conclusion Nearly half of childhood epilepsy is of “unknown” etiology. While a small proportion of this group met criteria for a known epilepsy syndrome, 41% of all childhood epilepsy is of “unknown” cause with no clear syndrome identified. Further work is needed to define more specific etiologies for this group. PMID:21482075

  6. Prevalence of DSM-IV disorders in a population-based sample of 5- to 8-year-old children: the impact of impairment criteria.

    PubMed

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-11-01

    This study determined the impact of impairment criteria on the prevalence and patterns of comorbidity of child DSM-IV disorders. The validity of these impairment criteria was tested against different measures of mental health care referral and utilization. We interviewed parents of 1,154 children aged 5-8 years in-depth using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, to establish DSM-IV diagnosis. These children were randomly selected or oversampled based on Child Behavior Checklist ratings from a large population-based study (N = 6,172). Referral data were extracted from the psychiatric interview as well as from a follow-up questionnaire. The results showed an overall prevalence of DSM-IV disorders of 31.1 % when impairment was not considered. This rate declined to 22.9 % when mild impairment was required and declined even further, to 10.3 %, for more severe levels of impairment. Similarly, the overall comorbidity rate declined from 8.5 to 6.7 and 2.7 % when mild and severe impairment were required, respectively. Virtually all children who attained symptom thresholds for a specific disorder, and had been referred to a mental health care professional because of the associated symptoms, also had mild impairment. The requirement of severe impairment criteria significantly increased diagnostic thresholds, but for most disorders, this definition captured only half of the clinically referred cases. In conclusion, prevalence was highly dependent upon the criteria used to define impairment. If severe impairment is made a diagnostic requirement, many children with psychiatric symptoms and mild impairment seeking mental health care will be undiagnosed and possibly untreated.

  7. Dietary intakes of lead and other metals: a study of young children from an urban population in the UK.

    PubMed

    Smart, G A; Sherlock, J C; Norman, J A

    1988-01-01

    In a 7-day duplicate diet study of 97 pre-school age children from the Birmingham area, mean dietary lead intakes of 0.185 mg/week were found compared with values of 0.15 and 0.11 mg/week found from similar studies carried out previously elsewhere. Nine per cent of the children at Birmingham exceeded the current Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake for lead for the one week of study. None of these children however exceeded the DHSS advisory action level for lead in blood (25 micrograms/dl). Dietary intakes of other metals (cadmium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, tin and zinc) were generally similar to or less than those found from previous studies.

  8. Children and Adolescents with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Population at Risk for More Than Just Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children and adolescents with chronic health conditions is a multifactorial concept that combines a child's perception and adaptation to physical, social, emotional, and school environments regardless of particular medical diagnosis. Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience non-kidney specific co-morbidities, including depression, body image alterations, and sleep disturbance, that impair their daily lives. This article reviews the pediatric nephrology literature to highlight the evidence identifying these riskr to HRQOL and suggesting ways in which nurses in both nephrology and primary care are poised to identify and modify these risk factors.

  9. [Female spouses of cancer patients with minor children--psychological distress in comparison with the general population and the cancer partner].

    PubMed

    Götze, Heide; Brähler, Elmar; Romer, Georg; Bergelt, Corinna; von Klitzing, Kai; Herzog, Wolfgang; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Ernst, Jochen

    2012-05-01

    A cancer disease in the family is an emotional crisis with psychological distress for the partner. The study observed the psychological distress of female partners of cancer patients with underage children (HADS-D). The results were compared with the psychological distress of the cancer patient as well as a representative comparison group of women from the general population. Every second female partner showed clinically anxiety scores. On average, the female partners were significantly more anxious than male cancer patients and even more afraid than women from the general population. Regarding the degree of depression, between the partners there were no differences. With regard to mental distress, a medium correlation was found on the pair level. Based on the use of psycho-oncological support the high emotional distress on the female partners is discussed.

  10. A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey of Trachoma among Migrant School Aged Children in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenwen; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; He, Jiangnan; Zhao, Rong; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of clinical trachoma in 154,265 children aged 6 to 16 years in 206 Shanghai migrant schools. Clean water availability in school, each child's facial cleanliness, eyelids, corneas, and the presenting distance visual acuities were examined. Trachoma was clinically diagnosed in accordance with the World Health Organization simplified classification. Eyes diagnosed with trachoma were swabbed to test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections (OCTI) with a rapid latex immunochromatographic test. Among 153,977 students, no blindness was found related to trachoma. Trachoma was diagnosed in 8029 children (5.2%). In 87 schools clinical trachoma prevalence was higher than 5%. OCTI was confirmed in 2073 of 6823 trachoma diagnosed children (30.4%). Clinical trachoma prevalence was higher among females than males (p < 0.001), but gender comparison showed no statistical difference in the prevalence of OCTI (p = 0.077). Age and clinical trachoma (r = -0.014; p < 0.001) or OCTI (r = -0.026; p = 0.031) prevalence were negatively correlated. Clinical trachoma was different in different districts and counties (p < 0.001). Trachoma warrants close attention in Shanghai migrant children because the condition remains endemic in some schools. PMID:27610383

  11. In an EBD Population Do Looked after Children Have Specific Needs Relating to Resilience, Self-Perception and Attainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Emily; Whitehead, Juliet; Wigford, Angie

    2010-01-01

    Poor outcomes for Looked After Children (LAC) in relation to non-LAC have been well established by research. However, a small minority of LAC do achieve positive outcomes despite having experienced a number of risk factors. It is the process of resilience which is thought to enable individuals to experience positive outcomes. This study focused on…

  12. A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey of Trachoma among Migrant School Aged Children in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wenwen; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; He, Jiangnan; Zhao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of clinical trachoma in 154,265 children aged 6 to 16 years in 206 Shanghai migrant schools. Clean water availability in school, each child's facial cleanliness, eyelids, corneas, and the presenting distance visual acuities were examined. Trachoma was clinically diagnosed in accordance with the World Health Organization simplified classification. Eyes diagnosed with trachoma were swabbed to test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections (OCTI) with a rapid latex immunochromatographic test. Among 153,977 students, no blindness was found related to trachoma. Trachoma was diagnosed in 8029 children (5.2%). In 87 schools clinical trachoma prevalence was higher than 5%. OCTI was confirmed in 2073 of 6823 trachoma diagnosed children (30.4%). Clinical trachoma prevalence was higher among females than males (p < 0.001), but gender comparison showed no statistical difference in the prevalence of OCTI (p = 0.077). Age and clinical trachoma (r = −0.014; p < 0.001) or OCTI (r = −0.026; p = 0.031) prevalence were negatively correlated. Clinical trachoma was different in different districts and counties (p < 0.001). Trachoma warrants close attention in Shanghai migrant children because the condition remains endemic in some schools.

  13. A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey of Trachoma among Migrant School Aged Children in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wenwen; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; He, Jiangnan; Zhao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of clinical trachoma in 154,265 children aged 6 to 16 years in 206 Shanghai migrant schools. Clean water availability in school, each child's facial cleanliness, eyelids, corneas, and the presenting distance visual acuities were examined. Trachoma was clinically diagnosed in accordance with the World Health Organization simplified classification. Eyes diagnosed with trachoma were swabbed to test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections (OCTI) with a rapid latex immunochromatographic test. Among 153,977 students, no blindness was found related to trachoma. Trachoma was diagnosed in 8029 children (5.2%). In 87 schools clinical trachoma prevalence was higher than 5%. OCTI was confirmed in 2073 of 6823 trachoma diagnosed children (30.4%). Clinical trachoma prevalence was higher among females than males (p < 0.001), but gender comparison showed no statistical difference in the prevalence of OCTI (p = 0.077). Age and clinical trachoma (r = −0.014; p < 0.001) or OCTI (r = −0.026; p = 0.031) prevalence were negatively correlated. Clinical trachoma was different in different districts and counties (p < 0.001). Trachoma warrants close attention in Shanghai migrant children because the condition remains endemic in some schools. PMID:27610383

  14. Timing of Identification among Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from a Population-Based Surveillance Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, Paul T.; Durkin, Maureen; Maenner, Matthew; Newschaffer, Craig; Mandell, David S.; Wiggins, Lisa; Lee, Li-Ching; Rice, Catherine; Giarelli, Ellen; Kirby, Russell; Baio, Jon; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Cuniff, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the data from Center for Disease Control's autism surveillance program found that the median age of identification of children with autism is 5.7 years. Being male, having an IQ of 70 or lower, and having developmental regression are the factors linked to a younger age of identification. There is a need for research, innovation, and…

  15. Psychiatric Disorders in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Associated Factors in a Population-Derived Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Charman, Tony; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Baird, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    A study on autism spectrum disorders is conducted because its early onset, lifelong persistence, and high levels of associated impairment is turning it into a major public health concern. Results show that psychiatric disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders but there were few associations between putative risk factors and…

  16. Early Development of Emerging and English-Proficient Bilingual Children at School Entry in an Australian Population Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfeld, Sharon; O'Connor, Meredith; Mithen, Johanna; Sayers, Mary; Brinkman, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Children who enter school with limited proficiency in the language of instruction face a range of challenges in negotiating this new context, yet limited data have been available to describe the early developmental outcomes of this subpopulation in the Australian context. The Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) is a teacher-rated checklist…

  17. Gender Differences in Physical Aggression: A Prospective Population-Based Survey of Children before and after 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillargeon, Raymond H.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Keenan, Kate; Cote, Sylvana; Perusse, Daniel; Wu, Hong-Xing; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    There has been much controversy over the past decades on the origins of gender differences in children's aggressive behavior. A widely held view is that gender differences emerge sometime after 2 years of age and increase in magnitude thereafter because of gender-differentiated socialization practices. The objective of this study was to test…

  18. Identifying Children with Intellectual Disabilities in the Tribal Population of Barwani District in State of Madhya Pradesh, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhan, Ram; Mawson, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low-and middle-income countries (LAMI) lack an integrated and systematic approach to identify people with intellectual disabilities. Screening surveys are considered resource-intensive; therefore, alternative approaches are needed. This study attempted to identify children up to age 18 years with intellectual disabilities through a…

  19. First evaluation of a population-based screen to detect emotional-behavior disorders in orphaned children in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Carla; Venta, Amanda; Marais, Lochner; Skinner, Donald; Lenka, Molefi; Serekoane, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic which has left 12 million children orphaned in Sub-Saharan Africa, children are at increased risk for mental health problems. Currently, no validity data exist for any screening measure of emotional-behavior disorders in pre-adolescent children in Sub-Saharan Africa. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the construct validity of the caregiver-, teacher-, and self-report versions of the one-page Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in 466 orphans in South Africa between the ages of 7 and 11 (Mage = 9.23 years, SD = 1.33, 51.93% female) and to provide, for the first time, clinical cut-offs for this population. Findings demonstrated support for the caregiver SDQ, but not the teacher and selfreport versions. We provide clinical cut-offs, but caution their use before further research is conducted. There remains a critical need for further psychometric studies of the SDQ in the developing world. PMID:24623068

  20. [Anthropometric study and evaluation of the nutritional status of a population school children in Granada; comparison of national and international reference standards].

    PubMed

    González Jiménez, E; Aguilar Cordero, M J; Álvarez Ferre, J; Padilla López, C; Valenza, M C

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies show an alarming increase in levels of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The main objectives of this research were the following: (i) to carry out an anthropometric evaluation of the nutritional status and body composition of school children in the city and province of Granada; (ii) to compare the nutritional status of this population sample with national and international reference standards. The results obtained in this study showed that the general prevalence of overweight in both sexes was 22.03% and that 9.12% of the children were obese. Statistically significant differences were found between the variable, weight for age and sex (p < 0.05) and the variable, height for age and sex (p < 0.05). Regarding the body mass index, no statistically significant differences were found for the variable, sex (p = 0.182). This contrasted with the variable, age, which did show statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). As a conclusion, the results of our study highlighted the fact that these anthropometric values were much higher than national and international reference standards.

  1. Drowning and near-drowning involving children: a five-year total population study from the City and County of Honolulu.

    PubMed Central

    Pearn, J H; Wong, R Y; Brown, J; Ching, Y C; Bart, R; Hammar, S

    1979-01-01

    A study of all serious childhood immersion accidents (both drowned and near-drowned cases) is reported from Hawaii. This is a total population-based survey of 140 consecutive cases (0--15 years) occurring during the five-year period (1973--1977. Age-specific, sex-specific, and osmolality-specific (salt versus fresh water) data are presented both for survivors and fatalities. The overall annual drowning rate of 3.1 per 100,000 children at risk is low, for a water-oriented society. The survival rate following loss of consciousness in the water is 73 per cent. There is no evidence from this study that osmolality affected the probability of survival. The rank order of importance of drowning sites is swimming pools, surf, sheltered salt water bathing, domestic bath tubs, fresh water streams, salt water canals, and garden fish ponds. Specific accident rates, by sex, outcome, and site of immersion are also presented. No secular trend in the rate of drowning was observed in this study. Comparison with the only other available total population survey (Australia) of childhood immersions reveals common epidemiological and demographic patterns in modern urban societies and suggests that safety regulations play a role in reducing swimming accidents and fatalities in children. PMID:434274

  2. Didanosine Population Pharmacokinetics in West African Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children Administered Once-Daily Tablets in Relation to Efficacy after One Year of Treatment▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hirt, Déborah; Bardin, Christophe; Diagbouga, Serge; Nacro, Boubacar; Hien, Hervé; Zoure, Emmanuelle; Rouet, François; Ouiminga, Adama; Urien, Saik; Foulongne, Vincent; Van De Perre, Philippe; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Msellati, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to study didanosine pharmacokinetics in children after the administration of tablets, the only formulation available in Burkina Faso for which data are missing, and to establish relationships between doses, plasma drug concentrations, and treatment effects (efficacy/toxicity). Didanosine concentrations were measured for 40 children after 2 weeks and for 9 children after 2 to 5 months of treatment with a didanosine-lamivudine-efavirenz combination. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with NONMEM. The link between the maximal concentration of the drug in plasma (Cmax), the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), and the decrease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 RNA levels after 12 months of treatment was evaluated. The threshold AUC that improved efficacy was determined by the use of a Wilcoxon test for HIV RNA, and an optimized dosing schedule was simulated. Didanosine pharmacokinetics was best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The apparent clearance and volume of distribution were higher for tablets, probably due to a lower bioavailability with tablets than with pediatric powder. The decrease in the viral load after 12 months of treatment was significantly correlated with the didanosine AUC and Cmax (P ≤ 0.02) during the first weeks of treatment. An AUC of >0.60 mg/liter·h was significantly linked to a greater decrease in the viral load (a decrease of 3 log10 versus 2.4 log10 copies/ml; P = 0.03) than that with a lower AUC. A didanosine dose of 360 mg/m2 administered as tablets should be a more appropriate dose than 240 mg/m2 to improve efficacy for these children. However, data on adverse events with this dosage are missing. PMID:19581461

  3. Metabolic risk in contemporary children is unrelated to socio-economic status: longitudinal study of a UK urban population (EarlyBird 42).

    PubMed

    Voss, Linda D; Hosking, Joanne; Metcalf, Brad S; Jeffery, Alison N; Frémeaux, Alissa E; Wilkin, Terence J

    2014-05-01

    Lifestyle interventions to improve health in young children tend to target areas of relative deprivation, but the evidence for so doing is largely historical. Accordingly, we have re-examined the link between deprivation, obesity and metabolic risk in contemporary UK children. Using a postcode-based index of multiple deprivation (IMD), we assessed 269 children from the community-based EarlyBird Study, attending 53 schools representing a wide socio-economic range. Annual measures of fatness from 5 to 8 yr included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sum of five skinfolds (SSF). A metabolic risk score, based on blood pressure, lipids and insulin resistance, was derived from annual fasting blood samples. There were no significant associations between deprivation and any measure of adiposity in girls (all p > 0.37). In boys, there was a weak but consistently inverse relationship between deprivation and WC (r = -0.19, p = 0.03) and BMI (r = -0.14, p = 0.09) at 8 yr. Changes in adiposity over 3 yr were unrelated to deprivation in boys. In girls there was a slight but significant increase in SSF only (1 mm/yr per 20 IMD units, p = 0.001). Importantly, in both genders, metabolic risk score was unrelated to deprivation throughout (r values -0.05 to -0.13, all p > 0.12), as was change in metabolic risk (all p > 0.30). Our data do not support the assumption that obesity, metabolic disturbance and thus risk of type 2 diabetes are more prevalent among poorer children. In today's increasingly obesogenic environment, youngsters from all backgrounds appear to be vulnerable, with population-wide implications for public health spending, and the prevention of diabetes in contemporary youth. PMID:24827703

  4. Increased risks of tic disorders in children with epilepsy: A nation-wide population-based case-control study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wen-Chin; Huang, Hui-Ling; Wong, Lee Chin; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yin, Yun-Ju; Chen, Hong-An; Lee, Wang-Tso; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Both epilepsy and tic disorders may share common mechanisms with the involvement of abnormal cortical-basal ganglion circuit connection and dopaminergic dysfunction. However, the association between epilepsy and tic disorders has never been studied. This study investigated the risks of developing tic disorders among children with epilepsy using databases of a universal health insurance system in Taiwan. The data analyzed in this study were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The study cohort included children with epilepsy between 2001 and 2007 (n=2629) and a three-fold age- and gender-matched controls (n=7887). All subjects were followed up for 3 years from the date of cohort entry to identify their admissions due to tic disorders (ICD-9-CM codes 307.2, 307.20-307.23). Cox hazard regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of epilepsy on the occurrence of tics. The epilepsy cohort had a higher prevalence of tics (1.7% vs. 0.2%), and a 8.70-fold increased risk of developing a tic disorder compared with the controls (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 8.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.26-16.37, p<0.001). Male patients were observed to have a higher risk of developing a tic disorder (AHR 1.90, 95% CI=1.04-3.46, p<0.001) compared to female individuals. Patients with multiple antiepileptic drugs treatment also exhibited higher crude OR for developing tic disorders. This nationwide population-based cohort study, for the first time, demonstrated that there is a significantly increased risk for tic disorders among children with epilepsy. We also found males, attention deficit disorder and the use of multiple AEDs to be independent risk factors of tic disorders. Closely evaluating possible tic disorders would be crucial for improving the outcome and life quality in children with epilepsy.

  5. Metabolic risk in contemporary children is unrelated to socio-economic status: longitudinal study of a UK urban population (EarlyBird 42).

    PubMed

    Voss, Linda D; Hosking, Joanne; Metcalf, Brad S; Jeffery, Alison N; Frémeaux, Alissa E; Wilkin, Terence J

    2014-05-01

    Lifestyle interventions to improve health in young children tend to target areas of relative deprivation, but the evidence for so doing is largely historical. Accordingly, we have re-examined the link between deprivation, obesity and metabolic risk in contemporary UK children. Using a postcode-based index of multiple deprivation (IMD), we assessed 269 children from the community-based EarlyBird Study, attending 53 schools representing a wide socio-economic range. Annual measures of fatness from 5 to 8 yr included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sum of five skinfolds (SSF). A metabolic risk score, based on blood pressure, lipids and insulin resistance, was derived from annual fasting blood samples. There were no significant associations between deprivation and any measure of adiposity in girls (all p > 0.37). In boys, there was a weak but consistently inverse relationship between deprivation and WC (r = -0.19, p = 0.03) and BMI (r = -0.14, p = 0.09) at 8 yr. Changes in adiposity over 3 yr were unrelated to deprivation in boys. In girls there was a slight but significant increase in SSF only (1 mm/yr per 20 IMD units, p = 0.001). Importantly, in both genders, metabolic risk score was unrelated to deprivation throughout (r values -0.05 to -0.13, all p > 0.12), as was change in metabolic risk (all p > 0.30). Our data do not support the assumption that obesity, metabolic disturbance and thus risk of type 2 diabetes are more prevalent among poorer children. In today's increasingly obesogenic environment, youngsters from all backgrounds appear to be vulnerable, with population-wide implications for public health spending, and the prevention of diabetes in contemporary youth.

  6. Incidence of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection amongst Children in Ontario, Canada: A Population-Based Study Using Validated Health Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Pisesky, Andrea; Benchimol, Eric I.; Wong, Coralie A.; Hui, Charles; Crowe, Megan; Belair, Marc-Andre; Pojsupap, Supichaya; Karnauchow, Tim; O'Hearn, Katie; Yasseen, Abdool S.; McNally, James D.

    2016-01-01

    increasing or decreasing linear trend in the incidence of hospitalized RSV, hospital length of stay and PICU admission rates. Among the Ontario RSV cohort, 16.3% had one or more major risk factors, with a decreasing trend observed over time. Conclusion Children hospitalized for RSV-related disease can be accurately identified within population-based health administrative data. RSV is a major public health concern and incidence has not changed over time, suggesting a lack of progress in prevention. PMID:26958849

  7. Monitoring metals in the population living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: levels in hair of school children.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Martí; Bocio, Ana; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, Jose L

    2005-06-01

    Hair samples of 134 school children (12-14 yr old) living in three residential zones in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) (Constanti, Tarragona County, Catalonia, Spain) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), and vanadium (V) concentrations. These concentrations were compared with those obtained in a baseline survey performed in the same area during the period of construction of the HWI. Current mean concentrations ranged from values under the respective limit of detection (As, Be, Cd, Tl, and V) to 0.70 and 0.86 microg/g for Hg and Pb, respectively. In comparison to the baseline survey, the levels of Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Sn showed a significant reduction, whereas Hg concentrations were similar. No significant differences were observed according to the sex of the children. However, some differences were noted, especially for Pb and Cr, with respect to the specific zone of residence. In general terms, the current metal levels in hair of school children are similar or even lower than those recently reported for a number of industrial and residential areas of various regions and countries.

