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Sample records for children population dejstvoto

  1. Population, Education, and Children's Futures. Fastback 150.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Robert M.; Fraser, Stewart E.

    This monograph discusses world population problems, examines the underlying concepts and issues in population education, and looks at the future. The monograph begins by describing an attempt at population education in a village of India. Eight guiding concepts that are considered to be essential for population educators are then discussed. These…

  2. Obesity Rates in Special Populations of Children and Potential Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.; McIntosh, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States, but much of the research has focused on prevention and intervention programs, which target the general population of school children. Overlooked in the literature are children with special needs (including autism, genetic disorders, Down syndrome, and Prader-Willi…

  3. Obesity Rates in Special Populations of Children and Potential Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.; McIntosh, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States, but much of the research has focused on prevention and intervention programs, which target the general population of school children. Overlooked in the literature are children with special needs (including autism, genetic disorders, Down syndrome, and Prader-Willi…

  4. Children's Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Jason

    As part of the 2002 Current Population Survey, this report presents information on several characteristics of children, covering different aspects of their lives. It focuses on demographic characteristics of the child population of the United States and family living arrangements, including single parent families, cohabiting parent families, and…

  5. Anthropometric data peculiarities in early school children population.

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, L; Karseladze, R; Vekua, M; Chkhartishvili, E; Bigvava, T

    2011-01-01

    The anthropometric data were studied in early school aged (6-7 years old) children and the degree of harmonization during physical development was evaluated. Representative population of 400 otherwise healthy early school aged children was included in study group. Study period covered the end of school year. In the selected under observation focused population the level of individual anthropometric data was determined in percentile intervals according its position. Anthropometric data assessments by using percentile method it was revealed in early school aged (6-7 years of old children) excess in body height and weight in comparison with normal values. This phenomenon indicates the prevalence of acceleration and weight gain. Anthropometric data in boys were increased while comparing with physical development data in girls. This result difference has the tendency to statistically insignificant. Physical development harmonization values were studied in 200 children. Harmonized physical development revealed in 50 children (25%); disharmonized physical development I 50 children (15%), among them with I degree weight gain were 48 (24%), and with I degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). Markedly disharmonized development had 100 children (50%), among them with II degree weight gain were 98 (49%), and with II degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). According to the children's anthropometric data and assessment by physical development harmonization percentiles tables three groups of children were organized: main, risk group and the group with deviation in physical development. On the basis of resulted data the study of early school age children's physical development gives possibility for risk groups stratification, which in turn itself makes a strong basis for reasonable preventive measurements and stepwise monitoring implementation.

  6. Costs of children--benefit theory and population control.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1989-01-01

    fertile women are also important. The State's population policy of rewards and penalties also affects the costs and benefits. Administrative intervention to implement the FP program have been effectively and adequately used in the past to control population growth, even though it is recognized that social and economic development is another way of affecting population growth. Parents still need to be guaranteed that 1 child will indeed be a benefit. Children's economic value has been accepted, and policy is moving in the direction of correcting the imbalances between children's costs and benefits, such as increasing fines along with improving education and income distribution.

  7. Infections in a Children's Hospital autopsy population.

    PubMed

    Craver, Randall; Springer, Jeffery; Begue, Rodolfo

    2014-06-01

    We reviewed our Children's Hospital autopsies (1986-2009, 3-8 year groups) to determine the contribution of infections/inflammation to death and trends over time. Infections were categorized as (1) underlying cause of death, (2) mechanism of death complicating another underlying cause of death, (3) contributing (4) agonal or (5) incidental. Of 608 autopsies (44% of deaths), 401 had 691 infections (66%, 1.72 infections/infected child). In categories 1-5, there were 85 (12.3%), 237(34.3%), 231 (33.4%), 82 (11.9%) and 56(8.1%) infections. Leading infections include bronchopneumonia (188), sepsis (144- Enterococcus most common with 22), meningitis (35- Streptococcus pneumoniae most common with 10), pneumonitis (33), peritonitis (29). Sepsis declined in 2002-2009, attributed to fluid resuscitation standardization. Meningitis declined after 1993, and may be partially attributed to vaccines (Hemophilus influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae). Despite advances in anti-microbial therapy, 66% of pediatric autopsies had inflammatory lesions, predominately as the mechanism or contributing factor rather than the underlying cause of death.

  8. Population density and refractive error among Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingzhi; Li, Liping; Chen, Lizhen; Lee, Jack; Wu, Jiasi; Yang, Amy; Chen, Connie; Xu, Daocheng; Lam, Dennis S C; Sharma, Abhishek; Griffiths, Sian; Gao, Yang; Congdon, Nathan

    2010-10-01

    China is urbanizing rapidly, and the prevalence of myopia is high. This study was conducted to identify the reasons for observed differences in the prevalence of myopia among urban versus rural Chinese children. All children with uncorrected acuity of 6/12 or worse and a 50% random sample of children with vision better than 6/12 at all secondary schools in mixed rural-urban Liangying Township, Guangdong, underwent cycloplegic refraction, and provided data on age, gender, parental education, weekly near work and time outdoors, and urban development level of respondents' neighborhoods (12-item questionnaire). Population density of 32 villages and urban zones in Liangying was calculated from census figures (mean population density, 217 persons/km(2); range, 94-957; mean for Guangdong, 486). Among 5844 eligible children, 4612 (78.9%) had parental consent and completed examinations; 2957 were refracted per protocol, and 2480 (83.9%) of these had questionnaire data. Those with completed examinations were more likely to be girls (P < 0.001), and questionnaire respondents were more myopic (P = 0.02), but otherwise did not differ significantly from nonrespondents. In multivariate models, older age (P < 0.001), more near work (P = 0.02), and higher population density (P = 0.003), but not development index, parental education, or time outdoors were significantly associated with more myopic refractive error. Higher population density appears to be associated with myopia risk, independent of academic activity, time spent outdoors, familial educational level, or economic development, factors that have been thought to explain higher myopia prevalence among urban children. Mechanisms for this apparent association should be sought.

  9. Classifying sensory profiles of children in the general population.

    PubMed

    Little, L M; Dean, E; Tomchek, S D; Dunn, W

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to subtype groups of children in a community sample with and without developmental conditions, based on sensory processing patterns. We used latent profile analysis to determine the number of sensory subtypes in a sample of n = 1132 children aged 3-14 years with typical development and developmental conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities. A five-subtype solution was found to best characterize the sample, which differed on overall degree and differential presentation of sensory processing patterns. Children with and without developmental conditions presented across subtypes, and one subtype was significantly younger in age than others (P < 0.05). Our results show that sensory subtypes include both children with typical development and those with developmental conditions. Sensory subtypes have previously been investigated in ASD only, and our results suggest that similar sensory subtypes are present in a sample reflective of the general population of children including those largely with typical development. Elevated scores on sensory processing patterns are not unique to ASD but rather are reflections of children's abilities to respond to environmental demands. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Amino acid requirements in children and the elderly population.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Raja R; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-08-01

    The factorial approach is used to measure the dietary indispensable amino acid (IAA) requirements in children, although recent measurements based on the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method have begun to generate more direct evidence. Difficulties with the factorial method are that it depends on accurate estimates of the maintenance protein requirement, as well as of protein deposition during growth. Also, a value for the efficiency of utilizing dietary protein for deposition has to be selected, based on published Nitrogen (N) balance studies. In the recent 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU report, the amino acid requirement pattern for infants was taken to be similar to the amino acid composition of breast milk. For pre-school and older children, the factorial method gave values for the scoring pattern of protein that were fairly close to the earlier 1985 WHO/FAO/UNU report for children, since growth progressively became a smaller component of the factorial calculation as age progressed. However, given that there are several assumptions in the derivation of factorial estimates, direct experimental measurements of the amino acid requirement are desirable. The IAAO method, as it is non-invasive, as made it possible to measure the IAA requirements in children. Over the last decade, some of the IAA requirements have been determined by using the IAAO method in healthy school age children; however, the data on IAA requirements in developing country populations are still being conducted. In the elderly, there are not enough data to make a separate recommendation for IAA requirements from that of adults.

  11. Too old to have children? Lessons from natural fertility populations.

    PubMed

    Eijkemans, Marinus J C; van Poppel, Frans; Habbema, Dik F; Smith, Ken R; Leridon, Henri; te Velde, Egbert R

    2014-06-01

    Is it possible to construct an age curve denoting the ages above which women are biologically too old to reproduce? We constructed a curve based on the distribution of female age at last birth in natural fertility populations reflecting the ages above which women have become biologically too old to have children. The median age at last birth (ALB) for females is ∼40-41 years of age across a range of natural fertility populations. This suggests that there is a fairly universal pattern of age-related fertility decline. However, little is known about the distribution of female ALB and in the present era of modern birth control, it is impossible to assess the age-specific distribution of ALB. Reliable information is lacking that could benefit couples who envisage delaying childbearing. This study is a review of high-quality historical data sets of natural fertility populations in which the distributions of female age at last birth were analysed. The studies selected used a retrospective cohort design where women were followed as they age through their reproductive years. Using a common set of eligibility criteria, large data files of natural fertility populations were prepared such that the analysis could be performed in parallel across all populations. Data on the ALB and confounding variables are presented as box and whisker plots denoting the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th percentile distribution of the age at last birth for each population. The analysis includes the estimation of Kaplan-Meier curves for age at last birth of each population. The hazard curve for ALB was obtained by plotting the smoothed hazard curve of each population and taking the lowest hazard within a time period of at least 5 years. This lowest hazard curve was then transformed into a cumulative distribution function representing the composite curve of the end of biological fertility. This curve was based on the data from three of the six populations, having the lowest hazards of end of

  12. Too old to have children? Lessons from natural fertility populations

    PubMed Central

    Eijkemans, Marinus J.C.; van Poppel, Frans; Habbema, Dik F.; Smith, Ken R.; Leridon, Henri; te Velde, Egbert R.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is it possible to construct an age curve denoting the ages above which women are biologically too old to reproduce? SUMMARY ANSWER We constructed a curve based on the distribution of female age at last birth in natural fertility populations reflecting the ages above which women have become biologically too old to have children. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The median age at last birth (ALB) for females is ∼40–41 years of age across a range of natural fertility populations. This suggests that there is a fairly universal pattern of age-related fertility decline. However, little is known about the distribution of female ALB and in the present era of modern birth control, it is impossible to assess the age-specific distribution of ALB. Reliable information is lacking that could benefit couples who envisage delaying childbearing. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This study is a review of high-quality historical data sets of natural fertility populations in which the distributions of female age at last birth were analysed. The studies selected used a retrospective cohort design where women were followed as they age through their reproductive years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Using a common set of eligibility criteria, large data files of natural fertility populations were prepared such that the analysis could be performed in parallel across all populations. Data on the ALB and confounding variables are presented as box and whisker plots denoting the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th percentile distribution of the age at last birth for each population. The analysis includes the estimation of Kaplan–Meier curves for age at last birth of each population. The hazard curve for ALB was obtained by plotting the smoothed hazard curve of each population and taking the lowest hazard within a time period of at least 5 years. This lowest hazard curve was then transformed into a cumulative distribution function representing the composite curve of the end of

  13. A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Depression in Children with Developmental Disabilities in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooshtari, Shahin; Brownell, Marni; Dik, Natalia; Chateau, Dan; Yu, C. T.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Burchill, Charles A.; Wetzel, Monika

    2014-01-01

    In this population-based study, prevalence of depression was estimated and compared between children with and without developmental disability (DD). Twelve years of administrative data were linked to identify a cohort of children with DD living in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Children in the study cohort were matched with children without DD…

  14. A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Depression in Children with Developmental Disabilities in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooshtari, Shahin; Brownell, Marni; Dik, Natalia; Chateau, Dan; Yu, C. T.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Burchill, Charles A.; Wetzel, Monika

    2014-01-01

    In this population-based study, prevalence of depression was estimated and compared between children with and without developmental disability (DD). Twelve years of administrative data were linked to identify a cohort of children with DD living in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Children in the study cohort were matched with children without DD…

  15. Parenting Children with Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Unique Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Jason K.; Baker, Bruce L.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    Parenting was examined among families of children with borderline intelligence in comparison to families of typically developing children and children with developmental delays. Parenting data were obtained at child age 5 via naturalistic home observation. Mothers of children with borderline intelligence exhibited less positive and less sensitive…

  16. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of imatinib in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Petain, Aurélie; Kattygnarath, Darouna; Azard, Julie; Chatelut, Etienne; Delbaldo, Catherine; Geoerger, Birgit; Barrois, Michel; Séronie-Vivien, Sophie; LeCesne, Axel; Vassal, Gilles

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of several demographic, biological, and pharmacogenetic covariates on the disposition of imatinib and its main metabolite (CGP74588) in both adults and children. Thirty-three children with solid malignancies included in a phase II exploratory study and 34 adults with gastrointestinal stromal tumors received 340 mg/m(2) and 400 mg imatinib, respectively. Plasma imatinib and CGP74588 concentrations observed on day 1 and at steady-state were analyzed by a population pharmacokinetic method (NONMEM) to evaluate the effect of age, body weight, age, sex, albuminemia, plasma alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and eight polymorphisms corresponding to ABCB1, ABCG2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and AGP (pharmacogenetic data available for 46 of 67 patients). Analysis of the whole data set in 67 patients showed that apparent clearance (CL/F) of imatinib was positively correlated with body weight and albuminemia and negatively with AGP. By considering these three covariates, the interindividual variability on CL/F decreased from 47% to 19%. The apparent clearance of CGP74588 was similarly dependent on both body weight and AGP and significantly lower (30% reduction) at steady-state. By adding genotype status to the final covariate imatinib model, a 22% reduction in CL/F was observed in heterozygous compared with wild-type patients corresponding to ABCG2 c.421C>A (P<0.05). By considering morphologic and biological covariates, a unique covariate model could be used to accurately describe imatinib pharmacokinetics in patients ages 2 to 84 years. Morphologic and biological characteristics have a stronger influence than pharmacogenetics on imatinib pharmacokinetics.

  17. Relationship Status among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Brian H.; Kalb, Luther G.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite speculation about an 80% divorce rate among parents of children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), very little empirical and no epidemiological research has addressed the issue of separation and divorce among this population. Data for this study was taken from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a population-based,…

  18. Psychopathology in a Swedish Population of School Children with Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Najah; Von Knorring, Anne-Liis

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of psychiatric comorbid disorders and associated problems in a school population of children with tic disorders. Method: From a total population of 4,479 children, 25 with Tourette's disorder (TD), 34 with chronic motor tics (CMT), 24 with chronic vocal tics (CVT), and 214 with transient tics (TT) during the past…

  19. Psychopathology in a Swedish Population of School Children with Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Najah; Von Knorring, Anne-Liis

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of psychiatric comorbid disorders and associated problems in a school population of children with tic disorders. Method: From a total population of 4,479 children, 25 with Tourette's disorder (TD), 34 with chronic motor tics (CMT), 24 with chronic vocal tics (CVT), and 214 with transient tics (TT) during the past…

  20. Relationship Status among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Brian H.; Kalb, Luther G.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite speculation about an 80% divorce rate among parents of children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), very little empirical and no epidemiological research has addressed the issue of separation and divorce among this population. Data for this study was taken from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a population-based,…

  1. Eating problems in young children -- a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Equit, Monika; Pälmke, Meike; Becker, Nicolas; Moritz, Anne-Michaela; Becker, Sabine; von Gontard, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    To analyse the prevalence of atypical eating problems and their associations with anxious or oppositional behaviours in young children. One thousand and ninety children examined in the school enrolment test in a defined geographical region were included (544 boys). The parents completed a 25-item questionnaire regarding their child's eating behaviour and anxious or oppositional behaviours. Half of the parents reported that their child avoids certain foods (53%). Twenty-three percent showed selective eating, 26% showed an aversion against new foods. Children with underweight avoided more types of food and ate smaller amounts than children with normal or overweight. Three groups could be differentiated. Sixty-one percent of the children were 'normal eaters' with avoidance of certain foods, normal weight status and low anxious or oppositional behaviour. Thirty-four percent showed selective and/or restrictive eating, and 5% worried about their weight. Children with selective eating and with weight concerns were more often affected by anxious and oppositional behaviours. Atypical eating problems are common in young children. Without accompanying weight loss, behavioural or emotional problems, selective eating should be seen as a normal feature in young eating behaviour. Parents of young children with selective, restrictive eating or with weight worrying and psychological problems should be offered advice/treatment. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  2. Chronically Ill Children: A Psychologically and Emotionally Deviant Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavormina, J. B.; And Others

    To investigate vulnerability to psychological and emotional stress among chronically ill children, a battery of personality tests was selectively administered to 144 children (5- to 19-years-old) afflicted with one of the following conditions: diabetes, asthma, cystic fibrosis, or hearing impairment. Analyses centered on comparisons of norms…

  3. Dental health of children with autism spectrum disorders: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Waldman, H Barry; Zablotsky, Nevin; Perlman, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were used to investigate how autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom severity and comorbidity are associated with the dental health needs of children. The results of this study help provide insights into the greater oral needs of the increasing population of children with ASD that reside in our communities and their dependency upon local practitioners for treatment.

  4. A Staged Approach for Identifying Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder from the Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Cairney, John; Pollock, Nancy; Russell, Dianne; Macdonald, Kathryn; Cousins, Martha; Veldhuizen, Scott; Schmidt, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the motor, attention and intellectual characteristics of a population-based sample of children first screened for motor impairment and to discuss the recruitment and identification methods employed. A two stage cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted to screen for children with motor…

  5. Associated Medical Disorders and Disabilities in Children with Autistic Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielinen, Marko; Rantala, Heikki; Timonen, Eija; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Moilanen, Irma

    2004-01-01

    A population-based survey was conducted among 152,732 Finnish children and adolescents aged under 16 years and living in northern Finland. Diagnoses and associated medical conditions were derived from the hospital and institutional records of this area. One hundred and eighty-seven children with DSM-IV autistic disorder were identified. Associated…

  6. Behavioural and Emotional Symptoms of Preschool Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Indredavik, Marit S.; Eiriksdottir, Audur; Einarsdottir, Katrin; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Vik, Torstein

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To describe behavioural and emotional symptoms among Icelandic preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Children with congenital CP, assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist/1 1/2-5 (CBCL/1 1/2-5) and Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), were enrolled in the study. A comparison group was recruited from the general population.…

  7. A Staged Approach for Identifying Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder from the Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Cairney, John; Pollock, Nancy; Russell, Dianne; Macdonald, Kathryn; Cousins, Martha; Veldhuizen, Scott; Schmidt, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the motor, attention and intellectual characteristics of a population-based sample of children first screened for motor impairment and to discuss the recruitment and identification methods employed. A two stage cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted to screen for children with motor…

  8. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  9. Behavioural and Emotional Symptoms of Preschool Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Indredavik, Marit S.; Eiriksdottir, Audur; Einarsdottir, Katrin; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Vik, Torstein

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To describe behavioural and emotional symptoms among Icelandic preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Children with congenital CP, assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist/1 1/2-5 (CBCL/1 1/2-5) and Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), were enrolled in the study. A comparison group was recruited from the general population.…

  10. Chronic Physical Illness and Mental Health in Children. Results from a Large-Scale Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hysing, Mari; Elgen, Irene; Gillberg, Christopher; Lie, Stein Atle; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in detecting emotional and behavioural problems among children with chronic illness (CI). Methods: Parents and teachers of a population of primary school children in Norway (n = 9430) completed a…

  11. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  12. Associated Medical Disorders and Disabilities in Children with Autistic Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielinen, Marko; Rantala, Heikki; Timonen, Eija; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Moilanen, Irma

    2004-01-01

    A population-based survey was conducted among 152,732 Finnish children and adolescents aged under 16 years and living in northern Finland. Diagnoses and associated medical conditions were derived from the hospital and institutional records of this area. One hundred and eighty-seven children with DSM-IV autistic disorder were identified. Associated…

  13. Developmental Outcomes of Foster Children: A Meta-Analytic Comparison With Children From the General Population and Children at Risk Who Remained at Home.

    PubMed

    Goemans, Anouk; van Geel, Mitch; van Beem, Merel; Vedder, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Foster care is often preferred to other placement options for children in the child welfare system. However, it is not clear how the developmental outcomes of foster children relate to children in other living arrangements. In this study, a series of meta-analyses are performed to compare the cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral functioning of children placed in foster care (n = 2,305) with children at risk who remained with their biological parents (n = 4,335) and children from the general population (n = 4,971). A systematic literature search in PsycINFO, Medline, ERIC, and ProQuest identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion (N = 11,611). Results showed that foster children had generally lower levels of functioning than children from the general population. No clear differences were found between foster children and children at risk who remained at home, but both groups experienced developmental problems. Improving the quality of foster care and future research to identify which children are best served by either foster care or in-home services are recommended. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. [The prevalence of intestinal parasites in children population of Baku].

    PubMed

    Khalafli, Kh N

    2014-01-01

    The results of carried out studies demonstrated that children with intestinal parasitoses are more affected by different diseases than children without this pathology. In particular during last two years in the first group 78.2 ± 1.5% of cases of diseases were registered while total children morbidity comes to 36.4 ± 2.0% of cases in average (t = 16.72, p < 0.001). Summarily, on each child with intestinal parasitoses accounts for 0.78 ± 0.11% of cases of disease in average which resulted in 2.82 ± 0.07 cases of missing school lessons. The rate of intestinal parasitoses is largely impacted by level of material well-fare and living conditions of families. The elimination of established social epidemiological prerequisites opens wide perspectives for organization and implementation of rational measures of prevention of intestinal parasitoses in urban children.

  15. Cytogenetic Study in Children with Down Syndrome Among Kosova Albanian Population Between 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kolgeci, Selim; Kolgeci, Jehona; Azemi, Mehmedali; Shala-Beqiraj, Ruke; Gashi, Zafer; Sopjani, Mentor

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Aim The aim of this research was to ascertain the frequency of three basic cytogenetical types of Down syndrome among Kosova Albanian population and to evaluate the maternal age effect on the frequency of births of children with Down syndrome. Methods Cytogenetics diagnosis has been made according to the standard method of Moorhead and Seabright. Results In the time period 2000-2010 cytogenetics diagnosis of overall 305 children with Down syndrome has been realized. Of which in 285 children (93.4%) were found free trisomy 21 (regular type), and in three other children (~1.0%) were detected mosaic trisomy 21. Translocation trisomy 21 was detected in 17 children (5.6%), of which in 14 children it occurred de novo translocation, whereas in 3 other children translocation has been inherited by a parent translocation carrier. The highest number of children with Trisomy 21 due to translocation was caused by Robertsonian translocation created by a fusion of two homologous chromosomes 21 (3.3%). Analysis showed that the number of children born with Down’s syndrome, from 2000 to 2010, was not decreasing among the Kosova Albanian population. Conclusion Down syndrome resulted by an extra free chromosome 21 is the most common genetic cause for that condition. Robertsonian translocations present in Down syndrome children often are de novo or inherited from a carrier parent with translocation. PMID:24082839

  16. [Latent Class Analysis of Health Seeking Behaviors for Children in Floating Populations in Sichuan].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cheng-Han; Yang, Yang; Ma, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    To understand the characteristics associated with health care seeking behaviors for children in floating populations. A stratified multi-stage sampling strategy with PPS method was employed to select 1 943 children aging 0-7 yr. in the floating populations in Sichuan province, which included 605 flowing out, 468 left-at-home, 822 migrated inhabitants, and 48 returned. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to establish potential feature classifications for their use of child health care service (physical examination card, free medical examination, vaccination certificate and immunization) . Overall, 84.30%, 68.90%, 97.70%, and 94.30% of the floating populations used physical examination card, free medical examination, vaccination certificate, and immunization services for their children, respectively. Differences in physical examination card and free medical examination services were found between those flowing out and those left-at-home and between those left-at-home and those migrated inhabitants ( P<0.008). Children left-at-home were shortage of use of free medical examinations (18.38%, 186 people). Children flowing out were lack of both medical examination and physical examination card services (12.73%, 77 people). There were 222 children (27.01%) from the migrated inhabitants who did not take medical examinations. Efforts should be made to encourage medical examinations for children in the floating populations. Household registration may influence the potential feature classifications of child health care utilization.

  17. Chicago Children and Youth 1990-2010: Changing Population Trends and their Implications for Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerge, Robert; Dilts, John; Yang, Duck-Hye; Wasserman, Miriam; Clary, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This report draws on demographic data to examine and project trends in the size and composition of the child population in all seventy-seven Chicago communities up to the year 2010. The report highlights the changing age mix of Chicago children and provides some context in which to consider these demographic trends. It describes population changes…

  18. Chicago Children and Youth 1990-2010: Changing Population Trends and their Implications for Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerge, Robert; Dilts, John; Yang, Duck-Hye; Wasserman, Miriam; Clary, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This report draws on demographic data to examine and project trends in the size and composition of the child population in all seventy-seven Chicago communities up to the year 2010. The report highlights the changing age mix of Chicago children and provides some context in which to consider these demographic trends. It describes population changes…

  19. Experts' Perspectives Toward a Population Health Approach for Children With Medical Complexity.

    PubMed

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Coller, Ryan J; Nelson, Bergen B; Thompson, Lindsey R; Chan, Vincent; Padilla, Cesar; Klitzner, Thomas S; Szilagyi, Moira; Chung, Paul J

    2017-08-01

    Because children with medical complexity (CMC) display very different health trajectories, needs, and resource utilization than other children, it is unclear how well traditional conceptions of population health apply to CMC. We sought to identify key health outcome domains for CMC as a step toward determining core health metrics for this distinct population of children. We conducted and analyzed interviews with 23 diverse national experts on CMC to better understand population health for CMC. Interviewees included child and family advocates, health and social service providers, and research, health systems, and policy leaders. We performed thematic content analyses to identify emergent themes regarding population health for CMC. Overall, interviewees conveyed that defining and measuring population health for CMC is an achievable, worthwhile goal. Qualitative themes from interviews included: 1) CMC share unifying characteristics that could serve as the basis for population health outcomes; 2) optimal health for CMC is child specific and dynamic; 3) health of CMC is intertwined with health of families; 4) social determinants of health are especially important for CMC; and 5) measuring population health for CMC faces serious conceptual and logistical challenges. Experts have taken initial steps in defining the population health of CMC. Population health for CMC involves a dynamic concept of health that is attuned to individual, health-related goals for each child. We propose a framework that can guide the identification and development of population health metrics for CMC. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Population genetics in minority children with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Non-insulin dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus (DM) is a rapidly emerging health threat in minority populations in the United States, with the African-American, Hispanic, and Native American populations at greatest risk. Clearly, environmental factors play a role in this disorder, but the ethnic predilection suggests a significant genetic component. Type 2 DM is a condition not well understood on a genetic basis. Familial clustering and ethnic variation have been documented. The populations of Africans living in diverse environments provide a unique opportunity to study type 2 DM as the mechanism is becoming more clear.

  1. Emotional development in children with tics: a longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, P J; Lundervold, A J; Lie, S A; Gillberg, C; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2013-03-01

    Children with tics often experience accompanying problems that may have more impact on their well being and quality of life than the tics themselves. The present study investigates characteristics and the course of associated problems. In a population-based follow-up study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of children with and without tics when they were 7-9 years old. Parents and teachers completed the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) when the children were 7-9 years (wave 1) and 4 years later (wave 2). Using strict criteria, we identified 38 children with tics in the cohort of 4,025 children (0.94% of the total cohort) with a preponderance of boys (78.9%). 22 children (57.9%) in the group with tics had only motor tics, and 16 (42.1%) had both motor and vocal tics. Children with tics had significantly higher parent- and teacher-rated SDQ total difficulty scores and subscale scores in both waves. Children with tics experienced an increase in emotional problems and in peer problems between the first and the second wave. This study in a general population indicates that the presence of tics is associated with a range of internalizing and externalizing difficulties, as well as problems in peer relationships. Moreover, our study indicates that emotional and peer problems tend to increase over time in the group of children with tics.

  2. Psychosocial Development in a Danish Population of Children with Cochlear Implants and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20% to 50% among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires measuring sign language, spoken language, hearing…

  3. Optimizing Population Screening of Bullying in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…

  4. Optimizing Population Screening of Bullying in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…

  5. Population estimates of Australian children's exposure to food and beverage sponsorship of sports clubs.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Bauman, Adrian E; Baur, Louise A

    2014-07-01

    Sponsorship by manufacturers of unhealthy food can undermine the health promoting goals of sport. This study aimed to describe Australian children's exposure to organised sport, and compare time spent in specific sports with patterns of sponsorship of children's sport identified in previous studies. Cross-sectional survey on children's sport participation collected by proxy report using a random-digit-dialling survey of 3416 parents. Data from the 2009/10 Australian Sports Commission's Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey were used to calculate weekly total person-time exposure to sports for Australian children, as a product of median weekly exposure (minutes) and the number of children participating. Exposures for children in NSW were calculated based on population distribution. Based on a previous survey of sport clubs in NSW, cumulative weekly exposure to food/beverage sponsorship at sports clubs was estimated for children living in NSW. 77.3% of Australian children aged 5-14 participated in organised sport. In NSW, weekly total person-time exposure for children was highest for outdoor soccer (91,200 children×median frequency of 2 sessions per week of 1h duration=182,400h/week). Considering rates of sponsorship at different sports, children would be exposed to food/beverage sponsorship to the greatest extent for rugby league and outdoor cricket. Children's high frequency of participation in organised sport and time spent engaging in these activities highlights the potentially huge reach of food/beverage sponsorship promotions. Policy interventions to limit children's exposure to this sponsorship should target those sports that have both the highest levels of children's participation and food/beverage sponsorship arrangements. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Adverse health effects from exposure to lead are now recognized to be among industrialized society's most important health problems. This report, prepared by the National Research Council's Committee on Measuring Lead Exposure in Critical Populations, concurs with new findings issued by the Centers for Disease Control which state that lead…

  7. Predictive Performance of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Renally Cleared Drugs in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, W; Johnson, TN; Xu, H; Cheung, SYA; Bui, KH; Li, J; Al‐Huniti, N

    2016-01-01

    Predictive performance of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) models of drugs predominantly eliminated through kidney in the pediatric population was evaluated. After optimization using adult clinical data, the verified PBPK models can predict 33 of 34 drug clearance within twofold of the observed values in children 1 month and older. More specifically, 10 of 11 of predicted clearance values were within 1.5‐fold of those observed in children between 1 month and 2 years old. The PopPK approach also predicted 19 of 21 drug clearance within twofold of the observed values in children. In summary, our analysis demonstrated both PBPK and PopPK adult models, after verification with additional adult pharmacokinetic (PK) studies and incorporation of known ontogeny of renal filtration, could be applied for dosing regimen recommendation in children 1 month and older for renally eliminated drugs in a first‐in‐pediatric study. PMID:27566992

  8. Venous thromboembolism in children with cancer – A population-based cohort study☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Alex J.; Grainge, Matthew J.; Card, Tim R.; West, Joe; Ranta, Susanna; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cancer is a known risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in adults, but population-based data in children are scarce. Materials and methods We conducted a cohort study utilising linkage of the Clinical Practice Research Database (primary care), Hospital Episodes Statistics (secondary care), UK Cancer Registry data and Office for National Statistics cause of death data. From these databases, we selected 498 children with cancer diagnosed between 1997 and 2006 and 20,810 controls without cancer. We calculated VTE incidence rates in children with cancer vs. controls, and hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox regression. Results We identified four VTE events in children with cancer compared with four events in the larger control population corresponding to absolute risks of 1.52 and 0.06 per 1000 person-years respectively. The four children with VTE and cancer were diagnosed with hematological, bone or non-specified cancer. Childhood cancer was hence associated with a highly increased risk of VTE (HR adjusted for age and sex: 28.3; 95%CI = 7.0-114.5). Conclusions Children with cancer are at increased relative risk of VTE compared to those without cancer. Physicians could consider thromboprophylaxis in children with cancer to reduce their excess risk of VTE however the absolute risk is extremely small and the benefit gained therefore would need to be balanced against the risk invoked of implementing such a strategy. Novelty & Impact Statements While there is a reasonable level of knowledge about the risk of VTE in adult populations, it is not well known whether this risk is reflected in paediatric patients. We found a substantial increase in risk of VTE in children with cancer compared to a child population without cancer. While this finding is important, the absolute risk of VTE is still low and must be balanced with the risks of anticoagulation. PMID:24388573

  9. Adherence to antiepileptic drugs in children with epilepsy in a Scottish population cohort.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Jayakara; Greene, Stephen A; Mesalles-Naranjo, Oscar; Kirkpatrick, Martin

    2016-05-01

    To measure the adherence to antiepileptic drugs (AED) in a population cohort of children with epilepsy and to study the relationship between adherence and a series of clinical variables. A population-based study of children (<16y) with epilepsy on AED treatment from the Tayside region of Scotland during two epochs of 12 months each. A clinical database was constructed using hospital records and linked to a community dispensing pharmacy database to calculate an Adherence Index. The principal outcome measure was the measurement of population-based adherence to AEDs. Secondary outcome measures were the association of adherence with the clinical characteristics of the population. The median age of study group was 10 years and the median duration of epilepsy was 4 years. Only 30.9% of the total 320 children adhered to recommended AED treatment (Adherence Index >90%) across a year of treatment. Twenty-five percent of children had an Adherence Index of less than 50%. Adherence declined with increasing age. There was no significant correlation between adherence and other clinical characteristics studied (sex, duration of epilepsy, other comorbid health problems, other regular medications, and seizure frequency). Our data shows adherence to AED treatment is poor in children with epilepsy. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Factors influencing carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in children and adults: population pharmacokinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Milovanovic, J R; Jankovic, S M

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to build population pharmacokinetic models for the clearance of carbamazepine (CBZ) in two separate populations of Serbian patients with epilepsy, children and adults. Analysis was performed using 114 and 53 steady-state concentrations of CBZ collected from 98 children and 53 adult epileptic patients, respectively. Mean values of total body weight and age were 31 ± 13 kg and 8 ± 3 years in the population of children, and 67 ± 13 kg and 32 ± 15 years in the population of adults. The one-compartment model with first order elimination and without absorption was used from the PREDPP (Prediction for Observation Population Pharmacokinetics) library of NONMEM software. The derived final models of CBZ clearance were similar in the target populations. The most important factors which affected typical mean value of CBZ clearance in both populations studied were age of the patients and total daily dose; the CBZ clearance linearly followed increase of these factors. However, the influence of the patients' age was almost 3.4 times higher in the pediatric population than that in adults while the influence of total daily dose of CBZ is similar. On the other hand, final model in the adult population revealed also influence of concomitant therapy with phenobarbital (PB). The magnitude of this effect was +1.61 l h-1. The pharmacokinetic models obtained were validated in groups of 18 children and 13 adults with epilepsy. The derived models describe well CBZ clearance in terms of Serbian pediatric and adult epileptic patient characteristics, offering a basis for rational individualization of CBZ dosage regimens.

  11. Cognitive functioning in children with internalising, externalising and dysregulation problems: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Blanken, Laura M E; White, Tonya; Mous, Sabine E; Basten, Maartje; Muetzel, Ryan L; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Wals, Marjolein; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-04-01

    Psychiatric symptoms in childhood are closely related to neurocognitive deficits. However, it is unclear whether internalising and externalising symptoms are associated with general or distinct cognitive problems. We examined the relation between different types of psychiatric symptoms and neurocognitive functioning in a population-based sample of 1177 school-aged children. Internalising and externalising behaviour was studied both continuously and categorically. For continuous, variable-centred analyses, broadband scores of internalising and externalising symptoms were used. However, these measures are strongly correlated, which may prevent identification of distinct cognitive patterns. To distinguish groups of children with relatively homogeneous symptom patterns, a latent profile analysis of symptoms at age 6 yielded four exclusive groups of children: a class of children with predominantly internalising symptoms, a class with externalising symptoms, a class with co-occurring internalising and externalising symptoms, that resembles the CBCL dysregulation profile and a class with no problems. Five domains of neurocognitive ability were tested: attention/executive functioning, language, memory and learning, sensorimotor functioning, and visuospatial processing. Consistently, these two different modelling approaches demonstrated that children with internalising and externalising symptoms show distinct cognitive profiles. Children with more externalising symptoms performed lower in the attention/executive functioning domain, while children with more internalising symptoms showed impairment in verbal fluency and memory. In the most severely affected class of children with internalising and externalising symptoms, we found specific impairment in the sensorimotor domain. This study illustrates the specific interrelation of internalising and externalising symptoms and cognition in young children.

  12. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygiene status of 1267 girls and 1348 boys was fair, whereas 821 girls and 937 boys was good and 263 girls and 493 boys was poor. It has been shown that fair oral hygiene practices were being followed by the children. Conclusion: Children using twigs and other materials for oral hygiene had nearly equally good oral hygiene when compared to the tooth brush and tooth paste, though children using toothbrush and tooth paste had slightly better oral hygiene. PMID:26229382

  13. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study.

    PubMed

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-07-01

    Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. The overall oral hygiene status of 1267 girls and 1348 boys was fair, whereas 821 girls and 937 boys was good and 263 girls and 493 boys was poor. It has been shown that fair oral hygiene practices were being followed by the children. Children using twigs and other materials for oral hygiene had nearly equally good oral hygiene when compared to the tooth brush and tooth paste, though children using toothbrush and tooth paste had slightly better oral hygiene.

  14. Nutritional status of semi-urban Nigerian school children using the 2007 WHO reference population.

    PubMed

    Fetuga, M B; Ogunlesi, T A; Adekanmbi, A F; Alabi, A D

    2011-01-01

    There is paucity of data on the nutritional status of school-age children in Sagamu town of Southwestern Nigeria. To determine the nutritional status of primary school children in Sagamu Local Government Area, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of primary school children aged 6 to 10 years in Sagamu, Southwestern Nigeria was done. Eight schools were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Children randomly selected proportionately from the schools were studied. The weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI of these children were compared with the 2007 WHO reference values to diagnose underweight (WA <-2SD), stunting (HA <-2SD), thinness (BMI <-2SD), overweight (BMI > +1SD) and obesity (BMI > +2SD). A total of 1016 children comprising 479 (47.1%) boys and 537 (52.9%) girls were studied. The prevalence of malnutrition was 401(39.4%) and boys were more malnourished compared to girls (p =0.002). The overall prevalences of underweight, stunting and thinness were 260(25.5%), 144(14.2%) and 226(22.2%) respectively. Overweight and obesity were present in 31(3.0%) and 5(0.5%) of the population studied respectively. Boys were significantly more often underweight and stunted. The prevalence of under-nutrition among school children in Sagamu, Nigeria was high and the girls were generally better nourished than the boys. Efforts to reduce the burden of malnutrition in this population may include nutritional surveillance, food supplementation and free school meals.

  15. Violence against children in humanitarian settings: A literature review of population-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Stark, Lindsay; Landis, Debbie

    2016-03-01

    Children in humanitarian settings are thought to experience increased exposure to violence, which can impair their physical, emotional, and social development. Violence against children has important economic and social consequences for nations as a whole. The purpose of this review is to examine population-based approaches measuring violence against children in humanitarian settings. The authors reviewed prevalence studies of violence against children in humanitarian contexts appearing in peer-reviewed journals within the past twenty years. A Boolean search procedure was conducted in October 2014 of the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and PsychInfo. If abstracts contained evidence of the study's four primary themes--violence, children, humanitarian contexts and population-based measurement--a full document review was undertaken to confirm relevance. Out of 2634 identified articles, 22 met the final inclusion criteria. Across studies, there was varying quality and no standardization in measurement approach. Nine out of 22 studies demonstrated a relationship between conflict exposure and adverse health or mental health outcomes. Among studies that compared rates of violence between boys and girls, boys reported higher rates of physical violence, while girls reported higher rates of sexual violence. Children in infancy and early childhood were found to be among the most under-researched. Ultimately, the body of evidence in this review offers an incomplete picture regarding the prevalence, nature and impact of violence against children in emergencies, demonstrating a weak evidence base for some of the basic assumptions underpinning humanitarian practice. The development of standardized approaches to more rigorously measure violence against children is urgently needed in order to understand trends of violence against children in humanitarian contexts, and to promote children's healthy development and well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Alcohol's impact on children and families. A population survey].

    PubMed

    Florenzano, Ramón; Echeverría, Ángela; Sieverson, Catalina; Barr, Michelle; Fernández, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is widely used among young families, and leisure time is frequently family time. Heavy alcohol consumption can adversely affect children. The objective of this work is to measure the harm to others in Chile. This descriptive and probabilistic study forms part of a collaborative research funded by Thai Health and WHO. The survey was adapted by co-researchers and applied to a nationally representative sample of 1500 Chileans over 18years of age. A total of 408 respondents (27.2%) lived with children at home. Of this total, 10.5% felt that the use of alcohol by any member of the family had adversely affected a child. The most common adverse effects were verbal violence (29.7%), domestic violence (23.1%), unsupervised homes (18.7%), lack of money to provide basic needs of the child (14.3%), and physical violence (7.7%). Furthermore, in 6.6% of the cases child or family services agencies became involved. In almost half of the cases (46.3%), the drinker was the father, mother or step-parents. This was followed by other relatives (24.4%) and brothers (4.9%), or guardian of the child (2.4%). These data support the clinical observation that alcohol is common in Chilean homes. Its consumption not only damages the physical and mental health of the drinker but also those around him. Verbal violence and witnessing serious physical violence are frequent issues, as well as economic problems that end up with the inability to provide the child with its basic needs. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. Growth comparison in children with and without food allergies in 2 different demographic populations.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Harshna; Ramesh, Manish; Feuille, Elizabeth; Groetch, Marion; Wang, Julie

    2014-10-01

    To examine the effects of food avoidance on the growth of children with food allergies. A retrospective chart review was performed for children with and without food allergies followed at 2 New York City general pediatric practices. Charts were selected based on codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, for well child visit, food allergy, anaphylaxis, and/or epinephrine autoinjector prescriptions. Heights and weights were obtained to calculate body mass index, height, and weight z-scores. Of the 9938 children seen, 439 (4.4%) were avoiding one or more foods. Of those with commercial insurance, children with food allergies were significantly shorter (mean height z-score = 0.06; P = .01) and weighed less (mean weight z-score -0.1; P = .006) than children without food allergies (mean height z-score = 0.42; mean weight z-score = 0.07). In contrast, children with food allergies and state insurance were not smaller in height or weight compared with children without food allergies. Among white subjects, there was a significant effect of food allergies on height and weight (ANOVA for height P = .012, for weight P = .0036) that was not observed for Hispanic/Latino, black, or Asian subjects. Children with allergies to milk weighed significantly less than children without milk allergies (P = .0006). Children with food allergies and commercial insurance have significant impairment in growth compared with those without food allergies. Additionally, children avoiding all forms of milk are shorter and weigh less than matched counterparts. Therefore, height and weight measurements should be assessed routinely in children with food allergies because there is risk for growth impairment in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of pyrazinamide in children and adults with tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Starke, Jeffrey R; Burman, William J; Steiner, Phillip; Stambaugh, Jerry Jean; Ashkin, David; Bulpitt, Amy E; Berning, Shaun E; Peloquin, Charles A

    2002-06-01

    To determine population pharmacokinetic parameters of pyrazinamide after multiple oral doses given to children and adults with tuberculosis. Prospective, multiple-dose population pharmacokinetic study. Five hospitals in the United States. Sixty-seven adults and 23 children with active tuberculosis. The 90 patients received multiple oral doses of pyrazinamide as part of their treatment, based on the best clinical judgment of the attending physicians and in keeping with standard clinical practices at each institution. The patients also received other antituberculosis drugs empirically or based on in vitro susceptibility data. Serum samples were collected over 12 hours after dosing and were assayed with a validated gas chromatography assay with mass selective detection. Concentration-time data were analyzed by using population methods. Pyrazinamide concentrations increased linearly with increasing oral doses (185-3550 mg). Median maximum serum concentration values were 41.0 microg/ml with daily dosing and 66.1 microg/ml with larger, twice-weekly dosing. Incomplete (18%) or delayed (30%) absorption was more common in children than in adults (1% for each). Pharmacokinetic parameters of pyrazinamide were independent of human immunodeficiency virus status and patient demographics, except for body weight. Population elimination half-life values in pediatric and adult patients were 3.5 and 6.0 hours, respectively. Median volume of distribution (L/kg) was 32% larger in children, and median clearance (L/hr/kg) was 106% larger in children, with a resultant median half-life 43% shorter in children. Pyrazinamide concentrations and most pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable to those previously published. Apparent half-life was somewhat shorter than that in previous reports. Compared with adults, absorption of pyrazinamide in children appeared more likely to be incomplete or delayed.

  19. A normative study of the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT) in the Cypriot population.

    PubMed

    Konstantopoulos, K; Vogazianos, P; Thodi, C; Nikopoulou-Smyrni, P

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT) is a neuropsychological test that measures attention, divided attention, and speed of mental processing. It has been increasingly used in the assessment of children in cross-cultural environments for neurological and psychiatric disorders such as seizures and closed head injuries, learning and/or language disabilities, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, children with manganese exposure, and children diagnosed with HIV virus. However, there is a paucity of studies presenting normative data. The aim of the present study was to provide normative data for the CCTT in the Cypriot population. A total of 709 native Cypriot children aged 7-16 years, recruited from various public schools across the island, took part in the study. Exclusion criteria involved the existence of neurological, psychiatric, cardiological, and metabolic diseases, premature birth, history of maternal alcohol and drug abuse during pregnancy, low birth weight, hearing loss, visual problems, native language other than Greek, and abnormality in fine-motor movements. Age and gender were found to be important factors for the interpretation of scores in all CCTT variables. Older children required less time and exhibited fewer errors, near misses, and prompts compared to younger children. There was a consistent pattern of a 3-4 seconds improvement (less time in seconds) in the CCTT completion time as age increased. CCTT is a promising tool for the measurement of attention in the native Cypriot population. Further research is needed in children diagnosed with various neurological and psychiatric diseases in order to estimate validity of the CCTT in clinical populations.

  20. Population Analysis of Disabled Children by Departments in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidatuzzahra, Diah; Kuswanto, Heri; Pech, Nicolas; Etchegaray, Amélie

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a statistical analysis is performed by model the variations of the disabled about 0-19 years old population among French departments. The aim is to classify the departments according to their profile determinants (socioeconomic and behavioural profiles). The analysis is focused on two types of methods: principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple correspondences factorial analysis (MCA) to review which one is the best methods for interpretation of the correlation between the determinants of disability (independent variable). The PCA is the best method for interpretation of the correlation between the determinants of disability (independent variable). The PCA reduces 14 determinants of disability to 4 axes, keeps 80% of total information, and classifies them into 7 classes. The MCA reduces the determinants to 3 axes, retains only 30% of information, and classifies them into 4 classes.

  1. A Population Intervention to Improve Outcomes in Children With Medical Complexity.

    PubMed

    Noritz, Garey; Madden, Melissa; Roldan, Dina; Wheeler, T Arthur; Conkol, Kimberly; Brilli, Richard J; Barnard, John; Gleeson, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Children with medical complexity experience frequent interactions with the medical system and often receive care that is costly, duplicative, and inefficient. The growth of value-based contracting creates incentives for systems to improve their care. This project was designed to improve the health, health care value, and utilization for a population-based cohort of children with neurologic impairment and feeding tubes. A freestanding children's hospital and affiliated accountable care organization jointly developed a quality improvement initiative. Children with a percutaneous feeding tube, a neurologic diagnosis, and Medicaid, were targeted for intervention within a catchment area of >300 000 children receiving Medicaid. Initiatives included standardizing feeding tube management, improving family education, and implementing a care coordination program. Between January 2011 and December 2014, there was an 18.0% decrease (P < .001) in admissions and a 31.9% decrease (P < .001) in the average length of stay for children in the cohort. Total inpatient charges were reduced by $11 764 856. There was an 8.2% increase (P < .001) in the percentage of children with weights between the fifth and 95th percentiles. The care coordination program enrolled 58.3% of the cohort. This population-based initiative to improve the care of children with medical complexity showed promising results, including a reduction in charges while improving weight status and implementing a care coordination program. A concerted institutional initiative, in the context of an accountable care organization, can be part of the solution for improving outcomes and health care value for children with medical complexity. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Theophylline Population Pharmacokinetics and Dosing in Children Following Congenital Heart Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Frymoyer, Adam; Su, Felice; Grimm, Paul C; Sutherland, Scott M; Axelrod, David M

    2016-09-01

    Children undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) frequently develop acute kidney injury due to renal ischemia. Theophylline, which improves renal perfusion via adenosine receptor inhibition, is a potential targeted therapy. However, children undergoing cardiac surgery and CPB commonly have alterations in drug pharmacokinetics. To help understand optimal aminophylline (salt formulation of theophylline) dosing strategies in this population, a population-based pharmacokinetic model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) from 71 children (median age 5 months; 90% range 1 week to 10 years) who underwent cardiac surgery requiring CPB and received aminophylline as part of a previous randomized controlled trial. A 1-compartment model with linear elimination adequately described the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. Weight scaled via allometry was a significant predictor of clearance and volume. In addition, allometric scaled clearance increased with age implemented as a power maturation function. Compared to prior reports in noncardiac children, theophylline clearance was markedly reduced across age. In the final population pharmacokinetic model, optimized empiric dosing regimens were developed via Monte Carlo simulations. Doses 50% to 75% lower than those recommended in noncardiac children were needed to achieve target serum concentrations of 5 to 10 mg/L. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  3. The Diagnostic Interview of Children and Adolescents for Parents of Preschool and Young Children: psychometric properties in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; de la Osa, Núria; Granero, Roser; Domènech, Josep Maria; Reich, Wendy

    2011-11-30

    There is a need for reliable and well-validated diagnostic measures for studying psychopathology in preschool and young children. The goal is to study the psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents for Parents of Preschool and Young Children (DICA-PPYC) in the general population. A sample of 852 Spanish school children, aged 3 to 7 years, were randomly selected and screened for a double phase design. A total of 251 families were interviewed with the DICA-PPYC and 244 participated in a test-retest design. Different measures of psychopathology and functional impairment were also administered. Test-retest agreement with a mean interval of 8.8 days ranged from excellent to slight (kappa from 1 to 0.39) for DSM-IV-TR and from good to fair (kappa from 0.77 to 0.49) for Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age diagnoses. Attenuation between test and retest was not significant for the prevalence of diagnoses, although it was significant for the number of externalising and total symptoms in the interview. The diagnoses converged moderately with the CBCL and Dominic scores. The presence of diagnoses in the DICA-PPYC significantly differentiated preschoolers and young children who had used mental health services, were more impaired, and presented more severe psychopathology measured by dimensional scales. The DICA-PPYC is a reliable and valid semi-structured interview schedule for preschool and young children, and can serve to advance the knowledge and mental health care of this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of Psychopathology across a Service Population of Parents with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaw, Sue; Shaw, Tom; Beckley, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    This study identified and investigated the incidence of childhood trauma and psychopathology across a population of parents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) known to a parenting service in the United Kingdom over a 5-year period and examined the emotional and physical welfare of their children. Data were gathered from 49 parents with ID and 58…

  5. Physical Activity in a Total Population of Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauruschkus, Katarina; Westbom, Lena; Hallstrom, Inger; Wagner, Philippe; Nordmark, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the participation in physical activity of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at school and during leisure time and to identify characteristics associated with physical activity. The frequency of receiving physiotherapeutic interventions were described as a variable of interest. A total population of 364…

  6. Physical Activity in a Total Population of Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauruschkus, Katarina; Westbom, Lena; Hallstrom, Inger; Wagner, Philippe; Nordmark, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the participation in physical activity of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at school and during leisure time and to identify characteristics associated with physical activity. The frequency of receiving physiotherapeutic interventions were described as a variable of interest. A total population of 364…

  7. Epilepsy Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokiranta, Elina; Sourander, Andre; Suominen, Auli; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Brown, Alan S.; Sillanpää, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The present population-based study examines associations between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cohort includes register data of 4,705 children born between 1987 and 2005 and diagnosed as cases of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. Each case was matched to four…

  8. The Factor Structure of ADHD in a General Population of Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullebo, Anne Karin; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors. Methods: Child mental health questionnaires were…

  9. Epilepsy Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokiranta, Elina; Sourander, Andre; Suominen, Auli; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Brown, Alan S.; Sillanpää, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The present population-based study examines associations between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cohort includes register data of 4,705 children born between 1987 and 2005 and diagnosed as cases of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. Each case was matched to four…

  10. [Antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides among the children population in the Ustí Region].

    PubMed

    Richter, J; Stiborová, I; Pohorská, J; Dobiásová, L; Král, V

    2005-11-01

    A group of 156 children aged between 10 and 12 years were screened for IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides. The study subjects were 64 children of Romany origin and 92 children from the majority population. IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides were detected in 112 (71.8%) children. No difference in the prevalence of IgG antibodies was found between Romany children and those from the majority population. As many as 34.1% of the study subjects had IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides, again with no difference between the two ethnic groups. Children with IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides had significantly higher total IgE levels compared to those who had tested IgG negative. To demonstrate induction of a non-specific IgE response was one of the study objectives. The high prevalence rates of IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides are suggestive of a high frequency of cross- and non-specific reactions. Possible effect of cross-reactivity to other antigens on the specific IgG and IgE antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides is discussed.

  11. The other-race effect in children from a multiracial population: A cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Tham, Diana Su Yun; Bremner, J Gavin; Hay, Dennis

    2017-03-01

    The role of experience with other-race faces in the development of the other-race effect was investigated through a cross-cultural comparison between 5- and 6-year-olds and 13- and 14-year-olds raised in a monoracial (British White, n=83) population and a multiracial (Malaysian Chinese, n=68) population. British White children showed an other-race effect to three other-race faces (Chinese, Malay, and African Black) that was stable across age. Malaysian Chinese children showed a recognition deficit for less experienced faces (African Black) but showed a recognition advantage for faces of which they have direct or indirect experience. Interestingly, younger (Malaysian Chinese) children showed no other-race effect for female faces such that they can recognize all female faces regardless of race. These findings point to the importance of early race and gender experiences in reorganizing the face representation to accommodate changes in experience across development.

  12. Socioeconomic and geographical influences on primary dental care preferences in a population of young children.

    PubMed

    Tickle, M; Moulding, G; Milsom, K; Blinkhorn, A

    2000-05-27

    To compare the socioeconomic profiles of children registered in the GDS, with those using the CDS services and unregistered children. Secondly to examine the effects of socioeconomic status on travelling to access primary dental care, and finally to map out the location of unregistered children in relation to primary dental care services. The study was carried out in 1998 in Ellesmere Port in the North West of England. The study population was all children younger than 6 years who used primary dental care services in, or were residents of, Ellesmere Port. The study population was categorized into those registered with a GDS dentist, those using CDS services and those unregistered by matching GDS and CDS data to the HA population register. Socioeconomic status was measured using the Super Profiles geodemographic classification. The relationship between service preferences and travelling to access primary dental care with socioeconomic status were compared using cross-tabulations and chi square tests. There was a significant socioeconomic trend evident in the use of dental services. Two thirds of those using CDS services came from the most deprived area types. Of those who were unregistered half lived in the most deprived area types compared with one third of those registered with the GDS. Those who travelled into Ellesmere Port to access primary dental care were significantly more likely to live in an affluent area. Unregistered patients were homogeneously spread across the town. The ability to match GDS and CDS data to the HA population register is essential to understand how dental services are used by the local population. Children from deprived areas are more likely to use the CDS and a service local to their homes, therefore primary dental care services for deprived communities have to be provided locally.

  13. Brief Report: Prevalence of Self-Injurious Behaviors among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder--A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soke, Gnakub N.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Hamman, Richard F.; Fingerlin, Tasha; Robinson, Cordelia; Carpenter, Laura; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Wiggins, Lisa D.; Durkin, Maureen S.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) have been reported in more than 30% of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based studies. This study estimated the prevalence of SIB in a large population-based sample of children with ASD in the United States. A total of 8,065 children who met the surveillance case definition for ASD in the…

  14. Brief Report: Prevalence of Self-Injurious Behaviors among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder--A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soke, Gnakub N.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Hamman, Richard F.; Fingerlin, Tasha; Robinson, Cordelia; Carpenter, Laura; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Wiggins, Lisa D.; Durkin, Maureen S.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) have been reported in more than 30% of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based studies. This study estimated the prevalence of SIB in a large population-based sample of children with ASD in the United States. A total of 8,065 children who met the surveillance case definition for ASD in the…

  15. Passive Range of Motion in a Population-Based Sample of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Who Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Brona C.; Salazar-Torres, Jose J.; Kerr, Claire; Cosgrove, Aidan P.

    2012-01-01

    -While passive range of motion (PROM) is commonly used to inform decisions on therapeutic management, knowledge of PROM of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) is limited. A population-based sample of 178 children with spastic CP (110 male; unilateral, n = 94; bilateral, n = 84; age range 4-17 years) and 68 typically developing children (24…

  16. Passive Range of Motion in a Population-Based Sample of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Who Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Brona C.; Salazar-Torres, Jose J.; Kerr, Claire; Cosgrove, Aidan P.

    2012-01-01

    -While passive range of motion (PROM) is commonly used to inform decisions on therapeutic management, knowledge of PROM of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) is limited. A population-based sample of 178 children with spastic CP (110 male; unilateral, n = 94; bilateral, n = 84; age range 4-17 years) and 68 typically developing children (24…

  17. Speech characteristics of 8-year-old children: findings from a prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical speech and 50 of these children served as controls. The remainder were categorised as using common clinical distortions only (CCD, n=582) or speech difficulties (SDiff, n=409). The samples from the CCD children were not analysed further. Speech samples from the SDiff and the control children were transcribed and analysed in terms of percentage consonants correct, error type and syllable structure. Findings were compared with those from children in the Shriberg et al. (1997) lifespan database (n=25). The 8-year-old children from ALSPAC in the SDiff and control groups achieved similar speech accuracy scores to the 8-year-old children in the lifespan database. The SDiff group had consistently lower scores than the ALSPAC control group, with the following measures most clearly differentiating the groups: single word task (percentage of substitutions and distortions), connected speech task (percentage of vowels correct (PVC), percentage of omission of singletons and entire clusters, and stress pattern matches), nonword repetition task (PVC, percentage of entire clusters omitted, percentage of distortions, and percentage of stress pattern matches). Connected speech and nonword samples provide useful supplementary data for identifying older children with atypical speech. The reader will recognize the methods used to identify speech characteristics in a large scale population study. They will describe how measures of speech accuracy in connected speech compare with the Shriberg et al. (1997) lifespan database. The reader will also recall information on how typically and atypically developing children differ on a range of measures

  18. Increased risk of herpes zoster in children with cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chao, Yu-Hua; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Yen, Ting-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jhong-Lin; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster is rare in healthy children, but immunocompromised persons have an increased risk of herpes zoster and severe diseases. Considering the very limited information on herpes zoster in children with cancer, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to estimate the incidence of herpes zoster in children with cancer and to explore the association between the 2 diseases.Data were obtained from the National Health Research Institutes Database in Taiwan. A total of 4432 children with newly diagnosed cancer between 2000 and 2007 were identified as the cancer cohort, and 17,653 children without cancer frequency-matched by sex and age at entry were considered the noncancer cohort. The association between herpes zoster and childhood cancer was determined.Children with cancer had a higher risk of herpes zoster. The incidence rate of herpes zoster was higher in the cancer cohort than in the noncancer cohort (20.7 vs 2.4 per 10,000 person-years; IRR = 8.6; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6). The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the cancer cohort (P < 0.0001). Leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumor were all associated with the increased risk, and leukemia had the highest magnitude of strength of association.This nationwide population-based cohort study demonstrated that children with cancer were associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster. In addition to early antiviral treatment, vaccination with heat-treated zoster vaccine or adjuvanted subunit vaccine could be an appropriate policy to decrease the incidence in children with cancer.

  19. Unequal Accessibility of Nurseries for Sick Children in Over- and Under-Populated Areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Infants and toddlers are prone to rapidly contracting illnesses, which are usually attributed to infectious diseases. Most nurseries and schools in Japan, however, refuse to accept children even with mild illnesses. For working parents, a sick child may therefore create new problems as the situation requires new day-care arrangements. To support such families, the Japanese government subsidizes construction and management of nurseries that operate especially for sick children. However, it has not been known whether most families are able to access such nurseries. To clarify the accessibility of these services, I calculated the distance to the nurseries from each of the 211,012 "blocks" (small residential areas with a median of 0.18 km(2)) in Japan and determined the proportion of children aged 0-4 years who lived within 3, 5, 10, 20 or 30 km of the nearest such nursery. Overall, 82.1% of these children lived within 10 km. However, the proportion was lower in northern parts of Japan such as Hokkaido and Tohoku, which have expansive land areas and low population and pediatric department densities. The proportion of children who lived within that same distance of the nearest nursery was also much lower in small towns and villages with 10,000 or fewer residents. Nurseries for sick children were not evenly distributed, and children and their caregivers in under-populated areas had to travel further to access these facilities. As the national government subsidizes such services, children and caregivers throughout Japan should have equal access to them.

  20. Sensory Processing Difficulties, Behavioral Problems, and Parental Stress in a Clinical Population of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Wind, Carina; Henninger, Erin M.; Chinitz, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between sensory processing difficulties, parental stress, and behavioral problems in a clinical sample of young children with developmental and behavioral difficulties. We hypothesized that a high rate of sensory processing difficulties would be found, that there would be a high rate of comorbidity between sensory processing difficulties and behavioral problems, and that children’s sensory processing difficulties and parental stress would be highly correlated. Parents of 59 children ages two to five who attended an out-patient clinic in a low income, urban community completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Parental Stress Inventory-Short Form and the Short Sensory Profile. Children in this clinical population showed a high prevalence (55.9%) of sensory processing difficulties, a significantly higher rate than previously reported. Sensory processing deficits were correlated with behavioral difficulties and parental stress levels-suggesting that as sensory processing difficulties increase, so do behavioral difficulties and parental stress. Parents of children with sensory processing deficits had significantly higher levels of parental stress than parents of children without sensory deficits. Parenting stress levels were also clinically elevated for the cohort of children in which sensory processing difficulties and behavioral concerns co-existed. These findings suggest that treatment outcomes might improve and parental stress could be reduced if mental health clinicians were trained to identify and address sensory problems. This could result in more children being screened and treated for sensory processing difficulties and an eventual reduction in the rates of parental stress. PMID:24443636

  1. Cortical thickness and inattention/hyperactivity symptoms in young children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mous, S E; Muetzel, R L; El Marroun, H; Polderman, T J C; van der Lugt, A; Jaddoe, V W; Hofman, A; Verhulst, F C; Tiemeier, H; Posthuma, D; White, T

    2014-11-01

    While many neuroimaging studies have investigated the neurobiological basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), few have studied the neurobiology of attention problems in the general population. The ability to pay attention falls along a continuum within the population, with children with ADHD at one extreme of the spectrum and, therefore, a dimensional perspective of evaluating attention problems has an added value to the existing literature. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between cortical thickness and inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in a large population of young children. This study is embedded within the Generation R Study and includes 6- to 8-year-old children (n = 444) with parent-reported attention and hyperactivity measures and high-resolution structural imaging data. We investigated the relationship between cortical thickness across the entire brain and the Child Behavior Checklist Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problems score. We found that greater attention problems and hyperactivity were associated with a thinner right and left postcentral gyrus. When correcting for potential confounding factors and multiple testing, these associations remained significant. In a large, population-based sample we showed that young (6- to 8-year-old) children who show more attention problems and hyperactivity have a thinner cortex in the region of the right and left postcentral gyrus. The postcentral gyrus, being the primary somatosensory cortex, reaches its peak growth early in development. Therefore, the thinner cortex in this region may reflect either a deviation in cortical maturation or a failure to reach the same peak cortical thickness compared with children without attention or hyperactivity problems.

