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Sample records for children undergoing cardiopulmonary

  1. Acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Scott A; Zaccagni, Hayden; Bichell, David P; Christian, Karla G; Mettler, Bret A; Donahue, Brian S; Roberts, L Jackson; Pretorius, Mias

    2014-07-01

    Hemolysis, occurring during cardiopulmonary bypass, is associated with lipid peroxidation and postoperative acute kidney injury. Acetaminophen inhibits lipid peroxidation catalyzed by hemeproteins and in an animal model attenuated rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Single-center prospective randomized double-blinded study. University-affiliated pediatric hospital. Thirty children undergoing elective surgical correction of a congenital heart defect. Patients were randomized to acetaminophen (OFIRMEV [acetaminophen] injection; Cadence Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) or placebo every 6 hours for four doses starting before the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass. Markers of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation (isofurans and F2-isoprostanes), and acute kidney injury were measured throughout the perioperative period. Cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with a significant increase in free hemoglobin (from a prebypass level of 9.8 ± 6.2 mg/dL to a peak of 201.5 ± 42.6 mg/dL postbypass). Plasma and urine isofuran and F2-isoprostane concentrations increased significantly during surgery. The magnitude of increase in plasma isofurans was greater than the magnitude in increase in plasma F2-isoprostanes. Acetaminophen attenuated the increase in plasma isofurans compared with placebo (p = 0.02 for effect of study drug). There was no significant effect of acetaminophen on plasma F2-isoprostanes or urinary makers of lipid peroxidation. Acetaminophen did not affect postoperative creatinine, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, or prevalence of acute kidney injury. Cardiopulmonary bypass in children is associated with hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Acetaminophen attenuated the increase in plasma isofuran concentrations. Future studies are needed to establish whether other therapies that attenuate or prevent the effects of free

  2. Acetaminophen Attenuates Lipid Peroxidation in Children Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Scott A.; Zaccagni, Hayden; Bichell, David P.; Christian, Karla G.; Mettler, Bret A.; Donahue, Brian S.; Roberts, L. Jackson; Pretorius, Mias

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hemolysis, occurring during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), is associated with lipid peroxidation and postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Acetaminophen (ApAP) inhibits lipid peroxidation catalyzed by hemeproteins and in an animal model attenuated rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that ApAP attenuates lipid peroxidation in children undergoing CPB. Design Single center prospective randomized double blinded study. Setting University-affiliated pediatric hospital. Patients Thirty children undergoing elective surgical correction of a congenital heart defect. Interventions Patients were randomized to ApAP (OFIRMEV® (acetaminophen) injection, Cadence Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) or placebo every 6 hours for 4 doses starting before the onset of CPB. Measurement and Main Results Markers of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation (isofurans and F2-isoprostanes) and AKI were measured throughout the perioperative period. CPB was associated with a significant increase in free hemoglobin (from a pre-bypass level of 9.8±6.2 mg/dl to a peak of 201.5±42.6 mg/dl post-bypass). Plasma and urine isofuran and F2-isoprostane concentrations increased significantly during surgery. The magnitude of increase in plasma isofurans was greater than the magnitude in increase in plasma F2-isoprostanes. ApAP attenuated the increase in plasma isofurans compared to placebo (P=0.02 for effect of study drug). There was no significant effect of ApAP on plasma F2-isoprostanes or urinary makers of lipid peroxidation. ApAP did not affect postoperative creatinine, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin or prevalence of AKI. Conclusion CPB in children is associated with hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. ApAP attenuated the increase in plasma isofuran concentrations. Future studies are needed to establish whether other therapies that attenuate or prevent the effects of free hemoglobin result in more effective inhibition of lipid peroxidation in patients

  3. Interhospital Transport of Children Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Practical and Ethical Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Noje, Corina; Fishe, Jennifer N; Costabile, Philomena M; Klein, Bruce L; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Pronovost, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    To discuss risks and benefits of interhospital transport of children in cardiac arrest undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Narrative review. Not applicable. Transporting children in cardiac arrest with ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation between hospitals is potentially lifesaving if it enables access to resources such as extracorporeal support, but may risk transport personnel safety. Research is needed to optimize outcomes of patients transported with ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation and reduce risks to the staff caring for them.

  4. Continuous or discontinuous tranexamic acid effectively inhibits fibrinolysis in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Roland; Rubatti, Marina; Credico, Carmen; Louvain-Quintard, Virginie; Anerkian, Vregina; Doubine, Sylvie; Vasse, Marc; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas

    2014-04-01

    Tranexamic acid is given continuously or discontinuously as an anti-fibrinolytic therapy during cardiac surgery, but the effects on fibrinolysis parameters remain poorly investigated. We sought to assess the effects of continuous and discontinuous tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis parameters in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Children requiring cardiac surgery or repeat surgery by sternotomy with CPB for congenital heart disease were randomized to receive either continuous or discontinuous tranexamic acid. Blood tranexamic acid, D-dimers, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), tPA-plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (tPA-PAI1) complexes, fibrinogen and fibrin monomers were measured and compared to values obtained from children who did not receive tranexamic acid. Tranexamic acid inhibited the CPB-induced increase in D-dimers, with a similar potency between continuous and discontinuous regimens. Time courses for tPA, fibrin monomers, and fibrinogen were also similar for both regimen, and there was a significant difference in tPA-PAI1 complex concentrations at the end of surgery, which may be related to a significantly higher tranexamic acid concentration. Continuous and discontinuous regimen are suitable for an effective inhibition of fibrinolysis in children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB, but the continuous regimen was previously shown to be more effective to maintain stable tranexamic acid concentrations.

  5. Predictors of postoperative bleeding in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: A preliminary Italian study.

    PubMed

    Spiezia, Luca; Di Gregorio, Guido; Campello, Elena; Maggiolo, Sara; Bortolussi, Giacomo; Stellin, Giovanni; Simioni, Paolo; Vida, Vladimiro

    2017-05-01

    Several characteristics such as demographics, pre-existing conditions, surgical procedure, perioperative coagulopathy may predispose children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to bleeding complications. As yet, studies on risk factors for postoperative bleeding have brought mixed results. The purpose of our study was therefore to retrospectively evaluate the parameters able to predict postoperative bleeding in a group of consecutive children undergoing cardiac surgery involving CPB. We collected demographic and perioperative laboratory data, as well as intraoperative transfusion requirements and blood loss during the first 24h after surgery in a group of consecutive children (aged ≥1month) scheduled for cardiac surgery with CPB at Padua University Hospital between June 2014 and April 2015. Cases were patients who experienced a 24-h postoperative blood loss ≥80th percentile. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent parameters associated with a high 24-h postoperative chest tube drainage volume. Eighty-three children (M:F 38:45; age range 1-168months) were enrolled. Age<7.7months (p 0.015), postoperative platelets <109×10(9)/L (p 0.003) and postoperative D-dimer ≥2350μg/L (p 0.007) were the variables most significantly and independently associated with excessive 24-h postoperative blood loss. Although preliminary, our study identified younger age, lower postoperative platelet count and higher D-dimer plasma levels as possible risk factors for postoperative bleeding. As for coagulation parameters, our results suggested consumptive coagulopathy might cause a strong predisposition to postoperative bleeding in children. Large-scale prospective studies would provide insight into the early diagnosis and treatment of CPB-related coagulopathies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of recombinant coagulation factor VIIa in uncontrolled postoperative bleeding in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Pychyńska-Pokorska, Magdalena; Moll, Jacek Jan; Krajewski, Wojciech; Jarosik, Piotr

    2004-05-01

    To assess the hemostatic efficacy of recombinant coagulation factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in the management of uncontrolled bleeding in postcardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in children. An open-label study. A postoperative intensive care unit. Eight consecutive pediatric patients with excessive bleeding after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass that met the criteria for reexploration and did not respond to optimal transfusions of platelets and fresh frozen plasma. rFVIIa 30 microg/kg was given as a bolus injection. A higher dose of 60 microg/kg was used if a patient had preoperative coagulopathy, preoperative multiple-organ failure, or indications that required an emergency operation. The same dose was repeated 15 mins after the previous injection if the bleeding had not decreased. If the bleeding had decreased but still exceeded 10 mL/hr for body weight 5 kg, the same dose was repeated 2 hrs after the previous injection. A maximum of four doses could be given before rFVIIa was considered ineffective and a reexploration was needed. Postoperative blood loss was estimated from the volume of chest tube drainage. rFVIIa successfully controlled bleeding and prevented reexploration in all seven patients who received treatment according to the protocol. One patient who received only one dose of rFVIIa required reexploration because a second dose was not available. No adverse events related to rFVIIa were seen. rFVIIa may be useful in preventing reexploration in uncontrolled postoperative bleeding in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of rFVIIa in this clinical setting.

  7. Triiodothyronine Supplementation in Infants and Children Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass (TRICC) A Multicenter Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial: Age Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Portman, Michael A.; Slee, April; Olson, Aaron K.; Cohen, Gordon; Karl, Tom; Tong, Elizabeth; Hastings, Laura; Patel, Hitendra; Reinhartz, Olaf; Mott, Antonio R.; Mainwaring, Richard; Linam, Justin; Danzi, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Background Triiodothyronine levels decrease in infants and children after cardiopulmonary bypass. We tested the primary hypothesis that triiodothyronine (T3) repletion is safe in this population and produces improvements in postoperative clinical outcome. Methods and Results The TRICC study was a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in children younger than 2 years old undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Enrollment was stratified by surgical diagnosis. Time to extubation (TTE) was the primary outcome. Patients received intravenous T3 as Triostat (n=98) or placebo (n=95), and data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards. Overall, TTE was similar between groups. There were no differences in adverse event rates, including arrhythmia. Prespecified analyses showed a significant interaction between age and treatment (P=0.0012). For patients younger than 5 months, the hazard ratio (chance of extubation) for Triostat was 1.72. (P=0.0216). Placebo median TTE was 98 hours with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 71 to 142 compared to Triostat TTE at 55 hours with CI of 44 to 92. TTE shortening corresponded to a reduction in inotropic agent use and improvement in cardiac function. For children 5 months of age, or older, Triostat produced a significant delay in median TTE: 16 hours (CI, 7–22) for placebo and 20 hours (CI, 16–45) for Triostat and (hazard ratio, 0.60; P=0.0220). Conclusions T3 supplementation is safe. Analyses using age stratification indicate that T3 supplementation provides clinical advantages in patients younger than 5 months and no benefit for those older than 5 months. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00027417. PMID:20837917

  8. Effects of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Renal Perfusion, Filtration, and Oxygenation in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lannemyr, Lukas; Bragadottir, Gudrun; Krumbholz, Vitus; Redfors, Bengt; Sellgren, Johan; Ricksten, Sven-Erik

    2017-02-01

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The authors evaluated the effects of normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass on renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renal oxygen consumption, and renal oxygen supply/demand relationship, i.e., renal oxygenation (primary outcome) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Eighteen patients with a normal preoperative serum creatinine undergoing cardiac surgery procedures with normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (2.5 l · min · m) were included after informed consent. Systemic and renal hemodynamic variables were measured by pulmonary artery and renal vein catheters before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Arterial and renal vein blood samples were taken for measurements of renal oxygen delivery and consumption. Renal oxygenation was estimated from the renal oxygen extraction. Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase was measured before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Cardiopulmonary bypass induced a renal vasoconstriction and redistribution of blood flow away from the kidneys, which in combination with hemodilution decreased renal oxygen delivery by 20%, while glomerular filtration rate and renal oxygen consumption were unchanged. Thus, renal oxygen extraction increased by 39 to 45%, indicating a renal oxygen supply/demand mismatch during cardiopulmonary bypass. After weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, renal oxygenation was further impaired due to hemodilution and an increase in renal oxygen consumption, accompanied by a seven-fold increase in the urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase/creatinine ratio. Cardiopulmonary bypass impairs renal oxygenation due to renal vasoconstriction and hemodilution during and after cardiopulmonary bypass, accompanied by increased release of a tubular injury marker.

  9. Splitting blood and blood product packaging reduces donor exposure for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Nuszkowski, M M; Jonas, R A; Zurakowski, D; Deutsch, N

    2015-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass for congenital heart surgery requires packed red cells (PRBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to be available, both for priming of the circuit as well as to replace blood loss. This study examines the hypothesis that splitting one unit of packed red blood cells and one unit of fresh frozen plasma into two half units reduces blood product exposure and wastage in the Operating Room. Beginning August 2013, the blood bank at Children's National Medical Center began splitting one unit of packed red blood cells (PRBC) and one unit of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The 283 patients who utilized CPB during calendar year 2013 were divided into 2 study groups: before the split and after the split. The principal endpoints were blood product usage and donor exposure intra-operatively and within 72 hours post-operatively. There was a significant decrease in median total donor exposures for FFP and cryoprecipitate from 5 to 4 per case (p = 0.007, Mann-Whitney U-test). However, there was no difference in the volume of blood and blood products used; in fact, there was a significant increase in the amount of FFP that was wasted with the switch to splitting the unit of FFP. We found that modification of blood product packaging can decrease donor exposure. Future investigation is needed as to how to modify packaging to minimize wastage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Factors affecting postoperative blood loss in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Faraoni, David; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2014-02-11

    We hypothesized that the influence of cyanotic disease on postoperative blood loss is closely related to age in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of a cyanotic disease is associated with increased postoperative blood loss in children aged 1 to 6 months. Children with cyanotic disease and aged<1 month who received fresh frozen plasma during cardiopulmonary bypass had less postoperative blood loss and higher maximal clot firmness on FIBTEM than cyanotic children from all other groups. Additional studies are needed to define optimal pathophysiology-based management in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

  11. Cardiopulmonary Fitness and Endurance in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng K.; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Cairney, John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiopulmonary fitness and endurance in 9-11-year-old children with DCD against a group of typically developing children in Taiwan. The Movement ABC test was used to evaluate the motor abilities of children. Forty-one participants (20 children with DCD and 21 children without DCD) were recruited for this…

  12. Cardiopulmonary Fitness and Endurance in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng K.; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Cairney, John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiopulmonary fitness and endurance in 9-11-year-old children with DCD against a group of typically developing children in Taiwan. The Movement ABC test was used to evaluate the motor abilities of children. Forty-one participants (20 children with DCD and 21 children without DCD) were recruited for this…

  13. Remote ischemic preconditioning in cyanosed neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryn O; Pepe, Salvatore; Sheeran, Freya L; Donath, Susan; Hardy, Pollyanna; Shekerdemian, Lara; Penny, Daniel J; McKenzie, Ian; Horton, Stephen; Brizard, Christian P; d'Udekem, Yves; Konstantinov, Igor E; Cheung, Michael M H

    2013-12-01

    The myocardial protective effect of remote ischemic preconditioning has been demonstrated in heterogeneous groups of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. No studies have examined this technique in neonates. The present study was performed to examine the remote ischemic preconditioning efficacy in this high-risk patient group. A preliminary, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to investigate whether remote ischemic preconditioning in cyanosed neonates undergoing cardiac surgery confers protection against cardiopulmonary bypass. Two groups of neonates undergoing cardiac surgery were recruited for the present study: patients with transposition of the great arteries undergoing the arterial switch procedure and patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome undergoing the Norwood procedure. The subjects were randomized to the remote ischemic preconditioning or sham control groups. Remote ischemic preconditioning was induced by four 5-minute cycles of lower limb ischemia and reperfusion using a blood pressure cuff. Troponin I and the biomarkers for renal and cerebral injury were measured pre- and postoperatively. A total of 39 neonates were recruited-20 with transposition of the great arteries and 19 with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Of the 39 neonates, 20 were randomized to remote ischemic preconditioning and 19 to the sham control group. The baseline demographics appeared similar between the randomized groups. The cardiopulmonary bypass and crossclamp times were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The troponin I levels were not significantly different at 6 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass nor were the postoperative inotrope requirements. Markers of renal (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) and cerebral injury (S100b, neuron-specific enolase) were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Our data suggest that remote ischemic preconditioning in hypoxic neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery does not provide

  14. Methylprednisolone in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (SIRS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Richard P; Devereaux, P J; Teoh, Kevin H; Lamy, Andre; Vincent, Jessica; Pogue, Janice; Paparella, Domenico; Sessler, Daniel I; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Villar, Juan Carlos; Zuo, Yunxia; Avezum, Álvaro; Quantz, Mackenzie; Tagarakis, Georgios I; Shah, Pallav J; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Zheng, Hong; Pettit, Shirley; Chrolavicius, Susan; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-09-26

    Cardiopulmonary bypass initiates a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Steroids suppress inflammatory responses and might improve outcomes in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. We aimed to assess the effects of steroids in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. The Steroids In caRdiac Surgery (SIRS) study is a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. We used a central computerised phone or interactive web system to randomly assign (1:1) patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality from 80 hospital or cardiac surgery centres in 18 countries undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to receive either methylprednisolone (250 mg at anaesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients were assigned with block randomisation with random block sizes of 2, 4, or 6 and stratified by centre. Patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had a European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation of at least 6. Patients were excluded if they were taking or expected to receive systemic steroids in the immediate postoperative period or had a history of bacterial or fungal infection in the preceding 30 days. Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and a composite of death and major morbidity (ie, myocardial injury, stroke, renal failure, or respiratory failure) within 30 days, both analysed by intention to treat. Safety outcomes were also analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00427388. Patients were recruited between June 21, 2007, and Dec 19, 2013. Complete 30-day data was available for all 7507 patients randomly assigned to methylprednisolone (n=3755) and to placebo (n=3752). Methylprednisolone, compared

  15. Perioperative Intravenous Acetaminophen Attenuates Lipid Peroxidation in Adults Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Billings IV, Frederic T.; Petracek, Michael R.; Roberts II, L. Jackson; Pretorius, Mias

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) lyses erythrocytes and induces lipid peroxidation, indicated by increasing plasma concentrations of free hemoglobin, F2-isoprostanes, and isofurans. Acetaminophen attenuates hemeprotein-mediated lipid peroxidation, reduces plasma and urine concentrations of F2-isoprostanes, and preserves kidney function in an animal model of rhabdomyolysis. Acetaminophen also attenuates plasma concentrations of isofurans in children undergoing CPB. The effect of acetaminophen on lipid peroxidation in adults has not been studied. This was a pilot study designed to test the hypothesis that acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing CPB and to generate data for a clinical trial aimed to reduce acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery. Methods and Results In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, sixty adult patients were randomized to receive intravenous acetaminophen or placebo starting prior to initiation of CPB and for every 6 hours for 4 doses. Acetaminophen concentrations measured 30 min into CPB and post-CPB were 11.9±0.6 μg/mL (78.9±3.9 μM) and 8.7±0.3 μg/mL (57.6±2.0 μM), respectively. Plasma free hemoglobin increased more than 15-fold during CPB, and haptoglobin decreased 73%, indicating hemolysis. Plasma and urinary markers of lipid peroxidation also increased during CPB but returned to baseline by the first postoperative day. Acetaminophen reduced plasma isofuran concentrations over the duration of the study (P = 0.05), and the intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that corresponded to peak hemolysis were attenuated in those subjects randomized to acetaminophen (P = 0.03). Perioperative acetaminophen did not affect plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes or urinary markers of lipid peroxidation. Conclusions Intravenous acetaminophen attenuates the increase in intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that occurs during CPB, while urinary markers were unaffected

  16. [Risk factors associated with postoperative acute renal failure in pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Flandes, Elsa Nohemí; Herrera-Landero, Alejandro; Bobadilla-González, Pascual; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a complication associated with cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with an impact on morbidity and mortality. To identify risk factors associated with postoperative IRA according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease scale in children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. A nested case-control study was conducted. We included children under 16 years of age attended postoperative for CBP in a pediatric intensive care unit over a period of 18 months. The cases were those who developed ARF according to the classification pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease scale during their stay in the pediatric intensive care unit. Controls were those who did not develop this complication. Logistic regression analysis was performed and adjusted odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals at 95% (95% CI) were calculated. 91 patients (31 cases and 60 controls) with a median age of 20 months and predominance of males (53.8%) were analyzed. Independent risk factors for ARF were the intraoperative lactate level > 6 mmol/l (OR = 4.91; 95% CI 1.26-19.05; p = .02) and cyanotic heart disease (OR = 3.62; 95% CI 1.11-11.63; p = .03). This study identified that pediatric patients with lactate levels >6 mmol/l during CPB and those with cyanotic congenital heart disease are a subgroup of high risk to develop ARF after heart surgery and should be closely monitored to prevent, detect and/or treat this complication timely manner.

  17. The Sunflower Cardiopulmonary Research Project of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Leon

    A three year project designed to determine the value of a health program incorporating a cardiopulmonary fitness program is described. The instructional programs were in heart health, pulmonary health, nutrition, and physical fitness. A noncompetitive exercise and fitness period was employed in addition to the normal physical education time.…

  18. The quantitative and qualitative responses of platelets in pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Vera; Than, Jenny; Summerhayes, Robyn; Newall, Fiona; Horton, Steve; Cochrane, Andrew; Monagle, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This prospective, single-center study aimed to evaluate the platelet response during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery in a large cohort of children up to 6 years of age. Blood samples were drawn at four time points: after induction of anesthesia, after initiation of the CPB, before protamine, and immediately after chest closure. The study recruited 60 children requiring CPB for surgical repair of congenital heart defects. The platelet count decreased throughout CPB surgery, but during the same period, platelet activity increased. The more pronounced decrease in platelet count observed in children younger than 1 year compared with that of children 1 to 6 years of age was not associated with an age-specific change in platelet activity. The overall increase in platelet function observed in this study could provide a mechanism that compensates for the decrease in platelet count. This study provides a new foundation for future studies investigating requirements of platelet supplementation in the setting of pediatric CPB surgery.

  19. Technical aspects of anesthesia and cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing totally thoracoscopic cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zong-Wang; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Li, Chang-Ying; Ma, Long-Le; Wang, Le-Xin

    2012-04-01

    The use of fast-track general anesthesia in patients undergoing nonrobotically assisted and totally thoracoscopic cardiac surgeries has not been previously reported previously. A prospective clinical study. A university hospital. Ninety-six patients (41 males; mean age, 13.2 ± 6.2 years; range, 5-47 years). Nonrobotically assisted totally thoracoscopic surgeries were performed for atrial (n = 58) or ventricular septal defect (n = 32), tetralogy of Fallot (n = 2), left atrial myxoma (n = 3), and pulmonary valve stenosis (n = 1). Fast-track general anesthesia was induced with midazolam, propofol, fentanyl, and vecuronium and was maintained with remifentanil and sevoflurane. Cardiopulmonary bypass was established peripherally through the femoral vein and artery. All surgeries were successful. There were no perioperative mortality or major complications. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 42 ± 21 minutes and 33 ± 8 minutes, respectively. In 82 cases, the heart regained beats automatically after the release of the aortic cross-clamp, whereas in 14 patients external defibrillation was required. Extubation was conducted in 32 patients (33.3%) in the operating room 15 minutes after the operation. The mean times of mechanical ventilation and stay in the intensive care unit were 1.5 ± 0.2 hours and 20.1 ±1.2 hours, respectively. Cardiopulmonary bypass for totally thoracoscopic cardiac surgery can be established through the femoral artery and femoral vein. With fast-track anesthesia, early extubation in the operating room can be achieved in more than one third of patients. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A randomised controlled trial of roller versus centrifugal cardiopulmonary bypass pumps in patients undergoing pulmonary endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Mlejnsky, F; Klein, A A; Lindner, J; Maruna, P; Kvasnicka, J; Kvasnicka, T; Zima, T; Pecha, O; Lips, M; Rulisek, J; Porizka, M; Kopecky, P; Kunstyr, J

    2015-10-01

    There is some controversy as to whether there is a benefit from the use of a centrifugal pump compared with a roller pump during cardiopulmonary bypass to facilitate cardiac surgery. We compared the two pumps, with the primary aim of determining any difference in the effects on inflammation after pulmonary endarterectomy surgery which required prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Between September 2010 and July 2013, 58 elective patients undergoing pulmonary endarterectomy were included in this prospective, randomised, controlled study; 30 patients were randomly allocated to the control group, which used a roller pump, and 28 patients to the treatment group, which used a centrifugal pump. Interleukin-6, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, thromboelastographic parameters, P-selectin, international normalised ratio, activated prothrombin time, free haemoglobin, haematocrit, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, platelet count and protein S100β were recorded during and after the procedure. We also recorded the length of intensive care unit stay, blood loss and transfusion, neurological outcomes and respiratory and renal failure. There was a significant difference in the primary outcome measure: Interleukin-6 was significantly higher in the roller pump group (587 ± 38 ng · l(-1) vs. 327 ± 37 ng · l(-1); p<0.001) 24 hours after surgery, which we interpreted as an increased inflammatory response. This was confirmed by a significant rise in the procalcitonin level in the roller pump group 48 hours following surgery (0.79 (0.08-25.25) ng · ml(-1) vs. 0.36 (0.02-5.83) ng · ml(-1); p<0.05). There were, however, no significant differences in clinical outcome data. We have shown that the use of a centrifugal pump during prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is associated with a reduced inflammatory response compared to the standard roller pump. Larger multi-centre trials in this area of

  1. Increased circulating bradykinin during hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass in children.

    PubMed

    Pang, L M; Stalcup, S A; Lipset, J S; Hayes, C J; Bowman, F O; Mellins, R B

    1979-12-01

    To determine whether cold could activate the kallikrein-kinin system in vivo as it does in vitro, the circulating systemic concentrations of bradykinin were serially measured in 10 cyildren with congenital diseases of the heart undergoing corrective cardiac surgery. Bradykinin was measured by radioimmunoassay in blood samples obtained before, during and after profound hypothermia (to 18 degrees C) and cardiopulmonary bypass. The circulating concentrations of bradykinin increased significantly as body temperature decreased during surface cooling. The increase in circulating bradykinin was associated with a decrease in the circulating level of bradykininogen, the precursor of bradykinin. With the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass and hence, removal of the lung and pulmonary converting enzyme from the circulation, there was a further rise in the already elevated concentrations of bradykinin. This is the first in vivo demonstration that hypothermia leads to an increase in the circulating concentrations of bradykinin.

  2. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures in children

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Cristiana Araújo G.; Balbino, Flávia Simphronio; Balieiro, Maria Magda F. G.; Mandetta, Myriam Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify literature evidences related to actions to promote family's presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures in children hospitalized in pediatric and neonatal critical care units. Data sources : Integrative literature review in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, from 2002 to 2012, with the following inclusion criteria: research article in Medicine, or Nursing, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, using the keywords "family", "invasive procedures", "cardiopulmonary resuscitation", "health staff", and "Pediatrics". Articles that did not refer to the presence of the family in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures were excluded. Therefore, 15 articles were analyzed. Data synthesis : Most articles were published in the United States (80%), in Medicine and Nursing (46%), and were surveys (72%) with healthcare team members (67%) as participants. From the critical analysis, four themes related to the actions to promote family's presence in invasive procedures and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were obtained: a) to develop a sensitizing program for healthcare team; b) to educate the healthcare team to include the family in these circumstances; c) to develop a written institutional policy; d) to ensure the attendance of family's needs. Conclusions: Researches on these issues must be encouraged in order to help healthcare team to modify their practice, implementing the principles of the Patient and Family Centered Care model, especially during critical episodes. PMID:24676198

  3. Effects of sevoflurane on cardiopulmonary function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Wang, S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate effects of sevoflurane on cardiopulmonary function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In this study, 60 cases of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were selected and randomly divided into the sevoflurane group (group S) and the control group C (group C) with 30 cases in each group. The two groups received intravenous anesthesia. The patients of group C were only given oxygen mask and physiological saline to keep vein open; while the patients of group S were administered with 1% sevoflurane immediately after the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) until the end of the treatment. The cardiopulmonary functions at 30 min before operation (T0), postoperative 2 h (T1), 6h (T2), 24h (T3) and 48 (T4) were observed. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) of the group S at T1, T2, T3 was lower than that of the group C, as were the heart rate (HR) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) during T1 to T4 in the group S was less than that of the group C, and there were significant differences between the two groups (P less than 0.05). The tidal volume (Vt), vital capacity (Vc) and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) of the two groups during T1 and T2 were decreased, while respiratory frequency (RR) and alveolar-arterial blood oxygen partial pressure (PA-aO2) were increased and they began to decrease during T3 and T4. Vt and Vc of the group S were higher during T1 and T2 periods than those of the group C, while RR was lower than that of the group C; PaO2 / FiO2 during T1 to T4 period of group S was higher than that of group C, while PA-aO2 was significantly lower than that of the control group (P less than 0.05). In conclusion, although LVEF was not improved in the sevoflurane group, sevoflurane may contribute to stabilizing the cardiopulmonary function and preventing from myocardial injury.

  4. RNase alleviates neurological dysfunction in mice undergoing cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ye; Chen, Chan; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Qiao; Chen, Hai; Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Yan; Niu, Zhendong; Zhu, Tao; Yu, Hai; Liu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the leading lethal factors. Despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure has been consecutively improved and lots of new strategies have been developed, neurological outcome of the patients experienced CPR is still disappointing. Ribonuclease (RNase) has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects in acute stroke and postoperative cognitive impairment, possibly through acting against endogenous RNA that released from damaged tissue. However, the role of RNase in post-cardiac arrest cerebral injury is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of RNase in neurological outcome of mice undergoing 5 minutes of CA and followed by CPR. RNase or the same dosage of normal saline was administrated. We found that RNase administration could: 1) improve neurologic score on day 1 and day 3 after CA/CPR performance; 2) improve memory and learning ability on day 3 after training in contextual fear-conditioning test; 3) reduce extracellular RNA (exRNA) level in plasma and hippocampus tissue, and hippocampal cytokines mRNA production on day 3 after CA/CPR procedure; 4) attenuate autophagy levels in hippocampus tissue on day 3 after CA/CPR procedure. In conclusion, RNase could improve neurological function by reducing inflammation response and autophagy in mice undergoing CA/CPR. PMID:28881795

  5. Inter-individual differences in cytokine release in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Roth-Isigkeit, A; Hasselbach, L; Ocklitz, E; Brückner, S; Ros, A; Gehring, H; Schmucker, P; Rink, L; Seyfarth, M

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) leads to a systemic inflammatory response with secretion of cytokines (e.g. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and sIL-2R). The objective of the following study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo cytokine responses and white blood cell counts (WBC) of patients with high versus low cytokine secretion after a coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedure. Twenty male patients undergoing elective CABG surgery with CPB under general anaesthesia were enrolled in the study. On the day of surgery (postoperatively), serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly higher in patients of the high IL-6 level group compared to the respective values in the patient group with low IL-6 levels. The inter-individual differences in IL-6 release in patients undergoing CABG surgery with CPB were accompanied by differences in the release of other cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and sIL-2R. To understand whether genetic background plays a role in influencing cytokine plasma levels under surgical stress, we examined the distribution of polymorphic elements within the promoter regions of the TNF-α and IL-6 genes, and determined their genotype regarding the BAT2 gene and TNF-β intron polymorphisms. Our preliminary data suggests that regulatory polymorphisms in or near the TNF locus, more precisely the allele set 140/150 of the BAT2 microsatellite marker combined with the G allele at −308 of the TNF-α gene, could be one of the genetic constructions providing for a less sensitive response to various stimuli. Our results suggest: (1) close relationships between cytokine release in the postoperative period, and (2) inter-individually varying patterns of cytokine release in patients undergoing CABG surgery with CPB. PMID:11472429

  6. Albumin versus crystalloid prime solution for cardiopulmonary bypass in young children.

    PubMed

    Riegger, Lori Q; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Kulik, Thomas J; Malviya, Shobha; Tait, Alan R; Mosca, Ralph S; Bove, Edward L

    2002-12-01

    To determine the effects of adding 5% albumin to the cardiopulmonary bypass prime on perioperative fluid status and fluid management in young children. Prospective randomized study. Single university hospital. Pediatric patients of <14 kg undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients received a 5% albumin prime or a crystalloid prime. Perioperative fluid intake, output, and daily weights were recorded. Serial hematocrits, colloid osmotic pressures, and serum albumins were measured. Outcomes and complications were documented. There were 86 patients aged 3 days to 4 yrs; 44 patients had an albumin prime and 42 had a crystalloid prime. Patients in the albumin group had a net negative fluid balance at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass compared with a net positive fluid balance in the crystalloid group. Patients in the albumin group had significantly higher serum albumins and colloid osmotic pressures and gained less weight postoperatively. However, their hematocrits were lower, and more patients in the albumin group received packed red blood cells. By 24 hrs postoperatively, there were no differences in colloid osmotic pressures and hematocrits between groups, and by the fourth postoperative day, there was no difference in weight gain. No differences were found in length of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit or hospital stay, complications, or mortality. Albumin in the prime may attenuate the extravasation of fluid out of the vascular space, but it may be associated with an increased transfusion rate. The risk/benefit ratio for this intervention warrants further study.

  7. Mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis in atrial tissue of patients undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Allen M.; Tucker, Kyle C.; Thomas, Amandine; Taylor, David J.R.; Jahania, Salik M.; Dabir, Reza; Pourpirali, Somayeh; Brown, Jamelle A.; Westbrook, David G.; Ballinger, Scott W.; Mentzer, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Mitophagy occurs during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and limits oxidative stress and injury. Mitochondrial turnover was assessed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Paired biopsies of right atrial appendage before initiation and after weaning from CPB were processed for protein analysis, mitochondrial DNA/nuclear DNA ratio (mtDNA:nucDNA ratio), mtDNA damage, mRNA, and polysome profiling. Mitophagy in the post-CPB samples was evidenced by decreased levels of mitophagy adapters NDP52 and optineurin in whole tissue lysate, decreased Opa1 long form, and translocation of Parkin to the mitochondrial fraction. PCR analysis of mtDNA comparing amplification of short vs. long segments of mtDNA revealed increased damage following cardiac surgery. Surprisingly, a marked increase in several mitochondria-specific protein markers and mtDNA:nucDNA ratio was observed, consistent with increased mitochondrial biogenesis. mRNA analysis suggested that mitochondrial biogenesis was traniscription independent and likely driven by increased translation of existing mRNAs. These findings demonstrate in humans that both mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis occur during cardiac surgery involving CPB. We suggest that mitophagy is balanced by mitochondrial biogenesis during I/R stress experienced during surgery. Mitigating mtDNA damage and elucidating mechanisms regulating mitochondrial turnover will lead to interventions to improve outcome after I/R in the setting of heart disease. PMID:28239650

  8. Effect of Ultrafiltration on Pulmonary Function and Interleukins in Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Kosour, Carolina; Dragosavac, Desanka; Antunes, Nilson; Almeida de Oliveira, Rosmari Aparecida Rosa; Martins Oliveira, Pedro Paulo; Wilson Vieira, Reinaldo

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of ultrafiltration on interleukins, TNF-α levels, and pulmonary function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. University hospital. Forty patients undergoing CABG were randomized into a group assigned to receive ultrafiltration (UF) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or into another group (control) that underwent the same procedure but without ultrafiltration. Interleukins and TNF-α levels, pulmonary gas exchange, and ventilatory mechanics were measured in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods. Interleukins and TNF-α also were analyzed in the perfusate of the test group. There were increases in IL-6 and IL-8 at 30 minutes after CPB and 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours after surgery, along with an increase in TNF-α at 30 minutes after CPB and 24, 36, and 48 hours after surgery in both groups. IL-1 increased at 30 minutes after CPB and 12 hours after surgery, while IL-6 increased 24 and 36 hours after surgery in the UF group. The analysis of the ultrafiltrate showed the presence of TNF-α and traces of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. There were alterations in the oxygen index, alveolar-arterial oxygen difference, deadspace, pulmonary static compliance and airway resistance after anesthesia and sternotomy, as well as in airway resistance at 6 hours after surgery in both groups, with no difference between them. Ultrafiltration increased the serum level of IL-1 and IL-6, while it did not interfere with gas exchange and pulmonary mechanics in CABG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiopulmonary function and scoliosis severity in idiopathic scoliosis children

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Seokwon; Kim, Nam Kyun; Jung, Jo Won; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Hak Sun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Idiopathic scoliosis is a structural lateral curvature of the spine of unknown etiology. The relationship between degree of spine curvature and cardiopulmonary function has not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between scoliosis and cardiopulmonary characteristics. Methods Ninety children who underwent preoperative pulmonary or cardiac evaluation at a single spine institution over 41 months were included. They were divided into the thoracic-dominant scoliosis (group A, n=78) and lumbar-dominant scoliosis (group B, n=12) groups. Scoliosis severity was evaluated using the Cobb method. In each group, relationships between Cobb angles and cardiopulmonary markers such as forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary artery flow velocity, and tissue Doppler velocities (E/E', E'/A') were analyzed by correlation analysis linear regression. Results In group A, 72 patients (92.3%) underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and 41 (52.6%) underwent echocardiography. In group B, 9 patients (75.0%) underwent PFT and 8 (66.7%) underwent echocardiography. Cobb angles showed a significant negative correlation with FVC and FEV1 in group A (both P<0.05), but no such correlation in group B, and a significant negative correlation with mitral E/A ratio (P<0.05) and tissue Doppler E'/A' (P<0.05) in group A, with a positive correlation with mitral E/A ratio (P<0.05) in group B. Conclusion Pulmonary and cardiac function was significantly correlated with the degree of scoliosis in patients with thoracic-dominant scoliosis. Myocardial diastolic function might be impaired in patients with the most severe scoliosis. PMID:26213550

  10. Theophylline Population Pharmacokinetics and Dosing in Children Following Congenital Heart Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Frymoyer, Adam; Su, Felice; Grimm, Paul C; Sutherland, Scott M; Axelrod, David M

    2016-09-01

    Children undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) frequently develop acute kidney injury due to renal ischemia. Theophylline, which improves renal perfusion via adenosine receptor inhibition, is a potential targeted therapy. However, children undergoing cardiac surgery and CPB commonly have alterations in drug pharmacokinetics. To help understand optimal aminophylline (salt formulation of theophylline) dosing strategies in this population, a population-based pharmacokinetic model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) from 71 children (median age 5 months; 90% range 1 week to 10 years) who underwent cardiac surgery requiring CPB and received aminophylline as part of a previous randomized controlled trial. A 1-compartment model with linear elimination adequately described the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. Weight scaled via allometry was a significant predictor of clearance and volume. In addition, allometric scaled clearance increased with age implemented as a power maturation function. Compared to prior reports in noncardiac children, theophylline clearance was markedly reduced across age. In the final population pharmacokinetic model, optimized empiric dosing regimens were developed via Monte Carlo simulations. Doses 50% to 75% lower than those recommended in noncardiac children were needed to achieve target serum concentrations of 5 to 10 mg/L. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Comparative evaluation of blood salvage techniques in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Serdar; Robertson, Craig; Budak, Ali Baran; Gourlay, Terence

    2017-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to test and compare the efficacy of currently available intraoperative blood salvage systems via a demonstration of the level of increase in percentage concentration of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells 9WBC) and platelets (Plt) in the end product. In a prospective, randomized study, data of 80 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in a 6-month period was collected, of which the volume aspirated from the surgical field was processed by either the HemoSep Novel Collection Bag (Advancis Surgical, Kirkby-in-Ashfield, Notts, UK) (N=40) (Group 1) or a cell- saver (C.A.T.S Plus Autotransfusion System, Fresenius Kabi, Bad Homburg, Germany) (N=40) (Group 2). Hematocrit levels increased from 23.05%±2.7 to 43.02%±12 in Group 1 and from 24.5±2 up to 55.2±9 in Group 2 (p=0.013). The mean number of platelets rose to 225200±47000 from 116400 ±40000 in the HemoSep and decreased from 125200±25000 to 96500±30000 in the cell-saver group (p=0.00001). The leukocyte count was concentrated significantly better in Group 1 (from 10100±4300 to 18120±7000; p=0.001). IL-6 levels (pg/dL) decreased from 223±47 to 83±21 in Group 1 and from 219±40 to 200±40 in Group 2 (p=0.001). Fibrinogen was protected significantly better in the HemoSep group (from 185±35 to 455±45; p=0.004). Intraoperative blood salvage systems functioned properly and the resultant blood product was superior in terms of red blood cell species. The HemoSep group had significantly better platelet and leukocyte concentrations and fibrinogen content.

  12. Beating heart versus conventional cardiopulmonary bypass: the octopus experience: a randomized comparison of 281 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Diederik; Diephuis, Jan C; Nierich, Arno P; Keizer, Annemieke M A; Kalkman, Cor J

    2006-06-01

    In the Octopus Study, 281 coronary artery bypass surgery patients were randomized to surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. The primary objective was to compare cognitive outcome between off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Before and after surgery, psychologists administered a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests to the patients. Cognitive decline was defined as a decrease in an individual's performance of at least 20% from baseline, in at least 20% of the main variables. According to this definition, cognitive decline was present in 21% in the off-pump group and 29% in the on-pump group, 3 months after the procedure (P = .15). At 12 months, cognitive decline was present in 31% in the off-pump group and 34% in the on-pump group (P = .69). These results indicated that patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass had improved cognitive outcomes 3 months after the procedure, but the effects were limited and became negligible at 12 months. The same definition of cognitive decline was also applied to 112 volunteers not undergoing surgery. The definition labeled 28% of the control subjects as suffering from cognitive decline, 3 months after their first assessment. This suggests that the natural fluctuations in performance during repeated neuropsychological testing should be included in the statistical analysis of cognitive decline. Using an alternative definition of cognitive decline that takes these natural fluctuations in performance into account, the proportions of coronary artery bypass surgery patients displaying cognitive decline were substantially lower. This indicates that the incidence of cognitive decline after coronary artery bypass surgery has been overestimated.

  13. Hemolysis in Cardiac Surgery Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Review in Search of a Treatment Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Vercaemst, Leen

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Hemolysis is a fact in all extracorporeal circuits, as shown in various studies by the increasing levels of plasma-free hemoglobin (PfHb) and decreasing levels of haptoglobin during and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Beside complete red blood cell (RBC) destruction or hemolysis, RBCs can also be damaged on a sublethal level, resulting in altered rheological properties. Increased levels of free RBC constituents together with an exhaust of their scavengers result in a variety of serious clinical sequela, such as increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, altered coagulation profile, platelet dysfunction, renal tubular damage, and increased mortality. Sublethal RBC damage is characterized by decreased microperfusion and hypoxic RBCs, leading to end organ dysfunction caused by cellular ischemia. Isolated extracorporeal circuit components can be considered non-hemolytic if used according to recommendations, but extracorporeal circuit composition and management during CPB can still be optimized, avoiding cell damaging mechanical forces. Although most RBC destruction in standard CPB remains within the capacity of the endogenous clearing mechanisms, in some cases, levels of PfHb do substantially rise, and precautionary measures need to be taken. Higher degree of hemolysis can be expected in young children, after extensive surgery, and in prolonged support as in patients supported by ventricular assist devices (VADs) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). These patients are especially susceptible to the toxic influences of unscavenged RBC constituents and the loss of rheologic properties of the RBCs. Considering the high percentage of neurologic and renal sequela in post-cardiotomy patients, all imbalances possibly contributing to these morbidities should be focused on and prevented, if not treated. Considering the severity of the consequences of RBC damage, the high incidence of this complication, and especially the lack of interventional

  14. The effect of temperature management during cardiopulmonary bypass on neurologic and neuropsychologic outcomes in patients undergoing coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Mora, C T; Henson, M B; Weintraub, W S; Murkin, J M; Martin, T D; Craver, J M; Gott, J P; Guyton, R A

    1996-08-01

    Several studies suggest that normothermic ("warm") bypass techniques may improve myocardial outcomes for patients undergoing cardiac operations. Normothermic temperatures during cardiopulmonary bypass may, however, decrease the brain's tolerance to the ischemic insults that accompany all cardiac procedures. To assess the effect of bypass temperature management strategy on central nervous system outcomes in patients undergoing coronary revascularization, 138 patients were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: (1) hypothermia (n = 70), patients cooled to a temperature less than 28 degrees C during cardiopulmonary bypass, or (2) normothermia (n = 68), patients actively warmed to a temperature of at least 35 degrees C. Patients underwent detailed neurologic examination before the operation, on postoperative days 1 to 3 and 7 to 10, and at approximately 1 month after operation. In addition, a battery of five neuropsychologic tests was administered before operation, on postoperative days 7 to 10, and at the 4- to 6-week follow-up visit. Patients in the normothermic treatment group were older (65 +/- 10 vs 61 +/- 11 years in the hypothermic group), had statistically less likelihood of preexisting cerebrovascular disease, and had higher bypass blood glucose values (276 +/- 100 mg/% vs. 152 +/- 66 mg/% in the hypothermic group). All other patient characteristics and intraoperative variables were similar in the two treatment groups. Seven of 68 patients in the normothermic group were found to have a central neurologic deficit, compared with none of the patients cooled to 28 degrees C (p = 0.006). Performance on at least one neuropsychologic test deteriorated in the immediate postoperative period in more than one half of all patients in both treatment groups but returned to preoperative levels approximately 1 month after the operation in most (85%). This pattern was not related to bypass temperature management strategy. We conclude that active warming during

  15. Echocardiography for patients undergoing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a primer for intensive care physicians.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2017-01-01

    Echocardiography is an invaluable tool in the management of patients with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) and subsequent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support and weaning. At the very beginning, echocardiography can identify the etiology of cardiac arrest, such as massive pulmonary embolism and cardiac tamponade. Eliminating these culprits saves life and may avoid the initiation of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. If the underlying causes are not identified or intrinsic to the heart (e.g., such as those caused by cardiomyopathy and myocarditis), conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCPR) will continue to maintain cardiac output. The quality of CCPR can be monitored, and if cardiac output cannot be maintained, early institution of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation may be reasonable. Cannulation is sometimes challenging for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation patients. Fortunately, with the help of ultrasonography procedures including localization of vessels, selecting a cannula of appropriate size and confirmation of catheter tip may become easy under sophisticated hand. Monitoring of cardiac function and complications during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support can be done with echocardiography. However, the cardiac parameters should be interpreted with understanding of hemodynamic configuration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Thrombus and blood stasis can be identified with ultrasound, which may prompt mechanical and pharmacological interventions. The final step is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation weaning. A number of studies investigated the accuracy of some echocardiographic parameters in predicting success rate and demonstrated promising results. Parameters and threshold for successful weaning include aortic VTI ≥ 10 cm, LVEF > 20-25%, and lateral mitral annulus peak systolic velocity >6 cm/s. However, the effectiveness of echocardiography in ECPR patients

  16. Efficacy of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation with adaptive servo-ventilation in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Naonori; Takahashi, Shinya; Takasaki, Taiichi; Katayama, Keijiro; Taguchi, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masazumi; Kurosaki, Tatsuya; Imai, Katsuhiko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Sueda, Taijiro

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative complications after cardiac surgery increase mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation with adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). A total of 66 patients undergoing OPCAB were enrolled and divided into 2 groups according to the use of ASV (ASV group, 30 patients; non-ASV group, 36 patients). During the perioperative period, all patients undertook cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. ASV was used from postoperative day (POD) 1 to POD5. Hemodynamics showed a different pattern in the 2 groups. Blood pressure (BP) on POD6 in the ASV group was significantly lower than that in the non-ASV group (systolic BP, 112.9±12.6 vs. 126.2±15.8 mmHg, P=0.0006; diastolic BP, 62.3±9.1 vs. 67.6±9.3 mmHg, P=0.0277). The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) was lower in the ASV group than in the non-ASV group (10% vs. 33%, P=0.0377). The duration of oxygen inhalation in the ASV group was significantly shorter than that in the non-ASV group (5.1±2.2 vs. 7.6±6.0 days, P=0.0238). The duration of postoperative hospitalization was significantly shorter in the ASV group than in the non-ASV group (23.5±6.6 vs. 29.0±13.1 days, P=0.0392). Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation with ASV after OPCAB reduces both POAF occurrence and the duration of hospitalization.

  17. Pulmonary function and inflammatory markers in patients undergoing coronary revascularisation with or without cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Heijmans, J H; Liem, K S A E; Damoiseaux, G M C; Maessen, J G; Roekaerts, P M H J

    2007-12-01

    Lung injury after cardiac surgery is believed to result from cardiopulmonary bypass and its pro-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, we compared the oxygenation ratios, extravascular lung water indices and systemic and pulmonary tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-8 at predetermined intervals in coronary artery surgery patients with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. No differences in oxygenation ratios or extravascular lung water indices were found. Serum values of TNF-alpha and IL-8 increased in both groups but were higher in the cardiopulmonary bypass group (end of surgery: mean (SD) TNF-alpha 3.68 (2.5) vs 2.20 (1.2) pg.ml(-1) (p = 0.043 (CI 0.05-2.9)) and mean (SD) IL-8 19.45 (10.8) vs 6.31 (5.3) pg.ml(-1) (p = 0.001 (CI 6.9-19.3)). In broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, TNF-alpha and IL-8 increased in both groups with no differences between the groups.

  18. A randomized comparative study of patients undergoing myocardial revascularization with or without cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: The MASS III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hueb, Whady; Lopes, Neuza HM; Gersh, Bernard J; Castro, Cláudio C; Paulitsch, Felipe S; Oliveira, Sergio A; Dallan, Luis A; Hueb, Alexandre C; Stolf, Noedir A; Ramires, José AF

    2008-01-01

    The MASS III Trial is a large project from a single institution, The Heart Institute of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil (InCor), enrolling patients with coronary artery disease and preserved ventricular function. The aim of the MASS III Trial is to compare medical effectiveness, cerebral injury, quality of life, and the cost-effectiveness of coronary surgery with and without of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with multivessel coronary disease referred for both strategies. The primary endpoint should be a composite of cardiovascular mortality, cerebrovascular accident, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and refractory angina requiring revascularization. The secondary end points in this trial include noncardiac mortality, presence and severity of angina, quality of life based on the SF-36 Questionnaire, and cost-effectiveness at discharge and at 5-year follow-up. In this scenario, we will analyze the cost of the initial procedure, hospital length of stay, resource utilization, repeat hospitalization, and repeat revascularization events during the follow-up. Exercise capacity will be assessed at 6-months, 12-months, and the end of follow-up. A neurocognitive evaluation will be assessed in a subset of subjects using the Brain Resource Center computerized neurocognitive battery. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging will be made to detect any cerebral injury before and after procedures in patients who undergo coronary artery surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. Clinical Trial registration information ISRCTN59539154 Off-pump vs. on-pump surgery in patients with Stable CAD MASS III PMID:18755039

  19. PRIS may be diagnosed before ICU period for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Türker

    2016-05-01

    There are many published articles on the clinical manifestations of propofol-related infusion syndrome (PRIS), but they are not the same in each case.(1)Moreover, PRIS is only encountered infrequently and, therefore, it may create a diagnostic challenge. Nearly all of the published articles on PRIS are related to the use of long-term (> 48 hour) propofol infusion with a dose range of at least 4-5 mg/kg/h. In this case, not only a short duration, but also a low-dose propofol administration seems to induce PRIS. A 73-year-old male patient under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) suffered from some clinical symptoms of PRIS, such as hyperlactatemia and persistent low metabolic acidosis which promptly resolved on the discontinuation of propofol. Therefore, we suggest that any propofol administration (bolus or infusion) may result in such clinical symptoms, which may be the earliest indicators of PRIS. When those symptoms are observed on propofol administration during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the perfusionist must alert both the anaesthesiologist and the surgeon to stop the propofol in order to prevent the patient from further adverse effects of PRIS.

  20. Comparison of hydroxyl radical generation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with and without cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Motoo; Aoyagi, Kazumasa; Hirakawa, Akiko; Nakajima, Motoo; Jikuya, Tomoaki; Shigeta, Osamu; Sakakibara, Yuzuru

    2006-02-01

    We measured the hydroxyl radical (.OH) generation in fourteen patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), of whom seven patients underwent on-pump CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and seven patients underwent off-pump CABG without CPB. To detect .OH generation, we measured the urinary excretion of .OH products of creatinine (Cr), creatol (CTL; 5-hydroxycreatinine) and methylguanidine (MG) with HPLC using the one point sampling and collected urine during and after the operation. The urinary CTL value corrected urinary Cr value of on-pump CABG significantly increased about 3-5 times from the beginning of CPB to 4 h after operation compared to the baseline value before CPB in both the collected urine and the one point sampling urine. The urinary MG/Cr value in both groups did not change significantly. Significantly increased .OH generation was found during and soon after on-pump CABG.

  1. Cerebral blood flow response to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in children

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, F.H.; Ungerleider, R.M.; Quill, T.J.; Baldwin, B.; White, W.D.; Reves, J.G.; Greeley, W.J. )

    1991-04-01

    We examined the relationship of changes in partial pressure of carbon dioxide on cerebral blood flow responsiveness in 20 pediatric patients undergoing hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Cerebral blood flow was measured during steady-state hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with the use of xenon 133 clearance methodology at two different arterial carbon dioxide tensions. During these measurements there was no significant change in mean arterial pressure, nasopharyngeal temperature, pump flow rate, or hematocrit value. Cerebral blood flow was found to be significantly greater at higher arterial carbon dioxide tensions (p less than 0.01), so that for every millimeter of mercury rise in arterial carbon dioxide tension there was a 1.2 ml.100 gm-1.min-1 increase in cerebral blood flow. Two factors, deep hypothermia (18 degrees to 22 degrees C) and reduced age (less than 1 year), diminished the effect carbon dioxide had on cerebral blood flow responsiveness but did not eliminate it. We conclude that cerebral blood flow remains responsive to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children; that is, increasing arterial carbon dioxide tension will independently increase cerebral blood flow.