  8. Motor function and perception in children with neuropsychiatric and conduct problems: results from a population based twin study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with early symptomatic psychiatric disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been found to have high rates of motor and/or perception difficulties. However, there have been few large-scale studies reporting on the association between Conduct Disorder (CD) and motor/perception functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate how motor function and perception relate to measures of ADHD, ASD, and CD. Methods Parents of 16,994 Swedish twins (ages nine and twelve years) were interviewed using the Autism-Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities inventory (A-TAC), which has been validated as a screening instrument for early onset child psychiatric disorders and symptoms. Associations between categorical variables of scoring above previously validated cut-off values for diagnosing ADHD, ASD, and CD on the one hand and motor and/or perception problems on the other hand were analysed using cross-tabulations, and the Fisher exact test. Associations between the continuous scores for ADHD, ASD, CD, and the subdomains Concentration/Attention, Impulsiveness/Activity, Flexibility, Social Interaction and Language, and the categorical factors age and gender, on the one hand, and the dependent dichotomic variables Motor control and Perception problems, on the other hand, were analysed using binary logistic regression in general estimated equation models. Results Male gender was associated with increased risk of Motor control and/or Perception problems. Children scoring above the cut-off for ADHD, ASD, and/or CD, but not those who were ‘CD positive’ but ‘ADHD/ASD negative’, had more Motor control and/or Perception problems, compared with children who were screen-negative for all three diagnoses. In the multivariable model, CD and Impulsiveness/Activity had no positive associations with Motor control and/or Perception problems. Conclusions CD symptoms or problems with Impulsiveness

  9. Impact of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Used in Children on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Children and Adults in the United States: Analysis of Multisite, Population-based Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Matthew R.; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Schaffner, William; Lynfield, Ruth; Lexau, Catherine; Bennett, Nancy M.; Petit, Susan; Zansky, Shelley M.; Harrison, Lee H.; Reingold, Arthur; Miller, Lisa; Scherzinger, Karen; Thomas, Ann; Farley, Monica M.; Zell, Elizabeth R.; Taylor, Thomas H.; Pondo, Tracy; Rodgers, Loren; McGee, Lesley; Beall, Bernard; Jorgensen, James H.; Whitney, Cynthia G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background In 2000, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the U.S. and resulted in dramatic reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and modest increases in non-PCV7-type IPD. In 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in the U.S. immunization schedule. We evaluated the effect of PCV13 use in children on IPD in children and adults in the U.S. Methods We used laboratory- and population-based data on incidence of IPD from CDC’s Emerging Infections Program / Active Bacterial Core surveillance in a time-series model to estimate the impact of vaccination. Cases of IPD during July 2004–June 2013 were classified as being caused by the PCV13 serotypes against which PCV7 has no effect (PCV13/nonPCV7). Findings Compared with incidence expected among children <5 years old if PCV7 alone had been continued, incidence of IPD overall and IPD caused by PCV13/nonPCV7 serotypes declined by 64% (95% interval estimate [IE] 59–68 %) and 93% (95%IE 91–94), respectively, by July 2012–June 2013. Among adults, incidence of IPD overall and PCV13/nonPCV7-type IPD also declined by 12–32% and 58–72%, respectively, depending on age. In all age groups, reductions were driven principally by changes in incidence of serotypes 19A and 7F. We estimate that over 30,000 cases of IPD and 3,000 deaths were averted in the first 3 years following PCV13 introduction. Interpretation PCV13 has reduced IPD among all ages when used routinely in children in the U.S. Serotypes 19A and 7F, which emerged after PCV7 introduction, have been effectively controlled. PMID:25656600

  10. Social and Health Conditions of the Black/African-American Population: The Setting for Children and Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Kucine, Allan J.

    2008-01-01

    The 2000 Census reported that more than 7 million black residents five years and older (almost 24 percent of black persons, compared to 19 percent of the total population) had one or more disabilities. Black and Native American residents share the highest overall estimated disability rate. Based upon the data from the 2000 Census among black…

  11. Prevalence of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tics in the Population-Based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Miller, Laura L.; Mathews, Carol A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are more common than previously recognized. However, few population-based studies have examined the prevalence of co-occurring neuropsychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and…

  12. Development and Validation of a Fine-Motor Assessment Tool for Use with Young Children in a Chinese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Andrew M. H.; Lai, Cynthia Y. Y.; Chiu, Amy S. M.; Yip, Calvin C. K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Most of the fine-motor assessment tools used in Hong Kong have been designed in Western countries, so there is a need to develop a standardized assessment which is relevant to the culture and daily living tasks of the local (that is, Chinese) population. This study aimed to (1) develop a fine-motor assessment tool (the Hong Kong…

  13. Population Impact and Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccination in Urban Malawian Children 3 Years After Vaccine Introduction: Ecological and Case-Control Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Zeev, Naor; Jere, Khuzwayo C.; Bennett, Aisleen; Pollock, Louisa; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Nakagomi, Osamu; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Costello, Anthony; Mwansambo, Charles; Parashar, Umesh D.; Heyderman, Robert S.; French, Neil; Cunliffe, Nigel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Rotavirus vaccines have been introduced in many low-income African countries including Malawi in 2012. Despite early evidence of vaccine impact, determining persistence of protection beyond infancy, the utility of the vaccine against specific rotavirus genotypes, and effectiveness in vulnerable subgroups is important. Methods. We compared rotavirus prevalence in diarrheal stool and hospitalization incidence before and following rotavirus vaccine introduction in Malawi. Using case-control analysis, we derived vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the second year of life and for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–exposed and stunted children. Results. Rotavirus prevalence declined concurrent with increasing vaccine coverage, and in 2015 was 24% compared with prevaccine mean baseline in 1997–2011 of 32%. Since vaccine introduction, population rotavirus hospitalization incidence declined in infants by 54.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.8–68.8), but did not fall in older children. Comparing 241 rotavirus cases with 692 test-negative controls, VE was 70.6% (95% CI, 33.6%–87.0%) and 31.7% (95% CI, −140.6% to 80.6%) in the first and second year of life, respectively, whereas mean age of rotavirus cases increased from 9.3 to 11.8 months. Despite higher VE against G1P[8] than against other genotypes, no resurgence of nonvaccine genotypes has occurred. VE did not differ significantly by nutritional status (78.1% [95% CI, 5.6%–94.9%] in 257 well-nourished and 27.8% [95% CI, −99.5% to 73.9%] in 205 stunted children; P = .12), or by HIV exposure (60.5% [95% CI, 13.3%–82.0%] in 745 HIV-unexposed and 42.2% [95% CI, −106.9% to 83.8%] in 174 exposed children; P = .91). Conclusions. Rotavirus vaccination in Malawi has resulted in reductions in disease burden in infants <12 months, but not in older children. Despite differences in genotype-specific VE, no genotype has emerged to suggest vaccine escape. VE was not demonstrably affected by HIV exposure

  14. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries

    PubMed Central

    Larrañaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Mª José; Ardanaz, Eva; Felipe, Saray; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Ramos, María; Carulla, Marià; Chirlaque, Mª Dolores; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Martos, Carmen; Mateo, Antonio; Peris-Bonet, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain. Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase. Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence

  15. Risk factors associated with RSV hospitalisation in the first 2 years of life, among different subgroups of children in NSW: a whole-of-population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Homaira, Nusrat; Mallitt, Kylie-Ann; Oei, Ju-Lee; Hilder, Lisa; Bajuk, Barbara; Lui, Kei; Rawlinson, William; Snelling, Tom; Jaffe, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalisation in Australian children may be informative for preventive measures. Methods A whole-of-population-based study was conducted to identify comparable risk factors for RSV hospitalisation in different subgroups of children aged <2 years in New South Wales. The cohort was divided into Indigenous children and high-risk and standard risk non-Indigenous children. Data on risk factors were obtained from the Perinatal Data Collection. RSV hospitalisations were ascertained from the Admitted Patient Data Collection. Adjusted HRs were calculated for each subgroup. Population-attributable risk associated with risk factors was estimated. Results Four factors were associated with increased risk of RSV hospitalisation: maternal smoking during pregnancy, male sex, multiparity and birth during the first half of the RSV season. Increase in relative socioeconomic advantage was associated with decreased risk of hospitalisation. Among high and standard risk non-Indigenous children, the hazard was approximately double for children born to multiparous women compared to those born to primiparous women and among Indigenous children the hazard was approximately double among those born during the first half of the RSV season. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a 26–45% increased risk across subgroups and accounted for 17% (95% CI 9.3% to 24%) of RSV hospitalisations in Indigenous children, 5% (95% CI 2.5% to 8%) in high-risk and 6% (95% 5% to 7%) in standard risk non-Indigenous children. Discussion Promoting avoidance of smoking during pregnancy may help in lowering the disease burden, with Indigenous children likely to benefit most. PMID:27357197

  16. Association between Mouth Breathing and Atopic Dermatitis in Japanese Children 2-6 years Old: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Kawaminami, Shingo; Shin, Teruki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Tani, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    As mouth breathing is associated with asthma and otitis media, it may be associated with other diseases. Therefore, this population-based cross-sectional study evaluated the association of mouth breathing with the prevalences of various diseases in children. Preschool children older than 2 years were included. A questionnaire was given to parents/guardians at 13 nurseries in Tokushima City. There were 468 valid responses (45.2%). We defined a subject as a mouth breather in daytime (MBD) if they had 2 or more positive items among the 3 following items: "breathes with mouth ordinarily," "mouth is open ordinarily," and "mouth is open when chewing." We defined subjects as mouth breathers during sleep (MBS) if they had 2 or more positive items among the following 3 items: "snoring," "mouth is open during sleeping," and "mouth is dry when your child gets up." The prevalences of MBD and MBS were 35.5% and 45.9%, respectively. There were significant associations between MBD and atopic dermatitis (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-4.2), MBS and atopic dermatitis (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-4.2), and MBD and asthma (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-4.0). After adjusting for history of asthma and allergic rhinitis; family history of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis; and nasal congestion; both MBD (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3-5.4) and MBS (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.8-9.2) were significantly associated with atopic dermatitis. In preschool children older than 2 years, both MBD and MBS may be associated with the onset or development of atopic dermatitis.

  17. Population-based comparison of biomarker concentrations for chemicals of concern among Latino-American and non-Hispanic white children.

    PubMed

    Perla, M E; Rue, Tessa; Cheadle, Allen; Krieger, James; Karr, Catherine J; Karr, C K

    2015-06-01

    Differences in cultural and economic status may place ethnic subgroups of children at higher risk for exposure, leading to heightened health risks, and health inequities. Although Latino-Americans represent 22% of all children in the United States, few studies have explored within-group differences in their exposure to toxicants. Using socio-demographic and biomarker data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2008, we characterized determinants of health and estimated geometric means of environmental contaminant biomarkers (blood concentrations of lead and mercury, serum concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE] and cotinine, and urinary metabolites of organophosphate [OP] pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) among 4,257 Mexican American (MA), 677 Other Latino-American (OL), and 3,370 Non-Hispanic White (NHW) children. MAs had the lowest levels of health insurance coverage and regular access to health care, and largest household size compared to NHWs and OLs. MAs had higher levels of p,p'-DDE, lead, and cadmium while OLs had higher estimates of mercury relative to other groups. MAs had higher urinary metabolite concentrations of 2-hydroxynaphthalene; otherwise MAs and OLs had lower concentrations of PAHs. NHWs had higher levels of cotinine and dimethylthiophosphate. For other OP metabolites, differences among groups were less clear. Lead and p,p'-DDE exposure differences likely reflect later and less regulatory control of these chemicals in Latin America. Additionally, poor quality housing with lead paint is more common in economically disadvantaged subpopulations. Dietary habits are possible sources of differential cadmium, mercury, and organophosphate exposure. Cotinine exposure differences by income and U.S.- vs. foreign-born may represent increased acculturation. These results, coupled with additional research on exposure sources may contribute to refinement of environmental health

  18. Oppositional defiant disorder-gender differences in co-occurring symptoms of mental health problems in a general population of children.

    PubMed

    Munkvold, Linda Helen; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Manger, Terje

    2011-05-01

    Informant- and gender-specific characteristics of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and how these might relate to patterns of comorbidity need to be further clarified. We collected data from 7,007 children (aged 7-9) who participated in the Bergen Child Study (BCS), an ongoing population-based study of children's development and mental health. A questionnaire containing the DSM-IV behavioral descriptions of ODD was distributed to parents and teachers. Co-occurring symptoms of mental health problems were measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The boys (n = 122) and girls (n = 41) with symptomatic ODD had an increased risk of co-occurring emotional symptoms, hyperactivity or inattention and peer problems, as compared to their peers without symptomatic ODD. The impact of symptomatic ODD was higher for boys than girls in teacher reported SDQ ratings, except for emotional symptoms. There were no significant interaction effects of gender in parent SDQ ratings. Our results are contrary to the gender paradox hypothesis, which states that co-occurring symptoms of mental health problems are more frequent among girls with ODD as compared to boys with ODD.

  19. Validation of the Spanish Version of the Childhood Asthma Control Test (cACT) in a population of hispanic children

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E.; Melo, Andrea; Restrepo, Sonia; Sossa-Briceño, Monica P.; Nino, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a critical need for additional validation studies of questionnaires designed to assess the level of control of asthma in pediatric patients. Objective To validate the Spanish version of the Childhood Asthma Control Test (cACT) in children aged between 4 and 11 years with physician-diagnosed asthma Methods In a prospective cohort validation study, asthmatic children aged between 4 and 11 years and their parents, attended both a baseline and a follow-up visit 2 to 6 weeks later. In these two visits, they completed the information required to assess the criterion validity, construct validity, test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change, internal consistency, and usability of the cACT. Results At baseline, cACT scores were significantly different between patients with controlled, partly controlled, and uncontrolled asthma [24.0 (23.0-26.0), 18.0 (18.0-22.0), and 17.5 (13.0-20.0) respectively, p<0.001], and also between patients for whom this visit resulted in a step-up, no change, or step-down in therapy [18.0 (15.0-21.0), 24.0 (23.0-24.0), and 26.0 (23.5-26.0) respectively, p<0.001]. The score of the cACT correlated positively and significantly with the score of the Pediatric Asthma Caregivers Quality of life Questionnaire - PACQLQ (Spearman’s rho = 0.50, p<0.001).The intraclass correlation coefficient of the measurements in patients with no change in clinical status was 0.849 (95% CI: 0.752-0.908). There were statistical significant differences between baseline and follow-up cACT scores in patients with an improvement in clinical status [19.0 (18.0-22.0) vs. 24.5 (24.0-25.0), p<0.001]. Cronbach’s α was 0.8276 for the questionnaire as a whole. Conclusion The Spanish version of the cACT has adequate criterion validity, adequate construct validity, adequate sensitivity to change, good internal consistency, good test-retest reliability, and excellent usability when administered to asthmatic children aged between 4 and 11 years. PMID:24830881

  20. SRXRF determination of the multielement composition of the hair and blood of the children of Tundra Nenetz population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chankina, O. V.; Kovalskaya, G. A.; Koutzenogii, K. P.; Osipova, L. P.; Savchenko, T. I.

    2001-09-01

    SRXRF has been used to determine the multielement composition of the hair and blood of Tundra Nenetz children. The method allows one to simultaneously determine 21 elements in the blood and 22 elements in the hair. Individual differences have been revealed in the element composition of the hair and blood. Sexual and age changes have been revealed in the content of some elements in the hair. A technique has been developed to prepare blood and hair samples for measuring the element composition by the SRXRF method. The blood samples were prepared by spreading 20 μl over the 1 cm 2 Whatman filter. The hair samples were obtained by pressing in the form of tablets of 1 cm in diameter and a mass of 10-40 mg.

  1. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention Function in a Population-Based Sample of Children

    PubMed Central

    Vilor-Tejedor, Natàlia; Bustamante, Mariona; Pujol, Jesús; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Fenoll, Raquel; Alvárez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Júlvez, Jordi; Suades-González, Elisabet; Llop, Sabrina; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention function filters and selects behaviorally relevant information. This capacity is impaired in some psychiatric disorders and has been proposed as an endophenotype for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; however, its genetic basis remains largely unknown. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) associated with attention function. Materials and Methods The discovery sample included 1655 children (7–12 years) and the replication sample included 546 children (5–8 years). Five attention outcomes were assessed using the computerized Attentional Network Test (ANT): alerting, orienting, executive attention, Hit Reaction time (HRT) and the standard error of HRT (HRTSE). A Genome-wide Association Study was conducted for each outcome. Gene set enrichment analyses were performed to detect biological pathways associated with attention outcomes. Additional neuroimaging analyses were conducted to test neural effects of detected SNPs of interest. Results Thirteen loci showed suggestive evidence of association with attention function (P<10−5) in the discovery sample. One of them, the rs4321351 located in the PID1 gene, was nominally significant in the replication sample although it did not survive multiple testing correction. Neuroimaging analysis revealed a significant association between this SNP and brain structure and function involving the frontal-basal ganglia circuits. The mTOR signaling and Alzheimer disease-amyloid secretase pathways were significantly enriched for alerting, orienting and HRT respectively (FDR<5%). Conclusion These results suggest for the first time the involvement of the PID1 gene, mTOR signaling and Alzheimer disease-amyloid secretase pathways, in attention function during childhood. These genes and pathways have been proposed to play a role in neuronal plasticity, memory and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27656889

  2. Drowning Mortality and Morbidity Rates in Children and Adolescents 0-19yrs: A Population-Based Study in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Belinda A.; Watt, Kerrianne; Franklin, Richard C.; Nixon, James W.; Kimble, Roy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To redress the lack of Queensland population incidence mortality and morbidity data associated with drowning in those aged 0-19yrs, and to understand survival and patient care. Design, Setting and Participants Retrospective population-based study used data linkage to capture both fatal and non-fatal drowning cases (N = 1299) among children aged 0-19years in Queensland, from 2002-2008 inclusive. Patient data were accessed from pre-hospital, emergency department, hospital admission and death data, and linked manually to collate data across the continuum of care. Main Outcome Measures Incidence rates were calculated separately by age group and gender for events resulting in death, hospital admission, and non-admission. Trends over time were analysed. Results Drowning death to survival ratio was 1:10, and two out of three of those who survived were admitted to hospital. Incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal drowning increased over time, primarily due to an increase in non-fatal drowning. There were non-significant reductions in fatal and admission rates. Rates for non-fatal drowning that did not result in hospitalisation more than doubled over the seven years. Children aged 5-9yrs and 10-14yrs incurred the lowest incidence rates 6.38 and 4.62 (expressed as per 100,000), and the highest rates were among children aged 0-4yrs (all drowning events 43.90; fatal 4.04; non-fatal 39.85–comprising admission 26.69 and non-admission 13.16). Males were over-represented in all age groups except 10-14yrs. Total male drowning events increased 44% over the seven years (P<0.001). Conclusion This state-wide data collection has revealed previously unknown incidence and survival ratios. Increased trends in drowning survival rates may be viewed as both positive and challenging for drowning prevention and the health system. Males are over-represented, and although infants and toddlers did not have increased fatality rates, they had the greatest drowning burden demonstrating

  3. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  4. Australian Cerebral Palsy Child Study: protocol of a prospective population based study of motor and brain development of preschool aged children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    . Discussion This protocol describes a large population-based study of early motor development and brain structure in a representative sample of preschool aged children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. The results of this study will be published in peer reviewed journals and presented at relevant international conferences. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ACTRN1261200169820) PMID:23758951

  5. Population deworming every 6 months with albendazole in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Peto, Richard; Read, Simon; Richards, Susan M; Pande, Vinod; Bundy, Donald; the DEVTA (Deworming and Enhanced Vitamin A) team

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background In north India many pre-school children are underweight, many have intestinal worms, and 2–3% die at ages 1·0–6·0 years. We used the state-wide Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) infrastructure to help to assess any effects of regular deworming on mortality. Methods Participants in this cluster-randomised study were children in catchment areas of 8338 ICDS-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200 000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of albendazole effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6–72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1–5 months after any trial deworming to sample faeces (for presence of worm eggs, reliably assessed only after mid-study), weigh children, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100 000 visits, 25 000 deaths at age 1·0–6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547. Findings Estimated compliance with 6-monthly albendazole was 86%. Among 2589 versus 2576 children surveyed during the second half of the study, nematode egg prevalence was 16% versus 36%, and most infection was light. After at least 2 years of treatment, weight at ages 3·0–6·0 years (standardised to age 4·0 years, 50% male) was 12·72 kg albendazole versus 12·68 kg control (difference 0·04 kg, 95% CI −0·14 to 0·21, p=0·66). Comparing the 36 albendazole-allocated versus 36 control blocks in analyses of the primary outcome, deaths

  6. Detection of a major gene predisposing to human T lymphotropic virus type I infection in children among an endemic population of African origin.

    PubMed

    Plancoulaine, S; Gessain, A; Joubert, M; Tortevoye, P; Jeanne, I; Talarmin, A; de Thé, G; Abel, L

    2000-08-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a human oncoretrovirus that causes an adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and a chronic neuromyelopathy. To investigate whether familial aggregation of HTLV-I infection (as determined by specific seropositive status) could be explained in part by genetic factors, we conducted a large genetic epidemiological survey in an HTLV-I-endemic population of African origin from French Guiana. All of the families in 2 villages were included, representing 83 pedigrees with 1638 subjects, of whom 165 (10.1%) were HTLV-I seropositive. The results of segregation analysis are consistent with the presence of a dominant major gene predisposing to HTLV-I infection, in addition to the expected familial correlations (mother-offspring, spouse-spouse) due to the virus transmission routes. Under this genetic model, approximately 1. 5% of the population is predicted to be highly predisposed to HTLV-I infection, and almost all seropositive children <10 years of age are genetic cases, whereas most HTLV-I seropositive adults are sporadic cases.

  7. Cortisol in the morning and dimensions of anxiety, depression, and aggression in children from a general population and clinic-referred cohort: An integrated analysis. The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Andrea; Ormel, Johan; Buitelaar, Jan K; Verhulst, Frank C; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hartman, Catharina A

    2013-08-01

    Anxiety and depressive problems have often been related to higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity (basal morning cortisol levels and cortisol awakening response [CAR]) and externalizing problems to lower HPA-axis activity. However, associations appear weaker and more inconsistent than initially assumed. Previous studies from the Tracking Adolescents Individual Lives Study (TRAILS) suggested sex-differences in these relationships and differential associations with specific dimensions of depressive problems in a general population sample of children (10-12 years). Using the TRAILS population sample (n=1604), we tested hypotheses on the association between single day cortisol (basal morning levels and CAR) and specifically constructed dimensions of anxiety (cognitive versus somatic), depressive (cognitive-affective versus somatic), and externalizing problems (reactive versus proactive aggression), and explored the modifying role of sex. Moreover, we repeated analyses in an independent same-aged clinic-referred sample (n=357). Structural Equation Modeling was used to investigate the association between cortisol and higher- and lower-order (thus, broad and specific) problem dimensions based on self-reports in an integrated model. Overall, findings were consistent across the population and clinic-referred samples, as well as with the existing literature. Most support was found for higher cortisol (mainly CAR) in relation to depressive problems. However, in general, associations were weak in both samples. Therefore, the present results shed doubt on the relevance of single day cortisol measurements for problem behaviors in the milder range. Associations may be stronger in more severe or persistent psychopathology. PMID:23237815

  8. Indicators of Children's Well-Being: Conference Papers. Cross-Cutting Issues; Population, Family, and Neighborhood; Social Development and Problem Behaviors. Volume III. Special Report Series. Special Report Number 60c.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Inst. for Research on Poverty.