  2. Comparing the population neurodevelopmental burdens associated with children's exposures to environmental chemicals and other risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, David C

    2012-08-01

    To estimate the population burden of an exposure that is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment, it is necessary to consider both the effect size associated with the exposure (i.e., the decrease in function per unit increase in biomarker level) and the prevalence of the exposure. An exposure with a modest effect size might, nevertheless, be associated with a substantial population burden if many children are exposed at levels at which the exposure is known to have a detrimental impact. This illustrates the important distinction between individual risk and population risk. A method is described that can be used to compare different risk factors in terms of their contributions to the population burden of neurodevelopmental impairment. Combining estimates of the incidence/prevalence/distribution of different conditions or exposures with estimates, derived from meta-analyses, for the impact of different risk factors on children's Full-Scale IQ scores (FSIQ), the total FSIQ losses associated with each were calculated for the U.S. population of children less than 5 years of age. The losses associated with non-chemical risk factors ranged widely: 34,000,000 FSIQ points for preterm birth, 17,000,000 for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, 9,000,000 for iron deficiency, 136,000 for acute lymphocytic leukemia, and 37,000 for brain tumors. The FSIQ losses could be estimated for three chemicals: lead, 23,000,000 points; methylmercury, 285,000 points; and organophosphate pesticides, 17,000,000 points. Many caveats attend these calculations, but the findings suggest that in continuing to apply standards appropriate to evaluating the impact of chemical exposures on an individual child rather than on the population as a whole, we risk underestimating the population burdens associated with them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Caries and dental fluorosis in a western Saharan population of refugee children.

    PubMed

    Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Montiel-Company, José María; Ruiz-Miravet, Anna

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental fluorosis and dental caries among western Saharan refugee children. The western Saharan child population is characterized by adverse living conditions, an unbalanced diet, poor oral hygiene habits, and a concentration of fluoride in the drinking water of around 2 p.p.m. (2 mg l(-1)). A sample consisting of 360 children, 6-7 yr of age, and 212 children, 11-13 yr of age, was obtained from four refugee camps (Smara, Awsard, El-Aaiun, and 27-February) situated in the vicinity of Tindouf (southern Algeria). The children were examined using the World Health Organization criteria for caries diagnosis and Dean's index for fluorosis. The decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT) score was 0.48 in the 6-7-yr-old children and 1.69 in the 11-13-yr-old children, with a caries prevalence (DMFT > 0 or decayed and filled primary teeth (dft) > 0) of 47.2% and 63.2%, respectively. Among the 6-7 yr-old children examined, 36.9% were free of fluorosis, 15.6% presented moderate fluorosis, and 7.8% presented severe fluorosis. Among 11-13 yr-old children, only 4.2% were free of fluorosis, 30.2% exhibited moderate fluorosis, and 27.4% presented severe fluorosis. The mean DMFT, decayed permanent teeth (DT), and caries prevalence (DMFT > 0 and DMFT or dft > 0) scores were significantly higher among the children affected by severe fluorosis, suggesting that severe fluorosis might increase the susceptibility to dental caries.

  4. Identifying children in need of ancillary and enabling services: a population approach.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Ruth E; Farel, Anita M

    2003-12-01

    Children with chronic or disabling conditions use health, education and social services at a higher rate than their healthy peers. Estimates of the number of children in need of these specialized services are widely varied and often depend on categorical definitions that do not account for either the diversity or commonality of their experiences. Developing methods for identifying the population in need of services, particularly children likely to use long-term ancillary (audiology, occupational, physical or speech therapy, or social work) and/or enabling services (special equipment, personal care assistance, respite care, transportation, or environmental modifications), is essential for effective policy and program implementation. This study examines several recent attempts to operationalize definitions of children with chronic conditions using a noncategorical classification approach. Particular emphasis is placed on the subgroup of children identified as having functional limitations. Proposed operational definitions of children with functional limitations are compared using data from the 1994-1995 Disability Supplement to the US National Health Interview Survey. Estimates of the number of children reported to be using ancillary and enabling services are generated and compared across operational definitions of functional limitation as well as by the number, severity, and type (i.e. mobility, self-care, communication/sensory, social cognition/learning ability) of limitation. Depending on the operational definition selected, 9-14% of US community-dwelling children are estimated to have functional limitations. Among children with limitations, 26-30% regularly use ancillary services and 11-14% use enabling services. The strengths, limitations, and potential applications for each operational definition are discussed.

  5. Effects of Malnutrition on Left Ventricular Mass in a North-Malagasy Children Population

    PubMed Central

    Di Gioia, Giuseppe; Creta, Antonio; Fittipaldi, Mario; Giorgino, Riccardo; Quintarelli, Fabio; Satriano, Umberto; Cruciani, Alessandro; Antinolfi, Vincenzo; Di Berardino, Stefano; Costanzo, Davide; Bettini, Ranieri; Mangiameli, Giuseppe; Caricato, Marco; Mottini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition among children population of less developed countries is a major health problem. Inadequate food intake and infectious diseases are combined to increase further the prevalence. Malnourishment brings to muscle cells loss with development of cardiac complications, like arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy and sudden death. In developed countries, malnutrition has generally a different etiology, like chronic diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between malnutrition and left ventricular mass in an African children population. Methods 313 children were studied, in the region of Antsiranana, Madagascar, with age ranging from 4 to 16 years old (mean 7,8 ± 3 years). A clinical and echocardiographic evaluation was performed with annotation of anthropometric and left ventricle parameters. Malnutrition was defined as a body mass index (BMI) value age- and sex-specific of 16, 17 and 18,5 at the age of 18, or under the 15th percentile. Left ventricle mass was indexed by height2.7 (LVMI). Results We identified a very high prevalence of children malnutrition: 124 children, according to BMI values, and 100 children under the 15th percentile. LVMI values have shown to be increased in proportion to BMI percentiles ranging from 29,8 ± 10,8 g/m2.7 in the malnutrition group to 45 ± 15,1 g/m2.7 in >95th percentile group. LVMI values in children < 15th BMI percentile were significantly lower compared to normal nutritional status (29,8 ± 10,8 g/m2,7 vs. 32,9 ± 12,1 g/m2,7, p = 0.02). Also with BMI values evaluation, malnourished children showed statistically lower values of LVMI (29,3 ± 10,1 g/m2,7 vs. 33,6 ± 12,5 g/m2,7, p = 0.001). Conclusion In African children population, the malnourishment status is correlated with cardiac muscle mass decrease, which appears to be reduced in proportion to the decrease in body size. PMID:27140179

  6. Effects of Malnutrition on Left Ventricular Mass in a North-Malagasy Children Population.

    PubMed

    Di Gioia, Giuseppe; Creta, Antonio; Fittipaldi, Mario; Giorgino, Riccardo; Quintarelli, Fabio; Satriano, Umberto; Cruciani, Alessandro; Antinolfi, Vincenzo; Di Berardino, Stefano; Costanzo, Davide; Bettini, Ranieri; Mangiameli, Giuseppe; Caricato, Marco; Mottini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition among children population of less developed countries is a major health problem. Inadequate food intake and infectious diseases are combined to increase further the prevalence. Malnourishment brings to muscle cells loss with development of cardiac complications, like arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy and sudden death. In developed countries, malnutrition has generally a different etiology, like chronic diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between malnutrition and left ventricular mass in an African children population. 313 children were studied, in the region of Antsiranana, Madagascar, with age ranging from 4 to 16 years old (mean 7,8 ± 3 years). A clinical and echocardiographic evaluation was performed with annotation of anthropometric and left ventricle parameters. Malnutrition was defined as a body mass index (BMI) value age- and sex-specific of 16, 17 and 18,5 at the age of 18, or under the 15th percentile. Left ventricle mass was indexed by height2.7 (LVMI). We identified a very high prevalence of children malnutrition: 124 children, according to BMI values, and 100 children under the 15th percentile. LVMI values have shown to be increased in proportion to BMI percentiles ranging from 29,8 ± 10,8 g/m2.7 in the malnutrition group to 45 ± 15,1 g/m2.7 in >95th percentile group. LVMI values in children < 15th BMI percentile were significantly lower compared to normal nutritional status (29,8 ± 10,8 g/m2,7 vs. 32,9 ± 12,1 g/m2,7, p = 0.02). Also with BMI values evaluation, malnourished children showed statistically lower values of LVMI (29,3 ± 10,1 g/m2,7 vs. 33,6 ± 12,5 g/m2,7, p = 0.001). In African children population, the malnourishment status is correlated with cardiac muscle mass decrease, which appears to be reduced in proportion to the decrease in body size.

  7. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated developmental disorders in preschool children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Pia; Equit, Monika; Schmidt, Karin; von Gontard, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Depression is an incapacitating disorder, which is often overlooked in preschool children. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of depressive symptoms and co-occurring risk factors in a large, population-based sample of preschool children. All 653 children (of a total of 731) in a defined geographical area were assessed during the school-entry exam by community care paediatricians. In addition to clinical appraisal, parents filled out the Preschool Feelings Checklist, a 16-item screening instrument with good psychometric properties. The mean age was 6.2 years (range 5.0-7.6 years) and the sample included 344 boys and 305 girls. The prevalence of depressive symptoms of clinical relevance (total score ≥3) was 5.7% (37). There were no differences between boys and girls, and between younger (<6 years) and older (>6 years) children. Depressive symptoms were associated with parental separation and comorbid behavioural problems, but especially with developmental motor and speech problems and disorders. Migration to Germany had no influence. Depressive symptoms are common in preschool children and associated with developmental problems. Depression should be considered in children with speech and motor problems who are at special risk. Early detection and treatment are recommended.

  8. Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum problems: a longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, Børge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group defined as having Autism Spectrum Problems (ASP) if they scored above a strict threshold on the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). Twenty-eight (0.8%) of 3700 children fulfilled the selected criteria for ASP at both waves, and the prevalence of chronic insomnia was more than ten times higher in these children compared to the controls. Children with ASP developed more sleep problems over time, with an incidence rate at wave 2 of 37.5% compared to 8.6% in the controls. The sleep problems were more persistent over time, with a remission rate of 8.3% compared to 52.4% in the controls. ASP was a strong predictor of sleep problems at wave 2 (OR = 12.44), and while emotional and behavioural problems explained a large proportion of this association, the effect of ASP on insomnia remained significant in the fully adjusted model (OR = 3.25). These findings call for increased awareness of sleep problems in children with ASP.

  9. Population targeting amid complex mental health programming: Are California's Full Service Partnerships reaching underserved children?

    PubMed

    Cordell, Katharan D; Snowden, Lonnie R

    2017-01-01

    California's Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) created Full Service Partnership programs (FSPs) targeting socially and economically vulnerable children with mental illness who are underserved by counties' public mental health treatment system. To determine whether FSPs reach a distinctive group of children, this study compares indicators of FSP-targeted underservice for FSP entrants (n = 15,598) versus everyone treated in the counties' public mental health systems (n = 282,178) and for FSP entrants versus entrants in the most intensive Medicaid delivered program in California, Therapeutic Behavioral Services (TBS, n = 11,993). Results identify that, despite first encountering mental health services systems at earlier ages, FSP clients had fewer months of treatment and were less likely to have been treated in the prior 6 months, except for crisis care, as compared to all other children served, after considering clinical severity and indicators of service need. FSP entrants also had more substance abuse and trauma-related problems. Although less seriously ill than TBS served children, FSP served children were significantly underserved. The results indicate that, amid overlapping policies and programs, carving out and reaching a distinctly underserved population can be achieved in practice, and that specialized programs, such as the FSP program, which target underserved children, have the potential to augment a system's ability to reach the underserved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Noise Annoyance in Urban Children: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Grelat, Natacha; Houot, Hélène; Pujol, Sophie; Levain, Jean-Pierre; Defrance, Jérôme; Mariet, Anne-Sophie; Mauny, Frédéric

    2016-10-28

    Acoustical and non-acoustical factors influencing noise annoyance in adults have been well-documented in recent years; however, similar knowledge is lacking in children. The aim of this study was to quantify the annoyance caused by chronic ambient noise at home in children and to assess the relationship between these children's noise annoyance level and individual and contextual factors in the surrounding urban area. A cross sectional population-based study was conducted including 517 children attending primary school in a European city. Noise annoyance was measured using a self-report questionnaire adapted for children. Six noise exposure level indicators were built at different locations at increasing distances from the child's bedroom window using a validated strategic noise map. Multilevel logistic models were constructed to investigate factors associated with noise annoyance in children. Noise indicators in front of the child's bedroom (p ≤ 0.01), family residential satisfaction (p ≤ 0.03) and socioeconomic characteristics of the individuals and their neighbourhood (p ≤ 0.05) remained associated with child annoyance. These findings illustrate the complex relationships between our environment, how we may perceive it, social factors and health. Better understanding of these relationships will undoubtedly allow us to more effectively quantify the actual effect of noise on human health.

  11. Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli strains isolated from children and adults constitute two different populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) have been considered a diarrheagenic category of E. coli for which several potential virulence factors have been described in the last few years. Despite this, epidemiological studies involving DAEC have shown inconsistent results. In this work, two different collections of DAEC possessing Afa/Dr genes, from children and adults, were studied regarding characteristics potentially associated to virulence. Results DAEC strains were recovered in similar frequencies from diarrheic and asymptomatic children, and more frequently from adults with diarrhea (P < 0.01) than from asymptomatic adults. Association with diarrhea (P < 0.05) was found for SAT-positive strains recovered from children and for curli-positive strains recovered from adults. Mixed biofilms involving DAEC and a Citrobacter freundii strain have shown an improved ability to form biofilms in relation to the monocultures. Control strains have shown a greater diversity of Afa/Dr adhesins and higher frequencies of cellulose, TTSS, biofilm formation and induction of IL-8 secretion than strains from cases of diarrhea in children. Conclusions DAEC strains possessing Afa/Dr genes isolated from children and adults represent two different bacterial populations. DAEC strains carrying genes associated to virulence can be found as part of the normal microbiota present in asymptomatic children. PMID:23374248

  12. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children. Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule. Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection. Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies. The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The

  13. The severity of injury in children resulting from acts against civilian populations.

    PubMed

    Amir, Lisa D; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Peleg, Kobi; Waisman, Yehezkel

    2005-04-01

    To characterize the injuries to children by acts against civilian populations (AACP). Only 2 articles have focused on the spectrum and severity of injuries to children by AACP. A retrospective case study of children 0 to 18 years old who were entered into the Israel National Trauma Registry as a result of AACP between September 29, 2000, and June 30, 2002. A total of 158 children were hospitalized for injuries caused by AACP, accounting for 1.4% of all hospitalized injured children but for 10.9% of all in-hospital deaths for trauma. Explosions injured 114 (72.2%); shootings, 34 (21.5%); and other mechanisms such as stoning or stabbing, 10 (6.3%). Older children were injured by explosions more frequently than younger children (86.1% of 15- to 18-year-olds, 73.7% of 10- to 14-year-olds, 63.2% of 0- to 9-year-olds, P = 0.02). A higher percentage of children injured by explosions rather than by shootings were severely or critically injured (33.9% versus 18.8%, P = 0.10). The most frequently injured body regions were extremities (62.8%), head/face (47.3%), chest and abdomen (37.2%), and brain (18.2%). More than 1 body region was injured in 63.0%. Children injured by explosions as compared with shootings had a lower incidence of abdominal trauma (14.9% versus 20.6%), a similar incidence of chest trauma (16.7% versus 14.7%), but a higher incidence of extremity trauma (65.8% versus 53.0%). There were 7 in-hospital deaths, 6 due to severe head injury and 1 due to severe abdominal trauma; 6 of the 7 deaths were caused by explosions, and all but 1 occurred in children 15 to 18 years old. AACP cause significant morbidity and mortality in children, especially adolescents. Injury severity is significantly higher among children who are injured by explosions rather than by shootings.

  14. Biomonitoring exposure assessment to contemporary pesticides in a school children population of Spain.

    PubMed

    Roca, Marta; Miralles-Marco, Ana; Ferré, Joan; Pérez, Rosa; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-05-01

    The exposure to pesticides amongst school-aged children (6-11 years old) was assessed in this study. One hundred twenty-five volunteer children were selected from two public schools located in an agricultural and in an urban area of Valencia Region, Spain. Twenty pesticide metabolites were analyzed in children's urine as biomarkers of exposure to organophosphate (OP) insecticides, synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, and herbicides. These data were combined with a survey to evaluate the main predictors of pesticide exposure in the children's population. A total of 15 metabolites were present in the urine samples with detection frequencies (DF) ranging from 5% to 86%. The most frequently detected metabolites with DF>53%, were 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy, metabolite of chlorpyrifos), diethyl phosphate (DEP, generic metabolite of OP insecticides), 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMPY, metabolite of diazinon) and para-nitrophenol (PNP, metabolite of parathion and methyl parathion). The calculated geometric means ranged from 0.47 to 3.36 µg/g creatinine, with TCPy and IMPY showing the higher mean concentrations. Statistical significant differences were found between exposure subgroups (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05) for TCPy, DEP, and IMPY. Children living in the agricultural area had significantly higher concentrations of DEP than those living in the urban area. In contrast, children aged 6-8 years from the urban area, showed statistically higher IMPY levels than those from agricultural area. Higher levels of TCPy were also found in children with high consumption of vegetables and higher levels of DEP in children whose parents did not have university degree studies. The multivariable regression analysis showed that age, vegetable consumption, and residential use of pesticides were predictors of exposure for TCPy, and IMPY; whereas location and vegetable consumption were factors associated with DEP concentrations. Creatinine concentrations were the most

  15. Implications of caesarean section for children's school achievement: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Smithers, Lisa G; Mol, Ben W; Wilkinson, Chris; Lynch, John W

    2016-08-01

    Caesarean birth is one of the most frequently performed major obstetrical interventions. Although there is speculation that caesarean at term may have consequences for children's later health and development, longer-term studies are needed. We aimed to evaluate risks to poor school achievement among children born by caesarean section compared with spontaneous vaginal birth. This population-based observational study involved linkage of routinely collected perinatal data with children's school assessments. Perinatal data included all children born in South Australia from 1999 to 2005. Participants were children born by elective caesarean (exposed, n = 650) or vaginal birth (unexposed, n = 2959), to women who previously had a caesarean delivery. School assessments were reported via a standardised national assessment program for children attending grade three (at ~eight years of age). Assessments included reading, writing, spelling, grammar and numeracy and were categorised according to performing at above or ≤National Minimum Standards (NMS). Statistical analyses involved augmented inverse probability weighting (apiw) and accounted for a range of maternal, perinatal and sociodemographic characteristics. Children performing ≤NMS for vaginal birth versus caesarean section were as follows: reading 144/640 (23%) and 688/2921 (24%), writing 69/636(11%) and 351/2917 (12%), spelling 128/646 (20%) and 684/2937 (23%), grammar 132/646 (20%) and 655/2937 (22%), and numeracy 151/634 (24%) and 729/2922 (25%). Both the raw data and the aipw analyses suggested little differences in school achievement between children born by caesarean versus vaginal birth. Analyses that carefully controlled for a wide range of confounders suggest that caesarean section does not increase the risk of poor school outcomes at age eight. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Parental stress and satisfaction during children's hospitalization: differences between immigrant and autochthonous population.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Vílchez-Lara, Maria J; López-Naranjo, Isabel

    2013-02-01

    This study explored the relation between parents' stress and satisfaction during children's hospitalization, seeking possible differences between immigrant and autochthonous population and also as a function of gender in a sample of parents of hospitalized children in Andalusia, Spain. A total of 1347 parents participated in this study. Of the sample, 50% were immigrants and the other 50% were autochthonous. The assessment instruments were the Hospitalization Stress Scale and the Satisfaction with Hospitalization Scale. The results show that stress was associated with the manifestations of the child's illness, the alteration of family life or of parental roles during the process and some aspects of the clinical staff's work. General satisfaction in immigrant parents was higher than in the autochthonous population and the levels of satisfaction were higher in men than in women. Small changes and initiatives in relation to care could substantially improve the satisfaction of patients and their relatives during the process of hospitalization. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Lessons learned from a pilot study on the health status of children from itinerant populations.

    PubMed

    Kilanowski, Jill F

    2006-01-01

    The pilot study is used to guide development of a research design or to test an already developed plan; however, results of pilot work often are not reported. Pilot work can yield many valuable lessons and provide investigative training to the principal investigator and as well as evidence to funding agencies that the research is feasible and worthwhile. The pilot study described here is preliminary work on health disparities in two itinerant populations: carnival and migrant farmworker children. This pilot study had three aims: (a) identify the most productive methods to recruit subjects from these two "invisible" populations; (b) test feasibility of the research protocol; and (c) collect preliminary data on the children's health status for future research proposals.

  18. Reduced satellite cell population may lead to contractures in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, LUCAS R; CHAMBERS, HENRY G; LIEBER, RICHARD L

    2014-01-01

    AIM Satellite cells are the stem cells residing in muscle responsible for skeletal muscle growth and repair. Skeletal muscle in cerebral palsy (CP) has impaired longitudinal growth that results in muscle contractures. We hypothesized that the satellite cell population would be reduced in contractured muscle. METHOD We compared the satellite cell populations in hamstring muscles from participants with CP contracture (n=8; six males, two females; age range 6–15y; Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels II–V; 4 with hemiplegia, 4 with diplegia) and from typically developing participants (n=8; six males, two females, age range 15–18y). Muscle biopsies were extracted from the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles and mononuclear cells were isolated. Cell surface markers were stained with fluorescently conjugated antibodies to label satellite cells (neural cell adhesion molecule) and inflammatory and endothelial cells (CD34 and CD4 respectively). Cells were analyzed using flow cytometry to determine cell populations. RESULTS After gating for intact cells a mean of 12.8% (SD 2.8%) were determined to be satellite cells in typically developing children, but only 5.3% (SD 2.3%;p<0.05) in children with CP. Hematopoietic and endothelial cell types were equivalent in typically developing children and children with CP (p>0.05) suggesting the isolation procedure was valid. INTERPRETATION A reduced satellite cell population may account for the decreased longitudinal growth of muscles in CP that develop into fixed contractures or the decreased ability to strengthen muscle in CP. This suggests a unique musculoskeletal disease mechanism and provides a potential therapeutic target for debilitating muscle contractures. PMID:23210987

  19. Reduced satellite cell population may lead to contractures in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lucas R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L

    2013-03-01

    Satellite cells are the stem cells residing in muscle responsible for skeletal muscle growth and repair. Skeletal muscle in cerebral palsy (CP) has impaired longitudinal growth that results in muscle contractures. We hypothesized that the satellite cell population would be reduced in contractured muscle. We compared the satellite cell populations in hamstring muscles from participants with CP contracture (n=8; six males, two females; age range 6-15y; Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels II-V; 4 with hemiplegia, 4 with diplegia) and from typically developing participants (n=8; six males, two females, age range 15-18y). Muscle biopsies were extracted from the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles and mononuclear cells were isolated. Cell surface markers were stained with fluorescently conjugated antibodies to label satellite cells (neural cell adhesion molecule) and inflammatory and endothelial cells (CD34 and CD4 respectively). Cells were analyzed using flow cytometry to determine cell populations. After gating for intact cells a mean of 12.8% (SD 2.8%) were determined to be satellite cells in typically developing children, but only 5.3% (SD 2.3%; p<0.05) in children with CP. Hematopoietic and endothelial cell types were equivalent in typically developing children and children with CP (p>0.05) suggesting the isolation procedure was valid. A reduced satellite cell population may account for the decreased longitudinal growth of muscles in CP that develop into fixed contractures or the decreased ability to strengthen muscle in CP. This suggests a unique musculoskeletal disease mechanism and provides a potential therapeutic target for debilitating muscle contractures. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  20. The International Adoption Project: Population-based Surveillance of Minnesota Parents Who Adopted Children Internationally

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Nikki J.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Lee, Richard M.; Johnson, Dana E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To conduct the first population-based surveillance in the United States of parents who adopted children from countries outside of the United States. Methods A 556-item survey was mailed to 2,977 parents who finalized an international adoption in Minnesota between January 1990 and December 1998; 1,834 (62%) parents returned a survey. Results Eighty-eight percent of the parents reported transracial adoptions (97% of the parents were white); 57% of the adopted children were Asian; 60% were female; and on average, the children were 18 months-old at the time of placement. Only 15% of the parents reported household annual incomes less than $50,000 and 71% reported they had college educations. Sixty-one percent traveled to their child’s country of birth prior to the adoption. Almost three-quarters involved their children in experiences related to their birth countries and 98% would recommend international adoption. Three-quarters of the parents believe that parental leave was an issue for them as they adopted. Conclusions This is the first population-based survey of U.S. parents who have adopted internationally. The adoptive parents were socioeconomically different than birth parents in Minnesota and their families are most likely to be transracial. Because international adoption has become more prevalent, it is important to understand the strengths and needs of families that are created through this unique form of migration. PMID:17562147

  1. Cholesterol Curves to Identify Population Norms by Age and Sex in Healthy Weight Children

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Steiner, Michael J.; Chung, Arlene E.; Perrin, Eliana M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Develop clinically applicable charts of lipid values illustrating fluctuations throughout childhood and by sex among healthy weight children. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008) was used to estimate total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides by age and sex in healthy weight children age 3 to 17 years. Using LMS procedures, the authors created smoothed curves demonstrating population-based 50th percentile for age and the 75th and 95th percentiles. Results The curves were based on 7681 children meeting inclusion criteria. Total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL demonstrated peaks at approximately 8 to 12 years for boys. Similar peaks were evident for girls at slightly younger ages, approximately 7 to 11 years. Triglycerides showed peaks for girls, but values were similar across ages for boys. Conclusions The use of fixed lipid value cutoffs in established guidelines regardless of age or sex likely mislabels many children as abnormal. The authors’ charts may allow for a more nuanced interpretation based on population norms. PMID:22157422

  2. Whole-population vision screening in children aged 4-5 years to detect amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2015-06-06

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects at least 2% of most populations and can lead to permanently reduced vision if not detected and treated within a specific period in childhood. Whole-population screening of children younger than 5 years is applied in many countries. The substantial diversity in existing programmes reflects their heterogeneous implementation in the absence of the complete evidence base that is now a pre-requisite for instituting screening. The functional importance of amblyopia at an individual level is unclear as data are scarce, but in view of the high prevalence the population-level effect might be notable. Screening of all children aged 4-5 years (eg, at school entry) confers most benefit and addresses inequity in access to timely treatment. Screening at younger ages is associated with increased risk of false-positive results, and at older ages with poor outcomes for children with moderate to severe amblyopia. We suggest that the real-life adverse effects of amblyopia should be characterised and screening and diagnosis should be standardised. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation study of human figure drawing test in a Colombian school children population.

    PubMed

    Vélez van Meerbeke, Alberto; Sandoval-Garcia, Carolina; Ibáñez, Milciades; Talero-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Fiallo, Dolly; Halliday, Karen

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this article was to assess the validity of the emotional and developmental components of the Koppitz human figure drawing test. 2420 children's drawings available in a database resulting from a previous cross sectional study designed to determine the prevalence of neurological diseases in children between 0 and 12 years old in Bogota schools were evaluated. They were scored using the criteria proposed by Koppitz, and classified into 16 groups according to age, gender, and presence/absence of learning or attention problems. The overall results were then compared with the normative study to assess whether descriptive parameters of the two populations were significantly different. There were no significant differences associated with presence/absence of learning and attention disorders or school attended within the overall sample. An Interrater reliability test has been made to assure the homogeneity of scoring by the evaluator team. There were significant differences between this population and that of the original study. New scoring tables contextualized for our population based on the frequency of appearance in this sample are presented. We can conclude that various ethnic, social, and cultural factors can influence the way children draw the human figure. It is thus important to establish local reference values to adequately distinguish between normality and abnormality. The new scoring tables proposed here should be followed up with a clinical study to corroborate their validity.

  4. Noise Annoyance in Urban Children: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Grelat, Natacha; Houot, Hélène; Pujol, Sophie; Levain, Jean-Pierre; Defrance, Jérôme; Mariet, Anne-Sophie; Mauny, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Acoustical and non-acoustical factors influencing noise annoyance in adults have been well-documented in recent years; however, similar knowledge is lacking in children. The aim of this study was to quantify the annoyance caused by chronic ambient noise at home in children and to assess the relationship between these children′s noise annoyance level and individual and contextual factors in the surrounding urban area. A cross sectional population-based study was conducted including 517 children attending primary school in a European city. Noise annoyance was measured using a self-report questionnaire adapted for children. Six noise exposure level indicators were built at different locations at increasing distances from the child′s bedroom window using a validated strategic noise map. Multilevel logistic models were constructed to investigate factors associated with noise annoyance in children. Noise indicators in front of the child′s bedroom (p ≤ 0.01), family residential satisfaction (p ≤ 0.03) and socioeconomic characteristics of the individuals and their neighbourhood (p ≤ 0.05) remained associated with child annoyance. These findings illustrate the complex relationships between our environment, how we may perceive it, social factors and health. Better understanding of these relationships will undoubtedly allow us to more effectively quantify the actual effect of noise on human health. PMID:27801858

  5. DENTAL CARE AND CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL HEALTH CARE NEEDS: A POPULATION-BASED PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Charlotte W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper grew out of a project reviewing progress in children's oral health since the Surgeon General's Report (SGR) on Oral Health. It includes a summary of advances in national surveillance of children with special health care needs (CSHCN), and presents more recent data on unmet dental care need among CSHCN. To that end, we used the 2006-National Survey of CSHCN to determine the prevalence of unmet dental care need among CSHCN and to compare this within subgroups of CSHCN, as well as to children without special health care needs, and to results from the previous iteration of this survey. We found that dental care remains the most frequently cited unmet health need for CSHCN. More CSHCN had unmet need for non-preventive than preventive dental care. CSHCN who are teens, poorer, uninsured, had insurance lapses, or more severely affected by their condition had higher adjusted odds of unmet dental care needs. CSHCN who were both low-income and severely affected had 13.4 times the adjusted odds of unmet dental care need. In summary, CSHCN are more likely to be insured and to receive preventive dental care at equal or higher rates than children without SHCN. Nevertheless, CSHCN, particularly lower income and severely affected, are more likely to report unmet dental care need compared to unaffected children. Despite advances in knowledge about dental care among CSHCN, unanswered questions remain. We provide recommendations towards obtaining additional data and facilitating dental care access for this vulnerable population. PMID:19945077

  6. Iron interventions in children from low-income and middle-income populations: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Barth-Jaeggi, Tanja

    2015-05-01

    Children from low- and middle-income countries are particularly vulnerable to develop iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), which can be prevented or controlled with different iron intervention strategies. However, there is a debate on the efficacy and safety of iron interventions, especially in children from areas with a high infectious disease burden. This review provides an overview of recent trials that investigated the benefits and potential risks of iron interventions in children from low and middle-income countries. Recent studies showed that intermittent iron supplementation is a promising strategy in reducing iron deficiency and IDA. Only a few studies investigated the effect of iron interventions on developmental outcomes, such as growth and cognition, and provided mixed results. An increasing number of studies reported that iron intervention increases morbidity and causes unfavourable shifts in the gut microbial composition along with increases in intestinal inflammation, particularly in children with a high infectious disease burden. More studies in children from low and middle-income populations are needed that provide evidence for the beneficial effects of iron interventions on functional outcomes beyond alleviating iron deficiency and IDA, and that explore potential mechanisms underlying the negative effects of iron reported in recent trials.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A PROSPECTIVE POPULATION-BASED COHORT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    BAILLARGEON, RAYMOND H.; MORISSET, ALEXANDRE; KEENAN, KATE; NORMAND, CLAUDE L.; SÉGUIN, JEAN R.; JAPEL, CHRISTA; CAO, GUANQIONG

    2013-01-01

    We know relatively little about the development of disruptive behaviors (DBs), and gender differences therein. The objective of this study was to describe the continuity and discontinuity in the degree to which young children in the general population are reported to exhibit specific DBs over time. Data came from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development. First, the results show that relatively few children exhibit DBs on a frequent basis at 41 months of age. Second, the results show that a majority of children who exhibit a particular DB on a frequent basis at 41 months of age did not do so 1 year earlier. In addition, a majority of children who exhibited a particular DB on a frequent basis at 29 months of age no longer do so 1 year later. Third, gender differences in DBs (boys > girls) are either emerging or at least increasing in magnitude between 29 and 41 months of age. Consistent with the canalization of the behavioral development principle, children who exhibited DBs on a frequent basis at 29 months of age are less likely to stop doing so in the following year if they had exhibited the same behaviors at 17 months of age. PMID:28079905

  8. Suicide ideation and attempts and bullying in children and adolescents: psychiatric and general population samples.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L; Syed, Ehsan; Mahr, Fauzia; Siddiqui, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between bullying and suicide behavior yield mixed results. This is the first study comparing frequencies of suicide behavior in four bullying groups (bully, victim, bully/victim, and neither) in two large psychiatric and community samples of young children and adolescents. Maternal ratings of bullying and suicide ideation and attempts were analyzed for 1,291 children with psychiatric disorders and 658 children in the general population 6-18 years old. For both the psychiatric and community samples, suicide ideation and attempt scores for bully/victims were significantly higher than for victims only and for neither bullies nor victims. Differences between victims only and neither victims nor bullies were nonsignificant. Controlling for sadness and conduct problems, suicide behavior did not differ between the four bullying groups. All children with suicide attempts had a comorbid psychiatric disorder, as did all but two children with suicide ideation. Although the contribution of bullying per se to suicide behavior independent of sadness and conduct problems is small, bullying has obvious negative psychological consequences that make intervention imperative. Interventions need to focus on the psychopathology associated with being a victim and/or perpetrator of bullying in order to reduce suicide behavior.

  9. Inflammatory bowel disease in immigrants to Canada and their children: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Eric I; Mack, David R; Guttmann, Astrid; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; To, Teresa; Mojaverian, Nassim; Quach, Pauline; Manuel, Douglas G

    2015-04-01

    The risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) contributed by the environment can be elucidated by assessing the risk in migrants from low prevalence to Western countries. The incidence of IBD in immigrants to Canada and their Canadian-born children was compared with nonimmigrants. A population-based cohort of IBD patients derived from health administrative data was linked to immigration data to determine the standardized incidence of IBD in immigrants to Ontario, Canada, by region of birth between 1994 and 2010. The hazard contributed by younger age at immigration was determined. Incidence for Ontario-born children of immigrant mothers was compared with the children of nonimmigrants. In 2,144,660 immigrants, incidence of IBD was 7.3/100,000 person-years compared with 23.9/100,000 in 12,036,921 nonimmigrants (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.34, 95% CI 0.26-0.44). Incidence was lowest risk in East Asians (IRR 0.14, 95% CI 0.11-0.18) and highest in Western Europeans/North Americans (IRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.46-0.75). Increased age at immigration was associated with decreased risk of IBD (HR 0.986, 95% CI 0.982-0.990), a 14% increased risk per younger decade of life at immigration. Children of immigrants from the Middle East/North Africa, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and North America/Western Europe had similar risk of IBD as children of nonimmigrants; however, the incidence remained lower among children of immigrants from other regions. Younger age at arrival to Canada increased the risk of IBD in immigrants. Canadian-born children of immigrants from some regions assumed the high Canadian incidence of IBD, indicating that the underlying risk is activated with earlier life exposure to the Canadian environment in certain groups.

  10. ECG is an inefficient screening-tool for left ventricular hypertrophy in normotensive African children population

    PubMed Central

    Creta, Antonio; Campanale, Cosimo Marco; Fittipaldi, Mario; Giorgino, Riccardo; Quintarelli, Fabio; Satriano, Umberto; Cruciani, Alessandro; Antinolfi, Vincenzo; Di Berardino, Stefano; Costanzo, Davide; Bettini, Ranieri; Mangiameli, Giuseppe; Caricato, Marco; Mottini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a marker of pediatric hypertension and predicts development of cardiovascular events. Electrocardiography (ECG) screening is used in pediatrics to detect LVH thanks to major accessibility, reproducibility and easy to use compared to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), that remains the standard technique. Several diseases were previously investigated, but no data exists regarding our study population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between electrocardiographic and echocardiographic criteria of LVH in normotensive African children. Methods We studied 313 children (mean age 7,8 ± 3 yo), in north-Madagascar. They underwent ECG and TTE. Sokolow-Lyon index was calculated to identify ECG-LVH (>35 mm). Left ventricle mass (LVM) with TTE was calculated and indexed by height2.7 (LVMI2.7) and weight (LVMIw). We report the prevalence of TTE-LVH using three methods: (1) calculating percentiles age- and sex- specific with values >95th percentile identifying LVH; (2) LVMI2.7 >51 g/m2.7; (3) LVMIw >3.4 g/weight. Results 40 (13%) children showed LVMI values >95th percentile, 24 children (8%) an LVMI2.7 >51 g/m2.7 while 19 children (6%) an LVMIw >3.4 g/kg. LVH-ECG by Sokolow-Lyon index was present in five, three and three children respectively, with poor values of sensitivity (ranging from 13 to 16%), positive predictive value (from 11 to 18%) and high values of specificity (up to 92%). The effects of anthropometrics parameters on Sokolow-Lyon were analyzed and showed poor correlation. Conclusion ECG is a poor screening test for detecting LVH in children. In clinical practice, TTE remains the only tool to be used to exclude LVH. PMID:27651998

  11. Parental attitudes and perceptions affecting children's dental behaviour in Greek population. A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Kyritsi, M A; Dimou, G; Lygidakis, N A

    2009-01-01

    This was to investigate the relationship of children's behaviour during dental treatment to parental dental attitudes and perceptions in a definitive population of Greek children in Athens. 88 children aged 3-11 years and their parents, attending the Community Dental Centre for Children in Athens, participated. A questionnaire including demographic information, questions regarding parents' dental experience and anxiety (M-DAS test), as well as questions regarding expectant behaviour of each child and his/her dental anxiety level (parental version of the CFSS -Dental Subscale), was completed by the parents during the first examination appointment. During the two following operative sessions each child's behaviour was recorded and evaluated using the Frankl Scale. Collected data were statistically analyzed using a SPSS statistical program. No significant difference was found between a child's actual behaviour and gender, nationality, frequency of parent's dental visits, parental dental fear (M-DAS) and previous medical experience of the child (p>0.001). In contrast, age (p=0.005), previous child's dental fear (p=0.081), previous child's dental behaviour (p<0.0001), predicted by the parent behaviour (p<0.0001) and parental version of CFSS-DS (p<0.001), revealed statistically significant associations to child's behaviour during treatment. According to the present study in Greek children, children's behaviour during dental treatment is related to age, previous dental fear and experience and behaviour prediction by the parents. Parents' estimations regarding their children's fear and behaviour could be a useful predictor of child's level of cooperation during dental treatment.

  12. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003–2008)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Methods Data on 1,604 children and adolescents (4–18 years) from the comparison groups of two quasi-experimental intervention studies from Victoria, Australia were analysed. Sweet drink consumption (soft drink and fruit juice/cordial) was assessed as one day’s intake and typical intake over the last week or month at two time points between 2003 and 2008 (mean time between measurement: 2.2 years). Results Assessed using dietary recalls, more than 70% of the children and adolescents consumed sweet drinks, with no difference between age groups (p = 0.28). The median intake among consumers was 500 ml and almost a third consumed more than 750 ml per day. More children and adolescents consumed fruit juice/cordial (69%) than soft drink (33%) (p < 0.0001) and in larger volumes (median intake fruit juice/cordial: 500 ml and soft drink: 375 ml). Secular changes in sweet drink consumption were observed with a lower proportion of children and adolescents consuming sweet drinks at time 2 compared to time 1 (significant for age group 8 to <10 years, p = 0.001). Conclusion The proportion of Australian children and adolescents from the state of Victoria consuming sweet drinks has been stable or decreasing, although a high proportion of this sample consumed sweet drinks, especially fruit juice/cordial at both time points. PMID:22966937

  13. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003-2008).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Britt W; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven; de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea; Millar, Lynne; Kremer, Peter; Lacy, Kathleen; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-09-12

    Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Data on 1,604 children and adolescents (4-18 years) from the comparison groups of two quasi-experimental intervention studies from Victoria, Australia were analysed. Sweet drink consumption (soft drink and fruit juice/cordial) was assessed as one day's intake and typical intake over the last week or month at two time points between 2003 and 2008 (mean time between measurement: 2.2 years). Assessed using dietary recalls, more than 70% of the children and adolescents consumed sweet drinks, with no difference between age groups (p = 0.28). The median intake among consumers was 500 ml and almost a third consumed more than 750 ml per day. More children and adolescents consumed fruit juice/cordial (69%) than soft drink (33%) (p < 0.0001) and in larger volumes (median intake fruit juice/cordial: 500 ml and soft drink: 375 ml). Secular changes in sweet drink consumption were observed with a lower proportion of children and adolescents consuming sweet drinks at time 2 compared to time 1 (significant for age group 8 to <10 years, p = 0.001). The proportion of Australian children and adolescents from the state of Victoria consuming sweet drinks has been stable or decreasing, although a high proportion of this sample consumed sweet drinks, especially fruit juice/cordial at both time points.

  14. Temporal Patterns of Medications Dispensed to Children and Adolescents in a National Insured Population

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Karen L.; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively describe prevalence and temporal dispensing patterns for medications prescribed to children and adolescents in the United States. Participants were 1.6 million children (49% female) under 18 years old enrolled in a nation-wide, employer-provided insurance plan. All medication claims from 1999–2006 were reviewed retrospectively. Drugs were assigned to 16 broad therapeutic categories. Effects of trend over time, seasonality, age and gender on overall and within category prevalence were examined. Results: Mean monthly prevalence for dispensed medications was 23.5% (range 19.4–27.5), with highest rates in winter and lowest in July. The age group with the highest prevalence was one-year-old children. On average each month, 17.1% of all children were dispensed a single drug and 6.4% were dispensed two or more. Over time, prevalence for two or more drugs did not change, but the proportion of children dispensed a single drug decreased (slope -.02%, p = .001). Overall, boys had higher monthly rates than girls (average difference 0.9%, p = .002). However, differences by gender were greatest during middle childhood, especially for respiratory and central nervous system agents. Contraceptives accounted for a large proportion of dispensed medication to older teenage girls. Rates for the drugs with the highest prevalence in this study were moderately correlated (average Pearson r.66) with those from a previously published national survey. Conclusion: On average, nearly one quarter of a population of insured children in the United States was dispensed medication each month. This rate decreased somewhat over time, primarily because proportionally fewer children were dispensed a single medication. The rate for two or more drugs dispensed simultaneously remained steady. PMID:22829905

  15. Population pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and metabolites in children with neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    McCune, Jeannine S; Salinger, David H; Vicini, Paolo; Oglesby, Celeste; Blough, David K; Park, Julie R

    2009-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide-based regimens are front-line treatment for numerous pediatric malignancies; however, current dosing methods result in considerable interpatient variability in tumor response and toxicity. In this pediatric population, the authors' objectives were (1) to quantify and explain the pharmacokinetic variability of cyclophosphamide and 2 of its metabolites, hydroxycyclophosphamide (HCY) and carboxyethylphosphoramide mustard (CEPM), and (2) to apply a population pharmacokinetic model to describe the disposition of cyclophosphamide and these metabolites. A total of 196 blood samples were obtained from 22 children with neuroblastoma receiving intravenous cyclophosphamide (400 mg/m2/d) and topotecan. Blood samples were quantitated for concentrations of cyclophosphamide, HCY, and CEPM using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling with the NONMEM software system. After model building was complete, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was computed using NONMEM. Cyclophosphamide elimination was described by noninducible and inducible routes, with the latter producing HCY. Glomerular filtration rate was a covariate for the fractional elimination of HCY and its conversion to CEPM. Considerable interpatient variability was observed in the AUC of cyclophosphamide, HCY, and CEPM. These results represent a critical first step in developing pharmacokinetic-linked pharmacodynamic studies in children receiving cyclophosphamide to determine the clinical relevance of the pharmacokinetic variability in cyclophosphamide and its metabolites.

  16. Older fathers' children have lower evolutionary fitness across four centuries and in four populations.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ruben C; Willführ, Kai P; Frans, Emma M; Verweij, Karin J H; Bürkner, Paul-Christian; Myrskylä, Mikko; Voland, Eckart; Almqvist, Catarina; Zietsch, Brendan P; Penke, Lars

    2017-09-13

    Higher paternal age at offspring conception increases de novo genetic mutations. Based on evolutionary genetic theory we predicted older fathers' children, all else equal, would be less likely to survive and reproduce, i.e. have lower fitness. In sibling control studies, we find support for negative paternal age effects on offspring survival and reproductive success across four large populations with an aggregate N > 1.4 million. Three populations were pre-industrial (1670-1850) Western populations and showed negative paternal age effects on infant survival and offspring reproductive success. In twentieth-century Sweden, we found minuscule paternal age effects on survival, but found negative effects on reproductive success. Effects survived tests for key competing explanations, including maternal age and parental loss, but effects varied widely over different plausible model specifications and some competing explanations such as diminishing paternal investment and epigenetic mutations could not be tested. We can use our findings to aid in predicting the effect increasingly older parents in today's society will have on their children's survival and reproductive success. To the extent that we succeeded in isolating a mutation-driven effect of paternal age, our results can be understood to show that de novo mutations reduce offspring fitness across populations and time periods. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Upper limb orthoses and assistive technology utilization in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy recruited from a population register.

    PubMed

    Russo, Remo Nunzio; Atkins, Renae; Haan, Eric; Crotty, Maria

    2009-04-01

    To describe the use of upper limb orthoses and assistive technologies (AT) in a representative community-based sample of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) and compare children on the basis of their prescription. Survey of all children with HCP entered on a population register. Outcome measures included a clinical examination; Assessment of Motor and Process skills; Self-perception Profile for Children; PedsQL version 4; Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. Of 107 respondents, 56% were prescribed upper limb orthoses and 46% AT; 48% of children prescribed upper limb orthoses were using them, compared to 98% of children prescribed AT. Greater tone at the wrist was associated with orthotic prescription (OR [95% CI] 39.6 [4.8, 323]). Children with HCP prescribed orthoses and AT are a more severely affected group. AT have higher utility than upper limb orthoses in children with HCP, with orthoses having a high rate of abandonment.

  18. Determinants of health-related quality of life in school-aged children: a general population study in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Houben-van Herten, Marieke; Bai, Guannan; Hafkamp, Esther; Landgraf, Jeanne M; Raat, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Health related quality of life is the functional effect of a medical condition and/or its therapy upon a patient, and as such is particularly suitable for describing the general health of children. The objective of this study was to identify and confirm potential determinants of health-related quality of life in children aged 4-11 years in the general population in the Netherlands. Understanding such determinants may provide insights into more targeted public health policy. As part of a population based cross sectional study, the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) Parental Form 28 was used to measure health-related quality of life in school-aged children in a general population sample. Parents of 10,651 children aged 4-11 years were interviewed from January 2001 to December 2009. Multivariate and regression analyses demonstrated a declined CHQ Physical Summary score for children who had >1 conditions, disorders or acute health complaints and who were greater consumers of healthcare; children with a non-western immigrant background; and children whose parents did not work. Lower CHQ Psychosocial Summary score was reported for children who had >1 conditions, disorders or acute health complaints, boys, children of single parents and obese children. The best predictors of health-related quality of life are variables that describe use of health care and the number of disorders and health complaints. Nonetheless, a number of demographic, socio-economic and family/environmental determinants contribute to a child's health-related quality of life as well.

  19. Children's head injuries in the Vietnamese refugee population in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Goh, K Y; Poon, W S

    1995-10-01

    All Vietnamese patients with head injuries from two of the largest refugee camps in Hong Kong are routinely referred to the Neurosurgical Unit of the Prince of Wales Hospital for management. In order to determine the epidemiology of head injuries in this population group, we have retrospectively reviewed all hospitalized cases over a 4 year period from January 1990 to December 1993. We have found a unique social situation in this population group, with an unusually high proportion of paediatric cases (2253 per 100,000 children aged 5 years or less), compared with other epidemiological studies. The most common mechanism of injury in between 57 and 75 per cent of cases was a fall from bed. Based on this information, appropriate preventive measures have been recommended and have successfully decreased the incidence of head injuries. This study demonstrates the value and effectiveness of epidemiological studies in identifying a previously unrecognized health risk in a specified population group.

  20. Population pharmacokinetics of pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine in children with congenital toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Trenque, T; Simon, N; Villena, I; Chemla, C; Quereux, C; Leroux, B; Jaussaud, R; Rémy, G; Dupouy, D; Millart, H; Pinon, J-M; Urien, S

    2004-01-01

    Aims To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for pyrimethamine (PYR) and sulfadoxine (SDX) in children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Methods Children were treated with PYR (1.25 mg kg−1) and SDX (25 mg kg−1) (Fansidar®) plus folinic acid (Lederfoline® 5 mg). Plasma concentrations, available from a therapeutic drug monitoring database, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatogrphy. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a nonlinear mixed effects model. Results Eighty-nine children, aged 1 week to 14 years and weighing 2.9–59 kg, were available for evaluation. Both PYR and SDX concentration-time profiles were best described by a one-compartment open model. Volume of plasma distribution (V) and clearance (CL) were significantly related to body weight (BW) using an allometric function. Typical CL and V estimates (95% confidence interval), for a child weighing 11 kg were 5.50 (5.28, 5.73) l day−1 and 36 (33, 39) l for PYR and 0.26 (0.25, 0.27) l day−1 and 2.1 (1.9, 2.3) l for SDX. For BW between 3.5 and 60 kg, plasma half-lives were predicted to vary from 4.0 to 5.2 days for PYR, and from 5.0 to 7.5 days for SDX. Conclusion This study indicated that body weight influences PYR and SDX pharmacokinetics in children. To optimize PYR/SDX combination treatment in congenital toxoplasmosis, short dosing intervals in very young low-wight children are probably appropriate. PMID:15151519

  1. Nxwisen, ntzarrin or ntzo'lin? Mapping children's respiratory symptoms among indigenous populations in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lisa; Diaz, Janet; Jenny, Alisa; Diaz, Anaite; Bruce, Nigel; Balmes, John

    2007-10-01

    Estimating the prevalence of asthma is an epidemiologic challenge, particularly in rural areas of lesser-developed countries characterized by low literacy and poor access to health care. To avoid under or over reporting of symptoms, questionnaires must use terminology familiar to participants and that accurately describes the triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness characteristic of asthma. In preparation for a large longitudinal cohort study entitled Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter (CRECER) that will examine the effects of variable early lifetime woodsmoke exposure on the respiratory health of Mam-speaking children residing in communities in the western highlands of Guatemala, we conducted individual interviews (n=18) and five focus groups (n=46) with indigenous women from 17 of these communities to elicit and define local Mam and Spanish terms for common respiratory symptoms used to describe their own and their children's respiratory symptoms. Focus group participants were also shown an International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) video of wheezing children and adults. We developed a conceptual framework that can be used as an efficient model for future studies investigating health and/or disease terminology in isolated communities, an integral step in the development of standardized questionnaires. Among this Mam-speaking population, wheeze was best described as nxwisen or ntzarrin, "breathing sounds that are heard in the neck but come from the chest." The variation in understanding of terms between women with and without children with a history of wheeze (such that for those without wheezing children some terms were virtually unrecognized), has important implications for large-scale population surveys within countries and comparative surveys such as ISAAC. It is important to use linguistically and culturally appropriate terminology to describe wheeze in prevalence studies of

  2. Urinary concentrations of phthalates and phenols in a population of Spanish pregnant women and children.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia; Fernández, Mariana F; Llop, Sabrina; Guxens, Mònica; Ballester, Ferran; Olea, Nicolás; Irurzun, Mikel Basterrechea; Rodríguez, Loreto Santa Marina; Riaño, Isolina; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Calafat, Antonia M; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-07-01

    Phthalate and phenol exposure is prevalent among the general population and of potential concern for pregnant women and children because of their suspected susceptibility to endocrine effects. To evaluate the extent of exposure to several phthalates and phenols in a sample of Spanish pregnant women - according to their individual characteristics (age, social class, education, and body mass index) - and children who participated in the INMA - Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood) project. One spot urine sample was taken during the third trimester of pregnancy from 120 pregnant women and from 30 4-year old children belonging to 5 Spanish birth cohorts, and analyzed for 11 phthalate metabolites and 9 phenols. Three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate; two metabolites of dibutyl phthalates, mono-isobutyl phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate; monoethyl phthalate (MEP), the main metabolite of diethyl phthalate; and two phenols, methyl paraben (M-PB) and 2,5-dichlorophenol were detected in the urine samples of all women. The highest urinary concentrations were for MEP and M-PB. Urinary concentrations of all phthalate metabolites and of 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and bisphenol A were lower in the pregnant women than in the children. Among women, a positive relationship with social class and education was shown for most of the phthalate metabolites and phenols. Almost all phthalate metabolites varied by region even after adjusting for social class and education. Phthalate and phenol exposures are prevalent in a group of pregnant women and young children, two susceptible populations, and these exposures might be positively related to social class. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Population-level intervention strategies and examples for obesity prevention in children.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Jennifer L; May, Ashleigh L; Belay, Brook; Nihiser, Allison J; Dooyema, Carrie A; Blanck, Heidi M

    2012-08-21

    With obesity affecting approximately 12.5 million American youth, population-level interventions are indicated to help support healthy behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of population-level intervention strategies and specific intervention examples that illustrate ways to help prevent and control obesity in children through improving nutrition and physical activity behaviors. Information is summarized within the settings where children live, learn, and play (early care and education, school, community, health care, home). Intervention strategies are activities or changes intended to promote healthful behaviors in children. They were identified from (a) systematic reviews; (b) evidence- and expert consensus-based recommendations, guidelines, or standards from nongovernmental or federal agencies; and finally (c) peer-reviewed synthesis reviews. Intervention examples illustrate how at least one of the strategies was used in a particular setting. To identify interventions examples, we considered (a) peer-reviewed literature as well as (b) additional sources with research-tested and practice-based initiatives. Researchers and practitioners may use this review as they set priorities and promote integration across settings and to find research- and practice-tested intervention examples that can be replicated in their communities for childhood obesity prevention.

  4. Adherence to Latent Tuberculosis Infection Treatment in a Population with a High Number of Refugee Children.

    PubMed

    Rogo, Tanya; Eleanya, Cynthia; Hirway, Priya; Pelland, Doreen; Lewis, Carol; Dennehy, Penelope; Losikoff, Phyllis

    2017-02-01

    Refugee populations in the US have a higher reported prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The objective of this study was to assess adherence to LTBI treatment in refugee and non-refugee children living in Rhode Island. This was a retrospective review of LTBI patients seen in the Hasbro Pediatric Tuberculosis Clinic between August 2009 and September 2011. Of 120 patients with LTBI, 93% were foreign-born and 30% were refugees. Overall, 94 children (78.3%) completed therapy. Higher rates of treatment completion were seen among patients who were female, referred within the same hospital system, used an interpreter, and did not report side effects. Refugees attended more scheduled visits compared to non-refugees (p=0.019). Overall rates of completion of LTBI treatment were high in this population. Better adherence to clinic visits, likely due to the increased support and care coordination provided to the refugee children, improved treatment completion rates. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-02.asp].

  5. Dental age assessment validity of radiographic methods on Serbian children population.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Ksenija; Zelic, Ksenija; Milenkovic, Petar; Nedeljkovic, Nenad; Djuric, Marija

    2013-09-10

    In order to establish reliable age estimation method based on dental development, various correlations between chronological age and real growth were tested. Demirjian's scheme was mostly used, but lately the Willems' method has been found to be more reliable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Demirjian's and Willems' methods for dental age estimation in Serbian children population. The study sample encompassed panoramic radiographs of 686 children (322 boys and 364 girls) with age range from 4 to 15 years. The dental age was assed using Demirjian's and Willems' maturity scores. Statistical analysis was performed to test the accuracy of investigated methods by comparing the mean chronological and mean estimated age in total sample, as well as in each group comprising individuals within one-year-age-interval. Both methods showed discrepancy between obtained and chronological age. The Demirjian's method overestimated age with a mean accuracy of 0.45 in boys and 0.42 in girls, while Willems' method showed lower discrepancy (0.12 and 0.16 in boys and girls, respectively). Overall, both methods were unsatisfactory in some age groups, however, Willems' method provided more accurate age estimation in majority of categories. In summary, our results suggest that Willem's method was more accurate for estimating dental age in contemporary Serbian children population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

    PubMed

    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  7. Developmental Regression in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder Identified by a Population-Based Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Rice, Catherine E.; Baio, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the phenomenon of autistic regression using population-based data. The sample comprised 285 children who met the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) case definition within an ongoing surveillance program. Results indicated that children with a previously documented ASD diagnosis had higher rates of autistic regression than children…

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Drooling in 7- to 14-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Susan M.; McCutcheon, Jennifer; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Johnson, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To establish a prevalence estimate for drooling and explore factors associated with drooling in a population sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 7 to 14 years living in Victoria, Australia. Method: A self-report questionnaire was used to collect data on drooling from parents of children born between 1996 and 2001, and registered…

  9. Prevalence and Predictors of Drooling in 7- to 14-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Susan M.; McCutcheon, Jennifer; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Johnson, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To establish a prevalence estimate for drooling and explore factors associated with drooling in a population sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 7 to 14 years living in Victoria, Australia. Method: A self-report questionnaire was used to collect data on drooling from parents of children born between 1996 and 2001, and registered…

  10. Dental care and children with special health care needs: a population-based perspective.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Charlotte W

    2009-01-01

    This paper grew out of a project reviewing progress in children's oral health after Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General was published in 2000. It includes a summary of advances in national surveillance of children with special health care needs (CSHCN), and presents more recent data on unmet dental care need among CSHCN. To that end, we used the 2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs to determine the prevalence of unmet dental care need among CSHCN and to compare this within subgroups of CSHCN, as well as to children without special health care needs, and to results from the previous iteration of this survey. Dental care remains the most frequently cited unmet health need for CSHCN. More CSHCN had unmet needs for nonpreventive than preventive dental care. CSHCN who are teens, poorer, uninsured, had insurance lapses, or are more severely affected by their condition had higher adjusted odds of unmet dental care needs. CSHCN who were both low income and severely affected had 13.4 times the adjusted odds of unmet dental care need. In summary, CSHCN are more likely to be insured and to receive preventive dental care at equal or higher rates than children without special health care needs. Nevertheless, CSHCN, particularly lower income and severely affected, are more likely to report unmet dental care need compared with unaffected children. Despite advances in knowledge about dental care among CSHCN, unanswered questions remain. Recommendations are provided toward obtaining additional data and facilitating dental care access for this vulnerable population.