  2. Extra-1 acupressure for children undergoing anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Ming; Escalera, Sandra; Lin, Eric C; Maranets, Inna; Kain, Zeev N

    2008-09-01

    Acupuncture and related techniques have been used as adjuncts for perioperative anesthesia management. We examined whether acupressure in the Extra-1 (Yin-Tang) point would result in decreased preprocedural anxiety and reduced intraprocedural propofol requirements in a group of children undergoing endoscopic procedures. Fifty-two children were randomized to receive acupressure bead intervention either at the Extra-1 acupuncture point or at a sham point. A Bispectral Index (BIS) monitor was applied to all children before the onset of the intervention. Anxiety was assessed at baseline and before entrance to the operating room. Anesthetic techniques were standardized and maintained with IV propofol infusion titrated to keep BIS values of 40-60. We found that after the intervention, children in the Extra-1 group experienced reduced anxiety whereas children in the sham group experienced increased anxiety (-9% [-3 to -15] vs 2% [-6 to 7.4], P = 0.012). In contrast, no significant changes in BIS values were observed in the preprocedural waiting period between groups (P = ns). We also found that total intraprocedural propofol requirements did not differ between the two study groups (214 +/- 76 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) vs 229 +/- 95 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.52). We conclude that acupressure bead intervention at Extra-1 acupoint reduces preprocedural anxiety in children undergoing endoscopic procedures. This intervention, however, has no impact on BIS values or intraprocedural propofol requirements.

  3. Hyperlactatemia in patients undergoing adult cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass: Causative factors and its effect on surgical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Rakesh; George, Gladdy; Karuppiah, Sathappan; Philip, Madhu Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives of the Study: To identify the factors causing high lactate levels in patients undergoing cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and to assess the association between high blood lactate levels and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Methods: A retrospective observational study including 370 patients who underwent cardiac surgeries under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on serum lactate levels; those with serum lactate levels greater than or equal to 4 mmol/L considered as hyperlactatemia and those with serum lactate levels less than 4 mmol/L. Blood lactate samples were collected intraoperatively and postoperatively in the ICU. Preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for hyperlactatemia were identified using the highest intraoperative value of lactate. The postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with hyperlactatemia was studied using the overall (intraoperative and postoperative values) peak lactate levels. Preoperative clinical data, perioperative events and postoperative morbidity and mortality were recorded. Results: Intraoperative peak blood lactate levels of 4.0 mmol/L or more were present in 158 patients (42.7%). Females had higher peak intra operative lactate levels (P = 0.011). There was significant correlation between CPB time (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.024; P = 0.003) and aortic cross clamp time (r = 0.02, P = 0.007) with peak intraoperative blood lactate levels. Patients with hyperlactatemia had significantly higher rate of postoperative morbidity like atrial fibrillation (19.9% vs. 5.3%; P = 0.004), prolonged requirement of inotropes (34% vs. 11.8%; P = 0.001), longer stay in the ICU (P = 0.013) and hospital (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Hyperlactatemia had significant association with post-operative morbidity. Detection of hyperlactatemia in the perioperative period should be considered as an indicator of inadequate tissue oxygen delivery and must be aggressively

  4. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in healthy children and adolescents at moderately high altitude.

    PubMed

    Ilarraza-Lomelí, Hermes; Castañeda-López, Javier; Myers, Jonathan; Miranda, Irma; Quiroga, Paula; Rius, María-Dolores; Lopez-de-la-Vega, César; Vallejo, Enrique; Calderón, Juan; Figueroa, Javier; Buendía, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a tool that helps clinicians to establish diagnosis and calculate risk stratification in adults. However, the utility of this test among children with congenital heart disease has not been fully explored. The goal of this study was to describe reference values for cardiopulmonary performance of healthy children. This study included 103 apparently healthy children (aged from 4 to 18 years; 61 boys), who underwent cardiopulmonary test using a treadmill protocol. All tests took place at 2240m above sea level (Mexico City). Exercise time was 11±4min. There were no complications. Peak oxygen uptake correlated closely with height in both genders (girls r=0.84; boys r=0.84, p<0.001). A multivariable linear regression model showed that body surface area, exercise time, gender and heart rate reserve were significant predictors of peak oxygen uptake (R(2)=0.815, p<0.001). Peak oxygen uptake was strongly associated with age even among children younger than thirteen years (r=0.74, p<0.001). This study provides physiological values for the major cardiopulmonary variables obtained from exercise testing using a treadmill among healthy children. Cardiopulmonary exercise test can be safely and effectively performed in young children even as young as 4 years old. Variables including age, gender and height are strongly associated with exercise time, peak heart rate and peak oxygen uptake. Regression equations for predicting peak heart rate and peak oxygen uptake are presented as reference values that allow researchers to compare children with heart disease versus those who are healthy. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, J P

    1983-04-01

    Pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation refers to those measures used to restore ventilation and circulation in children. This article defines how cardiopulmonary resuscitation in infants, children, and adolescents differs from cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults and delineates the drugs and dosages to be used in the resuscitation of pediatric patients.

  6. Effects of pulsatile perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass on biochemical markers and kidney function in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Alireza; Jafari, Naser; Hasanpour, Mohammad; Sahandifar, Soheil; Ghafari, Masoud; Alaei, Vahed

    2013-01-01

    For several years there is no conclusive guideline on the effectiveness of pulsatile or non-pulsatile perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pulsatile versus continuous perfusion on the myocardial release of the cardiac biochemical markers including, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), cardiac creatine kinase (CK-MB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and also kidney function tests including: blood urea nitrogen test (BUN) and creatinine test (Cr) in patients that underwent both pulsatile and non-pulsatile methods before and after heart surgeries. A total of 80 patients were enrolled in this study, 40 patients in each pulsatile and non-pulsatile group. Venous blood samples were drown from each patient in two groups before operation and after operation at, 24, 48, and 72 h and analyzed separately for CPK, its cardiac isoenzyme (CK-MB), LDH, BUN and Cr. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to preoperative parameters such as sex, age, and body surface area. Our study shows that the effect of pulsatile perfusion on cardiac and kidney function is better than the non-pulsatile method.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of mini-circuit cardiopulmonary bypass in newborns and infants undergoing open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Mozol, Krzysztof; Haponiuk, Ireneusz; Byszewski, Andrzej; Maruszewski, Bohdan

    2008-09-01

    Miniaturisation of the extracorporeal circuit is a current trend in modern paediatric cardiac surgery. Many investigators stress that reduction of priming volume and artificial surface area of extracorporeal circulation could lead to clinical and economic benefits. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the costs of mini-circuit use in infants undergoing open heart surgery. We assessed post-operative course and cost of treatment in 60 infants undergoing open heart surgery. This group was prospectively randomised and divided into 2 equal subgroups: with miniaturised (group M) and conventional cardio pulmonary bypass circuits (group C). The study groups were clinically comparable. Surgical complications, duration of hospitalisation and cost of postoperative treatment were assessed in both groups. Miniaturisation of the extracorporeal circuit led to a significant reduction of priming volume and artificial surface area (by 46.6% and 68.8% respectively, p=0.0000001). Post-operative cardio-respiratory insufficiency (2 vs. 8, p=0.038), and infection (3 vs. 9, p=0.049) occurred less often in children from group M. Hospital stay was significantly shorter in group M. Total cost of treatment was significantly lower in children from group M (median: 4361.4 vs. 6660.5 euro, p=0.037). Miniaturisation of the extracorporeal circulation significantly improve post-operative outcome in infants undergoing open heart surgery. The mini-circuit significantly reduces cost of treatment in small children undergoing open heart surgery.

  8. Clinical effectiveness of centrifugal pump to produce pulsatile flow during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y John; van Oeveren, Willem; Mungroop, Hubert E; Epema, Anne H; den Hamer, Inez J; Keizer, Jorrit J; Leuvenink, Ron P; Mariani, Massimo A; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Although the centrifugal pump has been widely used as a nonpulsatile pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), little is known about its performance as a pulsatile pump for CPB, especially on its efficacy in producing hemodynamic energy and its clinical effectiveness. We performed a study to evaluate whether the Rotaflow centrifugal pump produces effective pulsatile flow during CPB and whether the pulsatile flow in this setting is clinically effective in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Thirty-two patients undergoing CPB for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly allocated to a pulsatile perfusion group (n = 16) or a nonpulsatile perfusion group (n = 16). All patients were perfused with the Rotaflow centrifugal pump. In the pulsatile group, the centrifugal pump was adjusted to the pulsatile mode (60 cycles/min) during aortic cross-clamping, whereas in the nonpulsatile group, the pump was kept in its nonpulsatile mode during the same period of time. Compared with the nonpulsatile group, the pulsatile group had a higher pulse pressure (P < 0.01) and a fraction higher energy equivalent pressure (EEP, P = 0.058). The net gain of pulsatile flow, represented by the surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE), was found much higher in the CPB circuit than in patients (P < 0.01). Clinically, there was no difference between the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups with regard to postoperative acute kidney injury, endothelial activation, or inflammatory response. Postoperative organ function and the duration of hospital stay were similar in the two patient groups. In conclusion, pulsatile CPB with the Rotaflow centrifugal pump is associated with a small gain of EEP and SHE, which does not seem to be clinically effective in adult cardiac surgical patients.

  9. Effect of ischemic postconditioning on myocardial protection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Nasser; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad Ali; Badalzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Reperfusion injury is a well-known phenomenon following restoration of the coronary circulation after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) that impairs myocardial function. In order to control the severity of this injury, we aimed to investigate the effect of a new conditioning strategy namely ischemic postconditioning (IPOC) along with controlled aortic root reperfusion (CARR) on myocardial protection in CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: In a doubled blind clinical trial study, 51 patients undergoing first-time elective CABG were randomly divided in three groups: CARR, IPOC, and combination of IPOC and CARR. At the end of procedure and just before aortic cross-clamp removal, reperfusion was started as following: In CARR-receiving groups, the reperfusion was started with low perfusion pressures for 10 minutes, and in IPOC-receiving groups, three cycles of 1 minute episodes of ischemia separated by 1 minute episodes of reperfusion was applied as postconditioning protocol. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) (by echocardiography), inotrope requirement index, and myocardial arrhythmias were measured up to 72 hours after operation. Results: Echocardiography revealed that the recovery of EF after operation in IPOC group was significantly higher than those of two other groups (P < 0.05). Inotropic support requirement was significantly lower in IPOC groups. In addition, the incidence of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias after opening of aortic clamp and in intensive care unit (ICU) as well as recovery time of cardiac rhythm upon reperfusion were lowered by administration of IPOC, as compared with CARR group. Conclusion: The study suggests that IPOC may provide clinical benefits against reperfusion injury in patients undergoing CABG surgery and maintain the post ischemic left ventricular performance. PMID:27489599

  10. Effect of ischemic postconditioning on myocardial protection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Nasser; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad Ali; Badalzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Reperfusion injury is a well-known phenomenon following restoration of the coronary circulation after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) that impairs myocardial function. In order to control the severity of this injury, we aimed to investigate the effect of a new conditioning strategy namely ischemic postconditioning (IPOC) along with controlled aortic root reperfusion (CARR) on myocardial protection in CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. In a doubled blind clinical trial study, 51 patients undergoing first-time elective CABG were randomly divided in three groups: CARR, IPOC, and combination of IPOC and CARR. At the end of procedure and just before aortic cross-clamp removal, reperfusion was started as following: In CARR-receiving groups, the reperfusion was started with low perfusion pressures for 10 minutes, and in IPOC-receiving groups, three cycles of 1 minute episodes of ischemia separated by 1 minute episodes of reperfusion was applied as postconditioning protocol. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) (by echocardiography), inotrope requirement index, and myocardial arrhythmias were measured up to 72 hours after operation. Echocardiography revealed that the recovery of EF after operation in IPOC group was significantly higher than those of two other groups (P < 0.05). Inotropic support requirement was significantly lower in IPOC groups. In addition, the incidence of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias after opening of aortic clamp and in intensive care unit (ICU) as well as recovery time of cardiac rhythm upon reperfusion were lowered by administration of IPOC, as compared with CARR group. The study suggests that IPOC may provide clinical benefits against reperfusion injury in patients undergoing CABG surgery and maintain the post ischemic left ventricular performance.

  11. Early changes in myocardial repolarization and coronary perfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for ASD repair in children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In adults, impaired myocardial repolarization and increased risk of arrhythmia are known consequences of open heart surgery. Little is known, however, about post-operative consequences of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in children. The aim of this study was to assess ventricular repolarization and coronary perfusion after bypass surgery for atrial septal defect (ASD) repair in children. Methods Twelve patients with ASD were assessed one day before and 5–6 days after ASD repair. Myocardial repolarization (corrected QT interval, QTc, QT dispersion, QTd, and PQ interval) was determined on 12-lead electrocardiograms. Coronary flow in proximal left anterior descending artery (peak flow velocity in diastole, PFVd) was assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Results Ten of the 12 (83%) children had normal myocardial repolarization before and after surgery. After surgery, QTc increased 1-9% in 5 (42%) patients, decreased 2-11% in 5 (42%) patients and did not change in 2 (16%) patients. Post-op QTc positively correlated with bypass time (R=0.686, p=0.014) and changes in PFVd (R=0.741, p=0.006). After surgery, QTd increased 33-67% in 4 (33%) patients, decreased 25-50% in 6 patients (50%) and did not change in 2 (16%) patients. After surgery, PQ interval increased 5-30% in 4 (33%) patients, decreased 4-29% in 6 (50%) patients and did not change in 1 (8%) patient. Post-op PQ positively correlated with bypass time (R=0.636, p=0.027). As previously reported, PFVd significantly increased after surgery (p<0.001). Conclusions Changes in QTc, PQ and PFVd are common in young children undergoing surgery for ASD repair. Post-op QTc significantly correlates with bypass time, suggesting prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass may impair ventricular repolarization. Post-op QTc significantly correlates with PFVd changes, suggesting increased coronary flow may also impair ventricular repolarization. The clinical significance and reversibility of these alternations require

  12. [Adapting immunisation schedules for children undergoing chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Prada, María; Rodríguez-Martínez, María; García-García, Rebeca; García-Corte, María Dolores; Martínez-Ortega, Carmen

    2016-10-20

    Children undergoing chemotherapy for cancer have special vaccination needs after completion of the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of post-chemotherapy vaccination schedules. An observational study was performed on a retrospective cohort that included all children aged from 0 to 14 years, who completed chemotherapy in a tertiary hospital between 2009 and 2015. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Immunisation was administered in accordance with the guidelines of the Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics. Primary Care immunisation and clinical records of the Preventive Medicine and Public Health Department were reviewed. Of the 99 children who had received chemotherapy, 51 (70.6% males) were included in the study. As regards the type of tumour, 54.9% had a solid organ tumour, and 45.1% had a haematological tumour. Post-chemotherapy immunisation was administered to 70.6%. The most common vaccines received were: diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis or diphtheria-tetanus (54.9%), meningococcus C (41.2%), and seasonal influenza (39.2%). The rate of adaptation of the immunisation schedule after chemotherapy was 9.8%. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against 7v or 13v was administered to 21.6% of study subjects. However, only 17.6% received polysaccharide 23v. None received vaccination against hepatitis A. No statistically significant differences were observed between adherence to immunisation schedules and type of tumour (P=.066), gender (P=.304), or age (P=.342). Post-chemotherapy immunisation of children with cancer is poor. The participation of health professionals in training programs and referral of paediatric cancer patients to Vaccine Units could improve the rate of schedule adaptation and proper immunisation of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiopulmonary Bypass is Associated with Hemolysis and Acute Kidney Injury in Neonates, Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Mamikonian, Lara S.; Mamo, Lisa B.; Smith, P. Brian; Koo, Jeannie; Lodge, Andrew J.; Turi, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This pilot study assesses the degree of hemolysis induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and determines its association with acute kidney injury (AKI) in pediatric patients. Further, it evaluates the degree to which the use of urinary biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C correlate with the presence of AKI and hemolysis following CPB. Design Prospective observational study Setting A 13-bed pediatric cardiac intensive care unit in a university hospital Patients Children undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of CPB Interventions None Measurements and Main Results Blood and urine samples were obtained at multiple time points before and after CPB. Hemolysis was assessed by measuring levels of plasma hemoglobin and haptoglobin. AKI was defined as a doubling in serum creatinine from preoperative baseline and by using the pediatric-modified RIFLE criteria. Urinary NGAL and Cystatin C levels were measured. A total of 40 patients (range: 3 days to 4.8 years) were enrolled. Plasma hemoglobin levels increased markedly on separation from CPB with a concurrent decrease in haptoglobin. This was associated with an increase in protein oxidation in the plasma. Hemolysis was more evident in younger patients with a longer duration of bypass and in those requiring a blood-primed circuit. 40% of patients had a doubling in serum creatinine and 88% of patients developed acute kidney injury when defined by the pediatric-modified RIFLE criteria. Controlling for CPB time, persistently elevated levels of plasma hemoglobin were associated with a 5 fold increase in AKI. Further, urinary NGAL measured 2 hours after separation from CPB was associated with AKI and with elevations in plasma hemoglobin. Conclusions CPB in pediatric patients results in significant hemolysis, which is associated with the development of AKI. The biomarker NGAL correlates with both AKI and hemolysis in this population. PMID:24394997

  14. Cardioprotection of Electroacupuncture for Enhanced Recovery after Surgery on Patients Undergoing Heart Valve Replacement with Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Randomized Control Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangxiang; Xiao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    We attempted to investigate cardioprotection of electroacupuncture (EA) for enhanced recovery after surgery on patients undergoing heart valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass. Forty-four patients with acquired heart valve replacement were randomly allocated to the EA group or the control group. Patients in the EA group received EA stimulus at bilateral Neiguan (PC6), Ximen (PC4), Shenting (GV24), and Baihui (GV20) acupoints twenty minutes before anesthesia induction to the end of surgery. The primary end point was cardioprotection effect of electroacupuncture postoperatively and the secondary endpoints were quality of recovery and cognitive functioning postoperatively. The present study demonstrated that electroacupuncture reduced the occurrence of complications and played a role of cardioprotective effect on patients after heart valve replacement surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, and it benefits patients more comfortable and contributes to recovery after surgery. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOC-16009123. PMID:28298935

  15. Differences in perioperative femoral and radial arterial blood pressure in neonates and infants undergoing pediatric cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hwa Jin; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, In Seok; Yoon, Nam Sik; Ma, Jae Sook; Ahn, Byoung Hee

    2017-08-30

    Several reports claim that blood pressure (BP) in the radial artery may underestimate the accurate BP in critically ill patients. Here, the authors evaluated differences in mean blood pressure (MBP) between the radial and femoral artery during pediatric cardiac surgery to determine the effectiveness of femoral arterial BP monitoring. The medical records of children under 1 year of age who underwent open-heart surgery between 2007 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Radial and femoral BP were measured simultaneously, and the differences between these values were analyzed at various times: after catheter insertion, after the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB-on), after aortic cross clamping (ACC), after the release of ACC, after weaning from CPB, at arrival in the intensive care unit (ICU), and every 6h during the first day in the ICU. A total of 121 patients who underwent open-heart surgery met the inclusion criteria. During the intraoperative period, from the beginning to the end of CPB, radial MBPs were significantly lower than femoral MBPs at each time-point measured (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that longer CPB time (>60min, odds ratio: 7.47) was a risk factor for lower radial pressure. However, discrepancies between these two values disappeared after arrival in the ICU. There was no incidence of ischemic complications associated with the catheterization of both arteries. The authors suggest that femoral arterial pressure monitoring can be safely performed, even in neonates, and provides more accurate BP values during CPB-on periods, and immediately after weaning from CPB, especially when CPB time was greater than 60min. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Reconstituted fresh whole blood improves clinical outcomes compared with stored component blood therapy for neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gruenwald, Colleen E; McCrindle, Brian W; Crawford-Lean, Lynn; Holtby, Helen; Parshuram, Christopher; Massicotte, Patricia; Van Arsdell, Glen

    2008-12-01

    This study compared the effects of reconstituted fresh whole blood against standard blood component therapy in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery. Patients less than 1 month of age were randomized to receive either reconstituted fresh whole blood (n = 31) or standard blood component therapy (n = 33) to prime the bypass circuit and for transfusion during the 24 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass. Primary outcome was chest tube drainage; secondary outcomes included transfusion needs, inotrope score, ventilation time, and hospital length of stay. Patients who received reconstituted fresh whole blood had significantly less postoperative chest tube volume loss per kilogram of body weight (7.7 mL/kg vs 11.8 mL/kg; P = .03). Standard blood component therapy was associated with higher inotropic score (6.6 vs 3.3; P = .002), longer ventilation times (164 hours vs 119 hours; P = .04), as well as longer hospital stays (18 days vs 12 days; P = .006) than patients receiving reconstituted fresh whole blood. Of the different factors associated with the use of reconstituted fresh whole blood, lower platelet counts at 10 minutes and at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass, older age of cells used in the prime and throughout bypass, and exposures to higher number of allogeneic donors were found to be independent predictors of poor clinical outcomes. Reconstituted fresh whole blood used for the prime, throughout cardiopulmonary bypass, and for all transfusion requirements within the first 24 hours postoperatively results in reduced chest tube volume loss and improved clinical outcomes in neonatal patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  17. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has no significant impact on survival in patients undergoing nephrectomy and level III-IV inferior vena cava thrombectomy; a multi-institutional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Era, Marc A.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Carballido, Joaquín A.; Chandrasekar, Thenappan; Chromecki, Thomas; Ciancio, Gaetano; Daneshmand, Siamak; Gontero, Paolo; Gonzalez, Javier; Haferkamp, Axel; Hohenfellner, Markus; Huang, William C.; Espinós, Estefania Linares; Mandel, Philipp; Martinez-Salamanca, Juan I.; Master, Viraj A.; McKiernan, James M.; Montorsi, Francesco; Novara, Giacomo; Pahernik, Sascha; Palou, Juan; Pruthi, Raj S.; Rodriguez-Faba, Oscar; Russo, Paul; Scherr, Douglas S.; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Spahn, Martin; Terrone, Carlo; Vergho, Daniel; Wallen, Eric M.; Xylinas, Evanguelos; Zigeuner, Richard; Libertino, John A.; Evans, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The impact of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) usage in level III-IV tumor thrombectomy on surgical and oncologic outcomes is unknown. We sought to determine the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on overall and cancer specific survival, as well as surgical complication rates, and immediate outcomes in patients undergoing nephrectomy and level III-IV tumor thrombectomy with or without CPB. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 362 patients with RCC and with level III or IV tumor thrombus from 1992 to 2012 in 22 US and European centers. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare overall and cancer-specific survival between patients with and without CPB. Perioperative mortality and complications rates were assessed using logistic regression analyses. Results The median overall survival was 24.6 months in non-CPB patients and 26.6 months in CPB patients. Overall survival and cancer-specific survival (CSS) did not differ significantly in both groups, neither in univariate analysis nor when adjusting for known risk factors. In multivariate analysis, no significant differences were seen in hospital LOS, Clavien 1-4 complication rate, intraoperative or 30 day mortality, and CSS between both groups. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study. Conclusions In our multi-institutional analysis, the use of cardiopulmonary bypass did not significantly impact cancer specific survival or overall survival in patients undergoing nephrectomy and level III or IV tumor thrombectomy. Neither approach was independently associated with increased mortality in the multivariate analysis. Higher surgical complications were not independently associated with the use of CPB. PMID:25797392

  18. [Effects of an exercise program on body composition, cardiopulmonary function, and physical fitness for obese children].

    PubMed

    Kwon, Myung Soon; Hwang, Kyung Sook

    2007-06-01

    The study was done to investigate the effects of an exercise program on body composition, cardiopulmonary function and physical fitness in obese children. Thirty nine children in grades 4, 5, and 6 in elementary school were employed: experimental group(20) and control group(19). The subjects in the experimental group participated in an exercise program for 8 weeks, thirty five minutes per session, four times per week. This data was analyzed by ANCOVA and paired t-test. The Height(F=2.615, p=0.027) of the experimental group was significantly different from the control group. Also, in the experimental group, there were significant differences of height(t=4.79, p=0.000), cardiac rate(t=-6.461, p=0.000), body mass index(t=-2.13 p=0.046), muscle strength(t=3.48, p=0.003), and muscle endurance(t=3.20, p=0.005). Otherwise, in the control group, there were significant differences of weight(t=2.27, p=0.036), waist-hip ratio(t=3.16, p=0.005), and muscle endurance(t=-2.38, p=0.030). Jumping rope improved the body composition, cardiopulmonary function, and physical fitness for obese children.

  19. Hereditary spherocytosis in a patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass--a case report.

    PubMed

    Spegar, J; Riha, H; Kotulak, T; Vanek, T

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis is a genetically determined abnormality of red blood cells. It is the most common cause of inherited haemolysis in Europe and North America within the Caucasian population. We document a patient who underwent an aortocoronary bypass procedure on cardiopulmonary bypass. In view of the uncertain tolerance of the abnormal red cells in hereditary spherocytosis to cardiopulmonary bypass, we reviewed the patient's chart and analyzed recorded values of these parameters: free plasma haemoglobin, renal parameters, cystatin C, bilirubin, liver tests, urine samples. From the results, we can see that slight haemolysis-elevated bilirubin in the blood sample and elevated bilirubin and urobilinogen in the urine sample occurred on the first postoperative day. The levels of these parameters slowly decreased during the next postoperative days. There was no real clinical effect of this haemolysis on renal functions.

  20. Predictive factors for red blood cell transfusion in children undergoing noncomplex cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Mulaj, Muj; Faraoni, David; Willems, Ariane; Sanchez Torres, Cristel; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is frequently required in pediatric cardiac surgery and is associated with altered outcome and increased costs. Determining which factors predict transfusion in this context will enable clinicians to adopt strategies that will reduce the risk of RBC transfusion. This study aimed to assess predictive factors associated with RBC transfusion in children undergoing low-risk cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Children undergoing surgery to repair ventricular septal defect or atrioventricular septal defect from 2006 to 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Demography, preoperative laboratory testing, intraoperative data, and RBC transfusion were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to define factors that were able to predict RBC transfusion. Then, we employed receiver operating characteristic analysis to design a predictive score. Among the 334 children included, 261 (78%) were transfused. Age (<18 months), priming volume of the CPB (>43 mL/kg), type of oxygenator used, minimal temperature reached during CPB (<32°C), and preoperative hematocrit (<34%) were independently associated with RBC transfusion in the studied population. A predictive score 2 or greater was the best predictor of RBC transfusion. The present study identified several factors that were significantly associated with perioperative RBC transfusion. Based on these factors, we designed a predictive score that can be used to develop a patient-based blood management program with the aim of reducing the incidence of RBC transfusion. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychological functioning in parents of children undergoing elective cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jo; Sensky, Tom

    2004-04-01

    To assess levels of distress, the marital relationship, and styles of coping of parents of children with congenital heart disease, to evaluate any change in these parameters following elective cardiac surgery for their child, and to compare these parents with parents of children undergoing another form of hospital treatment, and with parents of healthy children. A prospective study in which parents were assessed the day before the surgical procedure being undergone by their child, and 12 months afterwards. We assessed three groups of parents of 75 children, aged from birth to 16.9 years. The first was a group whose children were undergoing surgery because of congenital heart disease, the second was a group whose children were undergoing transplantation of bone marrow, and the third was a group whose children were healthy. Measures used for assessment included the General Health Questionnaire, the Dyadic adjustment scale, and the Utrecht coping list. Parents in both groups of children undergoing surgery had significantly higher rates of distress prior to the surgical procedures than did the parents of the healthy children, but within those whose children were undergoing cardiac surgery, there were no differences between parents of children with cyanotic and acyanotic lesions. Following treatment, there was a significant reduction in the levels of distress in both groups whose children had undergone surgery. There were few differences between any of the groups on the other parameters, and the evaluated indexes showed stability over time. Despite elevated levels of psychological distress prior to surgical procedures, which had fallen after one year, the stability of other parameters of parental functioning over time suggests that the surgical interventions are of less significance than either factors attributable to the presence of chronic illness, or the individual characteristics of the parents.

  2. Information Acquisition in Children Undergoing Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melamed, Barbara G.; And Others

    In order to evaluate how individual characteristics of hospitalized children influence their acquisition of information presented in a film depicting preparation for surgery, 42 children between the ages of 4 to 17 were assigned to experimental and control groups that were matched for age, sex, race, type of surgery and previous hospital…

  3. Comparison of the cardiopulmonary effects of anesthesia maintained by continuous infusion of ketamine and propofol with anesthesia maintained by inhalation of sevoflurane in goats undergoing magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Larenza, M Paula; Bergadano, Alessandra; Iff, Isabelle; Doherr, Marcus G; Schatzmann, Urs

    2005-12-01

    To compare the cardiopulmonary effects of anesthesia maintained by continuous infusion of ketamine and propofol with anesthesia maintained by inhalation of sevoflurane in goats undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. 8 Saanen goats. Goats were anesthetized twice (1-month interval) following sedation with midazolam (0.4 mg/kg, IV). Anesthesia was induced via IV administration of ketamine (3 mg/kg) and propofol (1 mg/kg) and maintained with an IV infusion of ketamine (0.03 mg/kg/min) and propofol (0.3 mg/kg/min) and 100% inspired oxygen (K-P treatment) or induced via IV administration of propofol (4 mg/kg) and maintained via inhalation of sevoflurane in oxygen (end-expired concentration, 2.3%; 1X minimum alveolar concentration; SEVO treatment). Cardiopulmonary and blood gas variables were assessed at intervals after induction of anesthesia. Mean +/- SD end-expired sevoflurane was 2.24 +/- 0.2%; ketamine and propofol were infused at rates of 0.03 +/- 0.002 mg/kg/min and 0.29 +/- 0.02 mg/kg/min, respectively. Overall, administration of ketamine and propofol for total IV anesthesia was associated with a degree of immobility and effects on cardiopulmonary parameters that were comparable to those associated with anesthesia maintained by inhalation of sevoflurane. Compared with the K-P treatment group, mean and diastolic blood pressure values in the SEVO treatment group were significantly lower at most or all time points after induction of anesthesia. After both treatments, recovery from anesthesia was good or excellent. Results suggest that ketamine-propofol total IV anesthesia in goats breathing 100% oxygen is practical and safe for performance of magnetic resonance imaging procedures.

  4. Parental anxiety and concern for children undergoing dermatological surgery.

    PubMed

    Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Guenova, Emmanuella; Krug, Markus; Goetz, Angelika; Amarov, Boyko; Haefner, Hans-Martin; Breuninger, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    Parents experience anxiety and concern about their children's anesthesia and surgeries, which can adversely affect the children's outcomes. Therefore, it is important to identify the factors that influence parental fear. Because dermatological surgery is often performed in young children, we examined how a child's age and the size of the dermatological surgical area affected the levels of parental anxiety and concern. The parents' levels of anxiety and concern were accessed by parental self-reports in a prospective observational study of 106 children undergoing dermatological surgery. Correlation analysis showed that the level of parental anxiety decreased with the child's age. In contrast, the level of parental anxiety increased with the size of the surgical area. Our findings thus indicate that parents whose children undergo large-sized surgeries at a young age are at high risk. This result should be considered when performing dermatological surgery in children.

  5. WITHDRAWN: Hypnosis for children undergoing dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Al-Harasi, Sharifa; Ashley, Paul F; Moles, David R; Parekh, Susan; Walters, Val

    2017-06-20

    Managing children is a challenge that many dentists face. Many non-pharmacological techniques have been developed to manage anxiety and behavioural problems in children, such us: 'tell, show & do', positive reinforcement, modelling and hypnosis. The use of hypnosis is generally an overlooked area, hence the need for this review. This systematic review attempted to answer the question: What is the effectiveness of hypnosis (with or without sedation) for behaviour management of children who are receiving dental care in order to allow successful completion of treatment?Null hypothesis: Hypnosis has no effect on the outcome of dental treatment of children. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE (OVID), and PsycINFO. Electronic and manual searches were performed using controlled vocabulary and free text terms with no language restrictions. Date of last search: 11th June 2010. All children and adolescents aged up to 16 years of age. Children having any dental treatment, such as: simple restorative treatment with or without local anaesthetic, simple extractions or management of dental trauma. Information regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcome measures and results were independently extracted, in duplicate, by two review authors. Authors of trials were contacted for details of randomisation and withdrawals and a quality assessment was carried out. The methodological quality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was assessed using the criteria described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.0.2. Only three RCTs (with 69 participants) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Statistical analysis and meta-analysis were not possible due to insufficient number of studies. Although there are a considerable number of anecdotal accounts indicating the benefits of using hypnosis in paediatric dentistry, on the basis of the three studies meeting the inclusion criteria for this review there

  6. Combined use of phenoxybenzamine and dopamine for low cardiac output syndrome in children at withdrawal from cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, M; Minamikawa, O; Yokochi, H; Maki, S; Yasuda, T; Mizukawa, Y

    1980-04-01

    The combined use of phenoxybenzamine and dopamine was applied in infants and children when it was difficult to come off cardiopulmonary bypass for low cardiac output. The rationale of this method is to prevent the alpha-adrenergic action of dopamine by phenoxybenzamine and to encourage the beta-adrenergic and direct specific action of dopamine. Dopamine was used in dosage of 10 to 30 micrograms/kg per min after the additional administration of a half of the initial dosage of phenoxybenzamine; this was infused by drip always in a dosage of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg during the first half of cardiopulmonary bypass. It was possible to come off cardiopulmonary bypass with a stable haemodynamic state (mean arterial pressure more than 60 mmHg and total peripheral vascular resistance less than 2000 bynes s cm-5) and a good urinary output.

  7. Combined use of phenoxybenzamine and dopamine for low cardiac output syndrome in children at withdrawal from cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, M; Minamikawa, O; Yokochi, H; Maki, S; Yasuda, T; Mizukawa, Y

    1980-01-01

    The combined use of phenoxybenzamine and dopamine was applied in infants and children when it was difficult to come off cardiopulmonary bypass for low cardiac output. The rationale of this method is to prevent the alpha-adrenergic action of dopamine by phenoxybenzamine and to encourage the beta-adrenergic and direct specific action of dopamine. Dopamine was used in dosage of 10 to 30 micrograms/kg per min after the additional administration of a half of the initial dosage of phenoxybenzamine; this was infused by drip always in a dosage of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg during the first half of cardiopulmonary bypass. It was possible to come off cardiopulmonary bypass with a stable haemodynamic state (mean arterial pressure more than 60 mmHg and total peripheral vascular resistance less than 2000 bynes s cm-5) and a good urinary output. PMID:7397040

  8. Coping strategies used by hospitalized children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sposito, Amanda Mota Pacciulio; Silva-Rodrigues, Fernanda Machado; Sparapani, Valéria de Cássia; Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira

    2015-03-01

    To analyze coping strategies used by children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy during hospitalization. This was an exploratory study to analyze qualitative data using an inductive thematic analysis. Semistructured interviews using puppets were conducted with 10 children with cancer, between 7 and 12 years old, who were hospitalized and undergoing chemotherapy. The coping strategies to deal with chemotherapy were: understanding the need for chemotherapy; finding relief for the chemotherapy's side effects and pain; seeking pleasure in nourishment; engaging in entertaining activities and having fun; keeping the hope of cure alive; and finding support in religion. Children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy need to cope with hospitalizations, pain, medication side effects, idle time, and uncertainty regarding the success of treatment. These challenges motivated children to develop their own coping strategies, which were effective while undergoing chemotherapy. By gaining knowledge and further understanding about valid coping strategies during chemotherapy treatment, health professionals can mobilize personal and material resources from the children, health teams, and institutions aiming to potentiate the use of these strategies to make treatments the least traumatic. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  9. Cardiopulmonary exercise capacity, muscle strength, and physical activity in children and adolescents with achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Takken, Tim; van Bergen, Monique W M; Sakkers, Ralph J B; Helders, Paul J M; Engelbert, Raoul H H

    2007-01-01

    To study in children with achondroplasia the response to exercise and muscle strength compared with healthy peers and to describe the relation between exercise capacity, anthropometric factors, and physical activity. Patients (7 boys and 10 girls; mean age, 11.8 +/- 3.3 years) with achondroplasia performed a maximal treadmill exercise test. Anthropometric variables and muscle strength were measured and compared with the general population. The level of everyday physical activity was measured by using a diary. Functional ability was measured by using the Activity Scale for Kids. The exercise capacity of the children with achondroplasia was significantly reduced compared with reference values. All anthropometrical measurements differed significantly from reference values. There was a decrease in muscle strength in almost all muscle groups. We found a reduced physical activity level and impairments in functional ability. Cardiopulmonary exercise capacity and muscle strength in children with achondroplasia was reduced compared with reference values. Children with achondroplasia have a unique response to exercise. Clinicians should take these characteristic differences into account when the exercise capacity of subjects with achondroplasia is being tested.

  10. Seizures Following Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Monique E.; McMeniman, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Seizures following cardiopulmonary bypass are an immediate and alarming indication that a neurologic event has occurred. A case report of a 67-year-old man undergoing aortic valve surgery who unexpectedly experiences seizures following cardiopulmonary bypass is outlined. Possible contributing factors including atheromatous disease in the aorta, low cerebral perfusion pressures, an open-chamber procedure, and the use of tranexamic acid are identified. PMID:27729707

  11. Change in Free Radical and Antioxidant Enzyme Levels in the Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Türker, Fevzi Sarper; Doğan, Ayşe; Ozan, Gonca; Kıbar, Kurtuluş; Erışır, Mine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to determine the changes in oxidative damage and antioxidant parameters in open heart surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in preoperative and early postoperative periods. Methods. A total of three consecutive arterial blood samples were obtained from the patients in the study group, in preoperative, early postoperative, and postoperative periods, respectively. Oxidative damage indicator (MDA) and antioxidant indicators (GPx, GSH, CAT, and SOD) were examined. Results. A statistically significant increase was observed in MDA level in postoperative period compared to preoperative and early postoperative periods. GSH levels and CAT activities increased significantly in early postoperative and postoperative periods. Analyses revealed an increase in GPx and SOD enzyme activities only in the postoperative period. Conclusion. Even though the increase in MDA level was suppressed by the increased GSH level and CAT activity like in early postoperative period, efficiency can be brought for the increases in insufficient significant antioxidant parameters in postoperative period by administering antioxidant supplements to the patients and thus the increase in MDA in postoperative period can be significantly suppressed.

  12. Change in Free Radical and Antioxidant Enzyme Levels in the Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Ozan, Gonca; Kıbar, Kurtuluş; Erışır, Mine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to determine the changes in oxidative damage and antioxidant parameters in open heart surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in preoperative and early postoperative periods. Methods. A total of three consecutive arterial blood samples were obtained from the patients in the study group, in preoperative, early postoperative, and postoperative periods, respectively. Oxidative damage indicator (MDA) and antioxidant indicators (GPx, GSH, CAT, and SOD) were examined. Results. A statistically significant increase was observed in MDA level in postoperative period compared to preoperative and early postoperative periods. GSH levels and CAT activities increased significantly in early postoperative and postoperative periods. Analyses revealed an increase in GPx and SOD enzyme activities only in the postoperative period. Conclusion. Even though the increase in MDA level was suppressed by the increased GSH level and CAT activity like in early postoperative period, efficiency can be brought for the increases in insufficient significant antioxidant parameters in postoperative period by administering antioxidant supplements to the patients and thus the increase in MDA in postoperative period can be significantly suppressed. PMID:28101295

  13. A novel protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis based on preoperative kidney function in patients undergoing open heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Odaka, Mizuho; Minakata, Kenji; Toyokuni, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Kazuhiro; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Sakata, Ryuzo; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to develop and assess the effectiveness of a protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis based on preoperative kidney function in patients undergoing open heart surgery. We established a protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis based on preoperative kidney function in patients undergoing open heart surgery. This novel protocol was assessed by comparing patients undergoing open heart surgery before (control group; n = 30) and after its implementation (protocol group; n = 31) at Kyoto University Hospital between July 2012 and January 2013. Surgical site infections (SSIs) were observed in 4 control group patients (13.3 %), whereas no SSIs were observed in the protocol group patients (P < 0.05). The total duration of antibiotic use decreased significantly from 80.7 ± 17.6 h (mean ± SD) in the control group to 55.5 ± 14.9 h in the protocol group (P < 0.05). Similarly, introduction of the protocol significantly decreased the total antibiotic dose used in the perioperative period (P < 0.05). Furthermore, antibiotic regimens were changed under suspicion of infection in 5 of 30 control group patients, whereas none of the protocol group patients required this additional change in the antibiotic regimen (P < 0.05). Our novel antibiotic prophylaxis protocol based on preoperative kidney function effectively prevents SSIs in patients undergoing open heart surgery.

  14. Vitamin D Status After Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Children With Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Abou Zahr, Riad; Faustino, Edward Vincent S; Carpenter, Thomas; Kirshbom, Paul; Hall, E Kevin; Fahey, John T; Kandil, Sarah B

    2016-06-01

    Deficiency in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the critically ill. Children who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are typically deficient in 25OHD. It is unclear whether this deficiency is due to CPB. We hypothesized that CPB reduces the levels of 25OHD in children with congenital heart disease. We conducted a prospective observational study on children aged 2 months to 17 years who underwent CPB. Serum was collected at 3 time points: immediately before, immediately after surgery, and 24 hours after surgery. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, vitamin D binding protein, and albumin levels were measured. Levels were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. We enrolled 20 patients, 40% were deficient in 25OHD with levels <20 ng/mL prior to surgery. Mean (±standard deviation) of 25OHD at the 3 time points was 21.3 ± 8 ng/mL, 19 ± 5.8 ng/mL, and 19.5 ± 6.6 ng/mL, respectively (P = .02). The decrease in 25OHD was observed primarily in children with sufficient levels of 25OHD, with mean levels at the 3 time points: 26.8 ± 4.2 ng/mL, 21.5 ± 5.7 ng/mL, and 23.0 ± 4.9 ng/mL, respectively (P < .001). Calculated means of free fraction of 25OHD at the 3 time points were 6.2 ± 2.8 pg/mL, 5.8 ± 2.2 pg/mL, and 5.5 ± 2.4 pg/mL, respectively, (P = .04). Mean levels of 1,25(OH)2D were 63.7 ± 34.9 ng/mL, 53.2 ± 30.6 ng/mL, and 67.7 ± 23.5 ng/mL (P = .04). Vitamin D binding protein and albumin levels did not significantly change. Cardiopulmonary bypass decreases 25OHD by reducing the free fraction. Current investigations are geared to establish whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with outcomes and if treatment is appropriate.

  15. Pilot Comparison of Three Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Medication Dosing Strategies in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Pinchevsky, Lyndsy E.; Pesaturo, Kimberly A.; Smith, Brian S.; Hartman, Christian A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Dose calculations using three variations of patient weight estimates (actual body weight [ABW], ideal body weight [IBW], and the Broselow Pediatric Emergency Tape [BPET, a length-based weight estimation tool]) were compared to administered doses of cardiopulmonary resuscitation medications in overweight and obese children to assess for differences in dose. METHODS This retrospective cohort analysis included 54 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent emergency resuscitation at UMass Memorial Medical Center between January 2000 and October 2008. Patients were identified using ICD-9 codes related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Patients were included if they were overweight or obese, less than 12 years of age, less than 146 centimeters in length, and received emergency resuscitation medication(s). Doses of administered medications were recorded and compared to potential doses calculated based on ABW, IBW and the dose recommended by the BPET. Dose differences greater than 10% were considered clinically significant and dose differences greater than 20% were considered to be potential medication errors. RESULTS Out of 54 possible patients, four overweight patients were included; none were obese. Ten total medication doses were assessed (minimum two per patient). In all patients, at least one comparator dose varied by greater than 20% from the administered dose. Four out of 10 doses calculated according to ABW, eight out of 10 doses calculated with IBW, and eight out of 10 doses recommended by the BPET all differed by greater than 20% from the administered dose. CONCLUSIONS Dosing variations were observed when the dose received was compared to dosing using three variants of patient weight estimates. The largest dosing differences were observed upon comparison of the administered dose versus the dose recommended by the BPET. PMID:22477816

  16. Pilot comparison of three cardiopulmonary resuscitation medication dosing strategies in overweight children.

    PubMed

    Pinchevsky, Lyndsy E; Pesaturo, Kimberly A; Smith, Brian S; Hartman, Christian A

    2010-10-01

    Dose calculations using three variations of patient weight estimates (actual body weight [ABW], ideal body weight [IBW], and the Broselow Pediatric Emergency Tape [BPET, a length-based weight estimation tool]) were compared to administered doses of cardiopulmonary resuscitation medications in overweight and obese children to assess for differences in dose. This retrospective cohort analysis included 54 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent emergency resuscitation at UMass Memorial Medical Center between January 2000 and October 2008. Patients were identified using ICD-9 codes related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Patients were included if they were overweight or obese, less than 12 years of age, less than 146 centimeters in length, and received emergency resuscitation medication(s). Doses of administered medications were recorded and compared to potential doses calculated based on ABW, IBW and the dose recommended by the BPET. Dose differences greater than 10% were considered clinically significant and dose differences greater than 20% were considered to be potential medication errors. Out of 54 possible patients, four overweight patients were included; none were obese. Ten total medication doses were assessed (minimum two per patient). In all patients, at least one comparator dose varied by greater than 20% from the administered dose. Four out of 10 doses calculated according to ABW, eight out of 10 doses calculated with IBW, and eight out of 10 doses recommended by the BPET all differed by greater than 20% from the administered dose. Dosing variations were observed when the dose received was compared to dosing using three variants of patient weight estimates. The largest dosing differences were observed upon comparison of the administered dose versus the dose recommended by the BPET.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Prophylactic Ampicillin-Sulbactam and Dosing Optimization in Patients Undergoing Cardiovascular Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yuta; Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Ikawa, Kazuro; Watanabe, Erika; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Imoto, Yutaka; Morikawa, Norifumi; Takeda, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic concentrations must be maintained at an adequate level throughout cardiovascular surgery to prevent surgical site infection. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate timing for intraoperative repeated dosing of ampicillin-sulbactam, a commonly used antibiotic prophylaxis regimen, to maintain adequate concentrations throughout the course of cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The total plasma concentrations of ampicillin were monitored in 8 patients after ampicillin (1 g)-sulbactam (0.5 g) administration via initial intravenous infusion and subsequent CPB priming. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated and used to predict the free plasma concentrations of ampicillin. The mean values for the volume of distribution, elimination rate constant, elimination half-life, and total clearance of ampicillin were 15.8±4.1 L, 0.505±0.186 h(-1), 1.52±0.47 h, and 7.72±2.72 L/h, respectively. When ampicillin (1 g)-sulbactam (0.5 g) was intravenously administered every 3, 4, 6, and 12 h after the start of CPB, the predicted free trough plasma concentrations of ampicillin were 15.20, 8.25, 2.74, and 0.13 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, an every-6-h regimen was needed to maintain the free ampicillin concentration at more than 2 µg/mL during cardiovascular surgery with CPB. We suggest that the dose and dosing interval for ampicillin-sulbactam should be adjusted to optimize the efficacy and safety of treatment, according to the minimum inhibitory concentrations for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolates at each institution. UMIN000007356.

  18. Does Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cause Rib Fractures in Children? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Sabine; Mann, Mala; John, Nia; Ellaway, Bev; Sibert, Jo R.; Kemp, Alison M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is a diagnostic dilemma when a child presents with rib fractures after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where child abuse is suspected as the cause of collapse. We have performed a systematic review to establish the evidence base for the following questions: (i) Does cardiopulmonary resuscitation cause rib fractures in…

  19. Does Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cause Rib Fractures in Children? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Sabine; Mann, Mala; John, Nia; Ellaway, Bev; Sibert, Jo R.; Kemp, Alison M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is a diagnostic dilemma when a child presents with rib fractures after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where child abuse is suspected as the cause of collapse. We have performed a systematic review to establish the evidence base for the following questions: (i) Does cardiopulmonary resuscitation cause rib fractures in…

  20. Cardiopulmonary pathology among children resident at high altitude in Tintaya, Peru: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Huicho, Luis; Niermeyer, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Symptomatic high-altitude pulmonary hypertension and structural cardiac abnormalities related to high altitude have been reported previously. However, their true prevalence has not been systematically determined. We assessed clinical indicators of cardiovascular health or disease and correlated them with anatomic and physiologic cardiovascular features in preschool and schoolchildren living at 4000 m. We also estimated the prevalence of cardiovascular problems in the population, with emphasis on symptomatic high altitude pulmonary hypertension and structural cardiopathies. Three hundred and twenty-six children residents of Tintaya, Peru, were cross-sectionally studied. Methods included structured interviews, anthropometry and physical examination, arterial oxygen saturation, hemoglobin determination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. The prevalence of structural cardiac problems was 1.5%, with less than 1% possibly attributable to high altitude. All children with structural cardiac abnormalities were identified by a focused physical exam prior to echocardiography. None were identified by the health interview. No symptomatic high altitude pulmonary hypertension was identified in the absence of underlying structural anomalies. The prevalence of structural cardiac problems was consistent with data from sea level. Active monitoring of the health status of a pediatric population at high altitude is valuable in the timely detection of cardiac abnormalities. Although our study children enjoyed generally excellent health, comparative, longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the incidence of high altitude cardiopulmonary problems and to identify risk factors and early markers for later disorders associated to life at high altitude. Our findings are applicable to children with some degree of high altitude genetic background and high mobility patterns to lower altitudes and living in comparatively good nutritional and socioeconomic conditions.

  1. Release of lipopolysaccharide toxicity-modulating proteins in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass using noncoated and heparin-coated extracorporeal circuits. A clinical pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bouma, M; Maessen, J; Weerwind, P; Dentener, M; Fransen, E; de Jong, D; Buurman, W

    1997-03-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces a generalized inflammatory response, including activation of leukocytes, contributing to postoperative morbidity. The inflammatory pathways leading to this systemic inflammatory response syndrome are considered identical to those involved in septic shock. Therefore, we studied the release of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and soluble CD14 (sCD14)-all proteins that modulate the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-in patients undergoing CPB. In addition, the effect of heparin coating of the extracorporeal bypass circuit on the release of these parameters was assessed. Prospective, randomized clinical pilot study. Cardiothoracic Surgery Department in a university hospital. Fourteen patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting were included. Seven patients underwent CPB using a standard, noncoated extracorporeal circuit, and seven patients had CPB using a heparin-coated extracorporeal circuit (Duraflo II). Blood samples were taken after induction of anesthesia, just before aortic crossclamping, and 0, 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after declamping. CPB with a noncoated extracorporeal circuit induced a sharp increase in neutrophil-derived BPI, manifest directly after release of the aortic crossclamp, which was significantly attenuated using a heparin-coated system. Also, CPB induced a gradual increase of the acute-phase reactant LBP, which was identical in the noncoated and heparin-coated groups. Systemic release of sCD14 after crossclamp release was significantly higher in the noncoated group compared with the heparin-coated group, but did not rise above baseline levels. These data confirm that CPB-induced leukocyte activation is attenuated using a heparin-treated extracorporeal circuit and point to the possible role of LPS toxicity-modulating proteins in the systemic inflammatory response after bypass surgery.

  2. Characteristics of Children Who Undergo Intraosseous Needle Placement.

    PubMed

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Patrick, Dana; Kantor, Elizabeth; Nolin, Cathy; Foley, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Intraosseous (IO) access is a standard of care for pediatric emergencies in the absence of conventional intravenous access. Intraosseous needles provide access for resuscitation fluids and medications and are often placed in the emergency department. However, there are no studies to date that describe the characteristics of pediatric IO needle recipients or their dispositions and outcomes. This study examined the characteristics and disposition of children following IO needle placement by prehospital and emergency room teams before being transported to a children's hospital. We conducted a retrospective descriptive analysis of pediatric patients who had an IO needle placed as a part of their transport care. Data was extracted from a Level 1 trauma tertiary care children's hospital transport database from 1993 to 2009. We measured diagnosis, insertion reason, insertion time (day vs. night shift), complications, and disposition of patients after IO needle placement. There were 143 eligible patients in the study; 65% were males. Mean patient's age was 1.2 years (range: 0.01-13 years). Intraosseous needles were placed most often for patients with cardiopulmonary compromise. Of the 143 patients transported, 53% (n = 76) were placed for no intravenous access and 34% (n = 49) were placed for nonperfusing rhythm. The majority of the IO needles were placed during the daytime (0700-1900 hr), and most patients experienced no complications (n = 67; 47%). However, of those who experienced a complication, 27% were due to infiltration of the IO needle. Of those admitted to hospital, 58% (n = 83) were ultimately discharged home. Intraosseous access provides a safe and reliable method for rapidly achieving a route for administration of medications, fluids and blood products. It is a lifesaving measure with most IO needles successfully placed by referring facilities prior to transport, with few reported complications.

  3. Role of exercise and nutrition on cardiopulmonary fitness and pulmonary functions on residential and non-residential school children.

    PubMed

    Khodnapur, Jyoti P; Dhanakshirur, Gopal B; Aithala, Manjunatha

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival and to lead a healthy life. Our aim is to find out effect of exercise and nutrition on physical fitness on growing children with scientific records. The present study was designed on healthy school children of a Residential-Sainik (100) and Non-Residential (100) school children (12-16 yrs) of Bijapur. To evaluate cardiopulmonary fitness parameters included are VO2Max (ml/kg/min) and Physical Fitness Index (PFI %). Harvard Step Test determined VO2 Max and PFI. Also recorded pulmonary function parameters like Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1 in %) by recording spirometry. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR in L/Min) by Peak flow meter and Maximal Expiratory Pressure (MEP in mmHg) by modified Black's apparatus. We found statistically significant higher values (p = 0.000) of VO2Max, PFI, FEV1, PEFR and MEP in residential school children compared to nonresidential school children higher. So, our study shows that regular exercise and nutritious food increase the cardiopulmonary fitness values and pulmonary functions in Residential school children.