    Papers in this volume explore indicators of children's well-being in the following areas: cross-cutting issues; population, family, and neighborhood; and social development and problem behaviors. The first section includes: (1) "Potential and Problems in Developing Indicators on Child Well-Being from Administrative Data" (Robert M. Goerge); (2)…

  9. Nutritional Status of under 5 Children belonging to Tribal Population Living in Riverine (Char) Areas of Dibrugarh District, Assam

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Safikul; Mahanta, Tulika Goswami; Sarma, Ratna; Hiranya, Saikia

    2014-01-01

    Context: Assam's main lifeline, the Brahmaputra river, braided nature created numerous sand bars and islands known as chars/sapories. They are home to more than 3 million people. Over 90% of the cultivated land on the river islands is flood-prone; the flood leaves the islands completely separated from mainland, preventing access to health infrastructure and services. Aims: To assess the nutritional status of under 5 children residing in the char areas of Dibrugarh district and to identify the factors influencing their nutritional status. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study conducted in the riverine areas of Dibrugarh district of Assam. Materials and Methods: Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometry. Undernutrition was classified using World Health Organization (WHO) recommended Z- score system. Data collection was done by house to house visit of all chars using proportionate allocation. Statistical Analysis Used: Rates, ratios, proportions, and chi-square test. Results: Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 29%, 30.4%, and 21.6%, respectively. Prevalence of underweight and stunting was less than the prevalence of underweight (36.4%) and stunting (46.5%) in Assam, but the prevalence of wasting was more than that of Assam (13.7%) as observed in National Family Health Survey-3. Significant association was observed between the prevalence of undernutrition and socioeconomic status, literacy status of parents, infant, and young child feeding practices and size of the family (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Special focus is needed for nutritional improvement of under 5 living in char areas to prevent preventable morbidities and to achieve optimum development. PMID:25136158

  10. Associations between objectively assessed and questionnaire-based sedentary behaviour with BMI-defined obesity among general population children and adolescents living in England

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Ngaire A; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sedentary behaviour (SB) is an emerging candidate risk factor for obesity in young people. Evidence to date is conflicting and it is unclear how different SB types are associated with obesity independently of physical activity. The objective of this study was to examine associations between a range of objectively measured and questionnaire-based SB indicators with obesity and body mass index (BMI) to assess whether these associations were independent of physical activity. Participants 4469 (705 with accelerometer data) children aged 5–15 years from the 2008 Health Survey for England. Outcomes The outcome was adiposity, classified using age-specific and sex-specific BMI SD scores (continuous) and obesity cut-offs (binary). Questionnaire-based measures comprised TV time, non-TV sitting time (such as homework, drawing, time at a computer or playing video games), total sitting time (TV time+non-TV sitting time) and average daily MVPA time. Objective SB and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time were measured using an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer, with cut-offs of 100 and 200 counts per minute for SB, and 2802 counts per minute for MVPA. Multiple logistic and multiple linear regression models examined associations between each indicator of sedentary time with obesity and BMI SD scores. Results TV time (but not non-TV sitting or objectively-measured SB) was consistently associated with higher levels of obesity and BMI SD score, even after adjusting for MVPA and other potential confounders. Weaker associations were observed for total sitting time. Conclusions TV viewing (but not other forms of objectively-measured or questionnaire-based sedentary time) was associated with obesity in children and adolescents. Although a causal relationship cannot be established, TV time may be a reasonable target for obesity prevention in young populations. PMID:26088807

  11. Higher risk of orofacial clefts in children born to mothers with angina pectoris: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Czeizel, Andrew E; Vereczkey, Attila; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2015-02-01

    Previously an unexpected association of maternal angina pectoris (MAP) during pregnancy with a higher risk of orofacial clefts in their children was found. There were three objectives of this study: (i) to evaluate the validity of MAP-diagnoses in the previous study and the recent history of mothers with MAP in a follow-up study; (ii) to estimate the prevalence of other congenital abnormalities in the offspring of mothers with MAP; and (iii) to analyze the possible effect of confounders for the risk of orofacial clefts. The large dataset of population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996 was evaluated including 22 843 cases with congenital abnormalities and 38 151 controls without any defect. Twenty-two cases (0.10%) and 12 controls (0.03%) were born to mothers with medically recorded MAP (odds ratio [OR] with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 1.8-7.3). Of 22 cases, six had isolated cleft lip ± palate (OR with 95% CI: 13.3, 4.9-35.9) and two were affected with isolated cleft palate (OR with 95% CI: 10.5, 2.3-47.6). The diagnosis of MAP was confirmed in seven women visited at home in 2009-2010, two had recent myocardial infarction and five were smokers. There was no higher risk for other congenital abnormalities. In conclusion the higher risk of orofacial clefts was confirmed in the children of mothers with MAP and smoking may trigger the genetic predisposition of both MAP and orofacial clefts. However, the number of cases was limited and therefore further studies are needed to confirm or reject this theoretically and practically important observation.

  12. Novel variants in the MC4R and LEPR genes among severely obese children from the Iberian population.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, David; Estévez, Manuela Núñez; Víbora, Pilar Beato; Giralt, Plácida Sánchez; Balsera, Aránzazu Margallo; Cortés, Pedro Gil; López, Mercedes Jiménez; Luego, Luis Miguel; Gervasini, Guillermo; Hernández, Sergio Barroso; Arroyo-Díez, Javier; Vacas, Manuel Arrobas; Nóbrega, Clévio; Manco, Licínio; Rodríguez-López, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    We screened for mutations in the MC4R and LEPR genes and investigated the genotype-phenotype correlation in obese individuals belonging to families with evident hereditary patterns of severe and early-onset obesity among the Iberian population. A total of 202 unrelated and severely obese patients since childhood, were enrolled in the study. Bidirectional sequencing of the MC4R gene was carried out in all patients; the LEPR gene was sequenced in 15 individuals based on additional clinical signals. Segregation analysis and/or genotype-phenotype description was performed for subjects with the new mutations and with presumably functional variants. Ten MC4R gene mutations were identified in the heterozygous state in 10 patients. Mutations p.R147G and p.G323E are new and mutations p.R7H, p.G32E, p.H76R, p.V103I, p.S127L, p.T150I, p.I251L and p.G252S were previously described. A new dinucleotide insertion -77_-76insTA in the promoter region of the LEPR gene was found in the heterozygous state in one patient. The new p.R147G and the previously published p.R7H, p.S127L, p.T150I and p.G252S MC4R mutations, cosegregate with obesity in our patients and were predicted to be deleterious. For the novel MC4R p.G323E and LEPR -77_-76insTA gene mutations, the genotype-phenotype correlation and bioinformatic analysis did not clarify whether these mutations are indeed implicated in obesity.

  13. Disparity of anemia prevalence and associated factors among rural to urban migrant and the local children under two years old: a population based cross-sectional study in Pinghu, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Number of internal rural to urban migrant children in China increased rapidly. The disparity of anemia prevalence among them and children of local permanent residents has been reported, both in big and middle-size cities. There has been no population-based study to explore the associated factors on feeding behaviors in small size cities of China. This study aimed to identify whether there was a difference in the prevalence of anemia between children of rural to urban migrant families and local children under 2 years old in a small coastal city in China, and to identify the associated factors of any observed difference. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Pinghu, a newly-developing city in Zhejiang Province, China, among the caregivers of 988 children (667 who were identified as children of migrants and 321 locals) aged 6–23 months. Disparity of anemia prevalence were reported. Association between anemia prevalence and socio-economic status and feeding behaviors were explored among two groups respectively. Results Anemia prevalence among the migrant and local children was 36.6% and 18.7% respectively (aPR 1.86, 95% CI 1. 40 to 2.47). Results from adjusted Poisson models revealed: having elder sibling/s were found as an associated factor of anemia with the aPR 1.47 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.87) among migrant children and 2.58 (95% CI 1.37 to 4.58) among local ones; anemia status was associated with continued breastfeeding at 6 months (aPR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.14) and lack of iron-rich and/or iron-fortified foods (aPR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.89) among the migrant children but not among local ones. Conclusion Anemia was more prevalent among migrant children, especially those aged 6–11 months. Dislike their local counterparts, migrant children were more vulnerable at early life and seemed sensitive to feeding behaviors, such as, over reliance on breastfeeding for nutrition after aged 6 months, lack of iron-rich and

  14. Ethnic characterization of a population of children exposed to high doses of arsenic via drinking water and a possible correlation with metabolic processes.

    PubMed

    Bobillo, Cecilia; Navoni, Julio A; Olmos, Valentina; Merini, Luciano J; Villaamil Lepori, Edda; Corach, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Because the ratio between the two major arsenic metabolites is related to the adverse health effects of arsenic, numerous studies have been performed to establish a relationship between the ability to metabolically detoxify arsenic and other variables, including exposure level, gender, age and ethnicity. Because ethnicity may play a key role and provide relevant information for heterogeneous populations, we characterized a group of 70 children from rural schools in the Argentinean provinces of Chaco and Santiago del Estero who were exposed to high levels of arsenic. We used genetic markers for maternal, paternal and bi-parental ancestry to achieve this goal. Our results demonstrate that the Amerindian maternal linages are present in 100% of the samples, whereas the Amerindian component transmitted through the paternal line is less than 10%. Informative markers for autosomal ancestry show a predominantly European ancestry, in which 37% of the samples contained between 90 and 99% European ancestry. The native American component ranged from 50 to 80% in 15.7% of the samples, and in all but four samples, the African component was less than 10%. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the ethnicity and the ratio of the excreted arsenic metabolites monomethyl arsenic and dimethyl arsenic are not associated, dismissing a relationship between ethnic origin and differential metabolism.

  15. Ethnic characterization of a population of children exposed to high doses of arsenic via drinking water and a possible correlation with metabolic processes

    PubMed Central

    Bobillo, Cecilia; Navoni, Julio A; Olmos, Valentina; Merini, Luciano J; Villaamil Lepori, Edda; Corach, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Because the ratio between the two major arsenic metabolites is related to the adverse health effects of arsenic, numerous studies have been performed to establish a relationship between the ability to metabolically detoxify arsenic and other variables, including exposure level, gender, age and ethnicity. Because ethnicity may play a key role and provide relevant information for heterogeneous populations, we characterized a group of 70 children from rural schools in the Argentinean provinces of Chaco and Santiago del Estero who were exposed to high levels of arsenic. We used genetic markers for maternal, paternal and bi-parental ancestry to achieve this goal. Our results demonstrate that the Amerindian maternal linages are present in 100% of the samples, whereas the Amerindian component transmitted through the paternal line is less than 10%. Informative markers for autosomal ancestry show a predominantly European ancestry, in which 37% of the samples contained between 90 and 99% European ancestry. The native American component ranged from 50 to 80% in 15.7% of the samples, and in all but four samples, the African component was less than 10%. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the ethnicity and the ratio of the excreted arsenic metabolites monomethyl arsenic and dimethyl arsenic are not associated, dismissing a relationship between ethnic origin and differential metabolism. PMID:24596592

  16. Parenting and the Behavior Problems of Young Children with an Intellectual Disability: Concurrent and Longitudinal Relationships in a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard Patrick; Vagenas, Dimitrios; Emerson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We examined parenting behaviors, and their association with concurrent and later child behavior problems. Children with an intellectual disability (ID) were identified from a UK birth cohort (N = 516 at age 5). Compared to parents of children without an ID, parents of children with an ID used discipline less frequently, but reported a more…

  17. Population-based cohort study of anti-infective medication use before and after the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C; van der Vorst, Marja M J; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; de Boer, Anthonius; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2014-08-01

    A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO database to investigate prevalence and patterns of anti-infective medication use in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after the onset of this disease. All patients <19 years with at least 2 insulin prescriptions (1999 to 2009) were identified (T1D cohort) and compared with an age- and sex-matched (ratio: 1 up to 4) diabetes-free reference group. The prevalence and average number of anti-infective use was studied from (up to) 8 years before until a maximum of 4 years after the onset of T1D. A total of 925 patients with T1D and 3,591 children and adolescents in the reference cohort (51% boys, mean age of 10.1 [standard deviation, 4.5] years) were included. The overall prevalence of anti-infective use (62.6 compared to 52.6%, P < 0.001) and average number of prescriptions (2.71 compared to 1.42 per child, P < 0.001) in the T1D cohort were significantly higher than those in the reference cohort after the onset of diabetes. This pattern was consistent across sex and age categories and already observed in the year before the onset of type 1 diabetes. Patients in the T1D cohort received more antibacterials (49.8 compared to 40%, P < 0.001), antimycotics (4.0 compared to 1.3%, P < 0.001), antivirals (2.5 compared to 0.4%, P < 0.001), and second-line antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, quinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. Our findings that elevated anti-infective use in the T1D cohort exists in the period before the onset of type 1 diabetes and the consumption of more second-line anti-infective compounds in this time period warrant further research.

  18. Play Therapy with Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper notes that therapists often feel unqualified to deal with special populations of children because of a lack of understanding of the universalness of play therapy. Suggestions are offered for beginning play therapists who may work with a number of special populations of children. It is recommended that the social learning approach to…

  19. Why Population Matters, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Action International, Washington, DC.

    Population growth around the world affects Americans through its impact on economy, environment, safety, and health, and the condition of the world children will inherit. The cumulative evidence is strong that current rates of population growth pose significant and interacting risks to human well-being and are a legitimate concern for Americans.…

  20. Endocarditis - children

    MedlinePlus

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  1. What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study)

    PubMed Central

    Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. Methods and analysis The study population will be identified via linkage of Australian Early Development Census data to perinatal and birth registration data sets. It will include an almost complete population of children who started their first year of full-time school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2009 and 2012. Early childhood health and development trajectories for these children will be constructed via linkage to a range of administrative data sets relating to birth outcomes, congenital conditions, hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, receipt of ambulatory mental healthcare services, use of general practitioner services, contact with child protection and out-of-home care services, receipt of income assistance and fact of death. Using multilevel modelling techniques, we will quantify the contributions of individual-level and area-level factors to variation in early childhood development outcomes in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Additionally, we will evaluate the impact of two government programmes that aim to address early childhood disadvantage, the NSW Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service and the Brighter Futures Program. These evaluations will use propensity score matching methods and multilevel modelling. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. Dissemination mechanisms include engagement of stakeholders (including representatives from Aboriginal community controlled organisations, policy agencies, service

  2. Antibiotic exposure in the first year of life and later treated asthma, a population based birth cohort study of 143,000 children.

    PubMed

    Pitter, Gisella; Ludvigsson, Jonas Filip; Romor, Pierantonio; Zanier, Loris; Zanotti, Renzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies reported an association between antibiotic consumption in the first year of life and later asthma, but results are conflicting and affected by potential biases. We examined this controversial issue in a population-based birth cohort. Using administrative data, we identified 143,163 children born in 1995-2011 in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy) (median follow-up 5.25 years, 927,350 person-years). Antibiotic prescriptions in the first year of life and subsequent treated asthma (defined as ≥2 anti-asthmatic drug prescriptions within a 12-month period) were retrieved from drug prescription records. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) using Poisson regression models, adjusted for perinatal variables and for hospitalizations for infections in the first year of life. We identified 34,957 new-onset asthma cases. Antibiotic consumption in the first year of life increased the risk of new-onset asthma [IRR 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-1.54] with a dose-response relationship (p-trend <0.001). The risk was highest for asthma identified at 13-35 months of life (IRR 2.07, 95% CI 2.00-2.14), but remained statistically significant for asthma identified at 36-71 months (IRR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14-1.21) and at ≥72 months (IRR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). Antibiotics increased the risk of current asthma at ≥6 years (IRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.30-1.41) and at ≥13 years of age (IRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.33). Antibiotic exposure in infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma up to adolescence. The association detected at older ages is not explained by reverse causation; however, confounding by respiratory infections not leading to hospital admission cannot be excluded. PMID:25957084

  3. Indirect population impact of universal PCV7 vaccination of children in a 2 + 1 schedule on the incidence of pneumonia morbidity in Kielce, Poland.

    PubMed

    Patrzalek, M; Gorynski, P; Albrecht, P

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was an analysis of the population effects of a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumonia incidence rates in the 5-year follow-up period after the introduction in 2006 of a universal PCV7 vaccination programme in the city of Kielce, Poland. Vaccinations were carried out according to a 2 + 1 schedule. The vaccination compliance rate amounted to approximately 99 %. The age groups 0-2, 30-49, 50-65 and 65+ years were analysed. The Cochran-Armitage test was used to investigate the significance of observed trends in pneumonia morbidity. The significance of deviations from a linear trend was also tested. The importance of the trend was confirmed by the Mantel test. Between 2005 and 2010, the greatest decline, 82.9 % (2005, 25.31/1,000; 2010, 4.34/1,000), in pneumonia morbidity was observed for children <2 years of age. In the 65+ years age group, this amounted to 43.5 %. Lesser declines, but still of statistical significance, were observed for the other age groups: 16.5 % in the 30-49 years group and 40.4 % in the 50-64 years group. All reductions are statistically significant and confirmed by the Mantel test. Five years after the introduction of a universal PCV7 vaccination programme in Kielce, Poland, its effectiveness in pneumonia prevention has been demonstrated in both the <2 years of age group and indirectly for other groups.

  4. Antibiotic exposure in the first year of life and later treated asthma, a population based birth cohort study of 143,000 children.

    PubMed

    Pitter, Gisella; Ludvigsson, Jonas Filip; Romor, Pierantonio; Zanier, Loris; Zanotti, Renzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies reported an association between antibiotic consumption in the first year of life and later asthma, but results are conflicting and affected by potential biases. We examined this controversial issue in a population-based birth cohort. Using administrative data, we identified 143,163 children born in 1995-2011 in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy) (median follow-up 5.25 years, 927,350 person-years). Antibiotic prescriptions in the first year of life and subsequent treated asthma (defined as ≥2 anti-asthmatic drug prescriptions within a 12-month period) were retrieved from drug prescription records. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) using Poisson regression models, adjusted for perinatal variables and for hospitalizations for infections in the first year of life. We identified 34,957 new-onset asthma cases. Antibiotic consumption in the first year of life increased the risk of new-onset asthma [IRR 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-1.54] with a dose-response relationship (p-trend <0.001). The risk was highest for asthma identified at 13-35 months of life (IRR 2.07, 95% CI 2.00-2.14), but remained statistically significant for asthma identified at 36-71 months (IRR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14-1.21) and at ≥72 months (IRR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). Antibiotics increased the risk of current asthma at ≥6 years (IRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.30-1.41) and at ≥13 years of age (IRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.33). Antibiotic exposure in infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma up to adolescence. The association detected at older ages is not explained by reverse causation; however, confounding by respiratory infections not leading to hospital admission cannot be excluded.

  5. Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in the Brazilian Western Amazon before and after the Interoceanic highway paving: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of undernutrition, overweight and associated factors, before and after the implementation of the Interoceanic Highway. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study on children under 5 years of age was conducted in the municipality of Assis Brasil, AC, Brazil, in 2003 and 2010. Prevalence of undernutrition was observed by using height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) and adopting a cut-off point equal to or lower than a -2 Z-score. Overweight prevalence was defined by a cut-off point equal to or greater than a +2 Z-score of the WHZ index. Z-scores were calculated relative to WHO 2006 reference data. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied to the children’s guardians, investigating family socio-economic and demographic characteristics, morbidities, access to services and child care. Associated factors were identified by hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of low HAZ (undernutrition) was 7.0% in 2003 and 12.2% in 2010. The prevalence of high WHZ (overweight) was 1.0% and 6.6% for 2003 and 2010, respectively. It was not possible to adjust the multiple model for the year 2003. The factors associated with low HAZ in 2010 were: wealth index, the situation of living with biological parents, maternal height and presence of open sewage, whereas the factors associated with a high WHZ in the same year were: child’s age, mother’s time of residence in the location, mother’s body mass index. Conclusions Overweight increase within this undernutrition scenario reveals that the process of nutritional transition began in this Amazonian city only in the last decade, and therefore, it is delayed when compared to overweight in other parts of Brazil. Such nutritional transition in Assis Brasil may have been facilitated by the construction of the Interoceanic Highway. PMID:24283293

  6. Mental health problems and social resource factors among bullied children in the Nordic countries: a population based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bjereld, Ylva; Daneback, Kristian; Gunnarsdóttir, Hrafnhildur; Petzold, Max

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated internalising and externalising mental health problems among bullied-, unclear if bullied- and not bullied children aged 4-16 in the Nordic countries, and identified resource factors to bullied children's mental health. Data comes from the cross-sectional NordChild survey 2011 and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, including 6,214 children in the analyses. Mental health problems were most prevalent among children parent-reported as bullied (29.2-44.3 %), followed by children with unclear status if bullied (13.0-25.6 %) and not bullied children (5.3-7.9 %). Externalising problems were more prevalent in all groups except among bullied girls aged 7-16, where internalising problems were more prevalent. Ten potential resource factors to bullied children's mental health were analyzed, finding that (1) children with at least three close friends had higher odds to be mentally healthy than children with fewer close friends and (2) bullied boys had higher odds to be mentally healthy if they regularly practiced sport.

  7. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…

  8. Assessment of Visuo-Attentional Abilities in Young Children with or without Visual Disorder: Toward a Systematic Screening in the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavezian, Celine; Vilayphonh, Marc; de Agostini, Maria; Vasseur, Vivien; Watier, Laurence; Kazandjian, Seta; Laloum, Laurent; Chokron, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    In young children, visual attention, analysis or memory is only rarely evaluated. Moreover, tools to test for such higher-order visual capacities in children are limited. In an attempt to develop and refine such tools, we selected nine tests to assess visuo-attentional abilities before formal reading education (grade 1). The battery consisted of…

  9. Children at Risk and Community Response. Notes, Comments... No. 187 = L'action des populations locales face au probleme de l'enfance en danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oudenhoven, Nico

    Begun in 1978 by a small group of Colombians who were affiliated with a private organization and who were interested in children's upbringing, education, and development, the Promesa Project began by organizing discussion groups among about 20 mothers and their children between 3 and 7 years of age in four remote villages on the shores of the…

  10. Children Who Lost a Parent as a Result of the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001: Registry Construction and Population Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Conroy, David L.; Hochauser, Carl J.; Laraque, Danielle; Banks, Josette; Schmeidler, James; Dela Cruz, Maan; Nelsen, William C.; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Children who experience traumatic bereavement in the context of catastrophic disasters are at increased risk for developing post-disaster problems. Despite massive loss of life on September 11th, 2001, no public data were collected on those children who lost a parent in the multiple terrorist attacks. Such a registry would be an important public…

  11. The Relative Roles Played by Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in Relation to Behaviour in a Population of Primary School Children from Socially Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, J.; Rush, R.; McBean, K.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the association between language learning difficulties and behaviour in young children and this is likely to be particularly true of children raised in social disadvantage. Less is known about the way that different aspects of language, specifically pragmatics, interact with behaviour. This study examines the extent…

  12. Similarity of the oral microbiota of pre-school children with that of their caregivers in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Tanner, A C R; Milgrom, P M; Kent, R; Mokeem, S A; Page, R C; Liao, S I A; Riedy, C A; Bruss, J B

    2002-12-01

    This study evaluated the similarity between the oral microbiota of young children and that of their adult caregivers. Oral samples from children (174 dentate and 18 pre-dentate) aged 6-36 months and their caregivers in Saipan were assayed using a DNA probe assay. Many species including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces species, Campylobacter rectus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis were detected in dentate and pre-dentate children, whereas Bacteroides forsythus was detected only in dentate children. A higher percentage of children were positive for the detection of an individual species if the caregiver was also positive. There were significant relative risks of species detection between dentate children and their caregivers. By logistic regression, there were significant positive associations between species detection in caregiver and in child, but not between species detection and child age or maternal education level. In conclusion, dental pathogens were detected in young, including pre-dentate, children. The microbial profiles of children were strongly associated with the microbiota of their caregivers.