  11. School performance in children with type 1 diabetes: a contemporary population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Matthew N; McNamara, Kaitrin A R; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Davis, Elizabeth A; Jones, Timothy W

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to examine the school performance of children with type 1 diabetes in comparison to their peers, exploring changes over time, and the impact of clinical factors on school performance. The study included data on 666 children with type 1 diabetes from the Western Australia Children's Diabetes Database. (WACDD), a population-based registry, and 3260 school and school year matched non-diabetic children. Records from the National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) (2008-2011), which examines four educational outcome domains and is administered annually to all years 3, 5, 7, and 9 children in Australia, were sourced for both groups. Clinical data were obtained for the children with diabetes from the WACDD. No significant difference was observed between those with type 1 diabetes and their peers, across any of the tested domains and school years analysed. No decline over time was observed, and no decline following diagnosis was observed. Type 1 diabetes was associated with decreased school attendance, 3% fewer days attended per year. Poorer glycaemic control [higher haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)] was associated with a lower test score [0.2-0.3 SD per 1% (10.9 mmol/mol) increase in HbA1c], and with poorer attendance [1.8% decrease per 1% (10.9 mmol/mol) increase in HbA1c]. No association was observed with history of severe hypoglycaemia, diabetic ketoacidosis or age of onset and school test scores. These results suggest that type 1 diabetes is not associated with a significant decrement in school performance, as assessed by NAPLAN. The association of poorer glycaemic control with poorer school performance serves as further evidence for clinicians to focus on improving glycaemic control. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Exploring the heterogeneity among partially vaccinated children in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Bell, Christopher A; Simmonds, Kimberley A; MacDonald, Shannon E

    2015-08-26

    Vaccination status is often categorized as complete or not-complete. This ignores the potentially important heterogeneity in children whose vaccinations are not-complete. We sought to subcategorize not-completely vaccinated children and determine whether characteristics differed among these subgroups. This retrospective cohort study assessed vaccination status at 2 years of age for 43,965 children in the 2008 Alberta (Canada) birth cohort who were registered with provincial vital statistics records. Children were categorized (based on the five routinely scheduled childhood vaccines) as complete, incomplete, selective, or non-vaccination status. Characteristics derived from administrative health databases were used to determine factors associated with vaccination status. Population-level vaccination status at 2 years of age was found to be: 71.1% complete and 28.9% not complete (21.9% incomplete, 2.0% selective, and 5.1% non-vaccinated). Midwife delivery at home, compared to physician delivery in hospital, was strongly associated with non-vaccination status (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 51.70, 95% CI 37.10-72.10). Factors that might pose barriers to vaccination, such as single marital status (aOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.49-1.67), large number of household children (≥4 vs. 1) (aOR 3.24, 95% CI 2.95-3.54), and multiple household moves (≥3 vs. 0) (aOR 1.69, 95% CI 1.35-2.10), were all strongly associated with incomplete vaccination status. Of the children who were not completely vaccinated at age 2, the vast majority had started but not completed the vaccination series, while a smaller number were selectively vaccinated or not vaccinated at all. Distinct differences are present among these groups that require attention when addressing vaccine coverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Language growth in children with heterogeneous language disorders: a population study.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Vamvakas, George; Gooch, Debbie; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Language development has been characterised by significant individual stability from school entry. However, the extent to which trajectories of language growth vary in children with language disorder as a function of co-occurring developmental challenges is a question of theoretical import, with implications for service provision. SCALES employed a population-based survey design with sample weighting procedures to estimate growth in core language skills over the first three years of school. A stratified sample (n = 529) received comprehensive assessment of language, nonverbal IQ, and social, emotional and behavioural difficulties at 5-6 years of age and 95% of the sample (n = 499) were assessed again at ages 7-8. Language growth was measured using both raw and standard scores in children with typical development, children with language disorder of unknown origin, and children with language disorders associated with a known clinical condition and/or intellectual disability. Overall, language was stable at the individual level (estimated ICC = 0.95) over the first three years of school. Linear mixed effects models highlighted steady growth in language raw scores across all three groups, including those with multiple developmental challenges. There was little evidence, however, that children with language disorders were narrowing the gap with peers (z-scores). Adjusted models indicated that while nonverbal ability, socioeconomic status and social, emotional and behavioural deficits predicted initial language score (intercept), none predicted language growth (slope). These findings corroborate previous studies suggesting stable language trajectories after ages 5-6 years, but add considerably to previous work by demonstrating similar developmental patterns in children with additional nonverbal cognitive deficits, social, emotional, and behavioural challenges, social disadvantage or clinical diagnoses. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and

  14. Prevalence, co-occurrence and decennial trends of family violence toward children in the general population.

    PubMed

    Clément, Marie-Ève; Chamberland, Claire; Bouchard, Camil

    2016-03-14

    In Quebec, three population-based surveys have documented the prevalence of psychological aggression, and minor and severe physical violence toward children. This paper aims to present 1) the results of the 2012 survey with regard to the frequency and annual prevalence of violence, and 2) the trends in all three forms of violence between 1999 and 2012 according to children's age. The three independent surveys were all conducted through telephone interviews in 1999, 2004 and 2012 by the Institut de la Statistique du Québec and reached a total sample of 9,646 children living with a mother figure. Psychological aggression, and minor and severe physical violence were measured using the Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scales. The results show that repeated psychological aggression, after having increased between 1999 (48%) and 2004 (53%), slightly decreased in 2012 (49%). Minor physical violence decreased steadily between 1999 and 2012, from 48% to 35%, and severe physical violence remained stable (6%). These three forms of violence varied by the age category of the children. Finally, the results show that the co-occurrence of the use of physical and psychological violence remained high in all three surveys. The results are consistent with trends in North America and are discussed in terms of services to support families.

  15. Nutritional Status Of Under-Five Children In Libya; A National Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Adel, El Taguri; Marie-Françoise, Rolland-Cachera; Mahmud Salaheddin, M; Najeeb, Elmrzougi; Ahmed, Abdel Monem; Ibrahim, Betilmal; Gerard, Lenoir

    2008-01-01

    Aim To describe the nutritional status of children under-five years of age in Libya. Population and methods A secondary analysis of data of 5348 children taken from a national representative, two-stage, cluster-sample survey that was performed in 1995. Results: Prevalence rates of underweight, wasting, stunting, and overweight were determined using standard definitions in reference to newly established WHO growth charts. The study revealed that 4.3% of children were underweight, 3.7% wasted, 20.7% stunted, and 16.2% overweight. Seventy percent of children had normal weight. Undernutrition was more likely to be found in males, in rural areas, and in underprivileged groups. Overweight was more likely found in urban, privileged groups. Wasting was more common in arid regions; stunting was more common in mountainous regions of Al-Akhdar, Al-Gharbi, and in Sirt. Al-Akhdar had the highest prevalence of overweight. Conclusion The country had a low prevalence of underweight and wasting, moderate prevalence of stunting, and high prevalence of overweight. The country is in the early stages of transition with evidence of dual-burden in some regions. Similar surveys are needed to verify secular trends of these nutritional problems, particularly overweight. PMID:21499476

  16. Trends in otitis media and myringtomy with tube placement among American Indian/Alaska native children and the US general population of children.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Rosalyn J; Holman, Robert C; Plant, Randall; Yorita, Krista L; Holve, Steve; Paisano, Edna L; Cheek, James E

    2009-02-01

    Otitis media (OM) morbidity in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children is historically higher than that in other US children. Outpatient visits and hospitalizations listing OM as a diagnosis and outpatient visits listing myringotomy with insertion of tubes as a procedure among AI/AN children <5 years of age from the Indian Health Service National Patient Information Reporting system for 2003-2005 were analyzed. Outpatient visits and hospitalizations with OM for the general US child population were analyzed using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care and National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys for 2003-2005, and the 2003 Kids' Inpatient Database, respectively. The OM-associated outpatient visit rate for AI/AN children <5 years of age (89 per 100 children/yr) for 2003-2005 was less than that reported for 1994-1996 (138); however, the rate increased for Alaska region (158 to 181). The OM outpatient visit and myringotomy with insertion of tubes rates (181 and 2.6 per 100 children/yr, respectively) for AI/AN children in Alaska were higher than rates for children in each of the other IHS regions and rates for US children (63 and 1.8 per 100 children/yr, respectively). The OM outpatient visit rates for AI/AN infants (184), especially in the Alaska region (334), were higher than the rate for US infants (84). The OM-associated outpatient visit rate in AI/AN children <5 years of age has decreased but remains higher than that of the US general child population; however, the rate increased in the Alaska region, where a limited decline in invasive pneumococcal disease has been demonstrated. The ongoing disparity in OM outpatient visit rates among AI/AN children, especially Alaska Native children, indicates a need for new prevention measures, including expanded-valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, to reduce OM morbidity.

  17. [Prevalence and risk faactors of Helicobacter pylori infection in three populations of children in Puebla, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Calva-Rodríguez, Roberto; Luna-Alcántara, Juan José; Lagunes-Yannelli, Bernardette; Rivera-Domínguez, María Eugenia; Calva-Cerqueira, Daniel; Santos-Marcial, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    The infection by Helicobacter pylori affects approximately 50% of the world population, in average, nevertheless the geographical area and the socioeconomic conditions are determining for the infection in earlier ages, not even that, only 20% of these patients will develop gastroduodenal disease. The infection is distributed universally, concerning more to the countries in routes of development, where he appears with major frequency in the infantile and young population. In Mexico the seroprevalence studies founded that 20% of the children of one year old already had developed antibodies Ig G against Helicobacter pylori and 50% of them are positive 10 years after The major prevalence is reached between 25 and 30 years of age. In our community we do not know the prevalence of active infection. The study group became from three different communities: Group A. Formed with children from half-low socioeconomic level, which they come habitually to a school placed in the conurban zone of the city of Puebla, Mexico and that inhabit a marginal area of asistential services of sanitary attention. Group B. Formed with children from the rural zone, of socioeconomic rural way, which habitually they come to a school placed in the surroundings of the City of Puebla, Mexico and that live in a rural zone, with regular services of sanitary attention. Group C. Formed with children from high socioeconomic level, which they come habitually to a private school placed in the city of It Populates, Mexico and that inhabit in zones with all the sanitary services. The group A was formed by 94 children, 23 of them was positive to Hp antigen (24.46%) and negatives 71 (75.54%). The group B was formed by 94 children, 17 of them was positive to Hp antigen (18.08%) and negatives 77 (81.92%). The group C was formed by 94 children, two of them was positive to Hp antigen (2.12%) and 92 negatives (97.88%). Statistically significant differences was found in: The days that eat meat, the drainage in the

  18. A population-based twin study of parentally reported tactile and auditory defensiveness in young children.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, H H; Van Hulle, C A; Arneson, C L; Schreiber, J E; Gernsbacher, M A

    2006-06-01

    Some adults and children exhibit defensive behaviors to tactile or auditory stimulation. These symptoms occur not only in subsets of children with ADHD, autism, and Fragile X syndrome, but also in the apparent absence of accompanying disorders. Relatively little research explores the correlates and antecedents of sensory defensiveness. Using a population-based sample of 1,394 toddler-aged twins, mothers reported on tactile and auditory defensiveness, temperament, and behavior problems. The incidence of defensive symptoms was widely distributed, with some accumulation of cases in the extreme range. Girls were overrepresented in the extreme tactile defensiveness group. Both auditory and tactile defensiveness were modestly associated with fearful temperament and anxiety, but they were relatively distinct from other common dimensions of childhood behavioral dysfunction. Twin correlations for the full range of scores and concordance rates for the extremes suggested moderate genetic influences, with some indication that the tactile domain might be more heritable than the auditory domain.

  19. A Population-Based Twin Study of Parentally Reported Tactile and Auditory Defensiveness in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, H. H.; Van Hulle, C. A.; Arneson, C. L.; Schreiber, J. E.; Gernsbacher, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Some adults and children exhibit defensive behaviors to tactile or auditory stimulation. These symptoms occur not only in subsets of children with ADHD, autism, and Fragile X syndrome, but also in the apparent absence of accompanying disorders. Relatively little research explores the correlates and antecedents of sensory defensiveness. Using a population-based sample of 1,394 toddler-aged twins, mothers reported on tactile and auditory defensiveness, temperament, and behavior problems. The incidence of defensive symptoms was widely distributed, with some accumulation of cases in the extreme range. Girls were overrepresented in the extreme tactile defensiveness group. Both auditory and tactile defensiveness were modestly associated with fearful temperament and anxiety, but they were relatively distinct from other common dimensions of childhood behavioral dysfunction. Twin correlations for the full range of scores and concordance rates for the extremes suggested moderate genetic influences, with some indication that the tactile domain might be more heritable than the auditory domain. PMID:16649001

  20. Advertising of ultra-processed foods and beverages: children as a vulnerable population.

    PubMed

    Mallarino, Christina; Gómez, Luis F; González-Zapata, Laura; Cadena, Yazmín; Parra, Diana C

    2013-10-01

    The rapid nutrition transition occurring in Latin America has resulted in a sharp increase of childhood overweight and obesity. Recent evidence has shown that food and beverage advertising has a great influence on children's eating behavior. This population has become a key target market for the ultra-processed foods and beverages industry, which is marketing products in an aggressive way. Evidence shows that Latin American countries have poor regulation of ultra-processed foods and beverages advertising, where the discourse of self-regulation still prevails over statutory regulations. The following commentary explores how advertising might play an important role in developing unhealthy dietary patterns and obesity in Latin American children, as well as the urgent need for government action and the involvement of civil society to tackle this public health issue.

  1. [The scientometric analysis of dissertation studies in the field of specialty public health and health care concerning children population].

    PubMed

    Albitskiy, V S; Ustinova, N V; Antonova, Ye V

    2014-01-01

    The article considers trends and priority directions of research studies of the field of public health and health care of children population. The interpretative content analysis was applied to study dissertations in the field of public health and health care in 1991-2012. The sampling included 4194 units of information. The first stage of study established that problems of children population are considered in 14.8% dissertations defended on the mentioned specialty. The next stage the categories of content-analysis were examined. They were divided on the following axes: axis I "Main problem of study", axis II "Localization of study", axis III "Examined age groups", axis IV "Distribution of studies on gender of examined contingent", axis V "Examined contingent", axis VI "Additional medical specialty". It is established that in dissertations on public health and health care of children population on axis I prevails organizational subject matter (27.2%). The health condition of various contingents of children population (16.8%), preventive aspects of pediatrics (12.2%), examination of particular conditions/diseases/classes of diseases (10.8%) are fixed as priority directions. In the most dissertations the regional character of studies is presented (98.2%). The prevailing age group in studies is the adolescent group (19.9%). The inter-disciplinary relationships of dissertations on problems of public health and health care of children population are revealed with such specialties as "Pediatrics" (16.2%), "Obstetrics and gynecology" (3.8%) and "Hygiene" (3.4%). With consideration for recognition of health promotion and optimization of health care of children population as priority directions of public health policy amount of research studies in this field is to be admitted as inadequate. With purpose of optimization of scientific knowledge and development of system of medical social care to children population it is needed to promote research studies of problems of

  2. Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Veronica C.; Muriithi, Patrick; Gilbert-Nandra, Ulrike; Kim, Andrea A.; Schmitz, Mary E.; Odek, James; Mokaya, Rose; Galbraith, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Kenya, it is estimated that there are approximately 3.6 million children aged <18 years who have been orphaned or who are vulnerable. We examined the data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to determine the number and profile of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in Kenya who were aged <18 years. Methods KAIS 2012 was a nationally representative, population-based household survey. We analyzed the data for all the children from birth to age 17 years who resided in an eligible household so as to determine whether their parents were alive or had been very ill to define their OVC status. Results We estimated that there were 2.6 million OVC in Kenya in 2012, of whom 1.8 million were orphans and 750,000 were vulnerable. Among orphans, 15% were double orphans. Over one-third of all the OVC were aged between 10 and 14 years. Households with ≥1 OVC (12% of all households) were usually in the lowest 2 wealth quintiles, and 22% of OVC households had experienced moderate or severe hunger. Receipt of OVC support services was low for medical (3.7%), psychological (4.1%), social (1.3%), and material support (6.2%); educational support was slightly more common (11.5%). Orphanhood among children aged <15 years increased from 1993 to 2003 (P < 0.01) but declined from 2003 to 2012 (P < 0.01). Conclusions The 2.6 million OVC constitute a significant proportion of Kenya’s population aged <18 years. Special attention should be paid to OVC to prevent further vulnerability and ensure their well-being and development as they transition into adulthood. PMID:24732824

  3. Orphans and vulnerable children in Kenya: results from a nationally representative population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Veronica C; Muriithi, Patrick; Gilbert-Nandra, Ulrike; Kim, Andrea A; Schmitz, Mary E; Odek, James; Mokaya, Rose; Galbraith, Jennifer S

    2014-05-01

    In Kenya, it is estimated that there are approximately 3.6 million children aged <18 years who have been orphaned or who are vulnerable. We examined the data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to determine the number and profile of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in Kenya who were aged <18 years. KAIS 2012 was a nationally representative, population-based household survey. We analyzed the data for all the children from birth to age 17 years who resided in an eligible household so as to determine whether their parents were alive or had been very ill to define their OVC status. We estimated that there were 2.6 million OVC in Kenya in 2012, of whom 1.8 million were orphans and 750,000 were vulnerable. Among orphans, 15% were double orphans. Over one-third of all the OVC were aged between 10 and 14 years. Households with ≥1 OVC (12% of all households) were usually in the lowest 2 wealth quintiles, and 22% of OVC households had experienced moderate or severe hunger. Receipt of OVC support services was low for medical (3.7%), psychological (4.1%), social (1.3%), and material support (6.2%); educational support was slightly more common (11.5%). Orphanhood among children aged <15 years increased from 1993 to 2003 (P < 0.01) but declined from 2003 to 2012 (P < 0.01). The 2.6 million OVC constitute a significant proportion of Kenya's population aged <18 years. Special attention should be paid to OVC to prevent further vulnerability and ensure their well-being and development as they transition into adulthood.

  4. Allergen Sensitization Profiles in a Population-Based Cohort of Children Hospitalized for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; McLinden, Daniel J.; Lierl, Michelle B.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Allergen sensitization is associated with asthma morbidity. A better understanding of allergen sensitization patterns among children hospitalized for asthma could help clinicians tailor care more effectively. To our knowledge, however, sensitization profiles among children hospitalized for asthma are unknown. Objectives: We sought to describe allergen sensitization profiles and the distribution of self-reported in-home exposures among children hospitalized for asthma. We also sought to assess how sensitization profiles varied by sociodemographic and clinical factors. Methods: This population-based cohort study includes data for 478 children, aged 4–16 years, hospitalized for an asthma exacerbation. Predictors included child age, race, sex, insurance status, reported income, salivary cotinine, exposure to traffic-related air pollution, asthma and atopic history, and season of admission. Outcomes included serum IgE specific to Alternaria alternata/A. tenuis, Aspergillus fumigatus, American cockroach, mouse epithelium, dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and farinae), cat dander, and dog dander (deemed sensitive if IgE ≥ 0.35). Self-reported adverse exposures included mold/mildew, water leaks, cockroaches, rodents, and cracks or holes in the walls or ceiling. Presence of carpeting and furry pets was also assessed. Measurements and Main Results: More than 50% of included patients were sensitized to each of Alternaria, Aspergillus, dust mite, cat dander, and dog dander; 28% were sensitized to cockroach and 18% to mouse. Roughly 68% were sensitized to three or more allergens with evidence of clustering. African American children, compared with white children, were more likely to be sensitized to Alternaria, Aspergillus, cockroach, and dust mite (all P < 0.01). White children were more likely to be sensitized to mouse, cat, and dog (all P < 0.01). Lower income was associated with cockroach sensitization whereas higher income was associated

  5. The natural history of Crohn's disease in children: a review of population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Duricova, Dana; Fumery, Mathurin; Annese, Vito; Lakatos, Peter L; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported to increase. The aim of this review is to perform a comprehensive literature search of population-based studies focused on the natural history of paediatric-onset CD. A literature search of English and non-English language publications listed in the electronic database of MEDLINE (source PUBMED) and EMBASE from 1935 to 2016 was performed. Population-based studies or national cohorts reporting data on the short-term or long-term disease course of paediatric CD were included. Forty-nine paediatric and 15 nonpaediatric studies on CD have been identified. Up to one-third of children with inflammatory behaviour developed bowel complications more than 5 years after diagnosis. From 48 to 88% of children have experienced at least one corticosteroid course irrespective of the period of diagnosis and up to one-third became steroid dependent. Immunosuppressive preparations were used earlier and more frequently in newer than older cohorts (68 vs. 32% at 5 years) and more than one-third of children have received biological treatment early in the disease course. A decline in the surgery rate might be observed in more recent compared with older unselected populations. The relative risk of cancer in childhood-onset CD as well as the risk of death seem to have increased. Childhood-onset CD seems to be an aggressive phenotype of the disease. Compared with older cohorts, a trend towards decreasing surgical rate can be observed in newer cohorts paralleled by an increase in immunomodulator use and biologicals. Nevertheless, the causative role has yet to be investigated.

  6. Translating Research on Healthy Lifestyles for Children: Meeting the Needs of Diverse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Christine; Floriani, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis This paper provides two examples of approaches nursing can take to reach diverse populations of children and their families to enhance health lifestyles. First a descriptive summary of a brief after-school intervention program aimed at influencing 8 and 9 year-old children’s media habits and the prevention of negative health behaviors will be presented. Design consideration for translating health lifestyles research findings into a Nurse managed inner city primary care practice will be reviewed in the 2nd example. PMID:18674672

  7. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Bennett, Deborah H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual’s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68–0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend

  8. HIV in Children in a General Population Sample in East Zimbabwe: Prevalence, Causes and Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pufall, Erica L.; Nyamukapa, Constance; Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Mutsindiri, Reggie; Chawira, Godwin; Munyati, Shungu; Robertson, Laura; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an estimated half-million children living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The predominant source of infection is presumed to be perinatal mother-to-child transmission, but general population data about paediatric HIV are sparse. We characterise the epidemiology of HIV in children in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the prevalence, possible source of infection, and effects of paediatric HIV in a southern African population. Methods From 2009 to 2011, we conducted a household-based survey of 3389 children (aged 2–14 years) in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe (response rate: 73.5%). Data about socio-demographic correlates of HIV, risk factors for infection, and effects on child health were analysed using multi-variable logistic regression. To assess the plausibility of mother-to-child transmission, child HIV infection was linked to maternal survival and HIV status using data from a 12-year adult HIV cohort. Results HIV prevalence was (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6–2.8%) and did not differ significantly by sex, socio-economic status, location, religion, or child age. Infected children were more likely to be underweight (19.6% versus 10.0%, p = 0.03) or stunted (39.1% versus 30.6%, p = 0.04) but did not report poorer physical or psychological ill-health. Where maternal data were available, reported mothers of 61/62 HIV-positive children were deceased or HIV-positive. Risk factors for other sources of infection were not associated with child HIV infection, including blood transfusion, vaccinations, caring for a sick relative, and sexual abuse. The observed flat age-pattern of HIV prevalence was consistent with UNAIDS estimates which assumes perinatal mother-to-child transmission, although modelled prevalence was higher than observed prevalence. Only 19/73 HIV-positive children (26.0%) were diagnosed, but, of these, 17 were on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions Childhood HIV infection likely arises predominantly from mother-to-child transmission and is

  9. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and adults in California.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Calafat, Antonia M; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E; Tancredi, Daniel J; Tulve, Nicolle S; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual's exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2-8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26-0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68-0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend. Children had

  10. A systematic review of population-based dental caries studies among children in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Agili, Dania Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Objective Dental caries critically impacts the health and development of children. Understanding caries experience is an important task for Saudi Arabian policymakers to identify intervention targets and improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to analyze current data to assess the nationwide prevalence and severity of caries in children, to identify gaps in baseline information, and to determine areas for future research. Methods A search of published and unpublished studies in PubMed, Google, and local Saudi medical and dental journals was conducted for the three keywords “dental,” “caries,” and “Saudi Arabia.” The inclusion criteria required that the articles were population-based studies that assessed the prevalence of dental caries in healthy children attending regular schools using a cross-sectional study design of a random sample. Results/discussion The review was comprised of one unpublished thesis and 27 published surveys of childhood caries in Saudi Arabia. The earliest study was published in 1988 and the most recent was published in 2010. There is a lack of representative data on the prevalence of dental caries among the whole Saudi Arabian population. The national prevalence of dental caries and its severity in children in Saudi Arabia was estimated to be approximately 80% for the primary dentition with a mean dmft of 5.0 and approximately 70% for children’s permanent dentition with a mean DMFT score of 3.5. The current estimates indicate that the World Health Organization (WHO) 2000 goals are still unmet for Saudi Arabian children. Conclusion Childhood dental caries is a serious dental public health problem that warrants the immediate attention of the government and the dental profession officials in Saudi Arabia. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate oral health goals. Without the ability to describe the current situation, it is not possible to

  11. "Every Family": A Population Approach to Reducing Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Children Making the Transition to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Ralph, Alan; Sofronoff, Kate; Gardiner, Paul; Thompson, Rachel; Dwyer, Sarah; Bidwell, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale population trial using the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program (TPS) was evaluated. The target population was all parents of 4- to 7-year-old children residing in ten geographical catchment areas in Brisbane (intervention communities) and ten sociodemographically matched catchment areas from Sydney (5) and Melbourne (5), care as…

  12. Accuracy of nelson and best guess formulae in estimation of weights in nigerian children population.

    PubMed

    Omisanjo, A O; Orimadegun, A E; Akinbami, F O

    2014-12-01

    An alternative method of estimating children's weights, when direct weighing is impracticable is the use of age-based formulae but these formulae have not been validated in Nigeria. This study compares estimated weights from two commonly used formulae against actual weights of healthy children. Children aged 1 month to 11 years (n= 2754) were randomly selected in Ibadan, Nigeria using a two-stage sampling procedure. Weight of each child, measured using a standard calibrated scale and determined using Nelson and Best Guess formulae, were compared. Demographic characteristics were also obtained. Mean percentage error (MPE) was calculated and stratified by gender and age. Bland-Altman graphs were used for visual assessment of the agreement between estimated and measured weights. Clinically acceptable MPE was defined as ±5%. Descriptive statistics and paired t test were used to examine the data. Statistical level of significance was set at p = 0.05. There were 1349 males and 1405 females. Nelson and Best Guess formulae overestimated weight by 10.11% (95% CI: -20.44, 40.65) in infants. For 1-5 years group, Nelson formula marginally underestimated weight by -0.59% (95% CI: -5.16, 3.96) while it overestimated weight by 9.87% (95% CI: 24.89, 44.63) in 6-11 years. Best Guess formulae consistently overestimated weight in all age groups with the MPE ranging from 10.11 to 30.67%. Nelson and Best Guess formulae are inaccurate for weight estimations in infants and children aged 6-11 years. Development of new formulae or modifications should be considered for use in the Nigerian children population.

  13. Factors determining the need for operative reduction in children with intussusception: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Somme, Stig; To, Teresa; Langer, Jacob C

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine if children presenting to a nonteaching hospital were at greater risk for operative reduction of intussusception than those presenting to a teaching hospital. This population-based 8-year study included all children younger than 6 years with intussusception in the province of Ontario, Canada. Multiple logistic regression was used to model markers for operative reduction including age, sex, coexisting conditions, hospital type, and interhospital transfers. Of the 961 children with intussusception, 25.4% had operative reduction. Risk factors for operative reduction were a diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum and transfer from one institution to another after the initial diagnosis. One hundred forty-eight (15.4%) were transferred. Of those transferred and initially admitted to a nonteaching hospital, 87.4% (125/143) were transferred to a teaching hospital. Risk of operative reduction was higher in children transferred more than 1 day after admission (52.0% vs 39.0%). Odds ratios after adjusting for age, sex, and hospital type were 1.95 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.98; P < . 001) for those transferred on the same day and 3.31 (95% confidence interval, 1.34-7.28; P < .01) for those transferred after 24 hours. Children who were presented to a nonteaching hospital and later transferred to a teaching hospital were at greater risk for operative reduction of intussusception, in particular, those who were transferred more than 1 day after admission. These data underline the importance of early diagnosis and timely management of intussusception.

  14. Underlying Factors Associated with Anemia in Amazonian Children: A Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Marly A.; Scopel, Kézia K.G.; Muniz, Pascoal T.; Villamor, Eduardo; Ferreira, Marcelo U.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although iron deficiency is considered to be the main cause of anemia in children worldwide, other contributors to childhood anemia remain little studied in developing countries. We estimated the relative contributions of different factors to anemia in a population-based, cross-sectional survey. Methodology We obtained venous blood samples from 1111 children aged 6 months to 10 years living in the frontier town of Acrelândia, northwest Brazil, to estimate the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency by measuring hemoglobin, erythrocyte indices, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Children were simultaneously screened for vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies; intestinal parasite infections; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; and sickle cell trait carriage. Multiple Poisson regression and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were used to describe associations between anemia and the independent variables. Principal Findings The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and iron-deficiency anemia were 13.6%, 45.4%, and 10.3%, respectively. Children whose families were in the highest income quartile, compared with the lowest, had a lower risk of anemia (aPR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.37–0.98). Child age (<24 months, 2.90; 2.01–4.20) and maternal parity (>2 pregnancies, 2.01; 1.40–2.87) were positively associated with anemia. Other associated correlates were iron deficiency (2.1; 1.4–3.0), vitamin B12 (1.4; 1.0–2.2), and folate (2.0; 1.3–3.1) deficiencies, and C-reactive protein concentrations (>5 mg/L, 1.5; 1.1–2.2). Conclusions Addressing morbidities and multiple nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers and improving the purchasing power of poorer families are potentially important interventions to reduce the burden of anemia. PMID:22574149

  15. Population

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population growth influences many stressors on Narragansett Bay and its Watershed, including all landscape and chemical stressors discussed in other chapters of this report. In numerous ways, population growth affects the condition of the Bay ecosystem, Watershed ecosystem, and h...

  16. The family role in children׳s sleep disturbances: Results from a cross-sectional study in a Portuguese Urban pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Martins, Andreia Luís; Chaves, Petra; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Loureiro, Helena Cristina

    2015-11-01

    Sleep Disorders (SlD) are frequently undervalued complaints in childhood. Several factors influence sleep, particularly socio-cultural environment and medical conditions such as breathing disorders. Poor sleep hygiene has physical, educational and social consequences. In Portugal, there are few published studies about children׳s sleep habits and rarely based on validated questionnaires. To study the prevalence of SlD and associated factors, in an outpatient pediatric population of a Primary Health Care Center (PHCC). Cross-sectional study of children admitted to a PHCC on a suburban area of Lisbon. Children Sleep Habits Questionnaire, validated for the Portuguese population (CSHQ-PT) for the screening of SlD (cut-off=44), was applied to parents, as well as a demographic inquiry. Body mass index z-score was evaluated. Children scoring 44 or above were sent to Pediatric Sleep Disorders consultation (PSDC). Parametric and non-parametric tests were used whenever appropriate. From 128 children, 57.8% were male; the median age was 6.0 years (P 25=5.0; P 75=8.0). The median of cohabitants per family was 4.0 (P 25=3.0; P 75=5.0); 21.1% lived in a single-parent family. From CSHQ-PT, 59.4% (76) scored above the cut-off. Data showed that children from a single-parent family have more SlD (p=0.048), particularly parasomnia (p=0.019). Children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) suffer more daytime sleepiness (p=0.034). From 63 children sent to PSDC, 33 attended. Regarding these children, a difference was found between BMI z-scores of those with and without SDB (p=0.06). Family structure plays a non-negligible role in children's sleep habits. Daily performance of children with SDB may become compromised.

  17. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  18. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  19. [Hygienic aspects of iodic deficiency in the children's population of the Saratov region].

    PubMed

    Istomin, A V; Eliseva, Iu V; Sergeeva, S V; Eliseev, Iu Iu

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of clusters of iodine-scarce states formation among the children's population of the Saratov Region is submitted. The hygienic assessment of iodine content in raw food materials and foodstuffs grown up and made on the territory of the Saratov Region is given. It has been revealed that various food groups were characterized by a low iodine content, which was (mcg/100 g) in the bread--4.5 +/- 1.0; 3,6 +/- 0.8 in wheat grain; 2.7 +/- 0.6 in buckwheat; 2.5 +/- 1.1 in beans; 1.95 +/- 0.9 in peas. The actual iodine content in local vegetables and fruits was 1.3-1.6 fold below than the standard chemical composition according to the national tables, in river fish--twice. The quality analysis of the iodated salt sold in the trading network has been carried out. It has been found out that the use of the iodated salt with low iodine content has decreased the additional direct population risk from 12.34% in 2000 to 0.48% in 2010. For the last few years the use of the iodated salt tends to increase in the Saratov Region. In 2011 the iodated salt was used by 37.2% of urban population and 29.0% of villagers. In 2011 88.6% of school students were provided with the iodated salt in educational institutions of the area. It has been shown that the formation of mass iodine-scarce states among the population in the Saratov Region has lasted for a long time. The screening researches of urine excretion in the organized groups of surveyed children revealed an average level of iodine deficiency. In 2011 the iodine deficiency of moderate degree was registered in 18 areas of the Saratov Region, in 6--of easy degree, whereas the moderately severe deficiency areas were not registered.

  20. High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil.

  1. High Prevalence of Anemia in Children and Adult Women in an Urban Population in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M.; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006–2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

  2. Respiratory health effects of the indoor environment in a population of Dutch children

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkstra, L.; Houthuijs, D.; Brunekreef, B.; Akkerman, I.; Boleij, J.S. )

    1990-11-01

    The effect of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide on respiratory health was studied over a period of 2 yr in a population of nonsmoking Dutch children 6 to 12 yr of age. Lung function was measured at the schools, and information on respiratory symptoms was collected from a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents of the children. Nitrogen dioxide was measured in the homes of all children with Palmes' diffusion tubes. In addition, information on smoking and dampness in the home was collected by questionnaire. There was no relationship between exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the home and respiratory symptoms. Respiratory symptoms were found to be associated with exposure to tobacco smoke and home dampness. There was a weak, negative association between maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF) and exposure to nitrogen dioxide. FEV1, peak expiratory flow, and MMEF were all negatively associated with exposure to tobacco smoke. Home dampness was not associated with pulmonary function. Lung function growth, measured over a period of 2 yr, was not consistently associated with any of the indoor exposure variables. The development of respiratory symptoms over time was not associated with indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide. There was a significant association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the home and the development of wheeze. There was also a significant association between home dampness and the development of cough.

  3. Cancer and congenital abnormalities in Asian children: a population-based study from the West Midlands.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J. E.; Kelly, A. M.; Parkes, S. E.; Cole, T. R.; Mann, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Cancer and associated congenital abnormalities were investigated in Muslim and non-Muslim Asian children from the West Midlands. Cancer incidence rates were calculated for Indian (non-Muslim), Pakistani/Bangladeshi (Muslim) and white children diagnosed from 1978 to 1992. Incidence was significantly higher in the Pakistanis, with an age-standardised rate (ASR) of 163 cases per million per year, compared with 115 for Indian and 125 for white children. Among Asian cancer patients, congenital malformations were significantly more common in Muslim (21%) compared with non-Muslim (7%). In Muslims the malformation excess was caused by autosomal recessive and dominant disorders (in 8% and 5% of cases respectively). Cancer malformation/predisposition syndromes were found in 10% of Muslims, compared with 2% of non-Muslims. In 33% of the Muslims with malformations, childhood cancer and a malformation were also present in a close relative. None of the non-Muslims with malformations had a relative with childhood cancer. The cancer excess in Muslims may be partly related to inherited genes causing both malformations and cancer. The prevalence of autosomal recessive disorders may be related to consanguinity, which is common in the Pakistani Muslim population. The high incidence of autosomal dominant disorders may be related to older paternal age at conception, giving rise to spontaneous mutations. PMID:8519679

  4. An overview of children as a special population-Relevance to predictive biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, Gary L. . E-mail: glkimmel@comcast.net

    2005-08-07

    There has been an increasing focus on children as a special population in the fields of toxicology and epidemiology. At the same time, there has been considerable improvement in the technology for defining normal development and pathways of pathogenesis. Increased support of these areas has culminated in stronger research programs and greater professional involvement in addressing the specific challenges of applying new techniques and data to the improvement of children's health. Part of these challenges relates to the ever changing environment of the child. Not only does a child's anatomy, physiology, and metabolism change with time, but their lifestyle and awareness change as well. All of these can have a significant impact on a child's exposure and the potential of that exposure to have an effect on health and development. This paper will provide a brief overview of the susceptibility of the child relative to sensitive developmental life stages, the changing nature of exposure parameters during development, and how these factors can impact the relevance of predictive biomarkers of chemical toxicity in children.

  5. Population attributable risk of overweight and obesity for high blood pressure in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Hai-Jun; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about whether eliminating overweight and obesity could effectively reduce the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in Chinese children. This study aimed to estimate the magnitude of contribution of overweight and obesity associated with HBP in Chinese children, and assess the theoretical HBP prevalence if overweight and obesity were eliminated. Data on 197,191 participants aged 7-17 years with complete records from the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health conducted in 2010 were included. The population attributable risk of overweight and obesity for HBP was calculated. The prevalence of HBP was 6.8% and 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively. HBP in about 22.9% (95% CI 21.5, 24.2%) of boys and 14.7% (95% CI 13.5, 15.8%) of girls could be attributable to overweight and obesity. If both overweight and obesity were eliminated, the prevalence of HBP theoretically could be reduced to 5.2% in boys and 5.0% in girls. Similar results were found in different age and urban/rural area groups. Eliminating overweight and obesity could theoretically lead to a moderate reduction in the prevalence of HBP in Chinese children.

  6. Cognition in school-aged children with "active" epilepsy: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Das, Krishna B; Chin, Richard F M; Aylett, Sarah E; Burch, Victoria; Gillberg, Christopher; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of population-based data on specific cognitive profiles in childhood epilepsy. This study sought to determine the frequency of impairments in global cognition and aspects of working memory and processing speed in a population-based sample of children with "active" epilepsy (on antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs), and/or had a seizure in the last year). Factors significantly associated with global and specific difficulties in cognition were also identified. A total of 85 (74% of eligible population) school-aged children (5-15 years) with "active" epilepsy underwent comprehensive psychological assessment including assessment of global cognition, working memory, and processing speed. Scores on cognitive subtests were compared via paired-samples t tests. The factors associated with cognitive difficulties were analyzed via linear regression. A total of 24% of children were functioning below IQ 50, and 40% had IQ scores below 70. Scores on the Processing Speed Index were significantly lower than scores on the Verbal or Performance indexes on Wechsler instruments. The Coding subtest was a significant weakness compared with the other Wechsler subtests. A total of 58% of children displayed "memory underachievement" (memory score 1 SD below assessed IQ) on at least one of the four administered working memory subtests. Factors significantly associated with globally impaired cognition included being on polytherapy (β = -13.0; 95% CI [-19.3, -6.6], p = .000) and having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; β = -11.1, 95% CI [-3.0, -19.3], p = .008). Being on polytherapy was also associated with lower scores on the working memory and processing speed composite scores. Having developmental coordination disorder (DCD) was associated with a lower score on the processing speed composite. There is a high rate of global and specific cognitive difficulties in childhood epilepsy. Difficulties are most pronounced in aspects of working memory and processing speed

  7. Identifying Children at Risk of High Myopia Using Population Centile Curves of Refraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanxian; Zhang, Jian; Morgan, Ian G.; He, Mingguang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To construct reference centile curves of refraction based on population-based data as an age-specific severity scale to evaluate their efficacy as a tool for identifying children at risk of developing high myopia in a longitudinal study. Methods Data of 4218 children aged 5–15 years from the Guangzhou Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC) study, and 354 first-born twins from the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study (GTES) with annual visit were included in the analysis. Reference centile curves for refraction were constructed using a quantile regression model based on the cycloplegic refraction data from the RESC. The risk of developing high myopia (spherical equivalent ≤ -6 diopters [D]) was evaluated as a diagnostic test using the twin follow-up data. Results The centile curves suggested that the 3rd, 5th, and 10th percentile decreased from -0.25 D, 0.00 D and 0.25 D in 5 year-olds to -6.00 D, -5.65D and -4.63 D in 15 year-olds in the population-based data from RESC. In the GTES cohort, the 5th centile showed the most effective diagnostic value with a sensitivity of 92.9%, a specificity of 97.9% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 65.0% in predicting high myopia onset (≤-6.00D) before the age of 15 years. The PPV was highest (87.5%) in 3rd centile but with only 50.0% sensitivity. The Mathew’s correlation coefficient of 5th centile in predicting myopia of -6.0D/-5.0D/-4.0D by age of 15 was 0.77/0.51/0.30 respectively. Conclusions Reference centile curves provide an age-specific estimation on a severity scale of refractive error in school-aged children. Children located under lower percentiles at young age were more likely to have high myopia at 15 years or probably in adulthood. PMID:28030593

  8. Analysis of spiral ganglion cell populations in children with normal and pathological ears.

    PubMed

    Miura, Makoto; Sando, Isamu; Hirsch, Barry E; Orita, Yorihisa

    2002-12-01

    This study analyzed features of total and segmental spiral ganglion cell populations in children with normal ears and those with various pathological conditions. Sixty-three human temporal bone specimens, obtained from 43 children 4 days to 9 years of age, were studied histopathologically. These specimens were divided into 5 diagnostic groups: group 1, normal ears (13 ears); group 2, congenital infectious diseases (13 ears); group 3, chromosomal aberrations (11 ears); group 4, multiple craniofacial anomalies with hereditary or genetic causes (21 ears); and group 5, perinatal and postnatal asphyxia (5 ears). Eighteen of the 63 ears had documented profound deafness. In either normal ears (group 1) or those with various pathological conditions (groups 2 through 5), the total number of ganglion cells did not change as a function of age during the first 10 years. The total number of ganglion cells was significantly larger in group 1 (33,702) than in each of groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 (p < .01), and the number was significantly larger in group 2 than in each of groups 4 and 5 (p < .01 and p < .05, respectively). The ratio of basal to apical ganglion cell populations remained constant in both normal and pathological ears. Each ratio of the number of basal and apical ganglion cells in groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 to the mean number in group 1 (basal and apical survival ratios) was at least approximately 40%. There was no statistical difference between these two ratios in groups 2, 3, 4, and 5. The mean (+/-SD) total number of ganglion cells in ears with documented profound deafness was 15,417 +/- 5,944, which is approximately 40% of those present in normal ears. Our results suggest that normally, cochlear neurons are completely present at birth and minimally regress during the first decade of life. In addition, although intergroup differences among various pathological groups were present, the majority of pathological ears had more than 10,000 spiral ganglion cells present. Cochlear

  9. Identifying Children at Risk of High Myopia Using Population Centile Curves of Refraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanxian; Zhang, Jian; Morgan, Ian G; He, Mingguang

    2016-01-01

    To construct reference centile curves of refraction based on population-based data as an age-specific severity scale to evaluate their efficacy as a tool for identifying children at risk of developing high myopia in a longitudinal study. Data of 4218 children aged 5-15 years from the Guangzhou Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC) study, and 354 first-born twins from the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study (GTES) with annual visit were included in the analysis. Reference centile curves for refraction were constructed using a quantile regression model based on the cycloplegic refraction data from the RESC. The risk of developing high myopia (spherical equivalent ≤ -6 diopters [D]) was evaluated as a diagnostic test using the twin follow-up data. The centile curves suggested that the 3rd, 5th, and 10th percentile decreased from -0.25 D, 0.00 D and 0.25 D in 5 year-olds to -6.00 D, -5.65D and -4.63 D in 15 year-olds in the population-based data from RESC. In the GTES cohort, the 5th centile showed the most effective diagnostic value with a sensitivity of 92.9%, a specificity of 97.9% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 65.0% in predicting high myopia onset (≤-6.00D) before the age of 15 years. The PPV was highest (87.5%) in 3rd centile but with only 50.0% sensitivity. The Mathew's correlation coefficient of 5th centile in predicting myopia of -6.0D/-5.0D/-4.0D by age of 15 was 0.77/0.51/0.30 respectively. Reference centile curves provide an age-specific estimation on a severity scale of refractive error in school-aged children. Children located under lower percentiles at young age were more likely to have high myopia at 15 years or probably in adulthood.

  10. The population cost-effectiveness of a parenting intervention designed to prevent anxiety disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Vos, Theo; Rapee, Ronald M; Pirkis, Jane; Chatterton, Mary Lou; Lee, Yu-Chen; Carter, Rob

    2015-09-01

    Prevention and early intervention for anxiety disorders has lagged behind many other forms of mental disorder. Recent research has demonstrated the efficacy of a parent-focussed psycho-educational programme. The programme is directed at parents of inhibited preschool children and has been shown to reduce anxiety disorders at 1 and 3 years following intervention. The current study assesses the cost-effectiveness of this intervention to determine whether it could provide value-for-money across a population. A cost-utility economic framework, using Disability-Adjusted-Life-Years (DALYs) as the outcome, was adopted. Economic modelling techniques were used to assess the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the intervention within the Australian population context, which was modelled as add-on to current practice. The perspective was the health sector. Uncertainty was measured using multivariate probabilistic testing and key assumptions were tested using univariate sensitivity analysis. The median ICER for the intervention was AUD$8,000 per DALY averted with 99.8% of the uncertainty iterations falling below the threshold value-for-money criterion of AUD$50,000 per DALY averted. The results were robust to sensitivity testing. Screening young children in a preschool setting for an inhibited temperament and providing a brief intervention to the parents of children with high levels of inhibition appears to provide very good value-for-money and worth considering in any package of preventive care. Further evaluation of this intervention under routine health service conditions will strengthen conclusions. Acceptability issues associated with this intervention, particularly to preschool staff and parents, need to be considered before wide-scale adoption is undertaken. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. Prevalence and impact of physical disability on Malaysian school-aged children: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Teik-Beng; Kassim, Aminah Bee; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Hasnan, Nazirah; Amin, Rahmah Mohd; Omar, Zaliha; Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi H J

    2009-01-01

    To determine the magnitude and impact of physical disability on Malaysian school-aged children between 7 and less than 18 years old. Cross-sectional population-based household interview with two-stage stratified sampling design. The Malaysian Third National Health of Morbidity Survey, 2006. Overall prevalence of physical disability was 2.8 per 1000 population among children aged between 7 and less than 18 years old. The commonest cause was congenital, in 61.5% of the affected children. Slightly more than a third of these children with physical disability were partially or totally dependent on their caregivers in the various areas of self care (37.4%) and mobility (34.9%). We also found that the more severe the physical disability, the more adverse impact it had on the functional independence and community participation of these children. Among these children, almost 40% of them had no verbal communication, 31.5% had not attended formal education and 21% were housebound. This population-based survey on physical disability among school-aged children highlighted the key areas where physical disability can greatly impact on the child's function. It has identified the areas of needs that require multisectoral involvement and commitment from the government, non-government and private agencies.

  12. Apgar-score in children prenatally exposed to antiepileptic drugs: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jakob; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Vestergaard, Mogens; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It is unknown if prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of low Apgar score in offspring. Setting Population-based study using health registers in Denmark. Participants We identified all 677 021 singletons born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 and linked the Apgar score from the Medical Birth Register with information on the women's prescriptions for AEDs during pregnancy from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. We used the Danish National Hospital Registry to identify mothers diagnosed with epilepsy before birth of the child. Results were adjusted for smoking and maternal age. Results Among 2906 children exposed to AEDs, 55 (1.9%) were born with an Apgar score ≤7 as compared with 8797 (1.3%) children among 674 115 pregnancies unexposed to AEDs (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=1.41 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.85). When analyses were restricted to the 2215 children born of mothers with epilepsy, the aRR of having a low Apgar score associated with AED exposure was 1.34 (95% CI 0.90 to 2.01) When assessing individual AEDs, we found increased, unadjusted RR for exposure to carbamazepine (RR=1.86 (95% CI 1.01 to 3.42)), valproic acid (RR=1.85 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.30)) and topiramate (RR=2.97 (95% CI 1.26 to 7.01)) when compared to unexposed children. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to AEDs was associated with increased risk of being born with a low Apgar score, but the absolute risk of a low Apgar score was <2%. Risk associated with individual AEDs indicate that the increased risk is not a class effect, but that there may be particularly high risks of a low Apgar score associated with certain AEDs. PMID:26359281

  13. Where children and adolescents drown in Queensland: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Belinda A; Watt, Kerrianne; Franklin, Richard C; Nixon, James W; Kimble, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This retrospective population-based study examined drowning location by the site of immersion for both fatal and non-fatal drowning events in Queensland. Drowning location is not routinely collected, and this study used data linkage to identify drowning sites. The resulting enhanced quality data quantify drowning incidence for specific locations by geographic region, age group and by severity for the first time. Design Linked data were accessed from the continuum of care (prehospital, emergency, hospital admission and death data) on fatal and non-fatal drowning episodes in children aged 0–19 years in Queensland for the years 2002–2008 inclusive. Results Drowning locations ranked in order of overall incidence were pools, inland water, coastal water, baths and other man-made water hazards. Swimming pools produced the highest incidence rates (7.31/100 000) for overall drowning events and were more often privately owned pools and in affluent neighbourhoods. Toddlers 0–4 years were most at risk around pools (23.94/100 000), and static water bodies such as dams and buckets—the fatality ratios were highest at these 2 locations for this age group. Children 5–14 years incurred the lowest incidence rates regardless of drowning location. Adolescents 15–19 years were more frequently involved in a drowning incident on the coast shoreline, followed by inland dynamic water bodies. Conclusions Linked data have resulted in the most comprehensive data collection on drowning location and severity to date for children in the state of Queensland. Most mortality and morbidity could have been prevented by improving water safety through engaged supervision around pools and bath time, and a heightened awareness of buckets and man-made water hazards around the farm home for young children. These data provide a different approach to inform prevention strategies. PMID:26610762

  14. Prophylactic ranitidine treatment in critically ill children – a population pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Hawwa, Ahmed F; Westwood, Paul M; Collier, Paul S; Millership, Jeffrey S; Yakkundi, Shirish; Thurley, Gillian; Shields, Mike D; Nunn, Anthony J; Halliday, Henry L; McElnay, James C

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in critically ill children and to determine the influence of various clinical and demographic factors on its disposition. Methods Data were collected prospectively from 78 paediatric patients (n = 248 plasma samples) who received oral or intravenous ranitidine for prophylaxis against stress ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding or the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Plasma samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the data were subjected to population pharmacokinetic analysis using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Results A one-compartment model best described the plasma concentration profile, with an exponential structure for interindividual errors and a proportional structure for intra-individual error. After backward stepwise elimination, the final model showed a significant decrease in objective function value (−12.618; P < 0.001) compared with the weight-corrected base model. Final parameter estimates for the population were 32.1 l h−1 for total clearance and 285 l for volume of distribution, both allometrically modelled for a 70 kg adult. Final estimates for absorption rate constant and bioavailability were 1.31 h−1 and 27.5%, respectively. No significant relationship was found between age and weight-corrected ranitidine pharmacokinetic parameters in the final model, with the covariate for cardiac failure or surgery being shown to reduce clearance significantly by a factor of 0.46. Conclusions Currently, ranitidine dose recommendations are based on children's weights. However, our findings suggest that a dosing scheme that takes into consideration both weight and cardiac failure/surgery would be more appropriate in order to avoid administration of higher or more frequent doses than necessary. PMID:23016949

  15. Population impact of preterm birth and low birth weight on developmental disabilities in US children.

    PubMed

    Schieve, Laura A; Tian, Lin H; Rankin, Kristin; Kogan, Michael D; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Visser, Susanna; Rosenberg, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    Although previous studies demonstrate associations between adverse perinatal outcomes and developmental disabilities (DDs), study of population impacts is limited. We computed relative risks adjusted (aRRs) for sociodemographic factors and component and summary population attributable fractions (PAFs) for associations between very low birth weight (VLBW, all preterm births), moderately low birth weight (MLBW) + Preterm, MLBW at term, and normal birth weight (NBW) + Preterm and seven DDs (cerebral palsy [CP], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], intellectual disability [ID], behavioral-conduct disorders, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], learning disability [LD], and other developmental delay) among children aged 3-17 years in the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. VLBW-Preterm, MLBW-Preterm and NBW-Preterm were strongly to moderately associated with CP (aRRs: 43.5, 10.1, and 2.2, respectively; all significant) and also associated with ID, ASD, LD, and other developmental delay (aRR ranges: VLBW-Preterm 2.8-5.3; MLBW-Preterm 1.9-2.8; and NBW-Preterm 1.6-2.3). Summary PAFs for preterm birth and/or LBW were 55% for CP, 10%-20% for ASD, ID, LD, and other developmental delay, and less than 5% for ADHD and behavioral-conduct disorders. Findings were similar whether we assessed DDs as independent outcomes or within mutually exclusive categories accounting for DD co-occurrence. Preterm birth has a sizable impact on child neurodevelopment. However, relative associations and population impacts vary widely by DD type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tropical influenza and weather variability among children in an urban low-income population in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Imai, Chisato; Brooks, W Abdullah; Chung, Yeonseung; Goswami, Doli; Anjali, Bilkis Ara; Dewan, Ashraf; Kim, Ho; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Influenza seasonality in the tropics is poorly understood and not as well documented as in temperate regions. In addition, low-income populations are considered highly vulnerable to such acute respiratory disease, owing to limited resources and overcrowding. Nonetheless, little is known about their actual disease burden for lack of data. We therefore investigated associations between tropical influenza incidence and weather variability among children under five in a poor urban area of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Acute respiratory illness data were obtained from a population-based respiratory and febrile illness surveillance dataset of Kamalapur, a low-income urban area in southeast Dhaka. Analyzed data were from January 2005 through December 2008. Nasopharyngeal wash specimens were collected from every fifth eligible surveillance participant during clinic visits to identify influenza virus infection with viral culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Time series analysis was conducted to determine associations between the number of influenza cases per week and weather factors. Zero-inflated Poisson and generalized linear Poisson models were used in the analysis for influenza A and B, respectively. Influenza A had associations with minimum temperature, relative humidity (RH), sunlight duration, and rainfall, whereas only RH was associated with influenza B. Although associations of the other weather factors varied between the two subtypes, RH shared a similar positive association when humidity was approximately 50-70%. Our findings of a positive RH association is consistent with prior studies, and may suggest the viral response in the tropics. The characteristics of settlement areas, population demographics, and typical overcrowding of urban poverty may also contribute to different impacts of rainfall from higher economic population. Further investigations of associations between tropical influenza and weather variability for urban low-income populations

  17. Parents with mental health problems and their children in a German population based sample: Results of the BELLA study

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Christiane; Barkmann, Claus; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Hölling, Heike; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Klasen, Fionna

    2017-01-01

    Background Mental health problems (MHP) of parents are associated with an increased risk of psychological and developmental difficulties in their children. This study aims at analyzing population-based data of parents with MHP and their children and the effects of associated risk factors in order to further targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions. Methods The BELLA study is the mental health module of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey among Children and Adolescents. MHP in parents and in their children as well as associated risk factors were examined in a sample of N = 1158 parents with children aged 11 to 17 years. Results Parental MHP were identified in 18.6% of the sample. Risk factors associated with parental MHP were low SES, parental unemployment, stressful life events, parental daily strain, parental chronic disease, and child MHP. A rate of 19.1% of the children of parents with MHP reported MHP themselves, the corresponding rate among children of parents without MHP was 7.7%. In multiple regression analyses the risk for children of parents with MHP to report MHP themselves was almost two times higher than the risk of children of parents without MHP. Other significant associations with child MHP included gender, the parents’ age, and stressful life events. Conclusions Parental MHP constitute a significant risk for the mental health of their children. Targeted screening methods and preventive interventions are needed. PMID:28671981

  18. Headache prevalence and related symptoms, family history, and treatment habits in a representative population of children in Alba, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavestro, Cinzia; Montrucchio, Francesca; Benci, Paola; Pompilio, Domenica; Mandrino, Silvia; Cencio, Pier Giuseppe; Frigeri, Maria Cristina; Di Pietrantonj, Carlo

    2014-09-01

    Headache is a widespread disorder in children, but little is known about the headache prevalence in northwest Italy, on less frequent migraine equivalents, family history, and treatment habits in children. This is an epidemiologic population-based study of a representative sample of children aged 3 to 11 years, conducted in Alba, Italy. We used a self-administered questionnaire to acquire information on gender, age, headache, possible migraine equivalents, family history for various diseases, and treatment habits. We distributed the questionnaire to 1152 children, and a total of 649 questionnaires were successfully completed. In the preschool age, 10.3% (seven boys and nine girls) of children suffered from headache. In school-age children, the prevalence of headache was 31.4% (75 boys and 80 girls; 27% in 6 year olds and 41% at age 9 years). We found a significant correlation between headache and abdominal pain in the entire sample and with cyclic vomiting syndrome and dizziness in school-age children only. Headache correlated significantly with a family history of headache, thyroid diseases, diabetes, hypertension, and vascular diseases. Headache was treated with drugs, primarily paracetamol, in 60 of the 171 (35%) children who reported headache and in 61% of the children with migraine; no subjects were treated with triptans. Headache is widespread in children, with a high prevalence of associated symptoms and family history for many other headache-related disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  20. Population distribution of Trichuris trichiura in a community of Jamaican children.

    PubMed

    Bundy, D A; Thompson, D E; Golden, M H; Cooper, E S; Anderson, R M; Harland, P S

    1985-01-01

    The Trichuris trichiura worm burdens of 23 children living in a Place-of-Safety in Kingston, Jamaica, were assessed by stool collection for more than five days after treatment with mebendazole. This procedure was repeated after a seven-month period of natural re-infection. For both collections the maximum rate of worm expulsion was achieved on the fourth day after starting treatment. The worm population distributions were overdispersed and well described by the negative binomial probability model (k = 0.29) in each case. For any one individual, the number of worms passed on the first expulsion was unrelated, absolutely or relatively, to the number passed on the second. These data suggest that: knowledge of the time dependency of helminth expulsion is essential for the accurate estimation of worm burdens by this method; populations of Trichuris are more highly aggregated than those of Ascaris and may thus be more susceptible to control by selective rather than random chemotherapy; and the inherent predisposition of hosts to infection may be of minor importance in determining the distribution of worms in the population-heavily infected hosts appear no more or less likely to acquire large worm burdens on subsequent exposures.

  1. Blood Lead Levels and Associated Factors among Children in Guiyu of China: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Pi; Xu, Xijin; Huang, Binliang; Sun, Di; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children's health problems caused by the electronic waste (e-waste) lead exposure in China remains. To assess children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in Guiyu of China and investigate risk factors of children's elevated BLLs in Guiyu. Material and Methods 842 children under 11 years of age from Guiyu and Haojiang were enrolled in this population-based study during 2011–2013. Participants completed a lifestyle and residential environment questionnaire and their physical growth indices were measured, and blood samples taken. Blood samples were tested to assess BLLs. Children's BLLs between the two groups were compared and factors associated with elevated BLLs among Guiyu children were analyzed by group Lasso logistic regression model. Results Children living in Guiyu had significant higher BLLs (7.06 µg/dL) than the quantity (5.89 µg/dL) of Haojiang children (P<0.05). Subgroup analyses of BLLs exceeding 10 µg/dL showed the proportion (24.80%) of high-level BLLs for Guiyu children was greater than that (12.84%) in Haojiang (P<0.05). Boys had greater BLLs than girls, irrespectively of areas (P<0.05). The number of e-waste piles or recycling workshops around the house (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 3.87) significantly contributed to the elevated BLLs of children in Guiyu, and girls had less risk (odds ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.83) of e-waste lead exposure than boys. Conclusions This analysis reinforces the importance of shifting e-waste recycling piles or workshops to non-populated areas as part of a comprehensive response to e-waste lead exposure control in Guiyu. To correct the problem of lead poisoning in children in Guiyu should be a long-term mission. PMID:25136795

  2. Primary healthcare usage and morbidity among immigrant children compared with non-immigrant children: a population-based study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Møen, Kathy Ainul; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Health status, disease spectrum and use of healthcare have been reported to vary across groups of migrants and according to the different phases of migration. However, most studies are conducted among adults. This study assesses usage of primary healthcare (PHC) by children with immigrant background compared with non-immigrant children in Norway and describes their relative morbidity burden. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting This study used 3 linked population-based registers in Norway for children under 18 years of age in 2008. Main exposure and outcome measures Immigrants were defined as children with both parents born abroad, and further classified into first and second generation, and according to the World Bank income categories of their parents' country of origin. Usage and morbidity were assessed with negative binomial regression and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Further, population-attributable fraction analyses on PHC visits were conducted to estimate the impact on the primary health system. Participants 1 168 365 children including 119 251 with immigrant background. Results The mean number of visits to PHC for non-immigrant children was 1.40 compared with 1.19 for immigrants from high-income countries (HIC) and 1.76 for immigrants from low-income countries (LIC). Compared with non-immigrants, first generation immigrants used PHC significantly less after adjusting for age and sex (incidence risk ratio (IRR) 0.70 (HIC) to 0.93 (LIC)) while second generation immigrant children generally used PHC more (IRR 1.03 (HIC) to 1.43 (LIC)); however, the median number of visits were similar between all groups. The morbidity spectrum also varied between the groups. Conclusions Compared with non-immigrants, the excess number of consultations attributable to immigrant groups corresponds to around 1.3% of PHC visits among children. PMID:27737883

  3. Academic achievement in school-aged children with active epilepsy: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Das, Krishna B; Chin, Richard F C; Aylett, Sarah E; Burch, Victoria; Gillberg, Christopher; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R

    2014-12-01

    To provide population-based data on the performance of school-aged children with epilepsy on measures of academic achievement and factors associated with this performance after controlling for IQ. Eighty-five (74%) of 115 children with "active" epilepsy (experienced a seizure in the past year and/or on antiepileptic drugs [AEDs]) underwent psychological assessment including measures of IQ, aspects of working memory and processing speed. Sixty-five of the 85 were able to complete subtests on the Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition (WRAT-4). Paired sample t-tests were conducted to compare subtest scores. Factors associated with academic performance after controlling for IQ were examined using linear regression. Seventy-two percent of the children, who could complete subtests on the WRAT-4, displayed "low achievement" (1 standard deviation [SD] below test mean) and 42% displayed "underachievement" (1 SD below assessed IQ) on at least one of the four WRAT-4 subtests. The mean scores on the Math Computation subtest and Sentence Comprehension subtest were significantly lower than scores on the Word Reading (p < 0.05) and Spelling (p < 0.001) subtests. Younger age at seizure onset was associated (p < 0.05) with decreased scores on three of the four WRAT-4 subtests after controlling for IQ. Difficulties with auditory working memory were associated with difficulties on reading comprehension (p < 0.05), and parent-reported difficulties with school attendance were associated with decreased scores on the Spelling and Word Reading subtests after controlling for IQ (p < 0.05). Difficulties with academic achievement are common in school-aged children with "active" epilepsy. Much of the difficulties can be attributed to lowered global cognition. However, specific cognitive deficits, younger onset of first seizure, and school attendance difficulties may contribute to difficulties independent of global cognition. There is a need to screen all children with "active

  4. Epilepsy among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Jokiranta, Elina; Sourander, Andre; Suominen, Auli; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Brown, Alan S; Sillanpää, Matti

    2014-10-01

    The present population-based study examines associations between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cohort includes register data of 4,705 children born between 1987 and 2005 and diagnosed as cases of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. Each case was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Epilepsy was associated with ASD regardless of the subgroup after adjusting for covariates. The associations were stronger among cases with intellectual disability, especially among females. Epilepsy's age at onset was similar between the cases and controls regardless of the ASD subgroup. These findings emphasize the importance to examine the neurodevelopmental pathways in ASD, epilepsy and intellectual disability.

  5. Anthelmintics residues in raw milk. Assessing intake by a children population.

    PubMed

    Tsiboukis, D; Sazakli, E; Jelastopulu, E; Leotsinidis, M

    2013-01-01

    Anthelmintics, such as benzimidazoles and probenzimidazoles, are veterinary drugs used against endoparasites in food producing animals. A number of these drugs are considered responsible for embryotoxicity and teratogenicity. The residue levels of Albendazole, Febantel, Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and some of their metabolites (Albendazole sulphoxide, Albendazole sulphone, Fenbendazole sulfone) were assessed in 123 (42 goat, 69 sheep, 12 bovine) raw milk samples collected from all farms throughout Southern Greece. Sample analysis was performed by HPLC with Diode Array Detector. A high percentage (27.6%) of the samples examined was found to be positive for the investigated compounds. In 14 samples (11.4%), the residues' concentration exceeded the established Maximum Residue Limits. Estimated Daily Intakes were calculated for a population of 723 children aged 10-12 years. Data on milk consumption were obtained by personal interview through a 7-day food frequency questionnaire. The maximum Estimated Daily Intakes for the anthelmintic residues, concerning raw milk, did not exceed the current Acceptable Daily Intake.

  6. [Risk factors for children's population health in stressed environmental conditions of lead pollition].