  4. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents' Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement.

    PubMed

    Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte; Engvall, Gunn; Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80-90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child's and the parent's view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents' experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents' suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2-16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people's lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child's suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process.

  5. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents’ Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80–90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child’s and the parent’s view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents’ experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents’ suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2–16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people’s lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child’s suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process. PMID:26509449

  6. Massage for Children Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Qualitative Report

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Sara L.; Lown, E. Anne; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Dunn, Elizabeth A.; Abrams, Donald I.; Horn, Biljana N.; Degelman, Marcia; Cowan, Morton J.; Mehling, Wolf E.

    2012-01-01

    Background. No in-depth qualitative research exists about the effects of therapeutic massage with children hospitalized to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The objective of this study is to describe parent caregivers' experience of the effects of massage/acupressure for their children undergoing HCT. Methods. We conducted a qualitative analysis of open-ended interviews with 15 parents of children in the intervention arm of a massage/acupressure trial. Children received both practitioner and parent-provided massage/acupressure. Results. Parents reported that their child experienced relief from pain and nausea, relaxation, and greater ease falling asleep. They also reported increased caregiver competence and closeness with their child as a result of learning and performing massage/acupressure. Parents supported a semistandardized massage protocol. Conclusion. Massage/acupressure may support symptom relief and promote relaxation and sleep among pediatric HCT patients if administered with attention to individual patients' needs and hospital routines and may relieve stress among parents, improve caregiver competence, and enhance the sense of connection between parent and child. PMID:22474526

  7. Caring for children undergoing radiotherapy treatment: Swedish radiotherapy nurses' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Gårdling, J; Edwinson Månsson, M; Törnqvist, E; Hallström, I

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to explore radiotherapy nurses' perceptions of their experiences of caring for children undergoing radiotherapy treatment for cancer. Semi-structured interviews of 12 nurses were conducted. The interviews were analysed using a phenomenographical approach. All interviewees were women, and the group's mean age was 49 years. Caring for children during radiotherapy treatment was perceived as a complex task. Their perceptions included views on providing holistic care, creating a sense of security and being committed. Through holistic care the radiotherapy nurses took responsibility regarding care for the child and family, technical aspects of the radiotherapy procedure and the development of their profession. They tried to create a sense of security through individualized information and preparation, through teamwork with the child and family, and regarding anaesthetic personnel (if needed) while balancing the care they gave related to the child, to the family, to anaesthetic personnel, and to their own tasks. The radiotherapy nurses perceived themselves as committed in their care and reported being emotionally affected by sadness, but also joy. By clarifying radiotherapy nurses perceptions of caring for children guidelines can be developed to lessen anxiety and increase the sense of security amongst children undergoing radiotherapy treatment and their family members. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Levosimendan facilitates weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with impaired left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Heidi I; Jalonen, Jouko R; Heikkinen, Leo O; Kivikko, Matti; Laine, Mika; Leino, Kari A; Kuitunen, Anne H; Kuttila, Kari T; Peräkylä, Tarja K; Sarapohja, Toni; Suojaranta-Ylinen, Raili T; Valtonen, Mika; Salmenperä, Markku T

    2009-02-01

    Levosimendan is a compound with vasodilatory and inotropic properties. Experimental data suggest effective reversal of stunning and cardioprotective properties. This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study included 60 patients with 3-vessel coronary disease and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of less than 0.50. Levosimendan administration (12 microg/kg bolus, followed by an infusion of 0.2 microg/kg/min) was started immediately after induction anesthesia. Predefined strict hemodynamic criteria were used to assess the success of weaning. If weaning was not successful, CPB was reinstituted and an epinephrine infusion was started. If the second weaning attempt failed, intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) was instituted. The groups had comparable demographics. The mean (standard deviation) preoperative LVEF was 0.36 (0.8) in both groups. The baseline cardiac index was 1.8 (0.3) L/min/m(2) in the levosimendan group and 1.9 (0.4) L/min/m(2) in the placebo group. The mean duration of CPB to primary weaning attempt was 104 (25) minutes in the levosimendan and 109 (22) minutes in the placebo group. Primary weaning was successful in 22 patients (73%) in the levosimendan group and in 10 (33%) in the placebo group (p = 0.002). The odds ratio for failure in primary weaning was 0.182 (95% confidence interval, 0.060 to 0.552). Four patients in the placebo group failed the second weaning and underwent IABP compared with none in the levosimendan group (p = 0.112). Levosimendan significantly enhanced primary weaning from CPB compared with placebo in patients undergoing 3-vessel on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. The need for additional inotropic or mechanical therapy was decreased.

  9. The air-leak test is not a good predictor of postextubation adverse events in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Pertti K; Tuominen, Netta A; Salminen, Jukka T; Korpela, Reijo E; Klockars, Jaakko G M; Taivainen, Tomi R; Meretoja, Olli A

    2007-04-01

    The air-leak test is recommended as a method of assessing the appropriate size of an uncuffed endotracheal tube (ETT) in children. The authors' primary objective was to determine whether the air-leak test would predict adverse events and reintubations after the removal of the ETT in children who have undergone cardiac surgery. Prospective, observational, clinical study. University tertiary care hospital. Ninety-four children <10 years of age undergoing elective cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. The attending anesthesiologist assessed air-leak pressure after intubation in the operating room (OR). In addition, the air-leak test was performed in 42 patients before extubation in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The incidence of adverse events and the number of failed extubations were recorded after removal of the ETT. Eleven of the 94 patients were excluded from the study. Four (4.3%) of the patients died in the PICU before extubation, and 7 patients were excluded for other reasons. The median age of the 83 children was 0.9 years (range 0.01-9.6 years). The total incidences of postextubation adverse events and failed extubations were 30.1% and 8.4%, respectively. An audible air leak < or =25 cmH(2)O airway pressure during the OR phase or before removal of the ETT during the PICU recovery phase had no significant predictive value for the incidence of adverse events (p = 0.63) or reintubations (p = 1.0). The patients undergoing simple and complete operations compared with more complex and incomplete operations had significantly fewer postextubation adverse events (p = 0.03). Neonates did not have a higher risk for postextubation adverse events (p = 0.64) or reintubations (p = 0.26) than older children. The air-leak test did not predict an increased risk for postextubation adverse events and reintubations in children undergoing elective congenital heart surgery.

  10. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children with cystic fibrosis: one centre's experience.

    PubMed

    Weir, Elise; Burns, Paul D; Devenny, Anne; Young, David; Paton, James Y

    2017-05-01

    While exercise testing is increasingly used as a prognostic indicator in cystic fibrosis (CF), it is reported to be underused in UK CF centres, particularly in children. Here, we evaluated the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) results in children and young people with CF at CF annual review and its possible clinical value. An observational study comparing CPET results using a cycle ergometer ramp test (peak oxygen uptake (Vo2peak)) and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)) was performed with body mass index (BMI) used as a disease severity marker. Data were identified from clinical case notes and our CF database. Thirty-eight children and young people (mean age 11±2.4, range 7-14 years; 17 males and 21 females) completed at least one CPET with 95% achieving technically satisfactory tests allowing measurement of Vo2peak. Mean Vo2peak was 107 ±17.6% predicted, range 74%-150% predicted, with 8% having a reduced Vo2peak of <85% of predicted. Mean FEV1 z-score was -0.77±1.24, range -4.42 to 2.24. We did not demonstrate a significant correlation between Vo2peak % predicted and FEV1 z-score (r=0.25, p=0.13), or between Vo2peak % predicted and BMI z-score (r=-0.05, p=0.77). Twenty-eight of 38 completed a second CPET the following year with 71% showing a decline in Vo2peak (mean decline of 8% of predicted value, equivalent to 3.8 mL/kg/min). CPET is feasible with 95% of children and young people achieving technically satisfactory assessments starting from age 7. In this group with relatively mild CF, mean Vo2peak was normal with no significant correlation between Vo2peak and FEV1 or BMI, as markers of disease severity. The majority demonstrated a normal Vo2peak. However, 71% showed a downward trend on repeat testing 12-18 months later. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Noninvasive, near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and PO2 indicate tissue perfusion for cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, Babs R.; Idwasi, Patrick O.; Balaguer, Jorge; Levin, Steven; Simsir, Sinan A.; Vander Salm, Thomas J.; Collette, Helen; Heard, Stephen O.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether near infrared spectroscopic measurement of tissue pH and Po2 has sufficient accuracy to assess variation in tissue perfusion resulting from changes in blood pressure and metabolic demand during cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: Eighteen elective cardiac surgical patients. INTERVENTION: Cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A near infrared spectroscopic fiber optic probe was placed over the hypothenar eminence. Reference Po2 and pH sensors were inserted in the abductor digiti minimi (V). Data were collected every 30 secs during surgery and for 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass. Calibration equations developed from one third of the data were used with the remaining data to investigate sensitivity of the near infrared spectroscopic measurement to physiologic changes resulting from cardiopulmonary bypass. Near infrared spectroscopic and reference pH and Po2 measurements were compared for each subject using standard error of prediction. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 at baseline were compared with values during cardiopulmonary bypass just before rewarming commenced (hypotensive, hypothermic), after rewarming (hypotensive, normothermic) just before discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass, and at 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass (normotensive, normothermic) using mixed-model analysis of variance. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 were well correlated with the invasive measurement of pH (R2 =.84) and Po2 (R 2 =.66) with an average standard error of prediction of 0.022 +/- 0.008 pH units and 6 +/- 3 mm Hg, respectively. The average difference between the invasive and near infrared spectroscopic measurement was near zero for both the pH and Po2 measurements. Near infrared spectroscopic Po2 significantly decreased 50% on initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass and remained depressed throughout the bypass and

  12. Noninvasive, near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and PO2 indicate tissue perfusion for cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, Babs R.; Idwasi, Patrick O.; Balaguer, Jorge; Levin, Steven; Simsir, Sinan A.; Vander Salm, Thomas J.; Collette, Helen; Heard, Stephen O.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether near infrared spectroscopic measurement of tissue pH and Po2 has sufficient accuracy to assess variation in tissue perfusion resulting from changes in blood pressure and metabolic demand during cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: Eighteen elective cardiac surgical patients. INTERVENTION: Cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A near infrared spectroscopic fiber optic probe was placed over the hypothenar eminence. Reference Po2 and pH sensors were inserted in the abductor digiti minimi (V). Data were collected every 30 secs during surgery and for 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass. Calibration equations developed from one third of the data were used with the remaining data to investigate sensitivity of the near infrared spectroscopic measurement to physiologic changes resulting from cardiopulmonary bypass. Near infrared spectroscopic and reference pH and Po2 measurements were compared for each subject using standard error of prediction. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 at baseline were compared with values during cardiopulmonary bypass just before rewarming commenced (hypotensive, hypothermic), after rewarming (hypotensive, normothermic) just before discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass, and at 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass (normotensive, normothermic) using mixed-model analysis of variance. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 were well correlated with the invasive measurement of pH (R2 =.84) and Po2 (R 2 =.66) with an average standard error of prediction of 0.022 +/- 0.008 pH units and 6 +/- 3 mm Hg, respectively. The average difference between the invasive and near infrared spectroscopic measurement was near zero for both the pH and Po2 measurements. Near infrared spectroscopic Po2 significantly decreased 50% on initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass and remained depressed throughout the bypass and

  13. Monitoring temperature in children undergoing anaesthesia: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Drake-Brockman, T F E; Hegarty, M; Chambers, N A; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S

    2014-05-01

    Children undergoing anaesthesia are prone to hypothermia. Perioperative monitoring of patient temperature is, therefore, standard practice. Postoperative temperature is regarded as a key anaesthetic performance indicator in Australian hospitals. Many different methods and sites of temperature measurement are used perioperatively. It is unclear to what degree these methods might be interchangeable. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between temperatures measured at different sites in anaesthetised children. Two hundred children, 0 to 17 years, undergoing general anaesthesia for elective non-cardiac surgery, were prospectively recruited. Temperature measurements were taken in the operating theatre concurrently at the nasopharynx, tympanic membranes, temporal artery, axilla and skin (chest). Patient age and weight were documented. Temperatures varied according to site of measurement. The mean difference from nasopharyngeal temperature to temperatures at left and right tympanic, temporal, axillary and cutaneous sites were +0.24°C, +0.24°C, +0.35°C, -0.38°C and -1.70°C, respectively. Levels of agreement to nasopharyngeal temperature were similar at tympanic, temporal and axillary sites. Tympanic and temporal temperatures were superior to axillary temperatures for detection of mild hypothermia (<36°C). Skin temperature showed a large variation from nasopharyngeal measurements. Our findings indicate that measured temperatures vary between sites. Understanding these variations is important for interpreting temperature readings.

  14. All about ketamine premedication for children undergoing ophtalmic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Altiparmak, Başak; Akça, Başak; Yilbaş, Aysun Ankay; Çelebi, Nalan

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine is a non-barbiturate cyclohexamine derivative which produces a state of sedation, immobility, analgesia, amnesia, and dissociation from the environment. One of the most important advantages of ketamine premedication is production of balanced sedation with less respiratory depression and less changes in blood pressure or heart rate. As its effects on intracranial pressure, the possible effect of ketamine on intraocular pressure has been controversial overtime. In this study, we aimed to demostrate all the advantages and possible side effects of ketamine premedication in 100 children with retinablastoma undergoing ophthalmic surgery. All the children were premedicated with ketamine 5 mg kg-1 15 minutes before the examination orally and peroperative complications, reaction to intravenous catheter insertion, need for additive dose and intraocular pressures of children were recorded. We showed that ketamine administration orally is a safe and effective way of premedication for oncologic patients undergoing examination under general anaesthesia. The incidence of agitation, anxiety at parental separation and reaction to insertion of intravenous catheter was very low while adverse side effects were seen rarely. Intraocular pressure which is very important for most of the ophthalmic surgery patients remained in normal ranges. PMID:26885101

  15. Psychological disorders among children and the parents of children undergoing cancer workup.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ray M; Brown, R Justin; Alder, Stephen; Baker, Randy K; Byrd, A Dean; White, George L; Lyon, Joseph L

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the association between psychological problems and cancer workup in children aged less than 20 and their parents. Assessment of the potential psychological stress in these children and their parents has been inadequately studied in the past. A retrospective cohort study of anxiety or depression among children and the parents of children undergoing cancer workup, based on Deseret Mutual Benefit Administrators (DMBA) claims data and corresponding enrollment files for dependent children aged less than 20, from 1998 to 2002 in the United States and Canada. Less than 20% of cancer workups are followed by cancer diagnosis and treatment. Children with a "cancer workup only" are 89% more likely to experience anxiety/depression than are children without a cancer-related claim; that is, the rate per 100,000 person-years of anxiety/depression is 7,222 for children with a cancer workup only compared with 3,824 for children without a cancer-related claim. Mothers of children with cancer workup are 37% more likely to experience anxiety/depression. Children are significantly more likely to experience anxiety/depression if one or both of their parents experience anxiety/depression. The increased risk is influenced by whether the child experiences both cancer workup and treatment (359% higher), by cancer workup only (308% higher), and by no cancer workup or treatment (295% higher). Finally, the rate of anxiety/depression among children with cancer workup and their mothers was significantly lower in homes with more children. A cancer workup alone is sufficient to significantly increase the risk of anxiety/depression in children undergoing cancer workup and in their parents. The ability of a child undergoing a cancer workup to cope is influenced by the mental health of their parents. More children in the home are protective against anxiety/depression in children undergoing cancer workup and in their mothers.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of mild hypothermia in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: five-year follow-up of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Howard J; Rodriguez, Rosendo; Wozny, Denise; Dupuis, Jean-Yves; Rubens, Fraser D; Bryson, Gregory L; Wells, George

    2007-05-01

    In a randomized trial of 223 patients undergoing coronary artery surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, we have reported a neuroprotective effect of mild hypothermia. To determine whether the beneficial effect of mild hypothermia was long-lasting, we repeated the psychometric tests in 131 patients after 5 years. Patients were cooled to 32 degrees C during aortic crossclamping and then randomized to rewarming to either 34 degrees C or 37 degrees C, with no further rewarming until arrival in intensive care unit. Cognitive function was measured preoperatively and 1 week and 5 years postoperatively with a battery of 11 psychometric tests interrogating verbal memory, attention, and psychomotor speed and dexterity. Patients who had greater cognitive decline 1 week after surgery showed poorer performance 5 years later. The magnitude of cognitive decline over 5 years was modest. The incidence of deficits defined as a 1 standard deviation [SD] decline in at least 1 of 3 factors was not different between temperature groups. Fewer patients in the hypothermic group had deficits that persisted over the 5 years, but this difference did not attain statistical significance (RR = 0.64, P = .16). The effect of surgery on cognitive function observed early after surgery is an important predictor of cognitive performance 5 years later. Although there was evidence of a neuroprotective effect of mild hypothermia early after surgery in the original cohort, the results after 5 years were inconclusive. In general, the magnitude of cognitive changes over 5 years was modest. We believe that further trials investigating the efficacy of mild hypothermia in patients having cardiac surgery are warranted.

  17. Anxiety and personality characteristics in children undergoing dental interventions.

    PubMed

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Sarakinova, Olivera; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Loleska, Sofija

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety about and fear of dental treatment have been recognized as sources of problems in the management of child dental patients. It has been suggested that some individuals who are fearful of or anxious about dental treatment have a constitutional vulnerability to anxiety disorders as is evidenced by the presence of multiple fears, generalized anxiety or panic disorders. Concerning the child population, maternal anxiety is considered to be a major factor affecting the behaviour of young children expecting dental intervention. The aim of the study was to the measure general anxiety of children undergoing dental intervention and to compare it with some personality characteristics, such as psychopathology, extroversion and neuroticism. The evaluated sample comprises 50 children (31 girls and 19 boys), randomly selected at the University Dental Hospital, Skopje. The mean age for girls was 11.4 (± 2.4) years, and for boys 10.7 (± 2.6) years. Two psychometric instruments were used: the General Anxiety Scale for Children (GASC) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The study confirms the presence of a high anxiety level (evaluated with GASC) among all children undergoing dental intervention. It also confirmed differences in anxiety scores between girls and boys, girls having higher scores for anxiety. Personality characteristics (evaluated with EPQ) showed low psychopathological traits, moderate extroversion and neuroticism, but accentuated insincerity (evaluated with L scale). L scales are lower with increasing age, but P scores rise with age, which could be related to puberty. No correlation was found between personality traits (obtained scores for EPQ) and anxiety except for neuroticism, which is positively correlated with the level of anxiety. In the management of dental anxiety some response measures (psychological support, biofeedback, and relaxation techniques) are recommended.

  18. The influence of selective pulmonary perfusion on the inflammatory response and clinical outcome of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Arndt-Holger; Guo, Feng Wei; Gökdemir, Yildiz; Thudt, Marlene; Reyher, Christian; Scherer, Mirela; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Moritz, Anton

    2014-06-01

    Patients undergoing cardiac surgery presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a higher 30-day mortality risk. In these patients, pulmonary dysfunction linked to an inflammatory response is frequent after cardiac operations using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), which causes pulmonary hypoperfusion. We hypothesize that selective pulmonary perfusion (sPP) of the lungs leads to a reduction of pulmonary inflammation and a better clinical outcome. Fifty-nine COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/vital capacity <70%) undergoing cardiac surgery procedures (coronary artery bypass grafting 64%, valve 14%) were block-randomized to sPP (venous blood, temperature 2°C, 4 l) or standard CPB (28/28). The primary end-point of the study was to evaluate the effect of pulmonary perfusion on gas exchange by measuring alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. The surrogate end-points were inflammatory response, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, time on respirator (TOR) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. A cytokine assay for interleukin-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and polymorphonuclear elastase was performed with peripheral blood at different time-points [(t1) pre-CPB, (t2) end of CPB, (t3) 3 h, (t4) 24 h, (t5) 48 h postoperatively]. Repeated-measure analysis of variance and non-parametric statistics were used to assess the between-group and during time differences. The two groups proved comparable for perioperative variables. Serum cytokines were not different in the two groups throughout the study (P > 0.05 at single time-points), but as a function of time, the markers of the inflammatory response increased after CBP (P < 0.05 pre-CPB to 24 h). Clinical end-points were statistically comparable in both groups, but with a trend towards a shorter TOR (72 ± 159 h/106 ± 193 h) and ICU stay (3.9 ± 7.2 days/5.5 ± 9.2 days) in the sPP group despite a slightly longer time on extracorporeal circulation (120 vs 158 min). These

  19. Differential expression of microRNAs following cardiopulmonary bypass in children with congenital heart diseases.

    PubMed

    Abu-Halima, Masood; Poryo, Martin; Ludwig, Nicole; Mark, Janine; Marsollek, Ina; Giebels, Christian; Petersen, Johannes; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim; Grundmann, Ulrich; Pickardt, Thomas; Keller, Andreas; Meese, Eckart; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim

    2017-05-30

    Children with congenital heart defects (CHDs) are at high risk for myocardial failure after operative procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the development of CHDs and myocardial failure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine alterations in the miRNA profile in heart tissue after cardiac surgery using CPB. In total, 14 tissue samples from right atrium were collected from patients before and after connection of the CPB. SurePrint™ 8 × 60K Human v21 miRNA array and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were employed to determine the miRNA expression profile from three patients before and after connection of the CPB. Enrichment analyses of altered miRNA expression were predicted using bioinformatic tools. According to miRNA array, a total of 90 miRNAs were significantly altered including 29 miRNAs with increased and 61 miRNAs with decreased expression after de-connection of CPB (n = 3) compared to before CPB (n = 3). Seven miRNAs had been validated using RT-qPCR in an independent cohort of 11 patients. Enrichment analyses applying the KEGG database displayed the highest correlation for signaling pathways, cellular community, cardiovascular disease and circulatory system. Our result identified the overall changes of the miRNome in right atrium tissue of patients with CHDs after CPB. The differentially altered miRNAs lay a good foundation for further understanding of the molecular function of changed miRNAs in regulating CHDs and after CPB in particular.

  20. Disseminating cardiopulmonary resuscitation training by distributing 35,000 personal manikins among school children.

    PubMed

    Isbye, Dan L; Rasmussen, Lars S; Ringsted, Charlotte; Lippert, Freddy K

    2007-09-18

    Because most cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the incidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by lay persons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mass distribution of CPR instructional materials among schoolchildren. We distributed 35,002 resuscitation manikins to pupils (12 to 14 years of age) at 806 primary schools. Using the enclosed 24-minute instructional DVD, they trained in CPR and subsequently used the kit to train family and friends (second tier). They completed a questionnaire on who had trained in CPR using the kit. Teachers also were asked to evaluate the project. The incidence of bystander CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the months following the project was compared with the previous year. In total, 6947 questionnaires (19.8%) were returned. The 6947 kits had been used to train 17,140 from the second tier (mean, 2.5 persons per pupil; 95% confidence interval, 2.4 to 2.5). The teachers had used a mean of 64 minutes (95% confidence interval, 60 to 68) for preparation and a mean of 13 minutes (95% confidence interval, 11 to 15) to tidy up. Incidence of bystander CPR in the months after the project did not increase significantly compared with the previous year (25.0% versus 27.9%; P=0.16). CPR training can be disseminated in a population by distributing personal resuscitation manikins among children in primary schools. The teachers felt able to easily facilitate CPR training. The incidence of bystander CPR did not increase significantly in the months following the project.

  1. Effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on cerebral blood flow in neonates, infants, and children

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley, W.J.; Ungerleider, R.M.; Kern, F.H.; Brusino, F.G.; Smith, L.R.; Reves, J.G. )

    1989-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) management in neonates, infants, and children requires extensive alterations in temperature, pump flow rate, and perfusion pressure, with occasional periods of circulatory arrest. The effect of these alterations on cerebral blood flow (CBF) are unknown. This study was designed to determine the relation of temperature and mean arterial pressure to CBF during hypothermic CPB (18-32{degrees}C), with and without periods of total circulatory arrest. CBF was measured before, during, and after hypothermic CPB with xenon-clearance techniques in 67 pediatric patients, aged 1 day-16 years. Patients were grouped based on different CPB techniques: group A, repair during moderate-hypothermic bypass at 25-32{degrees}C; group B, repair during deep-hypothermic bypass at 18-22{degrees}C; and group C, repair with total circulatory arrest at 18{degrees}C. There was a significant correlation of CBF with temperature during CPB. CBF significantly decreased under hypothermic conditions in all groups compared with prebypass levels under normothermia. In groups A and B, CBF returned to baseline levels in the rewarming phase of CPB and exceeded baseline levels after bypass. In group C, no significant increase in CBF was observed during rewarming after total circulatory arrest (32 {plus minus} 12 minutes) or after weaning from CPB. During moderate-hypothermic CPB (25-32{degrees}C), there was no association between CBF and mean arterial pressure. However, during deep-hypothermic CPB (18-22{degrees}C), there was a association between CBF and mean arterial pressure.

  2. Induced apnea enhances image quality and visualization of cardiopulmonary anatomic during contrastenhanced cardiac computerized tomographic angiography in children.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Murali; Sunilkumar, Gubbihalli; Pargaonkar, Sumant; Hosur, Rajathadri; Harivelam, Chidananda; Kavaraganahalli, Deepak; Srinivasan, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of induced apnea on quality of cardiopulmonary structures during computerized tomographic (CT) angiography images in children with congenital heart diseases. Pediatric patients with congenital heart defects undergoing cardiac CT angiography at our facility in the past 3 years participated in this study. The earlier patients underwent cardiac CT angiography without induced apnea and while, later, apnea was induced in patients, which was followed by electrocardiogram gated cardiac CT angiography. General anesthesia was induced using sleep dose of intravenous propofol. After the initial check CT, on request by the radiologist, apnea was induced by the anesthesiologist by administering 1 mg/kg of intravenous suxamethonium. Soon after apnea ensued, the contrast was injected, and CT angiogram carried out. CT images in the "apnea group" were compared with those in "nonapnea group." After the completion of the procedure, the patients were mask ventilated with 100% oxygen till the spontaneous ventilation was restored. We studied 46 patients, of whom 36 with apnea and yet another 10 without. The quality of the image, visualization of structures such as cardiac wall, outflow tracts, lung field, aortopulmonary shunts, and coronary arteries were analyzed and subjected to statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney U, Fischer's exact test and Pearson's Chi-square test). In the induced apnea group, overall image quality was considered excellent in 89% (n = 33) of the studies, while in the "no apnea group," only 30% of studies were excellent. Absent or minimal motion artifacts were seen in a majority of the studies in apnea group (94%). In the nonapnea group, the respiratory and body motion artifacts were severe in 50%, moderate in 30%, and minimal in 20%, but they were significantly lesser in the apnea group. All the studied parameters were statistically significant in the apnea group in contrast to nonapnea group (P < 0.000). The image

  3. Dexamethasone and risk of bleeding in children undergoing tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Mahant, Sanjay; Keren, Ron; Localio, Russell; Luan, Xianqun; Song, Lihai; Shah, Samir S; Tieder, Joel S; Wilson, Karen M; Elden, Lisa; Srivastava, Rajendu

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether dexamethasone use in children undergoing tonsillectomy is associated with increased risk of postoperative bleeding. Retrospective cohort study using a multihospital administrative database. Thirty-six US children's hospitals. Children undergoing same-day tonsillectomy between the years 2004 and 2010. We used discrete time failure models to estimate the daily hazards of revisits for bleeding (emergency department or hospital admission) up to 30 days after surgery as a function of dexamethasone use. Revisits were standardized for patient characteristics, antibiotic use, year of surgery, and hospital. Of 139,715 children who underwent same-day tonsillectomy, 97,242 (69.6%) received dexamethasone and 4182 (3.0%) had a 30-day revisit for bleeding. The 30-day cumulative standardized risk of revisits for bleeding was greater with dexamethasone use (3.11% vs 2.71%; standardized difference 0.40% [95% confidence interval, 0.13%-0.67%]; P = .003), and the increased risk was observed across all age strata. Dexamethasone use was associated with a higher standardized rate of revisits for bleeding in the postdischarge time periods of days 1 through 5 but not during the peak period for secondary bleeding, days 6 and 7. In a real-world practice setting, dexamethasone use was associated with a small absolute increased risk of revisits for bleeding. However, the upper bound of this risk increase does not cross published thresholds for a minimal clinically important difference. Given the benefits of dexamethasone in reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting and the larger body of evidence from trials, these results support guideline recommendations for the routine use of dexamethasone.

  4. Obesity Increases Operative Time in Children Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Pandian, T K; Ubl, Daniel S; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have assessed the impact of obesity on laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in pediatric patients. Children who underwent LC were identified from the 2012 to 2013 American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatrics data. Patient characteristics, operative details, and outcomes were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to identify predictors of increased operative time (OT) and duration of anesthesia (DOAn). In total, 1757 patients were identified. Due to low rates of obesity in children <9 years old, analyses were limited to those 9-17 (n = 1611, 43% obese). Among obese children, 80.6% were girls. A higher proportion of obese patients had diabetes (3.0% versus 1.0%, P < .01) and contaminated or dirty/infected wounds (15.1% versus 9.4%, P < .01). Complication rates were low. The most frequent indications for surgery were cholelithiasis/biliary colic (34.3%), chronic cholecystitis (26.9%), and biliary dyskinesia (18.2%). On multivariable analysis, obesity was an independent predictor of OT >90 (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.55-2.63), and DOAn >140 minutes (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.42-2.43). Obesity is an independent risk factor for increased OT in children undergoing LC. Pediatric surgeons and anesthesiologists should be prepared for the technical and physiological challenges that obesity may pose in this patient population.

  5. Parent-Controlled Analgesia in Children Undergoing Cleft Palate Repair

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Ho; Lee, Woo Kyung; Lee, Sung Jin; Bai, Sun Jun; Lee, Su Hyun; Park, Beyoung Yun

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to find an optimal basal infusion dose of fentanyl for parent-controlled analgesia (PrCA) in children undergoing cleft palate repair and the degree of parents' satisfaction with PrCA. Thirty consecutive children between 6 months and 2 yr of age were enrolled. At the end of surgery, a PrCA device with a basal infusion rate of 2 mL/hr and bolus of 0.5 mL with lockout time of 15 min was applied. Parents were educated in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) devices, the Wong Baker face pain scoring system, and monitoring of adverse effects of fentanyl. Fentanyl was infused 0.3 µg/kg/hr at first, and we obtained a predetermined fentanyl regimen by the response of the previous patient to a larger or smaller dose of fentanyl (0.1 µg/kg/hr as the step size), using an up-and-down method. ED50 and ED95 by probit analysis were 0.63 µg/kg/hr (95% confidence limits, 0.55-0.73 µg/kg/hr) and 0.83 µg/kg/hr (95% confidence limits, 0.73-1.47 µg/kg/hr), respectively. Eighty seven percent of the parents were satisfied with participating in the PrCA modality. PrCA using fentanyl with a basal infusion rate of 0.63 µg/kg/hr can be applied effectively for postoperative pain management in children undergoing cleft palate repair with a high level of parents' satisfaction. PMID:18303211

  6. Telecommunication system for children undergoing stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Kazumi; Nakazawa, Yozo; Sakata, Nobuhiro; Takizawa, Masaomi; Ohso, Keiko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yanagisawa, Ryu; Koike, Kenichi

    2011-12-01

    Isolation in a germ-free unit is a stressful experience for pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To reduce the psychological distress of such children, a Web-based telecommunications system was developed. The authors developed a telecommunication system that linked a laminar air flow (LAF) room that had a high efficiency particulate air filter with the hospital school/patients' homes via the Internet. Fifteen children isolated in the LAF room for allogeneic HSCT were enrolled in this study. The present study evaluated whether the system was feasible for the patients during the acute phase of HSCT. In 10 patients, the proportion of days when they telecommunicated with teachers and/or other patients in the hospital school was 64.6 ± 32.3%. The telecommunication with the hospital school facilitated the continuation of school study under teachers' guidance, reducing the problem of lost schooling. In 13 patients, the proportion of days when they telecommunicated with their homes was 68.0 ± 34.8%. Ten of them frequently telecommunicated with their family members (especially siblings), and three patients called out to their pets at home. The incidence of telecommunication on the days when the patients had HSCT-related symptoms including vomiting did not differ from that of telecommunication on the days when no symptoms were evident. A telecommunication system linked to a hospital school and/or the patients' homes is feasible for children undergoing HSCT, and may improve their health-related quality of life. A larger, prospective study is required to evaluate whether the telecommunication system can reduce HSCT-associated psychological and psychiatric symptoms. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. The Effect of Desmopressin on the Amount of Bleeding in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery with a Cardiopulmonary Bypass Pump After Taking Anti-Platelet Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mirmansoori, Ali; Farzi, Farnoush; Sedighinejad, Abbas; Imantalab, Vali; mohammadzadeh, Ali; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghazanfar Tehran, Samaneh; Nemati, Maryam; Dehghan, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a common surgical intervention at the end-stages of coronary artery occlusion disease. Despite the effectiveness of CABG, it may have particular complications, such as bleeding during and after surgery. So far, there have been many drugs used to reduce bleeding. Objectives This study aimed at investigating the effects of desmopressin on the amount of bleeding in patients undergoing CABG with a cardiopulmonary bypass pump (CPBP) who were taking anti-platelet medicine. Methods One hundred patients scheduled for elective CABG with a CPBP were included in a prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial study. They were randomly divided into two groups. One group received desmopressin (40 μg) and the other group received a placebo (isotonic saline). Seven patients were excluded from the study, and 47 and 46 patients participated in the desmopressin and control groups, respectively. The methods of monitoring and the anesthetic techniques were similar in both groups, and all surgeries were performed by one surgeon. Variables including age, gender, pump time, aortic clamp time, duration of surgery, complications (e.g., nausea and vomiting, blood pressure changes), the necessity to receive blood products, and coagulation tests (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, and bleeding time) were assessed. Data were statistically analyzed with SPSS software version 17. Results There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age, gender, pump time, clamp time, duration of surgery, complications, and the changes in hemoglobin and coagulation test measurements (P > 0.05). No significant difference was noted between the groups regarding the rate of bleeding after surgery (359.3 ± 266.2 in group D vs. 406.3 ± 341.6 in group P (control group); P = 0.208). However, the platelet changes after surgery in both groups were significantly different. The analysis

  8. Psychologists in preoperative programmes for children undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Costa, Sebastiano; Gugliandolo, Maria Cristina; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to verify whether psychologists and game activities could reduce preoperative anxiety and promote compliance in paediatric patients. More specifically, we sought to evaluate whether it would be better to propose contextualized games or just distracting activities. A total of 104 children undergoing surgery were assigned to the following 4 conditions of treatment: (1) contextual games and psychological accompaniment, (2) only contextual games, (3) distracting activities, and (4) only psychological accompaniment. Observed children's anxiety was assessed using modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale and compliant behaviours with modified form of Induction Compliance Checklist. Children in the first condition (complete intervention - contextual games and psychological accompaniment) were less anxious and more cooperative in the preoperative period and during the induction of anaesthesia than in the other three conditions. In particular, contextual activities (second condition) were found to be more efficient than psychological accompaniment (fourth condition), whereas the worst condition was proposing only distracting activities (third condition). In order to help young hospitalized patients in paediatric surgery structures, it is necessary to propose games that can prepare them for what will happen as well as the support of a psychologist.

  9. A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Aminophylline to Prevent Acute Kidney Injury in Children following Congenital Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, David M.; Sutherland, Scott M.; Anglemyer, Andrew; Grimm, Paul C.; Roth, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly in children following congenital cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Aminophylline, a methylxanthine nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, has been effective in the management of AKI in certain populations. This study sought to determine if post-operative administration of aminophylline attenuates AKI in children undergoing congenital cardiac surgery with CPB. Design Single-center, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial (RCT). Setting Tertiary center, pediatric cardiovascular intensive care unit. Patients 144 children after congenital heart surgery with CPB. Interventions Seventy-two patients were randomized to receive aminophylline and 72 patients received placebo. Study drug was administered every six hours for 72 hours. Measurements and Main Results The primary outcome variable was development of any AKI, defined by the serum creatinine criteria of the Kidney Diseases: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Secondary outcomes included the development of severe AKI, time between CVICU admission and first successful extubation, percent fluid overload, total fluid balance, urine output, bioelectrical impedance, and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). The unadjusted rate and severity of AKI were not different between groups; 43/72 (60%) of the treatment group and 36/72 (50%) of the placebo group developed AKI (p=0.32). Stage 2/3 AKI occurred in 23/72 (32%) of the treatment group and 15/72 (21%) of the placebo group (p=0.18). Secondary outcome measures also demonstrated no significant difference between treatment and placebo groups. Aminophylline administration was safe; no deaths occurred in either group, and rates of adverse events were similar (14% in the treatment group versus 18% in the placebo group, p =0.30). Conclusions In this placebo-controlled RCT, we found no effect of

  10. Does obesity prolong anesthesia in children undergoing common ENT surgery?

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer J; Sun, Lena S; Gu, Brian; Kim, Minjae; Wang, Shuang; Han, Sena

    2014-10-01

    To report the epidemiology of obesity in a pediatric surgical population and determine whether obesity is a risk factor for longer anesthesia duration. Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem in the United States. Epidemiologic studies on pediatric surgical populations have been limited to states with very high prevalence of adult obesity (Michigan, Texas). Data from other states and more recent data since 2006 are unavailable. We examined anesthesia records for surgical patients age 2-18 years at Columbia University Medical Center from January 2009 to December 2010. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery or those with records missing preoperative height or weight data were excluded. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m(2) ). BMI ≥95th percentile according to national growth charts were considered obese. We reviewed 9522 patients of which 1639 were obese (17.2%). The sex-age category interaction on obesity was not significant using logistic regression (P = 0.11). Among surgical groups, the otolaryngology (ENT) cohort had the highest obesity rate (21.7%, 360/1656). Obese children who had tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, or both did not have a prolonged anesthetic (P = 0.33) or surgical duration (P = 0.61) compared with nonobese children, adjusting for surgeon, season, surgical procedure code, and ASA status. Children presenting for surgery, particularly the ENT cohort, have a high prevalence of obesity. Obese and nonobese children who had tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, or both had comparable durations of anesthesia. Therefore, obesity did not lead to longer anesthetic duration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Management of oral feeding in children undergoing airway reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lee P; Otto, Staci E; Wagner, Kathrine A; Chewaproug, Linda; Jacobs, Ian N; Zur, Karen B

    2009-05-01

    To systematically evaluate perioperative management of oral feeding in children undergoing airway reconstruction. A retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent open airway reconstruction from February 1, 2006 through July 31, 2008 at a tertiary care children's hospital. During the study period, a multidisciplinary protocol for perioperative management of alimentation was instituted. Swallowing function was evaluated pre- and postoperatively as part of a clinical management protocol. Fifty-one patients underwent 55 reconstructions. Forty-eight of the patients (94%) have been decannulated. Eighteen single-stage procedures were performed on patients who were considered oral feeders, and oral feeding was successfully completed for three patients while the endotracheal tube was in place. Twenty-two double-stage procedures were performed on patients who were considered oral feeders. Oral feeding was initiated while the stent was in place for 16 patients. Nine patients (56%) did not tolerate oral feeding with the stent in place, five of whom had evidence of gross aspiration. Thirty-four of the 40 patients (85%) who were considered oral feeders at the time of their reconstruction returned to their preoperative diet with minimal therapy from the speech pathology service 1.9 days (range, 0-8 days) following extubation or stent removal. Six patients (15%) had clinically significant dysphagia. Safe oral alimentation early in the postoperative period is possible with a rigorous multidisciplinary approach. To minimize complications, postoperative oral feeding should be initiated in conjunction with a speech pathologist.

  12. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions.

    PubMed

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L; González, Francisco J; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury J; Campos-Lara, Nadia P; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim.

  13. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions

    PubMed Central

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S.; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A.; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L.; González, Francisco J.; Campos-Lara, Nadia P.; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim. PMID:27445611

  14. Disaccharidase activity in children undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Daileda, Taylor; Baek, Peter; Sutter, Morgan E; Thakkar, Kalpesh

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the utility of intestinal disaccharide analysis during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in children, we performed a systematic review of studies examining disaccharide activity. METHODS: All full-length articles published in English during 1966-2014 were included if: (1) participants had small intestinal biopsy evaluation of disaccharide activity; (2) levels of lactase, sucrase, maltase or palatinase were reported; and (3) age of participants was under 18 years. RESULTS: Thirty articles examining 34753 disaccharide assays fulfilled the specific search, inclusion, and exclusion criteria. All of the studies were observational in design and 57% (17) were prospective. Sixteen studies were conducted in the United States and 9 European studies were identified. The biggest study enrolled about 30, 314 procedures and 13 studies investigated fewer than 50 procedures. Eleven studies examined Caucasian subjects, 3 studies examined Asian subjects, and 6 examined African subjects. Only one Hispanic subject was included. In studies reporting disaccharide deficiency, the overall proportion of lactase deficiency was 39.2%, sucrase deficiency was 9.0%, maltase deficiency was 12.6% and palatinase deficiency was 9.1%. The prevalence of duodenal inflammatory changes ranged from 6% to 24% for non-specific histological lesions (e.g., duodenitis). Sixteen studies examined the association of histologic findings with disaccharide activities, and 12 studies reported an inverse association between degree of histologic inflammation and disaccharide levels. CONCLUSION: We reviewed 30 studies including 34753 biopsy specimens with disaccharide analysis from children undergoing EGD. Our findings advocate a large study is to further illuminate the importance of EGD with disaccharide analysis in children. PMID:27158545

  15. [Cardiopulmonary stress testing in children who have had congenital heart disease surgery. Physical exercise recommendations during school hours].

    PubMed

    Serra-Grima, Ricard; Doñate, Maite; Borrás, Xavier; Rissech, Miquel; Puig, Teresa; Albert, Dimpna C; Bartrons, Joaquim; Gran, Ferran; Manso, Begoña; Ferrer, Queralt; Girona, Josep; Casaldáliga, Jaume; Subirana, Maite

    2011-09-01

    To analyze and discover if stress testing with exhaled gases in children who have had congenital heart surgery is useful so we could make physical exercise recommendations according to heart disease, type of surgery performed, present hemodynamic state and level of exercise practiced. Prospective study of 108 children, who performed stress testing with exhaled gases, electrocardiogram monitoring and blood pressure. A questionnaire was used to obtain variables concerning heart disease, surgery, present functional condition and level of exercise practiced. Exercise recommendations were given after stress testing, and after a year 35 patients answered a questionnaire. There were significant differences between lesion severity and heart rate at rest and during effort, systolic pressure at rest and during effort, oxygen uptake, oxygen pulse, carbon dioxide production and test duration. A relationship was observed between level of weekly exercise and greater oxygen uptake and test duration, but this was not observed with the underlying heart disease. We observed that best performance occurred with fast repairing for 59 children with cyanotic heart disease. Increased exercise level was recommended for 48 children. The cardiopulmonary function study allows us to examine the physical performance of children who have had congenital heart surgery and provides us with important data so that we can recommend better physical exercise planning. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. [Frequency, type and predictors of pleuropulmonary complications during the first thirty days after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in children].

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, Jessica Jacqueline; Solano-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Rosas-Aragón, Flor Teresita; Antúnez-Soto, Airam Gabriela; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Nuñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos

    2017-07-01

    To determine the frequency, type and predictors of pleuropulmonary complications in the first thirty postoperative days of patients undergoing surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass. A retrospective cohort study was carried out between January 2013 and December 2014. It includes all patients with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac surgery with a sternal or thoracic approach, without cardiopulmonary bypass with a registered admission to Neonatal or Pediatric Intensive Care. The frequency of events of pleuropulmonary complications and logistic regression analysis was performed and adjusted odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals at 95% (95% CI) were calculated. A total of 139 patients were included; the frequency of pleuropulmonary complications was 42.4% (N=59), and the most frequent types were atelectasis (28 events), ventilator-associated pneumonia (24 events), pneumothorax (20 events), at times finding more than one complication per patient. Significant risk factors were cyanogenic congenital heart disease (OR=3.58, 95% CI: 1.10-7.50, P=.001), thoracotomy approach (OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1, 18-1,12, P=.008) an emergency surgical event (OR=3.46, 95% CI: 1.51-7.95, P=.002). The main pleuropulmonary complication was atelectasis, which is consistent with that reported in the international literature. Patients with any of the predictors identified in the present study should be closely monitored in order to prevent, detect and/or treat pleuropulmonary complications in a timely manner after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum apelin as a novel non-invasive marker for subclinical cardiopulmonary complications in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Elbarbary, Nancy Samir; Ismail, Eman Abdel Rahman; Roushdy, Alaa; Fahmy, Ehab

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular involvement represents a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in sickle cell disease (SCD). Apelin is a peptide involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. To determine serum apelin among 40 children and adolescents with SCD compared with 40 healthy controls and assess its relation to markers of hemolysis, iron overload as well as cardiopulmonary complications. SCD patients, in steady state and asymptomatic for heart disease, were studied stressing on hydroxyurea/chelation therapy, hematological profile, serum ferritin and apelin levels. Full echocardiographic study including assessment of biventricular systolic function and pulmonary artery pressure was done. Apelin levels were significantly lower in SCD patients compared with controls (P<0.001). Cardiopulmonary complications were encountered in 30% of patients. Apelin was significantly decreased among patients with cardiopulmonary disease (P=0.006) whether those at risk of pulmonary hypertension (P=0.018) or patients with heart disease (P=0.043). Hydroxyurea-treated patients had higher apelin levels than untreated ones (P=0.001). Apelin was negatively correlated to lactate dehydrogenase, indirect bilirubin, serum ferritin, end systolic diameter, tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity, right ventricle systolic pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and tissue Doppler imaging S wave. Apelin cutoff value of 1650ng/L could significantly detect the presence of cardiopulmonary complications in SCD with 90.9% sensitivity and 72.4% specificity. Apelin is a promising marker for screening of SCD patients at risk of cardiopulmonary disease because it is altered during the early subclinical stage of cardiac affection. A combination of apelin and echocardiography provides a reliable method to assess cardiopulmonary affection in young SCD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transition from a traditional code team to a medical emergency team and categorization of cardiopulmonary arrests in a children's center.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Elizabeth A; Zimmer, Karen P; Rinke, Michael L; Shilkofski, Nicole A; Matlin, Carol; Garger, Catherine; Dickson, Conan; Miller, Marlene R

    2008-02-01

    To study the effect of an intervention on prevention of respiratory arrest and cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) and to characterize ward CPAs by preceding signs and symptoms and initial cardiac rhythm. A before-and-after interventional trial (12 months preintervention and 12 months postintervention). A tertiary care, academic children's hospital. Admitted patients who subsequently had either the code team or pediatric medical emergency team (PMET) called or who had a respiratory arrest or CPA on the wards. Intervention Transition from a traditional code team to a PMET that responds to clinically deteriorating children in noncritical care areas. Combined rate of respiratory arrests and CPAs, rate of CPAs, and rate of respiratory arrests on the wards and agreement between independent reviewers on categorization of CPAs. There was no change in the rate of CPAs on the wards. However, there was a 73% decrease in the incidence of respiratory arrests (0.23 respiratory arrests/1000 patient-days pre-PMET vs 0.06 post-PMET, P = .03). There was 100% agreement between reviewers on categorization of CPAs. Transition to a PMET was not associated with a change in CPAs but was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of ward respiratory arrests. We also describe children who may have benefited from the PMET but whose data were not captured by current outcome measures. Finally, we present a new method for categorization of ward CPAs based on preceding signs and symptoms and initial cardiac rhythm.

  19. Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-01-01

    Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 ± 3.4 years) with hemoglobin SS or S/β0 thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.6 ± 3.5 years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 37.0 ± 9.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (ΔVO2/ΔWR, 9 ± 2 vs. 12 ± 2 mL/min/watt, P < 0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (ΔVO2/ΔHR, 12 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 7 mL/beat, P < 0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVO2, 42 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 5, P < 0.001) and ventilation efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVCO2, 30.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.3 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population. PMID:25847915

  20. Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-04-01

    Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 ± 3.4 years) with hemoglobin SS or S/β(0) thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.6 ± 3.5 years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 37.0 ± 9.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (ΔVO2/ΔWR, 9 ± 2 vs. 12 ± 2 mL/min/watt, P < 0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (ΔVO2/ΔHR, 12 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 7 mL/beat, P < 0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVO2, 42 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 5, P < 0.001) and ventilation efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVCO2, 30.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.3 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population.

  1. Circulating S100B and Adiponectin in Children Who Underwent Open Heart Surgery and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Varrica, Alessandro; Satriano, Angela; Frigiola, Alessandro; Giamberti, Alessandro; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi; Conforti, Erika; Gavilanes, Antonio D. W.; Zimmermann, Luc J.; Vles, Hans J. S.; Li Volti, Giovanni; Gazzolo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background. S100B protein, previously proposed as a consolidated marker of brain damage in congenital heart disease (CHD) newborns who underwent cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), has been progressively abandoned due to S100B CNS extra-source such as adipose tissue. The present study investigated CHD newborns, if adipose tissue contributes significantly to S100B serum levels. Methods. We conducted a prospective study in 26 CHD infants, without preexisting neurological disorders, who underwent cardiac surgery and CPB in whom blood samples for S100B and adiponectin (ADN) measurement were drawn at five perioperative time-points. Results. S100B showed a significant increase from hospital admission up to 24 h after procedure reaching its maximum peak (P < 0.01) during CPB and at the end of the surgical procedure. Moreover, ADN showed a flat pattern and no significant differences (P > 0.05) have been found all along perioperative monitoring. ADN/S100B ratio pattern was identical to S100B alone with the higher peak at the end of CPB and remained higher up to 24 h from surgery. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that, in CHD infants, S100B protein is not affected by an extra-source adipose tissue release as suggested by no changes in circulating ADN concentrations. PMID:26417594

  2. Children undergoing cancer treatment describe their experiences of comfort in interviews and drawings.

    PubMed

    Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte; Norberg, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Children with cancer often undergo a long course of treatment, described as painful, and associated with feelings of discomfort and need of comfort. The aim of this descriptive interview study was to investigate how children, aged 3 to 9 years, undergoing cancer treatment describe their experience of comfort. The children were interviewed and asked to make drawings. Data were content analyzed and four themes were constructed--enduring discomfort, expressing discomfort, finding comfort, and comforting others. The findings show that the children endured discomfort during treatment, and were sometimes able to express it. They found comfort especially from their family and from hospital staff. The children also described that they comforted family members. The findings are in accordance with previous research about children's and adults' accounts of comfort. An incidental finding is that parents were surprised when they listened to the children's accounts of their experience of discomfort and comfort and achieved a better understanding of their children.

  3. The Effect of Painting on Depression in Children with Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tahmasebi, Zahra; Maghsoudi, Jahangir; Talakoub, Sedigeh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Psychological and social health of children with cancer may be severely affected by the disease and its treatment. Successive drawing by children can help them over time in terms of psychological and social adaptation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of drawing on depression in children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 7–12-year-old children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. After completing Maria Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), 65 children who had obtained scores higher than 12 were chosen as study participants and were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. The children in the experimental group were engaged in open painting sessions for 6 weeks. After the intervention, the CDI was completed again in both the groups. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods, such as independent t-test, paired t-test, and Chi-square and Mann–Whitney tests. Results: There was a significant difference between the children's depression scores before and after the intervention in both the two groups (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results showed that painting was effective in reducing depression in children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Therefore, painting can be used as an easy, cheap, and effective intervention by nurses to help children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:28584546

  4. Comparison of the Effects of Dexmedetomidine and Propofol on Hemodynamics and Oxygen Balance in Children with Complex Congenital Heart Disease Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xinqi; Zuo, Youmei; Zhao, Qing; Gu, Erwei; Huang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of anesthesia by dexmedetomidine and propofol on the hemodynamics and oxygen balance in children with complex congenital heart disease who were undergoing cardiac surgery. Fifty-seven children were randomized to receive either a continuous infusion of propofol (6-8 mg/kg/h) or dexmedetomidine (0.5-0.7 μg/kg/h) after anesthesia induction. Hemodynamic data were recorded. Oxygen balance parameters were assessed at baseline after midazolam sedation, before and immediately after skin incisions were made, after sternotomy, 5 minutes after protamine administration, and at the end of surgery. Compared with the dexmedetomidine group, the propofol group exhibited decreases in blood pressure, cardiac output, and cardiac index before skin incision (P < .05) and increases in blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and cardiac index after sternotomy (P < .01). However, very similar trends in oxygen dynamics were obtained in both groups (P > .05), and the cardiac index was not correlated with total oxygen consumption (r = -0.109, P = .066) or the oxygen extraction ratio (r = -0.107, P = .072). Dexmedetomidine infusion may be superior to propofol anesthesia in children with complex congenital heart disease who are undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass because dexmedetomidine was associated with less variability in heart rate or blood pressure during surgery. However, the oxygen balance was similar when either agent was used. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Relationship Between Habitual Exercise and Performance on Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Differs Between Children With Single and Biventricular Circulations.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, Michael L; Desai, Sanyukta; Lane, Megan; McBride, Michael; Paridon, Stephen; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Increasing habitual exercise has been associated with improved cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) performance, specifically maximal oxygen consumption in children with operatively corrected congenital heart disease. This has not been studied in children following Fontan palliation, a population in whom CPET performance is dramatically diminished. A single-center cross-sectional study with prospective and retrospective data collection was performed that assessed habitual exercise preceding a clinically indicated CPET in children and adolescents with Fontan palliation, transposition of the great arteries following arterial switch operation (TGA), and normal cardiac anatomy without prior operation. Data from contemporaneous clinical reports and imaging studies were collected. The association between percent predicted VO2max and habitual exercise duration adjusted for known covariates was tested. A total of 175 subjects (75 post-Fontan, 20 with TGA, and 80 with normal cardiac anatomy) were enrolled. VO2max was lower in the Fontan group than patients with normal cardiac anatomy (p < 0.0001) or TGA (p < 0.0001). In Fontan subjects, both univariate and multivariate analysis failed to demonstrate a significant association between habitual exercise and VO2max (p = 0.6), in sharp contrast to cardiac normal subjects. In multivariate analysis, increasing age was the only independent risk factor associated with decreasing VO2max in the Fontan group (p = 0.003). Habitual exercise was not associated with VO2max in subjects with a Fontan as compared to biventricular circulation. Further research is necessary to understand why their habitual exercise is ineffective and/or what aspects of the Fontan circulation disrupt this association.