  13. What about These Children? Assessing Poverty among the "Hidden Population" of Multiracial Children in Single-Mother Families. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2010-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratter, Jenifer; Damaske, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Capturing the conditions of children of color living in single-parent families has become more complex due to the growing presence of interracial households. This analysis assesses the size and poverty status of single-female headed families housing multiracial children. Using data from the 2000 Census, we find that 9 percent of female-headed…

  14. Population studies.

    PubMed

    Heenan, B

    1989-01-01

    A number of studies have been published about the population change in New Zealand between 1936 and 1986. During this time an intellectual and demographic revolution also took place simultaneously. From 1961 and 1986 the population increased from 2.4 million to 3.3 million mainly because of Polynesian immigration, and the elderly and females also increased. The Maoris became urban. Mortality stayed stable, but fertility declined to below replacement level in the 1980's. Murray Wilson (1988) analyzed the relationship of fertility and mortality in terms of a post-transitional (developed) society like Australia or the European norm of a 2-children family. In his view the youth culture, television, and female aspirations greatly influenced childrearing. Daniel Noin (1988) examined the current state of geographical research on mortality from a methodological point of view finding wide differences in mortality in Quebec, Brussels, Paris, and London attributable to culture. Mosley and Chen (1984) argued that social, cultural, and economic factors to mortality are mediated by individual, household, and community variables. Jones and Moon (1987) dealt with medical geography in the context of the consumption of health care and disease ecology. Momsen and Townsend (1987) addressed the role of women in developing countries stating that gender is socially created and it examined the worldwide subordination of women. In the 1980's a host of other authors have also touched on the subject of the demography of gender analyzing discrimination against female children, unmarried American women, and single parent families. Yet Fahey (1988) stated that gender was only regarded relevant by Australian geographers as a demographic variable. PMID:12283966

  15. Examining Race/Ethnicity and Fears of Children and Adolescents in the United States: Differences between White, African American, and Hispanic Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Joy J.; Lomax, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    The American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; J. J. Burnham, 1995, 2005) has been used to measure fears of children and adolescents. The FSSC-AM is based on the 2nd revision of a psychometrically sound and well-known fear scale (i.e., FSSC-II; E. Gullone & N. J. King, 1992). In this study, age and gender differences, fear intensity…

  16. Patterns of inflammation in mucosal biopsies of ulcerative colitis: perceived differences in pediatric populations are limited to children younger than 10 years.

    PubMed

    Robert, M E; Tang, L; Hao, L M; Reyes-Mugica, M

    2004-02-01

    The histologic criteria used to diagnose ulcerative colitis in colonic mucosal biopsies have been established for many years and include crypt architectural distortion, plasmacellular infiltrates, and neutrophils in the crypt epithelium and lumen. In several recent studies, it has been noted that colonic mucosal biopsies from children presenting with ulcerative colitis show fewer histologic abnormalities at initial presentation, especially less architectural distortion, than do biopsies from adults. In this study, colonic mucosal biopsies taken at the time of presentation of ulcerative colitis in 15 adults and 25 children were examined blindly by two pathologists. All biopsies were taken prior to the initiation of therapy. Twelve children were between 1 and 10 years of age, and 13 children were between the ages of 11 and 17 years. All patients had at least 1 year of follow-up, with clinical and pathologic confirmation of the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. Five separate histologic features that are characteristic of ulcerative colitis were scored on mucosal biopsies. Children < or = 10 years of age had significantly less crypt branching, plasma cells in the lamina propria, cryptitis, crypt abscesses, and epithelial injury than adults (P values ranging from < 0.0001 to 0.0032). Children between the ages of 11 and 17 years had less cryptitis, crypt abscesses, and epithelial injury than adults (P values ranging from 0.0001 to 0.007) but similar degrees of crypt architectural distortion and plasma cell infiltrates. For all histologic features examined except epithelial injury, the significant findings were due to differences in biopsies taken proximal to the rectum. No significant differences in histology scores were found in rectal biopsies between any age group, except for epithelial injury, which was significantly less in children < or = 10 years. The findings show for the first time that the perceived differences between adults and children with ulcerative colitis

  17. Determinants of undernutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in rural Zambézia Province, Mozambique: Results of two population-based serial cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Elizabeth S.; Blevins, Meridith; González-Calvo, Lazaro; Ndatimana, Elisée; Green, Ann F.; Lopez, Melanie; Olupona, Omo; Vermund, Sten H.; Moon, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background While many countries are transitioning from epidemics of undernutrition to overnutrition, Mozambique’s very high 44% prevalence of stunting in children under age 5 years is cause for serious concern. Methods We conducted two population-based cross-sectional surveys of ~4000 female heads of households each in Zambézia Province, Mozambique from August–September 2010 (Baseline) and April–May 2014 (Endline) as part of the USAID funded Strengthening Communities through Integrated Programs (SCIP) grant. Anthropometric measurements were collected on 560 children aged 6–59 months at Baseline and 912 children at Endline and classified as: “stunted,” a height-for-age z-score less than -2; “wasted,” weight-for-height z-score less than -2; and “underweight,” weight-for-age z-score less than -2. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression using Stata 13.1 were used to examine factors associated with undernutrition. Results Of children under age five years, 43% were undernourished in 2010 and 55% in 2014. The most common form of undernutrition was stunting (39% in 2010, 51% in 2014), followed by underweight (13% in both 2010 and 2014), and wasting (7% in 2010, 5% in 2014). Child’s age was found to have a non-linear association with stunting. Vitamin A supplementation was associated with a 31% (p=0.04) decreased odds of stunting. Children who were exclusively breastfed for at least six months had an 80% (p=0.02) lower odds of wasting in 2014 and 57% (p=0.05) decreased odds of being underweight in 2014. Introducing other foods after age six months was associated with a five-fold increased odds of wasting in 2014 (p=0.02); household food insecurity was associated with wasting (OR=2.08; p=0.03) and underweight in 2010 (OR=2.31; p=0.05). Children whose mother washed her hands with a cleaning agent had a 40% (p=0.05) decreased odds of being underweight. Surprisingly, per point increase in household dietary diversity score, children had 12% greater

  18. Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995–2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Gretchen A; Finucane, Mariel M; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Paciorek, Christopher J; Flaxman, Seth R; Branca, Francesco; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Low haemoglobin concentrations and anaemia are important risk factors for the health and development of women and children. We estimated trends in the distributions of haemoglobin concentration and in the prevalence of anaemia and severe anaemia in young children and pregnant and non-pregnant women between 1995 and 2011. Methods We obtained data about haemoglobin and anaemia for children aged 6–59 months and women of childbearing age (15–49 years) from 257 population-representative data sources from 107 countries worldwide. We used health, nutrition, and household surveys; summary statistics from WHO's Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System; and summary statistics reported by other national and international agencies. We used a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to estimate haemoglobin distributions and systematically addressed missing data, non-linear time trends, and representativeness of data sources. We quantified the uncertainty of our estimates. Findings Global mean haemoglobin improved slightly between 1995 and 2011, from 125 g/L (95% credibility interval 123–126) to 126 g/L (124–128) in non-pregnant women, from 112 g/L (111–113) to 114 g/L (112–116) in pregnant women, and from 109 g/L (107–111) to 111 g/L (110–113) in children. Anaemia prevalence decreased from 33% (29–37) to 29% (24–35) in non-pregnant women, from 43% (39–47) to 38% (34–43) in pregnant women, and from 47% (43–51) to 43% (38–47) in children. These prevalences translated to 496 million (409–595 million) non-pregnant women, 32 million (28–36 million) pregnant women, and 273 million (242–304 million) children with anaemia in 2011. In 2011, concentrations of mean haemoglobin were lowest and anaemia prevalence was highest in south Asia and central and west Africa. Interpretation Children's and women's haemoglobin statuses improved in some regions where concentrations had been low in the 1990s, leading to a modest global increase in

  19. Outpatient rehabilitation utilization and medical expenses in children aged 0-7 years with ADHD: analyses of population-based national health insurance data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Medical costs of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are substantial and have a large impact on the public health system. The present study presents information regarding outpatient rehabilitation care usage and medical expenditure for children with ADHD. A cross-sectional study was conducted by analyzing data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database for the year 2009. A total of 6643 children aged 0-7 years with ADHD (ICD-9-CM codes 314.0x: attention deficit disorder, 314.00: attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity, or 314.01: attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity) who had used outpatient rehabilitation care were included in the analyses. Results showed that the mean annual rehabilitation care was 22.24 visits. Among the care users, 76% of patients were male, and 24% were female. More than half of the children with ADHD had comorbid mental illnesses as well. A logistic regression analysis of outpatient rehabilitation expenditure (low vs. high) showed that of those children with ADHD, those aged 0-2 years tended to incur more medical costs than those aged 6-7 years. Other factors such as frequency of rehabilitation visits, hospital medical setting and ownership, location of medical care setting, and types of rehabilitation were also significantly correlated with medical expenditure. The results from this study suggest that health care systems should ensure accurate diagnosis and measurement of impairment to maintain appropriate and successful management of rehabilitation needs for children with ADHD. PMID:23643766

  20. [To 20-years anniversary of Chernobyl catastrophe: an attempt to study the vitamin, calcium, iron and selenium status of children and adult population in Slavutich and to correct elicited deficiencies].

    PubMed

    Spirichev, V B; Komissarenko, S V; Donchenko, G V; Blazheevich, N V; Aleĭnik, S I; Golubkina, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Isaeva, V A; Kodentsov, V M; Pereverzeva, O G; Alekseeva, I A; Sokol'nikov, A A; Iakushina, L M

    2006-01-01

    The article concisely illustrates the vitamin and mineral state of population of town of Slavutich, including personal of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, children of pre-school age and pregnancy women, studied in 1992. Vitamins and minerals deficiency in the main of C and B vitamins and selenium was revealed in all the studied groups. Appropriate measures were developed and introduced to eliminate the detected dusturbances; but however some unsolved problems remained. Taking into account the forthcoming 20th anniversary of Chernobyl disarter, the authors of the come back to considering the obtained data in hope to atlract attention of medical scientific and public to the remained unsolved problems of micronutrient deficiency.

  1. Gender ratio in a clinical population sample, age of diagnosis and duration of assessment in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Marion; McKenzie, Karen; Johnson, Tess; Catchpole, Ciara; O'Hare, Anne; McClure, Iain; Forsyth, Kirsty; McCartney, Deborah; Murray, Aja

    2016-07-01

    This article reports on gender ratio, age of diagnosis and the duration of assessment procedures in autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in a national study which included all types of clinical services for children and adults. Findings are reported from a retrospective case note analysis undertaken with a representative sample of 150 Scottish children and adults recently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The study reports key findings that the gender ratio in this consecutively referred cohort is lower than anticipated in some age groups and reduces with increasing age. The gender ratio in children, together with the significant difference in the mean age of referral and diagnosis for girls compared to boys, adds evidence of delayed recognition of autism spectrum disorder in younger girls. There was no significant difference in duration of assessment for males and females suggesting that delays in diagnosis of females occur prior to referral for assessment. Implications for practice and research are considered.

  2. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are associated with psychiatric comorbidities, behavioral and clinical problems: a population-based study of Brazilian school children.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Pedro G; do Rosario, Maria C; Cesar, Raony C; Manfro, Gisele G; Moriyama, Tais S; Bloch, Michael H; Shavitt, Roseli G; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Coughlin, Catherine G; Leckman, James F; Miguel, Euripedes C

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is underdiagnosed, and many affected children are untreated. The present study seeks to evaluate the presence and the clinical impact of OCD and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large sample of school-age children. In Phase I, we performed an initial screening using the Family History Screen (FHS). In Phase II, we identified an "at-risk" sample, as well as a randomly selected group of children. A total of 2,512 children (6-12 years old) were assessed using the FHS, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Data analyses included descriptive and multivariate analytical techniques. 2,512 children (mean age: 8.86 ± 1.84 years; 55.0% male) were categorized into one of the three diagnostic groups: OCD (n = 77), OCS (n = 488), and unaffected controls (n = 1,947). There were no significant socio-demographic differences (age, gender, socioeconomic status) across groups. The OCS group resembled the OCD on overall impairment, including school problems and delinquent behaviors. However, the OCD group did have significantly higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, including separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, and major depressive disorder, than OCS or unaffected controls. Moreover, the OCD group also scored higher than the SDQ, as well as on each of CBCL items rated by the parent. Our findings suggest that there is a psychopathological continuum between OCS and OCD in school-aged children. The presence of OCS is associated with functional impairment, which needs further investigation in longitudinal studies. PMID:26015374

  3. THE AVAILABILITY AND USE OF OUT-OF-HOSPITAL PHYSIOLOGIC INFORMATION TO IDENTIFY HIGH-RISK INJURED CHILDREN IN A MULTISITE, POPULATION-BASED COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Newgard, Craig D.; Rudser, Kyle; Atkins, Dianne L.; Berg, Robert; Osmond, Martin H.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Davis, Daniel P.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Warden, Craig; Rea, Thomas D.; Emerson, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective The validity of using adult physiologic criteria to triage injured children in the out-of-hospital setting remains unproven. Among children meeting adult field physiologic criteria, we assessed the availability of physiologic information, the incidence of death or prolonged hospitalization, and whether age-specific criteria would improve the specificity of the physiologic triage step. Methods We analyzed a prospective, out-of-hospital cohort of injured children aged ≤14 years collected from December 2005 through February 2007 by 237 emergency medical services (EMS) agencies transporting to 207 acute care hospitals (trauma and nontrauma centers) in 11 sites across the United States and Canada. Inclusion criteria were standard adult physiologic values: systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≤90 mmHg, respiratory rate <10 or >29 breaths/min, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≤12, and field intubation attempt. Seven physiologic variables (including age-specific values) and three demographic and mechanism variables were included in the analysis. “High-risk” children included those who died (field or in-hospital) or were hospitalized >2 days. The decision tree was derived and validated using binary recursive partitioning. Results Nine hundred fifty-five children were included in the analysis, of whom 62 (6.5%) died and 117 (12.3%) were hospitalized >2 days. Missing values were common, ranging from 6% (respiratory rate) to 53% (pulse oximetry), and were associated with younger age and high-risk outcome. The final decision rule included four variables (assisted ventilation, GCS score <11, pulse oximetry <95%, and SBP >96 mmHg), which demonstrated improved specificity (71.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 66.7–76.6%]) at the expense of missing high-risk children (sensitivity 76.5% [95% CI 66.4–86.6%]). Conclusions The incidence of high-risk injured children meeting adult physiologic criteria is relatively low and the findings from this sample do not support using

  4. Health-related quality of life is not impaired in children with undetected as well as diagnosed celiac disease: a large population based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge regarding the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children with celiac disease remains limited and inconclusive. We investigated the HRQoL of three groups of 12-year-olds with: i) undetected celiac disease ii) clinically diagnosed celiac disease, and iii) without celiac disease. Methods A school-based cross-sectional multicenter screening study invited 18 325 children, whereof 68% consented to participate. Participants provided a blood sample, which was later analyzed for anti-tissue-tranglutaminase antibodies, and alongside filled in a questionnaire. When anti-tissue-tranglutaminase antibodies were elevated, a small intestinal biopsy verified the screening-detected celiac disease diagnosis. Self-reported HRQoL was measured using Kidscreen, a generic 52 items instrument with proven reliability and validity. Scores were linearly transformed into a 0–100 scale with higher values indicating better HRQoL. Mean values with standard deviations (mean ± SD) were compared, and uni- and multivariate logistic regression models tested the odds of a low HRQoL among children with undetected or diagnosed celiac disease, respectively. Results Children with undetected celiac disease (n = 238) reported similar HRQoL as children without celiac disease (n = 12 037) (83.0 ± 11.0 vs. 82.5 ± 11.3, P = 0.51), and also similar HRQoL (82.2 ± 12.2, P = 0.28) to that of children with diagnosed celiac disease (n = 90), of whom 92% were adherent to treatment. Having undetected celiac disease did not increase the odds of low overall HRQoL, independent of sex, area of residence, study year and occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.54-1.10). Comparable results were seen for diagnosed celiac disease cases (adjusted odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 0.67-1.85). Conclusion Children with undetected celiac disease reported comparable HRQoL as their peers with diagnosed celiac disease, and those without celiac disease

  5. Rising Mean Iq: Cognitive Demand of Mathematics Education for Young Children, Population Exposure to Formal Schooling, and the Neurobiology of the Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, C.; Gamson, D.; Thorne, S.; Baker, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes one potential explanation for 100 years of rising population mean IQ in the United States associated with historical changes in access to schooling and educational practice. A neurodevelopmental-schooling hypothesis is forwarded based on evidence of growth in the population's access to schooling early in the last century and…

  6. Younger Children Experience Lower Levels of Language Competence and Academic Progress in the First Year of School: Evidence from a Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Gooch, Debbie; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background: The youngest children in an academic year are reported to be educationally disadvantaged and overrepresented in referrals to clinical services. In this study we investigate for the first time whether these disadvantages are indicative of a mismatch between language competence at school entry and the academic demands of the classroom.…

  7. Family Policies and Academic Achievement by Young Children in Single-Parent Families: An International Comparison. Population Research Institute Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-ling; Dronkers, Jaap; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    This study investigates the differences in the degree of low academic achievement of third and fourth graders living with single-parent families from 11 industrialized countries. The United States ranks first among the countries compared in terms of the achievement gap for children in single- and two-parent families. After controlling for…

  8. The association between physical activity and overweight and obesity in a population of children at high and low altitudes in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Humeda S.; Khalid, Mohammed E. M.; Osman, Osama M.; Ballal, Mansour A.; Al-Hashem, Fahaid H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between overweight and obesity and physical activity in Saudi children born and permanently domiciled at high and low altitudes in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 145 healthy Saudi children aged 10–15 years who were born and lived permanently at high altitude (3000–3100 m) and 154 healthy Saudi children of comparable age who were born and lived permanently at a relatively low altitude (500 m) was conducted. For each subject selected, body weight and body height were measured using an Avery beam weighing scale and a stadiometer, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the equation BMI = (weight [kg]/height [m2]). Physical activity scores were determined using International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form-A. Resting radial pulse rate (beat/minutes) was determined clinically. Results: Physical activity was significantly and inversely associated with overweight and obesity in boys at both high (χ2 = 15.8, P< 0.001) and low (χ2 = 14.7, P< 0.001) altitudes, but there was no clear trend for girls at either altitude. The lack of association between physical activity and overweight and obesity in girls was attributed to the low and homogeneous level of physical activity. Conclusion: Physical activity should be encouraged as a strategy for weight reduction in the overweight and the obese and the prevention of overweight and obesity in Saudi children at high and low altitudes. PMID:27186153

  9. Gender Ratio in a Clinical Population Sample, Age of Diagnosis and Duration of Assessment in Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Marion; McKenzie, Karen; Johnson, Tess; Catchpole, Ciara; O'Hare, Anne; McClure, Iain; Forsyth, Kirsty; McCartney, Deborah; Murray, Aja

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on gender ratio, age of diagnosis and the duration of assessment procedures in autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in a national study which included all types of clinical services for children and adults. Findings are reported from a retrospective case note analysis undertaken with a representative sample of 150 Scottish…

  10. Kinematic Measurements of the Vocal-Fold Displacement Waveform in Typical Children and Adult Populations: Quantification of High-Speed Endoscopic Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rita; Donohue, Kevin D.; Unnikrishnan, Harikrishnan; Kryscio, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents a quantitative method for assessing instantaneous and average lateral vocal-fold motion from high-speed digital imaging, with a focus on developmental changes in vocal-fold kinematics during childhood. Method: Vocal-fold vibrations were analyzed for 28 children (aged 5-11 years) and 28 adults (aged 21-45 years)…

  11. The Clinical Presentation of Mitochondrial Diseases in Children with Progressive Intellectual and Neurological Deterioration: A National, Prospective, Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verity, Christopher M.; Winstone, Anne Marie; Stellitano, Lesley; Krishnakumar, Deepa; Will, Robert; McFarland, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to study the clinical presentation, mode of diagnosis, and epidemiology of mitochondrial disorders in children from the UK who have progressive intellectual and neurological deterioration (PIND). Method: Since April 1997, we have identified patients aged 16 years or younger with suspected PIND through the monthly notification card…

  12. Meeting of National Specialists on the Conditions Governing the Schooling of the Children of Mobile Populations. Final Report (Conflans-Sainte-Honorine, France, September 11-15, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This report of proceedings summarizes a meeting held for facilitating the exchange of information between 27 educational specialists from 8 member states of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. These specialists held positions of responsibility in connection with the education of children belonging to families that,…

  13. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy and Externalizing Behavior in 18-Month-Old Children: Results from a Population-Based Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Borge, Anne I. H.; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the data on 22,545 smoking mothers and their 18-month-old children finds that maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk for externalizing behavior problem at the age of 18-months. The child's gender is found to have no moderating effects on the findings.

  14. ADHD and Other Associated Developmental Problems in Children with Mild Mental Retardation. The Use of the "Five-To-Fifteen" Questionnaire in a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Ida; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to examine the rates and types of parent reported neuropsychiatric problems in children and adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) (mild intellectual disability/UK) using the Five-To-Fifteen questionnaire (FTF). The target group comprised all pupils with clinically diagnosed MMR, aged between 7 and 15 years, attending the…

  15. A National Study of Autistic Symptoms in the General Population of School-Age Children and Those Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sam; Naglieri, Jack A.; Rzepa, Sara; Williams, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interrelationships among symptoms related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using a large representative sample and clinical groups of children aged 6 to 11 and youth aged 12 to 18 years rated by parents (N = 1,881) or teachers (N = 2,171). The samples included individuals from the United States and Canada from the standardization…

  16. Schooling and Demand for Children: Historical Perspectives. World Bank Staff Working Papers, No. 697 and Population and Development Series, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jee Peng; Haines, Michael

    The schooling of children, thought to be an important factor in explaining changes in fertility over time, is examined. Theory predicts that it exerts a negative effect on parental fertility. The mechanisms by which this relationship occurs at the micro-level are elaborated by Becker in this quantity-quality trade-off model, and by Cadwell in his…

  17. Integration a la population active des parents s'occupant d'enfants ayant des incapacites (Labour Force Inclusion of Parents Caring for Children with Disabilities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeher Inst., North York (Ontario).

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that sought to identify the particular problems Canadian parents caring for children with disabilities face in trying to make the transition to work in terms of their child care arrangements and employment-related factors, and best practices in child care arrangements and employment accommodations.…

  18. Perinatal, Maternal, and Fetal Characteristics of Children Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Population-Based Study Utilizing the Swedish Medical Birth Register

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Peik; Kallen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pre- and perinatal factors on the risk of developing attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: We investigated the medical history of 237 children (206 male; 31 female) from Malmo, Sweden born between 1986 and 1996 and in whom a diagnosis of ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical…

  19. Chromosome 21 disomy in the spermatozoa of the fathers of children with trisomy 21, in a population with a high prevalence of Down syndrome: increased incidence in cases of paternal origin.

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, J; Gabau, E; Gómez, D; Baena, N; Guitart, M; Egozcue, J; Vidal, F

    1998-01-01

    Between April 1991 and December 1994, epidemiological studies detected a population with a high prevalence of Down syndrome in El Vallès, Spain. Parallel double studies were carried out to determine the parental and the meiotic origins of the trisomy 21, by use of DNA polymorphisms, and to establish the incidence of disomy 21 in the spermatozoa of the fathers of affected children, by use of multicolor FISH. Results show that the overall incidence of chromosome 21 disomy in the fathers of affected children was not significantly different from that in the control population (0.31% vs. 0.37%). However, analysis of individual data demonstrates that two cases (DP-4 and DP-5) with significant increases of disomy 21 (0. 75% and 0.78% vs. 0.37%) correspond to the fathers of the two individuals with Down syndrome of paternal origin. DP-5 also had a significant increase of sex-chromosome disomies (0.69% vs. 0.37%) and of diploid spermatozoa (1.13% vs. 0.24%). PMID:9758616

  20. High seroprevalence of antibodies against Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) among HIV-1-infected children and adolescents in a non-endemic population.