    PubMed

    Baidaulet, I O; Namazbaeva, Z I; Dasybayeva, G N; Bazeluk, L T; Sabirov, Zh V; Kusainova, D S

    2013-01-01

    Adverse environmental conditions in Shymkent significantly increase the risk of accumulation of lead in the bodies of the children of the third generation of the population residing in the contaminated areas, cause deteriorations of antioxidant defense in the respiratory system, greatly decline barrier-protective properties of cellular systems of the local immunity, disturb the process of hematopoiesis. Performed statistical analysis of the data permitted to identify a correlation relationship between the accumulation of lead in the soil and the change in the functional activity of the cells of buccal cheek epithelium, catalase activity in expired breath condensate. Haematological signs of lead poisoning include not only the number of reticulocytes, but also the correction (RPI) for the alteration with allowances made for the maturation of reticulocytes in peripheral blood circulation as early criterion for toxic anemia.

  7. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Indigenous kindergarten children--a cross sectional population based study.

    PubMed

    Hickie, Megan; Douglas, Kirsty; Ciszek, Karen

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of overweight and obese Indigenous kindergarten children in the Australian Capital Territory. A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected as part of the Kindergarten Health Check, a cross sectional population based survey conducted in the ACT from 2004 to 2008. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly higher among Indigenous (18%) compared to non-Indigenous kindergarten children (14%) (p=0.02, OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.051-1.862). Ten percent of parents of normal weight children, and 16% of parents of overweight or obese children, reported concerns about weight and eating habits, with no significant difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous parents. The low level of parental concern about obesity suggests that general practitioners should persist with screening for, and managing, overweight and obesity in kindergarten-aged children in similar jurisdictions on a proactive basis.

  8. Are Children of Alcoholic Mothers More Psychologically Damaged Compared with Children of Mothers from the General Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutzell, Sture

    1995-01-01

    Examined whether children of alcoholic mothers were more psychologically damaged than children of nonalcoholic mothers. The subject families' potential for creating a good upbringing environment and subjects' childhoods were studied. Found that children of alcoholic mothers develop social maladjustment problems and addictions, and have a high rate…

  9. Learning about population problem: children's attitudes toward family planning in India.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, S

    1979-03-01

    To determine the attitudes of Indian children and adolescents toward family planning, a sample of 863 high school students (aged 10-18 years) from the state of Andhra Pradesh was asked 2 operational questions ("have you heard about family planning" and "why does India need family planning?") to measure levels of family planning awareness, and 2 additional questions to measure approval of family planning ("do you think family planning is a good thing" and "which is better, a big family or a small family?"). Other variables considered were religion, socioeconomic status, education, political knowledge, and media exposure. 70% of the respondents had heard of family planning. 49% were able to state a reason for family planning (FP), while 32% were able to grasp the causal connection between population growth and economic development. Of the students who had heard of FP, 85% believed that FP was good, while 14% favored large families. The findings reflected the higher level of approval of the Andhra Pradesh youth towards FP compared with their adults; this was attributed to generational differences, and possibly to the lower level of education of Indian adults. Religion exhibited a strong effect on youth's attitudes toward FP, with Hindu children exhibiting a more favorable attitude compared with their Muslim counterparts who felt that family planning was bad and large families were good. Although education appears to be the critical determinant of family planning awareness, the results suggest that overall, the integral element of the socialization process is exposure to a modernizing environment. Nevertheless, reduction of population growth rate still largely depends on the Indian government's provision of educational opportunities to its youth.

  10. Thyroid function and morphology in overweight and obese children and adolescents in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huanhuan; Zhang, Hao; Tang, Wei; Xi, Qian; Liu, Xiaoyun; Duan, Yu; Liu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the changes in thyroid function and morphology in overweight and obese school-aged children and adolescents in Chinese population. Altogether, 880 children and adolescents were enrolled in a cross-sectional survey in Anhui Province and we assessed thyroid function, thyroid ultrasound, metabolic indicators and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in 781 subjects, which were divided into obesity (n=327), overweight (n=242), and normal-weight (n=212) groups. Overweight and obese subjects were further divided into four subgroups according to thyroid peroxidase antibody and ultrasound pattern to compare thyroid function and morphology with or without thyroid autoimmune evidence. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), as well as thyroid volume, were found to be positively associated with body mass index Z-score, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and/or waist circumference (WC). Conversely, free thyroxine was negatively associated with WC. The detection rates of thyroid nodules among these groups were not significantly different (p=0.828). Among the four subgroups in 569 overweight or obese subjects, the changes in thyroid function and volume were more obvious in group D which showed no autoimmune evidence. The levels of hs-CRP were also higher in the overweight and obese groups with or without autoimmune evidence than in the normal-weight group (p<0.05). Thyroid function and morphology may be affected in obese and overweight children and adolescents with elevated TSH, FT3 and thyroid volume. The detection rates of thyroid nodules may not be affected by obesity. Alterations in thyroid function and morphology cannot be completely explained by local autoimmune responses. Low-grade inflammation may be involved in the changes in thyroid function and morphology in obesity.

  11. A population-based investigation of the autoantibody profile in mothers of children with atrioventricular block.

    PubMed

    Salomonsson, S; Dzikaite, V; Zeffer, E; Eliasson, H; Ambrosi, A; Bergman, G; Fernlund, E; Theander, E; Ohman, A; Rydberg, A; Skogh, T; Wållberg-Jonsson, S; Elfving, A; Fored, M; Ekbom, A; Lundström, U; Mellander, M; Winqvist, O; Sonesson, S-E; Gadler, F; Jonzon, A; Wahren-Herlenius, M

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the antigen specificity and occurrence of individual autoantibodies in mothers of children diagnosed with atrioventricular (AV) block in a nation-wide setting. Patients with AV block detected before 15 years of age were identified using national quality registries as well as a network of pediatric and adult cardiologists and rheumatologists at the six university hospitals in Sweden. Patients with gross heart malformations, surgically or infectiously induced blocks were excluded. Blood samples were obtained from the mothers and maternal autoantibody profile, including the occurrence of antibodies against Ro52, Ro60, La, SmB, SmD, RNP-70k, RNP-A, RNP-C, CENP-C, Scl-70, Jo-1, ribosomal RNP and histones was investigated in 193 mothers of children with AV block by immunoblotting and ELISA. Autoantibody reactivity was detected in 48% (93/193) of the mothers of children with AV block. In autoantibody-positive mothers, the vast majority, 95% (88/93), had antibodies against Ro52, while 63% (59/93) had autoantibodies to Ro60 and 58% (54/93) had autoantibodies to La. In addition, 13% (12/93) of the autoantibody-positive mothers had antibodies to other investigated antigens besides Ro52, Ro60 and La, and of these anti-histone antibodies were most commonly represented, detected in 8% (7/93) of the mothers. In conclusion, this Swedish population-based study confirms that maternal autoantibodies may associate with heart block in the child. Further, our data demonstrate a dominant role of Ro52 antibodies in association with AV block.

  12. Tobacco smoke exposure and multiplexed immunoglobulin E sensitization in children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yao, T-C; Chang, S-W; Hua, M-C; Liao, S-L; Tsai, M-H; Lai, S-H; Tseng, Y-L; Yeh, K-W; Tsai, H-J; Huang, J-L

    2016-01-01

    Although there is evidence that exposure to tobacco smoke is harmful to children's respiratory health, the effects of tobacco smoke exposure on the regulation of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated immune responses to specific allergens remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between objectively assessed tobacco smoke exposure and specific IgE profiles for a broad spectrum of allergens in a population setting. Children aged 5-18 years (N = 1315) were assessed using serum cotinine measurement and microarray-based multiplexed detection of specific IgE against 40 allergens. Serum cotinine levels were positively associated with sensitization to foods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.95; 95% CI: 1.59-15.34), cockroaches (AOR = 3.77; 95% CI: 1.49-9.51), and pollen (AOR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.20-6.73) while the association was borderline significant for animals (AOR = 2.53; 95% CI: 0.92-6.93). No associations were found for sensitization against mites, mold, and latex. When considering the degree of allergic sensitization, serum cotinine levels were positively correlated to the number of sensitization to cockroaches (P = 0.004), pollen (P = 0.006), and foods (P < 0.001), with statistically significant positive dose-response relationships (all P < 0.01). Similar results were observed when summing up specific IgE concentrations for the aforementioned allergen categories. The association between tobacco smoke exposure and IgE sensitization to environmental allergens varies for different allergens among children. This study demonstrates that elevated serum cotinine levels are significantly associated with IgE sensitization to cockroaches, grass pollen, and certain foods, with potential dose-dependent relationships. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cortical thickness and prosocial behavior in school-age children: A population-based MRI study.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, Sandra; Wildeboer, Andrea; Muetzel, Ryan L; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; El Marroun, Hanan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; van der Lugt, Aad; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; White, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Prosocial behavior plays an important role in establishing and maintaining relationships with others and thus may have important developmental implications. This study examines the association between cortical thickness and prosocial behavior in a population-based sample of 6- to 9-year-old children. The present study was embedded within the Generation R Study. Magnetic resonance scans were acquired from 464 children whose parents had completed the prosocial scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. To study the association between cortical thickness and prosocial behavior, we performed whole-brain surface-based analyses. Prosocial behavior was related to a thicker cortex in a cluster that covers part of the left superior frontal and rostral middle frontal cortex (p < .001). Gender moderated the association between prosocial behavior and cortical thickness in a cluster including the right rostral middle frontal and superior frontal cortex (p < .001) as well as in a cluster covering the right superior parietal cortex, cuneus, and precuneus (p < .001). Our results suggest that prosocial behavior is associated with cortical thickness in regions related to theory of mind (superior frontal cortex, rostral middle frontal cortex cuneus, and precuneus) and inhibitory control (superior frontal and rostral middle frontal cortex).

  14. Multiplexed immunoglobulin E sensitization in relation to exhaled nitric oxide in a population sample of children.

    PubMed

    Yao, T-C; Tsai, H-J; Tu, Y-L; Chang, S-W; Hua, M-C; Liao, S-L; Tsai, M-H; Chiu, C-Y; Lai, S-H; Yeh, K-W; Huang, J-L

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) profile for 40 allergens using a novel microarray technique (BioIC) and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in a population sample of 1321 children. Significant positive associations were found between FeNO and sensitization to mites (P < 0.001), animals (P = 0.001), cockroaches (P < 0.001), and foods (P = 0.042), and furthermore, between FeNO and the number of sensitizations (all P < 0.05) or the sum of specific IgE (all P ≤ 0.01) against the aforementioned allergen categories. Specifically, sensitization to the following allergens was significantly related to higher FeNO: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farina, Blomia tropicalis, cat, German cockroach, Oriental cockroach, codfish, crab, shrimp, and cheese (all P ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, IgE sensitization to mites, pets, cockroaches, seafood, and cheese, respectively, is significantly associated with elevated FeNO levels in a dose-dependent fashion in children. Our results provide new evidence that sensitization to certain food allergens may contribute to prompt inflammation in the airways.

  15. Freshwater drowning and near-drowning accidents involving children: a five-year total population study.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J; Wilkey, I

    A large total population study of childhood fresh water immersion accidents is reported. The study was undertaken in the City of Brisbane over the five-year period 1971 to 1975 inclusive, and 111 fresh water immersion accidents involving children were studied and analysed. The childhood fresh water immersion accident rate, including drowning and near-drownings, of 10-43 per year per 100,000 at risk (fatality rate of 5-17) is the highest reported. If an unsupervised child gets into difficulties in fresh water and loses consciousness he has a 50% chance of dying. The immersion accident rate has doubled over the last six years. Age-specific immersion accident rates have been calculated, and have revealed that, in the toddler group (12 months to 23 months), the fresh water immersion accident rate is 50-01 per 100,000 (fatality rate of 22-55). Rates for drowning and near-drowning accidents after a fresh water immersion, by site, age and outcome (survival versus fatality), are also presented for the first time. Swimming pools produce 6-20 immersion accidents per year per 100,000 children at risk, and the domestic family bath tub produces 1-78. Possible factors explaining the high incidence are discussed, and comparisons of drowning rates from other centres are made.

  16. Structured Approaches to Participatory Design for Children: Can Targeting the Needs of Children with Autism Provide Benefits for a Broader Child Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Laura; Johnson, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    In the past technology products created to overcome accessibility and usability issues experienced by individuals with special needs have also resulted in greater usability for the wider population. Technology is increasingly being seen as a key component within the education of children with special needs and recently researchers have developed…

  17. Structured Approaches to Participatory Design for Children: Can Targeting the Needs of Children with Autism Provide Benefits for a Broader Child Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Laura; Johnson, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    In the past technology products created to overcome accessibility and usability issues experienced by individuals with special needs have also resulted in greater usability for the wider population. Technology is increasingly being seen as a key component within the education of children with special needs and recently researchers have developed…

  18. Bilateral hypodontia is more common than unilateral hypodontia in children with Down syndrome: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Els-Marie M; Axelsson, Stefan; Austeng, Marit E; Øverland, Britt; Valen, Ingrid E; Jensen, Terese A; Akre, Harriet

    2014-08-01

    In individuals with simple hypodontia, congenital absence of teeth commonly affects just one tooth of a pair, not both. However, patterns of hypodontia have not been fully explored in children with Down syndrome (DS). We describe the frequency and left-right symmetry of hypodontia in the permanent dentition of 8- to 9-year-old Norwegian children with DS. This population-based cross-sectional study was part of a national prospective study evaluating upper airway function, hearing, dental, and craniofacial characteristics in a cohort of children with DS born in 2002. The cohort consisted of 29 children with DS and represented 57 per cent of all children born with DS in Norway in 2002. Hypodontia was assessed using panoramic and/or dental radiographs. Data were collected prospectively at TAKO-Centre, National Resource Centre for Oral Health in Rare Medical Conditions, Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Hypodontia of permanent teeth, excluding third molars, was found in 61.5 per cent of the 26 children included in the final sample. Among the 16 children with hypodontia, 75.0 per cent were missing two or more permanent teeth. Two children (7.7 per cent) had severe hypodontia (oligodontia). The teeth most often missing were the maxillary lateral incisors, followed by the mandibular second premolars and maxillary second premolars. Most (68.9 per cent) cases of hypodontia occurred bilaterally. The majority of the children with DS were missing one or more permanent teeth. Unlike in the general population, bilateral hypodontia was more common than unilateral hypodontia in this sample of children with DS. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Population Intervention Models to Estimate Ambient NO2 Health Effects in Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Mortimer, Kathleen M.; Dufour, Mi-Suk Kang; Tager, Ira B.

    2015-01-01

    Health effects of ambient air pollution are most frequently expressed in individual studies as responses to a standardized unit of air pollution changes (e.g., an interquartile interval), which is thought to enable comparison of findings across studies. However, this approach does not necessarily convey health effects in terms of a real-world air pollution scenario. In the present study, we employ population intervention modeling to estimate the effect of an air pollution intervention that makes explicit reference to the observed exposure data and is identifiable in those data. We calculate the association between ambient summertime NO2 and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25–75) in a cohort of children with asthma in Fresno, California. We scale the effect size to reflect NO2 abatement on a majority of summer days. The effect estimates were small, imprecise, and consistently indicated improved pulmonary function with decreased NO2. The effects ranged from −0.8% of mean FEF25–75 (95% Confidence Interval: −3.4 , 1.7) to −3.3% (95% CI: −7.5, 0.9). We conclude by discussing the nature and feasibility of the exposure change analyzed here given the observed air pollution profile, and we propose additional applications of the population intervention model in environmental epidemiology. PMID:25182844

  20. Children's height and weight in rural and urban populations in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

    PubMed Central

    Paciorek, Christopher J; Stevens, Gretchen A; Finucane, Mariel M; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Urban living affects children's nutrition and growth, which are determinants of their survival, cognitive development, and lifelong health. Little is known about urban–rural differences in children's height and weight, and how these differences have changed over time. We aimed to investigate trends in children's height and weight in rural and urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, and to assess changes in the urban–rural differentials in height and weight over time. Methods We used comprehensive population-based data and a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to estimate trends in children's height-for-age and weight-for-age Z scores by rural and urban place of residence, and changes in urban–rural differentials in height and weight Z scores, for 141 low-income and middle-income countries between 1985 and 2011. We also estimated the contribution of changes in rural and urban height and weight, and that of urbanisation, to the regional trends in these outcomes. Findings Urban children are taller and heavier than their rural counterparts in almost all low-income and middle-income countries. The urban–rural differential is largest in Andean and central Latin America (eg, Peru, Honduras, Bolivia, and Guatemala); in some African countries such as Niger, Burundi, and Burkina Faso; and in Vietnam and China. It is smallest in southern and tropical Latin America (eg, Chile and Brazil). Urban children in China, Chile, and Jamaica are the tallest in low-income and middle-income countries, and children in rural areas of Burundi, Guatemala, and Niger the shortest, with the tallest and shortest more than 10 cm apart at age 5 years. The heaviest children live in cities in Georgia, Chile, and China, and the most underweight in rural areas of Timor-Leste, India, Niger, and Bangladesh. Between 1985 and 2011, the urban advantage in height fell in southern and tropical Latin America and south Asia, but changed little or not at all in most

  1. Relative Skeletal Maturation and Population Ancestry in Nonobese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Shana E; Chesi, Alessandra; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Roy, Sani M; Cousminer, Diana L; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Lappe, Joan M; Gilsanz, Vicente; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Mahboubi, Soroosh; Winer, Karen K; Kelly, Andrea; Grant, Struan Fa; Zemel, Babette S

    2017-01-01

    More rapid skeletal maturation in African-American (AA) children is recognized and generally attributed to an increased prevalence of obesity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of population ancestry on relative skeletal maturation in healthy, non-obese children and adolescents, accounting for body composition and sexual maturation. To do this, we leveraged a multiethnic, mixed-longitudinal study with annual assessments for up to 7 years (The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study and its ancillary cohort) conducted at five US clinical centers. Participants included 1592 children, skeletally immature (45% females, 19% AA) who were aged 5 to 17 years at study entry. The primary outcome measure was relative skeletal maturation as assessed by hand-wrist radiograph. Additional covariates measured included anthropometrics, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and Tanner stage of sexual maturation. Using mixed effects longitudinal models, without covariates, advancement in relative skeletal maturation was noted in self-reported AA girls (∼0.33 years, p < 0.001) and boys (∼0.43 years, p < 0.001). Boys and girls of all ancestry groups showed independent positive associations of height, lean mass, fat mass, and puberty with relative skeletal maturation. The effect of ancestry was attenuated but persistent after accounting for covariates: for girls, 0.19 years (ancestry by self-report, p = 0.02) or 0.29 years (ancestry by admixture, p = 0.004); and for boys, 0.20 years (ancestry by self-report, p = 0.004), or 0.29 years (ancestry by admixture, p = 0.004). In summary, we conclude that advancement in relative skeletal maturation was associated with AA ancestry in healthy, non-obese children, independent of growth, body composition, and puberty. Further research into the mechanisms underlying this observation may provide insights into the regulation of skeletal maturation. © 2016 American Society

  2. The importance of parental beliefs and support for physical activity and body weights of children: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Vander Ploeg, Kerry A; Maximova, Katerina; Kuhle, Stefan; Simen-Kapeu, Aline; Veugelers, Paul J

    2012-06-12

    To determine whether parental beliefs and support for physical activity (PA) are associated with normal-weight and overweight children's self-reported PA and body weight using a population-based approach. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data from 6,585 students and their parents in Alberta, Canada, collected in 2008 and 2010. Parental beliefs and support were collected through questions on "care about staying fit", "encourage PA" and "engage in PA with their child". Children's PA was self-reported. Body mass index was calculated from measured height and weight. We applied random effects models to assess: 1) the association of parental beliefs and support with children's PA; 2) differences in the associations for normal-weight and overweight children; 3) the association of parental beliefs and support with overweight. Parental care, encouragement, and engagement in PA were independently and positively associated with PA among both normal-weight and overweight children. Relative to children whose parents encouraged them "quite a lot", those whose parents encouraged them "very much" were 22% less likely to be overweight (OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.68-0.89). Health promotion strategies that target parents to encourage and engage in PA with their children may increase activity levels and reduce overweight among children.

  3. Consumption of sweetened beverages among school-going children in a densely populated township in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kalimbira, A; Gondwe, E

    2015-06-01

    The growing global childhood obesity pandemic has not spared low-income countries like Malawi, where 8% of children below the age of five years are overweight. Globally, regular consumption of sweetened beverages is implicated among the factors that fuel childhood obesity. Despite the growing problem, there are no local studies on any aspect of sweetened beverage consumption among children in Malawi that could help in guiding interventions and public health nutrition policies. We aimed to assess sweetened beverage consumption among school-going children in Chilinde, a densely populated township in Lilongwe, the capital city of Malawi. A total of 60 school-going children whose caregivers gave verbal consent were included, and a structured questionnaire was administered to the caregiver (or other knowledgeable and responsible member of the household) of each eligible child. Our results showed that 50 of the 60 children sampled were consuming a wide-range of sweetened beverages on a regular basis on any day of the week, mostly during meal times (n = 23), before going to school (n = 22), and after school (n = 19). One-third of the children were reportedly consuming up to 300 mL of several sweetened beverages per day. Like in many countries around the world, consumption of sweetened beverages appears to be common among young school-going children in this urban setting in Malawi. As the country builds public health responses to the growing problem of non-communicable diseases, early preventive interventions among children should be given priority.

  4. Children of Parents With Serious Mental Illness: With Whom Do They Grow Up? A Prospective, Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Ranning, Anne; Munk Laursen, Thomas; Thorup, Anne; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-11-01

    To provide an overview of living arrangements during childhood for children of parents with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Information was obtained from Danish registers on children's addresses and used to calculate the proportion living in different household living arrangements. The study was conducted as a prospective, register-based cohort study covering all children in the entire Danish population born after 1982 (N = 1,823,625) and their parents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or none of these disorders. Regression analyses were performed assessing the risk of dissolution of the conjugal family. Children's living arrangements were characterized by fewer nuclear families and more single-parent-headed households when parents had serious mental illness (SMI). From birth, 15% to 20% of children lived with a single mother with SMI. Conjugal families were dissolved at higher rates if a parent had SMI, especially if the mother (incidence rate ratio 2.98; 95% CI 2.80-3.17) or the father (incidence rate ratio 2.60; 95% CI 2.47-2.74) had schizophrenia. Risks for family dissolution varied greatly with parents' socioeconomic position in all diagnostic groups. Parents' SMI affects children's family living arrangements because fewer children live with both parents and more children live with a single parent or are separated from both parents. Family cohesion seems especially difficult to maintain when parents have schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Communication skills in a population of primary school-aged children raised in an area of pronounced social disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Law, James; McBean, Kirsty; Rush, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the level of communication difficulty experienced by children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds, but the pattern of difficulties remains unclear. The study asks whether the performance of a community sample of children from one of the most socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Scotland is best characterized by a general delay in all areas of development, by difficulties across the more formal structural aspects of language or in phonological skills. The study included 138 monolingual English-speaking children: 63 (45.7%) boys and 75 (54.3%) girls aged between 5 and 12 years. All children were assessed blind to educational attainment in the school. Nearly 40% of children had delayed language development with 10% having severe difficulties. The children presented with an uneven profile with much lower structural language scores than reading, general communication skills or non-verbal performance. Although service use was high in the group as a whole, the proportion who met criteria for specific language impairment on discrepancy criteria were not those who were being referred to speech and language therapy. Although many children were performing well within the normal range, a substantial proportion were not, having considerable implications for the way that services are delivered to these children. Given the high prevalence of delayed structural language difficulties in this group, there is a clear need for a more universal 'population'-based approaches to service delivery. © 2011 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  6. The incidence of cognitive dysfunction in an encopretic population in children.

    PubMed

    Stern, H P; Lowitz, G H; Prince, M T; Altshuler, L; Stroh, S E

    1988-01-01

    Cognitive testing was conducted in a clinical population of encopretic patients. Testing included the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) and the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BVMGT). Although Full Scale, Verbal and Performance Intelligence Quotients on the WISC-R were not statistically different from general population means, subtests in Arithmetic (p less than 0.001), Digit Span (p less than 0.001) and Coding (p less than 0.05) were. There was also a high incidence of Verbal/Performance discrepancies and statistically significant differences on the WRAT in Spelling (p less than 0.01) and Arithmetic (p less than 0.01). Visual-motor integration was delayed two or more years in 43% of the patients on the BVMGT. These findings are consistent with the diagnosis of specific learning disabilities. An increased frequency of learning disabilities in an encopretic population may represent a subset of patients with a distinct syndrome in this disorder. These findings may point to the central nervous system (CNS) as the common point of pathology for the encopresis and learning disabilities, or reflect a common insult to both the CNS and gastrointestinal tract. Since histories in these patients did not reveal significant pregnancy or neonatal risk factors, this association could be related to genetic or environmental issues. Health professionals should be alert to the possibility of an increased incidence of learning disabilities in their encopretic patients. Further controlled studies are needed to determine if this finding is present in other settings, and if so, to determine the etiology.

  7. Coping Strategies in Children of Male Alcoholic Parents and Men from the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutzell, Sture

    1994-01-01

    A 15-year longitudinal study in Sweden compared 211 male alcoholic inpatients and their children with a random sample of 200 men and their children. Men in both groups who used hepatotoxic drugs had more psychosocial problems than men in both groups who did not. Children of inpatients required more social assistance than children of controls. (MDM)

  8. Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and its Comorbidity among Korean Children in a Community Population

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children according to socio-demographic factors and the distribution of ADHD subtypes in a community in Korea. A screening survey using the Korean version of ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) was conducted between 2007 and 2008, and clinical interviews by a pediatric psychiatrist were performed for selected children between 2009 and 2010. A total of 49,573 elementary school students, between ages of 7 and 12, constituted the target population, among which 38,365 students (77.2%) and respective parents gave consent to participate. Of the participants, 200 screened children were clinically examined to confirm the diagnosis of ADHD. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD and its comorbidity in the population, after adjusting for nonresponse and nonparticipation. The prevalence of ADHD was 11.7% in boys and 5.2% in girls, with an overall prevalence of 8.5%. The combined type of inattentive and hyperactive was the most frequent at 4.7% of the whole population. Children were more likely to have ADHD if their parents were separated and had less education. Most commonly combined comorbidity was autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (10.1%). The prevalence of ADHD in the school-aged population is an essential information for improving the quality of public health mental services for evaluation and treatment of ADHD. PMID:28145641

  9. Validation Theory and Research for a Population-Level Measure of Children's Development, Wellbeing, and School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Janus, Magdalena; Hertzman, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    This paper delineates general validity and research questions that are underlying an ongoing program of research pertaining to the Early Development Instrument (EDI, Janus and Offord 2007), a population-level measure, on which teachers rate kindergarten children's developmental outcomes in the social, emotional, physical, cognitive, and…

  10. Interobserver Agreement of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in an Ambulant Population of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Brona C.; Kerr, Claire; Parkes, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level was reported by three independent assessors in a population of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 4 and 18 years (n=184; 112 males, 72 females; mean age 10y 10mo [SD 3y 7mo]). A software algorithm also provided a computed GMFCS level from a regional CP registry. Participants had…

  11. Does Universally Accessible Child Care Protect Children from Late Talking? Results from a Norwegian Population-Based Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekhal, Ratib; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Wang, Mari Vaage; Schjolberg, Synnve; von Soest, Tilmann

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between type of child care arrangement at age 1, 1.5 and 3 years and late talking (LT). The data were from 19,919 children in the population-based prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and included information about child care arrangement, LT and a variety of covariates. Attendance at…

  12. Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and its Comorbidity among Korean Children in a Community Population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Jung; Park, Inho; Lim, Myung Ho; Paik, Ki Chung; Cho, Sungja; Kwon, Ho Jang; Lee, Sang Gyu; Yoo, Seung Jin; Ha, Mina

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children according to socio-demographic factors and the distribution of ADHD subtypes in a community in Korea. A screening survey using the Korean version of ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) was conducted between 2007 and 2008, and clinical interviews by a pediatric psychiatrist were performed for selected children between 2009 and 2010. A total of 49,573 elementary school students, between ages of 7 and 12, constituted the target population, among which 38,365 students (77.2%) and respective parents gave consent to participate. Of the participants, 200 screened children were clinically examined to confirm the diagnosis of ADHD. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD and its comorbidity in the population, after adjusting for nonresponse and nonparticipation. The prevalence of ADHD was 11.7% in boys and 5.2% in girls, with an overall prevalence of 8.5%. The combined type of inattentive and hyperactive was the most frequent at 4.7% of the whole population. Children were more likely to have ADHD if their parents were separated and had less education. Most commonly combined comorbidity was autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (10.1%). The prevalence of ADHD in the school-aged population is an essential information for improving the quality of public health mental services for evaluation and treatment of ADHD.

  13. Validation Theory and Research for a Population-Level Measure of Children's Development, Wellbeing, and School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Janus, Magdalena; Hertzman, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    This paper delineates general validity and research questions that are underlying an ongoing program of research pertaining to the Early Development Instrument (EDI, Janus and Offord 2007), a population-level measure, on which teachers rate kindergarten children's developmental outcomes in the social, emotional, physical, cognitive, and…

  14. The Combined Burden of Cognitive, Executive Function, and Psychosocial Problems in Children with Epilepsy: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoie, B.; Sommerfelt, K.; Waaler, P. E.; Alsaker, F. D.; Skeidsvoll, H.; Mykletun, A.

    2008-01-01

    The combined burden of psychosocial (Achenbach scales), cognitive (Raven matrices), and executive function (EF) problems was studied in a population-based sample of 6- to 12-year-old children with epilepsy (n = 162; 99 males, 63 females) and in an age- and sex-matched control group (n = 107; 62 males, 45 females). Approximately 35% of the children…

  15. Interobserver Agreement of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in an Ambulant Population of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Brona C.; Kerr, Claire; Parkes, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level was reported by three independent assessors in a population of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 4 and 18 years (n=184; 112 males, 72 females; mean age 10y 10mo [SD 3y 7mo]). A software algorithm also provided a computed GMFCS level from a regional CP registry. Participants had…

  16. The Combined Burden of Cognitive, Executive Function, and Psychosocial Problems in Children with Epilepsy: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoie, B.; Sommerfelt, K.; Waaler, P. E.; Alsaker, F. D.; Skeidsvoll, H.; Mykletun, A.

    2008-01-01

    The combined burden of psychosocial (Achenbach scales), cognitive (Raven matrices), and executive function (EF) problems was studied in a population-based sample of 6- to 12-year-old children with epilepsy (n = 162; 99 males, 63 females) and in an age- and sex-matched control group (n = 107; 62 males, 45 females). Approximately 35% of the children…

  17. A prospective assessment of food and nutrient intake in a population of Malawian children at risk for kwashiorkor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to determine what foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns are associated with development of kwashiorkor in populations of vulnerable 1- to 3-year-old Malawian children. This was a prospective observational study conducted in 8 rural villages. Upon enrollment, demographic, anthropom...

  18. The Impact of Population Density on the Likelihood of Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) Clients Becoming Economically Self-Sufficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendixen-Noe, Mary K.; And Others

    The impact of population density on the likelihood of Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) clients becoming economically self-sufficient was examined through a study of 2,647 ADC recipients referred to a total of 8 comprehensive vocational assessment centers (CVACs) for ADC clients that were established in Ohio in 1992. Of the CVACs, two were from each…

  19. A preliminary examination of child well-being of physically abused and neglected children compared to a normative pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Paul; Kohl, Patricia L; Raghavan, Ramesh; Auslander, Wendy

    2015-02-01

    Federal mandates require state child welfare systems to monitor and improve outcomes for children in three areas: safety, permanency, and well-being. Research across separate domains of child well-being indicates maltreated children may experience lower pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study assessed well-being in maltreated children using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0), a widely used measure of pediatric HRQL. The PedsQL 4.0 was used to assess well-being in a sample of children (N = 129) receiving child welfare services following reports of alleged physical abuse or neglect. We compared total scores and domain scores for this maltreated sample to those of a published normative sample. Within the maltreated sample, we also compared well-being by child and family demographic characteristics. As compared with a normative pediatric population, maltreated children reported significantly lower total, physical, and psychosocial health. We found no significant differences in total and domain scores based on child and parent demographics within the maltreated sample. This preliminary exploration indicates children receiving child welfare services have significantly lower well-being status than the general child population and have considerable deficits in social and emotional functioning. These findings support continued investment in maltreatment prevention and services to improve the well-being of victims of maltreatment.

  20. Brief Report: Prevalence of Self-injurious Behaviors among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder-A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Soke, Gnakub N; Rosenberg, Steven A; Hamman, Richard F; Fingerlin, Tasha; Robinson, Cordelia; Carpenter, Laura; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Wiggins, Lisa D; Durkin, Maureen S; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2016-11-01

    Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) have been reported in more than 30 % of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based studies. This study estimated the prevalence of SIB in a large population-based sample of children with ASD in the United States. A total of 8065 children who met the surveillance case definition for ASD in the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network during the 2000, 2006, and 2008 surveillance years were included. The presence of SIB was reported from available health and/or educational records by an expert clinician in ADDM Network. SIB prevalence averaged 27.7 % across all sites and surveillance years, with some variation between sites. Clinicians should inquire about SIB during assessments of children with ASD.

  1. [Myocardial disease mortality in children and young adults. A population-based observational study].

    PubMed

    Morentin, Benito; Suárez-Mier, M Paz; Aguilera, Beatriz; Bodegas, Andrés

    2006-03-01

    Few studies have investigated death due to myocardial disease in children and young adults. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological, clinical, and pathologic characteristics of death in these cases. Population-based observational study of all deaths in individuals aged 1-35 years in the Spanish province of Biscay over a period of 12 years. Forty deaths from myocardial disease occurred in 29 males and 11 females (mean age 25.3 years): 30 sudden and 10 non-sudden deaths. The mortality rate was 0.64 per 100,000 persons-year. The relative risk of sudden death was significantly greater than that of non-sudden death, particularly in adolescents and young males. The cause of death was myocarditis in 12 cases (83.3% sudden death), dilated cardiomyopathy in 10 (80% non-sudden death), arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy in seven, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in six, and idiopathic concentric left ventricular hypertrophy in five (100% sudden death). Myocardial disease was diagnosed before sudden death in only three cases. Ten subjects had symptoms and electrocardiogram abnormalities but their cardiomyopathy had not been diagnosed. Six individuals had a comorbid condition (morbid obesity in four), six had prodromal symptoms, and 11 had arrhythmic triggering factors (sporting activity in seven). Ventricular fibrillation was frequently observed during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Mortality due to myocardial disease in children and young adults is uncommon. Most deaths are sudden. However, some may be preventable. Preventative measures should be aimed at sudden death in adolescents and young males. There was a noticeable association between arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy and sporting activity.

  2. Skin disorders associated with obesity in children and adolescents: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, Paradi; Carpenter, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in children is a major public health concern in the United States. The objectives of the current study were to determine the prevalence of various groups of cutaneous disorders in obese children and adolescents and to compare the use of dermatology services in obese subjects with that those with a normal body mass index (BMI). This was a retrospective, population-based study at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Managed Healthcare System. The main outcome measures were the relative risk of cutaneous disorders associated with insulin resistance, androgen excess, bacterial infection, fungal infection, viral infection, inflammation, mechanical changes, and other skin conditions (hidradenitis, hyperhidrosis) in three weight groups (normal, overweight, obese) and the number of dermatology visits. A total of 248,775 subjects were included. Bivariate analyses showed a higher proportion of insulin resistance disorders, bacterial infection, fungal infection, inflammatory disorders, mechanical changes, and other skin conditions in obese subjects than in subjects with a normal BMI (p < 0.001). Disorders of androgen excess and viral infection were significantly less common in obese subjects (p < 0.001). Obese subjects had significantly lower odds of having at least one dermatology encounter than subjects with a normal BMI (odds ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.88, 0.96, p = 0.003). Early onset obesity is associated with cutaneous disorders characterized by hyperproliferation, inflammation, bacterial and fungal infection, and mechanical changes but lower rates of disorders of androgen excess and viral infection. The use of dermatology services was not greater in obese patients. Heightened recognition and further analysis of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ that is capable of affecting the skin is warranted.

  3. Malocclusion and early orthodontic treatment requirements in the mixed dentitions of a population of Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    daCosta, Oluranti Olatokunbo; Aikins, Elfleda Angelina; Isiekwe, Gerald Ikenna; Adediran, Virginia Efunyemi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of dental features that indicate a need for early intervention and to ascertain the prevalence of different methods of early treatment among a population of Nigerian children in mixed dentition. Methods: Occlusal relationships were evaluated in 101 children in mixed dentition between the ages of 6 and 12 years who presented at the Orthodontic Unit, Department of Child Dental Health, Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a 2 years period. The need for different modes of early orthodontic treatment was also recorded. Results: Anterior tooth rotations (61.4%) and increased overjet (44.6%) were the most prevalent occlusal anomalies. Others included deep bite (31.7%), reverse overjet (13.9%), and anterior open bite (14.8%). Severe maxillary spacing and crowding were exhibited in 12.0% and 5.0%, respectively. About a third (35.7%) of the subjects presented with crossbite while lip incompetence was observed in 43.6% of the subjects. About 44% of the subjects also presented with various oral habits with digit (15.8%) and lip sucking (9.9%) being the most prevalent. Subjects were recommended for treatment with 2 by 4 fixed orthodontic appliances (22.3%), habit breakers (20.7%), removable orthodontic appliances (16.5%), and extractions (15.7%). Conclusions: Increased overjet and anterior tooth rotation were the majority of occlusal anomalies seen, which are not only esthetically displeasing but may also cause an increased susceptibility to trauma to these teeth. Treatment options varied from extractions only to the use of appliance therapy. PMID:27556019

  4. Survival of children with trisomy 13 and trisomy 18: A multi-state population-based study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Robert E; Liu, Gang; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Ethen, Mary K; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Powell, Cynthia M; Flood, Timothy J; Mai, Cara T; Wang, Ying; Canfield, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Trisomy 13 (T13) and trisomy 18 (T18) are among the most prevalent autosomal trisomies. Both are associated with a very high risk of mortality. Numerous instances, however, of long-term survival of children with T13 or T18 have prompted some clinicians to pursue aggressive treatment instead of the traditional approach of palliative care. The purpose of this study is to assess current mortality data for these conditions. This multi-state, population-based study examined data obtained from birth defect surveillance programs in nine states on live-born infants delivered during 1999-2007 with T13 or T18. Information on children's vital status and selected maternal and infant risk factors were obtained using matched birth and death certificates and other data sources. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate age-specific survival probabilities and predictors of survival up to age five. There were 693 children with T13 and 1,113 children with T18 identified from the participating states. Among children with T13, 5-year survival was 9.7%; among children with T18, it was 12.3%. For both trisomies, gestational age was the strongest predictor of mortality. Females and children of non-Hispanic black mothers had the lowest mortality. Omphalocele and congenital heart defects were associated with an increased risk of death for children with T18 but not T13. This study found survival among children with T13 and T18 to be somewhat higher than those previously reported in the literature, consistent with recent studies reporting improved survival following more aggressive medical intervention for these children. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Using Electronic Health Records to Examine Disease Risk in Small Populations: Obesity Among American Indian Children, Wisconsin, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Tomayko, Emily J.; Weinert, Bethany A.; Godfrey, Liz; Adams, Alexandra K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tribe-based or reservation-based data consistently show disproportionately high obesity rates among American Indian children, but little is known about the approximately 75% of American Indian children living off-reservation. We examined obesity among American Indian children seeking care off-reservation by using a database of de-identified electronic health records linked to community-level census variables. Methods Data from electronic health records from American Indian children and a reference sample of non-Hispanic white children collected from 2007 through 2012 were abstracted to determine obesity prevalence. Related community-level and individual-level risk factors (eg, economic hardship, demographics) were examined using logistic regression. Results The obesity rate for American Indian children (n = 1,482) was double the rate among non-Hispanic white children (n = 81,042) (20.0% vs 10.6%, P < .001). American Indian children were less likely to have had a well-child visit (55.9% vs 67.1%, P < .001) during which body mass index (BMI) was measured, which may partially explain why BMI was more likely to be missing from American Indian records (18.3% vs 14.6%, P < .001). Logistic regression demonstrated significantly increased obesity risk among American Indian children (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.6–2.1) independent of age, sex, economic hardship, insurance status, and geographic designation. Conclusion An electronic health record data set demonstrated high obesity rates for nonreservation-based American Indian children, rates that had not been previously assessed. This low-cost method may be used for assessing health risk for other understudied populations and to plan and evaluate targeted interventions. PMID:26916900

  6. Maltreatment of children born to women who used cocaine during pregnancy: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, J M; Forsyth, B W; Qi, K; Johnson, L; Schroeder, D; Votto, N

    1997-08-01

    .5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.47, 28.80], and 25.9% vs 8.6% had spent some time in placement (matched relative risk = 5.0; 95% CI = 2.08, 12.01). After controlling for differences between the groups in baseline clinical and social variables, the adjusted odds ratios for both maltreatment (3.98; 95% CI = .81, 22.80) and placement (1.66; 95% CI = .74, 17. 83) decreased and were no longer statistically significant. In this population-based study, children born to women who used cocaine during pregnancy were at a substantially increased risk of maltreatment or placement outside the home compared with a sociodemographically similar comparison group. Differences in baseline variables between the two groups, however, partially accounted for this increased risk. Therefore, a mother's use of cocaine is more likely a marker of increased risk rather than a single explanatory variable.

  7. Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Extended-Infusion Piperacillin and Tazobactam in Critically Ill Children.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Kristen; Chung, Eun Kyoung; Knoderer, Chad A; Buenger, Lauren E; Healy, Daniel P; Dees, Jennifer; Crumby, Ashley S; Kays, Michael B

    2015-11-09

    The study objective was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam in children hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Seventy-two serum samples were collected at steady state from 12 patients who received piperacillin-tazobactam at 100/12.5 mg/kg of body weight every 8 h infused over 4 h. Population pharmacokinetic analyses were performed using NONMEM, and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate the piperacillin pharmacokinetic profiles for dosing regimens of 80 to 100 mg/kg of the piperacillin component given every 6 to 8 h and infused over 0.5, 3, or 4 h. The probability of target attainment (PTA) for a cumulative percentage of the dosing interval that the drug concentration exceeds the MIC under steady-state pharmacokinetic conditions (TMIC) of ≥50% was calculated at MICs ranging from 0.25 to 64 mg/liter. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age, weight, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were 5 ± 3 years, 17 ± 6.2 kg, and 118 ± 41 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. A one-compartment model with zero-order input and first-order elimination best fit the pharmacokinetic data for both drugs. Weight was significantly associated with piperacillin clearance, and weight and sex were significantly associated with tazobactam clearance. Pharmacokinetic parameters (mean ± SD) for piperacillin and tazobactam were as follows: clearance, 0.22 ± 0.07 and 0.19 ± 0.07 liter/h/kg, respectively; volume of distribution, 0.43 ± 0.16 and 0.37 ± 0.14 liter/kg, respectively. All extended-infusion regimens achieved PTAs of >90% at MICs of ≤16 mg/liter. Only the 3-h infusion regimens given every 6 h achieved PTAs of >90% at an MIC of 32 mg/liter. For susceptible bacterial pathogens, piperacillin-tazobactam doses of ≥80/10 mg/kg given every 8 h and infused over 4 h achieve adequate pharmacodynamic exposures in critically ill children.

  8. Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Extended-Infusion Piperacillin and Tazobactam in Critically Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun Kyoung; Knoderer, Chad A.; Buenger, Lauren E.; Healy, Daniel P.; Dees, Jennifer; Crumby, Ashley S.; Kays, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam in children hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Seventy-two serum samples were collected at steady state from 12 patients who received piperacillin-tazobactam at 100/12.5 mg/kg of body weight every 8 h infused over 4 h. Population pharmacokinetic analyses were performed using NONMEM, and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate the piperacillin pharmacokinetic profiles for dosing regimens of 80 to 100 mg/kg of the piperacillin component given every 6 to 8 h and infused over 0.5, 3, or 4 h. The probability of target attainment (PTA) for a cumulative percentage of the dosing interval that the drug concentration exceeds the MIC under steady-state pharmacokinetic conditions (TMIC) of ≥50% was calculated at MICs ranging from 0.25 to 64 mg/liter. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age, weight, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were 5 ± 3 years, 17 ± 6.2 kg, and 118 ± 41 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A one-compartment model with zero-order input and first-order elimination best fit the pharmacokinetic data for both drugs. Weight was significantly associated with piperacillin clearance, and weight and sex were significantly associated with tazobactam clearance. Pharmacokinetic parameters (mean ± SD) for piperacillin and tazobactam were as follows: clearance, 0.22 ± 0.07 and 0.19 ± 0.07 liter/h/kg, respectively; volume of distribution, 0.43 ± 0.16 and 0.37 ± 0.14 liter/kg, respectively. All extended-infusion regimens achieved PTAs of >90% at MICs of ≤16 mg/liter. Only the 3-h infusion regimens given every 6 h achieved PTAs of >90% at an MIC of 32 mg/liter. For susceptible bacterial pathogens, piperacillin-tazobactam doses of ≥80/10 mg/kg given every 8 h and infused over 4 h achieve adequate pharmacodynamic exposures in critically ill children. PMID:26552978

  9. Low prevalence and incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children: a population-based study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Masumi; Osaki, Takako; Lin, Yingsong; Yonezawa, Hideo; Maekawa, Kohei; Kamiya, Shigeru; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2015-04-01

    Infection of Helicobacter pylori mainly occurs in childhood. In Japan, incidence of gastric cancer is still high in the senior citizen population, but little is known about the current H. pylori infection status among children or their family members. As a population-based study, the prevalence of H. pylori infection and change in infection status over a 1-year interval in children were determined. Family members of some participants were also invited to participate in the study to determine their infection status. All children of specific ages attending 16 schools in Sasayama, Hyogo Prefecture, were invited to participate. H. pylori infection was determined by the stool antigen test and diagnosis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and the urea breath test. Helicobacter pylori prevalence was 1.9% among 689 children aged 0-8 years in 2010 and 1.8% among 835 children aged 0-11 in 2011. No feco-conversion was observed in 430 children aged 0-8 years (170 were aged 0-4 years) who provided follow-up stool samples after 1 year. The prevalence of infection was 6% (2 of 33) and 38% (6 of 16) in mothers of negative and positive probands (p = .04), respectively, and 12% (3 of 25) and 50% (8 of 16) (p = .01), respectively, in fathers. Helicobacter pylori prevalence in Japanese children is approximately 1.8%, which is much lower than that reported in Japanese adults. New infection may be rare. Parent-to-child infection is thought to be the main infection route of the infrequent infection for children in Japan. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lumefantrine in Young Ugandan Children Treated With Artemether-Lumefantrine for Uncomplicated Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tchaparian, Eskouhie; Sambol, Nancy C.; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; McCormack, Shelley A.; Bigira, Victor; Wanzira, Humphrey; Muhindo, Mary; Creek, Darren J.; Sukumar, Nitin; Blessborn, Daniel; Tappero, Jordan W.; Kakuru, Abel; Bergqvist, Yngve; Aweeka, Francesca T.; Parikh, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Background. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lumefantrine, a component of the most widely used treatment for malaria, artemether-lumefantrine, has not been adequately characterized in young children. Methods. Capillary whole-blood lumefantrine concentration and treatment outcomes were determined in 105 Ugandan children, ages 6 months to 2 years, who were treated for 249 episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine. Results. Population pharmacokinetics for lumefantrine used a 2-compartment open model with first-order absorption. Age had a significant positive correlation with bioavailability in a model that included allometric scaling. Children not receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with capillary whole blood concentrations <200 ng/mL had a 3-fold higher hazard of 28-day recurrent parasitemia, compared with those with concentrations >200 ng/mL (P = .0007). However, for children receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the risk of recurrent parasitemia did not differ significantly on the basis of this threshold. Day 3 concentrations were a stronger predictor of 28-day recurrence than day 7 concentrations. Conclusions. We demonstrate that age, in addition to weight, is a determinant of lumefantrine exposure, and in the absence of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, lumefantrine exposure is a determinant of recurrent parasitemia. Exposure levels in children aged 6 months to 2 years was generally lower than levels published for older children and adults. Further refinement of artemether-lumefantrine dosing to improve exposure in infants and very young children may be warranted. PMID:27471317

  11. Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders, developmental delays, and typical development: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Krakowiak, Paula; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Croen, Lisa A; Hansen, Robin L

    2008-06-01

    This study compared parent-reported sleep characteristics in 2- to 5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to children with other developmental delays (DD) and typical development (TD). We included 529 children (303 ASD [167 males], 63 DD [46 males], and 163 TD [134 males]) enrolled in the CHARGE study, an ongoing population-based case-control study. The mean age of participants was 3.6 years (standard deviation, 0.8 years). ASD diagnosis was confirmed with Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedules (ADOS). Cognitive and adaptive functioning was assessed using Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), respectively. Demographic, medical and sleep history information were ascertained from California birth records, telephone interview, medical assessments at clinic visit, and parent-administered questionnaires. Fifty-three percent of children with ASD had at least one frequent sleep problem, followed by 46% of children with DD, and 32% of the TD group (P < 0.0001). Exploratory factor analyses of sleep history data yielded two factors: sleep onset problems and night waking. Children with ASD had marginally higher sleep onset factor scores and significantly higher night waking factor scores compared with the TD group. Factor scores for children with DD were intermediate between the ASD and TD groups. Cognitive or adaptive development did not predict severity of sleep problems in the ASD group.

  12. Population Pharmacokinetics of Bevacizumab in Children with Osteosarcoma: Implications for Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Turner, David C.; Navid, Fariba; Daw, Najat C.; Mao, Shenghua; Wu, Jianrong; Santana, Victor M.; Neel, Michael; Rao, Bhaskar; Willert, Jennifer Reikes; Loeb, David M.; Harstead, K. Elaine; Throm, Stacy L.; Freeman, Burgess B.; Stewart, Clinton F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe sources of interindividual variability in bevacizumab disposition in pediatric patients and explore associations among bevacizumab pharmacokinetics and clinical wound healing outcomes. Experimental Design Prior to tumor resection, three doses of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) were administered to patients (median age 12.2 years) enrolled on a multi-institutional osteosarcoma trial. Serial sampling for bevacizumab pharmacokinetics was obtained from 27 patients. A population pharmacokinetic model was fit to the data, and patient demographics and clinical chemistry values were systematically tested as predictive covariates on model parameters. Associations between bevacizumab exposure and wound healing status were evaluated by logistic regression. Results Bevacizumab concentration-time data were adequately described by a two-compartment model. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were similar to those previously reported in adults with a long median (range) terminal half-life of 12.2 days (8.6 to 32.4 days) and a volume of distribution indicating confinement primarily to the vascular space,49.1 mL/kg (27.1 to 68.3 mL/kg). Body composition was a key determinant of bevacizumab exposure as body mass index percentile was significantly (p<0.05) correlated to body-weight normalized clearance and volume of distribution. Furthermore, bevacizumab exposure prior to primary tumor resection was associated with increased risk of major wound healing complications after surgery (p<0.05). Conclusion A population pharmacokinetic model for bevacizumab was developed which demonstrated that variability in bevacizumab exposure using weight-based dosing is related to body composition. Bevacizumab dosage scaling using ideal body weight would provide an improved dosing approach in children by minimizing pharmacokinetic variability and reducing likelihood of major wound healing complications. PMID:24637635

  13. Poor sleep and lower working memory in grade 1 children: cross-sectional, population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Miree; Quach, Jon; Anderson, Peter; Mensah, Fiona; Wake, Melissa; Roberts, Gehan

    2015-01-01

    Poor sleep and working memory difficulties are both associated with learning difficulties, but it is not known whether they are linked with each other in childhood. We aimed to determine, in a population-based sample of grade 1 children, whether poor sleep is associated with reduced working memory capacity. Cross-sectional population-based study. All grade 1 children in 44 elementary schools in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia; 1749 children were included (participation rate 65%, mean age 6.9 years). Parents completed a written questionnaire at home, after which researchers administered one-on-one child computerized assessments at school. Predictor measures were parent-reported 1) perceptions of poor sleep, 2) regularity of bedtime, 3) sleep duration, and 4) sleep onset latency. Outcome measures were backward digit recall (verbal working memory) and Mister X (visuospatial working memory) subtests of the Automated Working Memory Assessment (AWMA). Associations were examined using linear regression, adjusted for duration of schooling, gender, age, and social status. Increasing poor sleep (P = .03), less regularity of bedtime (P < .001), and shorter sleep duration (P = .03) were all associated with poorer verbal working memory, with effect sizes ranging from 0.3 to 1.2. Poor sleep was not associated with visuospatial working memory. At a population level, poor sleep in early school-age children is associated with poorer verbal working memory, an important predictor of academic difficulties. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. pH and bacterial profile of dental plaque in children and adults of a low caries population.

    PubMed

    Raner, Elisabeth; Lindqvist, Lina; Johansson, Sofia; Hassan, Haidar; Carlén, Anette; Suksu-art, Narong; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2014-06-01

    This study compares pH and microbiological profile of dental plaque in children and adults of a low caries population. Thirty-nine children, 12-14 years of age and 45 adults between 20 and 39 years of age in 5 Karen villages of the Tak province, Northern Thailand were examined for plaque, calculus, caries (DMFT) and pH measurements in resting plaque and after a sucrose rinse. Information on dietary and oral hygiene habits was obtained through interviews using a fixed questionnaire. Microbiological profile of plaque samples was analyzed with DNA-DNA checkerboard technique. Mean DMFT was 0.77 ± 1.56 and 87% of the adults and 67% of the children were caries free (p < 0.05). The mean resting pH was for both age groups in the range of 7.0-7.1 and significantly higher than a Swedish caries free reference group. Karen adult men had significantly lower pH minimum than females and children (p < 0.05). Supragingival plaque samples showed high levels of low acidogenic and anaerobic species, which dominated over strong acid producers such as streptococci. The study indicates that the Karen children and adults has a plaque physiology and microbiology predominating by low acidogenic anaerobes, which in addition to the low sucrose intake explains the low caries prevalence in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Food security and the nutritional status of children in foster care: new horizons in the protection of a fragile population.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Pietro; Scancarello, Marta; Khazrai, Yeganeh M; Romani, Lorenza; Cutrona, Costanza; DE Gara, Laura; Bona, Gianni

    2016-10-12

    The nutritional status of foster children, the quality of daily menus in group homes and the Food Security inside these organizations have been poorly studied and this study means to investigate them. A sample of 125 children, ranging in age from 0-17 years, among seven group homes (group A) was compared with 121 children of the general population we (group B). To evaluate nutritional status, BMI percentiles were used. Mean percentiles of both groups were compared through statistical analysis. Both nutritional and caloric daily distributions in each organization were obtained using the 24-hour recall method. A specific questionnaire was administered to evaluate Food Security. From the analysis of mean BMI-for-age (or height-for-length) percentiles, did not observe statistically significant differences between group A and group B. The average daily nutrient and calorie distribution in group homes proves to be nearly optimal with the exception of a slight excess in proteins and a slight deficiency in PUFAs. Moreover, a low intake of iron and calcium was revealed. All organizations obtained a "High Food Security" profile. Nutritional conditions of foster children are no worse than that of children of the general population. Foster care provides the necessary conditions to support their growth.

  16. Fertility preservation in the male pediatric population: factors influencing the decision of parents and children.

    PubMed

    Wyns, C; Collienne, C; Shenfield, F; Robert, A; Laurent, P; Roegiers, L; Brichard, B

    2015-09-01

    How can the decision process for fertility preservation (FP) in adolescents and prepubertal boys be improved based on patient and parent feelings about FP counseling? The content of information given to patients and parents and hope for future parenthood appeared to positively impact on the decision to preserve fertility in the pediatric population and, therefore, deserves special attention to improve FP care. A vast body of literature on adult cancer patients shows that reproductive capacity is a major quality-of-life issue. Patients also have a strong desire to be informed of available FP options with a view to future parenthood of their own genetic child, considering that <10% chose to adopt or used donated gametes. Furthermore, the quality of fertility counseling provided at the time of cancer diagnosis has been identified as a crucial factor in the decision-making process. By contrast, in the pediatric population, while it was shown that parents were able to make an informed and voluntary decision for their prepubertal sons despite the heavy emotional burden at the time of diagnosis, there is so far very limited information on patient expectations regarding FP. A lack of awareness often equates to suboptimal care by oncologists and FP specialists, and poor access to FP, therefore improving knowledge and identifying the expectations of pediatric patients and their parents are crucial for optimizing multidisciplinary collaborative care pathways (MCCPs), including counseling and access to FP methods, in the youngest population. A questionnaire survey was posted to an eligible population between May 2005 and May 2013. A total of 348 prepubertal boys and adolescents aged 0-18 years, diagnosed with cancer in a university hospital setting, were eligible. Three different questionnaires for two age groups of children (<12 and 12-18 years) and parents were established based on information from focus groups. Questions were subsequently reviewed by the institutional

  17. Pilot study of the prevalence of head lice infestation in a population of Saudi Arabian children.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P

    1987-06-01

    The prevalence of infestation with the head louse, Pediculus capitis, was assessed among the child population, from birth to 10 years old inclusive, of the rapidly expanding Saudi Arabian city of Jeddah. Over a period of two months, 300 consecutive children attending the general practitioner for any reason were examined specifically to identify those infested with head lice: 37 cases of active infestation were found, which is an overall prevalence of 12%. An interesting distribution, however, was noted in respect of age, ranging from less than 2% in the first year of life, rising rapidly to around 30% in ages six to eight years, thereafter declining steadily to about 16% by age 10 years. The distribution of infestation among males and females was broadly similar. These results show a high head lice infestation, particularly in the early school years, where presumably interpersonal contacts are most frequent, facilitating contagious spread. As the head lice is known to spread several viral and rickettsial diseases, such as relapsing fever and typhus, greater efforts should be made towards patient education in hygiene, and towards identifying and treating the disease when found.

  18. Chronic arthritis in children and adolescents in two Indian health service user populations

    PubMed Central

    Mauldin, Joyce; Cameron, H Dan; Jeanotte, Diane; Solomon, Glenn; Jarvis, James N

    2004-01-01

    Background High prevalence rates for rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthopathies, and systemic lupus erythematosus have been described in American Indian and Alaskan Native adults. The impact of these diseases on American Indian children has not been investigated. Methods We used International Classification of Diseases-9 (ICD-9) codes to search two Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registration databases over the years 1998–2000, searching for individuals 19 years of age or younger with specific ICD-9-specified diagnoses. Crude estimates for disease prevalence were made based on the number of individuals identified with these diagnoses within the database. Results Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) / juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) was the most frequent diagnosis given. The prevalence rate for JRA in the Oklahoma City Area was estimated as 53 per 100,000 individuals at risk, while in the Billings Area, the estimated prevalence was nearly twice that, at 115 per 100,000. These rates are considerably higher than those reported in the most recent European studies. Conclusion Chronic arthritis in childhood represents an important, though unrecognized, chronic health challenge within the American Indian population living in the United States. PMID:15333136

  19. Unintentional injuries in children and youth from immigrant families in Ontario, Canada: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Natasha Ruth; Macpherson, Alison; Guan, Jun; Sheng, Lisa; Guttmann, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Background: Unintentional injury is the leading cause of childhood death. Injury is associated with a number of sociodemographic characteristics, but little is known about risk in immigrants. Our objective was to examine the association between family immigrant status and unintentional injury in children and youth. Methods: We performed a population-based, cross-sectional study involving children and youth (age 0-24 yr) residing in Ontario from 2008 to 2012. Multiple linked health and administrative databases were used to describe unintentional injuries by family immigrant status. Unintentional injury events (e.g., emergency department visits, admissions to hospital, deaths) were analyzed using Poisson regression models to estimate rate ratios (RRs) for injury by immigrant status. Results: Annualized injury rates were 11 749 emergency department visits per 100 000 population, 267 hospital admissions per 100 000 population and 12 deaths per 100 000 population. Injury rates were lower among immigrants across all causes of unintentional injury (adjusted RR 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.59). Among nonimmigrants, lowest neighbourhood income quintile was associated with the highest rates (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.18, quintile 5 v. 1); among immigrants, lowest income quintile was associated with the lowest rates of injury (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.94, quintile 5 v. 1). Highest rates of injury for nonimmigrants were among adolescents (age 10-14 yr, RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.18-1.28; v. 20-24 yr), but for immigrants, was highest among young children (0-4 yr RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.16-1.31; v. 20-24 yr). Interpretation: Rates of unintentional injury are lower among immigrant than among Canadian-born children, supporting a healthy immigrant effect. Socioeconomic status and age have different associations with injury risk, suggesting alternative causal pathways for injuries in immigrant children and youth. PMID:28401124

  20. Hospitalizations and associated costs in a population-based study of children with Down syndrome born in Florida.

    PubMed

    Dawson, April L; Cassell, Cynthia H; Oster, Matthew E; Olney, Richard S; Tanner, Jean Paul; Kirby, Russell S; Correia, Jane; Grosse, Scott D

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to examine differences in hospital resource usage for children with Down syndrome by age and the presence of other birth defects, particularly severe and nonsevere congenital heart defects (CHDs). This was a retrospective, population-based, statewide study of children with Down syndrome born 1998 to 2007, identified by the Florida Birth Defects Registry (FBDR) and linked to hospital discharge records for 1 to 10 years after birth. To evaluate hospital resource usage, descriptive statistics on number of hospitalized days and hospital costs were calculated. Results were stratified by isolated Down syndrome (no other coded major birth defect); presence of severe and nonsevere CHDs; and presence of major FBDR-eligible birth defects without CHDs. For 2552 children with Down syndrome, there were 6856 inpatient admissions, of which 68.9% occurred during the first year of life (infancy). Of the 2552 children, 31.7% (n = 808) had isolated Down syndrome, 24.0% (n = 612) had severe CHDs, 36.3% (n = 927) had nonsevere CHDs, and 8.0% (n = 205) had a major FBDR-eligible birth defect in the absence of CHD. Infants in all three nonisolated DS groups had significantly higher hospital costs compared with those with isolated Down syndrome. From infancy through age 4, children with severe CHDs had the highest inpatient costs compared with children in the other sub-groups. Results support findings that for children with Down syndrome the presence of other anomalies influences hospital use and costs, and children with severe CHDs have greater hospital resource usage than children with other CHDs or major birth defects without CHDs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Hospitalizations and Associated Costs in a Population-Based Study of Children with Down Syndrome Born in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, April; Cassell, Cynthia H.; Oster, Matthew E.; Olney, Richard S.; Tanner, Jean Paul; Kirby, Russell S.; Correia, Jane; Grosse, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Our objective was to examine differences in hospital resource utilization for children with Down syndrome by age and the presence of other birth defects, particularly severe and non-severe congenital heart defects (CHDs). Methods This was a retrospective, population-based, statewide study of children with Down syndrome born 1998-2007, identified by the Florida Birth Defects Registry (FBDR) and linked to hospital discharge records for 1-10 years after birth. To evaluate hospital resource utilization, descriptive statistics on number of hospitalized days and hospital costs were calculated. Results were stratified by isolated Down syndrome (no other coded major birth defect); presence of severe and non-severe CHDs; and presence of major FBDR-eligible birth defects without CHDs. Results For 2,552 children with Down syndrome, there were 6,856 inpatient admissions, of which 68.9% occurred during the first year of life (infancy). Of the 2,552 children, 31.7% (n=808) had isolated Down syndrome, 24.0% (n=612) had severe CHDs, 36.3% (n=927) had non-severe CHDs, and 8.0% (n=205) had a major FBDR-eligible birth defect in the absence of CHD. Infants in all three non-isolated DS groups had significantly higher hospital costs compared to those with isolated Down syndrome. From infancy through age 4, children with severe CHDs had the highest inpatient costs compared to children in the other sub-groups. Conclusions Results support findings that for children with Down syndrome the presence of other anomalies influences hospital use and costs, and children with severe CHDs have greater hospital resource utilization than children with other CHDs or major birth defects without CHDs. PMID:25124730

  2. School Injury among Ottawa-Area Children: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josse, Jonathan M.; MacKay, Morag; Osmond, Martin H.; MacPherson, Alison K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Injuries are the leading cause of death among Canadian children and are responsible for a substantial proportion of hospitalizations and emergency department visits. This investigation sought to identify the factors associated with the likelihood of sustaining an injury at school among Ottawa-area children. Methods: Children presenting…

  3. School Injury among Ottawa-Area Children: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josse, Jonathan M.; MacKay, Morag; Osmond, Martin H.; MacPherson, Alison K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Injuries are the leading cause of death among Canadian children and are responsible for a substantial proportion of hospitalizations and emergency department visits. This investigation sought to identify the factors associated with the likelihood of sustaining an injury at school among Ottawa-area children. Methods: Children presenting…

  4. School-Age Children of Fathers with Substance Use Disorder: Are They a High Risk Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental substance use and the increased risk among school-age children to developing psychosocial problems. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 from urban areas in Israel. The following variables were assessed by four self-report questionnaires administered to the children: …

  5. School-Age Children of Fathers with Substance Use Disorder: Are They a High Risk Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental substance use and the increased risk among school-age children to developing psychosocial problems. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 from urban areas in Israel. The following variables were assessed by four self-report questionnaires administered to the children: …

  6. Hand Function in a Population-Based Sample of Young Children with Unilateral or Bilateral Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Klevberg, Gunvor L; Østensjø, Sigrid; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Elkjær, Sonja; Jahnsen, Reidun B

    2017-03-20

    To describe aspects of hand function in a population-based sample of young children with clinical signs of unilateral or bilateral cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional study with data from national CP registers in Norway. Manual ability was classified with the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) or Mini-MACS. Hand use in bimanual activities was measured with the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) for unilateral CP or the newly developed Both Hands Assessment (BoHA) for bilateral CP. From 202 children, 128 (57 females) were included (Mini-MACS/MACS levels I-V, mean age 30.4 months; SD = 12.1). Manual abilities were distributed across levels I-III in unilateral CP and levels I-V in bilateral CP. Variations in AHA and BoHA units were large. One-way ANOVA revealed associations between higher AHA or BoHA units and Mini-MACS/MACS levels of higher ability (p < 0.01) and higher age (p < 0.04). Compared with young children with unilateral CP, children with bilateral CP showed greater variation in Mini-MACS/MACS levels, and both sub-groups showed large variations in AHA or BoHA units. The classifications and assessments used in this study are useful to differentiate young children's ability levels. Such information is important to tailor upper limb interventions to the specific needs of children with CP.