  6. Spectral entropy monitoring for adults and children undergoing general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Anjolie; Subramaniam, Rajeshwari; Srivastava, Anurag; Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Kalaivani, Mani; Paranjape, Saloni

    2016-03-14

    (BIS) monitor was used to assess anaesthetic depth. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently extracted details of trial methodology and outcome data from trials considered eligible for inclusion. All analyses were made on an intention-to-treat basis. We used a random-effect model where there was heterogeneity. For assessments of the overall quality of evidence for each outcome that included pooled data from RCTs, we downgraded evidence from 'high quality' by one level for serious (or by two for very serious) study limitations (risk of bias, indirectness of evidence, serious inconsistency, imprecision of effect or potential publication bias). We included 11 RCTs (962 participants). Eight RCTs (762 participants) were carried out on adults (18 to 80 years of age), two (128 participants) involved children (two to 16 years) and one RCT (72 participants) included patients aged 60 to 75 years. Of the 11 included studies, we judged three to be at low risk of bias, and the remaining eight RCTs at unclear or high risk of bias.Six RCTs (383 participants) estimated the primary outcome, time to awakening after stopping general anaesthesia, which was reduced in the entropy as compared to the standard practice group (mean difference (MD) -5.42 minutes, 95% confidence interval (CI) -8.77 to -2.08; moderate quality of evidence). We noted heterogeneity for this outcome; on performing subgroup analysis this was found to be due to studies that included participants undergoing major, long duration surgeries (off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, major urological surgery). The MD for time to awakening with four studies on ambulatory procedures was -3.20 minutes (95% CI -3.94 to -2.45). No trial reported the second primary outcome, mortality at 24 hours, 30 days, and one year with the use of entropy monitoring.Eight trials (797 participants) compared the secondary outcome, postoperative recall of intraoperative events (awareness

  7. Teaching schoolchildren cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Lester, C; Donnelly, P; Weston, C; Morgan, M

    1996-02-01

    Forty-one children aged 11-12 years received tuition in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and subsequently completed questionnaires to assess their theoretical knowledge and attitudes their likelihood of performing CPR. Although most children scored well on theoretical knowledge, this did not correlate with an assessment of practical ability using training manikins. In particular only one child correctly called for help after the casualty was found to be unresponsive, and none telephoned for an ambulance before starting resuscitation. These omissions have important implications for the teaching of CPR and the resulting effectiveness of community CPR programmes.

  8. Efficacy and safety of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (Voluven) for perioperative volume replacement in children undergoing cardiac surgery: a propensity-matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, Philippe; Dumoulin, Melanie; Van Lerberghe, Celine; Torres, Cristel Sanchez; Willems, Ariane; Faraoni, David

    2015-03-17

    Six percent hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 is considered an alternative to human albumin (HA) and crystalloids for volume replacement in children undergoing cardiac surgery. In this large propensity-matched analysis, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of replacing HA with HES for intraoperative volume therapy in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We retrospectively reviewed our database, including children who underwent cardiac surgery between January 2002 and December 2010. Four percent HA was used until 2005; it was replaced by HES thereafter. Demographic data, intra- and postoperative blood loss and blood component transfusions were recorded, together with the incidence of postoperative complications and mortality. We performed a propensity-matched analysis using 13 possible confounding factors to compare children who received either HES or HA intraoperatively. The primary objectives included the effects of both fluids on intraoperative fluid balance (difference between fluids in and fluids out (efficacy)) and blood loss and exposure to allogeneic blood products (safety). Secondary safety outcomes were mortality and the incidence of postoperative renal dysfunction. Of 1,832 children reviewed, 1,495 were included in the analysis. Intraoperative use of HES was associated with a less positive fluid balance. Perioperative blood loss, volume of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma administered, as well as the number of children who received transfusions, were also significantly lower in the HES group. No difference was observed regarding the incidence of postoperative renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy or of morbidity and mortality. These results confirm that the use of HES for volume replacement in children during cardiac surgery with CPB is as safe as HA. In addition, its use might be associated with less fluid accumulation. Further large studies are needed to assess whether the reduction in fluid

  9. Comparison of Predicted Exercise Capacity Equations and the Effect of Actual versus Ideal Body Weight among Subjects Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, H. Reza; Sclafani, Joseph J.; Emmons, Ethan E.; Morris, Michael J.; Leclerc, Kenneth M.; Slim, Ahmad M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2 max) is considered the best available index for assessment of exercise capacity. The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of actual versus ideal body weight in standard regression equations for predicted VO2 max results in differences in predicted VO2 max. Methods. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were predominantly in active military duty with complaints of dyspnea or exercise tolerance and who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) from 2007 to 2009. Results. A total of 230 subjects completed CPET on a bicycle ergometer with a male predominance (62%) and an average age of 37 ± 15 years. There was significant discordance between the measured VO2 max and predicted VO2 max when measured by the Hansen and Wasserman reference equations (P < 0.001). Specifically, there was less overestimation when predicted VO2 max was based on ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight. Conclusion. Our retrospective analysis confirmed the wide variations in predicted versus measured VO2 max based on varying prediction equations and showed the potential advantage of using ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight in order to further standardize reference norms. PMID:23653881

  10. Comparison of Predicted Exercise Capacity Equations and the Effect of Actual versus Ideal Body Weight among Subjects Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, H Reza; Sclafani, Joseph J; Emmons, Ethan E; Morris, Michael J; Leclerc, Kenneth M; Slim, Ahmad M

    2013-01-01

    Background. Oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2 max) is considered the best available index for assessment of exercise capacity. The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of actual versus ideal body weight in standard regression equations for predicted VO2 max results in differences in predicted VO2 max. Methods. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were predominantly in active military duty with complaints of dyspnea or exercise tolerance and who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) from 2007 to 2009. Results. A total of 230 subjects completed CPET on a bicycle ergometer with a male predominance (62%) and an average age of 37 ± 15 years. There was significant discordance between the measured VO2 max and predicted VO2 max when measured by the Hansen and Wasserman reference equations (P < 0.001). Specifically, there was less overestimation when predicted VO2 max was based on ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight. Conclusion. Our retrospective analysis confirmed the wide variations in predicted versus measured VO2 max based on varying prediction equations and showed the potential advantage of using ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight in order to further standardize reference norms.

  11. Distraction-Based Interventions for Children Undergoing Venipuncture Procedures.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hui-Chen; Pan, Hsiao-Hsien; Creedy, Debra K; Tsao, Ying

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of distraction techniques when undertaking medical procedures with hospitalized pediatric patients in Asian countries. This study examined the effects of distraction interventions on behavioral distress related to venipuncture procedures in Taiwanese children aged 3 to 7 years. Using concealed randomization, eligible children were allocated to receive a picture book ( n = 92), or animated cartoon ( n = 92) compared with routine oral instructions ( n = 92), when being injected with an intravenous cannula. Two trained observers independently scored the responses of each child using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised before, during, and after the procedure. All children experienced distress during needle insertion, but distress was less in the distraction-based intervention groups. Moreover, distraction interventions were more effective for children aged 4 to 5 years. Our culturally tailored intervention engaged child participants, was age-appropriate, and could be adapted for use in other Chinese cultures.

  12. Tolerability of 2.5% Lidocaine/Prilocaine Hydrogel in Children Undergoing Cryotherapy for Molluscum Contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Gobbato, André A M; Babadópulos, Tainah; Gobbato, Cintia A R S; Moreno, Ronilson A; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-05-01

    The tolerability of a 2.5% lidocaine/prilocaine hydrogel (Nanorap, Biolab Indústria Farmacêutica Ltd., Sao Paulo, Brazil) was evaluated in 20 children ages 2 to 11 years undergoing cryotherapy for molluscum contagiosum (MC). The product was well tolerated, with only two children presenting with eczema at the application site. These adverse reactions were considered unlikely to be related to the test product, because a patch test was negative in one of the individuals and the other event occurred in only one of the two treated areas. Nanorap is an efficacious and well-tolerated option for topical anesthesia in children undergoing cryotherapy for MC.

  13. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Oh, Christopher C; Choudhri, Asim F

    2013-12-01

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 ± 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size.

  14. Effects of Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Internal Jugular Bulb Venous Oxygen Saturation, Cerebral Oxygen Saturation, and Bispectral Index in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiyong; Xu, Lili; Zhu, Zhirui; Seal, Robert; McQuillan, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2), internal jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2), mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), and bispectral index (BIS) used to monitor cerebral oxygen balance in pediatric patients.Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists Class II-III patients aged 1 to 4 years old with congenital heart disease scheduled for elective cardiac surgery were included in this study. Temperature, BIS, rSO2, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and hematocrit were recorded. Internal jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation and SvO2 were obtained from blood gas analysis at the time points: after induction of anesthesia (T0), beginning of CPB (T1), ascending aortic occlusion (T2), 20 minutes after initiating CPB (T3), coronary reperfusion (T4), separation from CPB (T5), and at the end of operation (T6). The effect of hypothermia or changes in CPP on rSO2, SjvO2, SvO2, and BIS were analyzed.Compared with postinduction baseline values, rSO2 significantly decreased at all-time points: onset of extracorporeal circulation, ascending aortic occlusion, 20 minutes after CPB initiation, coronary reperfusion, and separation from CPB (P < 0.05). Compared with measurements made following induction of anesthesia, SjvO2 significantly increased with initiation of CPB, ascending aortic occlusion, 20 minutes after initiating CPB, coronary reperfusion, and separation from CPB (P < 0.05). Compared with induction of anesthesia, BIS significantly decreased with the onset of CPB, aortic cross clamping, 20 minutes after initiating CPB, and coronary reperfusion (P < 0.05). Bispectral index increased following separation from CPB. There was no significant change in SvO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass (P > 0.05). Correlation analysis demonstrated that rSO2 was positively related to CPP (r = 0.687, P = 0

  15. Active and passive distraction in children undergoing wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Stefan; Enskär, Karin; Hallqvist, Carina; Kokinsky, Eva

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test how distraction influences pain, distress and anxiety in children during wound care. Sixty participants aged 5-12 years were randomized to three groups: serious gaming, the use of lollipops and a control group. Self-reported pain, distress, anxiety and observed pain behaviour were recorded in conjunction with wound care. Serious gaming, an active distraction, reduced the observed pain behaviour and self-reported distress compared with the other groups. A sense of control and engagement in the distraction, together, may be the explanation for the different pain behaviours when children use serious gaming.

  16. Distress Behavior in Children With Leukemia Undergoing Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Ernest R.

    Improving prognosis for many forms of childhood cancer has resulted in increased attention on the quality-of-life experience. Conditioned anxiety and pain associated with recurrent diagnostic and treatment procedures have been identified as major sources of distress in children with malignant disease. To evaluate the efficacy of various…

  17. [Self-hypnosis, a resource for children undergoing painful treatment].

    PubMed

    Restif, Anne-Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Learning self-hypnosis enables children to partially or totally manage the sensory and emotional components of pain, especially that linked to the use of a central line in paediatric onco-haematology. Specially trained paediatric nurses can teach this special technique.

  18. Psychologic preparation program for children undergoing acute appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Edwinson, M; Arnbjörnsson, E; Ekman, R

    1988-07-01

    A psychologic preparation program was developed for use prior to emergency surgery in children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific information prior to an emergency operation would reduce anxiety. The effect of the preparation program was evaluated with clinical and laboratory procedures. One group of children who received only general verbal information was compared with another group who received specific information. The subjects were 24 patients and their parents. The children were studied at four different clinical units prior to operation, using the Visual Analogue Scale and pulse rate and blood pressure measurements. Stress hormone levels were measured at three of these clinical units. Visual Analogue Scales were administered to parents three times prior to the child's operation. The results were analyzed for within-group differences from one clinical unit to the next and for between-group differences at the various clinical units. The results indicated less anxiety in the children who received specific information. Catecholamine and beta-endorphin measurements were not greatly different between the groups.

  19. Growth in Very Young Children Undergoing Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Azocar, Marta; Borzych, Dagmara; Watson, Alan R.; Büscher, Anja; Edefonti, Alberto; Bilge, Ilmay; Askenazi, David; Leozappa, Giovanna; Gonzales, Claudia; van Hoeck, Koen; Secker, Donna; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Rönnholm, Kai; Bouts, Antonia H. M.; Stewart, Heather; Ariceta, Gema; Ranchin, Bruno; Warady, Bradley A.; Schaefer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Very young children with chronic kidney disease often have difficulty maintaining adequate nutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of short stature in this population. Characteristics of the dialysis prescription and supplemental feeding via a nasogastric (NG) tube or gastrostomy may improve growth, but this is not well understood. Here, we analyzed data from 153 children in 18 countries who commenced chronic peritoneal dialysis at <24 months of age. From diagnosis to last observation, 57 patients were fed on demand, 54 by NG tube, and 10 by gastrostomy; 26 switched from NG to gastrostomy; and 6 returned from NG to demand feeding. North American and European centers accounted for nearly all feeding by gastrostomy. Standardized body mass index (BMI) uniformly decreased during periods of demand feeding and increased during NG and gastrostomy feeding. Changes in BMI demonstrated significant regional variation: 26% of North American children were obese and 50% of Turkish children were malnourished at last observation (P < 0.005). Body length decreased sharply during the first 6 to 12 months of life and then tended to stabilize. Time fed by gastrostomy significantly associated with higher lengths over time (P < 0.001), but adjustment for baseline length attenuated this effect. In addition, the use of biocompatible peritoneal dialysate and administration of growth hormone independently associated with improved length, even after adjusting for regional factors. In summary, growth and nutritional status vary regionally in very young children treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis. The use of gastrostomy feeding, biocompatible dialysis fluid, and growth hormone therapy associate with improved linear growth. PMID:22021715

  20. Impact of carbon dioxide tension during cardiopulmonary bypass on tissue perfusion in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery using autologous umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Chasovskyi, Kyrylo; Yemets, Illya

    2016-07-01

    Previously, we reported that the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve is shifted leftward in patients who receive autologous umbilical cord blood (UCB) during neonatal open heart surgery. In this study, we assessed whether allowing the pCO2 to rise during hypothermic cardiopulmonary perfusion would shift the curve back to the right and improve tissue oxygenation. The study population included prenatally diagnosed patients with transposition of the great arteries. The study cohort was divided into two groups and consisted of early patients originally managed with lower pCO2 levels (Group I, n=42, 2009-12) and later patients subsequently managed with higher pCO2 levels (Group II, n=38, 2012-14). Patients received similar volumes of collected autologous UCB (Group I, 80 ml; Group II, 75ml, p=0.207) with a similar mean level of HbF during CPB (Group I, 90±8%; Group II, 87±9%, p=0.310). Higher levels of pCO2 during CPB (Group I, 31 mmHg; Group II, 37 mmHg, p=0.011) resulted in a rightward shift of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve (increased p50O2) (Group I, 19.5±3.4 mmHg; Group II, 22.5±2.2 mmHg, p=0.011). The use of a higher pCO2 strategy was associated with decreased serum lactate during CPB (Group I, 4.7±2 mmol/l; Group II, 2.8±1.4 mmol/l, p=0.001), decreased duration of mechanical ventilation (Group I, 46h; Group II, 22h, p<0.001) and decreased of length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (Group I, 7.6±2.6, Group II, 5.6±2.2, p=0.003) CONCLUSIONS: A higher pCO2 during CPB in neonates who underwent open heart surgery using UCB resulted in a rightward shift of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve and was associated with improved serum lactate levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Seriously clowning: Medical clowning interaction with children undergoing invasive examinations in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Tener, Dafna; Ofir, Shoshi; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Franco, Nessia L; On, Avi

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative study examined the subjective experience of children undergoing an invasive examination in the hospital when accompanied by a medical clown. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine such children and nine of their accompanying parents. The children were patients in two outpatient departments (Pediatric Gastroenterology and a Center for the Sexually Abused) in a hospital in Israel. Interviews were coded thematically using an Atlas.ti software program. Analysis of the interviews indicated that the intervention of the clown positively changed the children's perceptions of the hospital, of experiencing the examination, and of their life narrative. Medical clowns thus appear to be a central, meaningful, and therapeutic source for children undergoing invasive examinations in hospital, as well as for their parents. Therefore, it may be advisable to incorporate medical clowns as an integral part of medical teams performing invasive procedures and to include the clowns in all stages of the hospital visit.

  2. Adjustment in Parents of Children Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lindwall, Jennifer J.; Russell, Kathy; Huang, Qinlei; Zhang, Hui; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru; Alderfer, Melissa; Phipps, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Background Pediatric stem cell transplant (SCT) is a demanding procedure for children and parents. Interventions to promote positive adjustment of parents in this setting are needed. Method 171 patient/parent dyads from 4 sites received one of 3 interventions to reduce SCT-related distress: a child intervention with massage and humor therapy, an identical child intervention plus a parent intervention with massage and relaxation/imagery, or standard care. Parents completed weekly self-report measures of distress and positive affect during the acute phase of treatment (weeks −1 through +6), and measures of depression, posttraumatic stress (PTSD), and benefit-finding at baseline and week +24. Results No significant differences across treatment arms were observed on repeated measures of parental distress. There was a marginally significant effect of the child intervention on parental positive affect. Over time, parental distress decreased significantly and positive affect increased significantly in all groups. Similarly, there were no significant intervention effects on the global adjustment outcomes of depression, PTSD, and benefit finding. However, reports of depression and PTSD decreased significantly and reports of benefit-finding increased significantly from baseline to week +24 for all groups. Conclusion Across all study arms, parent adjustment improved over time, suggesting that parents demonstrate a transient period of moderately elevated distress at the time of their child’s admission for transplant, followed by rapid improved to normative levels of adjustment. Similar to results previously reported for their children, these parents appear resilient to the challenges of transplant. PMID:24434783

  3. [Evaluation of psychological fear in children undergoing head-up tilt test].

    PubMed

    Chu, Wei-Hong; Wu, Li-Jia; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Ping; Li, Fang; Zhu, Li-Ping; Ran, Jing; Zou, Run-Mei; Liu, De-Yu

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of different tilt angles of head-up tilt test (HUTT) and different responses to HUTT on the psychological fear in children undergoing the test. HUTT was performed on children with unexplained syncope or pre-syncope (107 cases: 52 males and 55 females), aged 5.5-17.8 years (mean 12.0±2.8 years). All subjects were randomly assigned to undergo HUTT at an angle of 60°, 70° or 80°; the negative cases underwent sublingual nitroglycerin-provocation HUTT at the same tilt angle. The Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale was used for self-assessment of psychological fear in subjects during HUTT at the end point of the test. The positive rate, hemodynamic changes and distribution of response types showed no significant differences between children at tilt angles of 60°, 70° and 80° (P>0.05). The greater the tilt angle, the higher the degree of psychological fear in children undergoing the test, but there were no significant differences between them (P>0.05). The degree of psychological fear in children who showed a positive response to HUTT (n=76) was significantly higher than that in children who showed a negative response (n=31) (P<0.01). HUTT can cause psychological fear in children undergoing the test, and the degree of psychological fear increases in children tested at tilt angles from 60° to 80°, but the differences have no statistical significance. A positive response to HUTT can significantly increase the psychological fear in children.

  4. The effects of clown intervention on worries and emotional responses in children undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Sara Costa; Arriaga, Patrícia

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated whether clown intervention could reduce preoperative worries and the affective responses of children undergoing minor surgery. Parental anxiety was also tested. Child's age, previous hospitalization, and temperament were tested as predictors of the child's responses during this preoperative phase. Seventy children were assigned to one of two groups: children accompanied by their parents and a pair of clowns or, those accompanied by the parents but without the clowns. The results emphasized the relevance of clown intervention on the reduction of preoperative worries and emotional responses, not only in children but also in their parents.

  5. First quantitative analysis of cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality during in-hospital cardiac arrests of young children.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Robert M; Niles, Dana; French, Benjamin; Maltese, Matthew R; Leffelman, Jessica; Eilevstjønn, Joar; Wolfe, Heather; Nishisaki, Akira; Meaney, Peter A; Berg, Robert A; Nadkarni, Vinay M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to report, for the first time, quantitative data on CPR quality during the resuscitation of children under 8 years of age. We hypothesized that the CPR performed would often not achieve 2010 Pediatric Basic Life Support (BLS) Guidelines, but would improve with the addition of audiovisual feedback. Prospective observational cohort evaluating CPR quality during chest compression (CC) events in children between 1 and 8 years of age. CPR recording defibrillators collected CPR data (rate (CC/min), depth (mm), CC fraction (CCF), leaning (%>2.5 kg.)). Audiovisual feedback was according to 2010 Guidelines in a subset of patients. The primary outcome, "excellent CPR" was defined as a CC rate ≥ 100 and ≤ 120 CC/min, depth ≥ 50 mm, CCF >0.80, and <20% of CC with leaning. 8 CC events resulted in 285 thirty-second epochs of CPR (15,960 CCs). Percentage of epochs achieving targets was 54% (153/285) for rate, 19% (54/285) for depth, 88% (250/285) for CCF, 79% (226/285) for leaning, and 8% (24/285) for excellent CPR. The median percentage of epochs per event achieving targets increased with audiovisual feedback for rate [88 (IQR: 79, 94) vs. 39 (IQR 18, 62) %; p=0.043] and excellent CPR [28 (IQR: 7.2, 52) vs. 0 (IQR: 0, 1) %; p=0.018]. In-hospital pediatric CPR often does not meet 2010 Pediatric BLS Guidelines, but compliance is better when audiovisual feedback is provided to rescuers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adjustment in parents of children undergoing stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lindwall, Jennifer J; Russell, Kathy; Huang, Qinlei; Zhang, Hui; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru; Alderfer, Melissa; Phipps, Sean

    2014-04-01

    Pediatric stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a demanding procedure for children and parents. Interventions to promote positive adjustment of parents in this setting are needed. A total of 171 patient-parent dyads from 4 sites received 1 of 3 interventions to reduce SCT-related distress: a child intervention with massage and humor therapy, an identical child intervention plus a parent intervention with massage and relaxation/imagery, or standard care. Parents completed weekly self-report measures of distress and positive affect during the acute phase of treatment (weeks -1 through +6); and measures of depression, posttraumatic stress (PTSD), and benefit finding at baseline and week +24. No significant differences across treatment arms were observed on repeated measures of parental distress. There was a marginally significant effect of the child intervention on parental positive affect. Over time, parental distress decreased significantly and positive affect increased significantly in all groups. Similarly, there were no significant intervention effects on the global adjustment outcomes of depression, PTSD, and benefit finding. However, reports of depression and PTSD decreased significantly and reports of benefit finding increased significantly from baseline to week +24 for all groups. Across all study arms, parent adjustment improved over time, suggesting that parents demonstrate a transient period of moderately elevated distress at the time of their child's admission for transplantation, followed by rapid improved to normative levels of adjustment. Similar to results previously reported for their children, these parents appear resilient to the challenges of transplantation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Peritonitis in children undergoing dialysis. 10 years experience.

    PubMed

    Levy, M; Balfe, J W; Geary, D F; Fryer-Keene, S P; Bannatyne, R M

    The clinical aspects of peritonitis were reviewed in 83 patients treated with continuous ambulatory or continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis between May 1978 and April 1988. Peritonitis occurred in 50 patients whose mean duration of dialysis was 17.8 months, but not in 33 patients with a mean duration of dialysis of 10.4 months. The mean time from starting dialysis to the first episode of peritonitis was 7.1 months. The peritonitis rate was lower for continuous cyclic than for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (1 episode per 12.9 vs. 1 episode per 8.1 patient months, respectively). In 39% of the episodes, gram stain of the dialysate was positive. The dialysate leukocyte count was higher in gram-negative than in gram-positive peritonitis. Seventy percent of the peritonitis episodes were gram positive, and Staphylococcus aureus was predominant. Only 1 of the 7 diapered infants had gram-negative organisms associated with peritonitis. Catheters were replaced in 48 cases, 26 because of infection. Sixty-nine percent of the patients were cured with antibiotic therapy alone. Although peritonitis was associated with a mortality rate of 1.2%, peritoneal dialysis remains the favored dialytic mode for children.

  8. Measuring the Effects of Massage on Exercise Performance and Cardiopulmonary Response in Children With and Without Heart Disease: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Beider, Shay; Boulanger, Karen T.; Joshi, Milind; Pan, Yann Ping; Chang, Ruey-Kang R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Congenital heart disease, a common and serious birth defect, affects 8 per 1000 live-born infants. Decreased exercise capacity and development of obesity is common in this population. These children may benefit from therapies, such as massage therapy, that could enhance cardiovascular and skeletal muscle function when they exercise. Purpose A pilot study conducted at the pediatric cardiology clinic of the Mattel Children’s Hospital of the University of California–Los Angeles examined the safety and feasibility of measuring the effects of pre-exercise massage on exercise performance and cardiopulmonary response in children with and without heart disease. Participants and Methods Sixteen children (mean age: 9.2 ± 2.2 years) participated in the study. Ten participants had various forms of heart disease, and six children were healthy. A female certified massage therapist with specialized training in pediatric massage provided a 30-minute massage to the participants. Using a standard protocol, each participant underwent two exercise tests: one test with and one without pre-exercise massage. Heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen uptake (VO2) were measured in the participants. Results All recruited participants completed the study. No adverse events occurred during any of the exercise tests or massage sessions. Measurements during exercise with or without a preceding massage were compared, and the pre-exercise massage condition yielded a significantly higher heart rate and higher minute ventilation. Measurements during exercise in children with heart disease and in healthy participants showed no significant differences in peak heart rate, blood pressure, peak VO2, peak work rate, minute ventilation, or respiratory quotient. Conclusions In this study, peak heart rate, peak VO2, and peak minute ventilation were higher when children received a massage before exercise testing. Larger studies will be needed to investigate the strength of this finding. Future

  9. Relationship of internal jugular venous oxygen saturation and perfusion flow rate in children and adults during normothermic and hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Ujjwal K; Airan, Ritu; Malhotra, Poonam; Reddy, Srikrishna M; Singh, Rajvir; Rizvi, Adil; Malik, Vishwas; Mittal, Chandramohan

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the trends in cerebral venous oxygen saturation in cyanotics and acyanotics undergoing normothermic and hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and its relationship to perfusion flow rates. Five hundred and forty-eight patients (253 cyanotics) undergoing first surgical correction using CPB were included in this prospective study. One hundred and seventy-two patients underwent surgical correction under normothermic CPB (34-36 degrees C) - group I; 142 patients were operated under moderately hypothermic CPB - group II; and 234 patients were operated under deep hypothermic CPB - group III. The perfusion flow rates were adjusted to maintain the internal jugular venous oxygen saturation (IJVO2) between 70-80% in both cyanotics and non-cyanotics. The prevalence of preoperative cerebral venous desaturation was 17.4% and 5.1% in cyanotic and acyanotic groups, respectively. All patients undergoing hypothermic CPB had IJVO 2 >75% at the recommended perfusion flow rate. During surgery, 87.2% of group I patients undergoing normothermic CPB and 88.5% of group II and III patients undergoing hypothermic CPB had IJVO 2 <75% during re-warming and required an increased perfusion flow rate to maintain IJVO2 >75%. The cyanotics demonstrated a higher incidence of cerebral desaturation in all three groups. Patients aged <4 years had almost the same prevalence of cerebral desaturation compared to the older patients. We conclude that patients undergoing normothermic CPB are at greater risk of cerebral desaturation. The cyanotics are at greater risk compared to acyanotics during normothermic CPB and during the re-warming phase of hypothermic CPB and require an individualised increased perfusion flow rate.

  10. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Takken, Tim; Bongers, Bart C; van Brussel, Marco; Haapala, Eero A; Hulzebos, Erik H J

    2017-07-01

    Aerobic fitness is an important determinant of overall health. Higher aerobic fitness has been associated with many health benefits. Because myocardial ischemia is rare in children, indications for exercise testing differ in children compared with adults. Pediatric exercise testing is imperative to unravel the physiological mechanisms of reduced aerobic fitness and to evaluate intervention effects in children and adolescents with a chronic disease or disability. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing includes the measurement of respiratory gas exchange and is the gold standard for determining aerobic fitness, as well as for examining the integrated physiological responses to exercise in pediatric medicine. As the physiological responses to exercise change during growth and development, appropriate pediatric reference values are essential for an adequate interpretation of the cardiopulmonary exercise test.

  11. Gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy in the years 2000

    PubMed Central

    Castagnola, Elio; Ruberto, Eliana; Guarino, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. To look at gut microflora features in oncology children. METHODS: We selected studies published after year 2000, excluding trials on transplanted pediatric patients. We searched English language publications in MEDLINE using the keywords: “gastrointestinal infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “gastrointestinal infection AND oncology AND children”, “liver infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “liver abscess AND chemotherapy AND child”, “neutropenic enterocolitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “thyphlitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “infectious diarrhea AND children AND oncology”, “abdominal pain AND infection AND children AND oncology”, “perianal sepsis AND children AND oncology”, “colonic pseudo-obstruction AND oncology AND child AND chemotherapy”, “microflora AND children AND malignancy”, “microbiota AND children AND malignancy”, “fungal flora AND children AND malignancy”. We also analysed evidence from several articles and book references. RESULTS: Gastrointestinal and liver infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. Antineoplastic drugs cause immunosuppression in addition to direct toxicity, predisposing to infections, although the specific risk is variable according to disease and host features. Common pathogens potentially induce severe diseases whereas opportunistic microorganisms may attack vulnerable hosts. Clinical manifestations can be subtle and not specific. In addition, several conditions are rare and diagnostic process and treatments are not standardized. Diagnosis may be challenging, however early diagnosis is needed for quick and appropriate interventions. Interestingly, the source of infection in those children can be exogenous or endogenous. Indeed, mucosal damage may allow the

  12. Effect of dexmedetomidine on sevoflurane requirements and emergence agitation in children undergoing ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Young; Kim, So Yeon; Yoon, Hye Jin; Kil, Hae Keum

    2014-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine, a potent selective α2-adrenergic agonist, produces sedation and analgesia. This study was conducted to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine infusion on sevoflurane requirements, recovery profiles, and emergence agitation in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. Forty children undergoing ambulatory hernioplasty or orchiopexy were randomized into two groups. The dexmedetomidine group (Group D, n=20) received dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg, followed by 0.1 μg/kg/h until the end of surgery, whereas the saline group (Group S, n=20) received volume-matched normal saline. Sevoflurane was used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia and caudal block was performed in all children. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration (ET-sevo), the incidence of emergence agitation, pain scores, and sedation scores were recorded. Hemodynamic changes and other adverse effects were assessed in the perioperative period. ET-sevo of Group D was significantly reduced in 23.8-67% compared to Group S during surgery. The incidence of emergence agitation was lower in Group D than in Group S (5% vs. 55%, p=0.001). Postoperative pain was comparable, and discharge time was not different between the groups. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in Group D during surgery. Intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine reduced sevoflurane requirements and decreased emergence agitation without delaying discharge in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. However, caution should be taken in regard to bradycardia and hypotension.

  13. Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Sevoflurane Requirements and Emergence Agitation in Children Undergoing Ambulatory Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Young; Kim, So Yeon; Yoon, Hye Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dexmedetomidine, a potent selective α2-adrenergic agonist, produces sedation and analgesia. This study was conducted to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine infusion on sevoflurane requirements, recovery profiles, and emergence agitation in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. Materials and Methods Forty children undergoing ambulatory hernioplasty or orchiopexy were randomized into two groups. The dexmedetomidine group (Group D, n=20) received dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg, followed by 0.1 µg/kg/h until the end of surgery, whereas the saline group (Group S, n=20) received volume-matched normal saline. Sevoflurane was used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia and caudal block was performed in all children. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration (ET-sevo), the incidence of emergence agitation, pain scores, and sedation scores were recorded. Hemodynamic changes and other adverse effects were assessed in the perioperative period. Results ET-sevo of Group D was significantly reduced in 23.8-67% compared to Group S during surgery. The incidence of emergence agitation was lower in Group D than in Group S (5% vs. 55%, p=0.001). Postoperative pain was comparable, and discharge time was not different between the groups. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in Group D during surgery. Conclusion Intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine reduced sevoflurane requirements and decreased emergence agitation without delaying discharge in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. However, caution should be taken in regard to bradycardia and hypotension. PMID:24339309

  14. Hospital Costs and Inpatient Mortality among Children Undergoing Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Romley, John A; Chen, Alex Y; Goldman, Dana P; Williams, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between hospital costs and risk-adjusted inpatient mortality among children undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) in U.S. acute-care hospitals. Data Sources/Study Settings Retrospective cohort study of 35,446 children in 2003, 2006, and 2009 Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). Study Design Cross-sectional logistic regression of risk-adjusted inpatient mortality and hospital costs, adjusting for a variety of patient-, hospital-, and community-level confounders. Data Collection/Extraction Methods We identified relevant discharges in the KID using the AHRQ Pediatric Quality Indicator for pediatric heart surgery mortality, and linked these records to hospital characteristics from American Hospital Association Surveys and community characteristics from the Census. Principal Findings Children undergoing CHD surgery in higher cost hospitals had lower risk-adjusted inpatient mortality (p = .002). An increase from the 25th percentile of treatment costs to the 75th percentile was associated with a 13.6 percent reduction in risk-adjusted mortality. Conclusions Greater hospital costs are associated with lower risk-adjusted inpatient mortality for children undergoing CHD surgery. The specific mechanisms by which greater costs improve mortality merit further exploration. PMID:24138064

  15. Preoperative levosimendan decreases mortality and the development of low cardiac output in high-risk patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ricardo; Degrange, Marcela; Del Mazo, Carlos; Tanus, Eduardo; Porcile, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The calcium sensitizer levosimendan has been used in cardiac surgery for the treatment of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) and difficult weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of preoperative treatment with levosimendan on 30-day mortality, the risk of developing LCOS and the requirement for inotropes, vasopressors and intra-aortic balloon pumps in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Patient with severe left ventricular dysfunction and an ejection fraction <25% undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB were admitted 24 h before surgery and were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (loading dose 10 μg/kg followed by a 23 h continuous infusion of 0.1μg/kg/min) or a placebo. RESULTS: From December 1, 2002 to June 1, 2008, a total of 252 patients were enrolled (127 in the levosimendan group and 125 in the control group). Individuals treated with levosimendan exhibited a lower incidence of complicated weaning from CPB (2.4% versus 9.6%; P<0.05), decreased mortality (3.9% versus 12.8%; P<0.05) and a lower incidence of LCOS (7.1% versus 20.8%; P<0.05) compared with the control group. The levosimendan group also had a lower requirement for inotropes (7.9% versus 58.4%; P<0.05), vasopressors (14.2% versus 45.6%; P<0.05) and intra-aortic balloon pumps (6.3% versus 30.4%; P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with severe left ventricle dysfunction (ejection fraction <25%) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB who were pretreated with levosimendan exhibited lower mortality, a decreased risk for developing LCOS and a reduced requirement for inotropes, vasopressors and intra-aortic balloon pumps. Studies with a larger number of patients are required to confirm whether these findings represent a new strategy to reduce the operative risk in this high-risk patient population. PMID:23620700

  16. Medical clowns ease anxiety and pain perceived by children undergoing allergy prick skin tests.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, A; Stauber, T; Peleg, O; Hanuka, P; Eshayek, L; Confino-Cohen, R

    2014-10-01

    Intervention of medical clowns (MC) during various medical procedures performed in children has been used to relieve anxiety and pain. Their role in allergy skin testing has never been evaluated. To evaluate whether MC can diminish pain and anxiety perceived by children undergoing allergy skin prick tests (SPT). In a prospective, randomized, controlled, and blinded study, children undergoing SPT were or were not accompanied by MC. All parents and children ≥8 years completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after SPT. Videotapes recorded during the procedure were scored for anxiety (m-YPAS) for all children and for pain (FLACC) for children 2-7 years old by a psychologist who was unaware of the MC's presence. After SPT, children ≥8 years completed a visual analog score (VAS) for pain. Ninety-one children (mean age 8.2 years, M/F = 54/37) were recruited of whom 45 were accompanied by clowns. A significant reduction in state-STAI was found in the clowns group, in both parents and children, when compared with the regular group (26.9 ± 6.6 and 32.3 ± 10.0; P = 0.004, and 27.1 ± 4.2 and 34.3 ± 7.6; P = 0.002, respectively). Both m-YPAS and FLACC were reduced in the clowns group compared with the regular one. In the clowns group, m-YPAS positively correlated with both VAS and FLACC (P = 0.000 and 0.002, respectively). m-YPAS was positively correlated with FLACC in the regular group (P = 0.000). Medical clowns significantly decrease the level of anxiety perceived by both children undergoing allergy SPT and their parents, as well as the pain perceived by young children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A randomized, blinded comparison of chloral hydrate and midazolam sedation in children undergoing echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, D S; Jensen, R A; Poss, W B

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this prospective, randomized, and blinded study was to compare the use of chloral hydrate versus oral midazolam sedation in children undergoing echocardiography. No adverse effects (nausea, vomiting, paradoxical agitation, or significant deviations from baseline vital signs) were noted with either medication. No differences were noted in onset of sedation between the 2 groups, however, the time to complete recovery was significantly shorter with midazolam than with chloral hydrate. The children in the chloral hydrate group had a significantly deeper level of sedation and were more likely to receive a more nearly comprehensive echocardiographic evalation.

  18. Anxiety and pain in children undergoing elective surgical procedures: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jia Shermin, Chieng Ying; Sally, Chan Wai-Chi; Hong-Gu, He

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and pain are two significant problems experienced by children undergoing elective surgical procedures, which may lead to suboptimal postoperative outcomes. Previous studies have shown a correlation between perioperative anxiety and pain in children. This review aimed to present the best available evidence on the correlation between perioperative anxiety and pain in children undergoing elective surgical procedures, and to determine the relationship between children's demographics, their anxiety and pain level in the perioperative period. Participants were children aged between five to 18 years old who were scheduled for an elective surgical procedure in the hospital setting.No specific intervention was of interest. So long as the primary studies examined correlation of children's anxiety and pain in the perioperative period, they were considered for inclusion.This review focused on children's preoperative level of anxiety; children's postoperative level of anxiety; children's postoperative pain intensity; and/or children's postoperative behavioural changes.This review included quantitative research studies, such as randomised-controlled trials, cohort studies, and descriptive studies which addressed the correlation between perioperative anxiety and perioperative pain in children undergoing elective surgical procedures. A three-step search strategy was utilised in this review. The following databases were searched for articles published in English from the inception date of databases to December 2010: CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, Mednar, Trip Database, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Scirus ETD and Web of Science. Papers selected for retrieval were assessed independently by two reviewers for methodological quality prior to inclusion in the review using standardised critical appraisal tools from Joanna Briggs Institute. There were no disagreements between the two reviewers, so the third reviewer was not required. Data were extracted using the

  19. Single bolus of intravenous ketamine for anesthetic induction decreases oculocardiac reflex in children undergoing strabismus surgery.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Lee, S J; Kim, S H; Kim, J H; Kwon, H H; Shin, Y S; Lee, K Y

    2007-07-01

    Oculocardiac reflex (OCR) is a major complication of pediatric strabismus surgery. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a single bolus of intravenous (i.v.) ketamine for anesthetic induction can decrease OCR in children undergoing strabismus surgery. One hundred and twenty healthy children undergoing strabismus surgery were allocated to three groups using double-blind randomization. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 3 mg/kg in Group P, ketamine 1 mg/kg in Group K1, or ketamine 2 mg/kg in Group K2. Anesthesia was maintained with 3% sevoflurane in 50% N(2)O/O(2) in all patients. The baseline heart rate was obtained 30 s prior to the first traction of the extraocular muscle (EOM). OCR was defined as a development of arrhythmia or a decrease of more than 20% of the baseline heart rate during EOM traction. The incidence of OCR was significantly lower in the ketamine groups (4/40 and 1/40 in Group K1 and K2, respectively) compared with the propofol group (14/40). A single bolus of i.v. ketamine 1 or 2 mg/kg for anesthetic induction results in a lower incidence of OCR than propofol when combined with sevoflurane for maintenance in children undergoing strabismus surgery.

  20. Resilience in Children Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation: Results of a Complementary Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Peasant, Courtney; Barrera, Maru; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Huang, Qinlei; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children undergoing stem cell transplantation (SCT) are thought to be at risk for increased distress, adjustment difficulties, and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL). We report results of a multisite trial designed to improve psychological adjustment and HRQL in children undergoing SCT. METHODS: A total of 171 patients and parents from 4 sites were randomized to receive a child-targeted intervention; a child and parent intervention; or standard care. The child intervention included massage and humor therapy; the parent intervention included massage and relaxation/imagery. Outcomes included symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress, HRQL, and benefit finding. Assessments were conducted by patient and parent report at admission and SCT week+24. RESULTS: Across the sample, significant improvements were seen on all outcomes from admission to week+24. Surprisingly, patients who had SCT reported low levels of adjustment difficulties at admission, and improved to normative or better than average levels of adjustment and HRQL at week+24. Benefit finding was high at admission and increased at week+24; however, there were no statistically significant differences between intervention arms for any of the measures. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results do not support the benefits of these complementary interventions in pediatric SCT, this may be explained by the remarkably positive overall adjustment seen in this sample. Improvements in supportive care, and a tendency for patients to find benefit in the SCT experience, serve to promote positive outcomes in children undergoing this procedure, who appear particularly resilient to the challenge. PMID:22311995

  1. The effect of psychological intervention on perceived pain in children undergoing venipuncture.

    PubMed

    Sikorova, Lucie; Hrazdilova, Petra

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of structured psychological intervention on the level of perceived pain in children undergoing venipuncture. A second goal was to investigate how pain behavior during venipuncture is affected by age, sex, previous number of venipunctures, the presence of parents during the procedure and reason for the venipuncture. Children with indications for venipuncture aged 5-10 years, were randomly divided into a control group and an intervention group. The control group was prepared for the venipuncture routinely. Children in the intervention group were prepared according to prior structured psychological consultation. Perceived pain levels were assessed by the CHEOPS scale and the self report Wong and Baker faces pain rating scale. A significant difference in evaluated pain between the intervention group and the control group was found. The psychological intervention carried out by a nurse proved to lower pain levels from venipuncture as measured by the CHEOPS scale and evaluated using the self-report scale. A greater level of pain was found in children in the age group 5-7 years, in children where peripheral venous catheter was introduced and in children where the parents were present. Special consultation with the child one day before venipuncture reduced pain levels, especially in children below the age-category mentioned. Consultation should be part of the standard of care for children with indications for venipuncture.

  2. Children's knowledge and degree of participation in decision making when undergoing a clinical diagnostic procedure.

    PubMed

    Runeson, Ingrid; Mårtenson, Eva; Enskär, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-three children, (6-11 years, 9 boys and 14 girls), admitted to a pediatric day care department for a planned diagnostic procedure were interviewed with the aim of investigating their level of knowledge regarding a current diagnostic procedure, and the level of participation in discussions and decision making relating to their hospitalization. While the children were being interviewed, their attendant parent completed a questionnaire. The children's level of knowledge was documented and graded. The children's statements and their parents' evaluation of the information given to the child were sorted into groups and compared. The children's descriptions of their participation in discussions and decision-making were assessed and summarized. Finally, the children's and their parents' experiences of the children's anxiety and fear before the hospital visit were compared. The children were undergoing different kinds of diagnostic procedures and they had received information from different people. They were prepared for their admission in different ways, and had participated in discussions and decisions to various degrees. Despite this preparation, it would be safe to state that the participants as a group were not very well informed nor did they participate fully. More knowledge is needed regarding how to prepare each child prior to admission, before, during, and after the hospital visit and which additional factors, e.g., trust and a familiar environment, have influence on the child's experience.

  3. Instrument to assess educational programs for parents of children with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Pino Armijo, Paola; Ramírez León, Muriel; Clavería Rodríguez, Cristian

    2017-10-01

    To design and validate an instrument to assess the relevance of educational programs for parents of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) undergoing cardiac surgery. In October 2011, an instrument was designed based on Kaufman's model and on the bibliography, and a survey was developed in the form of a checklist with 32 close-ended questions about received education and desired education, categorized into 5 items: educator, time, place, means, and content. The survey was reviewed by 4 academic professionals and 9 experts in the care of children with CHD, and the checklist was extended to include 42 close-ended questions and 5 open questions. The instrument was administered on the day before discharge to the parents of children with CHD undergoing cardiac surgery at the Department of Pediatrics between February and August 2013. The survey was self-administered by the first participants and administered by the investigator among the remaining participants. Fifty-five children met inclusion criteria; a total of 60 parents took part in the study. Agreement was observed between received education and desired education, which was statistically significant only in terms of education provided by a cardiologist (p= 0.000, K= 0.659) and in the hall (p= 0.000, K= 0.655). Statistically significant differences were observed between the 19 self-administered surveys and the 41 surveys administered by the investigator. Among the latter, a greater level of completion was observed for all items. A validated instrument was developed to assess the relevance of educational programs for parents of children with CHD undergoing cardiac surgery. This survey should be administered by a health care provider for a better understanding of information.

  4. Association of BMI With Propofol Dosing and Adverse Events in Children With Cancer Undergoing Procedural Sedation.

    PubMed

    Rogerson, Colin M; Abulebda, Kamal; Hobson, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Obesity increases the risk of complications during pediatric procedural sedation. The risk of being underweight has not been evaluated in this arena. We therefore investigated the association of BMI with sedation dosing and adverse events in children across a range of BMIs. A total of 1976 patients ages 2 to 21 years old with oncologic diagnoses underwent lumbar punctures and/or bone marrow aspirations. All children received a standard adjunctive dose of ketamine before sedation with propofol. Weight categories were stratified by BMI percentile: underweight <5%, normal weight 5% to 85%, overweight >85%, and obese >95%. Dosing and adverse events (hypoxia, apnea, bradycardia, or hypotension) were reviewed. There were no differences in propofol dosing for procedural sedation between patients who were normal weight and underweight. However, children who were overweight and those who were obese used less propofol compared with children who were normal weight (P < .01). Children who were underweight had a higher proportion of adverse events overall relative to those children of normal weight (P < .001). In contrast, there was not an increase in adverse events for patients who were overweight and obese. Children who are overweight and children with obesity who require deep sedation can undergo successful sedation with lower propofol dosing relative to children of a normal weight. This dosing strategy may help to mitigate the risks associated with sedating patients who are obese. Notably, children who were underweight had an increased rate of complications despite receiving an equal amount of sedation compared with patients who were normal weight. This should alert the clinicians to the risks associated with sedating children who are underweight. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Comparing four non-invasive methods to determine the ventilatory anaerobic threshold during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children with congenital heart or lung disease.

    PubMed

    Visschers, Naomi C A; Hulzebos, Erik H; van Brussel, Marco; Takken, Tim

    2015-11-01

    The ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) is an important method to assess the aerobic fitness in patients with cardiopulmonary disease. Several methods exist to determine the VAT; however, there is no consensus which of these methods is the most accurate. To compare four different non-invasive methods for the determination of the VAT via respiratory gas exchange analysis during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). A secondary objective is to determine the interobserver reliability of the VAT. CPET data of 30 children diagnosed with either cystic fibrosis (CF; N = 15) or with a surgically corrected dextro-transposition of the great arteries (asoTGA; N = 15) were included. No significant differences were found between conditions or among testers. The RER = 1 method differed the most compared to the other methods, showing significant higher results in all six variables. The PET-O2 method differed significantly on five of six and four of six exercise variables with the V-slope method and the VentEq method, respectively. The V-slope and the VentEq method differed significantly on one of six exercise variables. Ten of thirteen ICCs that were >0.80 had a 95% CI > 0.70. The RER = 1 method and the V-slope method had the highest number of significant ICCs and 95% CIs. The V-slope method, the ventilatory equivalent method and the PET-O2 method are comparable and reliable methods to determine the VAT during CPET in children with CF or asoTGA. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of 22q11.2 deletion on bleeding and transfusion utilization in children with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Michelle K.; Clarke, Shanelle; Mahnke, Donna K.; Simpson, Pippa; Bercovitz, Rachel S.; Tomita-Mitchell, Aoy; Mitchell, Michael E.; Newman, Debra K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-surgical bleeding causes significant morbidity and mortality in children undergoing surgery for congenital heart defects (CHD). 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) is the second most common genetic risk factor for CHD. The deleted segment of chromosome 22q11.2 encompasses the gene encoding glycoprotein (GP) Ibβ, which is required for expression of the GPIb-V-IX complex on the platelet surface, where it functions as the receptor for von Willebrand factor (VWF). Binding of GPIb-V-IX to VWF is important for platelets to initiate hemostasis. It is not known whether hemizygosity for the gene encoding GPIbβ increases the risk for bleeding following cardiac surgery for patients with 22q11.2 DS. Methods We performed a case-control study of 91 pediatric patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass from 2004–2012 at Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin. Results Patients with 22q11.2 DS had larger platelets and lower platelet counts, bled more excessively and received more transfusion support with packed red blood cells in the early post-operative period relative to control patients. Conclusions Pre-surgical genetic testing for 22q11.2 DS may help to identify a subset of pediatric cardiac surgery patients who are at increased risk for excessive bleeding and who may require more transfusion support in the post-operative period. PMID:26492284

  7. Not All Sounds Have Negative Effects on Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elshafy, Sayed Kaoud; Khalaf, Ghada Shalaby; Abo-Kerisha, Mohamed Zackareia; Ahmed, Nadia Taha; Abd El-Aziz, Mervat Anwer; Mohamed, Mona Aly

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the role of music therapy on the level of stress in children undergoing repair of congenital heart disease. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Children's university hospital. Fifty children aged 4 to 12 years undergoing repair of congenital heart disease. Patients were randomized into 2 equal groups (control group and music group); in the control group, patients listened to a blank CD, and in the music group, patients listened to a recorded CD of music and songs preferred by the child. Demographic data, clinical data, and preoperative vital signs were recorded. Baseline stress markers (blood glucose and cortisol levels) were sampled. Patients were assessed intraoperatively until extubation for vital signs and stress markers and after extubation for pain and sedation scales. An interview was conducted within the first postoperative week with the patients and their parents for assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder and negative postoperative behavior changes. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics, clinical data, vital signs, preoperative and at-extubation blood glucose levels, and preoperative blood cortisol levels between groups. Significant differences were found between groups in blood glucose levels and cortisol levels at all intraoperative times, but only in cortisol blood levels at extubation. Significant differences were found in pain score, sedation score, occurrence of child post-traumatic stress disorder, and occurrence of negative postoperative behavior. Listening to favorable music by children undergoing repair for congenital heart disease resulted in less stress and more relaxation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of dexmedetomidine in children undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Marco Aurélio Soares; Govêia, Catia Sousa; Magalhães, Edno; Ladeira, Luís Cláudio Araújo; Moreira, Larissa Govêia; Miranda, Denismar Borges de

    Sevoflurane is often used in pediatric anesthesia and is associated with high incidence of psychomotor agitation. In such cases, dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been used, but its benefit and implications remain uncertain. We assessed the effects of DEX on agitation in children undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane. Meta-analysis of randomized clinical and double-blind studies, with children undergoing elective procedures under general anesthesia with sevoflurane, using DEX or placebo. We sought articles in English in PubMed database using the following terms: Dexmedetomidine, sevoflurane (Methyl Ethers/sevoflurante), and agitation (Psychomotor Agitation). Duplicate articles with children who received premedication and used active control were excluded. It was adopted random effects model with DerSimonian-Laird testing and odds ratio (OR) calculation for dichotomous variables, and standardized mean difference for continuous variables, with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Of 146 studies identified, 10 were selected totaling 558 patients (282 in DEX group and 276 controls). The use of DEX was considered a protective factor for psychomotor agitation (OR=0.17; 95% CI 0.13-0.23; p<0.0001) and nausea and vomiting in PACU (OR=0.49; 95% CI 0.35-0.68; p<0.0001). Wake-up time and PACU discharge time were higher in the dexmedetomidine group. There was no difference between groups for extubation time and duration of anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine reduces psychomotor agitation during wake-up time of children undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effect of dexmedetomidine in children undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Amorim, Marco Aurélio Soares; Govêia, Catia Sousa; Magalhães, Edno; Ladeira, Luís Cláudio Araújo; Moreira, Larissa Govêia; de Miranda, Denismar Borges

    Sevoflurane is often used in pediatric anesthesia and is associated with high incidence of psychomotor agitation. In such cases, dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been used, but its benefit and implications remain uncertain. We assessed the effects of DEX on agitation in children undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane. Meta-analysis of randomized clinical and double-blind studies, with children undergoing elective procedures under general anesthesia with sevoflurane, using DEX or placebo. We sought articles in English in PubMed database using the following terms: Dexmedetomidine, sevoflurane (Methyl Ethers/sevoflurante), and agitation (Psychomotor Agitation). Duplicate articles with children who received premedication and used active control were excluded. It was adopted random effects model with DerSimonian-Laird testing and odds ratio (OR) calculation for dichotomous variables, and standardized mean difference for continuous variables, with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Of 146 studies identified, 10 were selected totaling 558 patients (282 in DEX group and 276 controls). The use of DEX was considered a protective factor for psychomotor agitation (OR=0.17; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.23; p<0.0001) and nausea and vomiting in PACU (OR=0.49; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.68; p<0.0001). Wake-up time and PACU discharge time were higher in the dexmedetomidine group. There was no difference between groups for extubation time and duration of anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine reduces psychomotor agitation during wake-up time of children undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. The Facial Affective Scale as a Predictor for Pain Unpleasantness When Children Undergo Immunizations

    PubMed Central

    Finnström, Berit; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2014-01-01

    Needle fear is a common problem in children undergoing immunization. To ensure that the individual child's needs are met during a painful procedure it would be beneficial to be able to predict whether there is a need for extra support. The self-reporting instrument facial affective scale (FAS) could have potential for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the FAS can predict pain unpleasantness in girls undergoing immunization. Girls, aged 11-12 years, reported their expected pain unpleasantness on the FAS at least two weeks before and then experienced pain unpleasantness immediately before each vaccination. The experienced pain unpleasantness during the vaccination was also reported immediately after each immunization. The level of anxiety was similarly assessed during each vaccination and supplemented with stress measures in relation to the procedure in order to assess and evaluate concurrent validity. The results show that the FAS is valid to predict pain unpleasantness in 11-12-year-old girls who undergo immunizations and that it has the potential to be a feasible instrument to identify children who are in need of extra support to cope with immunization. In conclusion, the FAS measurement can facilitate caring interventions. PMID:24734174

  11. Evaluation of depression and anxiety in parents of children undergoing cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Üzger, Ahmet; Başpınar, Osman; Bülbül, Feridun; Yavuz, Sibel; Kılınç, Metin

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine pre-procedure depression and anxiety levels among a group of parents whose children had congenital heart disease and were undergoing angiography. The study comprised parents of 73 congenital heart disease patients undergoing angiography. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to evaluate the depression and anxiety scores. Sixty-one patients (83.6%) had acyanotic congenital heart disease, and 25 patients (34.2%) were undergoing diagnostic angiography. BDI scores among the mothers determined that 8 (11%) had mild, 14 (19.2%) moderate, and 10 (13.7%) severe depression. Their BAI scores showed that 16 (21.9%) had mild, 8 (11%) moderate, and 13 (17.8%) severe anxiety. BDI scores for the fathers showed that 12 (16.4%) had mild, 10 (13.7%) moderate, and 8 (11%) severe depression. Their BAI scores showed that 12 (16.4%) had mild, 10 (13.7%) moderate, and 8 (11%) severe anxiety. A comparison of mothers of cyanotic patients and those of acyanotic patients in terms of depression and anxiety levels revealed a statistically significant difference (p=0.050 and 0.043, respectively). Angiography was associated with increased levels of depression and anxiety in parents of children with congenital heart diseases. In comparison to parents of patients with acyanotic congenital heart disease, mothers of patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease had significantly higher levels of depression and anxiety.