    PubMed

    Feiterna-Sperling, Cornelia; Königs, Christoph; Notheis, Gundula; Buchholz, Bernd; Krüger, Renate; Weizsäcker, Katharina; Eberle, Josef; Hanhoff, Nikola; Gärtner, Barbara; Heider, Harald; Krüger, Detlev H; Hofmann, Jörg

    2016-10-01

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which primarily affects human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults with advanced immunodeficiency. Currently, only limited prevalence data for HHV-8 infection in HIV-infected children living in non-endemic areas are available. This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in four university hospitals in Germany specializing in pediatric HIV care. Stored serum specimens obtained from 207 vertically HIV-1-infected children and adolescents were tested for antibodies against lytic and latent HHV-8 antigens. Logistic regression was used to assess independent risk factors associated with HHV-8 seropositivity. The overall HHV-8 seroprevalence was 24.6 % (n = 51/207) without significant differences related to sex, age, or ethnicity. In univariate analysis, HHV-8 seropositivity was significantly associated with a child having being born outside Germany, maternal origin from sub-Saharan Africa, a history of breastfeeding, CDC immunologic category 3, and deferred initiation of antiretroviral therapy (>24 months of age). In multivariate analysis, a child's birth outside Germany was the only significant risk factor for HHV-8 seropositivity (odds ratio 3.98; 95 % confidence interval 1.27-12.42). HHV-8-associated malignancies were uncommon; only one patient had a history of KS. Serum specimen of vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents living in Germany showed a high HHV-8 seroprevalence. These findings suggest that primary HHV-8 infection-a risk factor for KS and other HHV-8-associated malignancies-occurs early in life. Thus, management of perinatally HIV-infected children should include testing for HHV-8 coinfection and should consider future risks of HHV-8-associated malignancies. PMID:27240652

  1. Are food insecurity's health impacts underestimated in the U.S. population? Marginal food security also predicts adverse health outcomes in young U.S. children and mothers.

    PubMed

    Cook, John T; Black, Maureen; Chilton, Mariana; Cutts, Diana; Ettinger de Cuba, Stephanie; Heeren, Timothy C; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Sandel, Megan; Casey, Patrick H; Coleman, Sharon; Weiss, Ingrid; Frank, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses epidemiological, public health, and social policy implications of categorizing young children and their adult female caregivers in the United States as food secure when they live in households with "marginal food security," as indicated by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Existing literature shows that households in the US with marginal food security are more like food-insecure households than food-secure households. Similarities include socio-demographic characteristics, psychosocial profiles, and patterns of disease and health risk. Building on existing knowledge, we present new research on associations of marginal food security with health and developmental risks in young children (<48 mo) and health in their female caregivers. Marginal food security is positively associated with adverse health outcomes compared with food security, but the strength of the associations is weaker than that for food insecurity as usually defined in the US. Nonoverlapping CIs, when comparing odds of marginally food-secure children's fair/poor health and developmental risk and caregivers' depressive symptoms and fair/poor health with those in food-secure and -insecure families, indicate associations of marginal food security significantly and distinctly intermediate between those of food security and food insecurity. Evidence from reviewed research and the new research presented indicates that households with marginal food security should not be classified as food secure, as is the current practice, but should be reported in a separate discrete category. These findings highlight the potential underestimation of the prevalence of adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to lack of enough food for an active, healthy life in the US and indicate an even greater need for preventive action and policies to limit and reduce exposure among children and mothers.

  2. The Clinical and Pathological Presentation of Thyroid Nodules in Children and the Comparison with Adult Population: Experience of a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Solymosi, Tamas; Lukacs Toth, Gyula; Budai, Laszlo; Gal, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and pathological presentation of thyroid nodules among younger and adult patients was compared in an iodine-deficient (ID) region. Data of 3,010 consecutive patients younger than 20 years and 3,010 patients older than 20 years were compared. The proportion of nodular goiters (22.8% versus 39.3%), the ratio of surgically treated nodules (33.2% versus 15.2%), and the proportion of malignant nodules (4.3% versus 2.1%) among diseased patients differed significantly between the two groups (younger versus adult). Nine papillary and 1 medullary carcinoma were found among children, while 15 papillary, 2 follicular, 1 insular, 1 anaplastic, and 1 medullary carcinomas occurred among adults. The ratio of follicular adenoma to hyperplastic nodules (3 : 1 to 1 : 1.67), the proportion of follicular variant (77.8% versus 26.7%), T4 tumors (77.8% versus 33.3%), and tumors with lymph node metastasis (88.9% versus 66.7%) were significantly higher among younger papillary carcinoma patients. No malignancies occurred among spongiform and central type cysts. Similarly to iodine-sufficient regions, more nodules are malignant and carcinomas have a clinically more aggressive presentation in children in comparison with adult patients in ID. Taking the significantly greater proportion of adenomas and the lack of follicular carcinoma into account, a conservative approach has to be considered in follicular tumors among children. PMID:27087807

  3. Association between ambient noise exposure and school performance of children living in an urban area: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Sophie; Levain, Jean-Pierre; Houot, Hélène; Petit, Rémy; Berthillier, Marc; Defrance, Jérôme; Lardies, Joseph; Masselot, Cyril; Mauny, Frédéric

    2014-04-01

    Most of the studies investigating the effects of the external noise on children's school performance have concerned pupils in schools exposed to high levels due to aircraft or freeway traffic noise. However, little is known about the consequences of the chronic ambient noise exposure at a level commonly encountered in residential urban areas. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the school performance of 8- to 9-year-old-children living in an urban environment and their chronic ambient noise exposure at home and at school. The children's school performances on the national standardized assessment test in French and mathematics were compared with the environmental noise levels. Children's exposure to ambient noise was calculated in front of their bedrooms (Lden) and schools (LAeq,day) using noise prediction modeling. Questionnaires were distributed to the families to collect potential confounding factors. Among the 746 respondent children, 586 were included in multilevel analyses. On average, the LAeq,day at school was 51.5 dB (SD= 4.5 dB; range = 38-58 dB) and the outdoor Lden at home was 56.4 dB (SD= 4.4 dB; range = 44-69 dB). LAeq,day at school was associated with impaired mathematics score (p = 0.02) or impaired French score (p = 0.01). For a + 10 dB gap, the French and mathematics scores were on average lower by about 5.5 points. Lden at home was significantly associated with impaired French performance when considered alone (p < 10(-3)) and was borderline significant when the combined home-school exposure was considered (p = 0.06). The magnitude of the observed effect on school performance may appear modest, but should be considered in light of the number of people who are potentially chronically exposed to similar environmental noise levels. PMID:24190106

  4. Incidence of cancer in children residing in ten jurisdictions of the Mexican Republic: importance of the Cancer registry (a population-based study)

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Palma-Padilla, Virginia; Carreón-Cruz, Rogelio; Ortega-Alvárez, Manuel Carlos; Mejía-Arangure, Juan Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Background In 1996, Mexico started to register cases of childhood cancer. Here, we describe the incidence of cancer in children, residing in ten Mexican jurisdictions, who were treated by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Methods New cases of childhood cancer, which were registered prospectively in nine principal Medical Centers of IMSS during the periods 1998–2000 (five jurisdictions) and 1996–2002 (five jurisdictions), were analyzed. Personnel were specifically trained to register, capture, and encode information. For each of these jurisdictions, the frequency, average annual age-standardized incidence (AAS) and average annual incidence per period by sex and, age, were calculated (rates per 1,000,000 children/years). Results In total 2,615 new cases of cancer were registered, with the male/female ratio generally >1, but in some tumors there were more cases in females (retinoblastoma, germ cells tumors). The principal groups of neoplasms in seven jurisdictions were leukemias, central nervous system tumors (CNS tumors), and lymphomas, and the combined frequency for these three groups was 62.6 to 77.2%. Most frequently found (five jurisdictions) was the North American-European pattern (leukemias-CNS tumors-lymphomas). Eight jurisdictions had AAS within the range reported in the world literature. The highest incidence was found for children underless than five year of age. In eight jurisdictions, leukemia had high incidence (>50). The AAS of lymphomas was between 1.9 to 28.6. Chiapas and Guerrero had the highest AAS of CNS tumors (31.9 and 30.3, respectively). The frequency and incidence of neuroblastoma was low. Chiapas had the highest incidence of retinoblastoma (21.8). Germ-cell tumors had high incidence. Conclusion The North American-European pattern of cancers was the principal one found; the overall incidence was within the range reported worldwide. In general but particularly in two jurisdictions (Yucatán and Chiapas), it will be necessary

  5. Association between ambient noise exposure and school performance of children living in an urban area: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Sophie; Levain, Jean-Pierre; Houot, Hélène; Petit, Rémy; Berthillier, Marc; Defrance, Jérôme; Lardies, Joseph; Masselot, Cyril; Mauny, Frédéric

    2014-04-01

    Most of the studies investigating the effects of the external noise on children's school performance have concerned pupils in schools exposed to high levels due to aircraft or freeway traffic noise. However, little is known about the consequences of the chronic ambient noise exposure at a level commonly encountered in residential urban areas. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the school performance of 8- to 9-year-old-children living in an urban environment and their chronic ambient noise exposure at home and at school. The children's school performances on the national standardized assessment test in French and mathematics were compared with the environmental noise levels. Children's exposure to ambient noise was calculated in front of their bedrooms (Lden) and schools (LAeq,day) using noise prediction modeling. Questionnaires were distributed to the families to collect potential confounding factors. Among the 746 respondent children, 586 were included in multilevel analyses. On average, the LAeq,day at school was 51.5 dB (SD= 4.5 dB; range = 38-58 dB) and the outdoor Lden at home was 56.4 dB (SD= 4.4 dB; range = 44-69 dB). LAeq,day at school was associated with impaired mathematics score (p = 0.02) or impaired French score (p = 0.01). For a + 10 dB gap, the French and mathematics scores were on average lower by about 5.5 points. Lden at home was significantly associated with impaired French performance when considered alone (p < 10(-3)) and was borderline significant when the combined home-school exposure was considered (p = 0.06). The magnitude of the observed effect on school performance may appear modest, but should be considered in light of the number of people who are potentially chronically exposed to similar environmental noise levels.

  6. Foster Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Lederman, Cindy S.

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in foster care are a vulnerable population. They are at risk for abuse, neglect, and permanent separation from birth parents and have a greater incidence of emotional and behavioral difficulties. This is not surprising because these children are abused, neglected, or abandoned by the very people who are supposed to love and care…

  7. Teaching Our Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, George H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…

  8. World of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Magda Cordell; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This bulletin takes a broad view of children in history, their current problems and needs throughout the world, and directions to be taken for fulfilling those needs. The world population of children under age 15 is projected to increase by 500 million to 1.9 billion in the year 2000. Despite the bonds created by global communications, large…

  9. Peru: population and policy.

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A

    1987-06-01

    Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations. PMID:12341769

  10. Peru: population and policy.

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A

    1987-06-01

    Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations.

  11. Scaling of Attitudes Toward Population Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, George A.

    1975-01-01

    This study related population problem attitudes and socioeconomic variables. Six items concerned with number of children, birth control, family, science, economic depression, and overpopulation were selected for a Guttman scalogram. Education, occupation, and number of children were correlated with population problems scale scores; marital status,…

  12. Mexico's population policy turnaround.

    PubMed

    Nagel, J S

    1978-12-01

    Until 1972 Mexico's officials seemed to believe that the annual population growth rate of 3.5% was not really a problem as long as the economic development rate could be kept ahead of the population growth rate. The General Law of Population of 1947 was actually promoting population growth. It was only during the 1960s that elite opinion shifted, and privately funded family planning programs became increasingly active. By 1972 the population had reached 54 million, from 20 million in 1940. President Echevarria, till then a traditional pronatalist, announced in 1972 the creation of a national family planning program, and, in 1974, the creation of a national population council. Since then the Mexican government has embarked on ambitious programs of mass communication and sex education to make the population receptive to its new attitudes. The plans have worked: by mid-1979 estimates put the population growth rate at 2.9%, within sight of the 2.5% target set for 1982 by new president Lopez Portillo. According to a survey conducted by the National Fertility Survey, by late 1976 41.50% of Mexican women of childbearing age were practicing contraception. Within the 41.50% of active contraceptors, 14.9% use the pill, and 7.8% the IUD. New channels of information and of contraceptive delivery are being explored to reach Mexico's widely scattered rural population, and to bring the average family size down to 2 children from the average of 6.5 children per woman for 1973-1975. The government goal is of a 1% population increase by the year 2000.

  13. Reformulation of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT): factor structure and scoring method in a non-clinical population.

    PubMed

    Anton, S D; Han, H; Newton, R L; Martin, C K; York-Crowe, E; Stewart, T M; Williamson, D A

    2006-12-01

    The primary aims of this study were to empirically test the factor structure of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and to interpret the factor structure of the ChEAT within the context of a new scoring method. The ChEAT was administered to 728 children in the 2nd through 6th grades (from five schools) at two different time points. Exactly half the students were male and half were female. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically test the merits of an alternative 6-point scoring system as compared to the traditionally used 4-point scoring system. With the new scoring procedure, the skewness for all factor scores decreased, which resulted in increased variance in the item scores, as well as the total ChEAT score. Since the internal consistency of two factors in a recently proposed model was not acceptable (<0.60), this model did not adequately fit our data. Thus, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. A 6-factor solution based on a 20-item version was found to best fit the data and have the best internal reliability. The six factors were labeled: 1) overconcern with body size, 2) dieting, 3) food preoccupation, 4) social pressure to gain weight, 5) vomiting, and 6) caloric awareness and control. The obtained factor solution had considerable overlap with the original factor analysis performed on the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test and with the factor structure of the ChEAT reported by previous investigations. Intercorrelations among the factors suggested three higher order constructs. These findings indicate that the ChEAT subscales may be sufficiently stable to allow use in non-clinical samples of children. PMID:17272950

  14. Habitual Levels of Physical Activity Influence Bone Mass in 11-Year-Old Children From the United Kingdom: Findings From a Large Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Jon H; Steer, Colin D; Mattocks, Calum G; Riddoch, Chris; Ness, Andy R

    2009-01-01

    We examined the influence of habitual levels of physical activity on bone mass in childhood by studying the relationship between accelerometer recordings and DXA parameters in 4457 11-year-old children. Physical activity was positively related to both BMD and bone size in fully adjusted models. However, further exploration revealed that this effect on bone size was modified by fat mass. Introduction Exercise interventions have been reported to increase bone mass in children, but it is unclear whether levels of habitual physical activity also influence skeletal development. Materials and Methods We used multivariable linear regression to analyze associations between amount of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), derived from accelerometer recordings for a minimum of 3 days, and parameters obtained from total body DXA scans in 4457 11-year-old boys and girls from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The influence of different activity intensities was also studied by stratification based on lower and higher accelerometer cut-points for moderate (3600 counts/minute) and vigorous (6200 counts/minute) activity, respectively. Results MVPA was positively associated with lower limb BMD and BMC adjusted for bone area (aBMC; p < 0.001, adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic factors, and height, with or without additional adjustment for lean and fat mass). MVPA was inversely related to lower limb bone area after adjusting for height and lean mass (p = 0.01), whereas a positive association was observed when fat mass was also adjusted for (p < 0.001). Lower limb BMC was positively related to MVPA after adjusting for height and lean and fat mass (p < 0.001), whereas little relationship was observed after adjusting for height and lean mass alone (p = 0.1). On multivariable regression analysis using the fully adjusted model, moderate activity exerted a stronger influence on lower limb BMC compared with light activity (light activity: 2.9 [1.2–4.7, p = 0

  15. Intra-individual variation in urinary iodine concentration: effect of statistical correction on population distribution using seasonal three-consecutive-day spot urine in children

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaohong; Liu, Peng; Sun, Zhenqi; Su, Xiaohui; Wang, Wei; Gao, Yanhui; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of statistical correction for intra-individual variation on estimated urinary iodine concentration (UIC) by sampling on 3 consecutive days in four seasons in children. Setting School-aged children from urban and rural primary schools in Harbin, Heilongjiang, China. Participants 748 and 640 children aged 8–11 years were recruited from urban and rural schools, respectively, in Harbin. Primary and secondary outcome measures The spot urine samples were collected once a day for 3 consecutive days in each season over 1 year. The UIC of the first day was corrected by two statistical correction methods: the average correction method (average of days 1, 2; average of days 1, 2 and 3) and the variance correction method (UIC of day 1 corrected by two replicates and by three replicates). The variance correction method determined the SD between subjects (Sb) and within subjects (Sw), and calculated the correction coefficient (Fi), Fi=Sb/(Sb+Sw/di), where di was the number of observations. The UIC of day 1 was then corrected using the following equation: Results The variance correction methods showed the overall Fi was 0.742 for 2 days’ correction and 0.829 for 3 days’ correction; the values for the seasons spring, summer, autumn and winter were 0.730, 0.684, 0.706 and 0.703 for 2 days’ correction and 0.809, 0.742, 0.796 and 0.804 for 3 days’ correction, respectively. After removal of the individual effect, the correlation coefficient between consecutive days was 0.224, and between non-consecutive days 0.050. Conclusions The variance correction method is effective for correcting intra-individual variation in estimated UIC following sampling on 3 consecutive days in four seasons in children. The method varies little between ages, sexes and urban or rural setting, but does vary between seasons. PMID:26920442

  16. Social Communication Competence and Functional Adaptation in a General Population of Children: Preliminary Evidence for Sex-by-Verbal IQ Differential Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuse, David H.; Mandy, William D.; Steer, Colin; Miller, Laura L.; Lawrence, Kate; Amond, Alan; Golding, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Results from a Social and Communication Disorders Checklist finds that the scores were continuously distributed in the general population and that boys had mean scores 30 percent higher than girls. Above-average verbal IQ appears to protect female subjects from social communication impairments but not in male subjects. Participants to the study…

  17. Comprehensive Challenges for the Well Being of Young Children: A Population-Based Study of Publicly Monitored Risks in a Large Urban Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Heather L.; Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    This population-based study investigated the unique and cumulative relations between risks that are monitored by public surveillance systems and academic and behavioral outcomes for an entire cohort of third graders in a large, urban public school system. Using integrated, administrative records from child welfare, public health, housing, and…

  18. Children in the States, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) population and family characteristics (including number of children under age 18 and age 5, percentage of population under age…

  19. Population pharmacodynamic modeling of various extended-release formulations of methylphenidate in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder via meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kimko, Holly; Gibiansky, Ekaterina; Gibiansky, Leonid; Starr, H Lynn; Berwaerts, Joris; Massarella, Joseph; Wiegand, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Placebo and pharmacodynamic (PD) models were developed which link temporal measures of efficacy in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and methylphenidate (MPH) plasma concentrations from adults. These models can be used to predict daily pediatric clinical measure profiles following administration of different MPH formulations in children without conducting pediatric pharmacokinetic (PK) or PD studies by using more easily obtained adult PK data. Mean PK data from various extended-release MPH formulations studied in adults and mean PD data from nine pediatric efficacy studies were obtained from the literature. The individual time-course of the clinical measures from three pediatric trials were also analyzed after being combined with the meta-analysis data. The clinical measure profiles following placebo administration were described by indirect response models with time-varying elimination rates. MPH pharmacodynamic effect was described by E(max) models, which included time-dependent tolerance. Internal and external evaluations using a visual predictive check technique confirmed the prediction capability of the models. This modeling exercise demonstrated that time courses of MPH concentrations in adults with different drug release patterns can be used to predict time courses of clinical efficacy parameters in pediatrics by employing the models developed by meta-analysis.

  20. Population density profiles of nasopharyngeal carriage of 5 bacterial species in pre-school children measured using quantitative PCR offer potential insights into the dynamics of transmission

    PubMed Central

    Thors, Valtyr; Morales-Aza, Begonia; Pidwill, Grace; Vipond, Ian; Muir, Peter; Finn, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaccines can reduce carriage rates. Colonization is usually a binary endpoint. Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) can quantify bacterial DNA in mucosal samples over a wide range. Using culture and single-gene species-specific qPCRs for Streptococcus pneumoniae (lytA), Streptococcus pyogenes (ntpC), Moraxella catarrhalis (ompJ), Haemophilus influenzae (hdp) and Staphylococcus aureus (nuc) and standard curves against log-phase reference strain broth cultures we described frequency and peak density distributions of carriage in nasopharyngeal swabs from 161 healthy 2–4 y old children collected into STGG broth. In general, detection by qPCR and culture was consistent. Discordance mostly occurred at lower detection thresholds of both methods, although PCR assays for S. pyogenes and S. aureus were less sensitive. Density varied across 5-7 orders of magnitude for the 5 species with the abundant species skewed toward high values (modes: S. pneumoniae log3-4, M. catarrhalis & H. influenzae log4-5 CFU/ml broth). Wide ranges of bacterial DNA concentrations in healthy children carrying these bacteria could mean that different individuals at different times vary greatly in infectiousness. Understanding the host, microbial and environmental determinants of colonization density will permit more accurate prediction of vaccine effectiveness. PMID:26367344

  1. Assessment of cardiometabolic risk in children in population studies: underpinning developmental origins of health and disease mother-offspring cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, R-C; Prescott, Susan L; Godfrey, Keith M; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy and birth cohorts have been utilised extensively to investigate the developmental origins of health and disease, particularly in relation to understanding the aetiology of obesity and related cardiometabolic disorders. Birth and pregnancy cohorts have been utilised extensively to investigate this area of research. The aim of the present review was twofold: first to outline the necessity of measuring cardiometabolic risk in children; and second to outline how it can be assessed. The major outcomes thought to have an important developmental component are CVD, insulin resistance and related metabolic outcomes. Conditions such as the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and CHD all tend to have peak prevalence in middle-aged and older individuals but assessments of cardiometabolic risk in childhood and adolescence are important to define early causal factors and characterise preventive measures. Typically, researchers investigating prospective cohort studies have relied on the thesis that cardiovascular risk factors, such as dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity, track from childhood into adult life. The present review summarises some of the evidence that these factors, when measured in childhood, may be of value in assessing the risk of adult cardiometabolic disease, and as such proceeds to describe some of the methods for assessing cardiometabolic risk in children. PMID:26090093

  2. Population density profiles of nasopharyngeal carriage of 5 bacterial species in pre-school children measured using quantitative PCR offer potential insights into the dynamics of transmission.

    PubMed

    Thors, Valtyr; Morales-Aza, Begonia; Pidwill, Grace; Vipond, Ian; Muir, Peter; Finn, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaccines can reduce carriage rates. Colonization is usually a binary endpoint. Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) can quantify bacterial DNA in mucosal samples over a wide range. Using culture and single-gene species-specific qPCRs for Streptococcus pneumoniae (lytA), Streptococcus pyogenes (ntpC), Moraxella catarrhalis (ompJ), Haemophilus influenzae (hdp) and Staphylococcus aureus (nuc) and standard curves against log-phase reference strain broth cultures we described frequency and peak density distributions of carriage in nasopharyngeal swabs from 161 healthy 2-4 y old children collected into STGG broth. In general, detection by qPCR and culture was consistent. Discordance mostly occurred at lower detection thresholds of both methods, although PCR assays for S. pyogenes and S. aureus were less sensitive. Density varied across 5-7 orders of magnitude for the 5 species with the abundant species skewed toward high values (modes: S. pneumoniae log3-4, M. catarrhalis & H. influenzae log4-5 CFU/ml broth). Wide ranges of bacterial DNA concentrations in healthy children carrying these bacteria could mean that different individuals at different times vary greatly in infectiousness. Understanding the host, microbial and environmental determinants of colonization density will permit more accurate prediction of vaccine effectiveness.