  7. Speech problems affect more than one in two children with cerebral palsy: Swedish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, A; Miniscalco, C; Lohmander, A; Himmelmann, K

    2013-02-01

    To describe speech ability in a population-based study of children with cerebral palsy (CP), in relation to CP subtype, motor function, cognitive level and neuroimaging findings. A retrospective chart review of 129 children (66 girls, 63 boys) with CP, born in 1999-2002, was carried out. Speech ability and background information, such as type of CP, motor function, cognitive level and neuroimaging data, were collected and analysed. Speech disorders were found in 21% of the children and were present in all types of CP. Forty-one per cent of the children with speech disorders also had mental retardation, and 42% were able to walk independently. A further 32% of the children were nonverbal, and maldevelopment and basal ganglia lesions were most common in this group. The remaining 47% had no speech disorders, and this group was most likely to display white matter lesions of immaturity. More than half of the children in this CP cohort had a speech disorder (21%) or were nonverbal (32%). Speech ability was related to the type of CP, gross motor function, the presence of mental retardation and the localization of brain maldevelopment and lesions. Neuroimaging results differed between the three speech ability groups. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  8. The enantioselective population pharmacokinetics of intravenous ketorolac in children using a stereoselective assay suitable for microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Baba S; Engelhardt, Thomas; Hawwa, Ahmed F; Cameron, Garry A; McLay, James S

    2015-09-01

    To describe the effect of age and body size on enantiomer selective pharmacokinetic (PK) of intravenous ketorolac in children using a microanalytical assay. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 15 and 30 min and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h after a weight-dependent dose of ketorolac. Enantiomer concentration was measured using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Non-linear mixed-effect modelling was used to assess PK parameters. Data from 11 children (1.7-15.6 years, weight 10.7-67.4 kg) were best described by a two-compartment model for R(+), S(-) and racemic ketorolac. Only weight (WT) significantly improved the goodness of fit. The final population models were CL = 1.5 × (WT/46)(0.75) , V1  = 8.2 × (WT/46), Q = 3.4 × (WT/46)(0.75) , V2  = 7.9 × (WT/46), CL = 2.98 × (WT/46), V1  = 13.2 × (WT/46), Q = 2.8 × (WT/46)(0.75) , V2  = 51.5 × (WT/46), and CL = 1.1 × (WT/46)(0.75) , V1  = 4.9 × (WT/46), Q = 1.7 × (WT/46)(0.75) and V2  = 6.3 × (WT/46)for R(+), S(-) and racemic ketorolac. Only body weight influenced the PK parameters for R(+) and S(-) ketorolac. Using allometric size scaling significantly affected the clearances (CL, Q) and volumes of distribution (V1 , V2 ). © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. The failure of CDC screening questionnaire to efficiently detect elevated lead levels in a rural population of children.

    PubMed

    Kazal, L A

    1997-12-01

    In 1991, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lowered the level for lead toxicity from 25 micrograms/dL to 10 micrograms/dL and published guidelines recommending that all children be tested for blood lead level at 12 months of age and again, if possible, at 24 months. The guidelines also called for periodic universal screening of children between the ages of 6 and 72 months using the CDC's lead screening questionnaire. However, blindly following these recommendations may result in unnecessary patient discomfort, wasted time, and extra expense. According to the CDC guidelines, deviation from this practice requires the determination of the local prevalence of lead poisoning. The purpose of this study was to measure the local prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLL) and to assess the utility of the CDC's lead screening questionnaire in a rural setting. Three hundred seventy-six children living on the Navajo Reservation in Arizona were studied. A consecutive series evaluation at well-child visits between the ages of 6 and 72 months was conducted using the CDC lead screening questionnaire and blood lead levels measured by anodic voltammetry. Of 376 children, 368 had their blood levels tested. Eight children tested positively with an EBLL of > or = 10 micrograms/dL for a prevalence of 2.2%. Three hundred twenty-three completed questionnaires; 83 (25.7%) of these children had false-positive results. The sensitivity and specificity of the CDC lead screening questionnaire were 42.9% and 73.7%, respectively. The positive predictive value of the questionnaire was 3.5%. In this rural population of children, the prevalence of lead poisoning was low, and the CDC lead screening questionnaire failed to efficiently identify those children with lead toxicity. Screening such a population using the CDC guidelines will result in unnecessary discomfort for children and will squander limited resources of time and money. Physicians who care for children should know

  10. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with high intelligence quotient: results from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Katusic, Maja Z; Voigt, Robert G; Colligan, Robert C; Weaver, Amy L; Homan, Kendra J; Barbaresi, William J

    2011-01-01

    To compare the characteristics of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have high intelligence quotient (IQ) versus normal and low IQ through long-term follow-up of children with ADHD from a population-based birth cohort. Subjects included children with research-identified ADHD (N = 379) from a birth cohort (N = 5718). Full scale IQ scores obtained between ages 6 and 18 years were used to categorize children into 3 groups: Low (IQ < 80), Normal (80 ≤ IQ < 120), and High IQ (IQ ≥ 120). Subjects were retrospectively followed up from birth until emigration, death, or high school graduation/dropout. The groups were compared on demographic characteristics, age at which ADHD case criteria were met, comorbidities, treatment, and school outcomes. There were no significant differences among children with high (N = 34), normal (N = 276), or low IQ (N = 21) and ADHD in numerous characteristics, including median age at which ADHD criteria were fulfilled (9.5, 9.7, and 9.8 years); rates of comorbid learning disorders (85.3%, 78.3%, and 76.2%), psychiatric disorders (47.1%, 50.4%, and 47.6%), and substance abuse (17.6%, 23.6%, and 19.0%); and rates of stimulant treatment (79%, 75%, and 90%). In comparison to children with normal or low IQ, those with high IQ had mothers with higher educational levels (e.g., college graduation rates 44.1%, 11.6%, and 14.3%), and higher reading achievement (median national percentiles on standardized reading tests 77.0, 42.0, and 29.0, p < 0.001). These findings suggest that ADHD is similar among children with high, normal, and low IQ, although high IQ may favorably mediate some outcomes such as reading achievement. Diagnosis and treatment of ADHD are important for all children, regardless of cognitive ability.

  11. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-06-25

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation.

  12. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  13. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children With High IQ: Results from a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Katusic, Maja Z.; Voigt, Robert G.; Colligan, Robert C.; Weaver, Amy L.; Homan, Kendra J.; Barbaresi, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the characteristics of children with ADHD who have high IQ versus normal and low IQ through long-term follow-up of children with ADHD from a population-based birth cohort. Methods Subjects included children with research-identified ADHD (N=379) from a birth cohort (N=5,718). Full scale IQ scores obtained between ages 6 –18 years were used to categorize children into three groups: Low (IQ<80), Normal (80≤IQ<120) and High IQ (IQ≥120). Subjects were retrospectively followed from birth until emigration, death, or high school graduation/dropout. The groups were compared on demographic characteristics, age at which ADHD case criteria were met, co-morbidities, treatment, and school outcomes. Results There were no significant differences among children with high (N=34), normal (N=276) or low IQ (N=21) and ADHD in numerous characteristics, including median age at which ADHD criteria were fulfilled (9.5, 9.7, and 9.8 years); rates of co-morbid learning disorders (85.3%, 78.3%, 76.2%), psychiatric disorders (47.1%, 50.4%, 47.6%), and substance abuse (17.6%, 23.6%, 19.0%); and rates of stimulant treatment (79%, 75%, 90%). In comparison to children with normal or low IQ, those with high IQ had mothers with higher educational levels (e.g., college graduation rates 44.1%, 11.6%, 14.3%), and higher reading achievement (median national percentiles on standardized reading tests 77.0, 42.0, 29.0, p<0.001). Conclusions These findings suggest that ADHD is similar among children with high, normal and low IQ, although high IQ may favorably mediate some outcomes such as reading achievement. Diagnosis and treatment of ADHD are important for all children, regardless of cognitive ability. PMID:21200330

  14. [Male partners of cancer patients with underage children - psychological distress in comparison to the general population and the diseased partner].

    PubMed

    Götze, Heide; Weissflog, Gregor; Brähler, Elmar; Romer, Georg; Bergelt, Corinna; von Klitzing, Kai; Herzog, Wolfgang; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Ernst, Jochen

    2012-02-01

    The psychological distress of men with underage children, whose female partners have cancer, was examined using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The sample (N=141) was compared with the partners who have cancer and a comparison group of men from the general population (N=154). The male partners of cancer patients were psychological strongly distressed. About half of the partners showed increased scores in anxiety and one third of the partners had a high level of depression. There was a high correlation within the couple. The male partners of cancer patients were significantly more distressed than the comparison group of men with underage children from the general population. It is very important to assess psychosocial support needs of partners of cancer patients and to provide adequate options of possible psychosocial treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. School attendance and school performance: a population-based study of children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, M D; Mair, J E; Katusic, S K; Wollan, P C; O'connell, E J; Yunginger, J W

    2001-08-01

    To analyze school attendance and school achievement as outcomes of the care of children with asthma. A previously identified Rochester, Minnesota, cohort of children with asthma and age- and sex-matched children without asthma were studied. School attendance, standardized achievement test scores, grade point average, grade promotion, and class rank of graduating students for children with asthma and control subjects were obtained from the Rochester Public School system. Children with asthma (n = 92) and age- and sex-matched non-asthmatic control subjects with 640 school-years of observation were studied. Children with asthma had 2.21 (95% CI, 1.41 to 3.01) more days absent than children without asthma. There was no significant difference in standardized achievement test scores (reading percentile difference 1.22% [95% CI, -3.68 to 6.12], mathematics percentile difference 2.36% [95% CI, -2.89 to 7.60], language percentile difference 2.96% [95% CI, -4.03 to 7.15]). There was no significant difference in grade point average, grade promotion, or class rank of graduating students. In this community, although children with asthma had 2 excess days of absenteeism, the school performance of children with asthma was similar to that of children without asthma.

  16. Prevalence of headache and migraine in children and adolescents: a systematic review of population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Abu-Arafeh, Ishaq; Razak, Sheik; Sivaraman, Baskaran; Graham, Catriona

    2010-12-01

    the aim of this study was to review systematically the prevalence of headache and migraine in children and adolescents and to study the influence of sex, age, and region of residence on the epidemiology.  we systematically searched the literature in electronic databases to cover the period between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2007. We assessed and included population-based studies on epidemiology of headache and migraine in children and adolescents if they fulfilled the following criteria: (1) reporting on unselected childhood population; (2) reliable methods of data collection using a questionnaire or face-to-face interviews; (3) using the International Headache Society's (IHS) criteria (1988 or 2004) for the diagnosis of migraine; and (4) provision of sufficient and explicit data for analysis. We used Excel, Stata, and Confidence Interval Analysis software.  we identified and analysed 50 population-based studies reporting the prevalence of headache and/or migraine in children and adolescents (<20y). The estimated prevalence of headache over periods between 1 month and lifetime in children and adolescents is 58.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 58.1-58.8). Females are more likely to have headache than males (odds ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% CI 1.48-1.6). The prevalence of migraine over periods between 6 months and lifetime is 7.7% (95% CI 7.6-7.8). Females are more likely than males to have migraine (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.60-1.75). Regional differences in prevalence of migraine, though statistically significant, may not be of clinical significance. The change in the IHS's criteria for the diagnosis of migraine was not associated with any significant change in the prevalence of migraine. this study confirms the global high prevalence of headache and migraine in children and adolescents. Sex, age, and regional differences are evident.

  17. Prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome in a population-based sample of children living in remote Australia: the Lililwan Project.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, James P; Latimer, Jane; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Ferreira, Manuela L; Carmichael Olson, Heather; Lucas, Barbara R; Doney, Robyn; Salter, Claire; Try, Julianne; Hawkes, Genevieve; Fitzpatrick, Emily; Hand, Marmingee; Watkins, Rochelle E; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Bower, Carol; Boulton, John; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2015-04-01

    Aboriginal leaders concerned about high rates of alcohol use in pregnancy invited researchers to determine the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS) in their communities. Population-based prevalence study using active case ascertainment in children born in 2002/2003 and living in the Fitzroy Valley, in Western Australia (April 2010-November 2011) (n = 134). Socio-demographic and antenatal data, including alcohol use in pregnancy, were collected by interview with 127/134 (95%) consenting parents/care givers. Maternal/child medical records were reviewed. Interdisciplinary assessments were conducted for 108/134 (81%) children. FAS/pFAS prevalence was determined using modified Canadian diagnostic guidelines. In 127 pregnancies, alcohol was used in 55%. FAS or pFAS was diagnosed in 13/108 children, a prevalence of 120 per 1000 (95% confidence interval 70-196). Prenatal alcohol exposure was confirmed for all children with FAS/pFAS, 80% in the first trimester and 50% throughout pregnancy. Ten of 13 mothers had Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores and all drank at a high-risk level. Of children with FAS/pFAS, 69% had microcephaly, 85% had weight deficiency and all had facial dysmorphology and central nervous system abnormality/impairment in three to eight domains. The population prevalence of FAS/pFAS in remote Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley is the highest reported in Australia and similar to that reported in high-risk populations internationally. Results are likely to be generalisable to other age groups in the Fitzroy Valley and other remote Australian communities with high-risk alcohol use during pregnancy. Prevention of FAS/pFAS is an urgent public health challenge. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. [Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and associated factors in Spanish population of school children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Chueca-Guindulain, María Jesús; Berrade-Zubiri, Sara; Moreno-Gónzalez, Paula; Malumbres-Chacón, María

    2017-08-08

    To analyse the prevalence of hypovitaminosisD and associated factors in school children and adolescents living in a region of northern Spain. Cross-sectional study (convenience sampling). Primary Health Care. A total of 602 Caucasian individuals (aged 3.1 to 15.4years) were included in the study. Prevalence of hypovitaminosisD were calculated (dependent variable). HypovitaminosisD is defined according to the US Endocrine Society criteria: deficiency (calcidiol <20ng/mL), insufficiency (calcidiol: 20-29ng/mL), and sufficiency (calcidiol ≥30ng/mL). Gender, age, body mass index, residence, and season of the year were recorded (independent variables), and their association with hypovitaminosisD was analysed by multiple regression. The prevalence of hypovitaminosisD was 60.4% (insufficiency: 44.6%; deficiency: 15.8%). Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated to hypovitaminosisD were being female (OR: 1.6; 95%CI: 1.1-2.3), pubertal age (OR: 1.8; 95%CI: 1.2-2.6), autumn (OR: 9.5; 95%CI: 4.8-18.7), winter (OR: 8.8; 95%CI: 4.5-17.5) and spring time (OR: 13.2; 95%CI: 6.4-27.5), living in urban areas (OR:1.6; CI95%: 1.1-2.2), and severe obesity (OR: 4.4; 95%CI: 1.9-10.3). There is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosisD in juvenile populations. being female, pubertal age, autumn, winter and spring seasons, severe obesity, and living in urban areas are factors associated to hypovitaminosisD. Consideration should be given to the administration of vitamin supplements and/or the increase in the ingestion of natural vitaminD dietary sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children and the general United States child population.

    PubMed

    Foote, Eric M; Singleton, Rosalyn J; Holman, Robert C; Seeman, Sara M; Steiner, Claudia A; Bartholomew, Michael; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    The lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)-associated hospitalization rate in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged <5 years declined during 1998-2008, yet remained 1.6 times higher than the general US child population in 2006-2008. Describe the change in LRTI-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children and for the general US child population aged <5 years. A retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with discharge ICD-9-CM codes for LRTI for AI/AN children and for the general US child population <5 years during 2009-2011 was conducted using Indian Health Service direct and contract care inpatient data and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, respectively. We calculated hospitalization rates and made comparisons to previously published 1998-1999 rates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. The average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined from 1998-1999 to 2009-2011 in AI/AN (35%, p<0.01) and the general US child population (19%, SE: 4.5%, p<0.01). The 2009-2011 AI/AN child average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate was 20.7 per 1,000, 1.5 times higher than the US child rate (13.7 95% CI: 12.6-14.8). The Alaska (38.9) and Southwest regions (27.3) had the highest rates. The disparity was greatest for infant (<1 year) pneumonia-associated and 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza-associated hospitalizations. Although the LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined, the 2009-2011 AI/AN child rate remained higher than the US child rate, especially in the Alaska and Southwest regions. The residual disparity is likely multi-factorial and partly related to household crowding, indoor smoke exposure, lack of piped water and poverty. Implementation of interventions proven to reduce LRTI is needed among AI/AN children.

  20. Lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children and the general United States child population.

    PubMed

    Foote, Eric M; Singleton, Rosalyn J; Holman, Robert C; Seeman, Sara M; Steiner, Claudia A; Bartholomew, Michael; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Background The lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)-associated hospitalization rate in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged <5 years declined during 1998-2008, yet remained 1.6 times higher than the general US child population in 2006-2008. Purpose Describe the change in LRTI-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children and for the general US child population aged <5 years. Methods A retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with discharge ICD-9-CM codes for LRTI for AI/AN children and for the general US child population <5 years during 2009-2011 was conducted using Indian Health Service direct and contract care inpatient data and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, respectively. We calculated hospitalization rates and made comparisons to previously published 1998-1999 rates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. Results The average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined from 1998-1999 to 2009-2011 in AI/AN (35%, p<0.01) and the general US child population (19%, SE: 4.5%, p<0.01). The 2009-2011 AI/AN child average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate was 20.7 per 1,000, 1.5 times higher than the US child rate (13.7 95% CI: 12.6-14.8). The Alaska (38.9) and Southwest regions (27.3) had the highest rates. The disparity was greatest for infant (<1 year) pneumonia-associated and 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza-associated hospitalizations. Conclusions Although the LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined, the 2009-2011 AI/AN child rate remained higher than the US child rate, especially in the Alaska and Southwest regions. The residual disparity is likely multi-factorial and partly related to household crowding, indoor smoke exposure, lack of piped water and poverty. Implementation of interventions proven to reduce LRTI is needed among AI/AN children.

  1. Growth curves of preschool children in the northeast of iran: a population based study using quantile regression approach.

    PubMed

    Payande, Abolfazl; Tabesh, Hamed; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Saki, Azadeh; Safarian, Mohammad

    2013-01-14

    Growth charts are widely used to assess children's growth status and can provide a trajectory of growth during early important months of life. The objectives of this study are going to construct growth charts and normal values of weight-for-age for children aged 0 to 5 years using a powerful and applicable methodology. The results compare with the World Health Organization (WHO) references and semi-parametric LMS method of Cole and Green. A total of 70737 apparently healthy boys and girls aged 0 to 5 years were recruited in July 2004 for 20 days from those attending community clinics for routine health checks as a part of a national survey. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained health staff using WHO methodology. The nonparametric quantile regression method obtained by local constant kernel estimation of conditional quantiles curves using for estimation of curves and normal values. The weight-for-age growth curves for boys and girls aged from 0 to 5 years were derived utilizing a population of children living in the northeast of Iran. The results were similar to the ones obtained by the semi-parametric LMS method in the same data. Among all age groups from 0 to 5 years, the median values of children's weight living in the northeast of Iran were lower than the corresponding values in WHO reference data. The weight curves of boys were higher than those of girls in all age groups. The differences between growth patterns of children living in the northeast of Iran versus international ones necessitate using local and regional growth charts. International normal values may not properly recognize the populations at risk for growth problems in Iranian children. Quantile regression (QR) as a flexible method which doesn't require restricted assumptions, proposed for estimation reference curves and normal values.

  2. Ownership and use of wireless telephones: a population-based study of Swedish children aged 7–14 years

    PubMed Central

    Söderqvist, Fredrik; Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hansson Mild, Kjell

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the use of mobile phones and other sources of microwave radiation, raising concerns about possible adverse health effects. As children have longer expected lifetime exposures to microwaves from these devices than adults, who started to use them later in life, they are a group of special interest. Methods We performed a population-based study to assess ownership and use of mobile phones and cordless phones among children aged 7–14 years. A questionnaire comprising 24 questions was sent to 2000 persons selected from the Swedish population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. Results The response rate was 71.2%. Overall, 79.1% of the respondents reported mobile phone access, and 26.7% of them talked for 2 minutes or more per day. Of those who reported mobile phone access, only 5.9% reported use of hands-free equipment. Use of cordless phones was reported by 83.8% of the respondents and 38.5% of them talked for 5 minutes or more per day. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. Conclusion This study showed that most children had access to and used mobile and cordless phones early in life and that there was a rapid increase in use with age. It also showed very low use of hands-free equipment among children with mobile phone access, and finally that girls talked significantly more minutes per day using mobile and cordless phones than boys did. PMID:17561999

  3. Ownership and use of wireless telephones: a population-based study of Swedish children aged 7-14 years.

    PubMed

    Söderqvist, Fredrik; Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hansson Mild, Kjell

    2007-06-11

    Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the use of mobile phones and other sources of microwave radiation, raising concerns about possible adverse health effects. As children have longer expected lifetime exposures to microwaves from these devices than adults, who started to use them later in life, they are a group of special interest. We performed a population-based study to assess ownership and use of mobile phones and cordless phones among children aged 7-14 years. A questionnaire comprising 24 questions was sent to 2000 persons selected from the Swedish population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. The response rate was 71.2%. Overall, 79.1% of the respondents reported mobile phone access, and 26.7% of them talked for 2 minutes or more per day. Of those who reported mobile phone access, only 5.9% reported use of hands-free equipment. Use of cordless phones was reported by 83.8% of the respondents and 38.5% of them talked for 5 minutes or more per day. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. This study showed that most children had access to and used mobile and cordless phones early in life and that there was a rapid increase in use with age. It also showed very low use of hands-free equipment among children with mobile phone access, and finally that girls talked significantly more minutes per day using mobile and cordless phones than boys did.

  4. [Oral and dental health of a population of school children from the Zou region of Benin (1998)].

    PubMed

    Moalic é; Zérilli, A; Capo-Chichi, S; Apovi, G

    1999-01-01

    Dental caries is becoming increasingly common in developing countries but very few attempts have been made to assess its prevalence accurately. We therefore carried out an epidemiological survey in 1998 in the south of Benin, to estimate the prevalence of dental caries in 300 school children, both boys and girls, aged 12 to 14 years. Each child underwent a dental examination and interview and the data obtained were recorded in a personal clinical record. We determined DMF index for various subgroups of children. We then analyzed DMF index and its correlation with sex, age, socioeconomic level, the urban or rural origin of the child, diet and daily dental hygiene practices. We found that mean DMF index at age 12 years was 0.83 (38.7% had dental caries and 4.4% had fillings), and thus, 61. 3% of the children were free of dental caries. We also found that 80% of the children had an accumulation of tartar. More boys than girls had dental caries. Rural children were less likely to have dental caries than urban children. The prevalence of caries appears to be low despite poor dental hygiene and a lack of dental treatment. These results conflict with those of most other studies. However, they should be interpreted with caution because the population studied was very homogeneous (selection bias), the age of the children could be no more than approximate (some were probably younger than 12 and others older than 14, because the registry system is inaccurate), there had been health education classes in some schools before the survey and it was difficult to define socioeconomic level and a sugary diet. For example, the lower socioeconomic level (no TV, radio, electricity or tap water) was probably an accurate representation of children from the rural area, whereas urban children were proud of being well-equipped and may have had a tendency to exaggerate. The prevalence of dental caries in this population is currently as low as that for most pre-industrial African countries. To

  5. Psychosocial problems in children with allergic diseases: a population study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, W-C; Chang, H-Y; Kuo, K N; Chen, C-Y; Tu, Y-C; Yang, Y-H

    2011-09-01

    A few studies had pointed out the relationship between a single allergic disease and children's psychosocial problems; however, all of these researchers considered the allergic diseases separately. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between collective allergic diseases and psychosocial problems among 4- to 12-year-old children in Taiwan. The data were generated from the 2005 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. A total of 2955 parents or guardians completed the answers for their 4- to 12-year-old children. We used logistic regressions to investigate the association of allergic diseases and the psychosocial problems. About 40.62% children had at least one allergic disease in the past year, and 17.75% children had a score of psychosocial problems higher than or equal to the 75th percentile. After controlling for demographic factors, the risk of having high-level psychosocial problem for children with any allergic disease was 1.84 times of those without allergy. For those who had one, two or more than two allergic diseases, the risks of having psychosocial problems were 1.56, 2.20 and 3.39 times of those had no allergy disease respectively. Children with asthma, dermatitis and rhinitis simultaneously had the highest psychosocial impact (odds ratio = 5.10). Collective allergic diseases were associated with psychosocial problems in children, and the effect was gradient. Parents and paediatricians should pay attention to psychosocial problems in children with allergic diseases and vice versa. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Children's exposure to passive smoking in England since the 1980s: cotinine evidence from population surveys

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Martin J; Goddard, Eileen; Higgins, Vanessa; Feyerabend, Colin; Bryant, Andrew; Cook, Derek G

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether children's exposure to passive smoking has changed since the late 1980s. Design Cross sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of secondary school children carried out between 1988 and 1998 by Office for National Statistics. Setting England. Subjects Secondary school children aged 11-15. Main outcome measures Salivary cotinine concentrations in non-smoking children. Results Cotinine concentrations in all non-smoking children almost halved between 1988 and 1998, from a geometric mean of 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.11) ng/ml in 1988 to 0.52 (0.43 to 0.62) ng/ml in 1998. This reduction was largely due to reductions in exposure in children from non-smoking households and to decreases in the percentage of parents who smoked. Children living with mothers or fathers who smoked experienced little reduction in exposure. Conclusions Exposure to passive smoking among children in England has approximately halved since the late 1980s. This reduction is partly explained by the fall in the percentage of both mothers and fathers who smoke and is also likely to reflect reductions of smoking in public places. However, there is only limited evidence that children from smoking households have experienced a reduction in exposure through parents' avoidance of smoking in their presence. PMID:10926591

  7. Health status in an invisible population: carnival and migrant worker children.

    PubMed

    Kilanowski, Jill F; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy A

    2007-02-01

    One goal of Healthy People 2010 (2003) is to close the gap of disparities in access to care and health. The purpose of this descriptive exploratory study was to evaluate health status indicators in the children of itinerant carnival and migrant farmworkers aged birth to 12 years. Health status outcomes (immunization records, well-child examinations, dental health status, and growth parameters) were compared between the two groups and to national averages to identify health disparities. All forms were available in Spanish and English. A total of 97 children were recruited for this study: 45 carnival children and 52 migrant farmworker children.

  8. Use and need for psychosocial support in cancer patients: a population-based sample of patients with minor children.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Johanna Christine; Beierlein, Volker; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit; Koch, Uwe; Bergelt, Corinna

    2013-06-15

    Cancer patients and their minor children have been shown to experience psychological distress. The objectives of the current study were to 1) describe the need for and use of psychosocial support and 2) determine predictors of family-centered support use in patients with minor children. A population-based sample of 1809 patients was recruited via 2 cancer registries. The eligibility criteria were age 25 years to 55 years, an initial diagnosis received no longer than 6 years before this survey, and having at least 1 minor child. Medical characteristics and self-report measures were used. Overall, approximately 38% cases were identified as being borderline or probable anxiety cases and 16% were identified as being borderline or probable depression cases. Since diagnosis, 44% of the patients had used psychosocial support and 9% had received family-focused and child-focused support. These patients perceived a lower quality of life and poorer family functioning. Approximately 73% of patients with children wanted information concerning or psychosocial services to support their children or parenting. Use of family-centered support was not found to be predicted by disease-related factors (eg, cancer staging) but rather by subjective needs (eg, mental health and having a distressed child in the family). The results of the current study emphasize the importance of child and parenting concerns in psychosocial care in oncology. Screenings for children and appropriate training programs for health care may increase awareness of this issue. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  9. Population pharmacokinetics of intravenous busulfan in children: revised body weight-dependent NONMEM® model to optimize dosing.

    PubMed

    Diestelhorst, Christian; Boos, Joachim; McCune, Jeannine S; Hempel, Georg

    2014-07-01

    We developed a new population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model for intravenous (i.v.) busulfan in children to evaluate the optimal method to personalize its dosing without concentration-time data. PopPK analyses were done with NONMEM® 7.2. First, a model from Trame et al. was evaluated using an external dataset consisting of 24 children. Second, a revised model was built in a separate dataset of 82 children. Model evaluation was performed by using a standardized visual predictive check (SVPC) procedure and a bootstrap analysis (internal evaluation) and by comparison to an external dataset (external validation). The final model included body surface area (BSA) as an exponential function on volume of distribution (V) and actual body weight (ABW) as an allometric function on clearance (CL). The dosing nomogram for every 6 h administration derived from the final model is: dose[mg]=target AUC[mg×h/L]×3.04L/h×(ABW/16.1)0.797. Compared to other dosing strategies, differences were observed for the very small and obese patients. We revised our prior dosing nomogram after validation in a separate cohort of children. This dosing nomogram can be used to personalize i.v. busulfan doses without concentration-time data, but an additional prospective evaluation in the very small and obese children is needed.

  10. Increased Risk of Tics in Children Infected with Enterovirus: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yen, Hung-Rong; Yang, Chi-Hui; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-05-01

    Both tics and enterovirus (EV) infections are common in children. The association between EV infections and tics has been seldom evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of diagnosed tics after EV infections in children. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the risk of tics after EV infections by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Children aged < 18 years with EV infection during 2000 to 2007 were enrolled. For comparison, non-EV-infected children were randomly selected and matched with EV-infected children at a 1:1 ratio according to sex, age, urbanization level, parental occupation, and the year of EV infection. All patients were followed up until the diagnosis of tics, death, loss to follow-up, withdrawal from the insurance system, or December 31, 2008. A total of 282,321 EV-infected and 282,317 non-EV-infected children were included in this study. The mean age was 2.39 years in both cohorts. The overall incidences of tics were 9.12 and 6.21 per 10,000 person-years in the EV-infected and non-EV-infected cohorts, respectively. Children with EV infection were significantly associated with an increased risk of tics compared with those without EV infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.5). Multivariable analyses showed that boys, children living in urbanized areas, children whose parents had white-collar jobs, and children with allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma exhibited a significantly increased risk of tics. This study revealed an increased risk of tics after EV infection in children.

  11. Rapid Growth from 12 to 23 Months of Life Predicts Obesity in a Population of Pacific Island Children

    PubMed Central

    Okihiro, May; Davis, James; White, Lon; Derauf, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid growth (RG) in early childhood has been associated with increased risk of obesity. The specific intervals when risk is highest have not been well examined and may help identify modifiable risk factors. Objective To determine the correlation between RG in consecutive time intervals during the first 2 years of life with obesity at 4–5 years. Methods This was a retrospective study of children attending the largest community health center in Hawaii. Children, aged 4–5 years, with a pre-kindergarten (PreK) well-child physical examination were included; data were abstracted from medical charts. Analyses Children were classified as overweight (BMI for age/sex 85–94%) or obese (BMI for age/sex ≥ 95%). Moderate and severe rapid growth was defined as an increase in weight-for-height z-score of .67–1.0 SD and ≥1.0, respectively. Relationship between RG and PreK obesity was assessed using logistic regression analyses. Results 389 children were included: 66% Hawaiian, 21.6% Samoan and 12.3% Filipino. At the PreK 19.6% were obese, and 20.9% were overweight. Severe RG from 12 to 23 months was strongly associated with PreK obesity (OR 4.36, 95% CI 1.85–10.27). Of children with severe RG from 12–23 months, 48% were obese at PreK compared with 16.7% of children with moderate RG and 19.3% of children without RG. Conclusion Rapid growth between 12 and 23 months, a key period of nutritional transition in toddlers, was strongly associated with obesity at 4 to 5 years of age in this high-risk population of Pacific Island minority subgroups. PMID:23140074

  12. Rapid growth from 12 to 23 months of life predicts obesity in a population of Pacific Island children.

    PubMed

    Okihiro, May; Davis, James; White, Lon; Derauf, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Rapid growth (RG) in early childhood has been associated with increased risk of obesity. The specific intervals when risk is highest have not been well examined and may help identify modifiable risk factors. To determine the correlation between RG in consecutive time intervals during the first 2 years of life with obesity at 4-5 years. This was a retrospective study of children attending the largest community health center in Hawaii. Children, aged 4-5 years, with a pre-kindergarten (PreK) well-child physical examination were included; data were abstracted from medical charts. Children were classified as overweight (BMI for age/sex 85-94%) or obese (BMI for age/sex > or = 95%). Moderate and severe rapid growth was defined as an increase in weight-for-height z-score of .67-1.0 SD and > or = 1.0, respectively. Relationship between RG and PreK obesity was assessed using logistic regression analyses. 389 children were included: 66% Hawaiian, 21.6% Samoan and 12.3% Filipino. At the PreK 19.6% were obese, and 20.9% were overweight. Severe RG from 12 to 23 months was strongly associated with PreK obesity (OR 4.36, 95% CI 1.85-10.27). Of children with severe RG from 12-23 months, 48% were obese at PreK compared with 16.7% of children with moderate RG and 19.3% of children without RG. Rapid growth between 12 and 23 months, a key period of nutritional transition in toddlers, was strongly associated with obesity at 4 to 5 years of age in this high-risk population of Pacific Island minority subgroups.

  13. Epidemiologic and biogeographic analysis of 542 VFR traveling children in Catalonia (Spain). A rising new population with specific needs.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Lluís; Roure, Sílvia; Sabrià, Miquel; de Balanzó, Xavier; Moreno, Nemesio; Martinez-Cuevas, Octavio; Peguero, Carme

    2011-01-01

    Imported diseases recorded in the European Union (EU) increasingly involve traveling immigrants returning from visits to their relatives and friends (VFR). Children of these immigrant families can represent a population of extreme vulnerability. A randomized cross-sectional study of 698 traveling children under the age of 15 was performed. VFR traveling children and non-VFR (or tourist) children groups were compared. A total of 698 individuals were analyzed: 354 males (50.7%) and 344 females (49.3%), with a median age (interquartile range) of 4 (2-9) years. Of these, 578 (82.8%) had been born in the EU with 542 (77.7%) being considered as VFR, whereas 156 (22.3%) were considered tourists. VFR children were younger (4.7 vs 8.2 yr; p < 0.001), they had more frequently been born in the EU (62.8% vs 20.1%; p < 0.01) and were more frequently lodged in private homes (76.6% vs 3.2%: p < 0.001) and rural areas (23.2% vs 1.6%; p < 0.001). Furthermore, VFR remained abroad longer (51.6 vs 16.6 d; p < 0.001), the visit/travel time interval was shorter (21.8 vs 32.2 d; p < 0.001) than tourists, and consultation was within 10 days prior to the departure (26.4% vs 2.7%; p < 0.001). The risk factor most differentiating VFR children from tourists was accommodation in a rural setting [odds ratio(OR) = 5.26;95%CI = 2.704-10.262;p < 0.001]. VFR traveling children showed a greater risk of exposure to infectious diseases compared with tourists. Immigrant families may represent a target group to prioritize international preventive activities. © 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  14. Sleep problems and daytime somnolence in a German population-based sample of snoring school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Eitner, Steffen; Urschitz, Michael S; Guenther, Anke; Urschitz-Duprat, Pilar M; Bohnhorst, Bettina; Schlaud, Martin; Poets, Christian F

    2007-03-01

    Habitual snoring is associated with daytime symptoms like tiredness and behavioral problems. Its association with sleep problems is unclear. We aimed to assess associations between habitual snoring and sleep problems in primary school children. The design was a population-based cross-sectional study with a nested cohort study. The setting was twenty-seven primary schools in the city of Hannover, Germany. Habitual snoring and sleep problems were assessed in primary school children using an extended version of Gozal's sleep-disordered breathing questionnaire (n = 1144). Approximately 1 year later, parents of children reported to snore habitually (n = 114) and an equal number of children who snored never or occasionally were given the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, a validated questionnaire for the assessment of pediatric sleep problems. Snoring status was re-assessed using the initial questionnaire and children were then classified as long-term habitual snorers or ex-habitual snorers. An increasing prevalence of sleep problems was found with increasing snoring frequency for sleep-onset delay, night awakenings, and nightmares. Long-term habitual snorers were at significantly increased risk for sleep-wake transition disorders (e.g. rhythmic movements, hypnic jerks, sleeptalking, bruxism; odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 12.0, 3.8-37.3), sleep hyperhidrosis (3.6, 1.2-10.8), disorders of arousal/nightmares (e.g. sleepwalking, sleep terrors, nightmares; 4.6, 1.3-15.6), and excessive somnolence (i.e. difficulty waking up, morning tiredness, daytime somnolence; 6.3, 2.2-17.8). Ex-habitual snorers were at increased risk for sleep-wake transition disorders (4.4, 1.4-14.2). Habitual snoring was associated with several sleep problems in our study. Long-term habitual snorers were more likely to have sleep problems than children who had stopped snoring spontaneously.

  15. Divorce in Families of Children with Down Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the nature, timing, and correlates of divorce in families of children with Down syndrome (647), other birth defects (10,283) and no identified disability (361,154). Divorce rates among families of children with Down syndrome were lower than in the other two groups. When divorce did occur in the Down syndrome group,…

  16. Extending the Parameters: An Inquiry into Teaching Practices for Children from Diverse Populations and Homeless Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Grace Ann

    2012-01-01

    The number of homeless children in the United States is increasing. The National Center on Family Homelessness (2010) reports that on average one in 50 children in the United States have experienced homelessness, defined as unstable housing. The needs of this student demographic are varied and complex. For the purpose of this study, the homeless…

  17. A Population Study of Children's Acquisition of Hong Kong Cantonese Consonants, Vowels, and Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated children's acquisition of Hong Kong Cantonese. Method: Participants were 1,726 children ages 2;4 to 12;4 (years;months). Single-word speech samples were collected to examine 4 measures: initial consonants, final consonants, vowels/diphthongs, and lexical tones. A 2-way analysis of variance was performed to examine…

  18. Speech Characteristics of 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from a Prospective Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L.; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical…

  19. Growth during infancy and early childhood in children with cerebral palsy: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Strand, Kristin Melheim; Dahlseng, Magnus O; Lydersen, Stian; Rø, Torstein B; Finbråten, Ane-Kristine; Jahnsen, Reidun B; Andersen, Guro L; Vik, Torstein

    2016-09-01

    To describe growth in infancy and early childhood in children with cerebral palsy (CP). One hundred and four children with CP born at minimum 36 weeks' gestation in 2002 to 2010 were included. Prospectively collected growth data were requested from public health clinics. We calculated standard deviation (SD) scores (z-scores) for weight and height for 12 set age points for each child from birth to 5 years, and for head circumference from birth to 12 months. Children with CP had normal growth in weight and height if they were born non-small for gestational age (non-SGA) or had mild motor impairments (i.e. Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] I-II), whereas children born SGA or with severe motor impairments (GMFCS III-V) had reduced growth (p<0.001). Children with feeding difficulties in infancy had reduced growth in weight and height throughout early childhood, while children without feeding difficulties had normal growth. Head circumference growth decreased most severely among children born SGA, who had mean z-scores of -3.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] -3.7 to -2.2) at 1 year. Children with mild CP had normal growth in weight and height until 5 years, and in head circumference during infancy. Feeding difficulties in infancy and being born SGA were strongly associated with reduced growth. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  20. A Model of Communicative Perspective-Taking for Typical and Atypical Populations of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Fecica, Agnieszka M.

    2011-01-01

    Successful communication requires that individuals attend to the perspective of their conversational partners and use this information to modify their behavior accordingly. This paper presents a framework by which to understand children's communicative perspective-taking skills and, within this framework, outlines three routes by which children's…

  1. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  2. Adolescent Children of Vietnam Combat Veteran Fathers: A Population at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansby, Virginia S.; Marinelli, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of adolescent children of Vietnam combat veterans with non-combat veterans found the majority of outcomes were not significantly different. However, children of combat veterans showed poorer attitudes towards school; more negative attitudes towards their father; experienced more depression, tension, apprehension, and anxiety; and…

  3. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  4. Extending the Parameters: An Inquiry into Teaching Practices for Children from Diverse Populations and Homeless Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Grace Ann

    2012-01-01

    The number of homeless children in the United States is increasing. The National Center on Family Homelessness (2010) reports that on average one in 50 children in the United States have experienced homelessness, defined as unstable housing. The needs of this student demographic are varied and complex. For the purpose of this study, the homeless…

  5. Determining School Programming Needs of Special Population Groups: A Study of Asthmatic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Sharon Lund; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study of the 4,382 children in the New Milford (Connecticut) Public School System was conducted to determine if upper respiratory conditions and other health problems were related to school performance. On the basis of this study, special education programing was not recommended for asthmatic children. (Author/MT)

  6. Divorce in Families of Children with Down Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the nature, timing, and correlates of divorce in families of children with Down syndrome (647), other birth defects (10,283) and no identified disability (361,154). Divorce rates among families of children with Down syndrome were lower than in the other two groups. When divorce did occur in the Down syndrome group,…

  7. Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Praziquantel in Ugandan Children with Intestinal Schistosomiasis: Higher Dosages Are Required for Maximal Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Bustinduy, Amaya L; Waterhouse, David; de Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C; Roberts, Stephen A; Atuhaire, Aaron; Van Dam, Govert J; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Scott, Janet T; Stanton, Michelle C; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Ward, Stephen; Hope, William W; Stothard, J Russell

    2016-08-09

    Each year, millions of African children receive praziquantel (PZQ) by mass drug administration (MDA) to treat schistosomiasis at a standard single dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight, a direct extrapolation from studies of adults. A higher dose of 60 mg/kg is also acceptable for refractory cases. We conducted the first PZQ pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) study in young children comparing dosing. Sixty Ugandan children aged 3 to 8 years old with egg patent Schistosoma mansoni received PZQ at either 40 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg. PK parameters of PZQ racemate and enantiomers (R and S) were quantified. PD outcomes were assessed by standard fecal egg counts and novel schistosome-specific serum (circulating anodic antigen [CAA]) and urine (circulating cathodic antigen [CCA]) antigen assays. Population PK and PD analyses were performed to estimate drug exposure in individual children, and the relationship between drug exposure and parasitological cure was estimated using logistic regression. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to identify better, future dosing regimens. There was marked PK variability between children, but the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of PZQ was strongly predictive of the parasitological cure rate (CR). Although no child achieved antigenic cure, which is suggestive of an important residual adult worm burden, higher AUC was associated with greater CAA antigenic decline at 24 days. To optimize the performance of PZQ, analysis of our simulations suggest that higher doses (>60 mg/kg) are needed, particularly in smaller children. Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, typically associated with chronic morbidity, and its control is a global health priority. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only available antiparasitic drug and is often given out, as a single oral dose (40 mg/kg), to school-aged children by mass drug administration (MDA) schemes operating within preventive chemotherapy campaigns as endorsed by the World Health

  8. [Epidemiologic studies after the disaster in Czernobyl in the population of children in the Krakow region].

    PubMed

    Rybakowa, M; Tylek, D; Sołtysik-Wilk, E; Glonek, G; Stanuch, H; Szafran, Z; Sucharski, P

    1991-01-01

    In 1989-1990 the epidemiologic studies about the impact of of Czarnobyl events on the health of children in Kraków and Nowy Sacz region were performed. The morphologic and functional changes of thyroid gland in children were estimated. Almost 90% of children in both districts received the iodine preparations for prophylactic reason. The mean time of intake was between 5-10 days following the Czarnobyl explosion. There were no relationship between the dose of iodine absorbed during prophylactic action and incidence of goiter. The prevalence of goiter amounted to 34.8-47.6% in boys and girls consecutively in Kraków district and 53.8-70.5% in Nowy Sacz. No hormonal changes in T3, T4 and TSH serum concentration were found in children with goiter and those without goiter. The complications after iodine intake were transient and seen only in a small number of children.

  9. Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in a Population-Based Sample of 10-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Jarrin, Denise C.; Poirier, Paul; Séguin, Louise; Tremblay, Richard E.; Montplaisir, Jacques Y.; Paradis, Gilles; Séguin, Jean R.

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a non-invasive quantitative marker of cardiac autonomic function derived from continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. Normative HRV values and development factors have not been established in pediatric populations. The objective was to derive referent time- and frequency-domain HRV values for a population-based sample of children. Children aged 9–11 years (N = 1,036) participated in the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development cohort cardiovascular health screening. Registered nurses measured anthropometrics (height, weight) and children wore an ambulatory Holter monitor to continuously record an ECG signal. HRV variables included time (SDNN, pNN50, RMSSD, SDANN) and frequency (HF, LF, LF/HF ratio) domain variables. Normative HRV values, stratified by age, sex, and heart rate, are presented. Greater heart rate (βavg = −0.60, Ravg2=0.39), pubertal maturation (βavg = −0.11, Ravg2=0.01), later ECG recording times (βavg = −0.19, Ravg2=0.07), and higher diastolic blood pressure (βavg = −0.11, Ravg2=0.01) were significantly associated with reduced HRV in 10-year-old children. The normative HRV values permit clinicians to monitor, describe, and establish pediatric nosologies in primary care and research settings, which may improve treatment of diseases associated with HRV in children. By better understanding existing values, the practical applicability of HRV among clinicians will be enhanced. Lastly, developmental (e.g., puberty) and procedural (e.g., recording time) factors were identified that will improve recording procedures and interpretation of results. PMID:25056158

  10. Unusually high incidence of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia in children of the Nahuatl population of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, Constantino; Mendez-Mendoza, Amilcar

    2017-08-09

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia is an uncommon disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus. To study the clinical and pathological findings of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia detected during an oral examination of 343 Mexican Nahuatl children from a single primary school in El Paso de Cupilco, Mexico. A thorough oral examination was performed in all children and clinical data (age, gender, location and number of lesions) were documented and analyzed. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia was diagnosed in 110 of the 343 children (32.3%). The ages of the children varied from 5 to 15 years, and of these, 56.3% were girls. The lesions were asymptomatic, 0.2 to 3.0 cm in diameter, soft, round to oval, smooth surfaced, sessile papulonodules, similar in colour to that of the surrounding mucosa. The lesions were commonly seen on the buccal mucosa and tongue, and most affected children (85%) had less than 5 lesions. Children in the 7 to 10 years age group were most often affected. Human papillomavirus typing was not done owing to a lack of facilities. There is a high incidence of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia in Nahuatl children with a predilection for females.

  11. Feeding problems among children with autism in a clinical population in India.

    PubMed

    Crasta, Jewel Elias; Benjamin, Tanya Elizabeth; Suresh, Ann Patricia Catherine; Alwinesh, Merlin Thanka Jemi; Kanniappan, Gomathi; Padankatti, Sanjeev M; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar; Nair, M K C

    2014-12-01

    To compare the prevalence and profile of feeding problems (FP) and their relationship with sensory processing in children with autism and intellectual disability (ID). Children between ages 3 to 10 y with autism (N = 41) and ID (N = 56) were recruited and assessed with Brief Autism Mealtime Behavior Inventory, Sensory Profile Questionnaire, Childhood Autism Rating Scale and Binet-Kamat Scale of Intelligence or Gesell's Developmental Schedule. Assessments were done by independent raters. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used appropriately. The prevalence of FP were 61 and 46.4% among children with autism and ID respectively. Feeding problems were severe among children with autism (P 0.001), especially in young children with autism (P 0.05), and gender was not related to FP. Disruptive meal-time behaviors (P 0.001) and food over-selectivity (P 0.02) were significantly more among children with autism in the bivariate and multivariate analysis. Feeding problems and various dimensions of sensory processing were significantly associated after controlling the confounders. These findings underscore the need for mandatory assessment of FP in children with developmental disabilities, and if present, they need to be addressed with multimodal-multidisciplinary interventions.

  12. Potential benefits from currently available three pneumococcal vaccines for children--population-based evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rückinger, S; van der Linden, M; Siedler, A; von Kries, R

    2011-03-01

    Currently there are 3 pneumococcal vaccines available in Germany. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the three currently available pneumococcal vaccines to reduce the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in children. Children younger than 16 years who have been hospitalized because of IPD between July 2007 and June 2009 in a German pediatric hospitals. Surveillance of IPD in German pediatric hospitals and laboratories serving these hospitals. The case definition is isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from any normally sterile body site. The actual number of IPD cases is based on the capture recapture method combining information from both reporting systems. In the study period an estimated yearly number of 164 IPD cases occurred among children younger than 2 years compared to 144 and 116 cases among children aged 2-4 years and 5-15 years. Among children under 2 years of age, 69 cases were caused by serotypes covered by PCV10 compared to 103 cases potentially preventable by PCV13. Among children aged 2-4 years 94 IPD cases were caused by serotypes covered by PCV13 compared to 108 cases covered by PPV23. The newly available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with better serotype coverage have the potential to further reduce IPD burden in Germany. The additional benefit of vaccination of children aged 2-4 years at high risk for pneumococcal infections with PPV23 is questionable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Parental intimate partner homicide and its consequences for children: protocol for a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Alisic, Eva; Groot, Arend; Snetselaar, Hanneke; Stroeken, Tielke; van de Putte, Elise

    2015-07-29

    The loss of a parent due to intimate partner homicide has a major impact on children. Professionals involved have to make far-reaching decisions regarding placement, guardianship, mental health care and contact with the perpetrating parent, without an evidence base to guide these decisions. We introduce a study protocol to a) systematically describe the demographics, circumstances, mental health and wellbeing of children bereaved by intimate partner homicide and b) build a predictive model of factors associated with children's mental health and wellbeing after intimate partner homicide. This study focuses on children bereaved by parental intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands over a period of 20 years (1993 - 2012). It involves an incidence study to identify all Dutch intimate partner homicide cases between 1993 and 2012 by which children have been bereaved; systematic case reviews to describe the demographics, circumstances and care trajectories of these children; and a mixed-methods study to assess mental health, wellbeing, and experiences regarding decisions made and care provided. Clinical experience and initial research suggest that the children involved often need long-term intensive mental health and case management. The costs of these services are extensive and the stakes are high. This study lays the foundation for an international dataset and evidence-informed decision making.

  14. Should urinary iodine concentrations of school-aged children continue to be used as proxy for different populations? Analysis of data from Chinese national surveys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Su, Xiaohui; Li, Mu; Shen, Hongmei; Yu, Jun; Kelly, Patrick J; Meng, Fangang; Liu, Lixiang; Fan, Lijun; Li, Ming; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-09-01

    I deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Median urinary I concentration in school-aged children has been used globally as a proxy for all populations. This study aims to determine whether median urinary I concentration of school-aged children is an appropriate indicator of I nutritional status in different adult populations. This is a secondary data analysis of two national I Deficiency Disorder surveys (2011, 2014) and two regional surveys (in coastal areas, 2009, and in high-risk areas, 2009-2014). Population groups included in these surveys were school-aged children (8-10 years), pregnant women, lactating women, women of childbearing age and adults (men and women, 18-45 years). All participants were self-reported healthy without history of thyroid diseases or were not using thyroid medicines. The median urinary I concentration of school-aged children was matched with that of the other population at the county level. The matched populations had similar iodised salt supply, food and water I, food composition and I content in salt. Weak or moderate correlation of median urinary I concentrations was observed between school-aged children and pregnant women and between children and lactating women. However, the agreement was stronger between children and women of childbearing age and between children and adult men and women. The results could be affected by cut-off values, data aggregation level and sample size. Using median urinary I concentration of school-aged children tends to overestimate that of pregnant women and lactating women. Median urinary I concentration of school-aged children can be used for assessing I nutrition in the adult population.

  15. A Population Health Approach to System Transformation for Children's Healthy Development.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Paul H; Sood, Aradhana Bela

    2016-04-01

    What if the goal of child health services was not "merely" treating, or even preventing, childhood diseases and disorders, but was expanded to that of promoting children's optimal healthy development? Pediatrics has evolved from an exclusive focus on the treatment of illness to the opportunity to promote children's healthy development. This evolution has profound implications for the content of child health services and programs, for system transformation, and for public policy. Enhanced understanding of the impact of social determinants on children's health and developmental outcomes underscores the importance of an evolving framework for system transformation with key policy implications.

  16. Active, population-based surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis in Chinese children: Beijing Municipality and Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Haixia; Jia, Lei; Payne, Daniel C; Hall, Aron J; Xu, Ziqian; Gao, Zhiyong; Chang, Zhaorui; Jiang, Baoming; Parashar, Umesh D; Meng, Lei; Yu, Hongjie; Duan, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of population-based incidence for rotavirus inpatient and outpatient visits, as well as their associated medical costs, can provide valuable information to assess the potential benefits of rotavirus vaccination. We conducted active surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis at 6 medical institutions for children younger than 5 years from July 2012 to June 2013 in Beijing Municipality and Gansu Province. We collected stool samples of diarrhea patients for testing rotavirus, and epidemiological, clinical and cost data. The proportion of rotavirus-positive for inpatient and outpatient visits from Beijing was 28.7% (138/481) and 19.4% (133/687); a statistically lower proportion than observed in Gansu among inpatient visits (45.2%, 245/542, P < 0.001) and among outpatient visits (28.8%, 66/229, P = 0.003), respectively. The G9P[8] genotype was most prevalent in Beijing (60.6%) and in Gansu (77.6%). The median Vesikari scale value was 16 for rotavirus inpatients and 15 for nonrotavirus inpatients. Population-based estimated rates of rotavirus-related hospitalizations were 14.4 (95% CI, 13-16) per 10,000 children, and the rate of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the outpatient setting was 149 (95% CI, 145-153) per 10,000 children younger than 5 years. The estimated total number of rotavirus-related inpatient visits were 3790 (95% CI, 2488-3827) cases and 29,101 (95% CI: 27,748-29,279) outpatient visits. The total cost of rotavirus infection was $1.4 million (95% CI, $0.9-1.4 million) for hospitalizations and $4.2 million (95% CI, $4.0-4.2 million) for outpatient visits per year in Beijing and Gansu. Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children younger than 5 years worldwide,accounting for an estimated 25 million clinic visits, 2 million hospitalizations and 453,000 deaths each year. In China, the world's most populous nation, surveillance at sentinel hospitals showed that approximately 48% of AGE hospitalizations among

  17. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: population-based data.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Bonilla, Miguel; Lorenzana, Rodolpho; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; de Reyes, Gladys; Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Ortiz-Fernández, Antonio; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2005-04-04

    There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0-14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0-11 years old in El Salvador. Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamin Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and unspecified leukemias (UL). The annual incidence rate (AIR) and average annual incidence rate (AAIR) were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1) <1 year; 2) 1-4 years; 3) 5-9 years, or 4) 10-14 or 10-11 years, for Mexico City and El Salvador, respectively. The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0-11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadorian group of 0-11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in Mexico City is one of the highest reported for North America.

  18. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Bonilla, Miguel; Lorenzana, Rodolpho; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; de Reyes, Gladys; Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Ortiz-Fernández, Antonio; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. Diagnosis: All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and unspecified leukemias (UL). The annual incidence rate (AIR) and average annual incidence rate (AAIR) were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1) <1 year; 2) 1–4 years; 3) 5–9 years, or 4) 10–14 or 10–11 years, for Mexico City and El Salvador, respectively. Results The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0–11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadoran group of 0–11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Conclusion Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in

  19. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of children with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease in Wisconsin: a statewide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kugathasan, Subra; Judd, Robert H; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Heikenen, Janice; Telega, Gregorz; Khan, Farhat; Weisdorf-Schindele, Sally; San Pablo, William; Perrault, Jean; Park, Roger; Yaffe, Michael; Brown, Christopher; Rivera-Bennett, Maria T; Halabi, Issam; Martinez, Alfonso; Blank, Ellen; Werlin, Steven L; Rudolph, Colin D; Binion, David G

    2003-10-01

    To define epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of newly diagnosed pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a large population-based model. All pediatric gastroenterologists providing care for Wisconsin children voluntarily identified all new cases of IBD during a 2-year period. Demographic and clinical data were sent to a central registry prospectively for analysis. The incidence of IBD in Wisconsin children was 7.05 per 100,000, whereas the incidence for Crohn's disease was 4.56, more than twice the rate of ulcerative colitis (2.14). An equal IBD incidence occurred among all ethnic groups, and children from sparsely and densely populated counties were equally affected. The majority (89%) of new IBD diagnoses were nonfamilial. This study provides novel, prospective, and comprehensive information on pediatric IBD incidence within the United States. The surprisingly high incidence of pediatric IBD, the predominance of Crohn's disease over ulcerative colitis, the low frequency of patients with a family history, the equal distribution of IBD among all racial and ethnic groups, and the lack of a modulatory effect of urbanization on IBD incidence collectively suggest that the clinical spectrum of IBD is still evolving and point to environmental factors contributing to the pathogenesis.

  20. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

  1. WIC Eligibles and Coverage--1994 To 2007: Estimates of the Population of Women, Infants, and Children Eligible for WIC Benefits. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides food, nutrition education, breastfeeding support, and health care and social service referrals to nutritionally at-risk low-income pregnant women, new mothers, infants, and children through age 4. This report offers updated estimates of the population that…

  2. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

  3. Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Praziquantel in Ugandan Children with Intestinal Schistosomiasis: Higher Dosages Are Required for Maximal Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, David; de Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C.; Roberts, Stephen A.; Atuhaire, Aaron; Van Dam, Govert J.; Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.; Scott, Janet T.; Stanton, Michelle C.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Ward, Stephen; Hope, William W.; Stothard, J. Russell

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Each year, millions of African children receive praziquantel (PZQ) by mass drug administration (MDA) to treat schistosomiasis at a standard single dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight, a direct extrapolation from studies of adults. A higher dose of 60 mg/kg is also acceptable for refractory cases. We conducted the first PZQ pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) study in young children comparing dosing. Sixty Ugandan children aged 3 to 8 years old with egg patent Schistosoma mansoni received PZQ at either 40 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg. PK parameters of PZQ racemate and enantiomers (R and S) were quantified. PD outcomes were assessed by standard fecal egg counts and novel schistosome-specific serum (circulating anodic antigen [CAA]) and urine (circulating cathodic antigen [CCA]) antigen assays. Population PK and PD analyses were performed to estimate drug exposure in individual children, and the relationship between drug exposure and parasitological cure was estimated using logistic regression. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to identify better, future dosing regimens. There was marked PK variability between children, but the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of PZQ was strongly predictive of the parasitological cure rate (CR). Although no child achieved antigenic cure, which is suggestive of an important residual adult worm burden, higher AUC was associated with greater CAA antigenic decline at 24 days. To optimize the performance of PZQ, analysis of our simulations suggest that higher doses (>60 mg/kg) are needed, particularly in smaller children. PMID:27507822

  4. Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and social responsiveness symptoms of autism: population-based study of young children.