  12. Atelectasis in children undergoing either propofol infusion or positive pressure ventilation anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lutterbey, Goetz; Wattjes, Mike P; Doerr, Dorothea; Fischer, Nicolas J; Gieseke, Juergen; Schild, Hans H

    2007-02-01

    Atelectasis because of anesthesia is a recognized problem but may be affected by the anesthetic technique. We compared magnetic resonance images of atelectasis in children undergoing two types of anesthesia. Children requiring anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) had additional lung imaging sequences at the beginning and the end of anesthesia. Children had either i.v. propofol infusion (PI) without an artificial airway (n = 26) or positive pressure ventilation (PPV) via a tracheal tube (n = 20); the technique was chosen for clinical reasons. The extent of atelectasis was scored by two independent radiologists. The median ages (range) for PI and PPV groups were 45 months (1-77 months) and 18 months (2-74 months), respectively. The proportion of children with atelectasis was different in the first lung scan (42% vs 80%), but in the second scan atelectasis was seen frequently in both groups (82% vs 94%) with a greater extent in the PPV group. The atelectasis score was higher in young children, but all children had normal oxygen requirements and saturations. Many factors may influence the development of atelectasis but this study found less extensive atelectasis with PI than PPV. PI allows for sufficient motionlessness, required for high diagnostic image quality in pediatric MRI.

  13. An Assessment of Oral Hygiene in 7-14-Year-Old Children undergoing Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Krupińska-Nanys, Magdalena; Zarzecka, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Backround: The study is focused on increased risk of dental plaque accumulation among the children undergoing orthodontic treatment in consideration of individual hygiene and dietary habits. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 91 children aged 7-14 including 47 girls and 44 boys. The main objectives of the study were: API index, plaque pH, DMF index, proper hygiene and dietary habits. Statistical analysis was provided in Microsoft Office Exel spreadsheet and STATISTICA statistical software. Results: The average API index among the children wearing removable appliance was 9 (SD = 13), and among children without appliances was 16 (SD = 21). DMF index for patients using appliances was 5 (SD = 3) and for those without appliances was 4 (SD = 2). The average plaque pH was 6 for children with appliances (SD = 0.9) and 6.2 without ones (SD = 0.3). Conclusion: In patients in whom there is a higher risk of dental plaque accumulating, correct oral hygiene supported with regular visits to the dentist is one of the best ways to control dental caries. In the fight against caries the most effective and only approach is to promote awareness of the problem, foster proper hygiene and nutritional habits, as well as educate children from a very young age in how to maintain proper oral hygiene. PMID:25709359

  14. Pediatric RIFLE for acute kidney injury diagnosis and prognosis for children undergoing cardiac surgery: a single-center prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Di Nardo, Matteo; Iacoella, Claudia; Netto, Roberta; Picca, Stefano; Cogo, Paola

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the performance of the pediatric RIFLE (pRIFLE) score for acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and prognosis after pediatric cardiac surgery. It was a single-center prospective observational study developed in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (pCICU) of a tertiary children's hospital. The study enrolled 160 consecutive children younger than 1 year with congenital heart diseases and undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the 160 children, 50 (31 %) were neonates, and 20 (12 %) had a univentricular heart. Palliative surgery was performed for 53 patients (33 %). A diagnosis of AKI was determined for 90 patients (56 %), and 68 (42 %) of these patients achieved an "R" level of AKI severity, 17 patients (10 %) an "I" level, and 5 patients (3 %) an "F" level. Longer cross-clamp times (p = 0.045), a higher inotropic score (p = 0.02), and a higher Risk-Adjusted Classification for Congenital Heart Surgery score (p = 0.048) but not age (p = 0.27) correlated significantly with pRIFLE class severity. Patients classified with a higher pRIFLE score required a greater number of mechanical ventilation days (p = 0.03) and a longer pCICU stay (p = 0.045). Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was needed for 13 patients (8.1 %), with two patients receiving continuous hemofiltration, and 11 patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. At the start of dialysis, the distribution of RRT patients differed significantly within pRIFLE classes (p = 0.015). All deceased patients were classified as pRIFLE "I" or "F" (p = 0.0001). The findings showed that pRIFLE is easily and feasibly applied for pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. The pRIFLE classification showed that AKI incidence in pediatric cardiac surgery infants is high and associated with poorer outcomes.

  15. Post-Operative Outcomes in Children With and Without Congenital Heart Disease Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Faraoni, David; Zurakowski, David; Vo, Daniel; Goobie, Susan M; Yuki, Koichi; Brown, Morgan L; DiNardo, James A

    2016-02-23

    Significant advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of children with congenital heart disease (CHD), allowing for longer life expectancies and an increasing number who will require noncardiac surgery. This study sought to compare the incidence of mortality and major adverse post-operative outcomes following noncardiac surgery in children with and without CHD. Data from the 2012 pediatric database of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were analyzed. After propensity score matching, and stratification by severity of CHD, mortality and adverse post-operative outcomes were compared between controls and children with CHD. Among the 51,008 children included in the database, 4,520 children with CHD underwent noncardiac surgery. After propensity score matching, we included 2,805 children with minor CHD, 1,272 with major CHD, and 417 with severe CHD. Children in each subgroup were matched and compared with controls without CHD who underwent noncardiac surgery of comparable complexity. The incidence of overall mortality was significantly higher in children with moderate (3.9%) and severe (8.2%) CHD compared with their controls (respectively, 1.7% [p < 0.001] and 1.2% [p = 0.001]). Both 30-day and overall mortality were significantly increased in children with severe CHD (odds ratio [OR]: 8.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.52 to 28.21; p < 0.001; OR: 7.32, 95% CI: 2.83 to 18.90; p < 0.001) compared with their matched controls. Overall mortality was also significantly increased in children with major CHD compared with their controls (OR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.37 to 3.79; p = 0.002), whereas no difference was observed between children with minor CHD and their matched controls. Children with major and severe CHD, undergoing noncardiac surgery, have an increased risk of mortality compared with children without CHD. Further studies need to identify the optimal environment for surgical procedures, develop trained

  16. Subcutaneous Midazolam with and without Ketamine for Sedation In Children Undergoing Dental Treatment: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Flores-Castillo, D; Martínez-Rider, R; Ruiz-Rodríguez, S; Garrocho-Rangel, A; Lara-Guevara, J; Pozos-Guillén, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of subcutaneous (SC) sedation using midazolam with and without ketamine in non-cooperative pediatric patients undergoing dental treatment. A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot clinical trial was carried out in 13 children, aged between 17-46 months, ASA l, Frankl 1. Two sedation schemes were administered SC: Midazolam alone (M), and a combination of Midazolam-Ketamine (MK). Both regimens were administered to the same patient in two consecutive treatment sessions, in accordance with a random assignment. Overall behavior, movement, and crying were assessed according to the modified Houpt scale. Heart rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, and possible side effects were also monitored. The percentage of non-crying children was always higher in the treatment with MK compared with the treatment with M, but without a significant statistical difference. Regarding variable body movement, the percentage of children without movement was higher in the MK group, although only up to minute 10; no significant differences were found at 20, 30, and 40 minutes, and from minute 40, body movement was lower in the M group. Midazolam alone and the midazolam-ketamine combination administered subcutaneously resulted in a safe and efficient pharmacological method for providing moderate sedation to non-cooperative pediatric patients undergoing dental treatment.

  17. Evaluation of efficacy of dexmedetomidine versus propofol for sedation in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Kirti; Asthana, Unnati; Bansal, Teena; Dureja, Jagdish; Ahlawat, Geeta; Kapoor, Saloni

    2017-01-01

    Background: A deep level of sedation is required for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children to ensure optimum image quality. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine versus propofol for sedation in children undergoing MRI. Materials and Methods: A total of sixty children aged 2–10 years, having physical status 1 or 2 according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists, undergoing MRI were included in the study. Group D: (n = 30) received injection dexmedetomidine 2 μg/kg for 10 min followed by continuous infusion of 1.0 μg/kg/h. Group P (n = 30) received injection propofol 1 mg/kg bolus followed by continuous infusion of 100 μg/kg/min. Results: The mean time for onset of sedation in Group D was much longer than in Group P (P = 0.000). Mean duration of sedation was comparable in the two groups. The number of patients requiring increased infusion of study drug was significantly higher in Group D (30%) as compared to Group P (16.7%) (P < 0.05). The average recovery time in Group D was much longer than in Group P (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Propofol had an advantage of providing rapid onset of sedation and quicker recovery time. Dexmedetomidine resulted in a better preservation of respiratory rate and oxygen saturation, so it may be more suitable in children who are prone to respiratory depression. Hence, both the drugs could achieve required sedation in children posted for MRI. PMID:28442954

  18. Role of nasogastric tube in children undergoing elective distal bowel surgery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Niyaz Ahmed; Roy Choudhury, Subhasis; Yadav, Partap Singh; Prakash, Raghu; Patel, Jigar N

    2017-02-01

    Nasogastric tubes are being routinely used in children and adults undergoing elective abdominal surgery without much scientific evidence supporting their true usefulness. The aim of our study was to assess the role of nasogastric tube in children undergoing elective distal bowel surgery. All pediatric patients undergoing elective distal bowel surgery were enrolled and randomized into two groups: those with nasogastric tube (NG group) or without nasogastric tube (NNG group). Outcome parameters such as resumption of bowel function, enteral feed tolerance, postoperative complications, hospital stay and patient with their parent satisfaction were compared between the groups. A total of 60 patients were included with equal distribution in the NG and NNG groups. Patient variables were comparable in both the groups. Patients in NNG group progressed to full oral feeds significantly earlier (57 ± 18 vs. 106.07 ± 18.35 h, p < 0.001) and had shorter duration of hospital stay (91.93 ± 26.03 vs. 114.67 ± 18.83 h, p < 0.001) as compared to the NG group. Significant number of patients with nasogastric tube reported sore throat (9 vs. 1 p = 0.03) and nausea (5 vs. 0 p = 0.010). There was no significant difference in return of bowel function (39.43 h ± 15.92 vs. 43.60 h ± 17.77, p = 0.171), hiccups, sleep disturbance, complications and nasogastric tube reinsertion rate between the two groups. Routine use of nasogastric tube after elective distal bowel surgery in children is not necessary.

  19. At-home pulse oximetry in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Martino; Ullmann, Nicola; Verrillo, Elisabetta; De Vincentiis, Giancarlo; Sitzia, Emanuela; Cutrera, Renato

    2017-04-01

    Nocturnal pulse oximetry has a high positive predictive value for polysomnographically diagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in children. When significant adenotonsillar hypertrophy is diagnosed, adenotonsillectomy (T&A) represents a common treatment for OSA in children. We investigated the role of pulse oximetry in predicting those patients, referred for suspected OSA, who subsequently needed T&A. At-home nocturnal pulse oximetry was performed on 380 children (65.7% males), median age 4.1(IRQ 3.0-5.6) years, referred for suspected OSA, and data were retrospectively analysed. For each recording McGill Oximetry Score (MOS) was categorized. Mean pulse rate (PR) z-score and pulse rate variability (PRV)-corrected (PRSD/meanPR) were significantly higher in children with abnormal MOS. Both parameters were significantly higher in subjects who underwent T&A compared with those not surgically treated. Both DI4 and PRV corrected showed a negative correlation with the elapsed time between pulse oximetry recordings and T&A. The logistic regression model showed a strong effect of an abnormal MOS as a predicting factor for T&A (adjusted odds ratio 19.7). In our study, children with OSA who subsequently needed T&A showed higher PRV compared to those without surgical indication. Children with abnormal MOS were nearly 20 times more likely to undergo T&A. What is Known: • Nocturnal pulse oximetry has a high positive predictive value for polysomnographically diagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea in children. • When significant adenotonsillar hypertrophy is diagnosed, adenotonsillectomy represents a common treatment for OSA in children. What is New: • An abnormal pulse oximetry highly predict the indication for adenotonsillectomy. • We suggest the use of at-home pulse oximetry as method to predict prescription of adenotonsillectomy, and this may be useful in contexts where polysomnography is not readily available.

  20. Oral Midazolam for Voiding Dysfunction in Children Undergoing Voiding Cystourethrography: A Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Azarfar, Anoush; Esmaeeili, Mohammad; Farrokh, Azadeh; Alamdaran, Ali; Keykhosravi, Aghilallah; Neamatshahi, Mahboobe; Hebrani, Alireza; Ravanshad, Yalda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Voiding Cystourethrography (VCUG) is the gold standard of detecting and grading the vesicoureteral reflux. Moreover, VCUG is a part of the standard review for infants and children with a urinary tract infection and urinary dysfunction. Objectives: The purpose of our study was to compare using oral midazolam in contrast to prescribing no sedative medication for voiding dysfunction in children undergoing VCUG. Patients and Methods: In a clinical trial, we studied 84 children referred for VCUG. Children were allocated randomly into two equal groups. The intervention group received 0.5 mg/kg midazolam orally half an hour before the VCUG procedure. Then both groups were compared using statistical methods. Results: Then both groups were compared using statistical methods. In more than half of the patients, the main cause of performing VCUG was urinary tract infection. Dysuria was evaluated immediately after VCUG and was more frequent in girls than in boys (P = 0.006). After one week, the urinary irritation and restlessness in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: The use of midazolam 0.5 mg/kg reduced children's stress and increased their cooperation during the procedure. PMID:25032141

  1. Comparison of inhaled nitric oxide with aerosolized iloprost for treatment of pulmonary hypertension in children after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Loukanov, Tsvetomir; Bucsenez, Dietrich; Springer, Wolfgang; Sebening, Christian; Rauch, Helmut; Roesch, Eva; Karck, Matthias; Gorenflo, Matthias

    2011-07-01

    Pilot study to compare the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and aerosolized iloprost in preventing perioperative pulmonary hypertensive crises (PHTCs). Guidelines recommend the use of iNO to treat PHTCs, but treatment with iNO is not an ideal vasodilator. Aerosolized iloprost may be a possible alternative to iNO in this setting. Investigator-initiated, open-label, randomized clinical trial in 15 infants (age range 77-257 days) with left-to-right shunt (11 out of 15 with additional trisomy 21), and pulmonary hypertension (i.e. mean pulmonary artery pressure [PAP] >25 mmHg) after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomized to treatment with iNO at 10 ppm or aerosolized iloprost at 0.5 µg/kg (every 2 h). The observation period was 72 h after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of PHTCs; the secondary endpoints were mean PAP, duration of mechanical ventilation, safety of administration, and in-hospital mortality. Seven patients received iNO and eight patients received iloprost. During the observation period, 13 of the 15 patients had at least one major or minor PHTC. There was no difference between the groups with regard to the frequency of PHTCs, mean PAP and duration of mechanical ventilation (p > 0.05). In this pilot study, aerosolized iloprost had a favorable safety profile. Larger trials are needed to compare its efficacy to iNO for the treatment of perioperative pulmonary hypertension. However, neither treatment alone abolished the occurrence of PHTCs.

  2. Retrospective audit of Taranaki children undergoing dental care under general anaesthetic from 2001 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Foster Page, Lyndie A

    2009-03-01

    A retrospective audit of trends in day-stay treatment for dental caries at a New Zealand hospital dental unit showed that demand for treatment has risen. The annual number of children undergoing a GA increased by over 13%, although the average waiting time after the initial consultation decreased. The cost of treatment also dramatically increased with time, as the numbers and complexity of cases increased. The type of treatment under GA changed over the five years, with more extractions occurring over the course of the audit. Restorations were still the most common treatment item provided, although the use of SSC trebled in 2004 and 2005. Socio-economic status, sex and ethnic differences were observed, with more boys and Măori receiving GA care and having a higher number of extractions. These children were identified as being high users of other hospital services (such as the Emergency Department).

  3. Music Therapy as Procedural Support for Young Children Undergoing Immunizations: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg

    2016-01-01

    Children undergoing routine immunizations frequently experience severe distress, which may be improved through music therapy as procedural support. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of live, cognitive-behavioral music therapy during immunizations on (a) the behaviors of children, their parents, and their nurses; and (b) parental perceptions. Participants were children between the ages of 4 and 6 years (N = 58) who underwent immunizations, their parents (N = 62), and the nurses who administered the procedure (N = 19). Parent/child dyads were randomly assigned to receive music therapy (n = 29) or standard care (n = 29) during their immunization. Afterward, each parent rated their child's level of pain and the distress their child experienced compared to previous medical experiences. All procedures were videotaped and later viewed by trained observers, who classified child, parent, and nurse behaviors using the categories of the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised (CAMPIS-R). Significant differences between the music therapy and control groups were found in rates of child coping and distress behaviors and parent distress-promoting behaviors. Parents of children who received music therapy reported that their child's level of distress was less than during previous medical experiences, whereas parents of children in the control group reported that their child's level of distress was greater. No significant differences between groups were found in parents' ratings of children's pain or in rates of nurse behavior. Live, cognitive-behavioral music therapy has potential benefits for young children and their parents during immunizations. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Providing Preoperative Information for Children Undergoing Surgery: A Randomized Study Testing Different Types of Educational Material to Reduce Children's Preoperative Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, S. C.; Arriaga, P.; Esteves, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed three types of educational preoperative materials and examined their efficacy in preparing children for surgery by analysing children's preoperative worries and parental anxiety. The sample was recruited from three hospitals in Lisbon and consisted of 125 children, aged 8-12 years, scheduled to undergo outpatient surgery. The…

  5. Providing Preoperative Information for Children Undergoing Surgery: A Randomized Study Testing Different Types of Educational Material to Reduce Children's Preoperative Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, S. C.; Arriaga, P.; Esteves, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed three types of educational preoperative materials and examined their efficacy in preparing children for surgery by analysing children's preoperative worries and parental anxiety. The sample was recruited from three hospitals in Lisbon and consisted of 125 children, aged 8-12 years, scheduled to undergo outpatient surgery. The…

  6. Association of 24/7 In-House Intensive Care Unit Attending Physician Coverage With Outcomes in Children Undergoing Heart Operations.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Punkaj; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Jeffries, Howard E; Brundage, Nancy; Markovitz, Barry P; Scanlon, Matthew C; Simsic, Janet M

    2016-12-01

    Multicenter data regarding the around-the-clock (24/7) presence of an in-house critical care attending physician with outcomes in children undergoing cardiac operations are limited. Patients younger than 18 years of age who underwent operations (with or without cardiopulmonary bypass [CPB]) for congenital heart disease at 1 of the participating intensive care units (ICUs) in the Virtual PICU Systems (VPS, LLC) database were included (2009-2014). The study population was divided into 2 groups: the 24/7 group (14,737 patients; 32 hospitals), and the No 24/7 group (10,422 patients; 22 hospitals). Propensity-score matching was performed to match patients 1:1 in the 24/7 group and in the No 24/7 group. Overall, 25,159 patients from 54 hospitals qualified for inclusion. By propensity matching, 9,072 patients (4,536 patient pairs) from 51 hospitals were matched 1:1 in the 2 groups. After matching, mortality at ICU discharge was lower among the patients treated in hospitals with 24/7 coverage (24/7 versus No 24/7, 2.8% versus 4.0%; p = 0.002). The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), the incidence of cardiac arrest, extubation within 48 hours after operation, the rate of reintubation, and the duration of arterial line and central venous line use after operation were significantly improved in the 24/7 group. When stratified by surgical complexity, survival benefits of 24/7 coverage persisted among patients undergoing both high-complexity and low-complexity operations. The presence of 24-hour in-ICU attending physician coverage in children undergoing cardiac operations is associated with improved outcomes, including ICU mortality. It is possible that 24-hour in-ICU attending physician coverage may be a surrogate for other factors that may bias the results. Further study is warranted. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. IV busulfan dose individualization in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant: limited sampling strategies.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, L Lee; Sibbald, Cathryn; Schechter, Tal; Ansari, Marc; Gassas, Adam; Théorêt, Yves; Kassir, Nastya; Champagne, Martin A; Doyle, John

    2008-05-01

    We currently calculate area under the busulfan concentration time curve (AUC) using 7 plasma busulfan concentrations (AUC7) drawn after the first of 16 i.v. busulfan doses given as a 2-hour infusion every 6 hours. The aim of this study was to develop and validate limited sampling strategies (LSSs) using 3 or fewer busulfan concentration values with which to reliably calculate AUC in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Children in the development group (44) received i.v. busulfan at Sick Kids; the validation group consisted of 35 children who received care at CHU Ste-Justine. Busulfan doses given and subsequent plasma busulfan concentrations were recorded. LSSs using 1 to 3 concentration-time points were developed using multiple linear regression. LSS were considered to be acceptable when adjusted r(2) > 0.9, mean bias <15% and precision <15%. Extent of agreement between the AUC7 values and the LSS AUC was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman (BA) analysis. Agreement was considered to be excellent when the lower limit of the 95% confidence limit of the ICC exceeded 0.9 and when the limits of agreement in the BA analysis were +/-15% for both AUC and dose. Administration of the theoretic adjusted busulfan doses based on each LSS was simulated and cases where the resulting AUC was >1500 or <900 microM x min were noted. LSSs using 1, 2, or 3 plasma busulfan concentrations were developed that showed excellent agreement with AUC7 and adjusted busulfan doses. In the validation sample, only the 2- and 3-point LSSs demonstrated acceptable precision and lack of bias. LSSs using 2 or 3 plasma busulfan concentrations can be used to reliably estimate busulfan AUC after IV administration in children undergoing HSCT.

  8. Effect of intravenous fluid therapy on postoperative vomiting in children undergoing tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Elgueta, M F; Echevarría, G C; De la Fuente, N; Cabrera, F; Valderrama, A; Cabezón, R; Muñoz, H R; Cortinez, L I

    2013-04-01

    Postoperative vomiting (POV) is one of the most frequent complications of tonsillectomy in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiemetic effect of super-hydration with lactated Ringer's solution in children undergoing elective otorhinolaryngological surgery. One hundred ASA I-II children, aged 1-12 yr, undergoing elective tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, under general anaesthesia were studied. Induction and maintenance of anaesthesia were standardized with fentanyl, mivacurium, and sevoflurane in N(2)O/O(2). Subjects were assigned to one of the two groups: 10 ml kg(-1) h(-1) lactated Ringer's solution or 30 ml kg(-1) h(-1) lactated Ringer's solution. A multivariable logistic regression was used for assessing the effects of super-hydration on POV (defined as the presence of retching, vomiting, or both). A value of P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. During the first 24 h postoperative, the incidence of POV decreased from 82% to 62% (relative reduction of 24%, P=0.026). In the adjusted logistic regression model, subjects in the 10 ml kg(-1) h(-1) group had an odds ratio of POV that was 2.92 (95% confidence interval: 1.14, 7.51) for POV compared with subjects in the 30 ml kg(-1) h(-1) group. Intraoperative administration of 30 ml kg(-1) h(-1) lactated Ringer's solution significantly reduced the incidence of POV during the first 24 h postoperative. Our results support the use of super-hydration during tonsillectomy, as an alternative way to decrease the risk of POV in children.

  9. Early respiratory therapy reduces postoperative atelectasis in children undergoing lung resection.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Patrícia Nerys; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Andrade, Cristiano Feijó

    2013-05-01

    Early physiotherapy reduces pulmonary complications after lung resection in adult patients. However, the effectiveness and the techniques used in postoperative physiotherapy in children undergoing lung resection have not been well described. Therefore, the standardization of a physiotherapeutic attendance after lung resection in children is necessary. This was a retrospective and prospective, interventional, descriptive, and quantitative study. We evaluated 123 pediatric subjects undergoing lung resection. Fifty-two children were prospectively submitted to a standardized physiotherapy protocol that included a mask with a positive expiratory pressure of 10 cm H2O, expiratory rib cage compression, coughing, lifting the upper limbs, and ambulation, starting within the first 4 hours after surgery and continuing 3 times each day. A historical control group of 71 subjects received physiotherapeutic techniques without specific standardization and with variability in the start date and number of days attended. We recorded the presence of postoperative complications, prolonged air leak, postoperative bronchoscopy, the time of chest tube removal, and hospital stay following surgery. The group that received a standardized protocol of physiotherapy had fewer instances of atelectasis than the control group (15.4% vs 7.6%, P = .01). Subjects in the control group were more likely than those in the intervention group to require fiberoptic bronchoscopy for bronchial toilet (n = 14 [19.7%] vs n = 5 [9.6%], P ≤ .001). There was no difference in the time of drainage or hospital stay between the groups. Implementation of a standardized physiotherapeutic protocol after lung resection in children decreases atelectasis but does not reduce the time of chest tube removal or the duration of hospital stay.

  10. Creation of a head and face protection device for children undergoing procedures in prone position.

    PubMed

    Wenk, Manuel; Pöpping, Daniel; Henning, Martin; Wenk, Melanie; Liljenqvist, Ulf; Möllmann, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Positioning the head of patients undergoing procedures in lateral or prone position remains a difficult task for the anesthesiologists. Associated risks have attracted increasing attention because they range from minor facial soft tissue injuries to catastrophic complications such as stroke or postoperative blindness. Earlier, we reported on the use of a boxing sports helmet for simple and easy positioning of the head. However, as available helmets are limited in sizes and materials, that system is not easily transferable to children. Therefore, we sought to create a face and head protection device for children undergoing procedures in prone position. We re-engineered a standard boxing sports helmet making it suitable as an on-head support cushion. By using WHO standard growth charts, various sizes were calculated and prototypes of different foam materials produced. Facial surface pressures were measured in 15 volunteers. A lightweight foam-based face mask was created. Minimum necessary foam thickness was 2.5 cm. Different materials were tested and pressure in different facial zones never exceeded 30 mmHg. Bringing a face protection device onto the patient's face instead of placing the face into support cushions is an elegant way of keeping control over airway devices and providing support for facial structures in various positions simultaneously. Skin surface pressure on facial structures remained low due to the specific mask design and choice of foam materials, which could lead to decreased incidences of undesired sequelae of prone position such as skin damage or even more devastating complications.

  11. The effect of drawing and writing technique on the anxiety level of children undergoing cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Altay, Naime; Kilicarslan-Toruner, Ebru; Sari, Çigdem

    2017-06-01

    To determine the effect of the drawing and writing technique on the anxiety level of children undergoing cancer treatment in hospital. Research was conducted in the haematology-oncology clinic of a university hospital, using a quasi-experimental design (pre-and-post intervention evaluations of a single group). The sample comprised 30 hospitalised children aged 9-16 years. Data were collected with Socio-demographic form, clinical data form, and the State Anxiety Inventory. The institution gave written approval for the study and parents provided written consent. Drawing, writing and mutual story-telling techniques were used as part of a five-day programme. Children were asked to draw a picture of a hospitalised child and write a story about this drawing. After drawing and writing, mutual storytelling were used to more constructive story with positive feelings. The drawing, writing techniques was implemented on the first and third days of the programme and mutual storytelling was implemented on the second and fourth days. Data were reported as percentages and frequencies and the intervention effect analysed with the Wilcoxon test. The average age of children was 12.56 years ± 2.67 and 76.7% were girls. The mean age diagnosis and mean treatment duration were 11.26 years ± 3.17 and 16.56 months ± 20.75 respectively. Most of the children (50%) had leukaemia and were receiving chemotherapy (66.7%). In most cases (76.7%) the mother was the primary caregiver. Scores on the State Anxiety Inventory were lower-indicating lower anxiety-after the intervention (36.86 ± 4.12 than before it (40.46 ± 4.51) (p < 0.05). The therapeutic intervention reduced children's state anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors affecting preoperative anxiety in children undergoing general anaesthesia for dental rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Al-Jundi, S H; Mahmood, A J

    2010-02-01

    The primary aim was to examine anxiety levels, and to identify factors affecting preoperative anxiety among healthy children undergoing general anaesthesia for dental rehabilitation. A secondary aim was to assess parental distress and attitude to accompanying their children during this procedure. Observational cross sectional study. Anxiety levels of 118 children admitted to the Day Case unit of King Abdullah teaching hospital in Irbid, Jordan, for dental rehabilitation under general anaesthesia (GA) were assessed at different phases (before and during induction of GA) using the Global Mood Score (GMS) with parental presence. The effect of certain variables such as age, sex, reason for referral, past GA experience, accompanying parent, and parental distress, on children's anxiety during this procedure were assessed using multivariate analysis. The level of significance was <0.05. Parental distress and attitudes to accompanying their children were assessed using a structured questionnaire. There was a significant increase of child anxiety on GMS reaching its highest level in phase three (induction phase). A multivariate test (MANOVA) showed that previous experience of the child with GA, and reason for referral to dental rehabilitation under GA, significantly predicted child anxiety (P-value of 0.019 and 0.012) respectively. However, parental distress, accompanying person, age, and sex of the child, did not affect child anxiety. Parental distress was at its highest level in phase three, mothers were significantly more stressed than fathers and parental distress was significantly increased when a child was <5 years of age. Factors contributing to increased child anxiety during induction of GA for dental rehabilitation were age, previous GA experience, and referral for GA at a very young age. Most parents, especially mothers, were distressed during the induction phase, therefore sufficient preoperative preparation of those children and parents is necessary to achieve

  13. Impact of Dispatcher‐Assisted Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on Neurological Outcomes in Children With Out‐of‐Hospital Cardiac Arrests: A Prospective, Nationwide, Population‐Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yoshikazu; Maeda, Tetsuo; Goto, Yumiko

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of dispatcher‐assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on neurological outcomes in children is unclear. We investigated whether dispatcher‐assisted bystander CPR shows favorable neurological outcomes (Cerebral Performance Category scale 1 or 2) in children with out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods and Results Children (n=5009, age<18 years) with OHCA were selected from a nationwide Utstein‐style Japanese database (2008–2010) and divided into 3 groups: no bystander CPR (n=2287); bystander CPR with dispatcher instruction (n=2019); and bystander CPR without dispatcher instruction (n=703) groups. The primary endpoint was favorable neurological outcome at 1 month post‐OHCA. Dispatcher CPR instruction was offered to 53.9% of patients, significantly increasing bystander CPR provision rate (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 7.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.60 to 8.57). Bystander CPR with and without dispatcher instruction were significantly associated with improved 1‐month favorable neurological outcomes (aOR, 1.81 and 1.68; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.67 and 1.07 to 2.62, respectively), compared to no bystander CPR. Conventional CPR was associated with increased odds of 1‐month favorable neurological outcomes irrespective of etiology of cardiac arrest (aOR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.56 to 3.41). However, chest‐compression‐only CPR was not associated with 1‐month meaningful outcomes (aOR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.64). Conclusions In children with OHCA, dispatcher‐assisted bystander CPR increased bystander CPR provision rate and was associated with improved 1‐month favorable neurological outcomes, compared to no bystander CPR. Conventional bystander CPR was associated with greater likelihood of neurologically intact survival, compared to chest‐compression‐only CPR, irrespective of cardiac arrest etiology. PMID:24785780

  14. Impact of dispatcher-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation on neurological outcomes in children with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: a prospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yoshikazu; Maeda, Tetsuo; Goto, Yumiko

    2014-04-30

    The impact of dispatcher-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on neurological outcomes in children is unclear. We investigated whether dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR shows favorable neurological outcomes (Cerebral Performance Category scale 1 or 2) in children with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Children (n=5009, age<18 years) with OHCA were selected from a nationwide Utstein-style Japanese database (2008-2010) and divided into 3 groups: no bystander CPR (n=2287); bystander CPR with dispatcher instruction (n=2019); and bystander CPR without dispatcher instruction (n=703) groups. The primary endpoint was favorable neurological outcome at 1 month post-OHCA. Dispatcher CPR instruction was offered to 53.9% of patients, significantly increasing bystander CPR provision rate (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 7.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.60 to 8.57). Bystander CPR with and without dispatcher instruction were significantly associated with improved 1-month favorable neurological outcomes (aOR, 1.81 and 1.68; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.67 and 1.07 to 2.62, respectively), compared to no bystander CPR. Conventional CPR was associated with increased odds of 1-month favorable neurological outcomes irrespective of etiology of cardiac arrest (aOR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.56 to 3.41). However, chest-compression-only CPR was not associated with 1-month meaningful outcomes (aOR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.64). In children with OHCA, dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR increased bystander CPR provision rate and was associated with improved 1-month favorable neurological outcomes, compared to no bystander CPR. Conventional bystander CPR was associated with greater likelihood of neurologically intact survival, compared to chest-compression-only CPR, irrespective of cardiac arrest etiology.

  15. Topical versus caudal ketamine/bupivacaine combination for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing inguinal herniotomy

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Hala Saad; Moeen, Seham Mohamed; Moeen, Ahmed Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple studies claim that caudal administration of ketamine causes effective postoperative analgesia. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of ketamine after caudal or topical administration in pediatric patients undergoing inguinal herniotomy. Patients and Methods: This randomized, comparative, double-blind study included eighty children (aged 6 months to 6 years) received either 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine/ketamine 0.5 mg/kg for caudal analgesia (caudal group) or 0.3 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine/ketamine 0.5 mg/kg sprayed by the surgeon around the spermatic cord and upon the ilioinguinal nerve before wound closure for topical analgesia (topical group). The duration of postoperative analgesia, pain scores, rescue analgesic consumption, sedation score, hemodynamic monitoring, and side-effects were evaluated 48 h postoperative. Results: Kaplan–Meier survival analysis of analgesia free time demonstrated a significant advantage of topical ketamine (TK) group over caudal ketamine (CK) group. The duration of postoperative analgesia was longer in TK group than in CK group (28.74 ± 2.88 vs. 21.43 ± 5.01 h, P = 0.000). Fewer children asked for oral analgesics in the topical group (24 of 36, 66.7%) than in the caudal one (28 of 32, 87.5%; P < 0.01). Postoperative pain scores at the 6th till 48th h were lower in topical group with comparable analgesic consumption between two groups. In the caudal group, four subjects suffered from retention of urine: Two presented with a residual motor block and two had photophobia. Conclusion: Wound instillation of bupivacaine/ketamine is a simple, noninvasive, and effective technique that could be a safe alternative to CK for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. PMID:28217052

  16. [Control of postoperative pain in children undergoing hypospadias surgery: quasi-experimental controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Festini, Filippo; Dini, Donata; Neri, Cinzia; Neri, Stella

    2008-01-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies occurring in approximately (1/300) male births. If it is not surgically corrected the consequences may negatively impact on quality of life in adolescents. The surgery is very invasive and the post-operative phase very painful. To improve the control of post-operative pain, continuous analgesia via epidural catheter was implemented. To compare the effectiveness in controlling pain of two different regimens: continuous epidural catheter infusion vs oral and rectal non-steroidal pain-killers. Comparative study on children undergoing hypospadias surgery. Group A (catheter) was treated with continuous postoperative analgesia via epidural catheter and Group B (scheduled times) with rectal and oral analgesics at scheduled times and on demand, after caudal block. In both groups nurses measured pain with VAS and FLACC scales (score from 0 to 10) for 72 hours after surgery. 41 children were studied (average age 64.1 months, SD 47.3), with 332 post-operative pain recordings (Group A n = 161, Group B n = 171). Mean pain score of Group A was 0.13 (SD 0.3) and 0.45 (SD 0.8) in group B, p = 0.006. The median duration of the epidural catheter was 65 hours, mean 51.8 hours (SD 24.3). During the 1st post-operative medication, the mean pain score in Group A was 1.2 (SD 1.4), and 3.2 (SD 1.8) in group B, p = 0.003. In group A the number of pain scores indicating pain (> 0) where 3.1% while in group B were 10.5%, p = 0.0007. In children undergoing hypospadias surgery, post-operative analgesia with continuous epidural catheter infusion seems to offer a better analgesic coverage than the traditional oral/rectal analgesic treatment at scheduled times and on demand.

  17. Relationship Between Preoperative Anemia and In-Hospital Mortality in Children Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Faraoni, David; DiNardo, James A; Goobie, Susan M

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between preoperative anemia and in-hospital mortality has not been investigated in the pediatric surgical population. We hypothesized that children with preoperative anemia undergoing noncardiac surgery may have an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. We identified all children between 1 and 18 years of age with a recorded preoperative hematocrit (HCT) in the 2012, 2013, and 2014 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) pediatric databases. The endpoint was defined as the incidence of in-hospital mortality. Children with preoperative anemia were identified based on their preoperative HCT. Demographic and surgical characteristics, as well as comorbidities, were considered potential confounding variables in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed using propensity-matched analysis. Among the 183,833 children included in the 2012, 2013, and 2014 ACS NSQIP database, 74,508 had a preoperative HCT recorded (41%). After exclusion of all children <1 year of age (n = 12,063), those with congenital heart disease (n = 8943), and those who received a preoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion (n = 1880), 12,551 (24%) children were anemic, and 39,071 (76%) were nonanemic. The median preoperative HCT was 33% (interquartile range, 31-35) in anemic children, and 39% (interquartile range, 37-42) in nonanemic children (P < .001). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, and after adjustment for RBC transfusion (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.39-3.26; P < .001), we observed that preoperative anemia was associated with higher odds for in-hospital mortality (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.48-3.19; P < .001). After propensity matching, the presence of anemia was also associated with higher odds of in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.15-2.65; P = .004). Our study demonstrates that children with preoperative anemia are at increased risk for in-hospital mortality. Further studies are

  18. Pain assessment in children undergoing venipuncture: the Wong–Baker faces scale versus skin conductance fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Vagliano, Liliana; Ceratto, Simone; Viviani, Fabio; Miniero, Roberto; Ricceri, Fulvio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the subjective Wong–Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFS) and of the objective skin conductance fluctuation (SCF) test in assessing pain in children undergoing venipuncture. One-hundred and fifty children (aged 5–16 years) entered the study. All underwent venipuncture at the antecubital fossa to collect blood specimens for routine testing in the same environmental conditions. After venipuncture, the children indicated their pain intensity using the WBFS, whereas the number of SCFs was recorded before, during and after venipuncture. So, pain level was measured in each child with WBFS and SCF. We found that the level of WBFS-assessed pain was lower in all children, particularly those above 8 years of age, than SCF-assessed pain (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the number of SCFs was significantly higher during venipuncture than before or after venipuncture (p < 0.0001). At multivariate regression analysis, age and previous experience of venipuncture influenced the WBFS (β = −1.81, p < 0.001, and β = −0.86, p < 0.001, respectively) but not SCFs. In conclusion, although both procedures can be useful for research and clinical practice, our findings show that WBFS was affected by age and previous venipuncture, whereas SCF produced uniform data. If verified in other studies, our results should be taken into account when using these tools to evaluate pain in children. PMID:23638373

  19. Pain assessment in children undergoing venipuncture: the Wong-Baker faces scale versus skin conductance fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Savino, Francesco; Vagliano, Liliana; Ceratto, Simone; Viviani, Fabio; Miniero, Roberto; Ricceri, Fulvio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the subjective Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFS) and of the objective skin conductance fluctuation (SCF) test in assessing pain in children undergoing venipuncture. One-hundred and fifty children (aged 5-16 years) entered the study. All underwent venipuncture at the antecubital fossa to collect blood specimens for routine testing in the same environmental conditions. After venipuncture, the children indicated their pain intensity using the WBFS, whereas the number of SCFs was recorded before, during and after venipuncture. So, pain level was measured in each child with WBFS and SCF. We found that the level of WBFS-assessed pain was lower in all children, particularly those above 8 years of age, than SCF-assessed pain (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the number of SCFs was significantly higher during venipuncture than before or after venipuncture (p < 0.0001). At multivariate regression analysis, age and previous experience of venipuncture influenced the WBFS (β = -1.81, p < 0.001, and β = -0.86, p < 0.001, respectively) but not SCFs. In conclusion, although both procedures can be useful for research and clinical practice, our findings show that WBFS was affected by age and previous venipuncture, whereas SCF produced uniform data. If verified in other studies, our results should be taken into account when using these tools to evaluate pain in children.

  20. [Multimodal distraction to relieve pain in children undergoing acute medical procedures].

    PubMed

    Miller, Kate; Rodger, Sylvia; Bucolo, Sam; Wang, Xue-Qing; Kimble, Roy M

    2009-10-01

    Non-pharmacological approaches to pain management have been used by therapists for decades to reduce the anxiety and pain experienced by children during burn care procedures. With a greater understanding of pain and the principles behind what causes a child to be distracted, combined with access to state of the art technology, we have developed an easy to use, hand held multimodal distraction device (MMD). MMD is an interactive device that prepares the child for a procedure and uses developmentally appropriate distraction stories and games during the procedures to alleviate anxiety and pain. This paper summarizes the results of three randomized control trials. The trials aimed to understand the effectiveness of MMD as a distraction and preparation tool in reducing anxiety and pain in children undergoing burns and non-burns medical procedures compared to pure pharmacological approaches Standard Distraction (SD) and off the shelf video games (VG). Three separate prospective randomized control trials involving 182 children having 354 dressing changes were conducted in the burns and orthopedic departments at Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, to address the above aims. Pain and anxiety scores were completed for the child, caregiver and nursing staff according to the Modified Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability Scale, Faces Pain Scale-Revised, Visual Analogue Scale and Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale. Procedural length was recorded. MMD as a preparation and distraction tool were shown to have a significant impact on child, parent and nursing staff reported anxiety and pain during procedures compared to standard care and video games (P < 0.01). The MMD had a positive effect on clinical time and was shown to sustain its impact on pain and time with further dressing changes. MMD is more effective in reducing the pain and anxiety experienced by children in acute medical procedures as compared with SD and VG. MMD is continuing to be trialed and is

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol in children undergoing different types of surgeries.

    PubMed

    Bartkowska-Śniatkowska, Alicja; Bienert, Agnieszka; Wiczling, Paweł; Owczarek, Marcin; Rosada-Kurasińska, Jowita; Grześkowiak, Małgorzata; Matysiak, Jan; Kokot, Zenon J; Kaliszan, Roman; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2014-10-01

    Propofol is a commonly used agent in total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). However, the link between its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics has not been fully characterized in children yet. Our aim was to determine the quantitative relationship between the venous plasma concentration and bispectral index (BIS) effect in a heterogeneous group of pediatric patients undergoing various surgical procedures (ASA status I-III). Nine male and nine female patients were anesthetized with propofol-fentanyl TIVA. Sparse venous samples for propofol concentrations assay and dense BIS measurements were collected during and after the end of infusion. Nonlinear mixed-effect modeling in NONMEM was used for data analysis. A three-compartment model was linked with a classical Emax model through a biophase compartment to describe the available data. All clearance and volume terms were allometrically scaled to account for the body mass difference among the patients under study. A typical patient had their PK parameters observed within the range of literature values for children. The pharmacodynamic parameters were highly variable. The EC50 of 2.80 mg/L and the biophase distribution rate constant of 3.33 min(-1) were found for a typical patient. The BIS values in children are highly correlated with the propofol effect compartment concentrations according to the classical Emax concentration-response relationship. Children had slightly lower sensitivity to propofol and slightly higher clearance, as compared with the adult data available in literature. The intra-patient variations in the BIS require the anesthesiologist's attention in using BIS values alone to evaluate the depth of anesthesia in children. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Nicholson

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is used for patients in isolated or combined cardiopulmonary failures. The use of ECLS to rescue patients with cardiac arrest that is refractory to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been shown to improve survival in many patient populations. Increasing recognition of the survival benefit associated with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) has led to increased use of ECPR during the past decade. This review provides an overview of ECPR utilization; population-based clinical outcomes, resource utilization and costs associated this advanced form of life support therapy. PMID:28275617

  3. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Yam, Nicholson; McMullan, David Michael

    2017-02-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is used for patients in isolated or combined cardiopulmonary failures. The use of ECLS to rescue patients with cardiac arrest that is refractory to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been shown to improve survival in many patient populations. Increasing recognition of the survival benefit associated with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) has led to increased use of ECPR during the past decade. This review provides an overview of ECPR utilization; population-based clinical outcomes, resource utilization and costs associated this advanced form of life support therapy.

  4. Acute renal failure and outcome of children with solitary kidney undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Abou El-Ella, Raja S; Najm, Hani K; Godman, Michael; Kabbani, Mohamed S

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of acute renal failure (ARF), the need for renal replacement therapy, and the outcome of children with a solitary functioning kidney undergoing open heart surgery. The study was performed retrospectively on all children diagnosed with solitary functioning kidney and who required open heart surgery between January 2003 and January 2007. Demographic, perioperative renal function and intensive care course data were documented. Eight patients (six females) fulfilled the study criteria and were included in the study. Their median age and weight were 4.5 months and 3.6 kg, respectively. Their mean +/- standard deviation (SD) preoperative blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were 3.7 +/- 1.6 mmol/L and 55 +/- 10 micromol/L, respectively. Postoperatively, the mean BUN and creatinine levels peaked on the first postoperative day to reach 7.8 +/- 2.6 mmol/L and 76 +/- 22 micromol/L, respectively, before starting to return to their preoperative values. Two out of eight patients (25%) developed ARF after surgery, but only one of them (12.5%) required renal replacement therapy. Open heart surgery on bypass can be performed safely for children with solitary functioning kidney with a good outcome. ARF requiring renal replacement therapy might occur temporarily after bypass surgery in a minority of cases.

  5. Depression and distress in caregivers of children with brain tumors undergoing treatment: psychosocial factors as moderators.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Yoon, Soo Jin; Kim, Jong-Heun; Park, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Joo Young; Yu, Eun-Seung

    2016-05-01

    This study's objectives were to examine the effects of depression on the distress of caregivers of children with brain tumors and to identify the factors moderating depression and caregiver distress. Participants were 82 caregivers of children with brain tumors undergoing treatment in the National Cancer Center of South Korea. The depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Burden of a Primary Caregiver (BPC) Scale were used to measure participants' depression and caregiver distress, respectively. The Korean version of the Parenting Sense of Competence (K-PSOC) Scale, Family Environmental Scale-Revised (K-FES-R), and the DUKE-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire-S (DUKE-UNC-FSSQ) were used to assess parental efficacy, family relationships, and perceived social support, respectively. Younger patient age, lower family income, and caregivers' greater number of years of education significantly predicted caregiver distress. Caregivers with depression experienced significantly more distress than those without depression. The interaction of depression with parenting efficacy and social support affected caregiver distress. For highly depressed caregivers, parental efficacy, social support, and family relationships played weaker roles as protective factors against caregiver distress. High parental efficacy and social support were protective factors against distress in caregivers without depression. A multi-dimensional assessment of the psychosocial factors that may affect caregivers of children with brain tumors should precede interventions for distress management. Interventions tailored to individuals' psychosocial factors are needed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Systematic Review: Audiovisual Interventions for Reducing Preoperative Anxiety in Children Undergoing Elective Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chow, Cheryl H T; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Schmidt, Louis A; Dobson, Kathleen G; Buckley, Norman

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effectiveness of Audiovisual (AV) interventions at reducing preoperative anxiety and its associated outcomes in children undergoing elective surgery. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies where the primary outcome was children's preoperative anxiety was conducted. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain, behavioral changes, recovery, induction compliance, satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. The risk of bias of each study was assessed. In all, 18 studies were identified. A meta-analytic approach and narrative synthesis of findings were used to summarize the results of the studies. This systematic review suggests that AV interventions can be effective in reducing children's preoperative anxiety. Videos, multi-faceted programs, and interactive games appear to be most effective, whereas music therapy and Internet programs are less effective. While AV interventions appear potentially useful, adequately powered RCTs are required to conclusively pinpoint the components and mechanisms of the most effective AV interventions and guide practice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Integrative Therapeutic Approaches for the Management and Control of Nausea in Children Undergoing Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Momani, Tha'er G; Berry, Donna L

    2017-02-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) continues to be a common symptom experienced by children undergoing cancer treatment despite the use of contemporary antiemetics. Integrative therapeutic approaches in addition to standard pharmacologic antiemetic regimes offer potential to control CINV. The purpose of this review was to identify current evidence on integrative therapeutic approaches for the control of CINV in children with cancer. Online search engines (PubMed, CINAHL, PsychINFO) were queried using MESH terms. Titles, abstracts, and then full-text articles were reviewed for relevance to the review. The search resulted in 53 studies. Twenty-one studies met our review criteria. Integrative therapies identified included acupuncture/acupressure, aromatherapy, herbal supplements, hypnosis, and other cognitive behavioral interventions. Our review identified little information on the effectiveness and safety of most integrative therapeutic approaches for the control and management of CINV in children with cancer. However, evidence from adult cancer studies and some pediatric studies identify promising interventions for further testing.

  8. A Pilot Study of Ketamine versus Midazolam/Fentanyl Sedation in Children Undergoing GI Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lightdale, Jenifer R.; Mitchell, Paul D.; Fredette, Meghan E.; Mahoney, Lisa B.; Zgleszewski, Steven E.; Scharff, Lisa; Fox, Victor L.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Ketamine sedation has been found superior by physician report to traditional sedation regimens for pediatric endoscopy. Goal. To objectively compare sedation with ketamine versus midazolam/fentanyl for children undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy. Study. Patients received one of two regimens and were independently monitored using a standardized rating scale. Results. There were 2 episodes of laryngospasm during ketamine sedation. Univariate analyses showed patients sedated with ketamine (n = 17) moved more (median 25% of procedure time versus 8%, P = .03) and required similar low levels of restraint (0.83% versus 0.25%, P = .4) as patients sedated with midazolam/fentanyl (n = 20). Age-adjusted analyses suggested that patients sedated with ketamine were comparably more quiet (P = .002). Conclusions. A pilot trial of ketamine at our institution was associated with episodes of laryngospasm. In addition, children sedated with ketamine moved and required restraint similarly to patients sedated with midazolam/fentanyl. Physician perceptions may be affected by the fact that children who received ketamine were less likely to vocalize distress. PMID:21760813

  9. Rejection is less common in children undergoing liver transplantation for hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ruth, N D; Kelly, D; Sharif, K; Morland, B; Lloyd, C; McKiernan, P J

    2014-02-01

    To compare the incidence of acute histologically proven rejection in children who have had a liver transplant for hepatoblastoma with a control group of children transplanted for biliary atresia (EHBA). A retrospective case notes based study was performed. Twenty patients were identified with hepatoblastoma who were transplanted at a single unit between 1991 and 2008. These were matched as closely as possible for age, gender, year of transplant and type of immunosuppression used to the control group transplanted for biliary atresia (n = 60). There was a significant decrease in rate of acute rejection as assessed by the rejection activity index (RAI) in the hepatoblastoma group (75% vs. 50%, respectively, p < 0.04). Chronic rejection was rare in both groups, but twice as common in the biliary atresia group. Equal levels of immunosuppression were achieved in both groups. Renal function was noted to be reduced one yr post-transplant in both groups, as previously reported. A modified immunosuppression regimen could be considered in children with hepatoblastoma undergoing liver transplantation.