  3. [The detection of strains of Esherichia coll producing Shiga toxin in populations of normal intestinal microbiota in children with functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, E I; Popkova, S M; Dzhioev, Iu P; Rakova, E B; Nemchenko, U M; Rychkova, L V

    2014-11-01

    In intestinal ecosystem, interchange of genetic material between different types of bacteria and other representatives of family Enterobacteriaceae results in development of types of normal colibacillus with genetic characteristics of pathogenicity. This occurrence can be considered as a theoretical substantiation for labeling such strains as pathobionts. The polymerase chain reaction was implemented to analyze 96 strains of different types of Escherichia coli (with normal and weak zymogenic activity and hemolytic activity) isolated from children with functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract. The purpose was to detect presence of gens coding capacity of toxin production (six1, stx2). In intestinal biotope of children, circulation of strains of Escherichia coli producing shiga toxin having no relation to pathogenic group being representatives of normal indigenous microbiota. The presence of gens stx1 and stx2 in various biochemical types of Escherichia coli permits establishing fact of forming of reservoir of potential pathogenicity in non-pathogenic forms of Escherichia coli. The presence of gen (verotoxin 1) in genome of various types of Escherichia coli isolated from one single biotope testifies possible horizontal transmission of factors of pathogenicity in intestinal biotope.

  4. Dependent Children and Suicide of Married Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Conrad M.; Gibbs, James O.

    1979-01-01

    Single suicides and married suicides with dependent children were compared to similar groups in the general population. Married people with dependent children experienced the lowest average suicide rate, but had a larger mean number of children than the population as a whole. (Author)

  5. National surveillance for type 1, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes among children and adolescents: a population-based study (SAUDI-DM)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data on the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes among youth. The Saudi Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Diabetes Impact Study (SAUDI-DM) was used to assess the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among children and adolescents. Methods Sociodemographic, anthropometric and clinical data were collected through a nationwide household randomly selected 23 523 children and adolescents aged ≤18 years. Known participants with diabetes were classified according to their diabetes type, while participants without diabetes were subjected to fasting plasma glucose assessment and patients with diabetes were identified using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. All the studied participants were tested for lipid parameters. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess different risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes was 10.84%, of which 0.45% were known type 1 and type 2 patients with diabetes and 10.39% were either newly identified cases of diabetes (4.27%) or IFG (6.12%) with more than 90% of the participants with diabetes being unaware of their disease. The prevalence of known type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as the newly identified cases was higher than what has been reported internationally. Age, male gender, obesity, urban residency, high family income and presence of dyslipidaemia were found to be significant risk factors for diabetes and IFG. Conclusions Diabetes and IFG are highly prevalent in this society with the majority of the patients being unaware of their disease, which warrants urgent adoption of early detection, treatment and prevention programmes. PMID:26085648

  6. Children and Poverty: The Search for Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeva, E. B.

    2005-01-01

    Children's problems are just as acute as before. The percentage of children living in poverty is especially high. Between the ages of seven and fifteen, the percentage of poor children in 2001 was 38.5 percent, whereas among the population at large the figure was 27.6 percent. Moreover, families with a higher number of children are not provided…

  7. Dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergen concentrations in homes of asthmatic children in the northeastern United States: impact of socioeconomic factors and population density.

    PubMed Central

    Leaderer, Brian P; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth; Holford, Theodore; Gold, Diane R; Kim, Young; Jankun, Thomas; Ren, Ping; McSharry Je, Jean-ellen; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Chapman, Martin D; Bracken, Michael B

    2002-01-01

    Home exposures to aeroallergens are an important environmental factor in allergic sensitization and in the development and exacerbation of asthma. We assessed variations in home concentrations of dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergens in dust collected in the main living areas of asthmatics' homes by family income, mother's education, dwelling type, population density, household population density, and ethnicity in Connecticut and south-central Massachusetts. Dust samples were collected at the time of home interview in 999 homes as part of an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort study of 1,002 infants and their asthmatic siblings. The analysis employed lower and upper cut points for group 1 dust mite (> or = 2.0 microg/g and > or = 10 microg/g), cockroach (> or = 1.0 U/g and > or = 4.0 U/g), cat (> or = 1.0 microg/g and > or = 8.0 ug/g), and dog (> or = 2.0 microg/g and > or = 10.0 microg/g) allergens. Subject residences were geocoded to assess population density from the U.S. Census, and multiple logistic regression was used to control for confounding. The portion of homes at the lower cut point for dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergens were 46.9%, 24.9%, 42.2%, and 35.6%, respectively; the upper cut point for each of the allergens was reached in 22.4%, 13.4%, 21.0%, and 22.9% of the homes, respectively. In all, 86.0% of the homes had at least one allergen at the lower cut point, and 58.0% had at least one allergen at the upper cut point. Forty-nine percent of the homes had two or more allergens at the lower cut point, and 19.7% had two or more allergens at the upper cut point. Higher education of the mother, higher household income, living in a single-family home in a less densely populated area with fewer people per room, and being a white household were associated with elevated dust mite, cat, and dog allergens and low cockroach allergen. In contrast, low income, living in a multifamily home in a high population density area with a higher occupancy

  8. Quality of Life and Associated Socio-Clinical Factors after Encephalitis in Children and Adults in England: A Population-Based, Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramanuj, Parashar Pravin; Granerød, Julia; Davies, Nicholas W. S.; Conti, Stefano; Brown, David W. G.; Crowcroft, Natasha S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to measure HRQoL in all-cause encephalitis survivors and assess the impact of various socio-clinical factors on outcome. Methods We used a prospective cohort study design, using the short-form 36 (SF-36) to measure the HRQoL in patients 15 years and older, and the short-form 10 (SF-10) for patients less than 15 years old. We posted questionnaires to individuals six months after discharge from hospital. All scores were normalised to the age- and sex-matched general population. We used multivariate statistical analysis to assess the relative association of clinical and socio-demographic variables on HRQoL in adults. Results Of 109 individuals followed-up, we received 61 SF-36 and twenty SF-10 questionnaires (response rate 74%). Patients scored consistently worse than the general population in all domains of the SF-36 and SF-10, although there was variation in individual scores. Infectious encephalitis was associated with the worst HRQoL in those aged 15 years and over, scoring on average 5.64 points less than immune-mediated encephalitis (95% CI −8.77– −2.89). In those aged less than 15 years the worst quality of life followed encephalitis of unknown cause. Immuno compromise, unemployment, and the 35–44 age group all had an independent negative association with HRQoL. A poor Glasgow Outcome Score was most strongly associated with a poor HRQoL. Less than half of those who had made a ‘good’ recovery on the score reported a HRQoL equivalent to the general population. Conclusions Encephalitis has adverse effects on the majority of survivors’ wellbeing and quality of life. Many of these adverse consequences could be minimised by prompt identification and treatment, and with better rehabilitation and support for survivors. PMID:25072738

  9. Rapid population growth.

    PubMed

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year. PMID:12261450

  10. Children Helping Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougher, Jean

    2006-01-01

    In a summer program for school-agers 6 to 12 years old, the children devise a meaningful, real-life experience to alleviate the midsummer doldrums and hope to "make the world a better place." They collect, repair, and paint old children's bicycles to present, along with new helmets, to children at a nearby homeless shelter. In this article, the…

  11. Follow-up of an Asymptomatic Chagas Disease Population of Children after Treatment with Nifurtimox (Lampit) in a Sylvatic Endemic Transmission Area of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Fiorella; Cucunubá, Zulma; Guhl, Felipe; González, Nadia Lorena; Freilij, Hector; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Ramírez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Flórez, Astrid Carolina; Rosas, Fernando; Saavedra, Victor; Silva, Nubia

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is an anthropozoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Two drugs are currently used for the etiological treatment of the disease: Nifurtimox (Lampit) and Benznidazole. This study presents a quasi-experimental trial (non-control group) of sixty-two patients who were treated for Chagas disease with Nifurtimox (Lampit), and were then followed for 30 months post-treatment. The safety of Nifurtimox (Lampit) for Chagas disease in this group of children primarily between 4 and 19 years old was also evaluated. Materials and methods The 62 patients included in the study were selected when resulted seropositive for two out of three fundamentally different serological tests. All children were treated during two months according to protocols established by WHO. Monitoring was performed every twenty days to evaluate treatment safety. In 43 patients, two different serological tests: ELISA and IFAT; and two parasitological tests: blood culture, and real time PCR, (qPCR) were performed to assess therapeutic response, defined as post-treatment serological negativization. Principal findings All patients completed the treatment successfully, and six patients abandoned the post-treatment follow-up. Adverse effects occurred in 74% of patients, but only 4.8% of cases required temporary suspension to achieve 100% adherence to the 60-day treatment, and all symptoms reverted after treatment completion. Both parasite load (measured through qPCR) and antibodies (ELISA absorbance) evidenced a significant median reduction 6 months after treatment from 6.2 to 0.2 parasite equivalents/mL, and from 0.6 to 0.2 absorbance units respectively (p<0.001). Serological negativization by ELISA was evident since 6 months post-treatment, whereas by IFAT only after 18 months. Serological negativization by the two tests (ELISA and IFAT) was 41.9% (95%CI: 26.5–57.3) after 30 months post-treatment. qPCR was positive in 88.3% of patients pre-treatment and only in 12.1% of patients after

  12. Third World Children: Promise and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1988-01-01

    Discusses issues which concern children born to families in developing countries. Focuses on: (1) population impact on children; (2) family planning; (3) infant feeding; (4) oral rehydration therapy and immunizations; and (5) education. (RJC)

  13. A community engagement process identifies environmental priorities to prevent early childhood obesity: the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) program for remote underserved populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands, Hawaii and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; DeBaryshe, Barbara; Bersamin, Andrea; Nigg, Claudio; Leon Guerrero, Rachael; Rojas, Gena; Areta, Aufa'i Apulu Ropeti; Vargo, Agnes; Belyeu-Camacho, Tayna; Castro, Rose; Luick, Bret; Novotny, Rachel

    2014-12-01

    Underserved minority populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI), Hawaii, and Alaska display disproportionate rates of childhood obesity. The region's unique circumstance should be taken into account when designing obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this paper is to (a), describe the community engagement process (CEP) used by the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the USAPI, Hawaii, and Alaska (b) report community-identified priorities for an environmental intervention addressing early childhood (ages 2-8 years) obesity, and (c) share lessons learned in the CEP. Four communities in each of five CHL jurisdictions (Alaska, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Hawai'i) were selected to participate in the community-randomized matched-pair trial. Over 900 community members including parents, teachers, and community leaders participated in the CEP over a 14 month period. The CEP was used to identify environmental intervention priorities to address six behavioral outcomes: increasing fruit/vegetable consumption, water intake, physical activity and sleep; and decreasing screen time and intake of sugar sweetened beverages. Community members were engaged through Local Advisory Committees, key informant interviews and participatory community meetings. Community-identified priorities centered on policy development; role modeling; enhancing access to healthy food, clean water, and physical activity venues; and healthy living education. Through the CEP, CHL identified culturally appropriate priorities for intervention that were also consistent with the literature on effective obesity prevention practices. Results of the CEP will guide the CHL intervention design and implementation. The CHL CEP may serve as a model for other underserved minority island populations.

  14. Multivariate genetic analyses of cognition and academic achievement from two population samples of 174,000 and 166,000 school children.

    PubMed

    Calvin, Catherine M; Deary, Ian J; Webbink, Dinand; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres; Lee, Sang Hong; Luciano, Michelle; Visscher, Peter M

    2012-09-01

    The genetic influence on the association between contemporaneously measured intelligence and academic achievement in childhood was examined in nationally representative cohorts from England and The Netherlands using a whole population indirect twin design, including singleton data. We identified 1,056 same-sex (SS) and 495 opposite-sex (OS) twin pairs among 174,098 British 11 year-olds with test scores from 2004, and, 785 SS and 327 OS twin pairs among 120,995 Dutch schoolchildren, aged 8, 10 or 12 years, with assessments from 1994 to 2002. The estimate of intelligence heritability was large in both cohorts, consistent with previous studies (h (2) = 0.70 ± 0.14, England; h (2) = 0.43 ± 0.28-0.67 ± 0.31, The Netherlands), as was the heritability of academic achievement variables (h (2) = 0.51 ± 0.16-0.81 ± 0.16, England; h (2) = 0.36 ± 0.27-0.74 ± 0.27, The Netherlands). Additive genetic covariance explained the large majority of the phenotypic correlations between intelligence and academic achievement scores in England, when standardised to a bivariate heritability (Biv h (2) = 0.76 ± 0.15-0.88 ± 0.16), and less consistent but often large proportions of the phenotypic correlations in The Netherlands (Biv h (2) = 0.33 ± 0.52-1.00 ± 0.43). In the British cohort both nonverbal and verbal reasoning showed very high additive genetic covariance with achievement scores (Biv h (2) = 0.94-0.98; Biv h (2) = 0.77-1.00 respectively). In The Netherlands, covariance estimates were consistent across age groups. The heritability of intelligence-academic achievement associations in two population cohorts of elementary schoolchildren, using a twin pair extraction method, is at the high end of estimates reported by studies of largely preselected twin samples. PMID:22700061

  15. Alternative population futures.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    The Philippines is now passing through a late demographic transitional period in which the death rate declines while the birth rate remains at a relatively high level; the population of young people under 15 rises to about 45% of the population while proportions of people of working age and old people decline. In 1970, 4 of the Philippine's 12 regions had a birth rate exceeding 40/1000; life expectancy at birth in these regions ranged from 57-64 years and population growth rates ranged from 2.6-4.2% annually. Also in 1970 40-49% of all 12 regional populations were young (under 15) and only 2-5% were old. In this transitional period there are a greater number of children in each household and thus heavier social and economic burdens occur; also the burden of youth dependency increases by more than 1/3. In the modern population structure, family burdens diminish as the average number of children surviving to age 20 becomes identical with the number of children born and great improvements in the quality of life are allowed. Population projections are based on the following assumptions: 1) decrease in mortality, either rapid or slow, 2) increase in age at marriage, 3) decline in fertility will remain at 0.7% annually, and 4) migration trends will stay the same as during the 1960-75 period. Total population is expected to reach 83.8 million by 2000, a 98% increase from 1975; a low estimate, assuming lower fertility and nuptiality, is 64.1 million, a 52% increase from 1975. The urban population will more than double its size by the year 2000 and rural population will grow from 22-65% with the fastest urbanizing regions being the Central and Southern Luzon. From 1975-2000 a 3-fold increase is expected in the number of families in Metro Manila. By 2000 a national labor force of 27.5 million is expected, more than double the 1970 level, with late entry into the labor force and declines in participation by elderly males. The various regions will see lower economic activity

  16. Planning families or checking population?

    PubMed

    Lukk, T

    1978-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest birth rates (43/1000) and lowest death rates (15.5/1000) in Africa. The population growth rate is 2.7 per year; the population doubling time is 26 years. The black birth rate is about double that of whites. Blacks now represent about 70% of the population. By the year 2000 they will comprise 74%, compared to 14% whites. Birth control among blacks is viewed with suspicion since the apartheid regime encourages white reproduction and immigration. Black South African men have many prejudices against birth cotnrol. Many still have children by different wives. 38% South African men preferred to have 6-8 children. Young South African women are beginning to use birth control of their own volition. Birth control is associated with genocide, but family planning, in which the number and timing of children is determined by the parents is perceived to be desirable by South Africans. PMID:12260802

  17. Epidemiology and population structure of serotypes 1, 5 and 7f carried by children in Portugal from 1996-2010 before introduction of the 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sónia T; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Sá-Leão, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Among the over 90 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae described, serotypes 1, 5, and 7F account for a significant proportion of invasive disease worldwide and are now covered by the most recent 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). The epidemiology of these serotypes in carriage remains poorly studied because they are rarely detected. We aimed to gain insights into the epidemiology and population structure of serotypes 1, 5 and 7F carried by children in Portugal before PCV10 and PCV13 became widely used. Isolates obtained in cross-sectional studies carried out over a 15-year period (1996-2010) were retrospectively pooled and characterized. Of 5,123 pneumococci obtained, 70 were associated with serotypes 1 (n = 21), 5 (n = 7), and 7F (n = 42). The highest prevalence detected was 3.3% for serotype 1 in 2006, 1% for serotype 5 in 2009, and 3.3% for serotype 7F in 2006; Serotype 1 was associated with PMEN international clones Sweden(1)-28(ST306) and Sweden(1)-40(ST304); serotype 5 was associated with Colombia(5)-19(ST289); and serotype 7F was associated with Netherlands(7F)-39(ST191). All these isolates were fully susceptible. Most carriers of serotypes 1 (86%), 5 (86%), and 7F (91%) were older than two years but a significant association with older age was only observed for serotype 7F (p = 0.006). Evidence for cross-transmission was obtained. In conclusion, we were able to detect and characterize the rarely carried serotypes 1, 5, and 7F among healthy children in Portugal. These data will constitute an important baseline for upcoming surveillance studies aimed to establish the impact of novel PCVs targeting these serotypes in carriage.

  18. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  19. Population Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The scope of population research as carried on by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is set forth in this booklet. Population problems of the world, United States, and the individual are considered along with international population policies based on voluntary family planning programs. NICHD goals for biological…

  20. Understanding Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothner, Ira

    Activities and concerns of Ford Foundation supported population research and training centers are described in this report. The centers are concerned with population growth, consequences of growth for human welfare, forces that determine family planning, interrelations among population variables, economics of contraceptive distribution, and…

  1. Children in Central America: Victims of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronstrom, Anitha

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the armed conflicts in Central America and their influence on civilian populations. Discusses the psychosocial consequences and therapeutic considerations of warfare, displacement and refuge for children. (RJC)

  2. Why Do Women Have More Children Than They Want? Understanding Differences in Women’s Ideal and Actual Family Size in a Natural Fertility Population

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Lisa; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Stieglitz, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We develop and test a conceptual model of factors influencing women’s ideal family size (IFS) in a natural fertility population, the Tsimane of Bolivia. The model posits affects of socioecology, reproductive history, maternal condition, and men’s IFS. We test three hypotheses for why women may exceed their IFS despite experiencing socioeconomic development: (H1) limited autonomy; (H2) improved maternal condition; and (H3) low returns on investments in embodied capital. Methods Women’s reproductive histories and prospective fertility data were collected from 2002 to 2008 (n = 305 women). Semistructured interviews were conducted with Tsimane women to study the perceived value of parental investment (n = 76). Multiple regression, t-tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used to test model predictions. Results Women’s IFS is predicted by their socioecology, reproductive history, maternal condition, and husband’s IFS. Hypotheses 2 and 3 are supported. Couples residing near town have smaller IFS (women = 3.75 ± 1.64; men = 3.87 ± 2.64) and less variance in IFS. However, the degree fertility exceeds IFS is inversely correlated with distance to town (Partial r = −0.189, df = 156, P = 0.018). Women living near town have greater maternal condition but 64% value traditional skills over formal schooling and 88% believe living in town is unfeasible. Conclusions While reduced IFS is evident with socioeconomic development, fertility decline may not immediately follow. When perceived benefits of investment in novel forms of embodied capital are low, and somatic wealth and large kin networks persist as important components of fitness, fertility may remain high and increase if maternal condition improves. PMID:22987773

  3. Low socioeconomic status is associated with adverse events in children and teens on insulin pumps under a universal access program: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Rayzel; Stukel, Therese A; Miller, Fiona A; Newman, Alice; Daneman, Denis; Wasserman, Jonathan D; Guttmann, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe adverse events in pediatric insulin pump users since universal funding in Ontario and to explore the role of socioeconomic status and 24-hour support. Research design and methods Population-based cohort study of youth (<19 years) with type 1 diabetes (n=3193) under a universal access program in Ontario, Canada, from 2006 to 2013. We linked 2012 survey data from 33 pediatric diabetes centers to health administrative databases. The relationship between patient and center-level characteristics and time to first diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) admission or death was tested using a Cox proportional hazards model and the rate of diabetes-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations with a Poisson model, both using generalized estimating equations. Results The rate of DKA was 5.28/100 person-years and mortality 0.033/100 person-years. Compared with the least deprived quintile, the risk of DKA or death for those in the most deprived quintile was significantly higher (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.38) as was the rate of diabetes-related acute care use (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.00). 24-hour support was not associated with these outcomes. Higher glycated hemoglobin, prior DKA, older age, and higher nursing patient load were associated with a higher risk of DKA or death. Conclusions The safety profile of pump therapy in the context of universal funding is similar to other jurisdictions and unrelated to 24-hour support. Several factors including higher deprivation were associated with an increased risk of adverse events and could be used to inform the design of interventions aimed at preventing poor outcomes in high-risk individuals. PMID:27547416

  4. Sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Hoban, Timothy F

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep disorders such as insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are common in both children and adults, the clinical features and treatments for these conditions differ considerably between these two populations. Whereas an adult with obstructive sleep apnea typically presents with a history of obesity, snoring, and prominent daytime somnolence, a child with the condition is more likely to present with normal body weight, tonsillar hypertrophy, and inattentiveness during school classes. The adult with suspected sleep apnea almost always undergoes a baseline polysomnogram and proceeds to treatment only if this test confirms the diagnosis, while many children with suspected sleep apnea are treated empirically with adenotonsillectomy without ever receiving a sleep study to verify the diagnosis. This article reviews sleep disorders in children, with a particular focus on age-related changes in sleep, conditions that primarily affect children, and disorders for which clinical manifestations and treatment differ substantially from the adult population. PMID:20146688

  5. Global population growth.

    PubMed

    Langmore, J

    1992-07-01

    The global population passed 5 billion in 1987. In the year 2000 the world's population will be more than 6 billion, increasing by 90-100 million each year. About 95% of future demographic growth will take place in developing countries. The number of school age children is projected to increase from 940 million in 1980 to 1280 million by the year 2000. Under current labor force growth projections in developing countries, around 1.6 billion new jobs will have to be created between 1980 and 2025, with nearly 1 billion of them in Asia. Population often increases at a more rapid rate than agricultural growth. Food production per capita has declined in 70 developing countries. Much of the projected population increase will take place in environmentally fragile regions of the developing world. Population pressures contribute to deforestation, desertification, and scarcity of clean water. The United Nations Population Fund has estimated that in Asia over 43% of women not using family planning would like to postpone, space, or limit their childbearing. Over half of the world's couples of reproductive age are now using contraception. Family planning to postpone the first birth and to eliminate late child bearing would reduce both child loss and maternal illness and death. Both infant and maternal mortality are greater with higher order births. Reducing average family size is an effective way of reducing infant and maternal mortality. The World Bank has given high priority to population assistance, with large programs in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Population assistance provided by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau totaled about $4.5 million during 1989-90 and is expected to be about $8 million during 1991-92. Australia should increase the proportion of its development assistance budget devoted to population, and family planning programs should increase to around $26 million in line with other major donors.

  6. Critical Issues for Low Incidence Populations. Proceedings of the CEC Symposium on the Education of Children with Low Incidence Handicapping Conditions (Atlanta, Georgia, September 18-20, 1986). An ERIC Exceptional Child Education Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Frances P., Ed.