    PubMed

    El Marroun, Hanan; White, Tonya J H; van der Knaap, Noortje J F; Homberg, Judith R; Fernández, Guillén; Schoemaker, Nikita K; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Hudziak, James J; Stricker, Bruno H C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-08-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered safe and are frequently used during pregnancy. However, two case-control studies suggested an association between prenatal SSRI exposure with childhood autism. To prospectively determine whether intra-uterine SSSRI exposure is associated with childhood autistic symptoms in a population-based study. A total of 376 children prenatally exposed to maternal depressive symptoms (no SSRI exposure), 69 children prenatally exposed to SSRIs and 5531 unexposed children were included. Child pervasive developmental and affective problems were assessed by parental report with the Child Behavior Checklist at ages 1.5, 3 and 6. At age 6, we assessed autistic traits using the Social Responsiveness Scale (n = 4264). Prenatal exposure to maternal depressive symptoms without SSRIs was related to both pervasive developmental (odds ratio (OR) = 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.93) and affective problems (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.15-1.81). Compared with unexposed children, those prenatally exposed to SSRIs also were at higher risk for developing pervasive developmental problems (OR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.13-3.47), but not for affective problems. Children prenatally exposed to SSRIs also had more autistic traits (B = 0.15, 95% CI 0.08-0.22) compared with those exposed to depressive symptoms only. Our results suggest an association between prenatal SSRI exposure and autistic traits in children. Prenatal depressive symptoms without SSRI use were also associated with autistic traits, albeit this was weaker and less specific. Long-term drug safety trials are needed before evidence-based recommendations are possible. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  5. Prevalence and predictors of drooling in 7- to 14-year-old children with cerebral palsy: a population study.

    PubMed

    Reid, Susan M; McCutcheon, Jennifer; Reddihough, Dinah S; Johnson, Hilary

    2012-11-01

    To establish a prevalence estimate for drooling and explore factors associated with drooling in a population sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 7 to 14 years living in Victoria, Australia. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect data on drooling from parents of children born between 1996 and 2001, and registered with the Victorian Cerebral Palsy Register. A total of 385 children (231 males, 154 females; mean age 10y 9mo [SD 1y 7mo], range 8-14y) were studied. The clinical type and distribution of CP were spastic (341), ataxic (16), dyskinetic (17), hypotonic (10), and unknown (1). Distribution in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels was I (103), II (98), III (52), IV (63), V (61), and unknown (8). After adjustment for topographical pattern of motor impairment and GMFCS level, 40% were reported to have experienced drooling between 4 years of age and the time of completing the questionnaire. A significantly higher prevalence of drooling was found in children with poor gross motor function and in those with more severe presentations of CP, including poor head control, difficulty with eating, and inability to sustain lip closure (p<0.001 for each). Drooling was shown to be significantly associated with both intellectual disability and epilepsy in this group of children (p<0.001 for both). With a prevalence of 40%, drooling is an important comorbidity in CP. It was considered severe in 15% of children. Poor oromotor function was associated with drooling and could be the target of interventions for this under-researched problem. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  6. Prevalence of hypertension in overweight and obese children from a large school-based population in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Shi, Peng; Luo, Chun-Yan; Zhou, Yue-Fang; Yu, Hui-Ting; Guo, Chang-Yi; Wu, Fan

    2013-01-11

    The ongoing rise in the prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents is considered to be accompanied with the epidemic of childhood overweight and obesity. In this study, we established a large scale cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China, which presented a new evidence for the correlation of hypertension prevalence with overweight and obesity stages in Chinese children and adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during February to December 2009 in Shanghai, China, including total 78,114 children and adolescents. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Overweight and obesity were defined according to sex- and age- specific Chinese reference data. Both SBP and DBP were very significantly increased in overweight (OW) and obese (OB) groups. With age and sex controlled, BMI and WC were independently positively correlated with SBP and DBP. The prevalence of high SBP, DBP and hypertension were markedly higher among OW and OB children than normal weight (NW) group. Odds ratios (ORs) for high SBP, high DBP and high BP were significantly greater in OW and OB children than NW group, and showed a trend increase correlating with obesity stages (all P <0.0001). According to the increasing OR with different combination of obese status of BMI and WC, WC has a stronger influence on hypertension. The combination of BMI and WC obese shows substantially higher ORs compared with those for either BMI or WC obese alone. In this study on a large school-based population in Shanghai, China, BMI and WC are positively correlated with SBP and DBP. Being overweight or obese greatly increased the risk of hypertension in Chinese children and adolescents, in which WC is considered as a more sensitive indicator than BMI.

  7. Sleep patterns in children with ADHD: a population-based cohort study from birth to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nicola; Blair, Peter S; Emond, Alan M; Fleming, Peter J; Humphreys, Joanna S; Henderson, John; Gringras, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Associations between sleep duration and disturbance in infancy and early childhood and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnoses were investigated. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a population-based prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of children born in 1991-1992 in South-West England, were employed. Eight thousand, one hundred and ninety-five children were assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment. One hundred and seventy-three cases (2.1%) met criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Parental report at eight time points showed children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder slept less than peers. Absolute differences were small and mainly restricted to night-time sleep, with no strong evidence of differences from controls, except at 69 months [5 years 9 months; 12 min (95% CI: 5-19), P = 0.001], at 81 months [6 years 9 months; 15 min (95% CI: 8-22), P < 0.001] and at 115 months [9 years 7 months; 11 min (95% CI: 4-18), P = 0.001]. The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group had more night-waking at every age, significant from about 5 years. When tracking children's sleep along a normative centiles chart, a shift in sleep duration from one centile to a lower centile was a useful predictor of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Age-specific decreases of >1SD in sleep duration across adjacent time points was a significant predictor of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at 3-5 years (P = 0.047). In children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, shorter sleep duration and sleep disturbances appear early and predate the usual age of clinical diagnosis. The rate of change of sleep duration relative to an individual, rather than absolute sleep duration at any stage, may prove beneficial in identifying increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  8. Prevalence of hypertension and decreased glomerular filtration rate in obese children: results of a population-based field study.

    PubMed

    Duzova, Ali; Yalçinkaya, Fatos; Baskin, Esra; Bakkaloglu, Aysin; Soylemezoglu, Oguz

    2013-11-01

    Obesity has risen considerably in the Western world and the trend is increasing in non-Western, developing countries, as well. Several school screening studies showed the relation between body mass index and hypertension. In adults, obesity is associated with an increased risk of development and progression of kidney disease. However, data at the epidemiological level are limited, both for children and adults. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and evaluate its association with hypertension and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among children in Turkey. A population-based field study in which individuals were accessed by house visits throughout Turkey has been conducted. The study sample (3622 children; 5-18 years; 49.6% female, mean age 11.88 ± 3.40 years) was selected to represent the Turkish population regarding geographical region, gender and age (5-18 years). Obesity was defined as the body mass index ≥95th percentile for age and gender. The Schwartz formula was used to estimate GFR. Blood pressure (BP) percentile was determined according to age, gender and length. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension were 9.3, 8.9 and 6.1%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed urban area (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.15-1.96; P = 0.003) as an independent risk for obesity and age decreased (OR 0.921; 95% CI 0.890-0.924; P < 0.001) risk for obesity. Obese children had the highest rate of hypertension (11.4 versus 5.6%; P < 0.001; OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.49-3.17; P < 0.001) and stage II hypertension (3.8 versus 0.7%; OR 6.01, 95% CI 2.93-12.33; P < 0.001). Systolic and diastolic BP z-scores were significantly higher in obese children. The mean estimated (eGFR) was lower in obese children (122.7 ± 21.6 versus 129.4 ± 23.1, P < 0.001). The rates of children with eGFR < 90 and <75 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were higher in obese patients, but did not reach statistical significance. Our nation-wide population-based field study among children

  9. Factors associated with stunting and overweight in Amazonian children: a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cobayashi, Fernanda; Augusto, Rosângela Aparecida; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Muniz, Pascoal Torres; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2014-03-01

    To examine the prevalence of stunting and overweight in children and identify demographic, socio-economic and maternal characteristics, as well as biochemical indicators, associated with these outcomes. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed. Data from structured questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and blood and stool samples were used in Poisson regression models to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) according to a hierarchical conceptual framework. Acrelândia, western Brazilian Amazon. Children (n 1139) aged <10 years. Prevalence of stunting was 7·1 % (95 % CI 5·1, 9·6 %) and 3·7 % (95 % CI 2·4, 5·7 %) among children aged <5 years and ≥5 years, respectively; overweight was detected in 20·6 % (95 % CI 17·4, 24·2 %) and 9·4 % (95 % CI 7·2, 12·1 %) of children aged <5 years and ≥5 years, respectively. Among children <5 years of age, stunting was positively associated with the lowest maternal height tertile (PR = 3·09, 95 % CI 1·26, 7·63), low birth weight (PR = 2·70, 95 % CI 1·41, 5·19), diarrhoea for ≥3d (PR = 2·21, 95 % CI 1·03, 4·77) and geohelminth infections (PR = 2·53, 95 % CI 1·02, 6·13). Overweight in children <5 years of age was positively associated with caesarean delivery (PR = 1·45, 95 % CI 1·02, 2·06), birth weight ≥3500 g (PR = 1·82, 95 % CI 1·30, 2·55) and Fe deficiency (PR = 1·64, 95 % CI 1·07, 2·53). Among children aged ≥5 years, land or livestock ownership (PR = 1·85, 95 % CI 1·07, 3·22), maternal overweight (PR = 2·06, 95 % CI 1·23, 3·47), high C-reactive protein concentration (PR = 2·43, 95 % CI 1·26, 4·70), vitamin A deficiency (PR = 1·97, 95 % CI 1·13, 3·41) and high serum TAG concentration (PR = 2·16, 95 % CI 1·27, 3·68) were associated with overweight. Overweight was more prevalent than stunting, being associated with higher household wealth, maternal overweight, caesarean delivery, high birth weight, micronutrient deficiencies and high TAG concentration

  10. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Bone Mineral Status in a Population of Newcomer Children in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Nisbet, Christine; Gushulak, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low levels of circulating vitamin D are more likely to be found in those with darker skin pigmentation, who live in areas of high latitude, and who wear more clothing. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in newcomer immigrant and refugee children. Methods: We evaluated circulating vitamin D status of immigrant children at the national level. Subsequently, we investigated vitamin D intake, circulating vitamin D status, and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) in newcomer children living in Saskatchewan. Results: In the sample of newcomer children in Saskatchewan, the prevalence of inadequacy in calcium and vitamin D intakes was 76% and 89.4%, respectively. Vitamin D intake from food/supplement was significantly higher in immigrants compared to refugees, which accords with the significant difference in serum status. Circulating vitamin D status indicated that 29% of participants were deficient and another 44% had inadequate levels of serum 25(OH)D for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake, sex, region of origin, and length of stay in Canada were significant predictors of serum vitamin D status. Results for TBBMC revealed that 38.6% were found to have low TBBMC compared to estimated values for age, sex, and ethnicity. In the regression model, after controlling for possible confounders, children who were taller and had greater circulating vitamin D also had greater TBBMC. Nationally, immigrant children, particularly girls, have significantly lower plasma 25(OH)D than non-immigrant children. Interpretation: Newcomer immigrant and refugee children are at a high risk of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, which may have serious negative consequences for their health. PMID:23673607

  11. Repeated emergency department visits among children admitted with meningitis or septicemia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, Samuel; Guttmann, Astrid; Li, Qi; Chan, Ian Y M; Vermeulen, Marian J; Schull, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Early diagnosis of children with meningitis or septicemia remains a significant challenge in emergency medicine. We seek to describe the frequency of repeated emergency department (ED) visits among children admitted with meningitis or septicemia in Ontario, Canada. In this retrospective cohort study, using health administrative data, we included all children aged 30 days to 5 years who were hospitalized with a final diagnosis of meningitis or septicemia in Ontario between 2005 and 2010. ED visits at any hospital in the preceding 5 days were identified as potential repeated ED visits. We used generalized estimating equations to model the association of sex, age, triage score, immunocompromised state, visit timing, type of ED, and annual patient volume on the risk of repeated ED visits. Of 521 children, 114 (21.9%) had repeated ED visits before admission. Children admitted on initial visit and those with repeated visits had similar median lengths of stay (13 versus 12 days), critical care use (21.1% versus 16.7%), and mortality (mean 2.9%). One in 3 children repeating visits returned to a different hospital. Repeated visits were associated with older age, a less acute triage score, and initial visit to a community hospital without available pediatric consultation. In this cohort, repeated ED visits among children with meningitis or septicemia were common, yet they had health outcomes similar to those of children admitted on initial visit. One in 3 returned to a different ED, making it unlikely that EDs and clinicians can learn from these critical events without a regionalized reporting system. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early language development in Indian children: A population-based pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Manjit; Malhi, Prahbhjot; Jerath, Jagat

    2013-07-01

    To study the prevalence of language delay and to examine its socio-economic correlates in children less than 3 years. Participants were 130 children (males = 56%) aged 12-35 months (mean age = 1.81 years, SD = 0.58), from an urban center in north India. The language quotient (LQ) of the child was measured by the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS). Children with an LQ score of less than 70 were considered language delayed. Overall, 6.2% of the children were language delayed with a higher prevalence found for girls (7%) than for boys (5.5%), although the difference was not statistically significant. Several significant correlations between socio-economic and demographic variables and the LQ of the child were found. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 31.4% of the variance in the LQ scores of girls was accounted for by income (F = 23.80, P = 0.000) and 18.1% of the variance in the LQ scores of boys was accounted for by education of the mother and income (F = 15.67, P = 0.000). Developmental problems in early years are often precursors of problems in later life and early intervention can facilitate favorable outcomes among children with multiple risks. The high prevalence of language difficulties in young children underscores the need to target language delay in early years, to reduce the likelihood of adverse outcomes and thus optimize chances of improvement.

  13. Acute Poisoning in Children; a Population Study in Isfahan, Iran, 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Piri-Ardakani, Mohammad-Reza; Yaraghi, Mansooreh; Shafiei, Faranak; Behjati, Mohaddaseh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute accidental poisoning in children is still an important public health problem. The epidemiological investigation specific for each country is necessary to determine the extent and characteristics of the problem. The aim of our study was to elucidate the current pattern of acute poisoning among children. Methods The present retrospective study describes the epidemiology of acute accidental poisoning in children (less than 10 years old) admitted to the Emergency Department of two teaching hospitals during a period of two years. Findings Three hundred and forty four children under 10 years old were admitted to emergency department of two teaching hospitals due to acute accidental poisoning. Drugs were the most common agents causing the poisoning (58.1%), followed by Hydrocarbons (13.1%), and opioids (9.3%). Common signs were neurological (42.6%) with lethargy being the most common (39.1%). 50.6% of cases were discharged from hospital within 6-12 hours, 91.6% of them without any complication. Conclusion Accidental poisonings are still a significant cause of morbidity among children in developing countries. Regarding the high prevalence of pharmaceutical drug poisoning and because lethargic was the most frequent neurological sign, comprehensive toxicology screen tests should be included as part of the routine evaluation of children presenting to an ED with an apparent life-threatening event. PMID:23724181

  14. Combined influence of media use on subjective health in elementary school children in Japan: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Harunobu; Ohara, Kumiko; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Fujita, Yuki; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2012-06-13

    In recent years in Japan, electronic games, home computers, and the internet have assumed an important place in people's lives, even for elementary school children. Subjective health complaints have also become a problem among children. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between media use and health status in elementary school children in Japan. A cross-sectional school-based population survey was conducted in 2009 with a sample of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children (age range: 10-12 years old) in elementary schools in Japan (n = 3,464). Self-reported health, lifestyle habits, and time spent using media were assessed. The use of games, television, and personal computers was significantly associated with lifestyle (p < 0.05) and subjective health (p < 0.05). In addition, the use of games, the use of television, and the use of personal computers were mutually associated. The greater the number of media used for more than 1 hour was, the higher the odds ratio of the association of media use with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints was. The plural use of these media had stronger associations with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints. Game, television, and personal-computer use were mutually associated, and the plural use of these media had stronger associations with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints. Excessive use of media might be a risk for unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints.

  15. A longitudinal study of the prevalence of asthma in a community population of school-age children.

    PubMed

    Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter; Kurland, Marge; Scanlon, Paul

    2002-05-01

    Using a unique county-wide resource that links all health care providers' medical records to assess current and "ever" prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma. To describe the age and sex rates and temporal trends in new asthma diagnoses and associations with race and socio-economic status. A longitudinal retrospective evaluation of a population-based cohort of school children using linked medical and school records. Overall, 17.6% of children in grades kindergarten through 12 had a physician diagnosis of asthma and 12.9% had an asthma-related visit within the past 2 years. An additional 19.7% had visits for reactive airway disease or recurrent wheezing or bronchospasm with no diagnosis of asthma. Children provided with free and reduced-cost lunches had lower cumulative and incident asthma rates from birth through their current school age. Race was not related to rates of physician-diagnosed asthma. There was a significant temporal increase in rates of new asthma diagnoses. In this community, 1 in 3 children have had a physician-documented recurrent wheezing-type illness, and 1 in 6 were diagnosed with asthma. Diagnoses rates were directly related to socioeconomic status.

  16. Trend of nocturnal enuresis in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Wang, I-Chung; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Sheu, Ji-Nan; Li, Tsai-Chung; Tsai, Henry J; Wei, Chang-Ching

    2017-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and nocturnal enuresis are common disorders with extensive psychosocial suffering in affected children, and healthcare burden on parents. Whether the childhood psychological disorders and nocturnal enuresis are factors contributing to ADHD have not been clearly established. This study conducted a population-based case-control study using data sets from the National Health Research Insurance database, and identified 14 900 children diagnosed with ADHD. Risk factors that have been associated with or possibly related to ADHD development were included in this study. Performance of in groups of ADHD with enuresis was compared with controls. With adjustment for potential covariates, participants with enuresis exhibited a 2.24-fold greater risk of subsequent ADHD development compared with controls (95% CI 1.84 to 2.73). Participants with enuresis and comorbidity had a significantly greater risk of ADHD than those with no enuresis and no comorbidity (adjusted OR=8.43, 95% CI 4.38 to 16.2). Children who are assessed for ADHD should be evaluated for the presence of enuresis or other neurobehavioral comorbidities. Multidisciplinary treatment may benefit children with ADHD and minimize psychological burden on parents.

  17. Survival analysis of children with primary malignant brain tumors in England and Wales: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Jen-Ho; Tseng, Ming-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Primary malignant brain tumor is the second most common cancer in children. To investigate factors affecting children's survival at a population level, data of 3,169 patients (age<15 years) from the Cancer Registry in England and Wales were used. They were diagnosed during 1971-1990 and followed up until 1995. Variables including age, gender, morphology, WHO grade, tumor site, socioeconomic status, geographical region, and period of diagnosis were available for analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox hazards ratio (HR) regression. Results showed that the median survival and the 1-, 5-, and 10-year crude survival rate for this population were 8.7 years, 72.4, 54.0, and 49.2% respectively. Survival was influenced by age (HR 0.88/5 years), morphology (ependymoma HR 2.43), WHO grades (HR 1.42/grade), tumor sites (brain stem HR 2.11), and periods of diagnosis (HR 0.88/5 years). Gender, socioeconomic status, and geographical region did not affect their survival. Results from this population-based data are very helpful for comparison with other hospital-based studies and for public health purposes.

  18. New Jersey Children's Behavioral Healthcare System: cross service delivery planning for transitional population of youth (ages 16 and 18+ years).

    PubMed

    McGill, Kenneth; McGill, Scott A

    2011-08-01

    The continued need for improvement within a 'system of care' is essential as the need for mental health services by those 'youth' within the child welfare system continually grows. This article outlines the statewide reform of New Jersey's Children's Behavioral Healthcare System, which began in 2000, as well as including the recommendations of the University of South Florida as part of their 'Final Report: Independent Assessment of New Jersey's Child Behavioral Health Services' on continued changes within the system of care. Successful outcomes have resulted from this welfare reform initiative, which include most notably the significant caseload decrease of the Division of Youth and Family Services (DYFS) and the creation of a new cabinet entity, the Department of Children and Families (DCF). This article specifically outlines systemic recommendations to best serve the target population of 'transitional' youth between the ages of 16 to 18+ years utilizing interagency cooperation based upon 'theory of change' and Total Clinical Outcomes Management (TCOM) strategies.

  19. Children Whose Fathers Seek Help for Partner Violence Victimization: Descriptive Characteristics and Their Behavioral Health as Compared to a Population-Based Sample.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily M; Hines, Denise A

    2016-01-01

    Children whose parents seek help for partner violence (PV) victimization are at an increased risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral health problems. The literature has examined this phenomenon primarily among children of battered women. This study examines the sociodemographic characteristics and behavioral health of children whose fathers have sought help for PV victimization and compares them to children of men from the general population. Children whose fathers sought help for PV victimization were less likely to live with their fathers. Bivariate analyses showed that children of male victims had elevated scores in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-related areas of behavioral health; many of these findings remain in multivariate analyses, especially among older children. The implications of the results are discussed for researchers and social service practitioners.

  20. Cumulative and episodic vaccine aluminum exposure in a population-based cohort of young children.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Jason M; Newcomer, Sophia R; Daley, Matthew F; McClure, David L; Baxter, Roger P; Jackson, Michael L; Naleway, Allison L; Lugg, Marlene M; DeStefano, Frank

    2015-11-27

    In addition to antigens, vaccines contain small amounts of preservatives, adjuvants, and residual substances from the manufacturing process. Some parents have concerns about the safety of these ingredients, yet no large epidemiological studies have specifically examined associations between health outcomes and vaccine ingredients, other than thimerosal. This study examined the extent to which the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) could be used to study vaccine ingredient safety in children. Children born 2004-2011 were identified in VSD data. Using immunization records, two cohorts were identified: children who were up-to-date and children who were undervaccinated before age 2 years. A database was also created linking vaccine type and manufacturer with ingredient amounts documented in vaccine package inserts. Thirty-four ingredients in two or more infant vaccines were identified. However, only amounts (in mg) for aluminum were consistently documented and commonly contained in infant vaccines. Analyses compared vaccine aluminum exposure across cohorts and determined the statistical power for studying associations between aluminum exposure and hypothetical vaccine adverse events. Among 408,608 children, mean cumulative vaccine aluminum exposure increased from 1.11 to 4.00 mg between ages 92-730 days. Up-to-date children were exposed to 11-26% more aluminum from vaccines than undervaccinated children. Power analyses demonstrated that safety studies of aluminum could detect relative risks ranging from 1.1 to 5.8 for a range of adverse event incidence. The safety of vaccine aluminum exposure can be feasibly studied in the VSD. However, possible biological mechanisms and confounding variables would need to be considered before conducting any studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Hand eczema in children. Clinical and epidemiological study of the population referred to a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Salvador, José María; Subiabre-Ferrer, Daniela; García Rabasco, Ana; Esteve-Martínez, Altea; Zaragoza-Ninet, Violeta; Alegre de Miquel, Víctor

    2017-08-21

    Hand eczema is a frequent disease in adults. Diagnosing the cause of hand eczema is difficult due to different classifications. There is lack of evidence on hand eczema and its causes in children. A total of 389 children between 0 and 16 years were identified between 1996 and 2016, from whom 42 (10.8%) with exclusively hand eczema were selected. In all cases a standard battery of epicutaneous patch tests was performed, as well as additional batteries depending on the clinical suspicion. The clinical and epidemiological features of these children were recorded and compared against children with eczema in other locations. The 42 children with hand eczema included 25 (60.5%) girls, and 17 (40.5%) boys, with a mean age of 10.6 +- 3.9 years, and did not differ from that of children with eczema in other locations. The definitive diagnosis after patch-testing was Atopic Dermatitis in 15 cases, Allergic Contact Dermatitis in 14 patients, Endogenous Vesiculous Eczema in 6 cases, Endogenous Hyperkeratotic Eczema in 5 cases, and Irritant Contact Dermatitis in 2 cases. The most frequent allergens detected were thiomersal (9 cases), nickel (5 cases), mercury (5 cases), and cobalt (4 cases). Hand eczema is a common condition in children. The most common cause is atopic dermatitis, although cases of allergic contact dermatitis manifesting as hand eczema are not uncommon. Any child with eczema of hands in whom an allergic cause is suspected should be referred for patch- testing. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  2. Serum nerve growth factor levels in autistic children in Turkish population: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Dinçel, Nida; Ünalp, Aycan; Kutlu, Ayşe; Öztürk, Aysel; Uran, Nedret; Ulusoy, Sadık

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: It has been hypothesized that abnormal levels of serum nerve growth factor (NGF) may represent a serological marker for autistic children who may develop cognitive impairment, regression and finally epilepsy. The objective of this preliminary study was to measure serum NGF concentrations of autistic children and compare these levels with those of healthy children. Methods: Consecutive children who were referred to the Paediatric Neurology and Child Psychiatry Policlinics of Dr. Behçet Uz Child Disease and Pediatric Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Turkey between February and September 2008 were included in the study. Serum samples were analyzed for NGF levels using ChemiKine NGF Sandwich ELISA Kit. Comparisons between the study and the control groups were made using student's t test and Chi-square test. Results: Forty-nine autistic children and an equal number of healthy children (control group) were included in the study. No significant difference was found between the study and the control groups in terms of children's age, while number of boys was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the study group. Average serum NGF concentrations were 46.94 ± 51.40 and 32.94 ± 12.48 pg/ml in the study and control group, respectively. Serum NGF concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the study group compared with the control group. Interpretation & conclusions: Our preliminary findings show that enhanced serum NGF concentration may be used as a potential diagnostic tool in autism, however, further studies including a large number of patients are required to confirm the findings. PMID:24521633

  3. Predictors of severe disease in a hospitalized population of children with acute viral lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Bernal, Angela M; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Acuña-Cordero, Ranniery

    2016-05-01

    Although predictors of severe viral acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) in children have been reported, there have been few research studies performed in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of the present study was to determine predictors of disease severity in a population of Colombian children <5 years of age with ALRI. In a prospective cohort study, we determined independent predictors of severe ALRI in a hospitalized population of children under 5 years old with ALRI during a 1-year period. We included both underlying disease conditions and the infecting respiratory viruses as predictor variables of severe disease. We defined severe disease as the necessity of pediatric intensive care unit admission. Of a total of 1,180 patients admitted with a diagnosis of ALRI, 416 (35.3%) were included because they were positive for any kind of respiratory virus. After controlling for potential confounders, it was found that a history of pulmonary hypertension (RR 3.62; CI 95% 2.38-5.52; P < 0.001) and a history of recurrent wheezing (RR 1.77; CI 95% 1.12-2.79; P = 0.015) were independent predictors of severe disease. The present study shows that respiratory viruses are significant causes of ALRI in infants and young children in Colombia, a typical tropical LMIC, especially during the rainy season. Additionally, the results of the present study show that clinical variables such as a history of pulmonary hypertension and a history of recurrent wheezing are more relevant for predicting ALRI severity than the infecting respiratory viruses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System in a population-based sample of preschool children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2017-06-01

    To determine (1) the reproducibility of the Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System (EDACS); (2) EDACS classification distribution in a population-based cohort with cerebral palsy (CP); and (3) the relationships between the EDACS and clinical mealtime assessment, other classifications, and health outcomes. This was a cross-sectional population-based cohort study of 170 children with CP at 3 years to 5 years (mean 57.6mo, standard deviation [SD] 8.3mo; 105 males, n=65 females). Functional abilities were representative of a population sample (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I=74, II=34, III=21, IV=18, V=23). The EDACS was the primary classification of mealtime function. The Dysphagia Disorders Survey was the clinical mealtime assessment. Gross motor function was classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System. EDACS classification had 88.3% intrarater agreement (κ=0.84, intraclass correlation coefficient=0.95; p<0.001) and 51.7% interrater agreement (κ=0.36, intraclass correlation coefficient=0.79; p<0.001). In total, 56.5% of children were classified as EDACS level I. There was a strong stepwise relationship between the Dysphagia Disorders Survey and EDACS (r=0.96, p<0.001). Parental stress (odds ratio=1.3, p=0.05) and feeding tubes (odds ratio=6.4, p<0.001) were significantly related to more limited function on the EDACS. The EDACS presents a viable adjunct to clinical assessment of feeding skills in children with CP for use in surveillance trials and clinical practice. A rating addendum would be a useful contribution to the tool to enhance reproducibility. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Translating adult electrophysiology findings to younger patient populations: difficulty measuring 40 Hz auditory steady-state responses in typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Fisk, Charles L.; Liu, Song; Pandey, Juhi; Herrington, John D.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gamma (~30 to 80 Hz) brain rhythms are thought to be abnormal in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In adult populations, auditory 40 Hz click trains or 40 Hz amplitude-modulated tones are used to assess the integrity of superior temporal gyrus (STG) 40 Hz gamma-band circuits. As STG 40 Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are not fully developed in children, tasks using these stimuli may not be optimal in younger patient populations. The present study examined this issue in typically developing (TD) children as well as in children with ASD, using source localization to directly assess activity in the principal generators of the 40 Hz ASSR - left and right primary/secondary auditory cortex. Methods 40 Hz amplitude-modulated tones of 1sec duration were binaurally presented while magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were obtained from forty-eight TD children (45 males; 7- to 14-years-old) and forty-two children with ASD (38 males; 8- to 14-years-old). T1-weighted structural MRI was obtained. Using single dipoles anatomically constrained to each participant's left and right Heschl's Gyrus, left and right 40 Hz ASSR total power (TP) and inter-trial coherence (ITC) measures were obtained. Associations between 40 Hz ASSR TP, ITC and age as well as superior temporal gyrus (STG) gray matter cortical thickness were measured. Group STG function and structure differences were also examined. Results TD and ASD groups did not differ on 40 Hz ASSR TP or ITC. In TD and ASD, age was associated with left and right 40 Hz ASSR ITC (p < 0.01). The interaction term was not significant, indicating in both groups a ~0.01/year increase in ITC. 40 Hz ASSR TP and ITC were greater in the right than left STG. Groups did not differ in STG cortical thickness, and no associations were observed between 40 Hz ASSR activity and STG cortical thickness. Finally, right STG transient gamma (50 to 100 ms and 30 to 50 Hz) was greater

  6. Anxiety disorders and behavioral inhibition in preschool children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Frank W; Backes, Aline; Sander, Charlotte S; Weber, Monika; von Gontard, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of anxiety disorders in preschool children and their associations with behavioral inhibition as a temperamental precursor. A representative sample of 1,342 children aged 4–7 years (M = 6;1, SD = 4.80) was examined with a standardized parental questionnaire, including items referring to anxiety disorders at the current age and behavioral inhibition at the age of 2 years. The total prevalence of anxiety disorders was 22.2 %. Separation anxiety (SAD) affected 7 %, social phobia (SOC) 10.7 %, specific phobia (PHOB) 9.8 % and depression/generalized anxiety (MDD/GAD) 3.4 % of children. The prevalence of most types of anxiety was higher in girls except for separation anxiety, which affected more boys. Behavioral inhibition in the second year of life was associated with all types of anxiety. Anxiety disorders are common but frequently overlooked in preschool children. Different subtypes can be differentiated and are often preceded by behavioral inhibition. Assessment, prevention and treatment of anxiety disorders are recommended in preschool children.

  7. Feasibility and reliability of classifying gross motor function among children with cerebral palsy using population-based record surveillance.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Ruth E; Patz, Jean; Maenner, Matthew J; Arneson, Carrie L; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Doernberg, Nancy S; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Kirby, Russell S; Durkin, Maureen S

    2011-01-01

    For conditions with wide-ranging consequences, such as cerebral palsy (CP), population-based surveillance provides an estimate of the prevalence of case status but only the broadest understanding of the impact of the condition on children, families or society. Beyond case status, information regarding health, functional skills and participation is necessary to fully appreciate the consequences of the condition. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and reliability of enhancing population-based surveillance by classifying gross motor function (GMF) from information available in medical records of children with CP. We assessed inter-rater reliability of two GMF classification methods, one the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and the other a 3-category classification of walking ability: (1) independently, (2) with handheld mobility device, or (3) limited or none. Two qualified clinicians independently reviewed abstracted evaluations from medical records of 8-year-old children residing in southeast Wisconsin, USA who were identified as having CP (n = 154) through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. Ninety per cent (n = 138) of the children with CP had information in the record after age 4 years and 108 (70%) had adequate descriptions of gross motor skills to classify using the GMFCS. Agreement was achieved on 75.0% of the GMFCS ratings (simple kappa = 0.67, 95% confidence interval [95% CI 0.57, 0.78], weighted kappa = 0.83, [95% CI 0.77, 0.89]). Among case children for whom walking ability could be classified (n = 117), approximately half walked independently without devices and one-third had limited or no walking ability. Across walking ability categories, agreement was reached for 94% (simple kappa = 0.90, [95% CI 0.82, 0.96], weighted kappa = 0.94, [95% CI 0.89, 0.98]). Classifying GMF in the context of active records-based surveillance is feasible and reliable

  8. The Missing Children: Mortality and Fertility in a Southeast Asian Refugee Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Linda W.

    1989-01-01

    Presents the age-sex structures of refugee populations arriving in the United States from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam from 1975 through 1986. Differences in the composition of these young populations reflect varying flight and resettlement experiences and changing factors influencing migration. High fertility rates predict a generation of rapid…

  9. The Missing Children: Mortality and Fertility in a Southeast Asian Refugee Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Linda W.

    1989-01-01

    Presents the age-sex structures of refugee populations arriving in the United States from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam from 1975 through 1986. Differences in the composition of these young populations reflect varying flight and resettlement experiences and changing factors influencing migration. High fertility rates predict a generation of rapid…

  10. Autistic Features in a Total Population of 7-9-Year-Old Children Assessed by the ASSQ (Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri J.; Gillberg, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of autism is reported to be on the rise worldwide. Change of diagnostic criteria and a broadening of the concept of autism have been mentioned as contributing factors. Further studies of general populations are needed. The present study assessed the distribution of autistic features in a total population of children 7-9…

  11. [Emotional perception of elemental movement. Study on a population of school age children].

    PubMed

    Podevin, Gaëlle; Rusinek, Stéphane

    2013-12-01

    Our goal is to examine the emotional influence of perceived basic motions on cognitive processes in childhood. The main hypothesis of this study proposes that the perception of motion will subsequently influence cognitive processing in a specific, emotional manner. We studied 90 children aged nine to 12 years old. On a screen they were shown a black-shaped disk moving in one of three different directions associated with positive, negative and neutral valences. Furthermore, both before and after the children had seen the motion, they were asked to perform a writing speed task (numbers counting down). The results show that (1) children attribute an emotional valence to the "positive" motion and (2) the writing speed cognitive task is influenced by the "negative" motion. Thus, we suggest that basic motions can elicit changes in emotional manner in childhood to perceptive and executive processes according to their specific trajectory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Divorce in families of children with Down syndrome: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Richard C; Hodapp, Robert M

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we examined the nature, timing, and correlates of divorce in families of children with Down syndrome (647), other birth defects (10,283) and no identified disability (361,154). Divorce rates among families of children with Down syndrome were lower than in the other two groups. When divorce did occur in the Down syndrome group, however, a higher proportion occurred within the first 2 years after the child's birth. Mothers and fathers of children with Down syndrome were much more likely to divorce if they were younger, had not graduated from high school, and if fathers were less educated and lived in a rural area. Few effects on divorce were noted for a variety of family structure variables.

  13. Impact of malocclusion on oral health-related quality of life among Brazilian preschool children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Anita Cruz; Paiva, Saul Martins; Viegas, Claudia Marina; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of malocclusion on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children and their families. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. A representative sample of 1069 male and female preschoolers aged 60 to 71 months was randomly selected from public and private preschools and daycare centers. Data were collected using the B-ECOHIS. In addition, a questionnaire addressing socioeconomic and demographic data was self-administered by the parents/guardians. The criteria used to diagnose malocclusion were based on Foster and Hamilton (1969), Graboswki et al. (2007) and Oliveira et al. (2008). Descriptive, univariate and multiple Poison logistic regression analyses were carried out. The prevalence of malocclusion was observed in 46.2% of the children and deep overbite was the most prevalent type of malocclusion (19.7%), followed by posterior crossbite (13.1%), accentuated overjet (10.5%), anterior open bite (7.9%) and anterior crossbite (6.7%). The impact of malocclusion on OHRQoL was 32.7% among the children and 27.1% among the families. In Poisson multiple regression model adjusted for socioeconomic status, no significant association was found between malocclusion and OHRQoL of the children (PR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.96-1.24) and their families (PR=1.11, 95% CI: 0.94-1.31). It is concluded that children with malocclusion in this sample did not have a negative impact on their OHRQoL and of their families.

  14. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine use for children with allergic rhinitis: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hung-Rong; Liang, Kai-Li; Huang, Tzu-Ping; Fan, Ji-Yu; Chang, Tung-Ti; Sun, Mao-Feng

    2015-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common allergic disorder in children, some of whom seek complementary treatments, including acupuncture and Chinese herbs. Little, however, is known about the treatment of pediatric AR with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). To characterize TCM use in pediatric AR, we conducted a nationwide population-based study. We screened one million randomly sampled beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Program in Taiwan from 2002 to 2010 to identify children <18 years of age with newly diagnosed allergic rhinitis (ICD-9 code 477.9). The subjects were categorized according to their use of TCM. We identified 97,401 children newly diagnosed with AR for inclusion in the study. Among these children, 63.11% (N=61,472) had used TCM. There were significantly more TCM users than non-users among school-age children and adolescents (P<0.001). Most (99.1%) pediatric TCM users received Chinese herbal remedies (99.1%); only 0.9% received acupuncture or manipulative therapies. Xin-Yi-Qing-Fei-Tang (Magnolia Flower Lung-Clearing Decoction) was the most frequently prescribed TCM formulation (23.44%), and the most commonly prescribed single herb was Chan-Tui (Periostracum cicadae; 13.78%). Regarding syndrome differentiation (ZHENG) according to TCM theory, prescriptions for the Cold Syndrome exceeded those for the Hot Syndrome throughout the year in Taiwan. We found that approximately two-thirds of pediatric AR patients were prescribed TCM treatments in Taiwan. Further research is warranted to examine the efficacy and safety of TCM for pediatric AR patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Swimming pool attendance is related to asthma among atopic school children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin; Hedman, Linnea; Nordberg, Gunnar; Forsberg, Bertil; Eriksson, Kåre; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-04-15

    By-products of water disinfectants have been suggested to cause asthma, especially in atopic children. However, studies on indoor swimming pool attendance and asthma in children have presented conflicting results. The present study examined the relationship between indoor swimming pool attendance and asthma among sensitized and non-sensitized children aged 11-12 years. An extended ISAAC questionnaire was sent to the families of all children attending fifth or sixth grade, aged 11-12 years, in two municipalities in Northern Sweden in 2010. A total of 1866 participated (96% of those invited) in the questionnaire study and 1652 (89%) also participated in skin prick testing for 10 standard airborne allergens. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma in combination with wheeze or use of asthma medication in the last 12 months. Current swimming pool attendance was reported as ≥ 1/week or <1/week. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis. The prevalence of current asthma was 8.9% (10.0% of boys; 7.9% of girls) and 14% had attended indoor pools ≥ 1/week. Children currently attending swimming pools ≥ 1/week had an increased risk of current asthma. Stratified analyses for allergic sensitization adjusted for sex, parental smoking, parental asthma, and damp housing, showed a statistically significant association for current asthma only among sensitized subjects (OR 95% CI 1.90 1.09-3.32). No association was found between current pool attendance and wheeze, sensitization, rhinitis or eczema. The present study supports the proposed link between indoor swimming pool attendance and asthma in sensitized children.

  16. Quantifying the distribution of inhalation exposure in human populations: Distribution of minute volumes in adults and children

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, J.A.J.; Funk, L.M.; Fountain, R.; Sedman, R.

    1996-09-01

    Assessments of inhalation exposure to environmental agents necessitate quantitative estimates of pulmonary ventilation rates. Estimating a range of exposures in a given population requires an understanding of the variability of ventilation rates in the population. Distribution of ventilation rates (Ve) were described based on the results of a large study where Ve were measured while subjects performed a variety of physical tasks. Three distinct ventilation levels were identified using cluster analyses of the mean Ve and then various activities were assigned to the three levels using a k-means procedure. Separate distributions were identified for the three Ve levels for adult males, adult females, and children. The variability of Ve was consistent with a lognormal distribution for all groups. An aggregate daily inhalation rate can be estimated based on the distributions of Ve. 41 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  17. Factor analysis of the pediatric symptom checklist in a population of children with voiding dysfunction and/or nocturnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Fedele, David A; Grant, DeMond; Veenstra, Amy L; Kovacevic, Larisa G; Elder, Jack S; Lakshmanan, Yegappan

    2014-03-01

    The research objective was to identify the factor structure of the pediatric symptom checklist (PSC) in children with voiding dysfunction and/or nocturnal enuresis who were seen in a pediatric urology clinic. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted for 498 consecutive patients, ages 6-16, who were seen over a 13-month period. The PSC, a 35-item measure used to screen for psychosocial difficulties, was completed by the patient's caregiver. Confirmatory factor analyses using three previous models were conducted. A four factor model comprised of internalizing, externalizing, attention problems, and chronic illness factors represented the best fit to the data. Within this population, the PSC appears to capture internalizing and externalizing problems, difficulties with attention, and possible side effects of a medical condition. This information could aid clinicians in assessing adjustment difficulties within this population and concurrently allow researchers to examine whether these specific factors are related to other relevant outcomes.

  18. Autistic features in a total population of 7-9-year-old children assessed by the ASSQ (Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire).

    PubMed

    Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri J; Gillberg, Christopher

    2006-02-01

    The prevalence of autism is reported to be on the rise worldwide. Change of diagnostic criteria and a broadening of the concept of autism have been mentioned as contributing factors. Further studies of general populations are needed. The present study assessed the distribution of autistic features in a total population of children 7-9 years of age, and explored the impact of age, gender, informant, and participation bias on symptom report. Teacher and parent forms of the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) were used in the "Bergen Child Study", a total population study of 9430 children aged 7-9 years. Completed teacher forms were returned for 97% and parent forms for 71% of the children. High-scorers were defined according to the ASSQ validation study by Ehlers, Gillberg, and Wing (1999). The distribution of ASSQ scores was found to be almost continuous. Of the children with both a teacher and a parent form, 2.1% were defined as high-scorers. Children without parent informed consent (i.e., anonymous children) obtained significantly higher teacher scores than those who had questionnaires completed by both parent and teacher. Adjusting prevalence for the anonymous children, the prevalence of high-scorers was 2.7% of the total population. Age did not affect symptom scores. Boys scored higher and parents reported more symptoms, particularly in girls. Agreement between informants was low to moderate. Autism symptoms are not uncommon in the general population of children. Our findings are consistent with the concept of autism as a spectrum. Non-responders had a higher load of autism symptoms than identified children, indicating that reports on the prevalence of autism in a responder group underestimate true prevalence. Large differences across informants suggested the need to gather information both from families and from schools when screening for autism spectrum disorders.

  19. Development of a multidimensional measure for recurrent abdominal pain in children: population-based studies in three settings.

    PubMed

    Malaty, Hoda M; Abudayyeh, Suhaib; O'Malley, Kimberly J; Wilsey, Michael J; Fraley, Ken; Gilger, Mark A; Hollier, David; Graham, David Y; Rabeneck, Linda

    2005-02-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common problem in children and adolescents. Evaluation and treatment of children with RAP continue to challenge physicians because of the lack of a psychometrically sound measure for RAP. A major obstacle to progress in research on RAP has been the lack of a biological marker for RAP and the lack of a reliable and valid clinical measure for RAP. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop and test a multidimensional measure for RAP (MM-RAP) in children to serve as a primary outcome measure for clinical trials, (2) to evaluate the reliability of the measure and compare its responses across different populations, and (3) to examine the reliabilities of the measure scales in relation to the demographic variables of the studied population. We conducted 3 cross-sectional studies. Two studies were clinic-based studies that enrolled children with RAP from 1 pediatric gastroenterology clinic and 6 primary care clinics. The third study was a community-based study in which children from 1 elementary and 2 middle schools were screened for frequent episodes of abdominal pain. The 3 studies were conducted in Houston, Texas. Inclusion criteria for the clinic-based studies were (1) age of 4 to 18 years; (2) abdominal pain that had persisted for 3 or more months; (3) abdominal pain that was moderate to severe and interfered with some or all regular activities; (4) abdominal pain that may or may not be accompanied by upper-gastrointestinal symptoms; and (5) children were accompanied by a parent or guardian who was capable of giving informed consent, and children over the age of 10 years were capable of giving informed assent. The community-based study used standardized questionnaires that were offered to 1080 children/parents from the 3 participating schools; 700 completed and returned the questionnaires (65% response rate). The questionnaire was designed to elicit data concerning the history of abdominal pain or discomfort. A total of 160

  20. Population-based centile curves for triceps, subscapular, and abdominal skinfold thicknesses in Polish children and adolescents--the OLAF study.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Maciej; Kułaga, Zbigniew; Płudowski, Paweł; Grajda, Aneta; Gurzkowska, Beata; Napieralska, Ewelina; Swiąder, Anna; Pan, Huiqi; Litwin, Mieczysław

    2012-08-01

    Skinfold thicknesses are used as valid anthropometric indicators of regional body fatness. Actual population-based values for skinfold thicknesses for Polish children are not available. The purpose of this study was to provide population-based values for triceps, subscapular, and abdominal skinfold thicknesses in healthy children and adolescents. A total number of 17,416 boys and girls aged 6.5-18.5 years, randomly selected from whole Polish population of children and adolescents, were enrolled in the study. Skinfold thicknesses (triceps, subscapular, and abdominal) were measured using Harpenden skinfold caliper. All measurements were taken after the training of participating investigators. The LMS method was used to fit percentile curves across age for each skinfold. Q tests for fit were used to assess the global goodness of fit of our final models. The study shows for the first time smoothed population-based values of body fat distribution indices for Polish children and adolescents 7-18 years of age. Reported skinfold centiles are higher compared to previously established for Warsaw children and very close to the actual US data. Our study provided for the first time population-based values for skinfold thicknesses evaluation in a way allowing to calculate reliable Z scores. The early detection of abnormal fat stores, using our population-based values and respective Z scores, may be now implemented for practice.

  1. Health literacy and the determinants of obesity: a population-based survey of sixth grade school children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shih, Shu-Fang; Liu, Chieh-Hsing; Liao, Li-Ling; Osborne, Richard H

    2016-03-22

    Health literacy has become an important health policy and health promotion agenda item in recent years. It had been seen as a means to reduce health disparities and a critical empowerment strategy to increase people's control over their health. So far, most of health literacy studies mainly focus on adults with few studies investigating associations between child health literacy and health status. This study aimed to investigate the association between health literacy and body weight in Taiwan's sixth grade school children. Using a population-based survey, 162,209 sixth grade (11-12 years old) school children were assessed. The response rate at school level was 83%, with 70% of all students completing the survey. The Taiwan child health literacy assessment tool was applied and information on sex, ethnicity, self-reported health, and health behaviors were also collected. BMI was used to classify the children as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. A multinomial logit model with robust estimation was used to explore associations between health literacy and the body weight with an adjustment for covariates. The sample consisted of 48.9% girls, 3.8% were indigenous and the mean BMI was 19.55 (SD = 3.93). About 6% of children self-reported bad or very bad health. The mean child health literacy score was 24.03 (SD = 6.12, scale range from 0 to 32). The overall proportion of obese children was 15.2%. Children in the highest health literacy quartile were less likely to be obese (12.4%) compared with the lowest quartile (17.4%). After controlling for gender, ethnicity, self-rated health, and health behaviors, children with higher health literacy were less likely to be obese (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 0.94, p < 0.001) and underweight (RRR = 0.83, p < 0.001). Those who did not have regular physical activity, or had sugar-sweetened beverage intake (RRR > 1.10, p < 0.0001) were more likely to report being overweight or obese. This study demonstrates strong links

  2. Epilepsy-Related Mortality is Low in Children: A 30 Year Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, MN

    PubMed Central

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is a common childhood neurologic disorder, affecting 0.5 to1% of children. Increased mortality occurs due to progression of underlying disease, seizure-related accidents, suicide, status epilepticus, aspiration during seizures, and sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Previous studies show mortality rates of 2.7 to 6.9 per 1000 person-years (Berg et al., 2004, Sillanpaa & Shinnar, 2010). Potential risk factors include poor seizure control, intractable epilepsy, status epilepticus, tonic-clonic seizures, mental retardation, and remote symptomatic cause of epilepsy (Berg et al., 2004, Sillanpaa & Shinnar, 2010, Walczak et al., 2001). Few population-based studies of mortality and SUDEP in childhood-onset epilepsy have been published. The purpose of this study is to report mortality and SUDEP from a 30 year population-based cohort of children with epilepsy. Methods The Medical Diagnostic Index of the Rochester Epidemiology Project was searched for all codes related to seizure and convulsion in children living in Olmsted County, Minnesota and of ages birth through 17 years from 1980 through 2009. The medical records of these children were reviewed to identify all those with new-onset epilepsy, and to abstract other baseline and follow-up information. Potential risk factors including seizure type, epilepsy syndrome, history of status epilepticus, the presence and severity of neurologic impairment, and epilepsy outcome was reviewed. Epilepsy outcome was characterized by seizure frequency, number of anti-seizure medications (AEDs) used, and number of AEDs failed due to lack of efficacy, and epilepsy intractability at 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years after epilepsy onset. We followed all children through their most recent visit to determine vital status, cause of death, and whether autopsy was performed. Key Findings From 1980 to 2009, there were 467 children age birth through 17 years diagnosed with epilepsy while residents of Olmsted County, MN

  3. The Comorbidity of ADHD in the General Population of Saudi Arabian School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate comorbidity of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), anxiety, and depression and to investigate the impaired social and academic developments among children with ADHD in primary school settings in Saudi Arabia. Method: Data for the purpose of this study are obtained from parent and teachers of 652…

  4. Caffeine intakes of children from a biracial population: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Arbeit, M L; Nicklas, T A; Frank, G C; Webber, L S; Miner, M H; Berenson, G S

    1988-04-01

    To investigate caffeine intake patterns in children, dietary intakes were examined for a biracial sample of 1,284 infants and children. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were completed by parents of children aged 6 months and repeated at ages 1, 2, 3, and 4 years; children 10 years old served as their own respondents and were surveyed at ages 13, 15, and 17 years. The sample was 60% white and 40% black. Additional cohorts of 10-year-olds (no. = 686) were studied for temporal trend. Whites consumed significantly more caffeine than blacks as early as 1 year and persisted at a higher intake level from 2 to 17 years. This trend continued whether intake was measured in total milligrams, milligrams per 1,000 kcal, or milligrams per kilogram body weight. Significant sex differences in caffeine intakes per 1,000 kcal occurred among 15- and 17-year-olds (girls greater than boys). Peak periods of consumption occurred at ages 2, 3, 13, and 17. Snacks contributed large quantities of caffeine, particularly for 10-year-olds. Most frequent sources of caffeine were regular carbonated beverages, chocolate-containing foods, and tea. Mean intakes of caffeine for 10-year-olds were consistent from 1973 to 1982. Those observations document caffeine intakes beginning early in life.

  5. Abusive Head Trauma in Young Children: Characteristics and Medical Charges in a Hospitalized Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettaro, L.; Berger, R. P.; Songer, T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the presenting characteristics, hospital course, and hospital charges associated with hospital admissions for head trauma in young children at a regional pediatric trauma center, and to examine whether these factors differ among abused and non-abused subjects. Method: Comparative case series study involving a retrospective…

  6. Performance of American Indian Children Compared with Koppitz Normative Population on the Bender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, L. M.; Asmussen, J. M.

    Differences in the normative data presented in the Koppitz Scoring System for the Bender Gestalt Test (a measure for diagnosing learning and neurological disorders) were compared for 838 elementary age children of the Sioux, Chippewa, Navajo, and Apache tribes and a Koppitz normative group. Considered were mean error differences and mean time…

  7. Population Survey of Iodine Deficiency and Environmental Disruptors of Thyroid Function in Young Children in Haiti.

    PubMed

    von Oettingen, Julia E; Brathwaite, Tesha D; Carpenter, Christopher; Bonnell, Ric; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Larco, Philippe; Larco, Nancy Charles; Jean-Baptiste, Eddy; Brown, Rosalind S

    2017-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable neurodevelopmental delay in children worldwide and a possible public health concern in Haiti. To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency in Haitian young children and its influence by environmental factors. Cross-sectional study, March through June 2015. Community churches in 3 geographical regions in Haiti. 299 healthy Haitian children aged 9 months to 6 years; one-third each enrolled in a coastal, mountainous, and urban region. Urinary iodide, serum thyrotropin (TSH), goiter assessment, and urinary perchlorate and thiocyanate. Mean age was 3.3±1.6 years, with 51% female, median family income USD 30/week, and 16% malnutrition. Median urinary iodide levels were normal in coastal (145 μg/L, interquartile range [IQR] 97 to 241) and urban regions (187 μg/L, IQR 92 to 316), but revealed mild iodine deficiency in a mountainous region (89 μg/L, IQR 56 to 129), P < 0.0001. Grade 1 goiters were palpated in 2 children, but TSH values were normal. Urinary thiocyanate and perchlorate concentrations were not elevated. Predictors of higher urinary iodide included higher urinary thiocyanate and perchlorate, breastfeeding, and not living in a mountainous region. Areas of mild iodine deficiency persist in Haiti's mountainous regions. Exposure to two well-understood environmental thyroid function disruptors is limited.

  8. Cross-Validation of the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire for Children in Three Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahaye, Magali; Mikolajczak, Moira; Rieffe, Carolien; Villanueva, Lidon; Van Broeck, Nady; Bodart, Eddy; Luminet, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine the cross-cultural equivalence of a newly developed questionnaire, the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire (EAQ30) that assesses emotional awareness of children through self-report. Participants were recruited in three countries: the Netherlands (N = 665), Spain (N = 464), and Belgium (N = 707),…

  9. Cross-Validation of the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire for Children in Three Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahaye, Magali; Mikolajczak, Moira; Rieffe, Carolien; Villanueva, Lidon; Van Broeck, Nady; Bodart, Eddy; Luminet, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine the cross-cultural equivalence of a newly developed questionnaire, the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire (EAQ30) that assesses emotional awareness of children through self-report. Participants were recruited in three countries: the Netherlands (N = 665), Spain (N = 464), and Belgium (N = 707),…

  10. Children Interactions in Literacy Tutoring Situations: A Study with Urban Marginalized Populations in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata; Alam, Florencia; Stein, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzed the conversational exchanges through which child tutors mediated literacy abilities and knowledge with young children in the framework of the project "From Child to Child: A Tutor-Child Literacy Program," that is being conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The analysis considered the conversational moves deployed by…

  11. Music Therapy with Children: A Review of Clinical Utility and Application to Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaw, John David Andrew

    This paper reviews the effectiveness of music therapy in treating children with psychiatric and developmental problems. The clinical utility of music therapy is first evaluated by examining the foundational effects of music on affect and behavior. Next, the two broad approaches to music therapy, active and passive music therapy, are discussed.…

  12. Abusive Head Trauma in Young Children: Characteristics and Medical Charges in a Hospitalized Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettaro, L.; Berger, R. P.; Songer, T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the presenting characteristics, hospital course, and hospital charges associated with hospital admissions for head trauma in young children at a regional pediatric trauma center, and to examine whether these factors differ among abused and non-abused subjects. Method: Comparative case series study involving a retrospective…

  13. Children's Effects on Parenting Stress in a Low Income, Minority Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendell, R. Debra; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Relationships between parenting stress and other maternal and child characteristics were investigated with 66 low income mothers and their five- to eight-year-old children at risk for educational disabilities. Child characteristics (self esteem, behavior conduct, and spelling achievement) and maternal characteristics (self esteem and crowding…

  14. Phylodynamics and Dispersal of HRSV Entails Its Permanence in the General Population in between Yearly Outbreaks in Children

    PubMed Central

    Katzov-Eckert, Hagit; Botosso, Viviane F.; Neto, Eurico Arruda; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Background Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is one of the major etiologic agents of respiratory tract infections among children worldwide. Methodology/Principal Findings Here through a comprehensive analysis of the two major HRSV groups A and B (n = 1983) which comprise of several genotypes, we present a complex pattern of population dynamics of HRSV over a time period of 50 years (1956–2006). Circulation pattern of HRSV revealed a series of expansions and fluctuations of co-circulating lineages with a predominance of HRSVA. Positively selected amino acid substitutions of the G glycoprotein occurred upon population growth of GB3 with a 60-nucleotide insertion (GB3 Insert), while other genotypes acquired substitutions upon both population growth and decrease, thus possibly reflecting a role for immune selected epitopes in linkage to the traced substitution sites that may have important relevance for vaccine design. Analysis evidenced the co-circulation and predominance of distinct HRSV genotypes in Brazil and suggested a year-round presence of the virus. In Brazil, GA2 and GA5 were the main culprits of HRSV outbreaks until recently, when the GB3 Insert became highly prevalent. Using Bayesian methods, we determined the dispersal patterns of genotypes through several inferred migratory routes. Conclusions/Significance Genotypes spread across continents and between neighboring areas. Crucially, genotypes also remained at any given region for extended periods, independent of seasonal outbreaks possibly maintained by re-infecting the general population. PMID:23077477

  15. Epidemiology of unintentional injuries among children under six years old in floating and residential population in four communities in Beijing: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Gong, Limin; Wang, Huishan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiaoying; Kaime-Atterhög, Wanjiku

    2014-05-01

    To explore and compare the epidemiological characteristics of non-fatal unintentional injury among children in floating and residential population. Using a structured survey, quantitative data were collected on a total of 352 floating and 201 residential families. Some potential influencing factors were questioned, such as socio-demographic characteristics, injury-related family environment, knowledge, attitude and behavior, and child's character. The self-reported incidence of non-fatal unintentional injuries was 11.9 % in the floating group and 12.9 % in the residential group. Unintentional injuries were more serious and caused more disease burden in floating children than residential children, with the average medical cost being over ten times in the floating group than in the residential group. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that children living in floating families have more risk of unintentional injuries than those children in residential families. Older children and children with extroverted character were more vulnerable to unintentional injuries. Risky family environment was also an important risk factor of unintentional injuries. Better household economic status and having more siblings appeared to reduce the probability of unintentional injuries among children. Floating children are more vulnerable to unintentional injuries comparing with residential children. These findings can be used as preliminary data supporting intervention strategies and activities to promote safe living environment and decrease injury incidence among floating children.

  16. Population Pharmacokinetics of Cyclophosphamide and Metabolites in Children with Neuroblastoma: a Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    McCune, Jeannine S.; Salinger, David H.; Vicini, Paolo; Oglesby, Celeste; Blough, David K.; Park, Julie R.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide-based regimens are front-line treatment for numerous pediatric malignancies, however current dosing methods result in considerable interpatient variability in tumor response and toxicity. In this pediatric population, our objectives were to 1. quantify and explain the pharmacokinetic variability of cyclophosphamide, and two of its metabolites, hydroxycyclophosphamide (HCY) and carboxyethylphosphoramide mustard (CEPM); 2. apply a population pharmacokinetic model to describe the disposition of cyclophosphamide and these metabolites. A total of 196 blood samples were obtained from 22 children with neuroblastoma receiving intravenous (IV) cyclophosphamide (400 mg/m2/day) and topotecan. Blood samples were quantitated for concentrations of cyclophosphamide, HCY and CEPM using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and analyzed using nonlinear mixed effects modeling with NONMEM software system. After model building was complete, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was computed using NONMEM. Cyclophosphamide elimination was described by noninducible and inducible routes with the latter producing HCY. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was a covariate for the fractional elimination of HCY and its conversion to CEPM. Considerable interpatient variability was observed in the AUC of cyclophosphamide, HCY and CEPM. These results represent a critical first step in developing pharmacokinetic-linked pharmacodynamic studies in children receiving cyclophosphamide to determine the clinical relevance of the pharmacokinetic variability in cyclophosphamide and its metabolites. PMID:18927240

  17. Prevalence of aberrant dental morphological details in 6-10 year old school children in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Kirthiga, M; Manju, M; Praveen, R; Umesh, W

    2015-09-01

    Variations in the structure of teeth have always been a great curiosity to the dentist from the scientific and practical point of view. To evaluate the prevalence of a few aberrant morphological features namely, cusp of Carabelli in primary maxillary second molar and in permanent first molar, five cusp in primary maxillary second molar and permanent first molar, shoveling and double shoveling with respect to permanent maxillary central incisors, four cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar, six cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar and seven cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar in 6-10 year old children belonging to the East Bengaluru, a City in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2111 children by two stage sampling method. Type III examination was performed. The findings were subjected to Chi-square test. 83.8% of the studied population had one or more of the variations checked for, as mentioned above. The variation most commonly seen was double shoveling (66.6%) followed by shoveling (65.7%). No significant results were observed in any trait with respect to gender. This study is the first of its kind, providing a baseline data of the prevalence of morphological details in the pediatric Indian population.

  18. Autism phenotype versus registered diagnosis in Swedish children: prevalence trends over 10 years in general population samples.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Sebastian; Reichenberg, Abraham; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-04-28

    To compare the annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype and of registered diagnoses for autism spectrum disorder during a 10 year period in children. Population based study. Child and Adolescent Twin Study and national patient register, Sweden. 19, 993 twins (190 with autism spectrum disorder) and all children (n=1,078,975; 4620 with autism spectrum disorder) born in Sweden over a 10 year period from 1993 to 2002. Annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype (that is, symptoms on which the diagnostic criteria are based) assessed by a validated parental telephone interview (the Autism-Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities inventory), and annual prevalence of reported diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in the national patient register. The annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype was stable during the 10 year period (P=0.87 for linear time trend). In contrast, there was a monotonic significant increase in prevalence of registered diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in the national patient register (P<0.001 for linear trend). The prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype has remained stable in children in Sweden while the official prevalence for registered, clinically diagnosed, autism spectrum disorder has increased substantially. This suggests that administrative changes, affecting the registered prevalence, rather than secular factors affecting the pathogenesis, are important for the increase in reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorder. © Lundström et al 2015.