  10. Depressive Symptomatology in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Renal Insufficiency Undergoing Chronic Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Edith G.; Loza, Reyner; Vargas, Horacio; Jara, Mercedes F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a descriptive study, using the Birleson Scale to determine the frequency of depressive symptomatology in children and adolescents with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD). There were 67 patients (40 female and 27 male) with a mean age of 14.76 ± 2.71 years, duration of illness ≥3 months, 43 (64.18%) patients with CPD and 24 (35.82%) undergoing HD. The frequency of high occurrence, low occurrence, and absence of depressive symptomatology was 10.45% (n = 7), 43.28% (n = 29), and 46.27% (n = 31), respectively; all of the seven (100%) patients with high occurrence of depressive symptomatology were female (P = 0.04), and none of these (0%) had a friend to confide in (P = 0.03). Depressive symptomatology in patients with CPD was associated with a lower weekly K t/V compared to those without depressive symptomatology (2.15 ± 0.68 versus 2.52 ± 0.65; P = 0.01). There was no association with patient age, caregiver, time and dialysis type, anemia, bone disease, nutritional or financial status, origin, schooling, or employment. PMID:21941654

  11. Complementary Therapies for Children Undergoing Stem Cell Transplant: Report of A Multisite Trial

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Sean; Barrera, Maru; Vannatta, Kathryn; Xiong, Xiaoping; Doyle, John J; Alderfer, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Children undergoing stem cell transplant (SCT) experience high levels of somatic distress and mood disturbance. This trial evaluated the efficacy of complementary therapies (massage, humor therapy, relaxation/imagery) for reducing distress associated with pediatric SCT. Methods Across 4 sites, 178 pediatric patients scheduled to undergo SCT were randomized to a child-targeted intervention involving massage and humor therapy (HPI-C), the identical child intervention plus a parent intervention involving massage and relaxation/imagery (HPI-CP) or standard care (SC). Randomization was stratified by site, age, and type of transplant. The interventions began at admission and continued through SCT week +3. Primary outcomes included patient and parent reports of somatic distress and mood disturbance obtained weekly from admission through week +6 using the BASES scales. Secondary outcomes included length of hospitalization, time to engraftment, and usage of narcotic analgesic and antiemetic medications. Results A mixed model approach was used to assess longitudinal trends of patient and parent-report outcomes and test differences between groups on these measures. Significant changes across time were observed on all patient and parent-report outcomes. However, no significant differences between treatment arms were found on the primary outcomes. Similarly, no signficant between group differences were noted on any of the medical variables as secondary outcomes. Conclusions Results of this multi-site trial failed to document significant benefits of complementary interventions in the pediatric SCT setting. PMID:20626016

  12. Randomized, double-blind trial of CO2 versus air insufflation in children undergoing colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Mahkovic, Dora; Orel, Rok; Mamula, Petar

    2016-05-01

    Studies in adults have shown that postprocedural abdominal pain is reduced with the use of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) instead of air for insufflation during colonoscopy. The aim of our study was to compare postprocedural abdominal pain and girth in children undergoing colonoscopy using CO(2) or air for insufflation. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study that included 76 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing colonoscopy for various indications. Patients were randomly assigned to either CO(2) or air insufflation. At 2, 4, and 24 hours after the examination, the patients' pain was assessed by using the 11-point numerical rating scale. The waist circumference was measured 10 minutes and 2 and 4 hours after colonoscopy. A significantly higher proportion of patients had no pain after colonoscopy in the CO(2) group compared with the air group (82 vs 37% at 2 hours and 95% vs. 63% at 4 hours, P < .001). Mean abdominal pain scores 2 and 4 hours after the procedure were statistically significantly lower in the CO(2) group compared with the control air group (0.5 vs 2.6 at 2 hours and 0.1 vs 1.2 at 4 hours, P < .001). There was no difference in waist circumference between the 2 groups at all time intervals. The results of this randomized trial show clear benefits of CO(2) insufflation for colonoscopy in reducing postprocedural discomfort. ( NCT02407639.). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. "You can also save a life!": children's drawings as a non-verbal assessment of the impact of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training.

    PubMed

    Petriş, Antoniu Octavian; Tatu-Chiţoiu, Gabriel; Cimpoeşu, Diana; Ionescu, Daniela Florentina; Pop, Călin; Oprea, Nadia; Ţînţ, Diana

    2017-04-01

    Drawings made by training children into cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during the special education week called "School otherwise" can be used as non-verbal means of expression and communication to assess the impact of such training. We analyzed the questionnaires and drawings completed by 327 schoolchildren in different stages of education. After a brief overview of the basic life support (BLS) steps and after watching a video presenting the dynamic performance of the BLS sequence, subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire and make a drawing to express main CPR messages. Questionnaires were filled completely in 97.6 % and drawings were done in 90.2 % cases. Half of the subjects had already witnessed a kind of medical emergency and 96.94 % knew the correct "112" emergency phone number. The drawings were single images (83.81 %) and less cartoon strips (16.18 %). Main themes of the slogans were "Save a life!", "Help!", "Call 112!", "Do not be indifferent/insensible/apathic!" through the use of drawings interpretation, CPR trainers can use art as a way to build a better relation with schoolchildren, to connect to their thoughts and feelings and obtain the highest quality education.

  14. Regional anesthesia for children undergoing orthopedic ambulatory surgeries in the United States, 1996-2006.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Cassie; Edwards, Alison; Mazumdar, Madhu; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

    2012-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate national trends in regional anesthetic techniques among children undergoing ambulatory orthopedic procedures. We aimed to determine whether an increase in regional anesthetics was primarily driven by an increase in the number of peripheral nerve blocks performed rather than an increase in neuraxial techniques. We further aimed to determine whether the proportion of peripheral nerve blocks performed in conjunction with general anesthesia has increased over time. Our study sample included any pediatric patient (i.e., <18 years old) who underwent an orthopedic ambulatory procedure in 1996 and 2006. We obtained data on ambulatory surgical procedures by accessing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery. Patient demographics (age, gender), procedure information, and anesthesia-related variables were analyzed for each year. The proportion of peripheral nerve blocks performed for ambulatory surgery more than doubled from 1996 (4.4 %) to 2006 (8.1 %). A significantly larger proportion of orthopedic procedures were being performed with a combination of peripheral nerve blocks and general anesthesia (1.2 % in 1996 and 43 % 2006). The use of neuraxial anesthesia for lower extremity surgeries decreased over the 10-year period (1.1 and 0.4 % in 1996 and 2006, respectively). There was a significant increase in the use of peripheral nerve blocks for children undergoing ambulatory orthopedic procedures in the USA, while neuraxial techniques became less common over the 10-year period. The peripheral nerve blocks were frequently performed in conjunction with general anesthesia.

  15. Use of Caudal Analgesia Supplemented with Low Dose of Morphine in Children Who Undergo Renal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chertin, Boris; Zeldin, Alexander; Kocherov, Stanislav; Ioscovich, Alexander; Ostrovsky, Israel A.; Gozal, Yaacov

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To test the efficacy and safety of caudal anesthesia (CA) supplemented by low dose morphine in children who undergo renal surgery. Materials and Methods Forty patients aged 2 months-14 years were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups of 20 patients each: Group A (bupivacaine 0.2% with fentanyl); Group B (bupivacaine with morphine). The duration of surgery and hospitalization time were recorded. Postoperative pain score was measured by Face Legs Activity Cry Consolability scale and Wong-Baker Faces scale for those who are older. Overall use of rescue analgesics was calculated. Results There was no statistical difference in the length of surgery, incidence of pruritus, postoperative nausea, vomiting and urinary retention between the two groups. However the postoperative opioid requirements were significantly higher in Group A 1.03 ± 0.9 mg/kg compared to Group B, in which only one patient required opioid therapy (p < 0.0001). Moreover the need for non-opioid rescue analgesic was higher in Group A, (36 ± 5.7 mg/kg of paracetamol) compared to morphine CA group there only 26 ± 3.6 mg/kg required during first 24 h of the postoperative period (p = 0.0312). The Face Legs Activity Cry Consolability pain score (1, 4, and 24 h after surgery) and Wong-Baker Faces scale were significantly higher in Group A. The hospitalization period was shorter in the CA morphine group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. None developed hemodynamic instability or respiratory depression. Conclusions Our data show that CA supplemented with low dose morphine provides a longer duration of analgesia without significant side-effects in children undergoing renal surgery. PMID:27867330

  16. The safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Wang, Xue; Jin, Shuguang; Zhang, Dongsheng; Li, Yanuo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flexible bronchoscopy is more and more used for diagnosis and management of various pulmonary diseases in pediatrics. As poor coordination of children, the procedure is usually performed under general anesthesia with spontaneous or controlled ventilation to increase children and bronchoscopists’ safety and comfort. Previous studies have reported that dexmedetomidine (DEX) could be safely and effectively used for flexible bronchoscopy in both adulate and children. However, there is no trial to evaluate the dose-finding of safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil (DEX-RF) in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the dose-finding of safety and efficacy of DEX-RF in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy. One hundred thirty-five children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy with DEX-RF were divided into 3 groups: Group DR1 (n = 47, DEX infusion at 0.5 μg·kg–1 for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5–0.7 μg kg–1 h–1; RF infusion at 0.5 μg kg–1 for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05–0.2 μg kg–1 min–1), Group DR2 (n = 43, DEX infusion at 1 μg kg–1 for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5–0.7 μg kg–1 h–1; RF infusion at 1 μg kg–1 for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05–0.2 μg kg–1 min–1), Group DR3 (n = 45, DEX infusion at 1.5 μg kg–1 for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5–0.7 μg kg–1 h–1; RF infusion at 1 μg kg–1 for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05–0.2 μg kg–1 min–1). Ramsay sedation scale of the 3 groups was maintained 3. Anesthesia onset time, total number of intraoperative children movements, hemodynamics (heart rate, arterial pressure, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), respiratory rate), total cumulative dose of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil, the amount of midazolam and lidocaine, time to first dose of rescue midazolam and lidocaine, postoperative recovery time, adverse events, bronchoscopist satisfaction

  17. Growth of children with end-stage renal disease undergoing daily hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Maria Fernanda Carvalho; Henriques, Cristina Lucia; Vieira, Simone; Komi, Shirlei; Leão, Eliseth Ribeiro; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar Koch

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the effect of daily hemodialysis on the growth of children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We performed a prospective, observational study on 24 children with ESRD undergoing daily hemodialysis (DHD). The control group comprised 26 children on concurrent conventional hemodialysis (CHD), and the follow-up for both groups was 9.3 ± 3.0 months. No patient received growth hormone (GH) therapy. At the onset of the study, the height-for-age Z-score was -2.12 ± 1.54 in the CHD group and -2.84 ± 2.27 in the DHD group (p = 0.313). Assuming an increase of 0.5 standard deviation scores (SDS) of the height-for-age parameter as an improvement of growth, there were 33 % of patients in the DHD group and 8 % in the CHD group (p = 0.035). The cumulative probability of gain in height for age at 12 months was 40 % in the DHD group versus 15 % in the CHD group (p = 0.047). Also, 98 % of patients in the DHD group had an adequate total caloric intake, whereas 38 % in the CHD group reached this goal (p < 0.001). No patient left the study due to intensification of the dialysis modality. Our data show that the DHD favored a 0.5 SDS height gain in a third of patients without GH treatment. Dialysis intensification was not a cause for treatment dropouts, and DHD should be considered as a treatment for selected cases, especially small children.

  18. Characteristics and prevalence of Helicobacter heilmannii infection in children undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Mention, K; Michaud, L; Guimber, D; Martin De Lasalle, E; Vincent, P; Turck, D; Gottrand, F

    1999-11-01

    Helicobacter heilmannii, described in 1983 as a new cause of chronic gastritis, has been reported rarely in children. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and the prevalence of H. heilmannii infection, in comparison with Helicobacter pylori infection in children undergoing upper digestive endoscopy. Diagnosis of H. heilmannii was based on its morphologic characteristics in gastric biopsy specimens (two from the antrum, one from the fundus), whereas H. pylori infection was defined by histology and/or culture (one specimen from the antrum, one from the fundus). Respective prevalences of H. heilmannii and H. pylori were calculated in 518 patients studied prospectively who underwent systematic biopsies. The prevalence of H. pylori was 8.9% (46/518) and increased with age (from 2% before 3 years of age to 18% after 10 years). On the contrary, the prevalence of H. heilmannii infection was low, 0.4% (2/518), and no different from that published in adults. After completion of the study period, a third H. heilmannii-infected child was diagnosed. Characteristics of H. heilmannii infection could be studied in these three children 5, 9, and 14 years old. Two of three had abdominal pain and one had dysphagia. Nodular gastritis was observed at endoscopy in two children. H. heilmannii chronic active gastritis (n = 3) was localized in the antrum, associated with an interstitial infiltrate, and could not be distinguished from H. pylori gastritis (n = 46). Clinical characteristics, endoscopic features and gastric histopathology did not allow H. heilmannii to be distinguished from H. pylori gastritis in our pediatric population. H. heilmannii infection should be considered and carefully looked for during histologic examination of gastric specimens in cases of H. pylori-negative gastritis.

  19. [Increased fibrinolytic activity during cardiopulmonary bypass is caused by activated protein C system].

    PubMed

    Gando, S; Tedo, I; Masio, H; Goda, Y; Kawahigashi, H

    1994-06-01

    To examine the hypothesis that activated protein C system during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery may increase fibrinolytic activity during cardiopulmonary bypass, protein C activity, protein C antigen and thrombomodulin of sixteen patients undergoing elective cardiopulmonary bypass surgery were investigated after induction of anesthesia, before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, and at the end of operation. Protein C activity decreased and thrombomodulin increased significantly after the cardiopulmonary bypass. There were no significant correlations of thrombomodulin with protein C activity and protein C antigen. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that protein C system is activated and circulating thrombomodulin appears in the systemic circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and this enhanced activation of protein C system is possibly related to the reported increase of fibrinolytic activity during cardiopulmonary bypass.

  20. Postnatal cardiopulmonary adaptations to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Huicho, Luis

    2007-09-30

    Postnatal cardiopulmonary adaptations to high altitude constitute a key component of any set of responses developed to face high altitude hypoxia. Such responses are required ultimately to meet the energy demands necessary for adequate functioning at cell and organism level. After a brief insight on general and cardiopulmonary comparative studies in growing and adult organisms, differences and possible explanations for varying cardiopulmonary pathology, pulmonary artery hypertension, persistent right ventricular predominance and subacute high altitude pulmonary hypertension in different populations of children living at high altitude are discussed. Potential long-term implications of early chronic hypoxic exposure on later diseases are also presented. It is hoped that this review will help the practicing physician working at high altitude to make informed decisions concerning individual pediatric patients, specifically with regard to diagnosis and management of altitude-related cardiopulmonary pathology. Finally, plausibility and the knowledge-base of public health interventions to reduce the risks posed by suboptimal or inadequate postnatal cardiopulmonary responses to high altitude are discussed.

  1. Honey prevents oral mocositis in children undergoing chemotherapy: A quasi-experimental study with a control group.

    PubMed

    Kobya Bulut, Hacer; Güdücü Tüfekci, Fatma

    2016-12-01

    There are numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options available in the treatment of oral mucositis. However, in spite of so many methods and products, medical professionals have not come to a consensus as to which of these offer the best results. This study was conducted to assess the effect of oral care with honey on children undergoing chemotherapy for the prevention and healing of oral mucositis. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on children undergoing chemotherapy. The study group consisted of 83 children who attended clinics and polyclinics for chemotherapy. All the children were included in the study period. The study was completed with a total of 76 children except for seven patients who were excluded from the study. The data were collected using a form and the World Health Organization Mucositis Assessment Index. The data were analyzed using percentage distributions, means, a chi-square test, a t-test, a variance analysis, and a Friedman test. Ethics approval of the study was obtained from the Institution Ethics Committee. It was found that the severity of oral mucositis in the children in the experimental group was significantly less than the control group. The mucositis recovery period in the experimental group was significantly shorter than the control group. Regular oral care with honey for children undergoing chemotherapy for hematological cancers prevents mucositis and also accelerates recovery of it when started after mucositis onset. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Oral morphine dosing predictions based on single dose in healthy children undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Joy M; Cooke, Erin M; Hannam, Jacqueline A; Brand, Katherine A; Winton, Pamela; Jimenez-Mendez, Ricardo; Aleksa, Katarina; Lauder, Gillian R; Carleton, Bruce C; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael J; Anderson, Brian J; Montgomery, Carolyne J

    2017-01-01

    Oral morphine has been proposed as an effective and safe alternative to codeine for after-discharge pain in children following surgery but there are few data guiding an optimum safe oral dose. The aim of this study was to characterize the absorption pharmacokinetics of enteral morphine in order to simulate time-concentration profiles in children given common oral morphine dose regimens. Children (2-6 years, n = 34) undergoing elective surgery and requiring opioid analgesia were randomized to receive preoperative oral morphine (100 mcg·kg(-1) , 200 mcg·kg(-1) , 300 mcg·kg(-1) ). Blood sampling for morphine assay was performed at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min. Morphine serum concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using nonlinear mixed effects models. Current data were pooled with published time-concentration profiles from children (n = 1059, age 23 weeks postmenstrual age - 3 years) administered intravenous morphine, to determine oral bioavailability (F), absorption lag time (TLAG ), and absorption half-time (TABS ). These parameter estimates were used to predict concentrations in children given oral morphine (100, 200, 300, 400, 500 mcg·kg(-1) ) at different dosing intervals (3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12 h). The oral morphine formulation had F 0.298 (CV 36.5%), TLAG 0.45 (CV 63.6%) h and TABS 0.71 (CV 55%) h. A single-dose morphine 100 mcg·kg(-1) achieved a mean CMAX 10 mcg·l(-1) . Repeat 4-hourly dosing achieved mean steady-state concentration 13-18 mcg·l(-1) ; concentrations associated with good analgesia after intravenous administration. Serum concentration variability was large ranging from 5 to 55 mcg·l(-1) at steady state. Oral morphine 200 mcg·kg(-1) then 100 mcg·kg(-1) 4 h or 150 mcg·kg(-1) 6 h achieves mean concentrations associated with analgesia. There was high serum concentration variability suggesting that respiration may be compromised in some children given these

  3. [What preoperative information do the parents of children undergoing surgery want?].

    PubMed

    Sartori, Josefina; Espinoza, Pilar; Díaz, María Soledad; Ferdinand, Constanza; Lacassie, Héctor J; González, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Parents feel fear and anxiety before surgery is performed on their child, and those feelings could obstruct their preparation for the surgery. Preoperative information could relieve those feelings. To determine the preoperative information needs of parents of children undergoing elective surgery. A study was conducted on the parents of children who underwent elective surgery. Demographic data of parents were recorded. Preoperative information received or would like to have received was assessed in terms of contents, methods, opportunity, place and informant. Descriptive statistics were used. Thirteen hundred parents were surveyed. More than 80% of them want preoperative information about anaesthesia, surgery, preoperative fasting, drugs and anaesthetic complications, monitoring, intravenous line management, pain treatment, postoperative feeding, anxiety control, hospitalisation room, recovery room, and entertainment in recovery room. Most want to be informed verbally, one to two weeks in advance and not on the same day of surgery. The informant should be the surgeon and in his office. In addition, they want information through leaflets, videos and simulation workshops, or guided tours. Parents need complete preoperative information about anesthesia, surgery and postoperative care, received verbally and in advance. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. An empowerment health education program for children undergoing surgery for congenital heart diseases.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhihong; Chao, Yannfen; Xue, Xiaoling

    2016-09-01

    Since the surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) is considered highly risky, appropriate postoperative care is crucial. After the surgery, children are often discharged with unhealed wounds, incomplete recovery, and continuing pain. Health education programs based on empowerment education model can assist clients to develop skills in self-management. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an empowerment health education program for improving caregiving knowledge, caring behaviors, and self-efficacy of parents caring for children after corrective surgery for CHD. This prospective clinical trial enrolled pediatric patients undergoing surgical correction for CHD. Patients were divided into two groups: the control group (n = 42), which received the standard education program, and the intervention group (n = 44), which participated in the empowerment theory-based education program. We collected data on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF); peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2); New York Heart Association classification of the patients; and the parents' caregiving knowledge, caring behaviors, and self-efficacy before surgery and one month and three months after surgery. At one month and three months after surgery, the intervention group scored higher than the control group in caregiving knowledge, caring behavior, and self-efficacy. By the third month after surgery, the intervention group had significantly higher values of LVEF and SpO2 than the control group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Cognitive functioning in children with pantothenate-kinase-associated neurodegeneration undergoing deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Rachel; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-03-01

    To examine the cognitive functioning of young people with pantothenate-kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) after pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS). PKAN is characterized by progressive generalized dystonia and has historically been associated with cognitive decline. With growing evidence that DBS can improve motor function in adults and children with PKAN, there is now the opportunity to study the cognitive profiles of these patients over time. We present a case series of seven children (mean age 11 y 7 mo, SD 3 y 2 mo) undergoing bilateral pallidal DBS for the management of severe PKAN-associated dystonia. We administered standardized measures of intellectual ability and memory where possible, before DBS and 1 to 4 years after DBS. No cognitive decline was observed and scores improved in all but one child (whose dystonia could not be adequately controlled owing to multiple medical problems). In line with a stabilization or reduction in their dystonia, all but one child was able to tolerate longer assessment sessions and complete either the same or a greater number of subtests. These findings suggest that apparent cognitive impairments may reflect difficulties in accessing cognition owing to severity of dystonia. Intellectual decline previously associated with PKAN may have been overestimated. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.

  6. Comparison of epidural morphine, hydromorphone and fentanyl for postoperative pain control in children undergoing orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, M

    1999-01-01

    The safety and side-effects profile of epidural administration of a hydrophilic (morphine), highly lipophilic (fentanyl) and a drug with intermediate hydrophilic and lipophilic activity (hydromorphone) were compared in 90 children undergoing orthopaedic procedures. Ninety patients were randomly assigned (30 in each group) to receive epidural morphine, hydromorphone, or fentanyl for postoperative analgesia. Respiratory effects, nausea, somnolence, urinary retention, pruritus and visual pain scales were evaluated and compared during a 30-h period following surgery. In the morphine group, 25% showed respiratory depression with oxygen saturation below 90% but there was no incidence of respiratory depression in the fentanyl or hydromorphone groups. Somnolence was prominent in some of the patients in all the groups, but was more prolonged in the morphine group. Statistically, there was no significant difference in nausea between the groups, but pruritus was more severe and frequent in the morphine group. The incidence of urinary retention in the morphine group was higher compared with the fentanyl and hydromorphone groups. In conclusion, epidural hydromorphone, demonstrating less side-effects, is preferable to morphine and fentanyl for epidural analgesia in children.

  7. The efficacy of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil versus dexmedetomidine-propofol in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongquan; Fang, Baojun; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flexible bronchoscopy has been more and more used for diagnosis and management diseases of respiratory system in pediatrics. Previous studies have reported that remifentanil (RF) and propofol are safe and effective for flexible bronchoscopy in adults, however, there have no trials evaluate the efficacy of DEX-RF versus dexmedetomidine-propofol in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy. We divided 123 children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy with DEX-RF or dexmedetomidine-propofol into 2 groups: Group DR (n = 63, DEX infusion at 1.0 μg kg−1 for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5–0.7 μg kg−1 h−1; RF infusion at 1.0 μg kg−1 for 5 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05–0.2 μg kg−1 min−1), Group DP (n = 60, DEX infusion at 1.0 μg kg−1 for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5–0.7 μg kg−1 h−1; propofol infusion at 10 μg kg−1 for 5 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05–0.1 μg kg−1 min−1). Ramsay sedation scale of the 2 groups was maintained at 3. Anesthesia onset time; total number of intraoperative patient movements; hemodynamics; total cumulative dose of DEX; amount of and time to first-dose rescue midazolam and lidocaine; postoperative recovery time; adverse events; and bronchoscopist satisfaction score were recorded. Anesthesia onset time was significantly shorter in DP (8.22 ± 2.48 vs 12.25 ± 6.43 minutes, respectively, for DP, DR, P = 0.015). The perioperative hemodynamic profile was more stable in DR than DP group. More children moved during flexible bronchoscopy in DP group (P = 0.009). Total dose of rescue midazolam and lidocaine was significantly higher in DR than in DP (P < 0.001). Similarly, the time to first dose of rescue midazolam and lidocaine was significantly longer in DP than in DR (P < 0.001). Total cumulative dose of DEX was more in DR than DP group (P < 0.001). The time to recovery for discharge from the postanesthesia care unit

  8. Predictors of seizure occurrence in children undergoing pre-surgical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Harini, Chellamani; Singh, Kanwaljit; Takeoka, Masanori; Parulkar, Isha; Bergin, Ann Marie; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-10-01

    Long-Term-Monitoring (LTM) is a valuable tool for seizure localization/lateralization among children with refractory-epilepsy undergoing pre-surgical-monitoring. The aim of this study was to examine the factors predicting occurrence of single/multiple seizures in children undergoing pre-surgical monitoring in the LTM unit. Chart review was done on 95 consecutive admissions on 92 children (40 females) admitted to the LTM-unit for pre-surgical workup. Relationship between occurrence of multiple (≥ 3) seizures and factors such as home seizure-frequency, demographics, MRI-lesions/seizure-type and localization/AED usage/neurological-exam/epilepsy-duration was evaluated by logistic-regression and survival-analysis. Home seizure-frequency was further categorized into low (up-to 1/month), medium (up-to 1/week) and high (>1/week) and relationship of these categories to the occurrence of multiple seizures was evaluated. Mean length of stay was 5.24 days in all 3 groups. Home seizure frequency was the only factor predicting the occurrence of single/multiple seizures in children undergoing presurgical workup. Other factors (age/sex/MRI-lesions/seizure-type and localization/AED-usage/neurological-exam/epilepsy-duration) did not affect occurrence of single/multiple seizures or time-to-occurrence of first/second seizure. Analysis of the home-seizure frequency categories revealed that 98% admissions in high-frequency, 94% in the medium, and 77% in low-frequency group had at-least 1 seizure recorded during the monitoring. Odds of first-seizure increased in high vs. low-frequency group (p=0.01). Eighty-nine percent admissions in high-frequency, 78% in medium frequency, versus 50% in low-frequency group had ≥ 3 seizures. The odds of having ≥ 3 seizures increased in high-frequency (p=0.0005) and in medium-frequency (p=0.007), compared to low-frequency group. Mean time-to-first-seizure was 2.7 days in low-frequency, 2.1 days in medium, and 2 days in high-frequency group. Time

  9. [Postoperative changes of immunity in children undergoing adenoidectomy with tonsil ablation or with partial tonsillectomy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chengyong; Dai, Zhiyao

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the changes of humoral and cellular immune responses in children with OSAHS after adenoidectomy with tonsil ablation or partial tonsillectomy by a plasma-mediated radiofrequency-based device. Seventy children with OSAHS were enrolled in the study. According to the size of tonsils, they were divided into two groups: the adenoidectomy with tonsil ablation group and the adenoidectomy with partial tonsillectomy group. 4 ml of peripheral venous blood was drawn before and 1 month, 3 months after operation. Serum IgG, IgA, IgM levels and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets were measured. In the adenoidectomy with tonsil ablation group, the level of CD3+ and CD4+ /CD8+ ration were slightly increased, while the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ were slightly reduced at 1 month after operation as compared to preoperative period. However, in the adenoidectomy with partial tonsillectomy group, the levels of CD8+ at 1 month after operation were slightly increased compared with that in preoperative examination, while the CD3+, CD4+ level and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were slightly reduced during the same period. In addition, the levels of serum immunoglobulins showed no significant difference between the two groups, and returned to the preoperative levels at 3 months after operation in both groups (P > 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that the humoral and cellular immunity is not affected in children with OSAHS who undergo adenoidectomy with tonsil ablation or partial tonsillectomy using plasma-mediated radiofrequency ablation. The patients' immune functions can return to normal levels at 3 months after the surgery.

  10. Melatonin versus midazolam premedication in children undergoing surgery: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gitto, Eloisa; Marseglia, Lucia; D'Angelo, Gabriella; Manti, Sara; Crisafi, Caterina; Montalto, Angela Simona; Impellizzeri, Pietro; Reiter, Russel J; Romeo, Carmelo

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin has been proposed as a premedication alternative to midazolam, preceding anaesthesia induction. However, to our knowledge, data concerning interaction between melatonin and intravenous anaesthetic drugs in children are not available. The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind pilot study was to investigate the possible effect of melatonin premedication, in comparison to midazolam, on the required infusion of propofol in children undergoing surgery. As a secondary outcome, the effect of oral melatonin on the preoperative sedation level and on the post anaesthesia recovery score was evaluated. Children between the age of 5 and 14 years, scheduled for elective surgery, were prospectively enrolled between January 2012 and December 2013, and randomly assigned to two groups based on whether they received oral melatonin (0.5 mg/kg) or oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) premedication before induction of anaesthesia with propofol. Degree of sedation before and after anaesthesia was also evaluated. Ninety-two patients were studied, 46 for each group. We found that oral administration of melatonin significantly reduced doses of propofol required for induction of anaesthesia in paediatric patients, more than midazolam (P < 0.001). No statistically significant differences were found in the pre- and post-anaesthesia sedation score (P = 0.387 and P = 0.525, respectively) between the two groups. The present study demonstrates that melatonin enhances the potency of propofol also in paediatric patients. Moreover, considering the paediatric level of sedation, melatonin was equally as effective as midazolam. These data support the use of melatonin as a premedicant in paediatric surgical patients. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant Haemophilus influenzae strains in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Trafny, Elżbieta A; Olszewska-Sosińska, Olga; Antos-Bielska, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Krystyna; Stępińska, Małgorzata; Lau-Dworak, Magdalena; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata

    2014-07-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is one of the major pathogenic bacteria in upper respiratory tract of children. In this study, the presence of various H. influenzae genotypes were followed-up for at least 13 weeks, starting from one week before surgery. Forty-one children with chronic adenoid hypertrophy were prospectively enrolled to the study. The consecutive swabs of adenoid and tonsils, two before adenotonsillectomy and two after the surgery together with homogenates of adenotonsillar tissues and lysates of the CD14(+) cells fraction were acquired from 34 children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. Up to ten isolates from each patient at each collection period were genotyped using a PFGE method and their capsular type and antibiotic susceptibility was determined. Of the 1001 isolates examined, we identified 325 isolates grouped into 16 persistent genotypes, which colonized throats for more than seven weeks and were not eliminated by the surgery. The other 506 isolates grouped into 48 transient genotypes that had been eliminated by the surgery. The resistance to ampicillin were found in 23.8% of the transient strains, and 4.7% of the newly acquired strains following the surgical intervention. In contrast, none of the persistent strains were resistant to ampicillin; however, these strains showed apparently higher level of resistance to co-trimoxazole when compared to transient strains. The transient and persistent strains did not significantly differ in bacterial viability in the biofilms formed in vitro. Some of the strains were identified in two or three different patients and were considered as the strains circulating in the region between 2010 and 2012.

  12. An interactive videogame designed to improve respiratory navigator efficiency in children undergoing cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Sean M; Haggerty, Christopher M; Suever, Jonathan D; Wehner, Gregory J; Grabau, Jonathan D; Andres, Kristin N; Vandsburger, Moriel H; Powell, David K; Sorrell, Vincent L; Fornwalt, Brandon K

    2016-09-06

    Advanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) acquisitions often require long scan durations that necessitate respiratory navigator gating. The tradeoff of navigator gating is reduced scan efficiency, particularly when the patient's breathing patterns are inconsistent, as is commonly seen in children. We hypothesized that engaging pediatric participants with a navigator-controlled videogame to help control breathing patterns would improve navigator efficiency and maintain image quality. We developed custom software that processed the Siemens respiratory navigator image in real-time during CMR and represented diaphragm position using a cartoon avatar, which was projected to the participant in the scanner as visual feedback. The game incentivized children to breathe such that the avatar was positioned within the navigator acceptance window (±3 mm) throughout image acquisition. Using a 3T Siemens Tim Trio, 50 children (Age: 14 ± 3 years, 48 % female) with no significant past medical history underwent a respiratory navigator-gated 2D spiral cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) CMR acquisition first with no feedback (NF) and then with the feedback game (FG). Thirty of the 50 children were randomized to undergo extensive off-scanner training with the FG using a MRI simulator, or no off-scanner training. Navigator efficiency, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and global left-ventricular strains were determined for each participant and compared. Using the FG improved average navigator efficiency from 33 ± 15 to 58 ± 13 % (p < 0.001) and improved SNR by 5 % (p = 0.01) compared to acquisitions with NF. There was no difference in navigator efficiency (p = 0.90) or SNR (p = 0.77) between untrained and trained participants for FG acquisitions. Circumferential and radial strains derived from FG acquisitions were slightly reduced compared to NF acquisitions (-16 ± 2 % vs -17 ± 2 %, p < 0.001; 40 ± 10

  13. Use of chewing gum in children undergoing an appendectomy: A randomized clinical controlled trial.

    PubMed

    López-Jaimez, Gabriela; Cuello-García, Carlos A

    2016-08-01

    Post-operative ileus is a common condition among pediatric patients undergoing appendectomy. We aim to assess the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of chewing gum to reduce ileus, and decrease time to oral tolerance. A randomized trial was conducted in 5-18 year old patients that underwent an appendectomy. Subjects in the intervention group received sugar-free chewing gum within the first 12 h after surgery and control group received the usual therapy. We assessed the acceptability of the intervention, time to pass first flatus, present first bowel movement, and time to tolerate oral intake. A total of 41 patients were recruited, 21 in the intervention group and 20 in the control group. Mean time (SD) to first flatus in the intervention group was 17.18 h (8.18), and 24.37 h (17.53) in the control group (mean difference [MD] of -7.19 h; 95% CI, -15.7 to 1.38). Time to first bowel movement (MD, -4.6 h, 95%CI -18.5 to 9.3), time to tolerate oral intake (MD, 4.17 h; 95%CI -9.2 to 17.5), and length of hospital stay (MD, 6.9 h, 95%CI -19.1 to 33.1) appeared not to be affected by the intervention. Chewing gum was accepted, well tolerated, and without complications. The use of chewing gum in children undergoing an appendectomy was safe and well tolerated and might lead to a faster recovery of bowel function, more studies are needed to prove if length of hospital stay and other outcomes are improved. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ketamine is effective in decreasing the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing dental repair under sevoflurane general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Abu-Shahwan, Ibrahim; Chowdary, Khalid

    2007-09-01

    Emergence agitation or delirium is a known phenomenon that may occur in children undergoing general anesthesia with inhaled agents. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the addition of a small dose of ketamine at the end of sevoflurane anesthesia will result in a decrease in the incidence and severity of such phenomenon. We performed a randomized double blind study involving 85 premedicated children 4-7 years old undergoing dental repair. Children were premedicated with acetaminophen and midazolam. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane in N2O/O2. Group K received ketamine 0.25 mg.kg (-1) and Group S received saline. We evaluated recovery characteristics upon awakening and during the first 30 min using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale. Eighty of the 85 enrolled children completed the study. There were 42 children in Group I. Emergence agitation was diagnosed in seven children in the ketamine group (16.6%) and in 13 children in the placebo group (34.2%). There was no difference in time to meet recovery room discharge criteria between the two groups. We conclude that the addition of ketamine 0.25 mg.kg(-1) can decrease the incidence of emergence agitation in children after sevoflurane general anesthesia.

  15. Evolution of weight and height of children with congenital heart disease undergoing surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Murilo Bertazzo; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; Hassem Sobrinho, Sírio; Beani, Lilian; Moscardini, Airton Camacho; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the height and weight development of children with congenital heart disease undergoing surgery with the goal of determining when they reach the threshold of normal development and whether there are differences between patients with developmental pattern below the level of normality preoperatively (z-score<-2 for the analyzed parameter) in comparison to the total group of cardiac patients. Methods We prospectively followed up 27 children undergoing operation into five time periods: preoperatively and at four subsequent outpatient appointments: 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month and 12th month after hospital discharge. The anthropometric parameters used were median z-score (MZ), weight (WAZ), height (HAZ), subscapular skinfold (SSFAZ), upper arm circumference (UAC) and triceps skinfold (TSFAZ). The evolution assessment of the parameters was performed by analysis of variance and comparison with the general normal population from unpaired t test, both in the total group of cardiac patients, and in subgroups with preoperative parameters below the normal level (Zm<-2). Results In the total group there was no significant evolution of MZ of all parameters. WAZ was statistically lower than the normal population until the 1st month of follow-up (P=0.028); HAZ only preoperatively (P=0.044), SSFAZ in the first month (P=0.015) and at 12th month (P=0.038), UAC and TSFAZ were always statistically equal to the general population. In patients whose development was below the level of normality, there were important variation of WAZ (P=0.002), HAZ (P=0.001) and UAC (P=0.031) after the operation, and the WAZ was lower than the normal population until the 3rd month (P=0.015); HAZ and UAC, until the first month (P=0.024 and P=0.039 respectively), SSFAZ, up to the 12th month (P=0.005), the TSFAZ only preoperatively (P=0.011). Conclusion The operation promoted the return to normalcy for those with heart disease in general within up to three months, but for the group of

  16. Comparison of outcomes in Australian indigenous and non-indigenous children and adolescents undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Justo, Edward R; Reeves, Benjamin M; Ware, Robert S; Johnson, Janelle C; Karl, Tom R; Alphonso, Nelson D; Justo, Robert N

    2017-06-01

    Population-based registries report 95% 5-year survival for children undergoing surgery for CHD. This study investigated paediatric cardiac surgical outcomes in the Australian indigenous population. All children who underwent cardiac surgery between May, 2008 and August, 2014 were studied. Demographic information including socio-economic status, diagnoses and co-morbidities, and treatment and outcome data were collected at time of surgery and at last follow-up. A total of 1528 children with a mean age 3.4±4.6 years were studied. Among them, 123 (8.1%) children were identified as indigenous, and 52.7% (62) of indigenous patients were in the lowest third of the socio-economic index compared with 28.2% (456) of non-indigenous patients (p⩽0.001). The indigenous sample had a significantly higher Comprehensive Aristotle Complexity score (indigenous 9.4±4.2 versus non-indigenous 8.7±3.9, p=0.04). The probability of having long-term follow-up did not differ between groups (indigenous 93.8% versus non-indigenous 95.6%, p=0.17). No difference was noted in 30-day mortality (indigenous 3.2% versus non-indigenous 1.4%, p=0.13). The 6-year survival for the entire cohort was 95.9%. The Cox survival analysis demonstrated higher 6-year mortality in the indigenous group - indigenous 8.1% versus non-indigenous 5.0%; hazard ratio (HR)=2.1; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.1, 4.2; p=0.03. Freedom from surgical re-intervention was 79%, and was not significantly associated with the indigenous status (HR=1.4; 95% CI: 0.9, 1.9; p=0.11). When long-term survival was adjusted for the Comprehensive Aristotle Complexity score, no difference in outcomes between the populations was demonstrated (HR=1.6; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.2; p=0.19). The indigenous population experienced higher late mortality. This apparent relationship is explained by increased patient complexity, which may reflect negative social and environmental factors.

  17. Beneficial microbes for premature infants, and children with malignancy undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Y; Nagata, S

    2010-11-01

    This review reports the beneficial effects, observed in our clinical studies, of Bifidobacterium breve for premature infants, and children with cancers undergoing chemotherapy. To investigate the protective effects of B. breve (M-16V) as a probiotic on necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and infection in premature infants, we carried out a clinical study in 338 very low birth weight infants over a five-year period. These patients were supplemented with B. breve starting several hours after birth (Bifido group). 226 premature infants served as controls. Infants of the Bifido group were administered B. breve in a daily dose of 1×10(9) cells/day. The incidence of NEC was significantly reduced in the Bifido group (nil) compared with that in controls (6 cases, P<0.01). Infection also decreased significantly. Thus, administration of B. breve as a probiotic looks to be a very effective treatment for preventing NEC and infection in preterm infants. Mucositis, also referred to as mucosal barrier injury, is one of the most debilitating side effects of chemotherapy treatment. To evaluate the effects of the administration of B. breve (BBG-01, another strain than that used in the study of premature infants), a clinical study was performed to ascertain whether it attenuated intestinal mucositis in children with cancers on chemotherapy. A placebo-controlled trial was performed in patients with malignancies admitted for chemotherapy (n=42), who were randomised into two groups receiving probiotic or placebo. The frequency of fever and the use of intravenous antibiotics were significantly lower in the Bifido group than the placebo group. The B. breve administration enhanced the colonisation of anaerobes. Disruption of the intestinal microbiota after chemotherapy, such as the increase in the population levels of Enterobacteriaceae, was more pronounced in the placebo group. In conclusion, these data suggest that administration of B. breve is an effective approach to attenuating

  18. [Serum immune complexes and cardiopulmonary bypass. A review of thirty-four cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Herreman, G; Poisson-Lespassailles, C; Puech, H; Vanetti, A; Delaunay, L; Yvart, J; Fermé, I

    1982-05-20

    The immunologic status of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass as investigated. Rheumatoid factor, cryoglobulinemia and serum immune complexes were looked for. Studies were performed before the operation and eight or fifteen days later. From the results, it is concluded that the immunologic changes that occur in the immediate postoperative period cannot be interpreted because of the profound modifications resulting from cardiopulmonary bypass.

  19. [Drug interaction of voriconazole-cyclosporine in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (2013-2014)].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Romina; Torres, Juan P; Salas, Carolina; Gajardo, Iván; Palma, Julia; Catalán, Paula; Santolaya, M Elena; Morales, Jorge

    2017-02-01

    Drug interactions (DI) in patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are common and clinically significant, highlighting: anticonvulsants, voriconazole (VCZ) and cyclosporine (CsA), which require monitoring. To describe the interactions between CsA-VCZ in children undergoing HSCT. Retrospective, descriptive study in immunocompromised children hospitalized since January 2013 to December 2014 at Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Hospital Dr. Luis Calvo Mackenna, who received CsA and VCZ. The median age was 5 years (3-6) and the median weight was 20 kg (17-30). Sixtythree baseline drug levels were analyzed, of those, 27 were CsA drug levels obtained previous to using VCZ and 36 were CsA drug levels collected concomitantly with VCZ. In the group CsA previous to VCZ, the CsA dose was 4.6 ± 2.6 (mg/ kg/ day) and the CsA average level was 188.8 ± 84.1 (μg/ml). In the group of CsA concomitantly with VCZ, the dose of CsA was 5.5 ± 3.0 (mg/ kg/day) (p = 0.07) and CsA average level was significantly higher: 232.5 ± 106.7 (μg/ml) (p = 0.04). This study shows an increased level of CsA when it is used together with VCZ. Therapeutic drug monitoring could improve the management of the DI and optimize the co-administration of CsA and VCZ.

  20. Systematic Review: Audiovisual Interventions for Reducing Preoperative Anxiety in Children Undergoing Elective Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Dobson, Kathleen G.; Buckley, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of Audiovisual (AV) interventions at reducing preoperative anxiety and its associated outcomes in children undergoing elective surgery. Methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies where the primary outcome was children’s preoperative anxiety was conducted. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain, behavioral changes, recovery, induction compliance, satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. The risk of bias of each study was assessed. Results In all, 18 studies were identified. A meta-analytic approach and narrative synthesis of findings were used to summarize the results of the studies. Conclusions This systematic review suggests that AV interventions can be effective in reducing children’s preoperative anxiety. Videos, multi-faceted programs, and interactive games appear to be most effective, whereas music therapy and Internet programs are less effective. While AV interventions appear potentially useful, adequately powered RCTs are required to conclusively pinpoint the components and mechanisms of the most effective AV interventions and guide practice. PMID:26476281

  1. Site-directed topical lidocaine spray attenuates perioperative respiratory adverse events in children undergoing elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Wei; He, Long; Ai, Yanqiu; Chu, Qinjun; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Perioperative respiratory adverse events (PRAEs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with pediatric anesthesia. Topical lidocaine administration reduces risk of PRAE in children undergoing elective endotracheal intubation. However, definitive evidence of its efficacy remains elusive, due, in part, to the wide variability in the methodology for spraying topical lidocaine. In this randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial, we sought to evaluate the effect of site-directed topical airway lidocaine, sprayed directly onto supraglottic, glottis, and subglottic areas, on the incidence of PRAE. The study population consisted of 322 children (age range, 6 mo-12 y), who were scheduled for an elective surgical procedure under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive topical spray of lidocaine (group L) or saline (group S) over the supraglottic, glottis and subglottic areas under direct vision before tracheal intubation. Incidence of PRAE and time to extubation was recorded. There were no statistically significant intergroup differences with regard to baseline demographics, patient characteristics, and surgical parameters. Group L was associated with a significantly lower incidence of PRAE as compared with group S (12.80% versus 38.13%, respectively; P < 0.001). Similarly, the incidence of laryngospasm (1.7% versus 8.1%; P = 0.01), excessive coughing (4.3% versus 13.2%; P = 0.005), and oxygen desaturation <95% (6.8% versus 16.9%; P = 0.005), respectively, was significantly lower in group L. However, time to extubation was longer in group L as compared with that in group S (18.6 ± 7.7 min versus 21.3 ± 8.9 min; P = 0.03). Site-directed topical spray of lidocaine over supraglottic, glottis, and subglottic areas before tracheal intubation significantly reduced the incidence of PRAE and a prolongation of extubation time in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of coping style on virtual reality enhanced videogame distraction in children undergoing cold pressor pain.

    PubMed

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Thompson, Caitlin; Hahn, Amy; Herbert, Linda; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) enhanced interactive videogame distraction for children undergoing experimentally induced cold pressor pain and examined the role of avoidant and approach coping style as a moderator of VR distraction effectiveness. Sixty-two children (6-13 years old) underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered both with and without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As predicted, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during both interactive videogame distraction conditions. However, a differential response to videogame distraction with or without the enhancement of VR technology was not found. Children's coping style did not moderate their response to distraction. Rather, interactive videogame distraction with and without VR technology was equally effective for children who utilized avoidant or approach coping styles.

  3. The impact of cardiac risk factors on short-term outcomes for children undergoing a Ladd procedure.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Luke R; Anderson, Kathryn T; Tsao, KuoJen; Kao, Lillian S; Lugo, Jane A; Lally, Kevin P; Kawaguchi, Akemi L

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the outcomes of children with and without congenital heart disease who undergo a Ladd procedure. The 2012-2014 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric (NSQIP-P) data were queried for patients undergoing a Ladd procedure. Utilizing NSQIP-P definitions, patients were categorized into four cardiac risk groups (none, minor, major, severe) based on severity of cardiac anomalies, previous cardiac procedure(s), and ongoing cardiac dysfunction. Ladd procedures were elective/non-elective. Outcomes included length of stay, adverse events, and mortality. 878 patients underwent Ladd procedures. 633 (72%) patients had no cardiac risk factors and 84 (10%), 109 (12%), and 52 (6%) had minor, major, and severe cardiac risk factors, respectively. Children with congenital heart disease experienced increased morbidity and mortality and longer hospital stays (all p<0.05). Elective Ladd procedures were associated with similar morbidity but shorter length of stay and lower mortality than non-elective procedures. Older age at time of operation was associated with fewer adverse events. Although overall mortality remains low, children with higher risk cardiac disease experience increased morbidity and mortality when undergoing a Ladd procedure. Older age at the time of the Ladd procedure was associated with improved outcomes in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Cardiopulmonary exercise testing].

    PubMed

    Ilarraza-Lomelí, Hermes

    2012-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise test is a useful tool in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with cardiovascular, pulmonary, neuromuscular and even metabolic disorders. The composition and the analysis of expired gas, and the characteristics of ventilatory dynamics, let us see how energy is transformed, within the cells (mitochondrial cristae), through several metabolic processes. Using the cardiopulmonary exercise testing, physicians can distinguish among several causes of dyspnea with undetermined origin. On the other hand, this test represents an important support to indicate the indication of a graft-transplant (heart, lung or both) in patients with severe heart disease, lung disease or both. Cardiopulmonary test has also been used to evaluate high performance athletes and patients with congenital heart disease. In the past, physicians and patients had a restricted access to the performance of a cardiopulmonary exercise testing, mainly due to the complexity and high costs of this technology. Nowadays, this kind of equipment has been simplified and the costs lowered, in consequence this test became a real alternative in daily work.

  5. Neurology of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Mulder, M; Geocadin, R G

    2017-01-01

    This chapter aims to provide an up-to-date review of the science and clinical practice pertaining to neurologic injury after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The past two decades have seen a major shift in the science and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a major emphasis on postresuscitation neurologic care. This chapter provides a nuanced and thoughtful historic and bench-to-bedside overview of the neurologic aspects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A particular emphasis is made on the anatomy and pathophysiology of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, up-to-date management of survivors of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and a careful discussion on neurologic outcome prediction. Guidance to practice evidence-based clinical care when able and thoughtful, pragmatic suggestions for care where evidence is lacking are also provided. This chapter serves as both a useful clinical guide and an updated, thorough, and state-of-the-art reference on the topic for advanced students and experienced practitioners in the field. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiopulmonary discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Life sciences research in the cardiopulmonary discipline must identify possible consequences of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system, understand the mechanisms of these effects, and develop effective and operationally practical countermeasures to protect crewmembers inflight and upon return to a gravitational environment. The long-range goal of the NASA Cardiopulmonary Discipline Research Program is to foster research to better understand the acute and long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptation to space and to develop physiological countermeasures to ensure crew health in space and on return to Earth. The purpose of this Discipline Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of cardiopulmonary sciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of both cardiovascular and pulmonary function. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational (intramural and extramural) research and development activities in this area.

  7. Predictors of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Failure in Children Undergoing Initial Placement or Revision.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Dani O; Mahida, Justin B; Asti, Lindsey; Ambeba, Erica J; Kenney, Brian; Governale, Lance; Deans, Katherine J; Minneci, Peter C

    2017-01-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement, the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus, can place a substantial burden on patients and health care systems because of high complication and revision rates. We aimed to identify factors associated with 30-day VP shunt failure in children undergoing either initial placement or revision. VP shunt placements performed on patients in the 2012-2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Pediatric were identified. VP shunts were placed in 3,984 patients either as an initial placement (n = 1,093) or as a revision (n = 2,891). Compared to the initial-placement group, the revision group was significantly more likely to experience shunt failure (14 vs. 8%, p < 0.0001). In the initial-placement group, congenital hydrocephalus was independently associated with shunt failure (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.01-3.31, p = 0.047). In the revision group, cardiac risk factors (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.00-1.90, p = 0.047), a chronic history of seizures (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.71, p = 0.022), and a history of neuromuscular disease (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.41-0.90, p = 0.014) were independently associated with shunt failure. Identifying the factors associated with VP shunt failure may allow the development of interventions to decrease failures. Further refinement of the collected variables in the NSQIP Pediatric specific to neurosurgical procedures is necessary to identify modifiable risk factors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. [The effect of "hospital clowns" on distress and maladaptive behaviours of children who are undergoing minor surgery].

    PubMed

    Meisel, Victoria; Chellew, Karin; Ponsell, Esperança; Ferreira, Ana; Bordas, Leonor; García-Banda, Gloria

    2009-11-01

    The presence of clowns in health care settings is a program used in many countries to reduce distress in children who are undergoing surgery. The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of the presence of clowns on children's distress and maladaptive behaviours while in hospital for minor surgery. The sample consisted of 61 pediatric patients (aged 3-12 years) undergoing general anesthesia for minor surgery. Participants were assigned to two groups: experimental and control group. The child's distress was assessed using FAS (Facial Affective Scale). Postoperative maladaptive behaviors were evaluated one week after surgery, using the PHBQ (Post-Hospital Behavior Questionnaire). Our results suggest that clowns are not able to reduce the child's level of distress. However, postoperative maladaptive behaviours in the experimental group decreased, but the decrease was not statistically significant. Further research is needed to determine the effects of clowns in hospitals, taking into account age, sex, parents' presence, and diverse hospital settings.

  9. Cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, S; Yoxall, C; Weindling, A

    1998-01-01

    Cerebral fractional oxygen extraction (FOE) was monitored in 30 children, using near infrared spectroscopy during cardiopulmonary bypass, to investigate the effect of hypothermia and circulatory arrest. One group of children (n = 15) underwent profound hypothermia with total circulatory arrest (n = 8) or continuous flow (n =7). Another group (n = 15), of whom only one had circulatory arrest, underwent mild (n = 6) or moderate (n = 9) hypothermia.
 The mean FOE (SD) before bypass was 0.35 (0.12) and this correlated negatively with the preoperative arterial oxygen content (r=−0.58). Between the stage of cooling on bypass and cold bypass there was a reduction in FOE in all groups. Between cold bypass and rewarming there was an increase in FOE only in the groups with continuous flow. In the circulatory arrest group, the FOE remained low during rewarming and was significantly lower than that of the continuous flow group. No patients died and none had neurological abnormalities postoperatively.
 Apparent changes in oxidised cytochrome oxidase concentration were also monitored using near infrared spectroscopy. There was a fall in cytochrome aa3 on starting cardiopulmonary bypass, but there were no significant differences in the changes in cytochrome aa3 between any stage in any of the patient groups.
 Using this non-invasive technique, cooling was shown to reduce cerebral FOE. During rewarming on bypass there was an increase in cerebral FOE only in patients who had had continuous flow bypass. In contrast, the cerebral FOE in those with circulatory arrest remained constant after arrest and during the duration of the study. This may have implications for the timing of hypoxic brain injury.