    Proceedings of a 1986 symposium on the education of children with low incidence handicapping conditions focus on medically fragile children, advocacy, and technology. R. Dwain Blackston enumerates conditions affecting medically fragile children, family needs and stresses, and guidelines for effective family-staff relationships. Responses by…

  7. Hunger and Population. Facts for Action #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, James

    The relationship between world hunger and world population is explored in this document for high school global education classes. Reasons for the high birth rates in developing nations are suggested, e.g., a poor family has many children because children are an inexpensive work force, provide extra income, and care for parents in old age. The…

  8. The population threat.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the challenges faced by the new Clinton administration in formulating US key foreign policy initiatives. There is an urgent need to provide balanced and effective foreign aid for reducing high fertility rates in the developing world. There is also a need to effectively monitor the large migrations of populations. Over the past 10 years, the US has not been actively practicing world leadership on population issues. 3 changes in 1993 give impetus to redirect foreign policy: 1) the waning influence of fringe groups who controlled population issues; 2) the campaign promises to restore UN population stabilization programs; and 3) the evidence from the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia that demographic issues require planning and assessment. Global population growth has been concentrated in the past 40 years, in part due to mortality declines and sustained high fertility. Of significance is the rapidness and momentum of growth. A high percentage are and will be children. Urban population is also growing rapidly in high fertility countries. Countries with high fertility and significant rural-to-urban migration also have large international migrations. The evolution of policy since the 1950s, which for the most part ignored population issues, is discussed. The American debates have been charged with emotionalism: about human sexuality, legitimacy of voluntary fertility control, the role and status of women and men, abortion, intergenerational transfer of obligations, ethnic solidarity and the sovereignty of national borders, and the proper roles of the state versus the marketplace. There have been over 200 years of ideological argument over population issues. The Malthusian argument was that large population size did not increase prosperity, and growth should be limited. The Marxist-Leninist position was that contraception was Malthusian, abortion was a woman's right, and population growth was neutral. By late 1970 the Chinese Maoists adopted the moral

  9. The population threat.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the challenges faced by the new Clinton administration in formulating US key foreign policy initiatives. There is an urgent need to provide balanced and effective foreign aid for reducing high fertility rates in the developing world. There is also a need to effectively monitor the large migrations of populations. Over the past 10 years, the US has not been actively practicing world leadership on population issues. 3 changes in 1993 give impetus to redirect foreign policy: 1) the waning influence of fringe groups who controlled population issues; 2) the campaign promises to restore UN population stabilization programs; and 3) the evidence from the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia that demographic issues require planning and assessment. Global population growth has been concentrated in the past 40 years, in part due to mortality declines and sustained high fertility. Of significance is the rapidness and momentum of growth. A high percentage are and will be children. Urban population is also growing rapidly in high fertility countries. Countries with high fertility and significant rural-to-urban migration also have large international migrations. The evolution of policy since the 1950s, which for the most part ignored population issues, is discussed. The American debates have been charged with emotionalism: about human sexuality, legitimacy of voluntary fertility control, the role and status of women and men, abortion, intergenerational transfer of obligations, ethnic solidarity and the sovereignty of national borders, and the proper roles of the state versus the marketplace. There have been over 200 years of ideological argument over population issues. The Malthusian argument was that large population size did not increase prosperity, and growth should be limited. The Marxist-Leninist position was that contraception was Malthusian, abortion was a woman's right, and population growth was neutral. By late 1970 the Chinese Maoists adopted the moral

  10. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  11. Children in the States, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrejack, Kate, Comp.; Judge, Amy, Comp.; Simons, Janet, Comp.

    This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) national rankings in population and family characteristics; (2) health and disabilities (including children lacking health…

  12. Apartheid and South Africa's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    The policy of apartheid, until recently one of the dominant aspects of South African society, has caused grievous harm to that nation's non-white population, especially black women and children. Most black children have not grown up in stable, two-parent families due to migrant labor policies and low wages. Housing, health care, nutrition, and…

  13. [Population policies and population trends in China].

    PubMed

    Pressat, R

    1983-04-01

    rapid growth were criticized as Malthusianism. The 1st true birth control campaigns occurred around 1956, but the idea of Malthusianism was incompatible with the enthusiasm of the 1st part of the Great Leap Forward. A 2nd campaign at the end of the Great Leap Forward ended with the coming of the Cultural Revolution in 1966. The 3rd campaign, from about 1971-79, called for later marriage, wider spacing of births, and fewer children. Efforts were made to reconcile the antinatalist stance with Marxist theory particularly in the earlier years of population control efforts, but they have been largely abandoned. In recent years China's demographers have become more active in international demographic circles and have furnished a wider array of population data. PMID:12312984

  14. Priorities for children and young people - opportunities and challenges for children and young people's nurses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population. PMID:27214410

  15. Acceptability of screening young children for anaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Goodhart, C; Logan, S

    1999-01-01

    Although anaemia is common among young children and may be detrimental to health and development, few blood tests are done in this age group. We found that thumb-prick blood tests were not stressful to most young children and, despite the high mobility of the population, achieved an 81% uptake of screening for anaemia (273 out of 335 eligible children). PMID:10818660

  16. IQ Measurement in Children with Skeletal Dysplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, John G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    IQ studies on 68 children (5 months-15 years) with skeletal dysplasia (dwarfism) were reviewed to provide counseling to parents of newborn affected children. Results of the study show that this population performs intellectually in the same range as other children. Journal availability: see EC 115 198. (PHR)

  17. Young Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney­-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…

  18. Children in the States Data Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This data book from the Children's Defense Fund includes statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the states and the United States as a whole. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) population and family characteristics (number of children under age 18 and age 6, number of…

  19. Positive Intergenerational Picture Books for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jean Yahres; Kormanski, James; Kormanski, Luethel M.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses concerns about nurturing positive attitudes in young children toward an ever-increasingly aging population. Discusses five elements of general picture books for young children, and explains characteristics of positive intergenerational relationships as portrayed in popular children's books. Provides an annotated bibliography of 16…

  20. Food for tomorrow's population.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1983-06-01

    This discussion outlines and clarifies the dimensions of the world's current food-population balance and examines likely future changes in this balance over the next 20 years. The 1st section summarizes the contemporary world demographic situation in the early 1980s, focusing on regional differences in patterns of population growth and the significant food shortages in the developing countries. A subsequent section considers the outlook for population growth up to the year 2000 with particular reference to the most recent UN population projects. The discussion of food production and supply includes some specific comments on the situation in Indonesia. The world's population in 1983 has been estimated at 4677 million. It will reach 5 billion in the next 5 years. The countries which can least afford it are growing the fastest. These countries will account for 79% of the world's population in 2000 and 83% by 2020. Fertility in the less developed countries (LDCs) is twice that of more developed countries, with women in the former group having an average of around 4.5 children and in the latter, 1.9. The substantial declines in fertility in many countries are not fully reflected in declines in population growth and natural increase rates. This is because of major improvements which have occurred in mortality. During recent decades there has been a marked increase in world food production. In the developed countries increases in food production have continued at more than twice those for population, but this was not the case in the less developed countries where the margin narrowed during the 1950s and 1960s until in the early 1970s population was increasing at a slightly faster rate overall than was food production. Food crisis situations continue to occur with disturbing frequency in several regions. Seasonal, regional, and national variations in food shortages are not the only dimensions to food-population imbalances. Within nations there is inequality in access to

  1. Food for tomorrow's population.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1983-06-01

    This discussion outlines and clarifies the dimensions of the world's current food-population balance and examines likely future changes in this balance over the next 20 years. The 1st section summarizes the contemporary world demographic situation in the early 1980s, focusing on regional differences in patterns of population growth and the significant food shortages in the developing countries. A subsequent section considers the outlook for population growth up to the year 2000 with particular reference to the most recent UN population projects. The discussion of food production and supply includes some specific comments on the situation in Indonesia. The world's population in 1983 has been estimated at 4677 million. It will reach 5 billion in the next 5 years. The countries which can least afford it are growing the fastest. These countries will account for 79% of the world's population in 2000 and 83% by 2020. Fertility in the less developed countries (LDCs) is twice that of more developed countries, with women in the former group having an average of around 4.5 children and in the latter, 1.9. The substantial declines in fertility in many countries are not fully reflected in declines in population growth and natural increase rates. This is because of major improvements which have occurred in mortality. During recent decades there has been a marked increase in world food production. In the developed countries increases in food production have continued at more than twice those for population, but this was not the case in the less developed countries where the margin narrowed during the 1950s and 1960s until in the early 1970s population was increasing at a slightly faster rate overall than was food production. Food crisis situations continue to occur with disturbing frequency in several regions. Seasonal, regional, and national variations in food shortages are not the only dimensions to food-population imbalances. Within nations there is inequality in access to

  2. Population neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Paus, T

    2016-01-01

    Population neuroscience endeavors to identify influences shaping the human brain from conception onwards, thus generating knowledge relevant for building and maintaining brain health throughout the life span. This can be achieved by studying large samples of participants drawn from the general population and evaluated with state-of-the-art tools for assessing (a) genes and their regulation; (b) external and internal environments; and (c) brain properties. This chapter reviews the three elements of population neuroscience (principles, tools, innovations, limitations), and discusses future directions in this field. PMID:27637950

  3. The Changing Demographics of Children's Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Holly G.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three trends that have important implications for children's services in public libraries and discusses possible library responses. These trends are changes in family life leading to problems with the supervision of children, changes in the racial composition of the population, and changes in the age structure of the population. (16…

  4. Potential Population-Level Nutritional Impact of Replacing Whole and Reduced-Fat Milk With Low-Fat and Skim Milk Among US Children Aged 2–19 Years

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dietary guidance emphasizes plain low-fat and skim milk over whole, reduced-fat, and flavored milk (milk eligible for replacement [MER]). The objective of this study was to evaluate the population-level impact of such a change on energy, macronutrient and nutrient intakes, and diet cost. Design Cross-sectional modeling study. Setting Data from the 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants A total of 8,112 children aged 2–19 years. Main Outcome Measures Energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake before and after replacement of MER with low-fat or skim milk. Analysis Survey-weighted linear regression models. Results Milk eligible for replacement accounted for 46% of dairy servings. Among MER consumers, replacement with skim or low-fat milk would lead to a projected reduction in energy of 113 (95% confidence interval [CI], 107–119) and 77 (95% CI, 73–82) kcal/d and percent energy from saturated fat by an absolute value of 2.5% of total energy (95% CI, 2.4–2.6) and 1.4% (95% CI, 1.3–1.5), respectively. Replacement of MER does not change diet costs or calcium and potassium intake. Conclusions Substitution of MER has the potential to reduce energy and total and saturated fat intake with no impact on diet costs or micronutrient density. The feasibility of such replacement has not been examined and there may be negative consequences if replacement is done with non-nutrient–rich beverages. PMID:25528079

  5. Singapore: population.

    PubMed

    1980-08-01

    The population of Singapore reached 2,381,993 as of May, 1980. Singapore's population growth reached replacement level in 1975 thanks to the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board, which has maintained the demographic goal of a 2-child family, ultimately to reach zero population growth. Women have more opportunity to join the labor force. 21.2% of the working force in 1957 were women, compared to 48.1% in 1978. The government will impose restrictions on foreigners buying property in Singapore to protect local buyers from artificially inflated prices. Rentals of private and luxury apartments increased by 30% from 1979-80. The gross national product went up 8.5% to S$5,600 per year. The population estimates by ethnic groups in thousands are as follows: 180.4 Malay males, 174.7 females; 905.2 Chinese males, 893.9 females; 93.4 Indian males, 67.6 females; and 24.3 male others, 23.2 females. The majority of the population is aged 15-24. PMID:12233387

  6. [A population-genetics approach to the problem of nonspecific biological resistance of the human body. III. The ABO and rhesus blood group systems of healthy and sick children and their mothers].

    PubMed

    Kurbatova, O L; Botvin'ev, O K; Altukhov, Iu P

    1984-04-01

    ABO and Rhesus blood types have been specified in 2047 diseased newborns, diseased infants and children who died before the age of one, as well as in their mothers. 527 healthy children and their mothers were investigated as a control group. A significant difference in the ABO phenotype frequencies has been revealed between: i) healthy and dead children, ii) mothers of diseased newborns and mothers of healthy children, iii) dead children and their mothers. The significant increase in the incidence of maternal Rhesus-negative phenotype, as compared with the control group, was shown in the groups of diseased newborns, diseased infants and dead children. In the same groups, mothers differ significantly from their children with respect to the frequency of Rhesus phenotypes. The incidence of Rhesus-incompatible mother-child pairs in the groups of diseased newborns, diseased infants and dead children was shown to be two times higher than the respective frequency in the control group and the expected frequency. A certain increase in the frequency of ABO-incompatible pairs was revealed in the groups of diseased newborns and dead children, but the difference, as compared to the control group, did not prove to be statistically significant. A hypothesis was advanced to the effect that the mother-child incompatibility for Rhesus and ABO antigens may result not only in fetal wastage and haemolytic disease of newborns, but also in the decrease of child's resistance to diseases of different origin.

  7. Kid's PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This fun and educational kit is designed specifically for elementary students. The "Kid's PACK" (Population Awareness Campaign Kit) entertains and informs children on the environment and human population growth through stories, games, and concrete ideas for making a difference. In three booklets, the "Kid's PACK" offers elementary students…

  8. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children.

    PubMed

    Demarco, Romano T

    2011-01-01

    The surgical management of pediatric stone disease has evolved significantly over the last three decades. Prior to the introduction of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the 1980s, open lithotomy was the lone therapy for children with upper tract calculi. Since then, SWL has been the procedure of choice in most pediatric centers for children with large renal calculi. While other therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) were also being advanced around the same time, PNL was generally seen as a suitable therapy in adults because of the concerns for damage in the developing kidney. However, recent advances in endoscopic instrumentation and renal access techniques have led to an increase in its use in the pediatric population, particularly in those children with large upper tract stones. This paper is a review of the literature focusing on the indications, techniques, results, and complications of PNL in children with renal calculi.

  9. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children. PMID:19674349

  10. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children.

  11. Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-10-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of ten. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group, are used as building blocks to analyse these integrated stellar populations.

  12. Children in Foster Care: Before, during, and after Psychiatric Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persi, Joe; Sisson, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that foster children are at greater risk for mental health problems than are children in the general population, very little is known about the smaller group of foster children admitted to psychiatric hospitals. The present study sought to determine whether foster children admitted to inpatient care are a distinct…

  13. Diversity of Participation in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imms, Christine; Reilly, Sheena; Carlin, John; Dodd, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the participation of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in activities outside school and to compare their participation with a large representative sample of children. A population-based survey was conducted of children with CP born in Victoria, Australia in 1994 and 1995. Of 219 living children identified,…

  14. Prevalence of Obesity, Binge Eating, and Night Eating in a Cross-Sectional Field Survey of 6-Year-Old Children and Their Parents in a German Urban Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamerz, Andreas; Kuepper-Nybelen, Jutta; Bruning, Nicole; Wehle, Christine; Trost-Brinkhues, Gabriele; Brenner, Hermann; Hebebrand, Johannes; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2005-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of obesity, obesity-related binge eating, non-obesity-related binge eating, and night eating in five- to six-year-old children and to examine the impact of parental eating disturbances. Methods: When 2020 children attended their obligatory health exam prior to school entry in the city of Aachen, Germany, 1979…

  15. Prevalence of Methylphenidate Prescription among School-Aged Children in a Swiss Population: Increase in the Number of Prescriptions in the Swiss Canton of Vaud, from 2002 to 2005, and Changes in Patient Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumy, Cedric; Huissoud, Therese; Dubois-Arber, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is prescribed for children and adolescents to treat ADHD. As in many Western countries, the increase in methylphenidate consumption is a public concern in Switzerland. The article discusses the authors' assessment of prescription prevalence in 2002 and 2005 for school-aged children in the canton of Vaud. Method: Pharmacy…

  16. Population update.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    According to Population Reference Bureau estimates, the world's population stood at 5,062,000,000 in November 1987, with an annual growth of 87,000,000. The US population was estimated to be 243,571,000 as of June 1, 1987 compared with 241,403,000 1 year earlier. In 1987 in the US, there were 3,767,000 live births (15.5 rate), 2,103,000 deaths (8.7), a natural increase of 1,664,000 (6.8), 2,438,000 marriages (10.1), 1,166,000 divorces (4.8), and 38,100 infant deaths (10.1). Compared with 1984, 1986 rates have declined in the US for natural increase, marriages, divorces and infant mortality. The mortality rate has increased slightly, while the live birth rate was the same in 1984 and 1987. PMID:12268743

  17. Population and Australian development assistance.

    PubMed

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  18. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 6 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Young children under age 6 years appear to be particularly vulnerable, with 48 percent living in…

  19. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 6 through 11 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Similarly, among children in middle childhood (age 6 through 11 years), 45 percent live in…

  20. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 12 through 17 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Among our oldest children--adolescents age 12 through 17 years--41 percent live in low-income…

  1. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 3 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Our very youngest children--infants and toddlers under age 3 years--appear to be particularly…

  2. Places for Children - Children's Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In their everyday lives, children largely stay within and relate to three settings - their homes, schools and recreational institutions. These environments have been created by adults and designated by them as "places for children". A more differentiated picture of children's spatial culture emerges when children discuss and take photographs of…

  3. Children Without Homes: An Examination of Public Responsibility to Children in Out-of-Home Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knitzer, Jane; And Others

    This book is the seventh Children's Defense Fund report on major problems facing American children at risk of placement or already placed out of their homes. The findings are based on a survey of child welfare and probation offices in a stratified random sample of 140 counties (27 with populations over 300,000, and 113 with populations under…

  4. Children Teaching Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Pia

    2007-01-01

    This study describes children's awareness of what it means to teach a game to a peer where the act of teaching becomes expression of the child's possible awareness. Awareness is defined as the attention to different aspects of the teaching process shown by the teaching child, sometimes through their own verbal reflection. This implies an…

  5. Raising Our Children's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette-Dudman, Deborah; LaCure, Jeffrey R.

    There are 3.2 million children in the United States living with their grandparents or other kin, a 40 percent increase since 1980. This exploding sociological trend with far-reaching implications for our future spans every segment of our society--rich and poor, black and white, Asian and Hispanic, urban and suburban. Based on interviews with…

  6. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ambartsumyan, Lusine

    2014-01-01

    The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835

  7. Having quality population.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F V

    1993-06-01

    This speech was delivered during Population and Development Week in the Philippines. Attention was drawn to population statistics: an annual growth rate of 2.3%, density of 202 persons/sq km, and an expected population of 75 million by the year 2000. Coupled with rapid population growth is the uneven distribution of wealth: the top 20% have over 50% of the total income and the lowest 20% have only 5% of the income. In such a social situation, it is women and children who are the most vulnerable. In cities, unemployment is high due to population growth and the migration of the rural poor. The rural poor living in areas of declining resources also move onto marginal uplands, which adds pressure to the already fragile ecology. Everyone must accept that the nation's problems are due to overpopulation. The government's development plans aim for sustainable growth, poverty alleviation, reduction in equality, generation of job opportunities, and achievement of social justice. People in government are determined to lead the Philippines toward a higher standard comparable with other dynamic Asian neighbors. The strategy is empowerment of the people. THe value is in the welfare of individuals and their families and the welfare of the nation. Couples have the right to manage their family size voluntarily and responsibly. The government's role is to provide adequate information on family planning in accordance with individual's religious convictions. Policies will also be directed to improved access to quality education, child survival, and maternal health, employment opportunities, and access and control over resources for people. There must be fuller participation of women in development. Support for the government's population program is sought from government officials, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. All provincial governors, city and municipal mayors, and all local executives will be directed to formulate population plans and to provide family

  8. Philippines: street children, children at risk.

    PubMed

    Tantoco, F G

    1993-01-01

    Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro

  9. Philippines: street children, children at risk.

    PubMed

    Tantoco, F G

    1993-01-01

    Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro

  10. Cochlear Implantation in Unique Pediatric Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Anna X.; Kim, Grace G.; Zdanski, Carlton J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Over the last decade, the selection criteria for cochlear implantation have expanded to include children with special auditory, otologic, and medical problems. Included within this expanded group of candidates are those children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, cochleovestibular malformations, cochlear nerve deficiency, associated syndromes, as well as multiple medical and developmental disorders. Definitive indications for cochlear implantation in these unique pediatric populations are in evolution. This review will provide an overview of managing and habilitating hearing loss within these populations with specific focus on cochlear implantation as a treatment option. Recent findings Cochlear implants have been successfully implanted in children within unique populations with variable results. Evaluation for cochlear implant candidacy includes the core components of a full medical, audiologic, and speech and language evaluations. When considering candidacy in these children, additional aspects to consider include disorder specific surgical considerations and child/care-giver counseling regarding reasonable post-implantation outcome expectations. Summary Cochlear implantations are accepted as the standard of care for improving hearing and speech development in children with severe to profound hearing loss. However, children with sensorineural hearing loss who meet established audiologic criteria for cochlear implantation may have unique audiologic, medical, and anatomic characteristics that necessitate special consideration regarding cochlear implantation candidacy and outcome. Individualized pre-operative candidacy and counseling, surgical evaluation, and reasonable post-operative outcome expectations should be taken into account in the management of these children. PMID:23128686

  11. Allergy and acute leukaemia in children with Down syndrome: a population study. Report from the Mexican inter-institutional group for the identification of the causes of childhood leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Enríquez, J C; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, A; Buchán-Durán, E P; Bernáldez-Ríos, R; Medina-Sansón, A; Jiménez-Hernández, E; Amador-Sanchez, R; Peñaloza-Gonzalez, J G; Paredes-Aguilera, R; Alvarez-Rodriguez, F J; Bolea-Murga, V; de Diego Flores-Chapa, J; Flores-Lujano, J; Bekker-Mendez, V C; Rivera-Luna, R; del Carmen Rodriguez-Zepeda, M; Rangel-López, A; Dorantes-Acosta, E M; Núñez-Villegas, N; Velazquez-Aviña, M M; Torres-Nava, J R; Reyes-Zepeda, N C; Cárdenas-Cardos, R; Flores-Villegas, L V; Martinez-Avalos, A; Salamanca-Gómez, F; Gorodezky, C; Arellano-Galindo, J; Mejía-Aranguré, J M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Allergies have been described as protective factors against the development of childhood acute leukaemia (AL). Our objective was to investigate the associations between allergy history and the development of AL and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children with Down syndrome (DS). Methods: A case–control study was performed in Mexico City. The cases (n=97) were diagnosed at nine public hospitals, and the controls (n=222) were recruited at institutions for children with DS. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Results: Asthma was positively associated with AL development (OR=4.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47–11.87), whereas skin allergies were negatively associated (OR=0.42; 95% CI: 0.20–0.91). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that allergies and AL in children with DS share biological and immune mechanisms. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting associations between allergies and AL in children with DS. PMID:23695017

  12. A population study of 5 to 15 year olds: full time maternal employment not associated with high BMI. The importance of screen-based activity, reading for pleasure and sleep duration in children's BMI.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anne W; Winefield, Helen; Kettler, Lisa; Roberts, Rachel; Gill, Tiffany K

    2012-04-01

    To describe the relationship between maternal full time employment and health-related and demographic variables associated with children aged 5-15 years, and the factors associated with child overweight/obesity. Data from a chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system were limited to children aged 5-15 years whose mothers responded on their behalf (n = 641). Univariate/multivariate analyses described the differences between mothers who did and did not work full time. The same data were analysed comparing children who are overweight/obese against those with a normal BMI. The children of mothers who worked full time are more likely to be older, live in a household with a higher household income, be an only child or have one sibling or other child in the household, have a sole mother family structure and not spend any time reading for pleasure. No relationship was found between maternal employment and BMI. Compared with children of normal weight, those who were overweight/obese were more likely to spend no time studying, spend more than 2 h per day in screen-based activity and sleep less than 10 h per night. Child BMI status was not related to maternal employment. Although this analysis included eight diet related variables none proved to be significant in the final models.This study has shown that mothers' working status is not related to children's BMI. The relationship between overweight/obesity of children and high levels of screen-based activity, low levels of studying, and short sleep duration suggests a need for better knowledge and understanding of sedentary behaviours of children.