  19. The assessment of an inhibited, anxiety-prone temperament in a Dutch multi-ethnic population of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Vreeke, Leonie J; Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; Huijding, Jorg; Bos, Arjan E R; van der Veen, Monique; Raat, Hein; Verheij, Fop

    2012-11-01

    The Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form (BIQ-SF) is a 14-item parent-rating scale for assessing an inhibited, anxiety-prone temperament in preschool children. This study examined the psychometric properties of the BIQ-SF scores in a multi-ethnic community population of Dutch boys and girls aged 2.5-6 years (total N = 2,343, from which various subsamples were derived). Results revealed that the factor structure of the BIQ-SF was as hypothesized: a model with six correlated factors representing children's inhibited behaviors in various social and non-social contexts provided a good fit for the data. The internal consistency of the BIQ-SF was generally satisfactory and scores on the scale were found to be fairly stable over a time period of up to 2 years. Parent-teacher agreement was acceptable, and relations between the BIQ-SF and observations of an inhibited temperament were moderate. Finally, BIQ-SF scores were positively associated with measures of anxiety and internalizing symptoms, whereas no significant links were found with externalizing symptoms. Altogether, these results provide support for the reliability and validity of the BIQ-SF as an economical method for assessing behavioral inhibition and anxiety proneness in young children.

  20. A novel mutation Thr162Arg of the melanocortin 4 receptor gene in a Spanish children and adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, M C; Azcona, C; Biebermann, H; Brumm, H; Razquin, C; Wermter, A-K; Martínez, J A; Hebebrand, J; Hinney, A; Moreno-Aliaga, M J; Marti, A; Patiño, A; Chueca, M; Oyarzabal, M; Pelach, R

    2007-05-01

    The melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R) is involved in body weight regulation. While many studies associated MC4R mutations with childhood obesity, information on MC4R mutations in Spanish children and adolescents is lacking. Our objective was to screen a population of children and adolescents from the north of Spain (Navarra) for MC4R mutations and to study the phenotypes of carriers and their families. In addition, functional assays were performed for a novel MC4R mutation. The study was composed of 451 Spanish children and adolescents (49% boys), aged 5-18 year. According to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria, the groups included 160 obese, 132 overweight and 159 normal-weight control subjects. One novel (Thr162Arg) and three known nonsynonymous mutations in the MC4R gene (Ser30Phe, Thr150Ile, Ala244Glu) were detected heterozygously. The MC4R mutations were found in three male (one obese and two overweight) and two female subjects (one obese and one overweight). The novel mutation did not appear to lead to an impaired receptor function. An unequivocal relationship of MC4R mutations with obesity in pedigrees together with an impaired function of the encoded receptor could not be established for any of the mutations. The presence of heterozygous MC4R mutations in obese and overweight subjects indicates that these mutations may be a susceptibility factor for obesity development, but lifestyle factors, such as exercise or sedentary activities, may modify their effect.

  1. Percentile Values of Physical Fitness Levels among Polish Children Aged 7 to 19 Years--a Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Dobosz, Janusz; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to report gender and age-specific percentile values for fourteen commonly used field-based physical fitness tests among a national representative sample of Polish children aged 7 to 19 years. A descriptive cross-sectional and population-based study examines the physical fitness among a random and large national representative sample of schoolchildren aged 7 to 19 years in Poland. A sample of 49,281 children and adolescents (25,687 boys and 23,594 girls) was assessed by the EUROFIT fitness test battery, the International Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Tests and Cooper Test of physical fitness. The LMS statistical method was used. Smoothed gender and age-specific percentiles for the physical fitness tests in boys and girls aged 7 to 19 years are reported and expressed as both tabulated and curves values (2.3rd, 9th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 91st, and 97.7th). Figures showed greater physical fitness levels in boys, except for the flamingo balance, sit-and-reach, and stand-and-reach tests, in which girls performed slightly better. There was also a trend towards increased physical fitness levels as the age increased in both boys and girls. The percentile values provided will enable the correct interpretation and monitoring of fitness status of Polish children. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  2. Underweight, Stunting and Wasting among Children in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania; a Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Mgongo, Melina; Chotta, Nikolas A S; Hashim, Tamara H; Uriyo, Jacqueline G; Damian, Damian J; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Msuya, Sia E; Wandel, Margareta; Vangen, Siri

    2017-05-10

    This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors associated with underweight, stunting and wasting among children aged 0-24 months in six districts of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. A cross-sectional population-based study using a multistage, proportionate to size sampling was conducted from June 2010 to March 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, economic, feeding and child information. Anthropometric data were collected by trained field workers, and the data were used to assess child nutritional status. A total of 1870 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of children classified as underweight was 46.0%, stunting was 41.9%, and wasting was 24.7%. About 33% were both underweight and stunted, and 12% had all three conditions. In a multivariate logistic regression, child age, child being ill and birth weight were associated with all anthropometric indices. Child being breastfed was associated with being underweight and wasting. Mother's education was associated with being underweight and stunting. Fathers aged 35+ years, and living in the Hai district was associated with stunting, and being female was associated with wasting. The prevalence of child undernutrition is high in this region. Strategies that target each risk factor for child undernutrition may help to reduce the problem in the region.

  3. Underweight, Stunting and Wasting among Children in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania; a Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mgongo, Melina; Chotta, Nikolas A. S.; Hashim, Tamara H.; Uriyo, Jacqueline G.; Damian, Damian J.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Msuya, Sia E.; Wandel, Margareta; Vangen, Siri

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors associated with underweight, stunting and wasting among children aged 0–24 months in six districts of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. A cross-sectional population-based study using a multistage, proportionate to size sampling was conducted from June 2010 to March 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, economic, feeding and child information. Anthropometric data were collected by trained field workers, and the data were used to assess child nutritional status. A total of 1870 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of children classified as underweight was 46.0%, stunting was 41.9%, and wasting was 24.7%. About 33% were both underweight and stunted, and 12% had all three conditions. In a multivariate logistic regression, child age, child being ill and birth weight were associated with all anthropometric indices. Child being breastfed was associated with being underweight and wasting. Mother’s education was associated with being underweight and stunting. Fathers aged 35+ years, and living in the Hai district was associated with stunting, and being female was associated with wasting. The prevalence of child undernutrition is high in this region. Strategies that target each risk factor for child undernutrition may help to reduce the problem in the region. PMID:28489043

  4. The health, education, and social care costs of school-aged children with active epilepsy: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Rachael M; Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Das, Krishna B; Gillberg, Christopher; Chin, Richard F; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R; Morris, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    To provide data on the health, social care, and education costs of active childhood epilepsy and factors associated with these costs over an 18-month period in a population-based sample. The Children with Epilepsy in Sussex Schools (CHESS) study is a population-based study involving school-aged children (5-15 years) with active epilepsy (taking one or more antiepileptic drug and/or had a seizure in the last year) in a defined geographical area in England. Clinical data were collected on 85 children (74% of eligible population) who underwent comprehensive psychological assessment. Health, education, and social care resource use was collected retrospectively over an 18-month period. Regression analysis was used to identify variables associated these with costs. The mean (standard deviation) 18-month cost of health care for a child with active epilepsy was £3,635 (£5,339), with mean education and social care cost of £11,552 (£8,937) and £1,742 (£8,158), respectively, resulting in total mean costs per participant of £16,931 (£14,764). Health care costs were significantly associated with seizure frequency and etiology (all p-values < 0.05). Combined health care, social care, and education costs were significantly related to cognitive impairment (intelligence quotient [IQ] <85) and seizure frequency (p < 0.05). The mean cost of health care, social care, and education over 18 months for participants with cognitive impairment was £23,579 (95% confidence interval [CI] £16,489-£30,670) compared to £7,785 (95% CI £4,943-£10,627) for those without impairment. Active childhood epilepsy has significant health, social care, and education costs. This is the first study to comprehensively document the economic impact on these sectors as well as factors associated with these costs. When caring for children with epilepsy in England, costs incurred by education and social care sectors are approximately four times the costs incurred by the health care sector. Increased

  5. Off-label medicine use in children and adolescents: results of a population-based study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Population-based self-reported data on off-label medicine use independent from health care provisions are lacking. The purpose of this study is to investigate off-label medicine use in children and adolescents in Germany in a non-clinical setting and to identify prevalence, determinants and spectrum of off-label medicine use. Methods Data were obtained from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (2003–2006). 17,450 randomly selected children aged 0–17 years took part in the drug interviews. Of those, 8,899 took at least one medicine during the 7 days preceding the interview. Off-label medicine use was defined as the discrepancy between actual use and the intended use described in the summary of product characteristics. Off-label medicine use was stratified into off-label indication, off-label age, off-label over-dosing, and off-label under-dosing. Results The prevalence rate of off-label medicine use among those who used medicines amount of is 40.2%. The prevalence rate is significantly higher in boys (41.4%), in children aged 3 to 6 years (48.7%), without migration background (40.9%), with high social status (42.5%), living in small (42.0%) and medium sized cities (41.6%), and with a poor parents rated health status (41.7%). 12,667 preparations (attributable in respect to off-label use) were taken by 8,899 children. 30% of the medicines have been used off-label. Off-label medicine use was highest in preparations of the ATC-class “C00 Cardiovascular System”. In all origins of medicine, all age groups and all ATC-classes under-dosing was the most frequent reason for off-label medicine use. Conclusions There is a considerable level of self-reported off-label medicines use in the general paediatric population. Further investigations are needed to examine in how far off-label medicine use is based on lack of knowledge or on empiricism in paediatric

  6. Preventing mental health problems in children: the Families in Mind population-based cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Externalising and internalising problems affect one in seven school-aged children and are the single strongest predictor of mental health problems into early adolescence. As the burden of mental health problems persists globally, childhood prevention of mental health problems is paramount. Prevention can be offered to all children (universal) or to children at risk of developing mental health problems (targeted). The relative effectiveness and costs of a targeted only versus combined universal and targeted approach are unknown. This study aims to determine the effectiveness, costs and uptake of two approaches to early childhood prevention of mental health problems ie: a Combined universal-targeted approach, versus a Targeted only approach, in comparison to current primary care services (Usual care). Methods/design Three armed, population-level cluster randomised trial (2010–2014) within the universal, well child Maternal Child Health system, attended by more than 80% of families in Victoria, Australia at infant age eight months. Participants were families of eight month old children from nine participating local government areas. Randomised to one of three groups: Combined, Targeted or Usual care. The interventions comprises (a) the Combined universal and targeted program where all families are offered the universal Toddlers Without Tears group parenting program followed by the targeted Family Check-Up one-on-one program or (b) the Targeted Family Check-Up program. The Family Check-Up program is only offered to children at risk of behavioural problems. Participants will be analysed according to the trial arm to which they were randomised, using logistic and linear regression models to compare primary and secondary outcomes. An economic evaluation (cost consequences analysis) will compare incremental costs to all incremental outcomes from a societal perspective. Discussion This trial will inform public health policy by making recommendations about the

  7. Active, Population-based Surveillance for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Chinese Children: Beijing Municipality and Gansu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Haixia; Jia, Lei; Payne, Daniel C.; Hall, Aron J.; Xu, Ziqian; Gao, Zhiyong; Chang, Zhaorui; Jiang, Baoming; Parashar, Umesh D.; Meng, Lei; Yu, Hongjie; Duan, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Background Estimates of population-based incidence for rotavirus inpatient and outpatient visits, as well as their associated medical costs, can provide valuable information to assess the potential benefits of rotavirus vaccination. Methods We conducted active surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis at 6 medical institutions for children younger than 5 years from July 2012 to June 2013 in Beijing Municipality and Gansu Province. We collected stool samples of diarrhea patients for testing rotavirus, and epidemiological, clinical and cost data. Results The proportion of rotavirus-positive for inpatient and outpatient visits from Beijing was 28.7% (138/481) and 19.4% (133/687); a statistically lower proportion than observed in Gansu among inpatient visits (45.2%, 245/542, P < 0.001) and among outpatient visits (28.8%, 66/229, P = 0.003), respectively. The G9P[8] genotype was most prevalent in Beijing (60.6%) and in Gansu (77.6%). The median Vesikari scale value was 16 for rotavirus inpatients and 15 for nonrotavirus inpatients. Population-based estimated rates of rotavirus-related hospitalizations were 14.4 (95% CI, 13–16) per 10,000 children, and the rate of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the outpatient setting was 149 (95% CI, 145–153) per 10,000 children younger than 5 years. The estimated total number of rotavirus-related inpatient visits were 3790 (95% CI, 2488–3827) cases and 29,101 (95% CI: 27,748–29,279) outpatient visits. The total cost of rotavirus infection was $1.4 million (95% CI, $0.9–1.4 million) for hospitalizations and $4.2 million (95% CI, $4.0–4.2 million) for outpatient visits per year in Beijing and Gansu. Conclusion Rotavirus gastroenteritis is associated with a large disease burden in Chinese children younger than 5 years in Beijing and Gansu. Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children younger than 5 years worldwide, accounting for an estimated 25 million clinic visits, 2 million

  8. Long-term school outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a population-based perspective.

    PubMed

    Barbaresi, William J; Katusic, Slavica K; Colligan, Robert C; Weaver, Amy L; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare long-term school outcomes (academic achievement in reading, absenteeism, grade retention, and school dropout) for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) versus those without AD/HD. Subjects included 370 children with research-identified AD/HD from a 1976-1982 population-based birth cohort (N = 5718) and 740 non-AD/HD control subjects from the same birth cohort, matched by gender and age. All subjects were retrospectively followed from birth until a median age of 18.4 years (AD/HD cases) or 18.3 years (non-AD/HD controls). The complete school record for each subject was reviewed to obtain information on reading achievement (last available California Achievement Test reading score), absenteeism (number/percentage of school days absent at each grade level), grade retention (having to repeat an entire grade in the subsequent school year), and school dropout (failure to graduate from high school). Median reading achievement scores at age 12.8 years (expressed as a national percentile) were significantly different for AD/HD cases and non-AD/HD controls (45 vs 73). Results were similar for both boys and girls with AD/HD. Median percentage of days absent was statistically significantly higher for children with AD/HD versus those without AD/HD, although the difference was relatively small in absolute number of days absent. Subjects with AD/HD were three times more likely to be retained a grade. Similarly, subjects with AD/HD were 2.7 times more likely to drop out before high school graduation (22.9%) than non-AD/HD controls (10.0%). The results of this population-based study clearly demonstrate the association between AD/HD and poor long-term school outcomes.

  9. Does Mental Health Status Influence Susceptibility to the Physiologic Effects of Air Pollution? A Population Based Study of Canadian Children

    PubMed Central

    Dales, Robert E.; Cakmak, Sabit

    2016-01-01

    Background Both air pollution exposure and the presence of mental illness are associated with an increased risk of physical illness. Objective To determine whether or not children with less favourable mental health are more susceptible to pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of ambient air pollution, compared to those who are mentally healthy. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study of 1,883 children between the ages of 6 and 17 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures population survey between 2007 and 2009. Subjects were assigned the air pollution values obtained from the National Air Pollution monitor closest to their neighborhood. Lung function, heart rate and blood pressure were stratified by indicators of mental health. The latter were ascertained by questions about feelings of happiness, a diagnosed mood disorder, and the emotional symptom subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Among those who reported a mood disorder, an interquartile increase in ozone was associated with increases in systolic and diastolic pressures of 3.8 mmHg (95% CI 1.6, 5.9) and 3.0mmHg (95%CI 0.9, 5.2) respectively, and a decreases in FVC of 7.6% (95% CI 2.9, 12.3). No significant changes in these variables were observed in those who did not report a mood disorder. Among those with unfavourable emotional symptoms, ozone was associated with a 6.4% (95% CI 1.7, 11.3) increase in heart rate, a 4.1% (95%CI 1.2, 7.1) increase in systolic blood pressure, and a 6.0% (95% CI 1.4, 10.6) decrease in FEVl. No significant effect was seen in these variables among those with no emotional symptoms. Conclusions In the Canadian population, children who report mood disorders or unfavourable emotional symptoms appear to be more vulnerable to the adverse physiologic effects of air pollution. PMID:28030615

  10. Mortality from cancer and other causes in parents of children with cancer: a population-based study in Piedmont, Italy.

    PubMed

    Zuccolo, Luisa; Pastore, Guido; Pearce, Neil; Mosso, Maria L; Merletti, Franco; Magnani, Corrado

    2007-10-01

    This population-based study (the largest on this issue conducted in Southern Europe) has examined mortality among the parents of 2622 children diagnosed with cancer in Piedmont during 1967-1994. Parents were followed up from the date of the index child's birth until the end of 2000, yielding a total of 118 090.7 person-years of observation. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated using mortality rates for the whole population of Piedmont as the reference. Among mothers, total mortality was similar to that expected [SMR 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85-1.23, 117 cases]. A reduced risk of mortality was seen in fathers (SMR 0.91, 95% CI 0.81-1.02, 293 cases); this was largely due to causes other than cancer and the reduction in risk disappeared after the index child's death (SMR 0.98, 95% CI 0.84-1.15, 168 cases). Deaths from cancers of the lymphohaematopoietic system were in excess among mothers (SMR=2.13, 95% CI 1.02-3.92, 10 cases) and breast cancer deaths were in excess specifically among mothers of leukaemic children (SMR 2.32, 95% CI 1.16-4.14, 11 cases). Three mothers dying with breast cancer had index children who had been diagnosed with a bone sarcoma. Parental cancer of the respiratory tract was significantly associated with both tumours of the central nervous system and Hodgkin's lymphoma in the index child. The excess risks identified here may be due to genetic factors or due to parental psychological stress consequent to cancer in a child that may lead to increased mortality either through the direct effects of stress or through consequent changes in lifestyle.

  11. Family history of cancer and childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group and the Utah Population Database

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Philip J; Danysh, Heather E; Plon, Sharon E; Curtin, Karen; Malkin, David; Hettmer, Simone; Hawkins, Douglas S; Skapek, Stephen X; Spector, Logan G; Papworth, Karin; Melin, Beatrice; Erhardt, Erik B; Grufferman, Seymour; Schiffman, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the epidemiology and factors underlying susceptibility to childhood rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). To better characterize genetic susceptibility to childhood RMS, we evaluated the role of family history of cancer using data from the largest case–control study of RMS and the Utah Population Database (UPDB). RMS cases (n = 322) were obtained from the Children's Oncology Group (COG). Population-based controls (n = 322) were pair-matched to cases on race, sex, and age. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between family history of cancer and childhood RMS. The results were validated using the UPDB, from which 130 RMS cases were identified and matched to controls (n = 1300) on sex and year of birth. The results were combined to generate summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Having a first-degree relative with a cancer history was more common in RMS cases than controls (ORs = 1.39, 95% CI: 0.97–1.98). Notably, this association was stronger among those with embryonal RMS (ORs = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.54–3.86). Moreover, having a first-degree relative who was younger at diagnosis of cancer (<30 years) was associated with a greater risk of RMS (ORs = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.34–4.18). In the largest analysis of its kind, we found that most children diagnosed with RMS did not have a family history of cancer. However, our results indicate an increased risk of RMS (particularly embryonal RMS) in children who have a first-degree relative with cancer, and among those whose relatives were diagnosed with cancer at <30 years of age. PMID:25809884

  12. Abusive head trauma among children in Alaska: a population-based assessment.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Jared; Baldwin-Johnson, Cathy; Volz, Margaret; Goldsmith, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Serious physical abuse resulting in a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been implicated as an underreported cause of infant mortality. Nearly 80% of all abusive head trauma (AHT) occurs among children <2 years of age, with infants experiencing an incidence nearly 8 times that of 2-year olds. This study describes the validation of the CDC Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma (PAHT) definitions when applied to a multi-source database at the state level and provides a robust annual incidence estimate of AHT among children <2 years of age in Alaska. AHT cases among children residing in Alaska during 2005-2010 were identified by applying the PAHT coding schema to a multi-source database which included vital death records, the Violent Death Reporting System (AK-VDRS), the Maternal Infant Mortality Review - Child Death Review (MIMR-CDR), the Alaska Trauma Registry (ATR), the inpatient Hospital Discharge Database (HDD) and Medicaid claims. Using these data, we calculated statewide AHT annual incidence rates. The databases with the highest case capture rates were the ATR and Medicaid systems, both at 51%, followed by HDD at 38%. Combined, the ATR, HDD and Medicaid systems captured 91% of all AHT cases. The linkage and use of the PAHT definitions yielded an estimated sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 98%. During the study period, we detected an annual average incidence of 34.4 cases per 100,000 children aged <2 years (95% CI 25.1, 46.1) and a case fatality proportion of 22% (10/45). Among the AHT cases, 82% were infants. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in AHT were noted by age and race, but not by sex. In Alaska, applying the CDC PAHT definition to the multi-source database enabled us to capture 49% more AHT cases than any of the individual database used in this analysis alone.

  13. Population pharmacokinetics and haemodynamic effects of norepinephrine in hypotensive critically ill children

    PubMed Central

    Oualha, Mehdi; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Lesage, Fabrice; de Saint Blanquat, Laure; Dupic, Laurent; Hubert, Philippe; Spreux-Varoquaux, Odile; Urien, Saïk

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of norepinephrine in hypotensive critically ill children, including associated variability factors. Methods This was a prospective study in an 18-bed neonatal and paediatric intensive care unit. All children were aged less than 18 years, weighed more than 1500 g and required norepinephrine for systemic arterial hypotension. The pharmacokinetics and haemodynamic effects were described using the non-linear mixed effect modelling software MONOLIX. Results Norepinephrine dosing infusions ranging from 0.05 to 2 μg kg−1 min−1 were administered to 38 children whose weight ranged from 2 to 85 kg. A one compartment open model with linear elimination adequately described the norepinephrine concentration–time courses. Bodyweight (BW) was the main covariate influencing norepinephrine clearance (CL) and endogenous norepinephrine production rate (q0) via an allometric relationship: CL(BWi) = θCL × (BWi)3/4 and q0(BWi) = θq0 × (BWi)3/4. The increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) as a function of norepinephrine concentration was well described using an Emax model. The effects of post-conceptional age (PCA) and number of organ dysfunctions were significant on basal MAP level (MAP0i = MAP0 × PCA/9i0.166) and on the maximal increase in MAP (32 mmHg and 12 mmHg for a number of organ dysfunctions ≤3 and ≥4, respectively). Conclusion The pharmacokinetics and haemodynamic effects of norepinephrine in hypotensive critically ill children highlight the between-subject variability which is related to the substantial role of age, BW and severity of illness. Taking into account these individual characteristics may help clinicians in determining an appropriate initial a priori dosing regimen. PMID:24802558

  14. Coexistence of social inequalities in undernutrition and obesity in preschool children: population based cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J; Dorosty, A; Reilly, J; Child, H; Emmett, P

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To test for the coexistence of social inequalities in undernutrition and obesity in preschool children. Methods: Retrospective, cross sectional, study of routinely collected data from 74 500 children aged 39–42 months in 1998/99. Main outcome measures were weight, height, sex, and age routinely recorded by health visitors. Body mass index (BMI) standardised for age and sex, relative to UK 1990 reference data, was used to define undernutrition (BMI <2nd centile) and obesity (BMI >95th centile; BMI >98th centile). Social deprivation was assessed as Carstairs deprivation category (1 = most affluent to 7 = most deprived). Results: Both undernutrition (3.3%) and obesity (8.5% above 95th centile; 4.3% above 98th centile) significantly exceeded expected frequencies from UK 1990 reference data. Undernutrition and obesity were significantly more common in the more deprived families. Odds ratios in deprivation category 7 relative to category 1 were 1.51 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.87) for undernutrition (BMI <2nd centile) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.60) for obesity (BMI >98th centile). The cumulative prevalence of under and overnutrition (malnutrition) in the most deprived group was 9.5% compared to 6.9% in the least deprived group. Conclusions: Undernutrition and obesity are significantly more common than expected in young children and strongly associated with social deprivation. Both undernutrition and obesity have adverse short and long term health effects. Public health strategies need to tackle malnutrition (both undernutrition and obesity) in children and take into consideration the association with social deprivation. PMID:12876159

  15. Prevention of behavior problems in a selected population: Stepping stones triple P for parents of young children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Cheri J; Kilburn, Janice; Hardin, James W

    2014-11-01

    Because young children with disabilities are at elevated risk for development of challenging behaviors, and caregivers of these children typically lack access to evidence-based parenting interventions, two randomized trials were conducted to examine the impact of an evidence-based parenting intervention, Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP), as a selective preventive intervention. Both studies targeted parents of children under two with a variety of disabilities who were enrolled in the IDEA Part C Early Intervention (EI) system in one state. SSTP was delivered in family homes. In Study One, 49 families were randomly assigned to EI services as usual, with or without SSTP; a 52% attrition rate from treatment was seen. No significant between-group differences were seen aside from a trend toward reduced symptoms of parental depression at follow-up. Intervention group children demonstrated significant decline in behavior problems from post treatment to follow-up, and there was a trend toward improved parenting style in the intervention group during this same time frame. Study Two incorporated a separate workforce intervention for EI service coordinators; 40 families on their caseloads were then randomly assigned to receive EI services as usual with or without SSTP. Attrition from treatment was limited to 20%. No differential impact was seen on child behavior; a trend was noted post-treatment on parent symptoms of depression and on the observed parent-child relationship. At 12-month follow-up, there was a trend favoring improvement in the intervention group in parenting style; statistically significant impact was also seen on the observed quality of the parent-child relationship. SSTP shows promise as a selective preventive intervention for an early intervention population. Reasons for the differential findings between the two studies are explored and suggestions for future research are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined influence of media use on subjective health in elementary school children in Japan: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years in Japan, electronic games, home computers, and the internet have assumed an important place in people’s lives, even for elementary school children. Subjective health complaints have also become a problem among children. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between media use and health status in elementary school children in Japan. Methods A cross-sectional school-based population survey was conducted in 2009 with a sample of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children (age range: 10–12 years old) in elementary schools in Japan (n = 3,464). Self-reported health, lifestyle habits, and time spent using media were assessed. Results The use of games, television, and personal computers was significantly associated with lifestyle (p < 0.05) and subjective health (p < 0.05). In addition, the use of games, the use of television, and the use of personal computers were mutually associated. The greater the number of media used for more than 1 hour was, the higher the odds ratio of the association of media use with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints was. The plural use of these media had stronger associations with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints. Conclusions Game, television, and personal-computer use were mutually associated, and the plural use of these media had stronger associations with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints. Excessive use of media might be a risk for unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints. PMID:22694807

  17. Inadequate prenatal care and elevated blood lead levels among children born in Providence, Rhode Island: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Greene, Anna; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Shenassa, Edmond D

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether children born to mothers receiving inadequate prenatal care are at an increased risk for having an elevated blood lead level during early childhood. The authors conducted a population-based study of children born in Providence, Rhode Island, from 1997 to 2001 whose mothers had received adequate, intermediate, or inadequate prenatal care. The children's blood lead levels were compared between groups using bivariate and logistic regression. To understand the regulatory implications and public health impact of changing the definition of an elevated blood lead level, "elevated" was defined as 5 microg/dL, 10 microg/dL, and 15 microg/dL. Children born to mothers who received inadequate prenatal care were at an elevated risk for having an elevated blood lead level later in life. This relationship remained statistically significant for each definition of elevated blood lead level and after controlling for other socio-economic status measures and birthweight (at 5 microg/dL, odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 1.68, p = 0.006; at 10 microg/dL, OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.26, 2.24, p < 0.0004; at 15 microg/dL, OR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.10, 3.04, p = 0.019) represent an opportune moment to identify expectant mothers living in lead-contaminated environments. Results suggest that conducting lead screening as a regular part of prenatal care provision could help identify women possibly experiencing ongoing lead exposure and help reduce or prevent exposures to their offspring.

  18. Household food insecurity is associated with less physical activity among children and adults in the U.S. population.

    PubMed

    To, Quyen G; Frongillo, Edward A; Gallegos, Danielle; Moore, Justin B

    2014-11-01

    Household food insecurity and physical activity are each important public-health concerns in the United States, but the relation between them has not been investigated thoroughly. This study aimed to examine the association between food insecurity and physical activity in the U.S. population. Physical activity measured by accelerometry (PAM) and physical activity measured by questionnaire (PAQ) data from the NHANES 2003-2006 were used. Individuals aged <6 y or >65 y, pregnant women, individuals with physical limitations, and individuals with family income >350% of the poverty line were excluded. Food insecurity was measured by the USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Adjusted ORs were calculated from logistic regression to identify the association between food insecurity and adherence to the physical-activity guidelines. Adjusted coefficients were obtained from linear regression to identify the association between food insecurity with sedentary/physical-activity minutes. In children, food insecurity was not associated with adherence to physical-activity guidelines measured via PAM or PAQ and with sedentary minutes (P > 0.05). Food-insecure children did less moderate to vigorous physical activity than food-secure children (adjusted coefficient = -5.24, P = 0.02). In adults, food insecurity was significantly associated with adherence to physical-activity guidelines (adjusted OR = 0.72, P = 0.03 for PAM; and OR = 0.84, P < 0.01 for PAQ) but was not associated with sedentary minutes (P > 0.05). Food-insecure children did less moderate to vigorous physical activity, and food-insecure adults were less likely to adhere to the physical-activity guidelines than those without food insecurity. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in a population based sample of German children

    PubMed Central

    Thiering, E.; Brüske, I.; Kratzsch, J.; Hofbauer, L. C.; Berdel, D.; von Berg, A.; Lehmann, I.; Hoffmann, B.; Bauer, C. P.; Koletzko, S.; Heinrich, J.

    2015-01-01

    Severe vitamin D deficiency is known to cause rickets, however epidemiological studies and RCTs did not reveal conclusive associations for other parameters of bone health. In our study, we aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and bone turnover markers in a population-based sample of children. 25(OH)D, calcium (Ca), osteocalcin (OC), and β-Crosslaps (β-CTx) were measured in 2798 ten-year-old children from the German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus. Linear regression was used to determine the association between bone turnover markers and 25(OH)D levels. 25(OH)D, OC, and β-CTx showed a clear seasonal variation. A 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D was significantly associated with a 10.5 ng/l decrease (p < 0.001) in β-CTx after adjustment for design, sex, fasting status, time of blood drawn, BMI, growth rate, and detectable testosterone/estradiol. For OC alone no significant association with 25(OH)D was observed, whereas the β-CTx-to-OC ratio was inversely associated with 25(OH)D (−1.7% change, p < 0.001). When stratifying the analyses by serum calcium levels, associations were stronger in children with Ca levels below the median. This study in school-aged children showed a seasonal variation of 25(OH)D and the bone turnover markers OC and β-CTx. Furthermore a negative association between 25(OH)D and the bone resorption marker β-CTx was observed. PMID:26667774

  20. The mental health, emotional literacy, cognitive ability, literacy attainment and 'resilience' of 'looked after children': a multidimensional, multiple-rater population based study.

    PubMed

    Rees, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Existing research studies suggest that children who are looked after by the State experience high levels of mental health difficulties and underachieve in many other domains. Few studies, however, aim to reflect the heterogeneity of these children and those who are performing well may be under-represented in the findings. This study aims to provide a more representative picture, offering novel data on resilience. A multidimensional, multiple-rater population-based study of looked after children. The entire population of looked after children aged 7-15 years (n = 193) in one local authority was assessed in core domains; mental health, emotional literacy, cognitive ability and literacy attainment. Measures included the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire, Emotional Literacy Assessment and Intervention Inventory, and the British Ability Scales. The children's data were compared with general population norms and existing research studies. The incidence of resilience, defined by the fulfilment of positive exception criteria, was recorded. Children fulfilling positive exception criteria were then compared to the remaining children on key factors. The looked after children performed less well in all domains compared with general population norms. Sixteen per cent of children met the positive exception criteria. Positive performance on individual measures varied from 34% to 76%. A statistically significant association was found between positive exception classification and two factors; parental contact and mainstream schooling. In general terms, this study supports the findings of previous research studies. However, evidence of positive exceptions across and within all domains cautions against overgeneralization of findings. The findings also implicate parental contact and mainstream education in the promotion of resilience. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Learning about the population problem: children's attitudes toward family planning in India.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, S

    1979-03-01

    This research seeks to measure children's awareness of and support for family planning in India, on the premise that they are indications of future fertility behavior. The survey was conducted in June-August 1975 in 6 districts of Andhra Pradesh State, including schools in cities, small towns and villages. The 863 respondents included Hindus and Muslims, various caste groups, 3 language groups, and students in the 6th to 12th classes. Children's awareness of family planning was operationalized through 2 questions: "Have you heard about family planning?" and "Which is better, a big family or a small family?". Results show that 70% had heard of family planning and that approval of family planning is extensive, with only 14% of the sample expressing a preference for large families. Awareness of family planning is clearly correlated in the expected direction with exposure to a modernizing environment, particularly education. Exposure to media and political involvement are also correlated with awareness. Support for family planning is most highly correlated with religion, with Muslim children less approving than Hindu. Party identification and political knowledge are both associated with higher approval. Education and the index of modernity are the only indicators of modernization that correlate with approval.

  2. Genetic and environmental determinants of growth of school-aged children in a rural Colombian population.

    PubMed

    Mueller, W H; Titcomb, M

    1977-01-01

    Parent-offspring correlations and heritabilities of body measurements from midparent-offspring regressions are presented for school-aged children from the village of Tenza, Colombia (N = 403 families). Parent-child correlations and midparent regressions in this subsistence farming sample, are similar in magnitude to those for well nourished, urban industrial samples, suggesting that the environmental component of variability in body size is the same regardless of the environment. Tenza children are significantly shorter and lighter than upper class Bogota children, and Tenza parents have mean heights and weights similar to those of other lower class Colombian samples. Thus, chronic undernutrition has affected the growth of parents and continues to affect the growth of the present generation. Although it has been hypothesized that heritability of growth might be reduced in samples experiencing malnutrition and its sequelae, such a reduction may only be observable where environment of parents during their development is different from that of their offspring, which is not the case here. The pattern of heritabilities with respect to different body measurements in Tenza, is similar to that seen in well nourished samples, except that measurements of breadth (biacromial, bicristal, bicondylar) have heritabilities similar in magnitude to those of linear measurements (height, sitting-height, subischial length) especially in males; and heritabilities of some measurements related to adiposity are significantly higher in daughters than in sons.

  3. Snakebites in children in the densely populated city of Hong Kong: a 10-year survey.

    PubMed

    Hon, K L; Kwok, L W; Leung, T F

    2004-02-01

    To review the pattern and characteristics of snakebites in children in rural Hong Kong. A retrospective chart review was conducted. Seven cases of snakebite in children were reported. Eighty-six percent of the victims were male, and the majority of bites (86%) occurred on the left extremities. Green pit vipers (Trimeresurus albolabris) accounted for most of the snakebites. Local symptomatology was common. Swelling, pain and fang marks were documented in all cases. A mildly deranged clotting profile was found in 70% of patients. There was no incidence of systemic symptoms, cardiopulmonary complications or compartment syndrome. Victims arrived at the hospital at a median (range) time of 40 (10-70) min since the snakebite. Only one child received antivenin owing to severe progressive local symptoms under intensive care monitoring. The median hospital stay of the patients was 4 d. The hands and feet of adolescent boys (n = 6) seem to be particularly prone to being bitten. Children should be discouraged to play in areas where snakes may hide, especially in the evening in summer to autumn. They should wear protective footwear.

  4. Recurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Bolivian children and adults after a population-based "screen and treat" strategy.

    PubMed

    Sivapalasingam, Sumathi; Rajasingham, Anu; Macy, Jonathan T; Friedman, Cindy R; Hoekstra, Robert M; Ayers, Tracy; Gold, Benjamin; Quick, Robert E

    2014-10-01

    Strategies to prevent gastric cancer by decreasing Helicobacter pylori infections in high-prevalence, low-income countries could include a population-based "screen and treat" eradication program. We tested residents of two rural villages for H. pylori infection using urea breath test (UBT), treated infected persons using directly observed therapy (DOT), retested for cure, and retested after 1 year later for H. pylori infection. We tested 1,065 (92%) of 1153 residents from two villages in rural Bolivia. Baseline H. pylori prevalence was 80% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78-84). Age-specific cure rates were similar (≥92%) after DOT. Among those cured, 12% (95% CI: 8-15) had recurrent infection. Age-specific annual H. pylori recurrence rates for combined villages were 20% (95% CI: 10-29) in persons <5 years, 20% (95% CI: 10-29) in 5-9 years, 8% (95% CI: 1-15) in 10-14 years, and 8% (95% CI: 4-12) in persons ≥15 years. Compared with the referent population, those ≥15 years, recurrent infections were significantly more likely in children <5 years (odds ratios [OR] 2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-5.8) and 5-9 years (OR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.1). Children <10 years had high H. pylori recurrence rates following a population-based screen and treat program; this H. pylori eradication strategy may not be feasible in high-prevalence, low-income settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Urinary tract abnormalities in Chinese rural children who consumed melamine-contaminated dairy products: a population-based screening and follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-meng; Ren, Aiguo; Yang, Lei; Gao, Jinji; Pei, Lijun; Ye, Rongwei; Qu, Quangang; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2010-01-01

    Background Kidney damage related to consumption of melamine-contaminated dairy products by young children in China has been described. However, no studies have reported on the population-based prevalence of kidney damage among exposed children or on the condition of affected children after follow-up. Methods We conducted an ultrasound-based screening in September 2008 of 7933 children younger than 36 months of age who lived in a rural area in China where the dairy products most highly contaminated with melamine were sold. We monitored children who had evidence of nephrolithiasis or hydronephrosis at screening using renal ultrasonography after one, three and six months. We also collected information from the mothers of affected children about consumption of melamine-contaminated products between June and August 2008. Results The overall prevalence of urinary tract abnormalities among screened children was 0.61% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45%–0.80%). The mean exposure dose of melamine was estimated to be 116 (range 36–220) mg per day. Of the 48 affected children, 43 (89.6%) were asymptomatic, 2 had symptoms and were hospitalized, and 3 had symptoms but treatment had been not sought for them. Of the 46 children for whom six-month follow-up information was available, renal abnormalities persisted in 5 children and resolved in the remaining 41. Interpretation Among children who underwent screening, 0.61% showed ultrasonographic evidence of nephrolithiasis or hydronephrosis. Most of the affected children were asymptomatic. The majority of the affected children recovered from the toxic effects of melamine over time without specific treatment. Renal abnormalities remained in 12% of the affected children. PMID:20176755

  6. The Children and Parents in Focus project: a population-based cluster-randomised controlled trial to prevent behavioural and emotional problems in children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is large body of knowledge to support the importance of early interventions to improve child health and development. Nonetheless, it is important to identify cost-effective blends of preventive interventions with adequate coverage and feasible delivery modes. The aim of the Children and Parents in Focus trial is to compare two levels of parenting programme intensity and rate of exposure, with a control condition to address impact and cost-effectiveness of a universally offered evidence-based parenting programme in the Swedish context. Methods/Design The trial has a cluster randomised controlled design comprising three arms: Universal arm (with access to participation in Triple P - Positive Parenting Program, level 2); Universal Plus arm (with access to participation in Triple P - Positive Parenting Program, level 2 as well as level 3, and level 4 group); and Services as Usual arm. The sampling frame is Uppsala municipality in Sweden. Child health centres consecutively recruit parents of children aged 3 to 5 years before their yearly check-ups (during the years 2013–2017). Outcomes will be measured annually. The primary outcome will be children’s behavioural and emotional problems as rated by three informants: fathers, mothers and preschool teachers. The other outcomes will be parents’ behaviour and parents’ general health. Health economic evaluations will analyse cost-effectiveness of the interventions versus care as usual by comparing the costs and consequences in terms of impact on children’s mental health, parent’s mental health and health-related quality of life. Discussion This study addresses the need for comprehensive evaluation of the long-term effects, costs and benefits of early parenting interventions embedded within existing systems. In addition, the study will generate population-based data on the mental health and well-being of preschool aged children in Sweden. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN16513449. PMID:24131587

  7. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Population HIV-Free Survival among Children under Two Years of Age in Four African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.; Stinson, Kathryn; Tih, Pius M.; Giganti, Mark J.; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Creek, Tracy L.; Welty, Thomas K.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Wilfert, Catherine M.; Shaffer, Nathan; Stringer, Elizabeth M.; Dabis, Francois; Coetzee, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Population-based evaluations of programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) are scarce. We measured PMTCT service coverage, regimen use, and HIV-free survival among children ≤24 mo of age in Cameroon, Côte D'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Methods and Findings We randomly sampled households in 26 communities and offered participation if a child had been born to a woman living there during the prior 24 mo. We tested consenting mothers with rapid HIV antibody tests and tested the children of seropositive mothers with HIV DNA PCR or rapid antibody tests. Our primary outcome was 24-mo HIV-free survival, estimated with survival analysis. In an individual-level analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of various PMTCT regimens. In a community-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between HIV-free survival and community PMTCT coverage (the proportion of HIV-exposed infants in each community that received any PMTCT intervention during gestation or breastfeeding). We also compared our community coverage results to those of a contemporaneous study conducted in the facilities serving each sampled community. Of 7,985 surveyed children under 2 y of age, 1,014 (12.7%) were HIV-exposed. Of these, 110 (10.9%) were HIV-infected, 851 (83.9%) were HIV-uninfected, and 53 (5.2%) were dead. HIV-free survival at 24 mo of age among all HIV-exposed children was 79.7% (95% CI: 76.4, 82.6) overall, with the following country-level estimates: Cameroon (72.6%; 95% CI: 62.3, 80.5), South Africa (77.7%; 95% CI: 72.5, 82.1), Zambia (83.1%; 95% CI: 78.4, 86.8), and Côte D'Ivoire (84.4%; 95% CI: 70.0, 92.2). In adjusted analyses, the risk of death or HIV infection was non-significantly lower in children whose mothers received a more complex regimen of either two or three antiretroviral drugs compared to those receiving no prophylaxis (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.06). Risk of death was not different for children whose mothers received

  8. Prevalence and Persistence of Sleep Disordered Breathing Symptoms in Young Children: A 6-Year Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonuck, Karen A.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Cole, Timothy J.; Emond, Alan; Henderson, John; Xu, Linzhi; Freeman, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe the prevalence, persistence, and characteristics associated with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms in a population-based cohort followed from 6 months to 6.75 years. Design: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Setting: England, 1991-1999. Participants: 12,447 children in ALSPAC with parental report of apnea, snoring, or mouth-breathing frequency on any one of 7 questionnaires. Measurements: Symptom prevalence rates—assessed as “Always” and “Habitually”—are reported at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.75, 5.75, and 6.75 years of age. The proportion of children in whom symptoms develop, persist or abate between observation points is reported. Exploratory multivariate analyses identified SDB risk factors at 1.5, 4.75, and 6.75 years. Results: The prevalence of apnea (“Always”) is 1%-2% at all ages assessed. In contrast, snoring “Always” ranges from 3.6% to 7.7%, and snoring “Habitually” ranges from 9.6% to 21.2%, with a notable increase from 1.5- 2.5 years. At 6 years old, 25% are habitual mouth-breathers. The “Always” and “Habitual” incidence of each symptom between time points is 1%-5% and 5%-10%, respectively. In multivariate analyses of combined symptoms, socioeconomic factors have stronger, more persistent effects upon increased SDB risk than gestational age, gender, or race (aside from 1.5 years); adenoidectomy decreases risk by 40%-50%. Conclusions: This is the first natural history study of the primary symptoms of SDB across a key 6-year period in the development of SDB symptoms. Snoring rates are higher and spike earlier than previously reported. Symptoms are dynamic, suggesting the need for early and continued vigilance in early childhood. Citation: Bonuck KA; Chervin RD; Cole TJ; Emond A; Henderson J; Xu L; Freeman K. Prevalence and persistence of sleep disordered breathing symptoms in young children: a 6-year population-based cohort study. SLEEP 2011;34(7):875-884. PMID

  9. Housefly population density correlates with shigellosis among children in Mirzapur, Bangladesh: a time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Farag, Tamer H; Faruque, Abu S; Wu, Yukun; Das, Sumon K; Hossain, Anowar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Ahmed, Dilruba; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kotloff, Karen L; Panchilangam, Sandra; Nataro, James P; Cohen, Dani; Blackwelder, William C; Levine, Myron M

    2013-01-01

    Shigella infections are a public health problem in developing and transitional countries because of high transmissibility, severity of clinical disease, widespread antibiotic resistance and lack of a licensed vaccine. Whereas Shigellae are known to be transmitted primarily by direct fecal-oral contact and less commonly by contaminated food and water, the role of the housefly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector of transmission is less appreciated. We sought to assess the contribution of houseflies to Shigella-associated moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) among children less than five years old in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, a site where shigellosis is hyperendemic, and to model the potential impact of a housefly control intervention. Stool samples from 843 children presenting to Kumudini Hospital during 2009-2010 with new episodes of MSD (diarrhea accompanied by dehydration, dysentery or hospitalization) were analyzed. Housefly density was measured twice weekly in six randomly selected sentinel households. Poisson time series regression was performed and autoregression-adjusted attributable fractions (AFs) were calculated using the Bruzzi method, with standard errors via jackknife procedure. Dramatic springtime peaks in housefly density in 2009 and 2010 were followed one to two months later by peaks of Shigella-associated MSD among toddlers and pre-school children. Poisson time series regression showed that housefly density was associated with Shigella cases at three lags (six weeks) (Incidence Rate Ratio = 1.39 [95% CI: 1.23 to 1.58] for each log increase in fly count), an association that was not confounded by ambient air temperature. Autocorrelation-adjusted AF calculations showed that a housefly control intervention could have prevented approximately 37% of the Shigella cases over the study period. Houseflies may play an important role in the seasonal transmission of Shigella in some developing country ecologies. Interventions to control houseflies should be

  10. Housefly Population Density Correlates with Shigellosis among Children in Mirzapur, Bangladesh: A Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Tamer H.; Faruque, Abu S.; Wu, Yukun; Das, Sumon K.; Hossain, Anowar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Ahmed, Dilruba; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kotloff, Karen L.; Panchilangam, Sandra; Nataro, James P.; Cohen, Dani; Blackwelder, William C.; Levine, Myron M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Shigella infections are a public health problem in developing and transitional countries because of high transmissibility, severity of clinical disease, widespread antibiotic resistance and lack of a licensed vaccine. Whereas Shigellae are known to be transmitted primarily by direct fecal-oral contact and less commonly by contaminated food and water, the role of the housefly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector of transmission is less appreciated. We sought to assess the contribution of houseflies to Shigella-associated moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) among children less than five years old in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, a site where shigellosis is hyperendemic, and to model the potential impact of a housefly control intervention. Methods Stool samples from 843 children presenting to Kumudini Hospital during 2009–2010 with new episodes of MSD (diarrhea accompanied by dehydration, dysentery or hospitalization) were analyzed. Housefly density was measured twice weekly in six randomly selected sentinel households. Poisson time series regression was performed and autoregression-adjusted attributable fractions (AFs) were calculated using the Bruzzi method, with standard errors via jackknife procedure. Findings Dramatic springtime peaks in housefly density in 2009 and 2010 were followed one to two months later by peaks of Shigella-associated MSD among toddlers and pre-school children. Poisson time series regression showed that housefly density was associated with Shigella cases at three lags (six weeks) (Incidence Rate Ratio = 1.39 [95% CI: 1.23 to 1.58] for each log increase in fly count), an association that was not confounded by ambient air temperature. Autocorrelation-adjusted AF calculations showed that a housefly control intervention could have prevented approximately 37% of the Shigella cases over the study period. Interpretation Houseflies may play an important role in the seasonal transmission of Shigella in some developing country ecologies

  11. Malnutrition risk in hospitalized children: use of 3 screening tools in a large European population.

    PubMed

    Chourdakis, Michael; Hecht, Christina; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Joosten, Koen Fm; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Koetse, Harma A; Ksiazyk, Janusz; Lazea, Cecilia; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Koletzko, Berthold; Hulst, Jessie M

    2016-05-01

    Several malnutrition screening tools have been advocated for use in pediatric inpatients. We evaluated how 3 popular pediatric nutrition screening tools [i.e., the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS), the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP), and the Screening Tool for Risk of Impaired Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGKIDS)] compared with and were related to anthropometric measures, body composition, and clinical variables in patients who were admitted to tertiary hospitals across Europe. The 3 screening tools were applied in 2567 inpatients at 14 hospitals across 12 European countries. The classification of patients into different nutritional risk groups was compared between tools and related to anthropometric measures and clinical variables [e.g., length of hospital stay (LOS) and infection rates]. A similar rate of completion of the screening tools for each tool was achieved (PYMS: 86%; STAMP: 84%; and STRONGKIDS: 81%). Risk classification differed markedly by tool, with an overall agreement of 41% between tools. Children categorized as high risk (PYMS: 25%; STAMP: 23%; and STRONGKIDS: 10%) had a longer LOS than that of children at low risk (1.4, 1.4, and 1.8 d longer, respectively; P < 0.001). In high-risk patients identified with the PYMS, 22% of them had low (<-2) body mass index (BMI) SD-scores (SDSs), and 8% of them had low height-for-age SDSs. For the STAMP, the percentages were 19% and 14%, respectively, and for the STRONGKIDS, the percentages were 23% and 19%, respectively. The identification and classification of malnutrition risk varied across the pediatric tools used. A considerable portion of children with subnormal anthropometric measures were not identified with all of the tools. The data obtained do not allow recommending the use of any of these screening tools for clinical practice. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01132742. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. [EEG correlates of geno-phenotypical features of the brain development in children of the native and newcomers' population of the Russian North-East].

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Bekshaev, S S; Rozhkov, V P

    2012-01-01

    Traditional and original methods of EEG analysis were used to study the brain electrical activity maturation in 156 children and adolescents from 7 to 17 years old who represented the native (Koryaks and Evenks) and newcomers' populations living in severe climatic and geographic conditions of the Russian North-East. New data revealing age-, sex- and ethnic-related features in quantitative EEG parameters are presented. Markers are obtained that characterize alterations in the structure of interaction between different EEG rhythms. The results demonstrate age-dependent transformation of this structure separated in time for both different cortical areas and different EEG frequency bands. These alterations show time lag from 2 to 3 years in children of native population compared to the newcomers. The revealed differences are assumed to reflect geno-phenotypical features of morpho-functional CNS development in children of the native and newcomers' population that depend on strong adaptation tension for extreme environmental conditions.

  13. Primary healthcare usage and use of medications among immigrant children according to age of arrival to Norway: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Esperanza

    2017-01-01

    Background Morbidity, use of healthcare and medication use have been reported to vary across groups of migrants and according to the different phases of migration, but little is known about children with immigrant background. In this study, we investigate whether the immigrant children's age of arrival predicts differences in usage of primary healthcare (PHC) and in use of prescribed medication. Methods This nationwide, population-based study used information for children under 18 years of age in 2008 from three linked registers in Norway. Use of medication was assessed with logistic regression analyses presented with ORs with 95% CIs. Results Of 1 168 365 children, 119 251 had immigrant background. The mean number of PHC visits among children aged 10–18 years, was 1.19 for non-immigrants, 1.17 among second generation immigrants, 1.12, 1.05 and 0.83 among first immigrant children who were <5, 5–9 and ≥10 years at arrival in Norway, respectively. Patterns were similar for younger immigrants, and were confirmed with regression models adjusting for age and sex. First generation immigrant children used less of nearly all groups of prescribed medication compared to non-immigrants when adjusting for age and sex (overall OR 0.48 (0.47 to 0.49)), and medication was also generally less used among second generation immigrant children (overall OR 0.92 (0.91 to 0.94)). Conclusions Age of arrival predicted PHC usage among children among first-generation children. First-generation immigrant children, particularly those arriving later in adolescence, used PHC less than age corresponding non-immigrant children. Immigrant children used less prescribed medication compared to non-immigrants after adjustment for age and sex. PMID:28148537

  14. Screening for Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Children Aged 14-15 Months. II: Population Screening with the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Design and General Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Claudine; Swinkels, Sophie; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage protocol for screening for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) was evaluated in a random population of 31,724 children aged 14-15 months. Children were first pre-screened by physicians at well-baby clinics using a 4-item screening instrument. Infants that screened positive were then evaluated during a 1.5-h home visit by a trained…

  15. Back pain prevalence and associated factors in children and adolescents: an epidemiological population study.

    PubMed

    Noll, Matias; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; Rosa, Bruna Nichele da; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2016-06-10

    To identify the prevalence of back pain among Brazilian school children and the factors associated with this pain. All 1,720 schoolchildren from the fifth to the eight grade attending schools from the city of Teutonia, RS, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. From these, 1,597 children participated. We applied the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument. The dependent variable was back pain, while the independent one were demographic, socioeconomic, behavior and heredity data. The prevalence ratio was estimated by multivariate analysis using the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). The prevalence of back pain in the last three months was 55.7% (n = 802). The multivariate analysis showed that back pain is associated with the variables: sex, parents with back pain, weekly frequency of physical activity, daily time spent watching television, studying in bed, sitting posture to write and use the computer, and way of carrying the backpack. The prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren is high and it is associated with demographic, behavior and heredity aspects.

  16. Assessment of neuropsychological trajectories in longitudinal population-based studies of children

    PubMed Central

    White, R F; Campbell, R; Echeverria, D; Knox, S S; Janulewicz, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a strategy for the assessment of brain function in longitudinal cohort studies of children. The proposed strategy invokes both domain-specific and omnibus intelligence test approaches. In order to minimise testing burden and practice effects, the cohort is divided into four groups with one-quarter tested at 6-monthly intervals in the 0–2-year age range (at ages 6 months, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 years) and at annual intervals from ages 3–20 (one-quarter of the children at age 3, another at age 4, etc). This strategy allows investigation of cognitive development and of the relationship between environmental influences and development at each age. It also allows introduction of new domains of function when age-appropriate. As far as possible, tests are used that will provide a rich source of both longitudinal and cross-sectional data. The testing strategy allows the introduction of novel tests and new domains as well as piloting of tests when the test burden is relatively light. In addition to the recommended tests for each age and domain, alternative tests are described. Assessment methodology and knowledge about child cognitive development will change over the next 20 years, and strategies are suggested for altering the proposed test schedule as appropriate. PMID:19098136

  17. Back pain prevalence and associated factors in children and adolescents: an epidemiological population study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Matias; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; da Rosa, Bruna Nichele; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of back pain among Brazilian school children and the factors associated with this pain. METHODS All 1,720 schoolchildren from the fifth to the eight grade attending schools from the city of Teutonia, RS, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. From these, 1,597 children participated. We applied the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument. The dependent variable was back pain, while the independent one were demographic, socioeconomic, behavior and heredity data. The prevalence ratio was estimated by multivariate analysis using the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain in the last three months was 55.7% (n = 802). The multivariate analysis showed that back pain is associated with the variables: sex, parents with back pain, weekly frequency of physical activity, daily time spent watching television, studying in bed, sitting posture to write and use the computer, and way of carrying the backpack. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren is high and it is associated with demographic, behavior and heredity aspects. PMID:27305406

  18. Exposure to secondhand smoke in the home and mental health in children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Padrón, Alicia; Galán, Iñaki; García-Esquinas, Esther; Fernández, Esteve; Ballbè, Montse; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    To examine the association between exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in the home and mental health among children. Cross-sectional study of 2357 children representative of the Spanish population aged 4-12 years in 2011-2012. Duration of SHS exposure in children was reported by parents. Probable mental disorder was defined as a score>90th centile in the parental version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Statistical analysis was performed with logistic regression and adjusted for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, neighbourhood environment and family characteristics, including parental mental health. Among study participants, 6.9% (95% CI 5.7% to 8.0%) were exposed to SHS in the home for <1 h/day and 4.5% (95% CI 3.5% to 5.5%) for ≥1 h/day. Compared to children not habitually exposed to SHS, the multivariate ORs for probable mental disorder were 1.49 (95% CI 0.85 to 2.62) for SHS exposure<1 h/day and 2.73 (95% CI 1.38 to 5.41) for SHS exposure≥1 h/day (p for linear trend=0.002). The corresponding ORs for attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were 2.18 (95% CI 1.30 to 3.64) for <1 h/day exposure and 3.14 (95% CI 1.63 to 6.04) for ≥1 h/day exposure (p for linear trend<0.001). No association was found between SHS and the rest of the components of the SDQ. Among children, SHS exposure in the home during ≥1 h/day is associated with a higher frequency of mental disorder. This association was mostly due to the impact of SHS on ADHD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Population pharmacokinetics of artemether, lumefantrine, and their respective metabolites in Papua New Guinean children with uncomplicated malaria.

    PubMed

    Salman, Sam; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Griffin, Susan; Kose, Kaye; Siba, Peter M; Ilett, Kenneth F; Mueller, Ivo; Davis, Timothy M E

    2011-11-01

    There are sparse published data relating to the pharmacokinetic properties of artemether, lumefantrine, and their active metabolites in children, especially desbutyl-lumefantrine. We studied 13 Papua New Guinean children aged 5 to 10 years with uncomplicated malaria who received the six recommended doses of artemether (1.7 mg/kg of body weight) plus lumefantrine (10 mg/kg), given with fat over 3 days. Intensive blood sampling was carried out over 42 days. Plasma artemether, dihydroartemisinin, lumefantrine, and desbutyl-lumefantrine were assayed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or high-performance liquid chromatography. Multicompartmental pharmacokinetic models for a drug plus its metabolite were developed using a population approach that included plasma artemether and dihydroartemisinin concentrations below the limit of quantitation. Although artemether bioavailability was variable and its clearance increased by 67.8% with each dose, the median areas under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC(0-∞)s) for artemether and dihydroartemisinin (3,063 and 2,839 μg · h/liter, respectively) were similar to those reported previously in adults with malaria. For lumefantrine, the median AUC(0-∞) (459,980 μg · h/liter) was also similar to that in adults with malaria. These data support the higher dose recommended for children weighing 15 to 35 kg (35% higher than that for a 50-kg adult) but question the recommendation for a lower dose in children weighing 12.5 to 15 kg. The median desbutyl-lumefantrine/lumefantrine ratio in the children in our study was 1.13%, within the range reported for adults and higher at later time points because of the longer desbutyl-lumefantrine terminal elimination half-life. A combined desbutyl-lumefantrine and lumefantrine AUC(0-∞) weighted on in vitro antimalarial activity was inversely associated with recurrent parasitemia, suggesting that both the parent drug and the metabolite contribute to the

  20. Therapy access among children with autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Benevides, Teal W; Carretta, Henry J; Ivey, Carole K; Lane, Shelly J

    2017-09-21

    This study examined cross-sectional population-based rates in reported need and unmet need for occupational, physical, and speech therapy services in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cerebral palsy (CP). The 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 (USA) National Survey of Children with Special Health Care data sets were used to compare therapy need and unmet need among children younger than 18 years with ASD (n=5178), ADHD (n=20 566), and CP (n=1183). Bivariate approaches and multivariate logistic regression using imputed data were used to identify associations between child and family characteristics, and access to therapy services. After adjusting for other variables, children with ASD had a significantly greater likelihood of having an unmet therapy need compared with children with ADHD (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-2.03), but a similar unmet need as children with CP (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.97-1.74). Factors associated with unmet need included survey year, younger child age, no health insurance, and increased functional and behavioral difficulties. Children in our sample had greater unmet therapy needs in 2009 than in 2005. Caregiver-reported reasons for unmet need included cost and school resources. Research examining future trends in therapy access are warranted for children with ASD and CP. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Changes Over Time in the Health of Caregivers of Children With Health Problems: Growth-Curve Findings From a 10-Year Canadian Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Rochelle E.; Miller, Anton R.; Lach, Lucyna M.; Klassen, Anne F.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We used Canadian population-based data to examine changes in the health of caregivers of children with complex health problems compared with caregivers of healthy children over a 10-year time period. Methods. The National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth collected data biennially from 9401 children and their caregivers in 6 waves from 1994–1995 to 2004–2005. We conducted growth-curve analyses of these data to model self-reported general health and depressive symptoms for 4 groups of caregivers: caregivers of healthy children, and caregivers of children with 1, 2, or at least 3 of 4 conceptually distinct indicators of child health problems. We modeled covariates for children (age, gender, only-child status) and caregivers (age, gender, education, income, marital status). Results. After we controlled for covariates, caregiver health outcomes worsened incrementally with increasing complexity of child health problems. Change in self-reported general health and depressive symptoms over the 10-year period was consistent across all groups of caregivers. Conclusions. Poorer health among caregivers of children with health problems can persist for many years and is associated with complexity of child health problems. Attention to parental health should form a component of health care services for children with health problems. PMID:22021302

  2. Men's sexual interest in children: one-year incidence and correlates in a population-based sample of Finnish male twins.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Pekka; Antfolk, Jan; Räfså, Anna; Hartwig, Maria; Sariola, Heikki; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Mokros, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In a study of 1,310 Finnish adult male twins we found that sexual interest in children aged 12 or younger was reported by 0.2% of the sample. Sexual interest in children aged 15 or younger was reported by 3.3%. Participants reporting sexual interest in children aged 15 or younger were younger, reported stronger sexual desire, and had experienced more childhood sexual and nonsexual abuse. The present study is the first to give a population-based estimate of the incidence of sexual interest in children among adult men. The 12-month incidence of sexual interest in children below the age of 16 years is roughly comparable to the one-year incidence of major depression or the lifetime prevalence of transvestitic fetishism.

  3. Video game violence use among "vulnerable" populations: the impact of violent games on delinquency and bullying among children with clinically elevated depression or attention deficit symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Olson, Cheryl K

    2014-01-01

    The issue of children's exposure to violent video games has been a source of considerable debate for several decades. Questions persist whether children with pre-existing mental health problems may be influenced adversely by exposure to violent games, even if other children are not. We explored this issue with 377 children (62 % female, mixed ethnicity, mean age = 12.93) displaying clinically elevated attention deficit or depressive symptoms on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Results from our study found no evidence for increased bullying or delinquent behaviors among youth with clinically elevated mental health symptoms who also played violent video games. Our results did not support the hypothesis that children with elevated mental health symptoms constitute a "vulnerable" population for video game violence effects. Implications and suggestions for further research are provided.

  4. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3–6-Year-Old Children in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bafti, Leila Shafie; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Poureslami, Hamidreza; Hoseinian, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index) after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age) and dmft was determined using Poisson's regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3–6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight. PMID:25788943

  5. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3-6-Year-Old Children in Iran.

    PubMed

    Bafti, Leila Shafie; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Poureslami, Hamidreza; Hoseinian, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index) after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age) and dmft was determined using Poisson's regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3-6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight.