 PMID:9534672

  10. Traumeel S in preventing and treating mucositis in young patients undergoing SCT: a report of the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Sencer, S F; Zhou, T; Freedman, L S; Ives, J A; Chen, Z; Wall, D; Nieder, M L; Grupp, S A; Yu, L C; Sahdev, I; Jonas, W B; Wallace, J D; Oberbaum, M

    2012-11-01

    Mucositis can be a serious complication of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). A previous phase II trial in 32 children undergoing HSCT reported a beneficial effect of the homeopathic remedy Traumeel S. The Children's Oncology Group sought to replicate the results in a multi-institutional trial. The study was an international multi-center, double-blind, randomized trial comparing Traumeel with placebo in patients aged 3-25 years undergoing myeloablative HSCT. Traumeel/placebo was started on Day -1 as a five-time daily mouth rinse. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed using the modified Walsh scale for mucositis, scored daily from Day -1 to 20 days after HCST. The main outcome was the sum of Walsh scale scores (area-under-the-curve (AUC)) over this period. Other outcomes included narcotic use, days of total parenteral feeding, days of nasogastric feeding and adverse events. In 181 evaluable patients, there was no statistical difference in mucositis (AUC) in the Traumeel group (76.7) compared with placebo (67.3) (P=0.13). There was a trend towards less narcotic usage in the Traumeel patients. No statistically beneficial effect from Traumeel was demonstrated for mucositis. We could not confirm that Traumeel is an effective treatment for mucositis in children undergoing HSCT.

  11. Sequestration of fentanyl by the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPBP).

    PubMed

    Koren, G; Crean, P; Klein, J; Goresky, G; Villamater, J; MacLeod, S M

    1984-01-01

    Immediately following the connection of pediatric patients to cardiopulmonary bypass we have consistently observed a steep decrease in fentanyl plasma concentration (74 +/- 8.7%) (mean +/- SD), much greater than would have been expected from hemodilution alone (50.6% +/- 12.0%) (p less than 0.0001). Priming of the pump with 20 ng/ml of fentanyl before connection to the patients did not prevent this phenomenon. In order to study the possibility that fentanyl is sequestered by the bypass, levels of the primed drug in the bypass were assessed before connecting the pump to the children and a steep fall from 20 ng/ml to zero was shown before initiation of bypass. Pharmacokinetic assessment of fentanyl in a closed pump circuit showed that levels of 120 ng/ml fall to 2 ng/ml within 3 min and remain stable at the lower concentration for at least 30 min. Further studies have identified the membrane oxygenator as the major site of fentanyl sequestration. Concentrations across the membrane fall from 120 ng/ml to 10 ng/ml. The attached siliconized tubing is associated with a minor binding effect sufficient to reduce concentrations from 110 to 84 ng/ml. The pvc tubing, aluminium heat exchanger and plastic reservoir had no binding effect on fentanyl. The possibility that a decrease in fentanyl protein binding caused the fall in serum concentration was checked in 5 patients undergoing open heart surgery. After initiation of the cardiopulmonary bypass, there was a significant decrease in albumin serum concentrations from 32.0 +/- 2.3 mM to 15.0 +/- 1.6 mM (p less than 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Propofol vs pentobarbital for sedation of children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging: results from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Michael D; Baxter, Amy L; Kost, Susanne I

    2009-06-01

    Pentobarbital and propofol are commonly used to sedate children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium (PSRC) was created in 2003 to improve pediatric sedation process and outcomes. To use PSRC records to compare the effectiveness, efficiency and adverse events of propofol vs pentobarbital for sedation of children undergoing MRI. Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium records of children aged 6 months to 6 years who were primarily sedated with either i.v. pentobarbital or propofol were included. Participating PSRC investigators obtained institutional review board approval before data collection. Of 11 846 sedations for MRI, 7079 met inclusion criteria (propofol: n = 5072; pentobarbital: n = 2007). Demographic details were similar between the two groups. Ideal sedation was produced in 96.45% of the pentobarbital group and in 96.8% of the propofol group (P = 0.478), but pentobarbital was more likely to result in poor sedation cancelling the procedure (OR 5.88; CI 2.24, 15.40). Propofol resulted in physiologic changes more frequently than did pentobarbital (OR 5.69; CI 1.35, 23.97). Pentobarbital was associated with prolonged recovery (OR 16.82; CI 4.98, 56.8), unplanned admission (OR 5.60; CI 1.02, 30.82), vomiting (OR 36.76; CI 4.84, 279.2) and allergic complication (OR 9.15; CI 1.02, 82.34). The incidence of airway complications was not significantly different between the two. The median recovery time for patients receiving propofol was 30 min, whereas for pentobarbital it was 75 min (P < 0.001). Among institutions contributing data to the PSRC, it is found that propofol provides more efficient and effective sedation than pentobarbital for children undergoing MRI. Although apnea occurred with a greater frequency in patients who received propofol, the rate of apnea and airway complications for propofol was not statistically different from that seen in patients who received pentobarbital.

  13. Comparison between sevoflurane and desflurane on emergence and recovery characteristics of children undergoing surgery for spinal dysraphism

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priyanka; Rath, Girija Prasad; Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Bithal, Parmod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Rapid recovery is desirable after neurosurgery as it enables early post-operative neurological evaluation and prompt management of complications. Studies have been rare comparing the recovery characteristics in paediatric neurosurgical patients. Hence, this study was carried out to compare the effect of sevoflurane and desflurane anaesthesia on emergence and extubation in children undergoing spinal surgery. Methods: Sixty children, aged 1–12 years, undergoing elective surgery for lumbo-sacral spinal dysraphism were enrolled. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane using a face mask. The children were then randomised to receive either sevoflurane or desflurane with oxygen and nitrous oxide, fentanyl (1 μg/kg/h) and rocuronium. The anaesthetic depth was guided by bispectral index (BIS®) monitoring with a target BIS® between 45 and 55. Perioperative data with regard to demographic profile, haemodynamics, emergence and extubation times, modified Aldrete score (MAS), pain (objective pain score), agitation (Cole's agitation score), time to first analgesic and complications, thereof, were recorded. Statistical analysis was done using STATA 11.2 (StataCorp., College Station, TX, USA) and data are presented as median (range) or mean ± standard deviation. Results: The demographic profile, haemodynamics, MAS, pain and agitation scores and time to first analgesic were comparable in between the two groups (P > 0.05). The emergence time was shorter in desflurane group (2.75 [0.85–12] min) as compared to sevoflurane (8 [2.5–14] min) (P < 0.0001). The extubation time was also shorter in desflurane group (3 [0.8–10] min) as compared to the sevoflurane group (5.5 [1.2–14] min) (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Desflurane provided earlier tracheal extubation and emergence as compared to sevoflurane in children undergoing surgery for lumbo-sacral spinal dysraphism. PMID:26379291

  14. Functional Decline in Children Undergoing Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy after Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bruce A.; Johnson, Barbara A.; Shuckra, Amy L.; D'Astous, Jacques L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare function and gait in a group of children older than most children who received selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) with age- and function-matched peers who received either orthopedic surgery or no surgical intervention. Method: A retrospective study examined ambulatory children with diplegic cerebral palsy, aged between 10 years and…

  15. Judging Pain Intensity in Children with Autism Undergoing Venepuncture: The Influence of Facial Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messmer, Rosemary L.; Nader, Rami; Craig, Kenneth D.

    2008-01-01

    The biasing effect of pain sensitivity information and the impact of facial activity on observers' judgments of pain intensity of children with autism were examined. Observers received information that pain experience in children with autism is either the same as, more intense than, or less intense than children without autism. After viewing six…

  16. Functional Decline in Children Undergoing Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy after Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bruce A.; Johnson, Barbara A.; Shuckra, Amy L.; D'Astous, Jacques L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare function and gait in a group of children older than most children who received selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) with age- and function-matched peers who received either orthopedic surgery or no surgical intervention. Method: A retrospective study examined ambulatory children with diplegic cerebral palsy, aged between 10 years and…

  17. Judging Pain Intensity in Children with Autism Undergoing Venepuncture: The Influence of Facial Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messmer, Rosemary L.; Nader, Rami; Craig, Kenneth D.

    2008-01-01

    The biasing effect of pain sensitivity information and the impact of facial activity on observers' judgments of pain intensity of children with autism were examined. Observers received information that pain experience in children with autism is either the same as, more intense than, or less intense than children without autism. After viewing six…

  18. Behavioral Distress in Children with Cancer Undergoing Medical Procedures: Developmental Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Ernest R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The amount of anxiety suggested the need for clinical intervention to reduce procedure-related distress in children with cancer. Younger children exhibited consistently higher levels of distress than older children and displayed a greater variety of anxious responses over a longer time span. (Author/BEF)

  19. Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on gastrointestinal perfusion and function.

    PubMed

    Gaer, J A; Shaw, A D; Wild, R; Swift, R I; Munsch, C M; Smith, P L; Taylor, K M

    1994-02-01

    Gastric mucosal tonometry was used to determine the adequacy of gastrointestinal perfusion in 10 patients undergoing elective myocardial revascularization. Patients were prospectively randomized to receive either pulsatile or nonpulsatile flow during cardiopulmonary bypass. All patients showed a reduction in gastric mucosal perfusion during bypass, manifested by a reduction in the gastric mucosal pH, which occurred independently of variations in the arterial pH. In the group of patients receiving nonpulsatile flow, this reduction was significantly greater (p < 0.05). Cardiopulmonary bypass using nonpulsatile flow is associated with the development of a gastric mucosal acidosis, which may have implications for the development of postoperative complications.

  20. Development of a specific algorithm to guide haemostatic therapy in children undergoing cardiac surgery: a single-centre retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Faraoni, David; Willems, Ariane; Romlin, Birgitta S; Belisle, Sylvain; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Although rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) is increasingly used to guide haemostatic therapy in a bleeding patient, there is a paucity of data guiding its use in the paediatric population. The objective of this study is to develop an algorithm on the basis of ROTEM values obtained in our paediatric cardiac population to guide the management of the bleeding child. A retrospective analysis. Department of Anaesthesiology, Queen Fabiola Children's University Hospital. Data were collected between September 2010 and January 2012. All children who underwent elective cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were reviewed. None. Significant postoperative bleeding was defined as blood loss more than 10% of the child's estimated blood volume within the first six postoperative hours, dividing our population according to high blood loss (HBL) or low blood loss (LBL). Factors independently associated with postoperative bleeding determined the bleeding probability. Receiving operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed with the aim of determining relevant ROTEM parameters (including clot amplitude 10 min after administration of protamine [A10]) to be used in our algorithm. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were determined for the developed algorithm. One-hundred and fifty children were included in our study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that preoperative weight (kg), presence of a cyanotic disease (yes/no) and wound closure duration (min) were independent predictors of postoperative bleeding. Analysis of our ROTEM parameters revealed that clotting time (CT) ≥ 111 s, A10 ≤ 38 mm measured on the EXTEM and A10 ≤ 3 mm obtained on the FIBTEM tests were the three relevant parameters to guide haemostatic therapy. If the ROTEM-based algorithm was applied according to the bleeding risk (n = 65), 27 out of 29 of the HBL and 24 out of 36

  1. Assessing parents preferences for the avoidance of undesirable anesthesia side effects in their children undergoing surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Deborah S; Yap, Jose Martin; Bradley, Kathryn M; Voepel-Lewis, Terri

    2007-11-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) surveys have proven to be useful tools in determining patient preferences though relatively few pediatric studies have utilized them. Studies in the adult surgical population have used such methods to assess patients' perspectives regarding the avoidance of anesthesia side effects or outcomes. The purpose of this survey was to assess parental preferences, using a relative WTP model, for the avoidance of anesthesia side effects in their children undergoing surgery. The survey was distributed to 150 parents of children who were undergoing surgery. Parents were asked to rank order (1 = most unwanted to 7 = least troublesome) six stated potential anesthesia side effects and to allocate a fixed dollar percentage of a $100 toward prevention of each. A total of 142 surveys were returned (95% response rate). Parents ranked vomiting as the least desirable side effect for their child (rank order = 1.9) and pain as second (rank order = 2.14). However, parents allocated $33.48 to prevent pain compared with $28.89 for vomiting as a relative dollar amount. This study suggests that targeting management toward the prevention of these adverse outcomes may improve parental satisfaction with anesthesia care of their children.

  2. Effect of General Anesthesia on Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in Children Undergoing Treatment of Vascular Anomalies With Laser Surgery: A Retrospective Review.

    PubMed

    Terushkin, Vitaly; Brauer, Jeremy; Bernstein, Leonard; Geronemus, Roy

    2017-04-01

    Multiple exposures to general anesthesia may be neurotoxic to the developing brain. This relationship has not been evaluated in children undergoing laser surgery for vascular anomalies. To evaluate the prevalence of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in children who received multiple laser procedures under general anesthesia before the age of 4 years for the treatment of vascular anomalies. Retrospective chart review of patients with contact of parents for telephone interview. Thirty-three patients were eligible. Average age at the time of survey was 7.8 years. Twenty-three (84.8%) patients were female, with average age at the time of first treatment at 1.9 years. Average number of treatments received before the age of 4 years was 6.7. Anesthetics included inhalational nitrous oxide and isoflurane and intravenous propofol. Seven patients carried one or more of the following diagnoses: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (3.0%), anxiety (6.1%), behavioral disorder (3.0%), language disorder (3.0%), speech disorder (3.0%), and motor disorder (6.1%). These prevalence rates are similar to those found in the US population. This is the first report on the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children undergoing multiple laser treatments under general anesthesia. Although the study sample is small, no increased risks when comparing with prevalence rates reported in the literature were noted.

  3. Effect of preoperative oral midazolam sedation on separation anxiety and emergence delirium among children undergoing dental treatment under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    El Batawi, Hisham Yehia

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possible effects of preoperative oral Midazolam on parental separation anxiety, emergence delirium, and post-anesthesia care unit time on children undergoing dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Methods: Randomized, prospective, double-blind study. Seventy-eight American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) I children were divided into two groups of 39 each. Children of the first group were premedicated with oral Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg, while children of the control group were premedicated with a placebo. Scores for parental separation, mask acceptance, postoperative emergence delirium, and time spent in the post-anesthesia care unit were compared statistically. Results: The test group showed significantly lower parental separation scores and high acceptance rate for anesthetic mask. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding emergence delirium and time spent in post-anesthesia care unit. Conclusions: Preoperative oral Midazolam could be a useful adjunct in anxiety management for children suffering dental anxiety. The drug may not reduce the incidence of postoperative emergence delirium. The suggested dose does not seem to affect the post-anesthesia care unit time. PMID:25992332

  4. Effect of preoperative oral midazolam sedation on separation anxiety and emergence delirium among children undergoing dental treatment under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    El Batawi, Hisham Yehia

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the possible effects of preoperative oral Midazolam on parental separation anxiety, emergence delirium, and post-anesthesia care unit time on children undergoing dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Randomized, prospective, double-blind study. Seventy-eight American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) I children were divided into two groups of 39 each. Children of the first group were premedicated with oral Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg, while children of the control group were premedicated with a placebo. Scores for parental separation, mask acceptance, postoperative emergence delirium, and time spent in the post-anesthesia care unit were compared statistically. The test group showed significantly lower parental separation scores and high acceptance rate for anesthetic mask. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding emergence delirium and time spent in post-anesthesia care unit. Preoperative oral Midazolam could be a useful adjunct in anxiety management for children suffering dental anxiety. The drug may not reduce the incidence of postoperative emergence delirium. The suggested dose does not seem to affect the post-anesthesia care unit time.

  5. Comparing inpatient versus outpatient bowel preparation in children and adolescents undergoing appendicovesicostomy.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, David L; Szymanski, Konrad M; Whittam, Benjamin M; Bennett, William E; King, Shelly; Misseri, Rosalia; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Cain, Mark P

    2017-08-26

    The need for mechanical inpatient bowel preparation (IBP) in reconstructive pediatric urology has come under scrutiny, secondary to literature demonstrating little benefit regarding outcomes. Starting in 2013, a majority of patients undergoing reconstructive procedures at our institution no longer underwent IBP. We hypothesized that outpatient bowel preparation (OBP) would reduce length of stay (LOS) without increasing postoperative complications after appendicovesicostomy surgery. An institutional database of patients undergoing lower urinary tract reconstruction between May 2010 and December 2014 was reviewed. Starting in 2013, a departmental decision was made to replace IBP with OBP. Patients undergoing an augmentation cystoplasty or continent ileovesicostomy were excluded because of insufficient numbers undergoing OBP. Patients undergoing IBP were admitted 1 day prior to surgery and received polyethylene glycol/electrolyte solution. A personalized preoperative OBP was introduced in 2013. Cost data were obtained from the Pediatric Health Information System. Sixty-seven patients met the inclusion criteria, with 30 (44.8%) undergoing IBP. There were no differences with respect to gender, age, presence of ventriculoperitoneal shunt, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate, preoperative diagnosis, operative time, and prior or simultaneous associated surgeries (p ≥ 0.07). Patients undergoing an IBP had a longer median LOS (7 vs. 5 days, p = 0.0002) and a higher median cost (US$4,288, p = 0.01). Postoperative complications in both groups were uncommon and were classified as Clavien-Dindo grade 1-2, with no statistical difference (IBP 20.0% vs. OBP 5.4%, p = 0.13). No serious postoperative complication occurred, such as a dehiscence, bowel obstruction, or shunt infection. This is the first analysis of hospitalization costs and IBP, showing a higher median cost of US$4288 compared with OBP. The LOS was shorter with an OBP (figure), similar to a previous

  6. Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julien T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N=27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders were trained along with their parents to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Distraction produced significant positive effects for observer-rated distress scores for the low hypnotizable children. Discusses…

  7. Hand-held computers can help to distract children undergoing painful venipuncture procedures.

    PubMed

    Crevatin, Franca; Cozzi, Giorgio; Braido, Elena; Bertossa, Gabriella; Rizzitelli, Patrizia; Lionetti, Daniela; Matassi, Daniela; Calusa, Dorotea; Ronfani, Luca; Barbi, Egidio

    2016-08-01

    Needle-related procedures can be painful for children, and distraction provides ideal pain relief in blood-drawing centres. This study assessed the effectiveness of playing a computer game during venipuncture, compared with low-tech distraction by a nurse. We conducted this prospective, randomised controlled trial at the blood-drawing centre of a tertiary-level children's hospital in Italy. Half of the 200 children played Angry Birds on a hand-held computer while the other half were distracted by a second, specifically trained nurse who sang to them, read a book, blew bubbles or played with puppets. Pain was measured using a faces pain scale for children aged 4-7 years and a numeric scale for children aged 8-13 years. The 200 children had a median age of eight years. Children reported significant pain in 16 cases (16%) in the hand-held computer distraction group and in 15 cases (15%) in the nurse-led low-tech distraction group (p = 0.85). The procedural success rate at the first attempt was not different in the two groups. Playing a game on a hand-held computer meant that only one in six children reported pain during venipuncture, but it was not superior to being distracted by nurses. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julien T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N=27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders were trained along with their parents to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Distraction produced significant positive effects for observer-rated distress scores for the low hypnotizable children. Discusses…

  9. Increased osteopontin levels in children undergoing venom immunotherapy may serve as a marker of clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Süleyman Tolga; Soyer, Ozge U; Sekerel, Bulent E; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Sahiner, Umit Murat; Sackesen, Cansin; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2014-01-01

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) has its effect by modulating various mediators resulting in immune tolerance. The aim of this study was to measure changes in plasma osteopontin (OPN) and serum basal tryptase (sBT) levels over the course of 1 year of VIT in children with venom allergy. Children who suffered from a large local reaction (LLR) or a systemic reaction (SR) after insect stings were included along with control subjects. Measurements were performed before the initiation of VIT and 6 and 12 months after it had been started. A total of 58 children (24 with SR, 18 with LLR and 16 control subjects) with a median age of 9.5 years (range 6.7-12.8) were enrolled. The plasma OPN levels of patients with LLR [median 1,477 ng/ml, interquartile range (IQR) 1,123-1,772] were significantly higher than patients with SR (882 ng/ml, 579-1,086; p < 0.001) and healthy control subjects (1,015 ng/ml, 815-1,203; p = 0.002). A significant increase in plasma OPN levels in children was determined after the 1-year VIT. The sBT levels of children with SR (4.1 ng/ml, 3.6-5.8) were significantly higher than children with LLR (3.1 ng/ml, 2.5-4.0) and control subjects (3.0 ng/ml, 2.9-3.8; p = 0.001). There was no significant change in the sBT levels of the patients after the 1-year VIT. The results of our study showed higher baseline levels of OPN in children with LLR compared to control subjects and children with SR. In children with SR, OPN levels were increased after the 1-year VIT. Our results may suggest a possible association between OPN and successful VIT in children. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Impact of Psychological Interventions on Reducing Anxiety, Fear and the Need for Sedation in Children Undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Viggiano, Maria Pia; Giganti, Fiorenza; Rossi, Arianna; Di Feo, Daniele; Vagnoli, Laura; Calcagno, Giovanna; Defilippi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging examination frequently experience anxiety and fear before and during the scanning. The aim of the present study was to assess: i) whether and to what extent psychological interventions might reduce anxiety and fear levels; ii) whether the intervention is related to a decrease in the need for sedation. The interventions consisted of three activities: a clown show, dog interaction and live music. The emotional status (anxiety and fear) of the children was evaluated before and after the activities through a rating scale questionnaire. The results showed that the activities had high effectiveness in reducing the level of anxiety and fear and decreased the need for sedation in the experimental group compared to the control group. This approach proved to be a positive patient experience, helping to alleviate children’s anxiety and fear, decreasing the need for sedation, and was cost-effective. PMID:25918624

  11. Outbreak of gut colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in immunocompromised children undergoing total digestive decontamination: analysis by pulsed-field electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Boukadida, J; de Montalembert, M; Gaillard, J L; Gobin, J; Grimont, F; Girault, D; Véron, M; Berche, P

    1991-01-01

    We analyzed an outbreak of gut colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurring in an intensive care hematology unit by using conventional typing methods and pulsed-field electrophoresis. In October and November 1989, the feces of four immunocompromised children undergoing total digestive decontamination were colonized by P. aeruginosa. Ten isolates were obtained from the gut flora in pure culture. Retrospective investigations found that one P. aeruginosa isolate from stools of one of the patients was already present at high counts 6 months before the outbreak. This patient had been discharged from the unit in May 1989 and had been readmitted concomitantly with the outbreak. Only pulsed-field electrophoresis could demonstrate that a single epidemic strain was present in the fecal flora of the children. This strain had probably been brought into the unit by the patient with chronic fecal carriage. Images PMID:1774336

  12. [Common causes of sleep disturbances in Icelandic children who undergo sleep studies.].

    PubMed

    Hákonarson, H; Thornórsson, A

    2001-10-01

    Sleep disturbances are common problems in children. Frequently, these problems are attributed to learned behavioral patterns, but little is known about organic causes of sleep disturbances in children. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common cause of sleep disordered breathing in adults. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is also common in this population. Less is known about OSA and GER as potential causative agents of sleep disturbances in children, and these medical problems have not been addressed in Icelandic children. This study was designed to investigate the organic causes of sleep disordered breathing in Icelandic children, evaluate their severity and possible therapies. One hundred and ninty children who were referred to the Pediatric Department at Reykjavik Hospital due to sleep disturbances were hospitalized over night and a sleep study was recorded, using the sleep equipment, EMBLA. The latter machine has 16 channels that record informations about sleep patterns and breathing. The children were 0-18 years of age. Informations were collected from EEGs, EMGs, and eye movements to determine sleep stages, and with respiratory belts with sensors on the chest and abdomen as well as an air-flow sensor that measures airflow through the nose and mouth. When GER was suspected, a pH meter was inserted and the pH values were measured in the upper and lower parts of the esophagus. The results demonstrate that a large number of children who suffer from sleep disturbances have an underlying disease. Of 61 children who underwent a sleep study and were suspected to have OSA, 46 had a positive study that resulted in a change in therapy. In addition, 69 of 89 children who underwent pH measurements in the esophagus were diagnosed with GER which prompted changes in therapy. The study demonstrates that both OSA and GER are common problems in children with sleep disturbances. We conclude that sleep studies are important in the overall workup of children with sleep disturbances

  13. Measurement of oxygen consumption in children undergoing cardiac catheterization: comparison between mass spectrometry and the breath-by-breath method.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long; Cui, Yong; Pharis, Scott; Walsh, Mark; Atallah, Joseph; Tan, Meng-Wei; Rutledge, Jennifer; Coe, J Y; Adatia, Ian

    2014-06-01

    Accurate measurement of oxygen consumption (VO2) is important to precise calculation of blood flow using the Fick equation. This study aimed to validate the breath-by-breath method (BBBM) of measuring oxygen consumption VO2 compared with respiratory mass spectroscopy (MS) for intubated children during cardiac catheterization. The study used MS and BBBM to measure VO2 continuously and simultaneously for 10 min in consecutive anesthetized children undergoing cardiac catheterization who were intubated with a cuffed endotracheal tube, ventilated mechanically, and hemodynamically stable, with normal body temperature. From 26 patients, 520 data points were obtained. The mean VO2 was 94.5 ml/min (95 % confidence interval [CI] 65.7-123.3 ml/min) as measured by MS and 91.4 ml/min (95 % CI 64.9-117.9 ml/min) as measured by BBBM. The mean difference in VO2 measurements between MS and BBBM (3.1 ml/min; 95 % CI -1.7 to +7.9 ml/min) was not significant (p = 0.19). The MS and BBBM VO2 measurements were highly correlated (R (2) = 0.98; P < 0.0001). Bland-Altman analysis showed good correspondence between MS and BBBM, with a mean difference of -3.01 and 95 % limits of agreement ranging from -26.2 to +20.0. The mean VO2 indexed to body surface area did not differ significantly between MS and BBBM (3.4 ml/min m(2); 95 % CI -1.4 to 8.2; p = 0.162). The mean difference and limits of agreement were -3.8 ml/min m(2) (range, -19.9 to 26.7). Both MS and BBBM may be used to measure VO2 in anesthetized intubated children undergoing cardiac catheterization. The two methods demonstrated excellent agreement. However, BBBM may be more suited to clinical use with children.

  14. Inhalation aromatherapy in children and adolescents undergoing stem cell infusion: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Ndao, Deborah H; Ladas, Elena J; Cheng, Bin; Sands, Stephen A; Snyder, Kathryn T; Garvin, James H; Kelly, Kara M

    2012-03-01

    Though often lifesaving, stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a period of great distress for both child and parent. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study evaluating the effect of the respiratory administration of bergamot essential oil on the anxiety, nausea, and pain of 37 pediatric patients with malignant and non-malignant disorders undergoing stem cell infusion and their parents. Patients were assessed at the time of recruitment, prior to infusion, upon infusion completion, and one hour post-infusion using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for parents and the STAIC, Children's Behavioral Style Scale (CBSS), visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and nausea, and the Emotionality Activity Sociability and Impulsivity instrument (EASI) for children. Children and adolescents in the treatment group experienced greater anxiety (p = 0.05) and nausea (p = 0.03) one hour post-infusion. Reported pain in both groups was no longer significant one hour post-infusion. Parental anxiety declined in both groups but did not reach statistical significance. Child's monitoring coping style was significantly predictive of transitory anxiety post-infusion (p = 0.01). Although this trial did not report a benefit of inhalation aromatherapy for reducing anxiety, nausea, or pain when added to standard supportive care, it provides the first experimental rather than descriptive report on testing a single therapeutic essential oil among children and adolescents undergoing stem cell infusion. Future research may consider exploring the cutaneous application of essential oil through massage or other psychoeducational counseling interventions among parents with elevated anxiety and patients with greater information seeking coping styles during SCT. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Sleep/sedation in children undergoing EEG testing: a comparison of chloral hydrate and music therapy.

    PubMed

    Loewy, Joanne; Hallan, Cathrine; Friedman, Eliezer; Martinez, Christine

    2005-10-01

    This study included a total of 60 pediatric patients ranging from 1 month through 5 years of age. The effects of chloral hydrate and music therapy were evaluated and compared as means of safe and effective ways to achieve sleep/sedation in infants and toddlers undergoing EEG testing. The results of the study indicate that music therapy may be a cost-effective, risk-free alternative to pharmacological sedation.

  16. POTENTIAL USE OF MELATONIN IN PROCEDURAL ANXIETY AND PAIN IN CHILDREN UNDERGOING BLOOD WITHDRAWAL.

    PubMed

    Marseglia, L; Manti, S; D'Angelo, G; Arrigo, T; Cuppari, C; Salpietro, C; Gitto, E

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of the value of pain, especially in the pediatric population, has increased over the last decade. It is known that pain-related anxiety can increase perceived pain intensity. There are several different approaches to the treatment of pre-procedural anxiety and procedural pain in children. Melatonin, a neurohormone with the profile of a novel hypnotic-anaesthetic agent, plays an important role in anxiolysis and analgesia. This study investigated the effects of oral melatonin premedication to reduce anxiety and pain in children having blood samples taken. The investigations were carried out on 60 children, aged 1-14 years, divided into 2 equal groups. Using a computer-generated randomization schedule, patients were given either melatonin orally (0.5 mg/kg BW, max 5 mg) or placebo 30 min before blood draw. Pre-procedural anxiety was assessed using the scale from the Children’s Anxiety and Pain Scales, while procedural pain used the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability assessment tool for children under the age of 3 years, Faces Pain Scale-Revised for children aged 3-8 years and Numeric Rating Scale for children over the age of 8 years. Oral administration of melatonin before the blood withdrawal procedure significantly reduced both anxiety (p<0.0005) and pain levels than placebo (p<0.0002 for children under 3 years and p<0.0039 for children over 3 years). These data support the use of melatonin for taking blood samples due to its anxiolytic and analgesic properties. Further studies are needed to support the routine use of melatonin to alleviate anxiety and pain in pediatric patients having blood samples taken.

  17. Providing preoperative information for children undergoing surgery: a randomized study testing different types of educational material to reduce children's preoperative worries.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, S C; Arriaga, P; Esteves, F

    2014-12-01

    This study developed three types of educational preoperative materials and examined their efficacy in preparing children for surgery by analysing children's preoperative worries and parental anxiety. The sample was recruited from three hospitals in Lisbon and consisted of 125 children, aged 8-12 years, scheduled to undergo outpatient surgery. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the seven independent conditions that were combined into the following three main groups: an experimental group, which received educational materials with information about surgery and hospitalization (a board game, a video or a booklet); a comparison group, which received entertaining material with the same format type; and a control group, which did not receive any material. Children's preoperative worries and parental anxiety were evaluated after the experimental manipulation. Children who received educational materials were significantly less worried about surgery and hospital procedures than children in the comparison and the control groups, although no statistically differences were found between the type of materials within the experimental group, and no significant effect occurred on parental state anxiety. These results do however support the hypothesis that providing preoperative materials with educational information reduce children's preoperative worries.

  18. Validity of Simplified Versus Standard Self-Report Measures of Pain Intensity in Preschool-Aged Children Undergoing Venipuncture.

    PubMed

    Emmott, Anthony S; West, Nicholas; Zhou, Guohai; Dunsmuir, Dustin; Montgomery, Carolyne J; Lauder, Gillian R; von Baeyer, Carl L

    2017-05-01

    There are inadequate age-specific data to support the use of current self-report pain scales in 3- and 4-year-old children. Most preschool-aged children also lack the necessary cognitive development to use standard scales. We aimed to evaluate the validity and feasibility of 2 novel simplified scales (Simplified Faces Pain Scale, S-FPS; Simplified Concrete Ordinal Scale, S-COS) for preschool-aged children. These simplified scales used a 2-step self-report method: children were first asked whether they have pain (yes/no); only if yes, then pain intensity was self-reported using a 3-point scale with visual aids signifying mild/moderate/severe. We recruited 180 3- to 6-year-old children undergoing routine blood collection. Each child was randomly assigned 2 of 3 scales-S-FPS, S-COS, Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R)-to self-report pain before venipuncture, immediately after, and 5 minutes later, using both scales at each time-point. Pain was also assessed using observation (Face Legs Activity Cry Consolability) at each time point. The ability to discriminate pain from no pain was improved with S-FPS and S-COS, compared with the FPS-R, among 4-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds. Correlation with Face Legs Activity Cry Consolability was moderate to strong and cooperation rates were similar for all self-report scales. The simplified scales can improve and simplify pain assessment for 4-year-olds. Quantitative pain rating remains challenging for 3-year-olds. This study evaluated 2 novel simplified pain assessment tools for preschool-aged children undergoing blood sampling. These scales demonstrated good validity and feasibility compared with the FPS-R, suggesting these simplified pain scales may have a role in clinical practice for children as young as 4 years. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of etomidate and propofol induction on hemodynamic and endocrine response in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting/mitral valve and aortic valve replacement surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Ram Prasad; Vatal, Ajay; Pathak, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The concerns for induction of anaesthesia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery include hemodynamic stability, attenuation of stress response and maintenance of balance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. Various Intravenous anaesthetic agents like Thiopentone, Etomidate, Propofol, Midazolam, and Ketamine have been used for anesthetizing patients for cardiac surgeries. However, many authors have expressed concerns regarding induction with thiopentone, midazolam and ketamine. Hence, Propofol and Etomidate are preferred for induction in these patients. However, these two drugs have different characteristics. Etomidate is preferred for patients with poor left ventricular (LV) function as it provides stable cardiovascular profile. But there are concerns about reduction in adrenal suppression and serum cortisol levels. Propofol, on the other hand may cause a reduction in systemic vascular resistance and subsequent hypotension. Thus, this study was conducted to compare induction with these two agents in cardiac surgeries. Methods: Baseline categorical and continuous variables were compared using Fisher's exact test and student's t test respectively. Hemodynamic variables were compared using student's t test for independent samples. The primary outcome (serum cortisol and blood sugar) of the study was compared using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. The P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Etomidate provides more stable hemodynamic parameters as compared to Propofol. Propofol causes vasodilation and may result in drop of systematic BP. Etomidate can therefore be safely used for induction in patients with good LV function for CABG/MVR/AVR on CPB without serious cortisol suppression lasting more than twenty-four hours. PMID:25849685

  20. Nutrition Support for Children Undergoing Congenital Heart Surgeries: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Judith J M; Cheifetz, Ira M; Ong, Chengsi; Nakao, Masakazu; Lee, Jan Hau

    2015-07-01

    Energy imbalance in infants and children with congenital heart disease (CHD) is common and influenced by age, underlying cardiac diagnoses, and presence or absence of congestive heart failure. During the surgical hospitalization period, these children are prone to nutritional deterioration due to stress of surgery, anesthetic/perfusion techniques, and postoperative care. Poor nutrition is associated with increased perioperative morbidity and mortality. This review aims to examine various aspects of nutrition in critically ill children with CHD, including (1) energy expenditure, (2) perioperative factors that contribute to energy metabolism, (3) bedside practices that are potentially able to optimize nutrient delivery, and (4) medium- to long-term impact of energy balance on clinical outcomes. We propose a nutrition algorithm to optimize nutrition of these children in the perioperative period where improvements in nutrition status will likely impact surgical outcomes.

  1. [Somatotropic axis and molecular markers of mineral metabolism in children undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Ceballos Osorio, María Luisa; Cano Schuffeneger, Francisco

    2016-09-19

    Growth failure is one of the most relevant complications in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Among others, growth hormone (GH) resistance and bone mineral disorders have been identified as the most important causes of growth retardation.

  2. Comparison of preparation and narcotic-sedative premedication in children undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Mansson, M E; Fredrikzon, B; Rosberg, B

    1992-01-01

    A psychological preparation program was developed for use prior to emergency surgery in children. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that provision of specific information prior to an emergency operation would reduce the need for premedication to control anxiety and stress. Children were randomly assigned to either a verbally prepared group given narcotic-sedative premedication (control) or to a psychologically prepared group given only atropine as premedication. The child and parent rated their own anxiety on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The children and parents were also assessed by a nurse preoperatively and postoperatively using a similar scale. The children's pulse, blood pressure, and cortisol were also measured. The results showed no significant difference between the psychologically prepared group and the premedicated group, suggesting that psychological preparation compares favorably with narcotic-sedative premedication.

  3. Oral Midazolam-Ketamine versus Midazolam alone for Procedural Sedation of Children Undergoing Computed Tomography; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Majidinejad, Saeed; Taherian, Keramat; Esmailian, Mehrdad; Khazaei, Mehdi; Samaie, Vajihe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Motion artifacts are a common problem in pediatric radiographic studies and are a common indication for pediatric procedural sedation. This study aimed to compare the combination of oral midazolam and ketamine (OMK) with oral midazolam alone (OM) as procedural sedatives among children undergoing computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods: The study population was comprised of six-month to six-year old patients with medium-risk minor head trauma, who were scheduled to undergo brain CT imaging. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups: one group received 0.5 mg/kg midazolam (OM group; n = 33) orally and the other one received 0.2 mg/kg midazolam and 5 mg/kg ketamine orally (OMK group; n=33). The vital signs were monitored and recorded at regular intervals. The primary outcome measure was the success rate of each drug in achieving adequate sedation. Secondary outcome measures were the time to achieve adequate sedation, time to discharge from radiology department, and the incidence of adverse events. Results: Adequate sedation was achieved in five patients (15.2%) in OM group and 15 patients (45.5%) in OMK group, which showed a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.015). No significant difference was noted between OM and OMK groups with respect to the time of achieving adequate sedation (33.80 ± 7.56 and 32.87 ± 10.18 minutes, respectively; p = 0.854) and the time of discharging from radiology department (89.60 ± 30.22 and 105.27 ± 21.98 minutes, respectively; p=0.223). The complications were minor and similar among patients of both groups. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in comparison with OM, OMK was more effective in producing a satisfactory level of sedation in children undergoing CT examinations without additional complications; however, none of these two regimens fulfilled clinical needs for procedural sedation. PMID:26495384

  4. Validation of the Cardiac Children's Hospital Early Warning Score: an early warning scoring tool to prevent cardiopulmonary arrests in children with heart disease.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Mary C; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Connor, Jean A

    2014-01-01

    Most inpatient pediatric arrests are preventable by early recognition/treatment of deterioration. Children with cardiac disease have the highest arrest rates; however, early warning scoring systems have not been validated in this population. The objective of this study was to validate the Cardiac Children's Hospital Early Warning Score (C-CHEWS) tool in inpatient pediatric cardiac patients. The associated escalation of care algorithm directs: routine care (score 0-2), increased assessment/intervention (3-4), or cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) consult/transfer (≥5). Sensitivity and specificity were estimated based on retrospective review of patients that experienced unplanned CICU transfer/arrest (n = 64) and a comparison sample (n = 248) of admissions. The previously validated Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) tool was used for comparison. Patients' highest C-CHEWS scores were compared with calculated PEWS scores. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was calculated for PEWS and C-CHEWS to measure discrimination. The AUROC curve for C-CHEWS was 0.917 compared with PEWS 0.785 (P < .001). The algorithm AUROC curve was 0.902 vs. PEWS of 0.782. C-CHEWS algorithm sensitivity was 96.9 (score ≥ 2), 79.7 (≥4), and 67.2 (≥5) vs. PEWS of 81.1(≥2), 37.5 (≥4), and 23.4 (≥5). C-CHEWS specificity was 58.1 (≥2), 85.5 (≥4), and 93.6 (≥5) vs. PEWS of 81.1 (≥2), 94.8 (≥4) and 97.6 (≥5). Lead time of elevated C-CHEWS scores (≥2) was a median of 9.25 hours prior to event vs. PEWS, which was 2.25 hours and lead time for critical C-CHEWS scores (≥5) was 2 hours vs. 0 hours for PEWS (P < .001). C-CHEWS has excellent discrimination to identify deterioration in children with cardiac disease and performed significantly better than PEWS both as an ordinal variable and when choosing cut points to maximize AUROC. C-CHEWS has a higher sensitivity than PEWS at all cut points. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Positive reactions to placebo in children undergoing double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, B; Niggemann, B; Wahn, U; Beyer, K

    2014-04-01

    The gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy is the double-blind, placebo-controlled oral food challenge (DBPCFC). During this challenge, patients receive the allergenic food and placebo on separate randomized days, while being monitored for clinical reactions. Interestingly, some reactions are assessed as positive although the patients had received placebo. The aim of our study was to analyze incidence and characteristics of positive placebo reactions during DBPCFCs. In food-allergic children, we retrospectively analyzed positive placebo reactions in DBPCFCs in 740 placebo challenges in our department. Individual characteristics were compared, such as age or IgE levels, as well as clinical symptoms. Of all placebo challenges, 2.8% (21 of 740) were assessed as positive. Young children (age ≤ 1.5 years) had more (P = 0.047) positive placebo challenges (4.0%) compared to older children (age > 1.5 years; 1.5%). Children with positive placebo challenges had higher levels of total IgE (median 201 kU/L) compared to negatively classified children (median 110 kU/L). In children with positive placebo reactions, skin symptoms were observed significantly more often, with a worsening of atopic eczema (AE) as the most reported symptom. Placebo reactions in DBPCFC are not common. Worsening of AE is the most frequent clinical reaction associated with positive placebo challenges, and young children (age ≤ 1.5 years) seem to be affected more often. Therefore - contrary to current recommendations - DBPCFC tests should be considered in infants and young children, especially those with a history of AE. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Should children with a history of anaphylaxis to foods undergo challenge testing?

    PubMed

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Duiverman, E J; van der Heide, S; Bijleveld, C M A; Kukler, J; Dubois, A E J

    2008-12-01

    Data on the frequency of resolution of anaphylaxis to foods are not available, but such resolution is generally assumed to be rare. To determine whether the frequency of negative challenge tests in children with a history of anaphylaxis to foods is frequent enough to warrant challenge testing to re-evaluate the diagnosis of anaphylaxis, and to document the safety of this procedure. All children (n=441) who underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) between January 2003 and March 2007 were screened for symptoms of anaphylaxis to food by history. Anaphylaxis was defined as symptoms and signs of cardiovascular instability, occurring within 2 h after ingestion of the suspected food. Twenty-one children were enrolled (median age 6.1 years, range 0.8-14.4). The median time interval between the most recent anaphylactic reaction and the DBPCFC was 4.25 years, range 0.3-12.8. Twenty-one DBPCFCs were performed in 21 children. Eighteen of 21 children were sensitized to the food in question. Six DBPCFCs were negative (29%): three for cows milk, one for egg, one for peanut, and one for wheat. In the positive DBPCFCs, no severe reactions occurred, and epinephrine administration was not required. This is the first study using DBPCFCs in a consecutive series of children with a history of anaphylaxis to foods, and no indications in dietary history that the food allergy had been resolved. Our study shows that in such children having specific IgE levels below established cut-off levels reported in other studies predicting positive challenge outcomes, re-evaluation of clinical reactivity to food by DBPCFC should be considered, even when there are no indications in history that anaphylaxis has resolved. DBPCFCs can be performed safely in these children, although there is a potential risk for severe reactions.

  7. Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Advances in Science, Techniques, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Topjian, Alexis A.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.

    2009-01-01

    More than 25% of children survive to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrests, and 5% to 10% survive after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. This review of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation addresses the epidemiology of pediatric cardiac arrests, mechanisms of coronary blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the 4 phases of cardiac arrest resuscitation, appropriate interventions during each phase, special resuscitation circumstances, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The key elements of pathophysiology that impact and match the timing, intensity, duration, and variability of the hypoxic-ischemic insult to evidence-based interventions are reviewed. Exciting discoveries in basic and applied-science laboratories are now relevant for specific subpopulations of pediatric cardiac arrest victims and circumstances (eg, ventricular fibrillation, neonates, congenital heart disease, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Improving the quality of interventions is increasingly recognized as a key factor for improving outcomes. Evolving training strategies include simulation training, just-in-time and just-in-place training, and crisis-team training. The difficult issue of when to discontinue resuscitative efforts is addressed. Outcomes from pediatric cardiac arrests are improving. Advances in resuscitation science and state-of-the-art implementation techniques provide the opportunity for further improvement in outcomes among children after cardiac arrest. PMID:18977991

  8. Predictive Factors of Postoperative Pain and Postoperative Anxiety in Children Undergoing Elective Circumcision: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsamoudaki, Stella; Ntomi, Vasileia; Yiannopoulos, Ioannis; Christianakis, Efstratios; Pikoulis, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Although circumcision for phimosis in children is a minor surgical procedure, it is followed by pain and carries the risk of increased postoperative anxiety. This study examined predictive factors of postoperative pain and anxiety in children undergoing circumcision. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of children scheduled for elective circumcision. Circumcision was performed applying one of the following surgical techniques: sutureless prepuceplasty (SP), preputial plasty technique (PP), and conventional circumcision (CC). Demographics and base-line clinical characteristics were collected, and assessment of the level of preoperative anxiety was performed. Subsequently, a statistical model was designed in order to examine predictive factors of postoperative pain and postoperative anxiety. Assessment of postoperative pain was performed using the Faces Pain Scale (FPS). The Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire study was used to assess negative behavioral manifestations. Results A total of 301 children with a mean age of 7.56 ± 2.61 years were included in the study. Predictive factors of postoperative pain measured with the FPS included a) the type of surgical technique, b) the absence of siblings, and c) the presence of postoperative complications. Predictive factors of postoperative anxiety included a) the type of surgical technique, b) the level of education of mothers, c) the presence of preoperative anxiety, and d) a history of previous surgery. Conclusions Although our study was not without its limitations, it expands current knowledge by adding new predictive factors of postoperative pain and postoperative anxiety. Clearly, further randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm its results. PMID:26495079

  9. Ultrasound visibility of spinal structures and local anesthetic spread in children undergoing caudal block.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seokyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Won Oak; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kil, Hae Keum

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed ultrasound visibility of spinal structures in children and observed the extent of local anesthetic spread within the epidural space during caudal block. Spinal structures were evaluated with ultrasound from the sacral area to the thoracic area in 80 children, and drug spread levels were observed after caudal injection of 0.5, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.5 mL/kg local anesthetic. The conus medullaris, dural sac and dura mater were easily identified with ultrasound in most children. However, ligamentum flavum visibility declined with increasing vertebral level and markedly decreased at the thoracic level in children older than 7 mo or heavier than 8.5 kg. Drug spread was higher with increasing volume (p < 0.001) and in children ≤12 mo more than children >12 mo (p < 0.001); drug spread was significantly correlated with age (R(2) = 0.534). Spread levels assessed with ultrasound were roughly two to three segments lower than those in previous radiologic studies. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of an Individualized Yoga Intervention to Address Fatigue in Hospitalized Children Undergoing Intensive Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Diorio, Caroline; Celis Ekstrand, Amanda; Hesser, Tanya; O'Sullivan, Cathy; Lee, Michelle; Schechter, Tal; Sung, Lillian

    2016-09-01

    Purpose Fatigue is an important problem in children receiving intensive chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Exercise may be an effective intervention for fatigue. Individualized yoga represents an ideal intervention because it can be tailored according to an individual child's needs. Little is known about how to structure a standardized yoga program for intensivelytreated children. Therefore, this study describes the development of a yoga program and an approach to monitoring sessions suitable for hospitalized children receiving intensive chemotherapy or HSCT. Methods The yoga program was designed to increase mobility in hospitalized children and to provide children with relaxation techniques that could be used independently in a variety of environments. The program was founded on 4 key tenets: safety, adaptability, environmental flexibility, and appeal to children. We also developed quality and consistency assurance procedures. Results A menu format with a fixed structure was selected for the yoga program. Each yoga session contained up to 6 sections: breathing exercises, warmup exercises, yoga poses, balancing poses, cool-down poses, and final relaxation. Yoga instructors selected specific yoga poses for each session from a predetermined list organized by intensity level (low, moderate, or high). Monitoring procedures were developed using videotaping and multirater adjudication. Conclusion We created a standardized yoga program and an approach to monitoring that are now ready for incorporation in clinical trials. Future work should include the adaptation of the program to different pediatric populations and clinical settings.

  11. Cardiopulmonary bypass considerations for pediatric patients on the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Melchior, R W; Dreher, M; Ramsey, E; Savoca, M; Rosenthal, T

    2015-07-01

    There is a population of children with epilepsy that is refractory to anti-epileptic drugs. The ketogenic diet, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen, is one alternative treatment to decrease seizure activity. Special considerations are required for patients on the ketogenic diet undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to prevent exposure to glucose substrates that could alter ketosis, increasing the risk of recurrent seizures. A 2-year-old, 9 kilogram male with a history of infantile spasms with intractable epilepsy, trisomy 21 status post tetralogy of Fallot repair, presented to the cardiac operating room for closure of a residual atrial septal defect. All disciplines of the surgical case minimized the use of carbohydrate-containing and contraindicated medications. Changes to the standard protocol and metabolic monitoring ensured the patient maintained ketosis. All disciplines within cardiac surgery need to be cognizant of patients on the ketogenic diet and prepare a modified protocol. Future monitoring considerations include thromboelastography, electroencephalography and continuous glucose measurement. Key areas of focus with this patient population in the cardiac surgical theater are to maintain a multidisciplinary approach, alter the required CPB prime components, address cardiac pharmacological concerns and limit any abnormal hematological occurrences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Folate deficiency in north Indian children undergoing maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia-Implications and outcome.

    PubMed

    Roy Moulik, Nirmalya; Kumar, Archana; Agrawal, Suraksha; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2017-08-02

    Treatment-related toxicity and mortality are not uncommon during maintenance chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are commonly seen in children from LMICs undergoing treatment for ALL. The present study examines the prevalence and clinical implications of folate deficiency in north Indian children with ALL during the maintenance phase of treatment in view of prolonged antifolate treatment and high population prevalence of folate deficiency. Pre-cycle folate levels/deficiency as well as weight for age z-score and serum albumin level were determined and correlated with complications of treatment and mortality encountered during the maintenance phase of treatment. Twenty-nine of 52 children enrolled in the study had folate deficiency at some point during maintenance chemotherapy. Neutropenia (18 of 29 vs. 4 of 23; P = 0.002), thrombocytopenia (17 of 29 vs. 4 of 23; P = 0.005), febrile neutropenia (17 of 29 vs. 4 of 23; P = 0.005), and need for chemotherapy dose reduction (20 of 29 vs. 7 of 21; P = 0.01) were more common in folate-deficient children. Maintenance deaths were higher (8 of 29 vs. 1 of 23; P = 0.03) and survival lower (P = 0.02) in deficient children. In multivariate analysis, hypoalbuminemia (P = 0.02) and folate deficiency (P = 0.01) were associated with febrile neutropenia, and folate deficiency with maintenance deaths (P = 0.03). Folate deficiency was associated with treatment-related complications and adverse outcome in our patients. The risks and benefits of folate supplementation in deficient children during maintenance chemotherapy need to be explored with properly designed randomized studies in similar settings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The misuse of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    de Leon, A C

    1993-04-01

    Over a 41-month period, 1,233 "Code Blues" were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-five codes on infants and children < 16 years of age were eliminated from the study group. The adult survivors of 1,208 codes numbered 243 (20.1%). Clinical chart review revealed that 49 (4.0%) did not involve cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or intubation and were "non-codes." Of the remaining 1,159 codes, there were 194 (16.7%) survivors. Of these survivors, 102 (52.5%) were patients with respiratory distress or failure and required intubation only. No CPR was needed. Thus, only the remaining 92 survivors of the 1,057 codes were cardiac cases for which CPR was appropriate (8.7% survival). Ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, promptly defibrillated, was the most important rhythm factor for survival. Underlying ischemic heart disease (acute myocardial infarction and chronic ischemic heart disease with arrhythmia) was the most common underlying disease entity among the survivors. CPR performed in the group of patients unlikely to survive was expensive.

  14. Neurodevelopmental Functioning in Very Young Children Undergoing Treatment for Non-CNS Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Scrimin, Sara; Putnick, Diane L.; Capello, Fabia; Haynes, O. Maurice; de Falco, Simona; Carli, Modesto; Pillon, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Objective We initiated a prospective study of very young children with cancer, in comparison with matched healthy children, to investigate neurodevelopmental consequences of non-CNS cancers and treatment. Methods A total of 61 children (≤42 months) with non-CNS cancers and 61 matched controls underwent an identical age-appropriate neuropsychological test battery. Results Children with cancer manifested deficits compared to healthy controls in motor, mental, and language development, but were similar to controls in cognitive representational abilities and emotional relationships in interaction with their mothers. Better physician-rated health status at diagnosis and mother-rated behavioral status 1 month prior to assessment were associated with better motor and mental performance in the cancer group. Conclusions This study identifies deficits as well as spared functions in children with non-CNS cancers; the results suggest ways parents and healthcare professionals may plan specific remediations to enhance quality of life in young cancer survivors. PMID:22300666

  15. Efficacy and safety of oral triclofos as sedative for children undergoing sleep electroencephalogram: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Puneet; Sharma, Suvasini; Sharma, Ankita; Goel, Shaiphali; Jose, Anjali; Aneja, Satinder

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Triclofos may be a better sedative in view of better palatability and less gastric irritation as compared to chloral hydrate. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of triclofos (a commonly used sedative in India) as a sedative for sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) study in children. Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care pediatric center. Consecutive children aged 6 months to 5 years referred for sleep EEG evaluation were recruited. Their clinical details were noted in a proforma after an informed consent. After a trial for natural sleep, oral triclofos was administered. Sleep parameters and adverse effects were noted. Results: One-hundred and sixty children were then enrolled. EEG was successfully recorded in 149 (93.1%) children. Median latency of sleep onset was 30 min and median duration of sleep was 90 min. The adverse effects in the following 24 h were mild and included dizziness, irritability, and vomiting. Conclusions: Oral triclofos was found to be an effective sedative for EEG in children with minimal adverse effects. PMID:27606015

  16. Procedural sedation and analgesia in children undergoing digestive endoscopic procedures – paediatrician or anaesthesiologist?