  13. Children's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...

  14. Wednesday's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Katherine

    1986-01-01

    The author of "Jacob Have I Loved" and "Come Sing, Jimmy Jo" describes the characters in books she has written who are like "Wednesday's children"--full of woe. Discusses dealing with tragedy in children's books. (EL)

  15. Asthma - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children. It is a leading cause of missed school days and hospital visits for children. An allergic reaction ... how to let your child take medicine during school hours. (You may ... every day to prevent asthma symptoms. Your child should take ...

  16. Children and war.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    2003-04-01

    Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The

  17. Population and health.

    PubMed

    Kwon, E H

    1975-01-01

    Quality of population is as important as quantity when one is discussing public health needs or quality of the labor force. Population quality as measured by physical disease, mental disease, maternal death and morbidity rates, fetal and infant mortality rates, and family size and child health is discussed. Charts give figures for Korea from a variety of sample surveys and census studies for 1973. All developing countries have high child death rates from communicable diseases. Korea, in addition, suffers from several parasitic diseases. The problems of maternal death and morbidity are due to disease, hard physical labor during pregnancy, poorly attended births (26% were attended by a mother or mother-in-law and 11% by friends and relatives), and high parity. Figures show that the danger of childbirth is greatest for the 1st baby, lower for the 2nd and 3rd, then rises, climbing steeply after the 5th birth. Iron deficiency anemia and oxalic acid deficiency together with general malnutrition contribute to high maternal morbidity and mortality and fetal death or improper brain development. It is also well accepted that children from large families have slower physical and mental growth than children in smaller families. Family planning problems can best be solved by integrating birth spacing and birth limitation programs into a total maternal and child health scheme and emphasizing the health aspects of family planning. Maternity-centered family planning is but 1 example of such an integrated approach. This integration will make better use of personnel, result in better program supervision, and will help the mother understand it is in her best interest to practice family planning.

  18. [Models of economic theory of population growth].

    PubMed

    Von Zameck, W

    1987-01-01

    "The economic theory of population growth applies the opportunity cost approach to the fertility decision. Variations and differentials in fertility are caused by the available resources and relative prices or by the relative production costs of child services. Pure changes in real income raise the demand for children or the total amount spent on children. If relative prices or production costs and real income are affected together the effect on fertility requires separate consideration." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  19. Fungal mastoiditis in immunocompromised children.

    PubMed

    Slack, C L; Watson, D W; Abzug, M J; Shaw, C; Chan, K H

    1999-01-01

    The immunocompromised host is subject to a variety of opportunistic infections. Mycotic infections, including invasive fungal sinusitis, are a dreaded complication in immune deficient children. Fungal mastoiditis has rarely been described in this population. Our experience with 2 cases of fungal mastoiditis in immunocompromised children is reviewed. Case histories describing aggressive medical management with and without surgical intervention and a review of the literature are presented. PMID:9932592

  20. Consulting to children in crisis.

    PubMed

    Looney, J; Rahe, R; Harding, R; Ward, H; Liu, W

    1979-01-01

    Although community consultation is common for psychiatrists, such activity is usually carried out on an elective rather than emergency basis. In a world troubled by community disaster situations--children are often at risk. Psychiatrists, through the use of skillful crisis consultation, can be of great help to these young people. This report describes the effort of a mental health consultation team to meet the needs of a large population of children under acute stress. PMID:467132

  1. Urinary tract infection - children

    MedlinePlus

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...

  2. Children's "euthanasia" in Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Susan; Shields, Linda; O'Donnell, Alison J

    2009-12-01

    Children with disabilities were killed during the Nazi era, often by nurses. Some nurses killed children, saying that they were under orders. Propaganda about the need for "racial purity" was all pervasive and influenced much of the population, including nurses. The German people accepted the "mercy" killing of children with disabilities. We describe the children's "euthanasia" program, explore the influence of propaganda, ask why it was acceptable to kill children, and provide historical context demonstrating "slippery slopes" which can lead to abrogation of ethical principles. Discussion of such history is essential as the ethical principles which were breached are still the cornerstone of nursing practice today. Only by openly discussing past wrongs can we attempt to ensure that they do not happen again. Archival documents from Germany and Israel, including trial depositions and transcripts, provided material, supplemented by secondary classic sources.

  3. [Vietnam and its population].

    PubMed

    Veron, J

    1993-01-01

    Viet Nam's 1993 population of 72 million makes it the second largest country of Southeast Asia after Indonesia. Viet Nam's demographic transition is underway, but growth is still a rapid 2% annually, a sufficiently high rate to hinder socioeconomic development. The 1979 and 1989 censuses and the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey are the major recent sources of data on Viet Nam's population. Marriage is universal in Viet Nam. Men marry at 24.5 and women at 23.2 years on average. Fertility estimates based on nonadjusted census data indicate a total fertility rate for 1988-89 of 3.8 overall, 2.2 in urban areas, and 4.3 in rural areas. Regional differences resulting from contraceptive usage, educational differentials, and tabus regarding spacing are strong. The average household size is 5. Viet Nam's first fertility reduction policy was announced in 1963 and sought to improve the welfare of women to increase their productivity for the war effort. More recent family planning policies are based on the view that rapid demographic growth is one of the great obstacles to development. The objectives of the current policy are to reduce the growth rate to 1% by the end of the century, increase contraceptive prevalence, delay arrival of the first child, limit family size to 2 children or 3 for ethnic minorities, and increase birth intervals from 3 to 5 years. The program is voluntarist in nature but includes incentives and disincentives. Life expectancy at birth in 1989 was 67.5 years for women and 63 for men. Infant mortality was 37/1000, with regional differentials. The principal causes of hospital deaths are tuberculosis, malaria, and diarrhea. Objectives of the current health policy are to prevent infectious diseases, reinforce primary health care services, promote traditional medicine, achieve self-sufficiency in basic medicines, and improve environmental health and access to clean water. Viet Nam is one of the most densely populated Southeast Asian countries and is still

  4. People, Things, and Places for Young Children. Selecting Toys for Handicapped Children [and] Playgrounds for Exceptional Children: Considering the Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemnitzer, Ronald B.; Williams, Ronald R.

    The two papers focus on methods of selecting toys for handicapped children and options in playground equipment for this population. The qualities of a good toy, such as stimulation and safety, are examined. The author discusses various considerations in selecting toys for different handicaps; for example, toys for visually impaired children should…

  5. Population growth can be checked.

    PubMed

    Shukla, J P

    Since independence, India's population size has doubled. The rate of growth was 2.5% during 1971-81, an increase from the rate of 2.15% observed during the 1951-61 period. The increase indicated that efforts to decrease population growth have not succeeded. The implications with respect to food, housing, clothing, education, and health facilities, which are fundamental to improving the physical quality of life, are severe. This demographic trend is a serious impediment to progress. The population growth is due to a constant birthrate and a sharp decline in mortality. Reducing the birthrate is necessary to reduce the rate of growth. An attitudinal change adopting the norm of family limitation should be encouraged through propaganda, socioeconomic programs, and religious and cultural organizations. Other measures to bring about a decline in the birthrate include: increasing the marriage age, and expanding educational and employment opportunities for women and girls. These measures will require substantial effort and time. Incentives may show more immediate effects. Monetary incentives are not desired because of the possibility of misuse. However the government could assume responsibility for the education and guarantee employment of children of couples who have only one child, and provide free education to children of couples with only 2 children. These incentives are not likely to be misused, can be available to all segments of the population, and involve no immediate large financial burden on the government. In addition, scholarships to the Harijan students should be limited to 2 per family. If these measures are accepted, they could quickly reduce the birth rate. PMID:12311944

  6. Population policies and development.

    PubMed

    Stamper, B M

    1984-01-01

    This article critically examines 4 conceptual frameworks for Third World population policies: the family planning approach, beyond family planning measures, the development hypothesis and transition theory, and the distributive hypothesis and fertility. Although family planning is a basic human right and can lead to lower levels of population and improved maternal-child health, this approach alone does not always have a meaningful demographic impact. If high fertility is economically rational from the family viewpoint, the demand for family planning services will remain marginal. Other policies seek to go beyond the family planning approach and to directly influence the demand for reproductive control through provision of old age support, monetary incentives for reduced fertility or stringent and coercive measures. However, such policies can have adverse distributional effects and directly penalize the children of large families. The demographic transition theory lacks a measurable and specifiable causation mechanism, giving it little predictive value. It may be that economic growth increases fertility in the short run and reduces fertility only over the long run through indirect effects. The key issue is how the rate of growth is distributed across the population. The development and demographic transition hypothesis focuses mainly on aggregate economic and social measures rather than on their underlying distributions. The distributive hypothesis implies policies that promote a greater level of investment in human capital, with a wide distributional emphasis. Diffused investment in human capital is believed to indirectly influence the desire to control fertility. It is concluded that all 4 conceptual frameworks for analyzing fertility-related policies for the Third World are inadequate or seriously flawed. They are not pragmatic, do not identify or assign weights to the crucial causal variables, fail to specify thresholds or critical minimum levels, discount

  7. The population question revisited.

    PubMed

    Rhee S-w

    1978-09-01

    Although discussion of the world poplation problem began in the 1950s and progress was made in applied demographic research and family planning in the 1960s, an international consensus on population did not begin to form until the 1970s. This paper considers future guidelines for the Korean family planning program in light of the worldwide necessity of achieving a stationary population with the lowest possible further growth from the present 4 billion. Korea is about to move from the first stage of its family planning program, whose aim was to prevent unwanted births, to the second stage where the aim is to establish the 2-child norms as a way of life. Past population growth has already assured that Korea will have a plentiful labor supply until the end of the century. The social cost of maintaining the unemployed and underemployed represents funds that would be available for investment if such excess manpower were eliminated through adoption of the 2-child norm. A recent survey showed that the average desired number of children among Korean families varies from 2.3 to 3.1 depending on survey strata, indicating that individual parents are not too distant in their desires from the 2-child norm, and might be influenced by public policy measures favoring the 2-child norm, as in Japan. Family planners should also press for more equitable distribution of income because of its association with low fertility. The author's recommendations based on these arguments include incorporation of the 2-child norm into development activities, alteration of civil and family laws to promote the 2-child norm, and encouragement of programs to implement mre equitable distribution of income.

  8. Recognizing Maltreatment in Children with Special Needs.

    PubMed

    Traisman, Edward S

    2016-08-01

    Children with special needs are at a greater risk of maltreatment than other children. Understanding risk factors unique to this population will help the pediatrician determine which children are at risk, make the physician aware of what to assess in the office setting, and provide education to the child, family, and caregivers to prevent maltreatment. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e273-e277.]. PMID:27517353

  9. Young Children in Poverty: A Statistical Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Neil G.; Li, Jiali; Song, Younghwan; Yang, Keming

    This document continues a series of statistical reports from the National Center for Children in Poverty about young child poverty in the United States. The highlights of this update include the current profile of extremely poor, poor, and near poor population of young children; an examination of the changing association between higher education…

  10. Language Learning Impairment in Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    We review and synthesize empirical evidence at the intersection of two populations: children with language learning impairment (LLI) and children from immigrant families who learn a single language from birth and a second language beginning in early childhood. LLI is a high incidence disorder that, in recent years, has been referred to by…

  11. Research You Can Use: Marketing to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines marketing literature for profit-oriented organizations and discusses how those principles can be applied to public library services for children. Topics addressed include children as a source of revenue; market research; product development; promotion; retailing; and implications for public libraries, including population trends and…

  12. Left-handed Children in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Used teacher questionnaires to examine incidence of left-handedness in nearly 2,800 Singaporean children, racial differences in this left-handed population, and educational provisions in preschool and primary school. Findings indicated that 7.5% of preschoolers and 6.3% of primary children were left-handed, with a higher proportion being Chinese…

  13. Children Adrift: Educating China's Millions of Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Haili

    1999-01-01

    The population of migrants moving within China's borders has reached some 80 million, including 2-3 million school-aged children. As migrant workers flock to cities, their children strain urban school systems or receive no education. But independent schools for migrants are illegal and substandard. In some rural provinces, vocational training may…

  14. Developmental-Behavioral Dysfunction in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberklaid, Frank; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Historical data and information regarding present functioning (including a neurodevelopmental assessment) were collected on 79 preschool children with behavioral and developmental problems. When compared with a matched cohort of children from the community, the clinic population had a higher incidence of developmental concerns. Journal…

  15. Identifying Specific Comprehension Deficits in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Diane Baty

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that educators may be missing an under-identified population of approximately 10 percent of typically developing children, who have fluent, age-appropriate decoding and word recognition skills, yet have specific difficulties with other higher-level text processing factors. These children are said to have specific comprehension…

  16. HEALTH OF CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESSER, ARTHUR

    A HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE STUDY OF SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMS, THIS REPORT PRESENTS STATISTICS ON (1) THE NATION'S CHILD POPULATION, (2) CHILDREN IN LOW-INCOME FAMILIES, (3) ILLNESSES OF CHILDHOOD, (4) SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES, AND (5) TRENDS IN THE PROVISION OF HEALTH CARE FOR CHILDREN. THE REPORT EMPHASIZES THE GAPS IN CHILD HEALTH SUPERVISION…

  17. Tibet's population: past and present.

    PubMed

    Tu, D

    1997-08-01

    This article describes trends in population growth in Tibet during the Yuan Dynasty (1260-1287), the Qing Dynasty (1734-36), and during decennial periods after 1952, until 1994. Tibet was conquered by the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty in the 13th century. During 1260-87, 3 enumerations revealed a total population of about 559,962 Tibetans, of whom 70,000 were lamas. Enumeration during 1734-36, revealed a total population of 941,151 Tibetans and 138,617 households. Tibet's population increased to about 1 million in 1951, an addition of 60,000 persons over 210 years. During 1952-59, the rate of population growth was fairly low at 0.94%. The total increase was 78,000 persons, or 11,000/year. Population increased from 1.15 million to about 1.23 million during 1952-59. The Dalai Lama went into exile with about 74,000 Tibetans in March 1959. Population during 1960-69 increased from 1.23 million to 1.48 million. The annual growth rate was 1.89%. Population increased by 252,500 persons, or 25.300/year. Reforms were carried out during this period. The region shifted from feudalism to socialism. Tibetans obtained free medical care and access to land. The birth rate was 25/1000, and the death rate was 10/1000. During 1970-79, both economic and population growth increased. Population increased from 1.48 million to 1.83 million, or a rate of annual growth of 2.14%. Population during this period increased by 348,500 persons, or 34,900/year. This was the fastest period of population growth. During 1980-89, the total fertility rate was maintained at around 4 children/woman, and family planning was implemented in urban areas. The annual rate of growth was 1.85%. Population increased by 367,000 persons, or 36,700/year. During 1990-94, the annual growth rate was 1.76 with a total increase of 159,000 persons, or 39,800/year.

  18. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  19. Adolescent Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    As with school age children, it is difficult to make conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments for adolescents because of the differences in instruments, research designs, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  20. The Relationship between Kindergarten Classroom Environment and Children's Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogan, Canan; Farran, Dale C.; Sagsöz, Gülseren

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to examine the way in which instructional and emotional aspects of teacher support combined to predict children's engagement in learning-related activities in kindergarten classrooms that served a socio-economically diverse population of children. Observations were conducted on teachers and children in 45…

  1. Joint Attention Revisited: Examining Heterogeneity among Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Joint attention has long been considered absent or deviant in children with autism. Although this deficit is seen, there is variability in joint attention within the population and some children with autism employ it. Little is known about the profile of joint attention skills of these children or how joint attention use affects concurrent…

  2. U.S. Latino Children: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Sonia M.

    This report presents status and trend data in several areas relevant to Latino children in the United States. The Latino population under age 18 years is growing faster than that of any other racial and ethnic group, and the challenges confronting these children have implications for cities and states where they live. While Latino children are…

  3. Strengthening Grief Support for Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormanti, Mary; Ballan, Michelle S.

    2011-01-01

    Although a sizable literature investigates and describes children's grief, the majority of information focuses on typically developing children. Far less has been published about the loss and grief of children with developmental disabilities (DD), even though this population experiences significant and multiple losses, increasing their…

  4. A Study on Gross Motor Skills of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Joanne Hui-Tzu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a creative movement program on gross motor skills of preschool children. Sixty children between the ages of 3 to 5 were drawn from the population of a preschool in Taichung, Taiwan. An experimental pretest-posttest control-group design was utilized. The children enrolled in the…

  5. Qualitative Research Interviews of Children with Communication Disorders: Methodological Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…

  6. Impairment in Movement Skills of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dido; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We undertook this study to explore the degree of impairment in movement skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and a wide IQ range. Method: Movement skills were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in a large, well defined, population-derived group of children (n=101: 89 males,12 females; mean…

  7. Parental Reports of Symptoms of Childhood Disorders in Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Van der Ploeg, Jan D.; Van den Bergh, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of children displaying childhood disorders in the Netherlands is estimated through a questionnaire referencing DSM-IV symptoms filled out by the parents of 2,563 4-18-year-old Dutch children randomly taken from the general Dutch Youth population in 2004. The number of impaired children was estimated by applying the DSM-IV criteria for…

  8. Connecticut's Children: A Cause for Hope. 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michelle Doucette

    This KIDS COUNT data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Connecticut's children. After listing the regional population, racial/ethnic background, poverty status, and family setting of Connecticut's children, the statistical report examines 13 indicators of well-being: (1) percentage of children receiving welfare benefits; (2) low…

  9. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskey, Morag; Warnell, Frances; Parr, Jeremy R.; Le Couteur, Ann; McConachie, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The type, frequency and inter-relationships of emotional and behavioural problems in 863 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were investigated using the population-based Database of children with ASD living in the North East of England (Daslne). A high rate of problems was reported, with 53% of children having 4 or more types of problems…

  10. Children's Benefits Access Project: A White Paper on Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.

    Over a period of 4 months in early 1994, Voices for Children investigated low-income children's access to 15 benefits for which they might be eligible. Of those benefits, six were further analyzed to determine how many eligible low-income children were actually receiving them. Counties were grouped by population size to determine if differences…

  11. Assessment of Fear in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Laura B.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

    2012-01-01

    Although intense fears have been reported in up to 64% of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about the phenomenology of fear in this population. This study assessed the relationship between fear and core symptoms of autism in children with an ASD. In Phase I of this study, parents of 41 children with an ASD completed…

  12. Using Storybooks to Promote Multicultural Sensitivity in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bryan S. K.; Green, Jennifer L. Greif; Klein, Eileen F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the use of storybooks to promote multicultural sensitivity among elementary school children. The increasing diversity in the United States dictates that children are sensitive to cultural differences of individuals from varied backgrounds. Because they are in a formative stage of life, children are an ideal population with…

  13. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  14. Introduction. Population and the environment.

    PubMed

    Clarke, J; Zaba, B

    1992-01-01

    The complexity of the interrelationships between population growth and environmental concerns is often obscured when the global picture is presented. The variety and complexity of population-environment associations varies with spatial aggregation; analysis is needed at all levels. Of the many organizations involved in researching and discussing these associations, the International Social Science Council established a working committee on population and the environment, which held a symposium in January 1991. 9 papers were the topic of discussions and are summarized in this article. Attention was focused on pollution emissions and population growth by the environmental scientist Paul Harrison. The increased demand for water was discussed as it related to rapid urbanization and changes in agricultural production and industrial development policies. David Noin's paper was on the increased occurrence of natural disasters and mortality, i.e., cyclones and floods. The population densities surrounding areas of natural disasters excluding droughts have increased and contributed to greater impacts. Alina Potrykowska and Roger Bivend provided information on the trends and spatial patterns of mortality in Poland. Mortality increases have appeared during the course of industrialization. Data for Poland on environmental variables such as dust and gas emissions, volume of untreated waste, and hazardous waste are available for 49 voivodships. The most polluted areas show a statistically significant relationships with high morality. Ken Wilson presented his views on the contradiction that African famines did not cause population decline. The possible interpretations are misinterpretation of data, inappropriate scales of measurement, and a misspecification that social, economic, and political changes will improve the population environment links. Matthew Lockwood presented his findings on northern Nigeria that migration is an important cause of high density population, and that

  15. Functional Performance in Young Australian Children with Achondroplasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Penelope Jane; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth M.; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne Marie

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine population-specific developmental milestones for independence in self-care, mobility, and social cognitive skills in children with achondroplasia, the most common skeletal dysplasia. Methods: Population-based recruitment from October 2008 to October 2010 identified 44 Australian children with…

  16. Snowflake Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child & Youth Services, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Taking account of the needs and views of children is problematic, particularly in Ireland where children have been "owned" by their parents and social policy has been directed at the family rather than the individual child. The 1980s and 1990s may be said to be the decades where abuse, in its many forms, reared its head and Irish society was…

  17. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  18. Father's Alcoholism and Children's Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Lee N.; And Others

    This paper presents some results from a group of St. Louis born black males aged 31-36 who were systematically interviewed during the year 1965-66. The sample in this report is deemed a high risk population because the fathers are at very high risk for alcoholism and the children are at high risk for unfavorable school and legal outcomes…

  19. Children of La Frontera. Foreword.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.

    The linguistic and cultural diversity of America's school population has increased dramatically during the past decade, and is expected to increase even more in the future. But, for many children of immigrant and minority families, U.S. education is not a successful experience. One fourth of African Americans, one third of Hispanics, one half of…

  20. [Food hypersensitivity in children].

    PubMed

    Kolacek, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity affects children and adults with an increasing prevalence, and is therefore an important public health problem in the majority of developed countries. Moreover, self-reported reactions to food are of several times higher prevalence, compared to hypersensitivity diagnosed following well established evidence-based diagnostic guidelines. In children, allergic food reactions are more common compared to non-allergic food hypersensitivity reactions, and 90% of them are caused with only 8 food allergens: cow's milk, soya, egg, fish, shellfish, peanut, tree-nuts and gluten. Diagnosis should be based on challenge tests with the potentially offending food allergens. Concerning other, more conservative diagnostic procedures, negative serology and negative skin-prick tests can exclude IgE-mediated food allergy, but positive tests, due to high rate of false positive reactions are not sufficient for diagnosis. Strict dietary avoidance of incriminated allergens is the only well established management strategy. However, this should be applied only if food allergy is well documented - following the exposition tests. Introducing elimination diet in a paediatric population, particularly with the elimination of multiple foods, could cause inappropriate growth and disturb organ maturation. Concerning allergy prevention, avoidance of allergens is not efficacious either during pregnancy and lactation or weaning period, and is therefore, not recommended neither as a population preventive measure, nor in children at risk.