  6. Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with celiac disease: survey of a population from central Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Celiac Disease (CD) is an increasingly common autoimmune disorder. It requires a strict lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) which can influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study assesses HRQOL in children and adolescents with CD and explores how several demographic and clinical characteristics and GFD adherence affect their perceived health status. Methods We recruited 140 consecutive children and adolescents with CD confirmed by small bowel biopsy. HRQOL was assessed using the SF-12 questionnaire plus some CD-specific questions exploring wellbeing and lifestyle. Patients, aged 10 to 18 years, were identified by pediatric gastroenterologists and guided in filling out the questionnaire by trained psychologists. Parametric or non-parametric tests were applied to analyze continuous variables and frequencies as appropriate. Results The SF-12 mean mental component summary score (MCS12) was lower than in the general Italian population (p < 0.001), whereas differences in terms of physical health were not significant (p = 0.220). More than one third of those interviewed reported feeling angry “always” or “most of the time” about having to follow the GFD, and nearly 20% reported feeling different from others and misunderstood because of CD “always” or “most of the time”. Conclusions Our findings highlight the need for health professionals to identify adolescents with major disease-related problems. The food industry should improve its range of gluten-free food products and public bodies and institutions should promote informative campaigns and help promote the overall quality of life of children and adolescents with CD. PMID:24304679

  7. Utility-based quality of life in mothers of children with behaviour problems: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Le, Ha Nd; Gulenc, Alisha; Gold, Lisa; Sarkadi, Anna; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Bayer, Jordana; Wake, Melissa; Hiscock, Harriet

    2016-12-01

    To examine the relationship between mothers' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and child behaviour problems at age 2 years. To investigate whether the relationship between maternal HRQoL and child behaviour problems is independent of maternal mental health. Cross-sectional survey nested within a population-level, cluster randomised trial, which aims to prevent early child behaviour problems. One hundred and sixty mothers of 2-year-old children, in nine local government areas in Victoria, Australia. HRQoL was measured using the Assessment of Quality of Life 6D and child behaviour was measured using the child behaviour checklist (CBCL/1.5-5 years). Maternal mental health was measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Data were collected at child age 2 years; demographic data were collected at child age 8 months. HRQoL was lower for mothers with children that had borderline/clinical behaviour problems compared to those with children without problems (mean difference -0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.16 to -0.12, P < 0.001). The finding did not markedly change when adjusting for household income, financial security, child gender, child temperament and intervention group status at child age 8 months (mean difference -0.12, 95% CI: -0.15 to -0.09, P < 0.001), but did attenuate when additionally adjusting for concurrent maternal mental health (mean difference -0.03, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.02, P < 0.001). Child behaviour problems were associated with lower maternal HRQoL. Child behaviour problems prevention programmes could consider this association with maternal HRQoL and be designed to improve and report both mothers' and their child's health and wellbeing. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Prevalence of physical violence against children in Haiti: A national population-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Flynn-O'Brien, Katherine T; Rivara, Frederick P; Weiss, Noel S; Lea, Veronica A; Marcelin, Louis H; Vertefeuille, John; Mercy, James A

    2016-01-01

    Although physical violence against children is common worldwide, there are no national estimates in Haiti. To establish baseline national estimates, a three-stage clustered sampling design was utilized to administer a population-based household survey about victimization due to physical violence to 13-24 year old Haitians (n=2,916), including those residing in camps or settlements. Descriptive statistics and weighted analysis techniques were used to estimate national lifetime prevalence and characteristics of physical violence against children. About two-thirds of respondents reported having experienced physical violence during childhood (67.0%; 95% CI 63.4-70.4), the percentage being similar in males and females. More than one-third of 13-17 year old respondents were victimized in the 12 months prior to survey administration (37.8%; 95% CI 33.6-42.1). The majority of violence was committed by parents and teachers; and the perceived intent was often punishment or discipline. While virtually all (98.8%; 95% CI 98.0-99.3) victims of childhood physical violence were punched, kicked, whipped or beaten; 11.0% (95% CI 9.2-13.2) were subject to abuse by a knife or other weapon. Injuries sustained from violence varied by victim gender and perpetrator, with twice as many females (9.6%; 95% CI 7.1-12.7) than males (4.0%; 95% CI 2.6-6.1) sustaining permanent injury or disfigurement by a family member or caregiver (p-value<.001). Our findings suggest that physical violence against children in Haiti is common, and may lead to severe injury. Characterization of the frequency and nature of this violence provides baseline estimates to inform interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Concentrated affluence, concentrated disadvantage, and children's readiness for school: a population-based, multi-level investigation.

    PubMed

    Carpiano, Richard M; Lloyd, Jennifer E V; Hertzman, Clyde

    2009-08-01

    A number of studies demonstrates a relationship between neighbourhood concentration of affluence and disadvantage and the health and development of its residents. We contribute to this literature by testing hypotheses about the relationship between neighbourhood-level concentrated affluence/disadvantage and child-level developmental outcomes in a study population of 37,798 Kindergarten children residing in 433 neighbourhoods throughout the province of British Columbia, Canada. We utilise a previously-validated measure of neighbourhood socioeconomic composition--the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE)--which not only allows for more precise estimation of the competing influences of concentrated affluence and disadvantage, but also facilitates examination of the potential impact of neighbourhood-level income inequality. Our findings show that increases in neighbourhood affluence are associated with increases in children's scores on the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a holistic measure of Kindergarteners' readiness for school. Particularly noteworthy is that, for four of the five EDI scales (physical, social, emotional, and communication) and the total score, results indicate a significant curvilinear relationship--whereby the highest average child-level outcomes are not found in locations with the highest concentrations of affluence, but rather in locations with relatively equal proportions of affluent and disadvantaged families. This finding suggests, first, that concentrated affluence may have diminishing rates of return on contributing to enhanced child development, and, second, that children residing in mixed-income neighbourhoods may benefit both from the presence of affluent residents and from the presence of services and institutions aimed at assisting lower-income residents. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  10. Trends in unintentional injury mortality in Canadian children 1950-2009 and association with selected population-level interventions.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Sarah A; D'Cruz, Jennifer; Lokku, Armend; Macpherson, Alison; Howard, Andrew; Macarthur, Colin

    2016-12-27

    To examine unintentional injury mortality rates in children (0-19 years) in Canada from 1950 to 2009 against national population-level injury prevention interventions. Injury mortality rates were age and sex adjusted. Changes in trend and level of mortality rates were assessed at pre-specified intervention periods using segmented linear regression analyses for interrupted time series. Maximum likelihood estimation was used with a second order autoregressive error process. From 1950 to 2009, the overall unintentional injury mortality rate decreased by 86%. Males had consistently higher mortality rates compared to females; however, the standardized rate ratio decreased from 2.37:1 in 1950 to 1.97:1 in 2009. Substantial declines in choking/suffocation deaths were noted in children less than 1 year of age, predominantly during the period 1970-1988 when the Hazardous Products Act and Crib Regulations were implemented. For burns, significant changes in slope were noted comparing 1972-1994 to pre-1971 (introduction of the Hazardous Products Act - Flammability Regulations), where the greatest decline was noted in children ages 1-4 years (Est. = -0.03, 95% CI = -0.02, -0.04). For 15-19 year olds, there was a 408% increase in motor vehicle collision-related mortality rates between 1950 and 1971; however a significant change in slope was noted during the period 1978-1985, compared to 1972-1977 (Est. = -0.10, 95% CI = -0.20, -0.007) across all age groups. While this study is not a cause and effect analysis, there is a strong association with implementation of safety campaigns and legislative changes related to child safety and a dramatic decline in childhood fatalities related to injury.

  11. The direct medical costs of epilepsy in children and young people: a population-based study of health resource utilisation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mostafa A Sayed; Elliott, Rachel A; Tata, Laila J

    2014-03-01

    We described the health resource utilisation (HRU) and associated direct medical costs of managing epilepsy in children and young people (CYP) using population-level data from the United Kingdom. The study cohort were CYP born between 1988 and 2004 who were newly diagnosed with epilepsy and identified using a nationally representative primary care database from the United Kingdom. Reference unit costs were applied to each element of HRU to calculate annual direct medical costs per child. We assessed whether HRU and costs differed by time from diagnosis, age, sex and socioeconomic deprivation. Of 798 CYP newly diagnosed with epilepsy, 56% were male and the mean age at diagnosis was 5.6 years. The highest burden of HRU was in the first year following diagnosis with a mean annual cost of £930 (95% confidence interval (CI) £839-1022) per child in this first year. This decreased to £461 (95%CI 368-551) in the second year which remained fairly constant each subsequent year (£413 (95% CI 282-540) in the 8th year). The highest contribution to the annual medical costs was from inpatient hospital admissions followed by the costs of AEDs. Mean annual medical costs were significantly higher in children under 6 years of age compared with older children (p<0.01), but were similar across socioeconomic groups (p=0.62). The direct medical costs of HRU in CYP with epilepsy are higher in the first year after diagnosis compared to subsequent years, reflecting HRU related to the diagnostic process in the first year. Medical costs did not vary substantially by sex or socioeconomic deprivation indicating a similar level of consultation and care across these groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Fracture in Healthy Iranian Children Aged 9–18 Years and Associated Risk Factors; A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Marjan; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Kharmandar, Alireza; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of fractures and associated risk factors in healthy Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, 478 healthy Iranian children and adolescents aged 9–18 years old participated. Baseline data and bone mineral content and density have been determined. One questionnaire was completed for all individuals including previous history of fracture, its location, and level of trauma. Albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D levels were measured. Results: We found a prevalence of 12.9% for fracture. (34.5% for girls and 65.5% for boys); about 71% suffered long bone fracture with distal forearm as the most common site. Totally 58% of the boys and 54% of the girls had fracture with low-energy trauma. The fracture group had lower bone mineral apparent density in the lumbar spine (0.19±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.03, p=0.04), lower serum albumin (4.6±0.5 vs 4.8±0.4, p=0.02), and higher serum alkaline phosphatase level (446±174 vs. 361±188, p=0.02) compared with non-fracture subjects. By logistic regression analysis, we found a significant association for sex, and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine with fracture (p=0.003, p=0.039). Conclusion: Compared to other studies, our subjects had lower rate of fracture. We found an association between low bone density and fracture in children and adolescents. This finding has important implications for public health. Further research may contribute to recognition of preventive measures. PMID:28246621

  13. Increase the risk of intellectual disability in children with scabies: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jui-Ming; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Chang, Fung-Wei; Yeh, Chia-Lun; Huang, Chun-Fa; Chang, Shu-Ting; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Chang, Hung-Yang; Chi, Hsin; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2017-06-01

    Scabies is a common and distressing disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Psychiatric disorder in childhood is an important disease and easily neglected. There are several similarities in scabies and psychiatric disorders in childhood (PDC). Both of them may present with pruritus. They are relatively common in patients with lower socioeconomic status and crowded environment. Furthermore, immune-mediated inflammatory processes play a role in the pathophysiology in both diseases. An association between scabies and psychiatric disorders may exist. This nationwide population-based cohort study utilized data from the National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate the relationship between scabies and PDC. A total of 2137 children with scabies were identified as the study group and 8548 age- and sex-matched children were selected as the control group. A total of 607 (5.68%) children developed PDC during the 7-year follow-up period. The overall incidences of PDC are similar but patients with scabies had a higher risk of developing intellectual disability (ID) (scabies group vs control group: 1.3% vs 0.6%, adjusted hazard ratio: 2.04 and 95% confidence interval: 1.25-3.32). The immune-mediated inflammatory processes of both diseases were reviewed and may contribute to the 104% increased risk of interleukin in patients with scabies. We suggest a more comprehensive management in treating patients with scabies or ID. Early and comprehensive treatment of scabies and other risk factors may decrease the risk of subsequent ID. When we approach patients with ID, concurrent evaluation of scabies and other risk factors may contribute to successful management.

  14. Adult children's socioeconomic resources and mothers' survival after a breast cancer diagnosis: a Swedish population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Hannah L; Ringbäck Weitoft, Gunilla; Talbäck, Mats; Feychting, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Socioeconomic inequalities in survival after breast cancer persist worldwide. We aim to determine whether adult offspring's socioeconomic resources contribute to inequalities in mothers' survival after breast cancer. Methods 14 231 women, aged 65–79 years, with a child aged ≥30 years and a first primary diagnosis of breast cancer in the National Cancer Register between 2001 and 2010 were followed until death, 10 years after diagnosis, or end of study (December 2015). Relative survival proportions and excess mortality within 10 years of diagnosis by strata of offspring's education level and disposable income were estimated using flexible parametric models accounting for measures of mothers' socioeconomic position and expected mortality in the general population. Results 4292 women died during 102 236 person-years of follow-up. Crude 10-year relative survival proportions for mothers of children with >14, 12–14 and <12 years of education were 0.89 (0.87 to 0.91), 0.87 (0.85 to 0.89) and 0.79 (0.76 to 0.81), respectively. Compared with mothers of children with >14 years of education, mothers of children with <12 or 12–14 years of education had substantially higher excess mortality (excess HR 1.69 (1.38 to 2.07) and 1.22 (1.00 to 1.48), respectively). Higher mortality did not differ between tertiles of offspring's disposable income. Conclusions Adult offspring's education level may contribute to inequalities in mothers' survival after breast cancer. Clinicians should be aware of the educational context beyond the individual and women with less educated offsprings may require extra support. This should be considered in future research, policy frameworks and interventions aimed at reducing survival inequalities. PMID:28363931

  15. A Validation of an Examination Protocol for Cerebral Visual Impairment Among Children in a Clinical Population in India

    PubMed Central

    Tsherlinga, Sherab; Thomas, Maya Mary; Dutton, Gordon N; Bowman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) is a leading cause of vision impairment in developed and developing countries due to and increased survival of preterm and low birth weight infants. There are few data concerning the validity of protocols available to diagnose CVI. Aim This study aimed to document the face, content and construct validity of an assessment protocol namely, a 15-domain, Structured Clinical Question Inventory (SCQI), which is based on structured history taking and clinical examination, for the diagnosis of CVI in a clinical population of India. Materials and Methods This study was a retro-spective chart analysis of all children below the age of 18years, referred to the CVI clinic of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India from March 2011-Feb 2012. Clinical case-notes including the SCQI findings of all children referred to the clinic were reviewed. The data were extracted after Institutional Review Board approval. Statistical Analysis Pearson correlation coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha and exploratory factor analysis were used to document the content and construct validity of the examination protocol. Results A total of 342 children (35.7% male, 64.3% female), with a mean age of 3.8 years (range 0-17 years, the median was 3 years) were included in the study and their data were examined. The internal consistency of the SCQI was 0.93 suggesting it as an excellent tool to characterise and profile CVI and a 2-factor model (Dorsal Stream Dysfunction and Ventral Stream Dysfunction) based on a biologically plausible model explained 63% of the variance. Conclusion The results of using the SCQI affirm published data and endorse a theoretical construct similar across cultures. The potential diagnostic accuracy, reliability and utility of this measure for CVI needs to be studied further. The clinical use of a short version of the SCQI may be helpful to contribute to the identification of CVI, especially for middle and low-income countries

  16. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of artemether and lumefantrine during combination treatment in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hietala, Sofia Friberg; Mårtensson, Andreas; Ngasala, Billy; Dahlström, Sabina; Lindegårdh, Niklas; Annerberg, Anna; Premji, Zul; Färnert, Anna; Gil, Pedro; Björkman, Anders; Ashton, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The combination of artemether (ARM) and lumefantrine is currently the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in mainland Tanzania. While the exposure to lumefantrine has been associated with the probability of adequate clinical and parasitological cure, increasing exposure to artemether and the active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) has been shown to decrease the parasite clearance time. The aim of this analysis was to describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of artemether, dihydroartemisinin, and lumefantrine in African children with uncomplicated malaria. In addition to drug concentrations and parasitemias from 50 Tanzanian children with falciparum malaria, peripheral parasite densities from 11 asymptomatic children were included in the model of the parasite dynamics. The population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of artemether, dihydroartemisinin, and lumefantrine were modeled in NONMEM. The distribution of artemether was described by a two-compartment model with a rapid absorption and elimination through metabolism to dihydroartemisinin. Dihydroartemisinin concentrations were adequately illustrated by a one-compartment model. The pharmacokinetics of artemether was time dependent, with typical oral clearance increasing from 2.6 liters/h/kg on day 1 to 10 liters/h/kg on day 3. The pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine was sufficiently described by a one-compartment model with an absorption lag time. The typical value of oral clearance was estimated to 77 ml/h/kg. The proposed semimechanistic model of parasite dynamics, while a rough approximation of the complex interplay between malaria parasite and the human host, adequately described the early effect of ARM and DHA concentrations on the parasite density in malaria patients. However, the poor precision in some parameters illustrates the need for further data to support and refine this model.

  17. Changes in Prevalence and Socioeconomic Factors of Psychiatric Disability among Children in China from 1987-2006: A Population Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjie; Zheng, Xiaoying; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong

    2017-03-09

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with psychiatric disability among Chinese children under 14 years of age has long been of interest. Data used in the study included two nationally representative population-based surveys from the first and second China National Sample Surveys on Disability, conducted in 1987 and 2006. Both surveys used multistage, stratified random cluster sampling, with probability proportion to size, to derive nationally representative samples. Age-standardized point prevalence of mental disability was estimated through direct standardization using the 2000 census-derived Chinese population as the standard. Associations between psychiatric disability in children and possible risk factors were examined by logistic regression. Age-standardized point prevalence of psychiatric disability in children increased sharply from 0.18% to 1.11% in the 20 years between surveys. In the logistic regression analysis, the children's age and household size presented inverse associations with psychiatric disability in both surveys, although these associations were not all significant in 1987. Residential area, minority group status and gender of children were consistently associated with psychiatric disability in both surveys. To face the challenge of rising prevalence rates of psychiatric disability among children in China, the government should adopt more vigorous strategies to prevent it, especially for minority ethnicity children and those living in rural areas.

  18. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of the Shape, Height, and Location of the Mandibular Lingula in a Population of Children

    PubMed Central

    Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Cantekin, Kenan; Aydinbelge, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

     Objectives. This is the first study to identify and classify the different morphological shapes of the mandibular lingula (ML) in children using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the shape, height, and location of the ML in relation to the surrounding structures using CBCT images of mandibles obtained from 269 children. The shape of the ML was classified into triangular, truncated, nodular, or assimilated types. The location was determined by five distances. The height of the lingula was also measured from the lingular tip to the mandibular foramen. Results. A nodular shape of the ML was most commonly found (48.3%, n = 260) followed by truncated (23.4%, n = 126), assimilated (14.4%, n = 78), and triangular (13.7%, n = 74). The mean distance of ML from the anterior and posterior borders of mandibular ramus was 13.3 ± 2.3 mm and 10.2 ± 1.6 mm, respectively. In the majority of the mandibles studied, the ML was located above the occlusal plane. Conclusion. The present study provides new information to the literature concerning the shape, height, and location of the lingula in a Turkish pediatric population. This finding may assist clinicians to localize the lingula and avoid intraoperative complications. PMID:24490173

  19. Increased risk of epilepsy in children with Tourette syndrome: A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lee Chin; Huang, Hui-Ling; Weng, Wen-Chin; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yin, Yun-Ju; Chen, Hong-An; Lee, Wang-Tso; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The association between epilepsy and Tourette syndrome has rarely been investigated. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed a dataset of 1,000,000 randomly sampled individuals from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to determine the risk of epilepsy in children with Tourette syndrome. The study cohort consisted of 1062 patients with Tourette syndrome aged ≤ 18 years, and the control group consisted of three times the number of age- and sex-matched patients without Tourette syndrome, who were insurants, from the same database during the same period. The Tourette syndrome group had an 18.38-fold increased risk of epilepsy than the control group [hazard ratio=18.38, 95% confidence interval (CI)=8.26-40.92; P<0.001]. Even after adjusting for the comorbidities, the risk of epilepsy in the Tourette syndrome group with comorbidities remained high (hazard ratio=16.27, 95% CI=6.26-18.46; P<0.001), indicating that the increased risk was not associated with comorbidities. This population-based retrospective cohort study provides the first and strong evidence that Tourette syndrome is associated with a higher risk of epilepsy. A close follow-up of children with Tourette syndrome for the development of epilepsy is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bone mineral density and body composition in a myelomeningocele children population: effects of walking ability and sport activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, E; Focarelli, B; Tabacco, F; Fortunelli, G; Caradonna, P; Massimi, L; Sigismondi, M; Salvaggio, E; Rendeli, C

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele causes serious locomotor disability, osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, bone mineral density, walking ability and sport activity in myelomeningocele children. 60 patients aged between 5 and 14 yrs with myelomeningocele (22 ambulatory and 38 non-ambulatory), were studied. Fat mass and fat-free-mass were calculated by anthropometry. The bone mineral density at lumbar and femoral neck were evaluated. Bone mineral density at the lumbar and femoral neck was lower than in the normal population. In the non-ambulaty group, bone mineral density was approximately 1 SD lower than in the ambulatory one (p < 0.01). Fat mass was greater than expected but without significantly differences between walking group (mean 26%) and wheel-chair users (25%). Patients practised sport activity had a better bone mineral density and body fat compared with other patients with the same disability. Patients with myelomeningocele have decreased bone mineral density and are at higher risk of pathologic bone fractures. All subjects showed an excess of fat as percentage of body weight and are shorter than normal children. The measurement of bone mineral density may help to identify those patients at greatest risk of suffering of multiple fractures. Walk ability and sport activity, associated with the development of muscle mass, are important factors in promoting bone and body growth, to reduce the risk of obesity and of pathological fractures.

  1. Health care for children with diabetes mellitus from low-income families in Ontario and California: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Sunitha V; Sundaram, Vandana; Cohen, Eyal; Shulman, Rayzel; Guan, Jun; Sanders, Lee; Guttmann, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Children with diabetes mellitus in low-income families have poor outcomes, but little is known as to how this relates to healthcare system structure. Our objective was to gain insight into how best to structure health systems to serve these children by describing their health care use in 2 health system models: a Canadian model, with an organized diabetes care network that includes generalists, and an American model, with targeted support services for children from low-income families. We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study involving children aged 1-17 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We used administrative data from between 2009 and 2012 from the California Children's Services program and Ontario. We used Ontario Drug Benefit Program enrolment to identify children from low-income families. Proportions of children receiving 2 or more routine diabetes visits per year were compared using χ2 tests, and diabetes-complication hospital admission rates were compared using direct standardization. More California children from low-income families (n = 4922) received routine care for diabetes from pediatric endocrinologists (63.9% v. 26.9%, p < 0.001) and used insulin pumps (22.8% v. 16.4%, p < 0.001) than Ontario children (n = 2050).California children from low-income families were less likely than Ontario children to receive 2 visits for routine diabetes care per year (64.7% v. 75.7%, p < 0.001), and had slightly higher per-patient year hospital admission rates for diabetes complications (absolute differences 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.02, for boys; 0.03, 95% CI 0.03-0.03, for girls). Ontario children from low-income families received more routine diabetes care than did California children from low-income families. Both groups of children had clinically comparable rates of hospital admission for diabetes complications. Diabetes care networks that integrate generalists may play a role in improving access and outcomes for the growing

  2. Health care for children with diabetes mellitus from low-income families in Ontario and California: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Sunitha V.; Sundaram, Vandana; Cohen, Eyal; Shulman, Rayzel; Guan, Jun; Sanders, Lee; Guttmann, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with diabetes mellitus in low-income families have poor outcomes, but little is known as to how this relates to healthcare system structure. Our objective was to gain insight into how best to structure health systems to serve these children by describing their health care use in 2 health system models: a Canadian model, with an organized diabetes care network that includes generalists, and an American model, with targeted support services for children from low-income families. Methods: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study involving children aged 1-17 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We used administrative data from between 2009 and 2012 from the California Children's Services program and Ontario. We used Ontario Drug Benefit Program enrolment to identify children from low-income families. Proportions of children receiving 2 or more routine diabetes visits per year were compared using χ2 tests, and diabetes-complication hospital admission rates were compared using direct standardization. Results: More California children from low-income families (n = 4922) received routine care for diabetes from pediatric endocrinologists (63.9% v. 26.9%, p < 0.001) and used insulin pumps (22.8% v. 16.4%, p < 0.001) than Ontario children (n = 2050).California children from low-income families were less likely than Ontario children to receive 2 visits for routine diabetes care per year (64.7% v. 75.7%, p < 0.001), and had slightly higher per-patient year hospital admission rates for diabetes complications (absolute differences 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.02, for boys; 0.03, 95% CI 0.03-0.03, for girls). Interpretation: Ontario children from low-income families received more routine diabetes care than did California children from low-income families. Both groups of children had clinically comparable rates of hospital admission for diabetes complications. Diabetes care networks that integrate generalists may play a role in

  3. Blood Selenium Concentration and Blood Cystatin C Concentration in a Randomly Selected Population of Healthy Children Environmentally Exposed to Lead and Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Gać, Paweł; Pawlas, Natalia; Wylężek, Paweł; Poręba, Rafał; Poręba, Małgorzata; Pawlas, Krystyna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluation of a relationship between blood selenium concentration (Se-B) and blood cystatin C concentration (CST) in a randomly selected population of healthy children, environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium. The studies were conducted on 172 randomly selected children (7.98 ± 0.97 years). Among participants, the subgroups were distinguished, manifesting marginally low blood selenium concentration (Se-B 40-59 μg/l), suboptimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B: 60-79 μg/l) or optimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B ≥ 80 μg/l). At the subsequent stage, analogous subgroups of participants were selected separately in groups of children with BMI below median value (BMI <16.48 kg/m(2)) and in children with BMI ≥ median value (BMI ≥16.48 kg/m(2)). In all participants, values of Se-B and CST were estimated. In the entire group of examined children no significant differences in mean CST values were detected between groups distinguished on the base of normative Se-B values. Among children with BMI below 16.48 kg/m(2), children with marginally low Se-B manifested significantly higher mean CST values, as compared to children with optimum Se-B (0.95 ± 0.07 vs. 0.82 ± 0.15 mg/l, p < 0.05). In summary, in a randomly selected population of healthy children no relationships could be detected between blood selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration. On the other hand, in children with low body mass index, a negative non-linear relationship was present between blood selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration.

  4. Diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis in Austrian children: a population-based analysis, 1989-2011.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Maria; Schober, Edith; Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Hofer, Sabine; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Waldhoer, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the effect of a community-based, poster-focused prevention program on the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at diabetes onset in Austria. All newly diagnosed patients with diabetes ≤ 15 years of age were registered prospectively by the Austrian Diabetes Incidence Study Group. Registered data included initial blood glucose, pH, and ketonuria. DKA was defined as pH < 7.3 and severe DKA as pH < 7.1. Data between 1989 and 2011 were available. In autumn, 2009, a community-based prevention program similar to the Parma Campaign, in which posters were dispensed broadly, was initiated. The frequency of DKA at the onset of diabetes in the years 2005-2009 and 2010-2011 was compared. During the study period, 4038 children were registered. A total of 37.2% presented with DKA; 26% had a mild and 11.2% a severe form. The frequency of DKA was negatively associated with age at onset. In the years before the intervention program, 26% had mild DKA compared with 27% after the intervention (not significant). The prevalence of severe DKA in the years before the campaign was 12% compared with 9.5% thereafter (not significant). No significant change in the DKA rate at onset by the prevention program could be found when we compared age groups <5, 5 to <10, and 10 to <15 years, neither for mild nor for severe DKA. The frequency of DKA in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in Austria is high and did not change despite the efforts of a community-based information program. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  5. Epidemiology of depression in an urban population of Turkish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Demir, Turkay; Karacetin, Gul; Demir, Demet Eralp; Uysal, Omer

    2011-11-01

    In Turkey, studies of childhood depression have been limited to those using only scales. This is a two-stage cross-sectional epidemiological study. Three schools in Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey were selected by cluster sampling. The study included 1482 students between the fourth and eighth grades. The Child Depression Inventory (CDI) was used for screening in the first stage. According to test results, 320 children were interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. Depressive disorders were diagnosed in 62 students, constituting the case group. The control group was matched to the case group on school, grade, age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). The prevalence rate was 4.2% for some form of depressive disorder, 1.55% for major depressive disorder, 1.75% for dysthymic disorder, 0.26% for double depression, and 0.60% for depressive disorder-not otherwise specified. According to the logistic regression analysis, increasing age, having a working mother and low maternal education were all positively associated with CDI score. Low SES, perception of paternal health and relations with father as negatively, low popularity and behavior subscales of the Piers-Harris self-concept scale, and high trait anxiety were associated with the presence of a depressive disorder. Parents were not included in the diagnostic interviews. Dysthymic disorder was the most common depressive disorder. Low maternal education, low SES, dysfunctional interaction with the father, anxiety, and low self-esteem, which were all associated with depression, may be the target of interventions for prevention and treatment of depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Burden of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years in Kenya: results from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Ng'eno, Bernadette; Mwangi, Ann; Ng'ang'a, Lucy; Kim, Andrea A; Waruru, Anthony; Mukui, Irene; Ngugi, Evelyn W; Rutherford, George W

    2014-05-01

    In Kenya, mathematical models estimate that there are approximately 220,000 children aged less than 15 years infected with HIV. We analyzed data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years. KAIS 2012 was a nationally representative 2-stage cluster sample household survey. We studied children aged 18 months to 14 years whose parents or guardians answered questions pertaining to their children by interview. Blood specimens were collected for HIV serology and viral load measurement. We identified 5162 children who were eligible for the study. Blood was obtained for 3681 (71.3%) children. Among child participants, 16.4% had been tested for HIV infection in the past, and among children with parents or guardians who self-reported HIV-positive status, 52.9% had been tested for HIV infection. Twenty-eight (0.9%) children tested HIV-positive in the survey. Of these, 11 had been previously diagnosed with HIV infection before the survey. All 11 children were in HIV care and receiving cotrimoxazole; 8 were on antiretorivral therapy (ART). Among those on ART, 4 were virologically suppressed. HIV causes a substantial burden of disease in the Kenyan pediatric population. Although most children who had been diagnosed with HIV before the survey were engaged in care and treatment, they represented less than half of HIV-infected children identified in the survey. Future efforts should focus on identifying infected children and getting them into care and on suppressive ART as early as possible.

  7. Risk factors for chronic undernutrition among children in India: Estimating relative importance, population attributable risk and fractions.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Daniel J; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 40% of the world's stunted children live in India and the prevalence of undernutrition has been persistently high in recent decades. Given numerous available interventions for reducing undernutrition in children, it is not clear of the relative importance of each within a multifactorial framework. We assess the simultaneous contribution of 15 known risk factors for child chronic undernutrition in India. Data are from the 3rd Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2005-2006. The study population consisted of children aged 6-59 months [n = 26,842 (stunting/low height-for-age), n = 27,483 (underweight/low weight-for-age)]. Risk factors examined for their association with undernutrition were: vitamin A supplementation, vaccination, use of iodized salt, household air quality, improved sanitary facilities, safe disposal of stools, improved drinking water, prevalence of infectious disease, initiation of breastfeeding, dietary diversity, age at marriage, maternal BMI, height, education, and household wealth. Age/sex-adjusted and multivariable adjusted effect sizes (odds ratios) were calculated for risk factors along with Population Attributable Risks (PAR) and Fractions (PAF) using logistic regression. In the mutually adjusted models, the five most important predictors of childhood stunting/underweight were short maternal stature, mother having no education, households in lowest wealth quintile, poor dietary diversity, and maternal underweight. These five factors had a combined PAR of 67.2% (95% CI: 63.3-70.7) and 69.7% (95% CI: 66.3-72.8) for stunting and underweight, respectively. The remaining factors were associated with a combined PAR of 11.7% (95% CI: 6.0-17.4) and 15.1% (95% CI: 8.9-21.3) for stunting and underweight, respectively. Implementing strategies focused on broader progress on social circumstances and infrastructural domains as well as investments in nutrition specific

  8. Outcomes of preterm children according to type of delivery onset: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Källen, Karin; Jacobsson, Bo

    2007-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm births are associated with different paediatric outcomes. A nationwide population-based study comprising 1 010 487 singletons used data from 1991 to 2001 from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. Intrauterine fetal deaths, unknown type of delivery onset and congenital malformations were excluded. Neonatal, perinatal and long-term neurological outcomes were studied. Spontaneous preterm births were compared with iatrogenic preterm births. Odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) for outcome variables were obtained using the Mantel-Haenszel technique and Cox analyses respectively. Adjustments were made for gestational age at birth, maternal age, parity and smoking. The preterm population consisted of 34 215 (73.2%) spontaneous preterm infants and 12 511 (26.8%) iatrogenic preterm infants. Spontaneous preterm infants were at increased risk of cerebral palsy at gestational age 28-31 weeks (HR: 1.86 [95% CI: 1.12, 3.10]), and of sepsis at gestational age 32-33 weeks (HR: 1.58 [95% CI: 1.28, 1.96]). Other outcome variables were associated with iatrogenic preterm birth, especially respiratory and gastrointestinal diagnoses. In conclusion, spontaneous preterm birth and iatrogenic preterm birth are associated with different paediatric outcomes.

  9. Impact of Ten-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Finnish Children – A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jokinen, Jukka; Rinta-Kokko, Hanna; Siira, Lotta; Palmu, Arto A.; Virtanen, Mikko J.; Nohynek, Hanna; Virolainen-Julkunen, Anni; Toropainen, Maija; Nuorti, J. Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 with a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months) without catch-up vaccinations. We evaluated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children ≤5 years of age during the first three years after NVP introduction. Methods We conducted a population-based, observational follow-up study. The cohort of vaccine-eligible children (all children born June 1, 2010 or later) was followed from 3 months of age until the end of 2013. For the indirect effect, another cohort of older children ineligible for PCV10 vaccination was followed from 2011 through 2013. Both cohorts were compared with season- and age-matched reference cohorts before NVP introduction. National, population-based laboratory surveillance data were used to compare culture-confirmed serotype-specific IPD rates in the vaccine target and reference cohorts by using Poisson regression models. Results The overall IPD rate among vaccine-eligible children was reduced by 80% (95%CI 72 to 85); the reduction in vaccine-type IPD was 92% (95%CI 86 to 95). However, a non-significant increase in non-vaccine type IPD was observed. During 2012–2013, we also observed a 48% (95%CI 18 to 69) reduction in IPD among unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age, which was mostly attributable to the ten vaccine serotypes. Conclusions This is the first population-based study investigating the impact of PCV10 introduction without prior PCV7 use. A substantial decrease in IPD rates among vaccine-eligible children was observed. A smaller and temporally delayed reduction among older, unvaccinated children suggests that PCV10 also provides indirect protection against vaccine-type IPD. Changes in serotype distribution warrant continuous monitoring of potential increases in non-vaccine serotypes. PMID:25781031

  10. Impact of ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease in Finnish children--a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Jukka; Rinta-Kokko, Hanna; Siira, Lotta; Palmu, Arto A; Virtanen, Mikko J; Nohynek, Hanna; Virolainen-Julkunen, Anni; Toropainen, Maija; Nuorti, J Pekka

    2015-01-01

    The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 with a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months) without catch-up vaccinations. We evaluated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children ≤5 years of age during the first three years after NVP introduction. We conducted a population-based, observational follow-up study. The cohort of vaccine-eligible children (all children born June 1, 2010 or later) was followed from 3 months of age until the end of 2013. For the indirect effect, another cohort of older children ineligible for PCV10 vaccination was followed from 2011 through 2013. Both cohorts were compared with season- and age-matched reference cohorts before NVP introduction. National, population-based laboratory surveillance data were used to compare culture-confirmed serotype-specific IPD rates in the vaccine target and reference cohorts by using Poisson regression models. The overall IPD rate among vaccine-eligible children was reduced by 80% (95%CI 72 to 85); the reduction in vaccine-type IPD was 92% (95%CI 86 to 95). However, a non-significant increase in non-vaccine type IPD was observed. During 2012-2013, we also observed a 48% (95%CI 18 to 69) reduction in IPD among unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age, which was mostly attributable to the ten vaccine serotypes. This is the first population-based study investigating the impact of PCV10 introduction without prior PCV7 use. A substantial decrease in IPD rates among vaccine-eligible children was observed. A smaller and temporally delayed reduction among older, unvaccinated children suggests that PCV10 also provides indirect protection against vaccine-type IPD. Changes in serotype distribution warrant continuous monitoring of potential increases in non-vaccine serotypes.

  11. Learning, attention/hyperactivity, and conduct problems as sequelae of excessive daytime sleepiness in a general population study of young children.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Susan L; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Mayes, Susan D; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Rodriguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Bixler, Edward O

    2012-05-01

    Although excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a common problem in children, with estimates of 15%; few studies have investigated the sequelae of EDS in young children. We investigated the association of EDS with objective neurocognitive measures and parent reported learning, attention/hyperactivity, and conduct problems in a large general population sample of children. Cross-sectional. Population based. 508 children from The Penn State Child Cohort. N/A. Children underwent a 9-h polysomnogram, comprehensive neurocognitive testing, and parent rating scales. Children were divided into 2 groups: those with and without parent-reported EDS. Structural equation modeling was used to examine whether processing speed and working memory performance would mediate the relationship between EDS and learning, attention/hyperactivity, and conduct problems. Logistic regression models suggest that parent-reported learning, attention/hyperactivity, and conduct problems, as well as objective measurement of processing speed and working memory are significant sequelae of EDS, even when controlling for AHI and objective markers of sleep. Path analysis demonstrates that processing speed and working memory performance are strong mediators of the association of EDS with learning and attention/hyperactivity problems, while to a slightly lesser degree are mediators from EDS to conduct problems. This study suggests that in a large general population sample of young children, parent-reported EDS is associated with neurobehavioral (learning, attention/hyperactivity, conduct) problems and poorer performance in processing speed and working memory. Impairment due to EDS in daytime cognitive and behavioral functioning can have a significant impact on children's development.

  12. Assessment of visuo-attentional abilities in young children with or without visual disorder: toward a systematic screening in the general population.

    PubMed

    Cavézian, Céline; Vilayphonh, Marc; de Agostini, Maria; Vasseur, Vivien; Watier, Laurence; Kazandjian, Seta; Laloum, Laurent; Chokron, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    In young children, visual attention, analysis or memory is only rarely evaluated. Moreover, tools to test for such higher-order visual capacities in children are limited. In an attempt to develop and refine such tools, we selected nine tests to assess visuo-attentional abilities before formal reading education (grade 1). The battery consisted of gaze fixation, visual field, visual extinction, binocular visual pursuit, visual memory, "A" cancellation, Teddy bears cancellation, embedded figures, and matching tasks. This battery was used in the general population (n=110) to calculate cut-off scores identifying the lower 5% of the general population to obtain a screening measure for neurovisual disabilities in children. To evaluate our battery's sensitivity and specificity to neurovisual disorders over ophthalmological diseases, a neurovisual group (n=9) and an ophthalmologic group (n=13) also completed the tests. Overall, all but three tests of the battery could be used to discriminate between neurovisual and ophthalmologic children. The ophthalmologic children failed the visual field extent examination and the cancellation tasks, consistent with deleterious effects of ophthalmologic disease on visual perception as well as higher-order vision. Using the cut-off scores, the battery identified only 2 out of 13 ophthalmologic patients, but 5 out of 9 neurovisual patients. In the general population, these cut-off scores identified seven children. These children were previously undiagnosed with any disability (i.e., no diagnosis of ophthalmological, neurological, or psychiatric disease) and thus did not receive any rehabilitation. This preliminary study highlights the necessity for a neurovisual disorder screening tool for young children. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dosing regimens of oral ciprofloxacin for children with severe malnutrition: a population pharmacokinetic study with Monte Carlo simulation

    PubMed Central

    Thuo, Nahashon; Ungphakorn, Wanchana; Karisa, Japhet; Muchohi, Simon; Muturi, Alex; Kokwaro, Gilbert; Thomson, Alison H.; Maitland, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Background Severe malnutrition is frequently complicated by sepsis, leading to high case fatality. Oral ciprofloxacin is a potential alternative to the standard parenteral ampicillin/gentamicin combination, but its pharmacokinetics in malnourished children is unknown. Methods Ciprofloxacin (10 mg/kg, 12 hourly) was administered either 2 h before or up to 2 h after feeds to Kenyan children hospitalized with severe malnutrition. Four plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured over 24 h. Population analysis with NONMEM investigated factors affecting the oral clearance (CL) and the oral volume of distribution (V). Monte Carlo simulations investigated dosage regimens to achieve a target AUC0–24/MIC ratio of ≥125. Results Data comprised 202 ciprofloxacin concentration measurements from 52 children aged 8–102 months. Absorption was generally rapid but variable; Cmax ranged from 0.6 to 4.5 mg/L. Data were fitted by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and lag. The parameters were CL (L/h) = 42.7 (L/h/70 kg) × [weight (kg)/70]0.75 × [1 + 0.0368 (Na+ – 136)] × [1 – 0.283 (high risk)] and V (L) = 372 × (L/70 kg) × [1 + 0.0291 (Na+ – 136)]. Estimates of AUC0–24 ranged from 8 to 61 mg·h/L. The breakpoint for Gram-negative organisms was <0.06 mg/L with doses of 20 mg/kg/day and <0.125 mg/L with doses of 30 or 45 mg/kg/day. The cumulative fraction of response with 30 mg/kg/day was ≥80% for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella species, but <60% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions An oral ciprofloxacin dose of 10 mg/kg three times daily (30 mg/kg/day) may be a suitable alternative antibiotic for the management of sepsis in severely malnourished children. Absorption was unaffected by the simultaneous administration of feeds. PMID:21831986

  14. Dosing regimens of oral ciprofloxacin for children with severe malnutrition: a population pharmacokinetic study with Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Thuo, Nahashon; Ungphakorn, Wanchana; Karisa, Japhet; Muchohi, Simon; Muturi, Alex; Kokwaro, Gilbert; Thomson, Alison H; Maitland, Kathryn

    2011-10-01

    Severe malnutrition is frequently complicated by sepsis, leading to high case fatality. Oral ciprofloxacin is a potential alternative to the standard parenteral ampicillin/gentamicin combination, but its pharmacokinetics in malnourished children is unknown. Ciprofloxacin (10 mg/kg, 12 hourly) was administered either 2 h before or up to 2 h after feeds to Kenyan children hospitalized with severe malnutrition. Four plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured over 24 h. Population analysis with NONMEM investigated factors affecting the oral clearance (CL) and the oral volume of distribution (V). Monte Carlo simulations investigated dosage regimens to achieve a target AUC(0-24)/MIC ratio of ≥125. Data comprised 202 ciprofloxacin concentration measurements from 52 children aged 8-102 months. Absorption was generally rapid but variable; C(max) ranged from 0.6 to 4.5 mg/L. Data were fitted by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and lag. The parameters were CL (L/h) = 42.7 (L/h/70 kg) × [weight (kg)/70](0.75) × [1 + 0.0368 (Na(+) - 136)] × [1 - 0.283 (high risk)] and V (L) = 372 × (L/70 kg) × [1 + 0.0291 (Na(+) - 136)]. Estimates of AUC(0-24) ranged from 8 to 61 mg·h/L. The breakpoint for Gram-negative organisms was <0.06 mg/L with doses of 20 mg/kg/day and <0.125 mg/L with doses of 30 or 45 mg/kg/day. The cumulative fraction of response with 30 mg/kg/day was ≥80% for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella species, but <60% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. An oral ciprofloxacin dose of 10 mg/kg three times daily (30 mg/kg/day) may be a suitable alternative antibiotic for the management of sepsis in severely malnourished children. Absorption was unaffected by the simultaneous administration of feeds.

  15. Risk factors of Non-fatal Unintentional Home Injuries among Children under 5 Years Old; a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nouhjah, Sedigheh; R. Niakan Kalhori, Sharareh; Saki, Azadeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In addition to the annual mortality rate, unintentional home injury may result in temporary or permanent disability and requires medical attention and continuous care in millions of children. This study aimed to explore features and risk factors of these injuries. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, demographic variables and epidemiologic pattern of home injuries among children under 5 years of age were collected via a population-based survey in seven main cities of Khuzestan province, southwest Iran, during September 2011 to December 2012. Developing a risk stratification model, independent risk factors of unintentional home injury were determined and put to multivariate logistic regression analysis. Result: 2693 children with the mean age of 27.36 ± 15.55 months (1 to 60) were evaluated (50.9% boy). 827 (30.7%) cases had a history of at least one home injury occurrence since birth to study time. The most common injury mechanisms were burning with 291 (38.4%) cases, falling with 214 (28.3%) and poisoning with 66 (8.7%) cases, respectively. The independent risk factors of unintentional home injury were age ≥ 24 month (p<0.001), residency in Ahvaz city (p<0.001), mother’s illiteracy (p<0.014), ethnicity (p<0.001), private housing (p=0.01), birth weight (p<0.001), and being the first child (p=0. 01). Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve of the model designed by multivariate analysis were 53.5%, 84.8%, and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.73- 0.77; P < 0.001, figure 1), respectively. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, 30.7% of the studied children were injured at least once since birth. Burning, falling, poisoning, swallowing objects, choking, and biting were the main home injury mechanisms. Age ≥ 24 months, being the first child, living in a private house, being a resident of Ahvaz city, and having an illiterate mother were found to be risk factors of home injury. PMID:28286813

  16. Cancer incidence patterns among children and adolescents in Taiwan from 1995 to 2009: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chen, Chao-Chun; Lee, Chih-Ying

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Currently, little information is available on childhood cancer incidence rates in Eastern Asia. The objective of this study was to report the first population-based cancer surveillance of children and adolescents in Taiwan. METHODS Data from the Taiwan Cancer Registry were examined for cancer frequencies and incidence rates among individuals ages birth to 19 years from 1995 to 2009. Types of cancers were grouped according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. Rates were compared by sex and age. For further comparisons with other countries, rates were age standardized to the 2000 world standard population in 5-year age groups. Trends in incidence rates also were evaluated. RESULTS In total, 12,315 individuals were diagnosed with childhood cancers, for an age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of 132.1 per million person-years from 1995 to 2009. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio was 1.19. Overall, leukemias were the most common cancer (ASR, 39.1 per million person-years), followed by central nervous system neoplasms (15.8 per million person-years), and lymphomas (15.3 per million person-years). During the 15-year study period, the incidence rates increased by 1% annually. Compared with other countries, the rate of hepatic tumors was 2 times greater in Taiwan. The rate of germ cell neoplasms in Taiwan was similar to that in the United States and was 1.3 to 1.9 times greater compared with Canada, Brazil, Israel, and Japan. CONCLUSIONS Based on the current data, the observed increase in overall incidence rates was attributable only marginally to improvements in case ascertainment and diagnostic procedures. The high rates of malignant hepatic tumors and germ cell neoplasms in Taiwan suggest variations in the background risk factors. Cancer 2014;120:3545–3553. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. The authors examine cancer incidence patterns in children and adolescents

  17. Psychometric properties of the emotion awareness questionnaire for children in a French-speaking population.

    PubMed

    Lahaye, Magali; Luminet, Olivier; Van Broeck, Nady; Bodart, Eddy; Mikolajczak, Moira

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of the French version of the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire (EAQ30; Rieffe et al., 2008). The EAQ30 was administered to 707 French-speaking children aged 8 to 16 years old. The original 6-factor structure was replicated in our data. The internal consistency coefficients of the EAQ30 subscales were satisfactory. We found small significant differences for gender and age. Regarding convergent validity, we found positive correlations between EAQ30 scores and emotional intelligence and negative correlations between EAQ30 scores and alexithymia. There was preliminary evidence of discriminant validity, with EAQ30 scores being weakly related to school performance, and concurrent validity, with EAQ30 scores being negatively related to somatic complaints, depression, and anxiety. Finally, except for 1 dimension, EAQ30 scores were not susceptible to social desirability. Although some weaknesses of the scale remain to be addressed, these findings support the use of the EAQ30 for research and clinical purposes.

  18. Characteristics of Astigmatism in a Population of Tunisian School-Children.

    PubMed

    Chebil, Ahmed; Jedidi, Lina; Chaker, Nibrass; Kort, Fedra; Limaiem, Rym; Mghaieth, Fatma; El Matri, Leila

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of astigmatism in a cross-sectional study of schoolchildren in Tunisia. A random cluster design was used to recruit children from primary schools across urban and rural settings in Tunisia, from 2008 to 2010. A total of 6192 students aged 6-14-years old were enrolled. All students whose uncorrected visual acuity was worse than 20/20 underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. Astigmatism was defined as the cylinder power of 0.75 diopter (D) or greater. The prevalence of astigmatism was 6.67%. Mean cylinder power was - 1.89 ± 0.79D. The prevalence of astigmatism increased statistically significantly with age (P = 0.032). The prevalence of astigmatism was not significantly related to gender (P = 0.051). Of those with cylinder, 63.6%, 17.8%, and 18.6% schoolchildren had with with-the-rule, against-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism, respectively. ATR astigmatism was significantly higher in males (P = 0.033). There was no significant association between the student's area of residence and astigmatism (P = 0.059). Comparisons with other studies show that the prevalence of astigmatism in Tunisia is higher than in some countries. The prevalence of astigmatism increased with age but not gender. The majority of schoolchildren had with-the-rule astigmatism.

  19. Characteristics of Astigmatism in a Population of Tunisian School-Children

    PubMed Central

    Chebil, Ahmed; Jedidi, Lina; Chaker, Nibrass; Kort, Fedra; Limaiem, Rym; Mghaieth, Fatma; El Matri, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics of astigmatism in a cross-sectional study of schoolchildren in Tunisia. Materials and Methods: A random cluster design was used to recruit children from primary schools across urban and rural settings in Tunisia, from 2008 to 2010. A total of 6192 students aged 6–14-years old were enrolled. All students whose uncorrected visual acuity was worse than 20/20 underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. Astigmatism was defined as the cylinder power of 0.75 diopter (D) or greater. Results: The prevalence of astigmatism was 6.67%. Mean cylinder power was - 1.89 ± 0.79D. The prevalence of astigmatism increased statistically significantly with age (P = 0.032). The prevalence of astigmatism was not significantly related to gender (P = 0.051). Of those with cylinder, 63.6%, 17.8%, and 18.6% schoolchildren had with with-the-rule, against-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism, respectively. ATR astigmatism was significantly higher in males (P = 0.033). There was no significant association between the student's area of residence and astigmatism (P = 0.059). Conclusion: Comparisons with other studies show that the prevalence of astigmatism in Tunisia is higher than in some countries. The prevalence of astigmatism increased with age but not gender. The majority of schoolchildren had with-the-rule astigmatism. PMID:26180472

  20. [Children's relative age in class and medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A population-based study in a health department in Spain].

    PubMed

    Librero, Julián; Izquierdo-María, Roberto; García-Gil, María; Peiró, Salvador

    2015-12-07

    Previous studies in various countries have shown that the youngest school children in the same class-grade are more likely to be treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than their older classmates. The aim of this study is to determine in the Spanish setting whether younger relative age children in each grade have a higher prevalence of treatment for ADHD. Population, observational, cross-sectional study in a health department, using prevalence data (November 2013) of treatment for ADHD in children aged 6-12 years. Data was obtained from the information systems of the Valencia Ministry of Health and multivariate models were used to estimate the prevalence ratio of treatment according to the month of birth of children in each grade. Twenty thousand two hundred and thirty-seven children were included of whom 1.73% were treated for ADHD (boys: 2.70%; girls: 0.71%) in October 2013. The prevalence of treatment increased with age, in males, and in youngest children (born in the last months of each year). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of treatment in the youngest children (born in the months of August to December) was 2.5 to 3 times higher than in their older classmates (born in January). The younger children relative to their classmates are more likely to be treated pharmacologically with methylphenidate and/or atomoxetine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Congenital abnormalities and hepatoblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group (COG) and the Utah Population Database (UPDB).

    PubMed

    Venkatramani, Rajkumar; Spector, Logan G; Georgieff, Michael; Tomlinson, Gail; Krailo, Mark; Malogolowkin, Marcio; Kohlmann, Wendy; Curtin, Karen; Fonstad, Rachel K; Schiffman, Joshua D

    2014-09-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are known to predispose to hepatoblastoma (HB). A case-control study was conducted through the Children's Oncology Group (COG) to study the association of HB with isolated congenital abnormalities. Cases (N = 383) were diagnosed between 2000 and 2008. Controls (N = 387) were recruited from state birth registries, frequency matched for sex, region, year of birth, and birth weight. Data on congenital abnormalities among subjects and covariates were obtained by maternal telephone interview. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) describing the association between congenital abnormalities with HB, adjusted for sex, birth weight, maternal age and maternal education, were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. There was a significant association of HB with kidney, bladder, or sex organ abnormalities (OR = 4.75; 95% CI: 1.74-13) which appeared to be specific to kidney/bladder defects (OR = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.2-15.3) but not those of sex organs (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 0.37-4.1). Elevated but non-significant ORs were found for spina bifida or other spinal defects (OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 0.39-11.7), large or multiple birthmarks (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 0.81-2.21). The results were validated through the Utah Population Database (UPDB), a statewide population-based registry linking birth certificates, medical records, and cancer diagnoses. In the UPDB, there were 29 cases and 290 population controls matched 10:1 on sex and birth year. Consistent with the COG findings, kidney/bladder defects were associated with hepatoblastoma. These results confirm the association of HB with kidney/bladder abnormalities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Adrenocortical carcinoma in children: first population-based clinicopathological study with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kerkhofs, T M A; Ettaieb, M H T; Verhoeven, R H A; Kaspers, G J L; Tissing, W J E; Loeffen, J; Van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; De Krijger, R R; Haak, H R

    2014-12-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is rare in both adult and pediatric populations. Literature suggests significant differences between children and adults in presentation, histological properties and outcome. The aim of this first nationwide study on pediatric ACC was to describe the incidence, presentation, pathological characteristics, treatment and survival in The Netherlands. All ACC patients aged <20 years at diagnosis and registered in the population-based Netherlands Cancer Registry between 1993 and 2010 were included. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. Archival histological slides were collected via the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA). We compared our findings to all clinical studies on pediatric ACC that were found on PubMed. Based on the results, 12 patients were identified: 8 females and 4 males. The median age was 4.1 years (range 1.1-18.6). The population-based age-standardized incidence rate for patients <20 years was 0.18 per million person-years. Autonomous hormonal secretion was present in 10 patients. Seven patients were aged ≤4 years at diagnosis, 5 presented with localized disease and 2 with locally advanced disease. Five patients were aged ≥5 years, 3 presented with distant metastases and 1 with locally advanced disease. For all patients, histological examination displayed malignant characteristics. All patients aged ≤4 years at diagnosis survived; the median follow-up was 97 months (57-179 months). All patients aged ≥5 years died; the median survival was 6 months (0-38 months). Pediatric ACC is extremely rare in the Western world. The clinical outcome was remarkably better in patients aged ≤4 years. This is in accordance with less advanced stage of disease at presentation, yet contrasts with the presence of adverse histological characteristics. Clinical management in advanced disease is adapted from adult practice in the absence of evidence regarding pediatric ACC.

  3. Multilocus typing and population structure of Cryptosporidium from children in Zaragoza, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ramo, Ana; Quílez, Joaquín; Vergara-Castiblanco, Claudia; Monteagudo, Luis; Del Cacho, Emilio; Clavel, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    A multilocus typing approach with eight variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci and the GP60 gene was used to analyze the inter- and intra-species variation of 44 Cryptosporidium isolates from pediatric patients in Zaragoza city (NE, Spain). Restriction and sequence analyses of the SSU rRNA gene revealed that Cryptosporidium transmission is mostly anthroponotic in this area, with the predominance of Cryptosporidium hominis (n: 41) over Cryptosporidium parvum (n: 3). GP60 subtyping showed limited genetic diversity and four subtypes were identified, including IbA10G2 (n: 35), IaA24R3 (n: 6), IIaA15G1R1 (n: 1) and IIaA15G2R1 (n: 2). Five out of eight VNTR loci showed a discriminatory power higher than the GP60 gene, although each locus had a predominant allele exhibited by more than 50% of isolates. All but four alleles were associated to either C. hominis or C. parvum and linked alleles at different loci were found. Multilocus typing substantially increased the discriminatory power (Hunter-Gaston index: 0.807, 95% CI, 0.683-0.926) and revealed that genetic diversity is much higher than that reported by GP60 sequencing, since 17 multilocus subtypes (MLTs) were identified. Nearly half of the specimens were allocated to a single major MLT. However, no more than three specimens were allocated to each of the remaining MLTs. Both phylogenetic and population analyses revealed a population clustering of C. hominis according to the GP60 subtype, which indicates the robustness of this marker to differentiate genetic subpopulations. Subpopulations had an overall clonal genetic structure, although traces of genetic flow between them were also observed.

  4. Academic Performance in Children of Mothers With Schizophrenia and Other Severe Mental Illness, and Risk for Subsequent Development of Psychosis: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ashleigh; Di Prinzio, Patsy; Young, Deidra; Jacoby, Peter; Whitehouse, Andrew; Waters, Flavie; Jablensky, Assen; Morgan, Vera A

    2017-01-01

    We examined the academic performance at age 12 years of children of mothers diagnosed with schizophrenia or other severe mental illness using a large whole-population birth cohort born in Western Australia. We investigated the association between academic performance and the subsequent development of psychotic illness. The sample comprised 3169 children of mothers with severe mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar major depression, delusional disorder or other psychoses; ICD-9 codes 295-298), and 88 353 children of comparison mothers without known psychiatric morbidity. Academic performance of children was indexed on a mandatory state-wide test of reading, spelling, writing and numeracy. A larger proportion of children (43.1%) of mothers with severe mental illness performed below the acceptable standard than the reference group (30.3%; children of mothers with no known severe mental illness). After adjusting for covariates, children of mothers with any severe mental illness were more likely than the reference group to perform below-benchmark on all domains except reading. For all children, poor spelling was associated with the later development of psychosis, but particularly for those at familial risk for severe mental illness (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.81; 95% CI for HR = 1.21, 2.72). Children of mothers with a severe mental illness are at increased risk for sub-standard academic achievement at age 12 years, placing these children at disadvantage for the transition to secondary school. For children with familial risk for severe mental illness, very poor spelling skills at age 12 years may be an indicator of risk for later psychotic disorder. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Visual-motor integration, visual perception, and fine motor coordination in a population of children with high levels of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Watkins, Rochelle E; Tsang, Tracey W; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2016-08-01

    Visual-motor integration (VMI) skills are essential for successful academic performance, but to date no studies have assessed these skills in a population-based cohort of Australian Aboriginal children who, like many children in other remote, disadvantaged communities, consistently underperform academically. Furthermore, many children in remote areas of Australia have prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which are often associated with VMI deficits. VMI, visual perception, and fine motor coordination were assessed using The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, including its associated subtests of Visual Perception and Fine Motor Coordination, in a cohort of predominantly Australian Aboriginal children (7.5-9.6 years, n=108) in remote Western Australia to explore whether PAE adversely affected test performance. Cohort results were reported, and comparisons made between children i) without PAE; ii) with PAE (no FASD); and iii) FASD. The prevalence of moderate (≤16th percentile) and severe (≤2nd percentile) impairment was established. Mean VMI scores were 'below average' (M=87.8±9.6), and visual perception scores were 'average' (M=97.6±12.5), with no differences between groups. Few children had severe VMI impairment (1.9%), but moderate impairment rates were high (47.2%). Children with FASD had significantly lower fine motor coordination scores and higher moderate impairment rates (M=87.9±12.5; 66.7%) than children without PAE (M=95.1±10.7; 23.3%) and PAE (no FASD) (M=96.1±10.9; 15.4%). Aboriginal children living in remote Western Australia have poor VMI skills regardless of PAE or FASD. Children with FASD additionally had fine motor coordination problems. VMI and fine motor coordination should be assessed in children with PAE, and included in FASD diagnostic assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro fermentation of B-GOS: impact on faecal bacterial populations and metabolic activity in autistic and non-autistic children

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Roberta; Cela, Drinalda; Swann, Jonathan R.; Vulevic, Jelena; Gibson, Glenn R.; Tzortzis, George; Costabile, Adele

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often suffer gastrointestinal problems consistent with imbalances in the gut microbial population. Treatment with antibiotics or pro/prebiotics has been postulated to regulate microbiota and improve gut symptoms, but there is a lack of evidence for such approaches, especially for prebiotics. This study assessed the influence of a prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) on gut microbial ecology and metabolic function using faecal samples from autistic and non-autistic children in an in vitro gut model system. Bacteriology was analysed using flow cytometry combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization and metabolic activity by HPLC and 1H-NMR. Consistent with previous studies, the microbiota of children with ASD contained a higher number of Clostridium spp. and a lower number of bifidobacteria compared with non-autistic children. B-GOS administration significantly increased bifidobacterial populations in each compartment of the models, both with autistic and non-autistic-derived samples, and lactobacilli in the final vessel of non-autistic models. In addition, changes in other bacterial population have been seen in particular for Clostridium, Rosburia, Bacteroides, Atopobium, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Sutterella spp. and Veillonellaceae. Furthermore, the addition of B-GOS to the models significantly altered short-chain fatty acid production in both groups, and increased ethanol and lactate in autistic children. PMID:27856622

  7. In vitro fermentation of B-GOS: impact on faecal bacterial populations and metabolic activity in autistic and non-autistic children.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Roberta; Cela, Drinalda; Swann, Jonathan R; Vulevic, Jelena; Gibson, Glenn R; Tzortzis, George; Costabile, Adele

    2017-02-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often suffer gastrointestinal problems consistent with imbalances in the gut microbial population. Treatment with antibiotics or pro/prebiotics has been postulated to regulate microbiota and improve gut symptoms, but there is a lack of evidence for such approaches, especially for prebiotics. This study assessed the influence of a prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) on gut microbial ecology and metabolic function using faecal samples from autistic and non-autistic children in an in vitro gut model system. Bacteriology was analysed using flow cytometry combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization and metabolic activity by HPLC and (1)H-NMR. Consistent with previous studies, the microbiota of children with ASD contained a higher number of Clostridium spp. and a lower number of bifidobacteria compared with non-autistic children. B-GOS administration significantly increased bifidobacterial populations in each compartment of the models, both with autistic and non-autistic-derived samples, and lactobacilli in the final vessel of non-autistic models. In addition, changes in other bacterial population have been seen in particular for Clostridium, Rosburia, Bacteroides, Atopobium, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Sutterella spp. and Veillonellaceae. Furthermore, the addition of B-GOS to the models significantly altered short-chain fatty acid production in both groups, and increased ethanol and lactate in autistic children. © FEMS 2016.

  8. Changes in Psychiatric Problems and Service Use among 8-Year-Old Children: A 16-Year Population-Based Time-Trend Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Santalahti, Paivi; Helenius, Hans; Piha, Jorma

    2008-01-01

    A study comparing population samples from 1989, 1999 and 2005 were used to investigate changes in emotional and behavioral problems in 8-year-old children and their use and need of mental health services. Results show an increase in self-reported depressive symptoms among girls and a continuous increase in using of the services in which school…