    PubMed Central

    Rosada-Kurasińska, Jowita; Ignyś, Iwona; Grześkowiak, Małgorzata; Zielińska, Marzena; Bienert, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic procedures of the gastrointestinal tract were successfully introduced into paediatric practice in the 1970s. Recent expansive development has become useful for improvement of both diagnosis and treatment in many children with gastrointestinal diseases. Most of these procedures are performed under procedural sedation (PSA) knowing anatomical, physiological and psychological differences and requiring good experience from the paediatrician and anaesthesiologist. These principles help to provide the procedure safely and minimise adverse events, which are greater the smaller the child is. Procedural sedation and analgesia in healthy children can be performed by a paediatrician, but children with congenital defects and serious coexisting diseases (ASA ≥ III) and also during the usage of anaesthetics (e.g. propofol), should be managed by an anaesthesiologist. PMID:25061486

  17. Cardiopulmonary Bypass Without Heparin.

    PubMed

    Rehfeldt, Kent H; Barbara, David W

    2016-03-01

    Due to familiarity, short half-life, ease of monitoring, and the availability of a reversal agent, heparin remains the anticoagulant of choice for cardiac operations requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, occasionally patients require CPB but should not receive heparin, most often because of acute or subacute heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). In these cases, if it is not feasible to wait for the disappearance of HIT antibodies, an alternative anticoagulant must be selected. A number of non-heparin anticoagulant options have been explored. However, current recommendations suggest the use of a direct thrombin inhibitor such as bivalirudin. This review describes the use of heparin alternatives for the conduct of CPB with a focus on the direct thrombin inhibitors.

  18. Perioperative opioid administration in children with and without developmental delay undergoing outpatient dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Conner, Erin R; Musser, Erica D; Colpitts, Kelsey M; Laochamroonvorapongse, Dean L; Koh, Jeffrey L

    2017-02-01

    Prior research has indicated that children with developmental delay (DD) experience qualitative and quantitative differences in health care (Boulet et al., 2009). In the perioperative setting, there is concern that children with DD may be more likely to experience postoperative complications including agitation and nausea/vomiting than typically developing patients (TDP). Differences in the administration and dosage of perioperative opioids may contribute to this, however, empirical investigations are lacking. The purpose of this research was to compare the experience of postoperative nausea/vomiting and agitation, as well as to examine perioperative opioid administration, among children with DD as compared to TDP. Retrospective original research. Operating room, postanesthesia care unit. 1145 patients (1-20.9years, ASA I-III, 23.9% with a history of DD) who had undergone outpatient dental surgery involving extraction/restorations under general anesthesia. Data was obtained and analyzed from the medical records of both DD and TDP across a five-year period. Data included the experience of agitation, nausea/vomiting, as well as perioperative medication administration. Postoperative agitation and nausea/vomiting did not differ significantly between the DD and TDP groups. Children with DD were significantly less likely to receive opioids during both the intra and postoperative period (χ(2)=10.02, p=0.001 and χ(2)=8.08, p=0.003, respectively). Further, higher dosage of intraoperative opioids was predictive of reduced administration of postoperative opioids among TDP; however, no significant association was observed between the dosage of intraoperative opioids and administration of postoperative opioids in the DD group. Children with DD experience similar rates of postoperative complications including nausea/vomiting and agitation as TDP. DD children were less likely to receive both intra and postoperative opioids than TDP. Importantly, while the dosage of

  19. Efficacy of oral ketamine compared to midazolam for sedation of children undergoing laceration repair

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Orit; Barkan, Shiri; Breitbart, Rachelle; Berkovitch, Sofia; Toledano, Michal; Weiser, Giora; Karadi, Natali; Nassi, Anat; Kozer, Eran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the efficacy of oral ketamine versus oral midazolam for sedation during laceration repair at a pediatric emergency department. Methods: Children between 1 and 10 years requiring laceration repair were randomly assigned to 2 groups, treated either with oral midazolam (0.7 mg/kg) or with oral ketamine (5 mg/kg). Main outcomes measured were level of pain during local anesthesia, as assessed by the parent on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the number of children who required intravenous sedation. Secondary outcomes included VAS by physician, pain assessment by child, maximal sedation depth assessed by the University of Michigan Sedation Scale, time until University of Michigan Sedation Scale 2 or more, general satisfaction of a parent and treating physician, length of procedure, total sedation time, and the incidence of any adverse events. Results: Sixty-eight children were recruited of which 33 were girls. Average age was 5.08 ± 2.14 years. Thirty-seven children were treated with ketamine and 31 with midazolam. Parent-assessed VAS in ketamine treated patients was 5.07 ± 0.75 compared with 3.68 ± 0.7 in midazolam treated patients [mean difference = 1.39 95% confidence interval (CI) –0.47 to 3.26]. Twelve (32%) of the children treated with ketamine required the addition of IV sedation compared to only 2 children (6%) of the children treated with midazolam [odds ratio (adjusted for age and gender) 6.1, 95% CI: 1.2 to 30.5]. The rest of the measured variables were similar between the groups, with no statistical significance. Discussion: No difference in the level of pain was found between ketamine and midazolam treated patients. Compared with oral midazolam (0.7 mg/kg), oral ketamine (5 mg/kg) was associated with higher rates of sedation failure, and thus is not recommended as a single agent for oral sedation in children requiring laceration repair. PMID:27368000

  20. [Characteristics of the clinical and immunologic safety of inactivated influenza vaccines in children undergoing multiple immunizations].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, R I; Merkur'eva, L A; Iatsenko, V G; Vasil'eva, A M; Shvager, M M

    1988-11-01

    In a strictly controlled epidemiological trial on 12,643 school children aged 11-14 years the reactogenic properties and safety of killed influenza chromatographic vaccine under the conditions of multiple immunization were studied. A single immunization dose of the vaccine (0.2 ml) contained the hemagglutinins of influenza viruses A/Philippines/82 (H3N3) and A/Kiev/59/79 (H1N1), 3.5 micrograms each. The preparation was introduced by means of a jet injector. The vaccine was shown to be clinically and immunologically safe under the conditions of the regular multiple immunization of children over the period of 4 years.

  1. A Stress Inoculation Program for Parents Whose Children Are Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    Compared program efficacy in helping parents cope with children's painful medical procedures. Parents (n=72) of pediatric leukemia patients participated in either stress inoculation program or observed child participating in cognitive behavior therapy. Found parents in stress inoculation program reported lower anxiety scores and higher positive…

  2. Primary and Secondary Control among Children Undergoing Medical Procedures: Adjustment as a Function of Coping Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Obtained reports of coping and goals from 33 children being treated for leukemia. Coping strategies were classified as primary control coping (attempts to alter objective conditions), secondary control coping (attempts to adjust to objective conditions), or relinquished control (no attempt to cope). Secondary control coping was positively…

  3. Recent New Drug Approvals, Part 2: Drugs Undergoing Active Clinical Studies in Children

    PubMed Central

    Chhim, Rebecca F.; Shelton, Chasity M.; Christensen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this 2-part review is to provide information about drugs that have been recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Part 1 reviewed recently approved drugs with pediatric indications. Part 2 reviews drugs recently approved only in adults and have published or ongoing studies in children. PMID:23616733

  4. Medical Clowns and Cortisol levels in Children Undergoing Venipuncture in the Emergency Department: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rimon, Ayelet; Shalom, Shelly; Wolyniez, Ido; Gruber, Alejandro; Schachter-Davidov, Anita; Glatstein, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Medical clowns are increasingly used for diminishing pain and anxiety during painful procedures being performed on children in the hospital setting. Cortisol levels rise as a response to emotional distress. To investigate whether medical clown-assisted interventions to reduce child's distress during venipuncture have an effect on cortisol levels. During a 1 year period, children requiring blood work or intravenous access in the pediatric emergency department were prospectively randomized to either the presence or absence of a medical clown during the procedure. The child's distress was evaluated using the Faces Pain Scale - revised (FPS-R) for the 4-7 year age group and the visual analog scales (VAS) for those aged 8-15 years. Serum cortisol levels were measured in blood samples obtained by venipuncture. Fifty-three children aged 2-15 years were randomly assigned to the study group (with medical clown, n=29) or to the control group (without medical clown, n=24). Combined pain scores of the study group and control group were 2.2 and 7.5 respectively (P < 0.001). No difference in mean cortisol levels was found between the study group and the control group at all ages (16.4 µg/dl vs. 18.3 µg/dl, P = 0.65). In this pilot study, medical clowns reduced the distress from venipuncture in children. No effect on cortisol levels was observed.

  5. A Stress Inoculation Program for Parents Whose Children Are Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    Compared program efficacy in helping parents cope with children's painful medical procedures. Parents (n=72) of pediatric leukemia patients participated in either stress inoculation program or observed child participating in cognitive behavior therapy. Found parents in stress inoculation program reported lower anxiety scores and higher positive…

  6. Primary and Secondary Control among Children Undergoing Medical Procedures: Adjustment as a Function of Coping Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Obtained reports of coping and goals from 33 children being treated for leukemia. Coping strategies were classified as primary control coping (attempts to alter objective conditions), secondary control coping (attempts to adjust to objective conditions), or relinquished control (no attempt to cope). Secondary control coping was positively…

  7. Continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure monitoring reflects intra-arterial pressure changes in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Hofhuizen, C M; Lemson, J; Hemelaar, A E A; Settels, J J; Schraa, O; Singh, S K; van der Hoeven, J G; Scheffer, G J

    2010-10-01

    Continuous non-invasive measurement of finger arterial pressure (FAP) is a reliable technology in adults. FAP is measured with an inflatable cuff around the finger and simultaneously converted to a reconstructed brachial artery pressure waveform (reBAP) by the Nexfin™ device. We assessed the adequacy of a prototype device (Nexfin-paediatric), designed for a paediatric population, for detecting rapid arterial pressure changes in children during cardiac surgery. Thirteen anaesthetized children with a median age of 11 months (2 months-7 yr) undergoing congenital cardiac surgery were included in the study. reBAP and intra-arterial pressure (IAP) were recorded simultaneously during the surgical procedure. To assess the accuracy of reBAP in tracking arterial pressure changes, the four largest IAP variations within a 5 min time interval were identified from each procedure. These variations were compared offline with reBAP during a 10 s control period before and a 10 s period after an arterial pressure change had occurred. In 10 out of 13 children, a non-invasive arterial pressure recording could be obtained. Therefore, recordings from these 10 children were eligible for further analysis, resulting in 40 data points. The correlation coefficient between reBAP and IAP in tracking mean arterial pressure (MAP) changes was 0.98. reBAP followed changes in IAP with a mean bias for systolic, diastolic arterial pressure, and MAP of 0.0 mm Hg (sd 5.8), 0.1 (sd 2.8), and 0.19 (sd 2.7), respectively. The prototype device closely follows arterial pressure changes in children. However, in a considerable number of attempts, obtaining a signal was time-consuming or unsuccessful. This technique seems promising but requires further technical development.

  8. Multidrug intravenous anesthesia for children undergoing MRI: a comparison with general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Shorrab, Ahmed A; Demian, Atef D; Atallah, Mohamed M

    2007-12-01

    We used a multidrug intravenous anesthesia regimen with midazolam, ketamine, and propofol to provide anesthesia for children during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This regimen was compared with general anesthesia in a randomized comparative study. Outcome measures were safety, side effects and recovery variables in addition to adverse events in relation to age strata. The children received either general anesthesia with propofol, vecuronium and isoflurane [general endotracheal anesthesia (GET) group; n=313] or intravenous anesthesia with midazolam, ketamine, and propofol [intravenous anesthesia (MKP) group; n=342]. Treatment assignment was randomized based on the date of the MRI. Physiological parameters were monitored during anesthesia and recovery. Desaturation (SpO2<93%), airway problems, and the need to repeat the scan were recorded. The discharge criteria were stable vital signs, return to baseline consciousness, absence of any side effects, and ability to ambulate. With the exception of two children (0.6%) in the MKP group, all enrolled children completed the scan. A significantly greater number (2.3%) required a repeat scan in the MKP group (P<0.05) and were sedated with a bolus dose of propofol. The total incidence of side effects was comparable between the MKP (7.7%) and GET groups (7.0%). Infants below the age of 1 year showed a significantly higher incidence of adverse events compared with the other age strata within each group. Within the MKP group, risk ratio was 0.40 and 0.26 when comparing infants aged below 1 year with the two older age strata, respectively. Recovery characteristics were comparable between both groups. Intravenous midazolam, ketamine and propofol provides safe and adequate anesthesia, comparable with that obtained from general endotracheal anesthesia, for most children during MRI.

  9. Features of lateral cephalograms associated with difficult laryngoscopy in Japanese children undergoing oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Kohjitani, Atsushi; Miyawaki, Takuya; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Nakamura, Norifumi; Iwase, Yoko; Nishihara, Kazuhide; Ohno, Sachi; Shimada, Masahiko; Sugiyama, Kazuna

    2013-11-01

    Difficult laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are occasionally encountered in children with congenital anomalies or micrognathia. However, no study has elucidated anatomical etiology in relation to craniofacial development. Two hundred ten patients aged 8 months-18 years were analyzed. We analyzed the lateral cephalograms of: (i) eight patients in whom laryngoscopy was anticipated as difficult before anesthesia and who were unable to be intubated by direct laryngoscopy and needed fiberoptic bronchoscopy (group A); (ii) 11 patients in whom laryngoscopy was anticipated as difficult before anesthesia but who were able to be intubated by direct laryngoscopy (group B); and (iii) 191 patients in whom laryngoscopy was anticipated as easy before anesthesia and was actually found to be easy (group C). Eight cephalometric parameters were measured and age-parameter relationships were plotted. Logistic regression analysis was performed to characterize group A children for each of the cephalometric variables. Apparently insufficient growth of the mandible was observed in the group A children. Furthermore, the group A children of aged <4 years had undeveloped maxilla, longer mandibular plane-hyoid distances (≥1.3 cm), and deeper depth of the oropharynx; those of aged ≥4 years showed increased inclination of the mandible (sella-nasion plane to mandibular plane angle of ≥46.5°). Difficult laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are expected in children aged <4 years with lower-positioned hyoid bone caused by caudal larynx as well as undeveloped maxilla and mandible, and in those aged ≥4 years with increased inclination of the mandible as well as undeveloped mandible. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dental pulp therapy for primary teeth in children undergoing cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Halperson, Elinor; Moss, Dinna; Tickotsky, Nili; Weintraub, Michael; Moskovitz, Moti

    2014-12-01

    Childhood cancer treatment negatively affects the immune system, increasing the risk for bacteremia and septicemia. As the oral cavity is a major entry portal for pathogens into the bloodstream dental care in such children tends to be radical, favouring tooth extraction over less drastic treatments such as pulpotomy, the amputation of infected dental pulp. The present study aimed to compare pulpotomy treatment success rate in children with cancer receiving immunosuppressive therapy with that of healthy children, and investigate if unsuccessful pulpotomy treatment in oncologic patients may lead to systemic complications. Twenty-six medical records of children from a paediatric oncology referral centre who had dental pulpotomy treatment (in 41 teeth) while receiving active cancer care during the years 2006-2012 were compared with records of 41 randomly selected healthy children who had undergone pulpotomy treatment (41 teeth) in the same institute during these years. Clinical and radiographic data were collected during treatments and at the end of the follow-up period (six months post dental treatment). No statisticaly significant difference was found between pulpotomy success rate amongst the two groups. Treatments success rates in the study and control groups were 82.9% (± 5.9) and 90.2% (± 4.7), respectively. No patient in the study group suffered from sepsis from a dental origin during follow-up period. Pulpotomy in paediatric cancer patients did not increase the risk for bacteremia or systemic complications from oral origin. We therefore recommend the re-evaluation of the current protocol for treating paediatric oncology patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Polysomnographic values in children undergoing puberty: pediatric vs. adult respiratory rules in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Ignacio E; Karamessinis, Laurie; Bandla, Preetam; Huang, Jingtao; Kelly, Andrea; Pepe, Michelle; Schultz, Brian; Gallagher, Paul; Brooks, Lee J; Marcus, Carole L

    2008-12-01

    Polysomnographic respiratory events in children should be scored using pediatric respiratory rules. However, due to a lack of data on adolescents, recently revised rules allow children aged 13-18 years to be scored by adult or pediatric criteria. To clarify which criteria to use, we describe the evolution of respiratory events with Tanner stage, and we compare events in children aged 13-18 years with the new American Academy of Sleep Medicine adult and pediatric respiratory rules. Cross-sectional Academic hospital Healthy subjects aged 8-18 years recruited for research purposes. Physical examination to determine Tanner stage, overnight polysomnogram, and determination of sex hormones. Sixty-eight subjects (Tanner 1-5) were studied, mean age [SD] = 13 +/- 3 years, median apnea hypopnea index (AHI)= 0.1 (range: 0-1.2)/h. The median percentages of total sleep time (TST) with SpO2 < 92% were 0.1 (0-4.2)%, and with end-tidal CO2 > 50 torr was 0.1 (0-88.6)%. Thirty-two subjects were aged 13-18 years, (Tanner 3-5). The difference between AHI scored by pediatric (median = 0 [0-0.9]/h) and adult (median = 0 [0 - 0.5]/h) criteria was statistically significant (P = 0.043), but not clinically relevant. Respiratory events in normal children aged 8-18 years are rare and unrelated to Tanner stage. Adult or pediatric respiratory rules can be used for scoring polysomnograms in asymptomatic subjects approaching adulthood. Further studies are needed in symptomatic children within this age group.

  12. Retrospective cohort investigation of perioperative upper respiratory events in children undergoing general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway

    PubMed Central

    No, Hyun-Joung; Koo, Bon-Wook; Oh, Ah-Young; Seo, Kwang-Suk; Na, Hyo-Seok; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Lee, Soo-Won

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Desflurane is the most pungent of the currently used volatile anesthetics. We assessed whether the incidence of perioperative upper respiratory events in children undergoing general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway is higher with desflurane than with sevoflurane as maintenance anesthetic. We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed the electronic medical records of consecutive children 1 to 15 years of age who underwent general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between June 2013 and June 2015. The patients were assigned to the sevoflurane or desflurane group according to the anesthetic used. The characteristics of the patients were compared. The primary outcome variable was the incidence of upper respiratory events. The incidence of upper respiratory events in the 3439 evaluated patients was 0.43% (12/2777) in the sevoflurane group and 0.30% (2/662) in the desflurane group (P = 0.75; odds ratio = 0.69 [95% confidence interval = 0.16–3.13]). The difference between the 2 groups was not significant. Compared with sevoflurane, desflurane does not increase the risk of perioperative upper respiratory events in children receiving general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway. PMID:27428242

  13. [Frequency of postoperative fever in children with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiovascular surgery and associated risk factors].

    PubMed

    Villasís-Keever, Miguel A; Zapata-Arenas, Delia M; Penagos-Paniagua, Martín J

    2002-10-01

    To determine the frequency of postoperative fever in children with congenital heart disease who undergo cardiovascular surgery, and the risk factors associated. In a prospective cohort study, 100 children under the age of less than 9 years were followed-up during hospitalization in order to detect fever after cardiac surgery. Preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative variables were assessed to determine their relationship with postoperative fever. The cases were patients who developed fever. Multivariate analysis was used, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. The frequency of postoperative fever was 46%. Fever appeared within 24 hours of surgery in 56% cases. In 32/46 (70%) cases, fever remitted within 72 hours. Fever was more common in patients who underwent open-heart surgery than in those treated with a closed technique (28 vs. 18, P = 0.045). Prolonged extracorporeal circulation (OR = 1.024; 95% CI, 1.004-1.045), aortic cross-clamping (OR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.21-6.61) and postoperative infections (OR = 24.07; 95% CI, 7.2-75.0) were the risk factors associated with the development of postoperative fever. Postoperative fever is common in children with congenital heart disease. The identification of risk factors associated to the development of fever should help clinicians to identify the cause of fever in this group of patients.

  14. Music therapy to reduce pain and anxiety in children with cancer undergoing lumbar puncture: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Nhan; Nilsson, Stefan; Hellström, Anna-Lena; Bengtson, Ann

    2010-01-01

    A nonpharmacological method can be an alternative or complement to analgesics.The aim of this study was to evaluate if music medicine influences pain and anxiety in children undergoing lumbar punctures. A randomized clinical trial was used in 40 children (aged 7-12 years) with leukemia, followed by interviews in 20 of these participants. The participants were randomly assigned to a music group (n = 20) or control group (n = 20). The primary outcome was pain scores and the secondary was heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation measured before, during, and after the procedure. Anxiety scores were measured before and after the procedure. Interviews with open-ended questions were conducted in conjunction with the completed procedures. The results showed lower pain scores and heart and respiratory rates in the music group during and after the lumbar puncture. The anxiety scores were lower in the music group both before and after the procedure. The findings from the interviews confirmed the quantity results through descriptions of a positive experience by the children, including less pain and fear.

  15. Effects of preoperative local ropivacaine infiltration on postoperative pain scores in infants and small children undergoing elective cleft palate repair.

    PubMed

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan; Senoglu, Nimet; Oksuz, Hafize

    2008-09-01

    Previous data have shown that preoperative analgesia may reduce postoperative analgesic demands. The aim of the current study was to determine if preincisional ropivacaine infiltration may reduce postoperative oral pain in infants and small children undergoing elective cleft palate patients.Twenty nonsyndromic cleft palate patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Injection with ropivacaine hydrochloride, at dose of 0.2 mg/kg, was performed by submucous infiltration of the proposed incisional site groups of patients. In control group, no medication was given before cleft palate repair under general anesthesia. Postoperative pain scores were measured according to Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale. Heart rate recordings and noninvasive blood pressure measurements were also done in all the patients.Measurements of Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale scores at all the observational postoperative periods showed significantly favorable values in ropivacaine group than in control group (P < 0.05). Six patients in the control group required rescue analgesia, whereas 2 patients required analgesic therapy in the treatment group.Preemptive analgesia using ropivacaine may enhance early postoperative comfort by reducing early postoperative pain in primary cleft repair.

  16. The "weekend effect" in pediatric surgery - increased mortality for children undergoing urgent surgery during the weekend.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Seth D; Papandria, Dominic J; Aboagye, Jonathan; Salazar, Jose H; Van Arendonk, Kyle; Al-Omar, Khaled; Ortega, Gezzer; Sacco Casamassima, Maria Grazia; Abdullah, Fizan

    2014-07-01

    For a number of pediatric and adult conditions, morbidity and mortality are increased when patients present to the hospital on a weekend compared to weekdays. The objective of this study was to compare pediatric surgical outcomes following weekend versus weekday procedures. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the Kids' Inpatient Database, we identified 439,457 pediatric (<18 years old) admissions from 1988 to 2010 that required a selected index surgical procedure (abscess drainage, appendectomy, inguinal hernia repair, open fracture reduction with internal fixation, or placement/revision of ventricular shunt) on the same day of admission. Outcome metrics were compared using logistic regression models that adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics as well as procedure performed. Patient characteristics of those admitted on the weekend (n=112,064) and weekday (n=327,393) were similar, though patients admitted on the weekend were more likely to be coded as emergent (61% versus 53%). After multivariate adjustment and regression, patients undergoing a weekend procedure were more likely to die (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.21-2.20), receive a blood transfusion despite similar rates of intraoperative hemorrhage (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.26), and suffer from procedural complications (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.14-1.74). Pediatric patients undergoing common urgent surgical procedures during a weekend admission have a higher adjusted risk of death, blood transfusion, and procedural complications. While the exact etiology of these findings is not clear, the timing of surgical procedures should be considered in the context of systems-based deficiencies that may be detrimental to pediatric surgical care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Coagulative Profile of Cyanotic Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: The Role of Whole Blood Preoperative Thromboelastometry on Postoperative Transfusion Requirement.

    PubMed

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Spiezia, Luca; Bortolussi, Giacomo; Marchetti, Marta E; Campello, Elena; Pittarello, Demetrio; Gregori, Dario; Stellin, Giovanni; Simioni, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the preoperative coagulation pattern and its association to postoperative blood products transfusion in children with congenital heart disease (CHD), focusing on cyanotic patients (oxygen saturation, SATO 2  < 85%). From January to August 2014, preoperative standard coagulation tests and rotational thromboelastometry assays were performed on 81 pediatric patients (<16 years old) who underwent surgery for CHD with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty patients (74%) were acyanotic and 21 (26%) cyanotic. Mean age at time of surgery was 7.9 months (interquartile range 2.9-43.6 months). Cyanotic patients had a significantly higher hematocrit (P < 0.001), a reduced prothrombin activity (PT) (P = 0.01) level, and a lower platelet count (P = 0.02) than acyanotic patients. An inverse linear association was found between patient's SATO2 and clot formation time (CFT) (INTEM, P = 0.001, and EXTEM, P < 0.0001). A direct linear association was found between patient's SATO2 and maximum clot firmness (MCF) (INTEM, P = 0.04, and EXTEM, P = 0.05). Preoperative cyanosis was also associated with a lower median MCF in FIBTEM (P = 0.02). Cyanotic patients required more frequent postoperative transfusions of fibrinogen (7/21 patients, 33% vs. 4/60 patients, 6.7%, P = 0.01) and fresh frozen plasma (14/21, 67% vs. 25/60, 42%, P = 0.08). Patients with a lower presurgery PT and platelet count subsequently required more fibrinogen transfusion P = 0.02 and P = 0.003, respectively); the same goes for patients with a longer CFT (INTEM, P = 0.01 and EXTEM, P = 0.03) and a reduced MCF (INTEM, P = 0.02 and FIBTEM, P = 0.01) as well. Cyanotic patients showed significant preoperative coagulation anomalies and required a higher postoperative fibrinogen supplementation. The preoperative MCF FIBTEM has become an important factor in our postoperative thromboelastometry-guided transfusion

  18. The effects of general anesthesia legislation on operating room visits by preschool children undergoing dental treatment.

    PubMed

    White, Halley R; Lee, Jessica Y; Rozier, R Gary

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of state-level general anesthesia (GA) legislation on operating room visits for the treatment of dental caries on preschool-aged children. The North Carolina Ambulatory Surgery Discharge Database was used to observe GA visits for fiscal years (FY) 1997 to 2001. A pretest/post-test design with concurrent comparison groups was used for 2 analyses: (1) all children treated for dental caries were compared to those treated for otitis media; and (2) those whose treatment for dental caries was reimbursed by Medicaid were compared to those whose treatment for dental caries was not reimbursed by Medicaid. In the prelegislation period (FY 1997 and 1998), there were 3,857 GA visits for dental core and 21,038 for otitis media. Postlegislation (FY 2000 and 2001) dental visits increased to 5,511(43%), and otitis media visits increased to 22,279 (6%)-a statistically significant difference (P<.05). Before the legislation, there were 1,370 non-Medicaid dental visits and 2,487 Medicaid dental visits. Non-Medicaid and Medicaid dental visits postlegislation increased to 2,195 (60%) and 3,316 (33%), respectively. This difference was significant (P<.05). General anesthesia legislation resulted in an increase in access to care for children needing dental care in North Carolina.

  19. Ambulatory anesthetic care in children undergoing myringotomy and tube placement: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Hal; Engelhardt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Myringotomy and tube placement is one of the most frequently performed ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeries in the pediatric population. Effective anesthetic management is vital to ensuring successful ambulatory care and ensuring child and parental satisfaction. Recent findings This review summarizes recently published studies about the long-term effects of general anesthesia in young children, novel approaches to preoperative fasting and simplified approaches to the assessment and management of emergence delirium (ED) and emergence agitation (EA). New developments in perioperative ambulatory care, including management of comorbidities and day care unit logistics, are discussed. Summary Long-term follow-up of children exposed to general anesthesia before the age of 4 years has limited impact on academic achievement or cognitive performance and should not delay the treatment of common ENT pathology, which can impair speech and language development. A more liberal approach to fasting, employing a 6–4–0 regime allowing children fluids up until theater, may become an accepted practice in future. ED and EA should be discriminated from pain in recovery and, where the child is at risk of harm, should be treated promptly. Postoperative pain at home remains problematic in ambulatory surgery and better parental education is needed. Effective ambulatory care ultimately requires a well-coordinated team approach from effective preassessment to postoperative follow-up. PMID:28458577

  20. Incidence and endoscopic characteristics of acute laryngeal lesions in children undergoing endotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Eliandra da Silveira; de Oliveira, Maíra Alves Braga; Barone, Carolina Rocha; Dias, Kharina Mayara Moreira; de Rossi, Samanta Daiana; Schweiger, Claudia; Manica, Denise; Enéas, Larissa Valency; Saleh Netto, Catia de Souza; Kuhl, Gabriel; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Antonacci; Marostica, Paulo Jose Cauduro

    2016-01-01

    Acute laryngeal lesions after intubation appear to be precursors of chronic lesions. To describe the incidence and type of acute laryngeal lesions after extubation in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). A cohort study involving children from birth to <5 years, submitted to intubation for more than 24h in the PICU of an university hospital. In the first eight hours after extubation, a flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy (FFL) was performed at the bedside. Those with moderate to severe abnormalities underwent a second examination seven to ten days later. 177 patients were included, with a median age of 2.46 months. The mean intubation time was 8.19 days. Seventy-three (41.2%) patients had moderate or severe alterations at the FFL, with the remaining showing only minor alterations or normal results. During follow-up, 16 children from the group with moderate to severe lesions developed subglottic stenosis. One patient from the normal FFL group had subglottic stenosis, resulting in an incidence of 9.6% of chronic lesions. Most children in the study developed mild acute laryngeal lesions caused by endotracheal intubation, which improved in a few days after extubation. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Ambulatory anesthetic care in children undergoing myringotomy and tube placement: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Hal; Engelhardt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Myringotomy and tube placement is one of the most frequently performed ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeries in the pediatric population. Effective anesthetic management is vital to ensuring successful ambulatory care and ensuring child and parental satisfaction. This review summarizes recently published studies about the long-term effects of general anesthesia in young children, novel approaches to preoperative fasting and simplified approaches to the assessment and management of emergence delirium (ED) and emergence agitation (EA). New developments in perioperative ambulatory care, including management of comorbidities and day care unit logistics, are discussed. Long-term follow-up of children exposed to general anesthesia before the age of 4 years has limited impact on academic achievement or cognitive performance and should not delay the treatment of common ENT pathology, which can impair speech and language development. A more liberal approach to fasting, employing a 6-4-0 regime allowing children fluids up until theater, may become an accepted practice in future. ED and EA should be discriminated from pain in recovery and, where the child is at risk of harm, should be treated promptly. Postoperative pain at home remains problematic in ambulatory surgery and better parental education is needed. Effective ambulatory care ultimately requires a well-coordinated team approach from effective preassessment to postoperative follow-up.

  2. Short-Term Changes in Postoperative Cognitive Function in Children Aged 5 to 12 Years Undergoing General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Aun, Cindy S.T.; McBride, Catherine; Lee, Anna; Lau, Angel S.C.; Chung, Raymond C.K.; Yeung, Chung Kwong; Lai, Kelly Y.C.; Gin, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Due to the neurotoxicity effects of general anesthesia (GA) and sedatives found in animal studies, there is a general recommendation to avoid nonurgent surgical procedures requiring anesthesia in children younger than 3 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of anesthesia-related postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) on the first day (Day 1) and at 6 weeks after elective noncardiac surgery in school-age children. This was a prospective cohort study of 118 children undergoing GA and 126 age-matched controls of school children aged 5 to 12 years. All children were given a panel of 4 neuropsychological assessments (Hong Kong List Learning for verbal memory, Visual Matching for processing speed, Visual Memory, and General Comprehension Skill from the Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD on Day 1 and at 6 weeks after surgery. POCD was defined as when at least 2 of the 4 cognitive function tests showed individual Z-scores ≤−1.96 or a combined Z-score ≤−1.96. Using the combined Z-score definition, the incidence of POCD in the GA group on Day 1 and at 6 weeks were 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1–10.3) and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.1–8.0), respectively. No POCD was found using the other definition. The incidences of decline and improvement in neuropsychological tests were similar between groups over time except for a higher risk in visual matching impairment in the anesthesia group (11.9%) versus control group (1.6%) on Day 1 (P < 0.01). The adjusted relative risk ratio of postoperative cognitive decline to improvement between groups on Day 1 and at 6 weeks were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.10–7.05) and 0.45 (95% CI: 0.04–4.84), respectively. The observed risk of POCD is assumed to apply to current drugs and techniques used in GA. In conclusion, the incidence of POCD was low. GA was associated with a transient effect on visual matching. When using the widely accepted

  3. Randomised, cross-over comparison of sevoflurane and ketamine-midazolam anaesthesia in children undergoing extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Kocabas, Seden; Ugur, Gulden; Erhan, Elvan; Ozyar, Bulent; Nazli, Oktay

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the haemodynamic responses, adverse events and recovery characteristics associated with sevoflurane and ketamine-midazolam anaesthesia for paediatric extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. Twenty children aged 2-11 years, who were undergoing two consecutive lithotripsy sessions at an interval of 4 weeks were enrolled and randomised to receive either inhalation or dissociative anaesthesia at their first session. The alternative anaesthesia protocol was used at their second session. Inhalation anaesthesia was induced with 8% sevoflurane and 70% N(2)O in oxygen; 10 microg/kg atropine and 2 microg/kg fentanyl were then administered. Anaesthesia was maintained with 2%-3% end-tidal sevoflurane and 70% N(2)O in oxygen via a laryngeal mask airway. Dissociative anaesthesia was induced intravenously with 10 mug/kg atropine, 0.05 mg/kg midazolam, 1.5 mg/kg ketamine and maintained with 0.5-1.0 mg/kg ketamine. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded before and after induction, after the start of the procedure, and every 10 minutes thereafter. Postoperatively, the times to responding to command, sitting, ambulating, achieving an Aldrete score > or = 9, and achieving a post-anaesthetic discharge score > or = 9 were recorded. Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures at all measurements throughout the procedure were higher with ketamine-midazolam than with sevoflurane (P<0.05). Heart rates were comparable between groups, except after induction and after start of the procedure in which they were higher with ketamine-midazolam (P<0.05). All recovery endpoints were achieved earlier with sevoflurane than with ketamine-midazolam (P<0.05). Nausea-vomiting incidences were similar in both groups. Sevoflurane and ketamine-midazolam both provided effective anaesthesia for paediatric lithotripsy. The recovery and discharge times were shorter after anaesthesia with sevoflurane compared with ketamine-midazolam in children undergoing lithotripsy.

  4. The safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy: A retrospective dose-finding trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Wang, Xue; Jin, Shuguang; Zhang, Dongsheng; Li, Yanuo

    2017-03-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy is more and more used for diagnosis and management of various pulmonary diseases in pediatrics. As poor coordination of children, the procedure is usually performed under general anesthesia with spontaneous or controlled ventilation to increase children and bronchoscopists' safety and comfort. Previous studies have reported that dexmedetomidine (DEX) could be safely and effectively used for flexible bronchoscopy in both adulate and children. However, there is no trial to evaluate the dose-finding of safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil (DEX-RF) in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy.The objective of this study is to evaluate the dose-finding of safety and efficacy of DEX-RF in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy.One hundred thirty-five children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy with DEX-RF were divided into 3 groups: Group DR1 (n = 47, DEX infusion at 0.5 μg·kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5-0.7 μg kg h; RF infusion at 0.5 μg kg for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05-0.2 μg kg min), Group DR2 (n = 43, DEX infusion at 1 μg kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5-0.7 μg kg h; RF infusion at 1 μg kg for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05-0.2 μg kg min), Group DR3 (n = 45, DEX infusion at 1.5 μg kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5-0.7 μg kg h; RF infusion at 1 μg kg for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05-0.2 μg kg min). Ramsay sedation scale of the 3 groups was maintained 3. Anesthesia onset time, total number of intraoperative children movements, hemodynamics (heart rate, arterial pressure, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), respiratory rate), total cumulative dose of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil, the amount of midazolam and lidocaine, time to first dose of rescue midazolam and lidocaine, postoperative recovery time, adverse events, bronchoscopist satisfaction score were recorded.Anesthesia onset time was significantly shorter in DR3 group (14.23 ± 5

  5. Perioperative monitoring of total body water by bio-electrical impedance in children undergoing open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Maehara, T; Novak, I; Wyse, R K; Elliot, M J

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge of the changes in total body water (TBW) following cardiac surgery (OHS) in children would be of value in fluid therapy and in researching the causes and management of capillary leak. We have validated a bioelectrical impedance technique (BEI) for non-invasive estimation of TBW in children after OHS. We report the use of this method in a longitudinal study. Twenty patients (mean age 4.7 years +/- 3.5 (SD), mean weight (WT) 16.2 kg +/- 1 kg) undergoing a variety of complex OHS procedures were studied from 1 day preoperatively to 4 days postoperatively. Anaesthetic and basic bypass (CPB) techniques were uniform. Six patients underwent CPB at less than 20 degrees C, 10 at 20 degrees - 25 degrees C and 4 at 26 degrees - 33 degrees C. TBW (BEI), core (ctemp) and peripheral (ptemp) temperatures and fluid balance (TFB) were recorded at frequent intervals. TBW (by BEI) rose (P less than 0.001) following CPB in all patients from 62% +/- 9% (SD) body weight preoperatively to 73% +/- 13% in the ICU (an increase of 11% +/- 5%). TBW remained significantly elevated until the 3rd postoperative day. Multivariate analysis (MVA) confirmed that TBW was significantly related to TFB, but not to ctemp or ptemp. MVA also revealed smaller patient size (height and weight), younger age and longer CPB time as incremental risk factors for the rise in TBW. (1) BEI permits the non-invasive study of TBW in children after OHS, when TBW variation may be considerable. (2) The smaller the child and the longer the CPB, the greater the rise in TBW. (3) The technique should be a valuable tool in researching the major water fluxes associated with CPB in children.

  6. The effect of ketamine on the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy under sevoflurane general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon Sook; Kim, Woon Young; Choi, Jae Ho; Son, Joo Hyung; Kim, Jae Hwan; Park, Young Cheol

    2010-05-01

    The rapid emergence and recovery from general anesthesia afforded by sevoflurane is associated with a high incidence of emergence agitation in children. Small doses of ketamine reduce the incidence of emergence agitation. This study compared the effects of ketamine 0.25 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg on emergence agitation and postoperative pain. The effects of added intravenous ketamine were evaluated in 93 children, ASA I-II, 2-14 years old, undergoing an adenotonsillectomy. The patients were allocated randomly to one of three groups receiving saline (group C), ketamine 0.25 mg/kg (group K0.25) or ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (group K0.5). The children in each group were administered the study drugs 10 minutes before the end of surgery. The recovery characteristics, including the time to extubation, delivery time from the PACU, postoperative nausea and vomiting, agitation and pain were assessed. There were no significant differences in the extubation time, delivery time and postoperative nausea and vomiting between the three groups. There were significant differences in modified CHEOPS (Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale) between the three groups. The incidence of emergence agitation was low in the K0.25 and K0.5 groups compared to the control group. However, there was no significant difference between the K0.25 and K0.5 groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of emergence agitation between K0.25 and K0.5 groups. However, K0.5 group showed a lower pain score than K0.25 group.

  7. Sevoflurane-emergence agitation: effect of supplementary low-dose oral ketamine premedication in preschool children undergoing dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Ahmed M; El-Seify, Zeinab A; Shaaban, Ashraf; Radojevic, Dobrila; Jankovic, Ivanka

    2010-04-01

    The use of sevoflurane in paediatric anaesthesia which could enable rapid recovery is complicated by the frequent occurrence of emergence agitation. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of supplementing midazolam-based oral premedication with low-dose oral ketamine in reducing sevoflurane-related emergence agitation. Ninety-two healthy preschool children who have been scheduled for elective dental procedures under general anaesthesia were allocated into two groups (46 patients for each): group M received oral midazolam 0.5 mg kg(-1), whereas group KM received similar premedication in addition to ketamine 2 mg kg(-1). Acceptance of drug mixture and onset of action were monitored over the next 30 min. Induction of anaesthesia was carried out using sevoflurane 8 vol% in 100% oxygen via face mask. Anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 1.5-2 vol% in oxygen-nitrous oxide mixture. Following extubation, standard scoring scale was used for assessing quality of emergence. Agitation parameters were measured using a five-point scale. Agitated children were managed by giving intravenous increments of fentanyl 1 microg kg(-1). The time of hospital discharge allowance was recorded. Vast majority of children accepted the premedication. There were no significant differences between both groups regarding recovery from sevoflurane and allowance of hospital discharge. Onset of action of premedication was shorter in group KM. Similarly, postoperative agitation score and rescue fentanyl consumption were markedly lower in group KM upon admission to the postanaesthesia care unit (P<0.01). Adding a low dose of oral ketamine to midazolam-based oral premedication in preschool children undergoing dental surgery reduced emergence agitation without delaying hospital discharge.

  8. Influence of Tonsillar Size on OSA Improvement in Children Undergoing Adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Alice; Benke, James R; Cohen, Aliza P; Ishman, Stacey L

    2015-08-01

    To determine if pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) improves after adenotonsillectomy (AT) regardless of tonsil size. Case series with chart review. Pediatric Otolaryngology Department, Johns Hopkins Hospital. Seventy children 1 to 18 years of age who underwent polysomnography (PSG) before and after AT. Tonsil size was evaluated using the Brodsky grading scale. Children were stratified by tonsil size as 2+ (n = 20), 3+ (n = 36), and 4+ (n = 14). There was a significant improvement in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI), apnea index (AI), and saturation nadir across all 3 groups after AT. Preoperative oAHI, AI, and hypopnea index (HI) were similar regardless of tonsil size (P > .05). Overall, oAHI improved from a median of 11.8 ± 21.7 to 2.0 ± 6.1 events/h, with 40% (28/70) of children having complete resolution. The oAHI (P < .0001-0.02), AI (P < .0001-0.017), HI (P < .0001-0.058), and saturation nadir (P < .0001-0.017) significantly improved for the 2+, 3+, and 4+ groups. Only the HI (P = .058) in the 2+ group did not. The median oAHI improvement was 3.4 ± 26.4 events/h in the 2+ group, 8.3 ± 16.6 events/h in the 3+ group, and 12.3 ± 19.5 events/h in the 4+ group, with 25% (5/20), 50% (18/36), and 36% (5/14), respectively, having complete resolution. There was no correlation between OSA severity and tonsil or adenoid size (P > .32). Tonsil size did not correlate with OSA severity. While a larger proportion of patients classified as 3+ and 4+ had complete resolution after surgery, significant improvement was seen in AI and saturation nadir even in those classified as 2+. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  9. Utility of sedation for young children undergoing dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scans.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Nader; Hoberman, Alejandro; Keren, Ron; Ivanova, Anastasia; Ziessman, Harvey A; Cui, Gang; Mattoo, Tej K; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Nadkarni, Milan D; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Primack, William A

    2016-10-01

    No studies have examined whether use of sedation during a Tc-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan reduces patient discomfort. To compare discomfort level during a DMSA scan to the discomfort level during other frequently performed uroradiologic tests, and to determine whether use of sedation during a DMSA scan modifies the level of discomfort. We examined the discomfort level in 798 children enrolled in the Randomized Intervention for children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) and Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation (CUTIE) studies by asking parents to rate their child's discomfort level with each procedure on a scale from 0 to 10. We compared discomfort during the DMSA scan and the DMSA image quality between centers in which sedation was used >90% of the time (sedation centers), centers in which sedation was used <10% of the time (non-sedation centers), and centers in which sedation was used on a case-by-case basis (selective centers). Mean discomfort level was highest for voiding cystourethrogram (6.4), followed by DMSA (4.0), followed by ultrasound (2.4; P<0.0001). Mean discomfort level during the DMSA scan was significantly higher at non-sedation centers than at selective centers (P<0.001). No difference was apparent in discomfort level during the DMSA scan between sedation centers and selective centers (P=0.12), or between the sedation centers and non-sedation centers (P=0.80). There were no differences in the proportion with uninterpretable DMSA scans according to sedation use. Selective use of sedation in children 12-36 months of age can reduce the discomfort level experienced during a DMSA scan.

  10. Intraocular pressures after ketamine and sevoflurane in children with glaucoma undergoing examination under anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Jones, L; Sung, V; Lascaratos, G; Nagi, H; Holder, R

    2010-01-01

    For accurate intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement in very young children examination under anaesthesia (EUA) may be necessary. Most anaesthetic agents used for EUA have some effect on IOP. We compared IOPs in children after ketamine and sevoflurane anaesthesia. Consecutive patients with definite or suspected glaucoma, uncooperative for reliable IOP measurement in clinic and requiring EUA, were included in this study. IOPs were measured after intramuscular injection (5 mg/kg) or intravenous injection (2 mg/kg) of ketamine using a Perkins applanation tonometer. Three measurements were taken from each eye. The IOPs were rechecked after sevoflurane, given for maintenance anaesthesia. Mean IOPs were used for analysis. Paired t test was used to assess the differences in IOPs for the whole group and one-way ANOVA for the three subgroups (ketamine IOP <20, 20-30, >30 mmHg). The records of eight patients (16 eyes) were available for review. The mean age was 55.42 (SD 25, range 26-89) months. Seventy data-points from both eyes (35 EUAs) were used for the analysis. The mean IOP after sevoflurane (17 (SD 10) mmHg) was statistically lower than after ketamine (24.4 (SD 12.7) mmHg, p<0.001). The percentage difference was 28.5 (SD 20.8; 95% CI 23.5 to 33.4)). The difference between the subgroups was not statistically significant (p = 0.192). Sevoflurane lowers the IOP significantly compared with the IOP measured after ketamine. This difference is independent of the IOP level. It may be important to use ketamine as the induction anaesthetic agent when accurate IOP measurement is necessary during EUA for children.

  11. The bone and mineral disorder of children undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Borzych, Dagmara; Rees, Lesley; Ha, Il Soo; Chua, Annabelle; Valles, Patricia G; Lipka, Maria; Zambrano, Pedro; Ahlenstiel, Thurid; Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A; Spizzirri, Ana P; Lopez, Laura; Ozaltin, Fatih; Printza, Nikoleta; Hari, Pankaj; Klaus, Günter; Bak, Mustafa; Vogel, Andrea; Ariceta, Gema; Yap, Hui Kim; Warady, Bradley A; Schaefer, Franz

    2010-12-01

    The mineral and bone disorder of chronic kidney disease remains a challenging complication in pediatric end-stage renal disease. Here, we assessed symptoms, risk factors and management of this disorder in 890 children and adolescents from 24 countries reported to the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network Registry. Signs of this disease were most common in North American patients. The prevalence of hyperphosphatemia increased with age from 6% in young infants to 81% in adolescents. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) was outside the guideline targets in the majority of patients and associated with low calcium, high phosphorus, acidosis, dialysis vintage and female gender. Serum calcium was associated with dialytic calcium exposure, serum phosphorus with low residual renal function and pubertal status. PTH levels were highest in Latin America and lowest in Europe. Vitamin D and its active analogs were most frequently administered in Europe; calcium-free phosphate binders and cinacalcet in North America. Clinical and radiological symptoms markedly increased when PTH exceeded 300 pg/ml, the risk of hypercalcemia increased with levels below 100 pg/ml, and time-averaged PTH concentrations above 500 pg/ml were associated with impaired longitudinal growth. Hence, the symptoms and management of the mineral and bone disorder of chronic kidney disease in children on peritoneal dialysis showed substantial regional variation. Our findings support a PTH target range of 100-300 pg/ml in the pediatric age group.

  12. Characteristics of children undergoing dental extractions under general anaesthesia in Wolverhampton: 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Raja, A; Daly, A; Harper, R; Senghore, N; White, D; Ravaghi, V

    2016-04-22

    Studying characteristics of children requiring extractions under dental general anaesthesia (DGA) can help identify trends, which can be used to facilitate future planning of healthcare services. To report on the profile of children who underwent extractions under DGA between 2007 and 2012 at the New Cross Hospital in Wolverhampton, England.Methods Retrospective analyses of hospital records. Of the 2692 patients seen between 2007 and 2012, 49.6% were boys and 50.4% were girls. The mean age was 7.1 and 7 to 12 years was the largest age group (43%). The majority of the sample was White British (67%). Of the 8,286 teeth extracted, 85% were primary teeth and 15% permanent. More teeth were extracted in boys than girls (P = 0.002) and 'Other' ethnicities had a higher mean number of extractions compared to White British (P <0.001) and South Asians (P = 0.046). The mean age of the patients has decreased over the years (P = 0.001) and the mean number of primary teeth extracted has increased (P = 0.001). A clear dental public health issue has been reinforced through the relatively high level of DGA activity reported. Though rigorous caries prevention remains the ultimate goal, a better assessment and discharge process may help reduce the need for first time DGAs as well as repeats.

  13. [Perioperative management in children with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) undergoing adenoidotonsillectomy].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; Nemoto, Mikiko; Sato, Tomoko; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    We should take care of the occurrences of apnea and hypopnea after emergence from general anesthesia in the children with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) due to an increase in sensitivity to opioid agonists given for previous recurrent hypoxia. Preoperative assessment for SAS with apnea hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and minimum artery oxygen saturation by pulse oxymetry (lowest SpO2) obtained from polysomnography (PSG) test could help to predict the postoperative respiratory depression. In perioperative management in the children with SAS who are candidates for adenotonsillectomy, the dose of opioid agonists during anesthesia maintenance for purpose of postoperative analgesia and sedation should be reduced; postoperative respiratory and circulatory management with monitoring of respiratory movement of the thoracoabdominal part, and electrographic (ECG) and SpO2 monitoring should be continued intensively under long-term oxygen administration; and airway management, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), and artificial ventilation should be prepared for the occurrence of postoperative respiratory depression.

  14. Experience and nursing needs of school-age children undergoing lumbar puncture during the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a descriptive and qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Xie, Anwei; Shan, Yuying; Niu, Mei E; Chen, Yi; Wang, Xiya

    2016-12-01

    To describe experiences and nursing needs of school-age Chinese children undergoing lumbar puncture for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Lumbar puncture is an invasive procedure, causing psychological changes and physical discomfort in patients. In a previous study, it was proved that distraction intervention, such as music therapy, relieves pain and anxiety. There is limited evidence regarding the experience and needs of school-age children during lumbar puncture after being diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. To minimise their anxiety and pain during the procedure, it is important to collect information directly from these children. A descriptive qualitative research. Twenty-one school-age children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia participated in semi-structured interviews at a Children's Hospital in China. Data were collected by an experienced and trained interviewer. Qualitative content analysis was chosen to describe experiences of children undergoing lumbar puncture. While undergoing lumbar puncture for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, school-age Chinese children experienced complex psychological feelings (fear, tension, helplessness, sadness and anxiety). They also experienced physical discomfort. They had multipolar needs, such as information, communication, respect, self-actualisation, environment and equipment. This study identified important areas that must be closely monitored by healthcare staff, performing lumbar puncture on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia children. Thus, a successful and smooth procedure can be performed on these patients, and their quality of life can be improved. The experiences described in this study contribute to a better understanding of the needs of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia children undergoing lumbar puncture. They also provide valuable information to professional medical care staff that develops future nursing assessments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cardiopulmonary adaptation to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.; Guy, H. J.; Elliott, A. R.; West, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The lung is profoundly affected by gravity. The absence of gravity (microgravity) removes the mechanical stresses acting on the lung paranchyma itself, resulting in a reduction in the deformation of the lung due to its own weight, and consequently altering the distribution of fresh gas ventilation within the lung. There are also changes in the mechanical forces acting on the rib cage and abdomen, which alters the manner in which the lung expands. The other way in which microgravity affects the lung is through the removal of the gravitationally induced hydrostatic gradients in vascular pressures, both within the lung itself, and within the entire body. The abolition of a pressure gradient within the pulmonary circulation would be expected to result in a greater degree of uniformity of blood flow within the lung, while the removal of the hydrostatic gradient within the body should result in an increase in venous return and intra-thoracic blood volume, with attendant changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, and pulmonary diffusing capacity. During the 9 day flight of Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) we collected pulmonary function test data on the crew of the mission. We compared the results obtained in microgravity with those obtained on the ground in both the standing and supine positions, preflight and in the week immediately following the mission. A number of the tests in the package were aimed at studying the anticipated changes in cardiopulmonary function, and we report those in this communication.

  16. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation through centuries].

    PubMed

    Gajić, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    THE ANCIENT TIMES: Many early civilisations left testimonies about ancient times and resuscitation, as well. Some of them did it successfully and some of them did it less successfully; however, all of them wished to help a dying person and to bring him back to life. The first trustworthy note can be found in the Bible--Old Testament as a very realistic description of resuscitation of a child. THE MIDDLE AGES: The medieval scientists, Paracelsus and Vesalius, described first successful resuscitation attempts in the 15th and 16th century. These two men successfully applied ventilation methods by air inflation with blacksmith bellows. THE MODERN ERA: The first defibrillation was recorded in the 18th century in England, which was conducted by one of the volunteer society members. With the development of mechanics and techniques, the first precursors of modern respirators were introduced in the 19th century. The age of modern cardiopulmonary resuscitation began in the middle of 20th century, when Dr Peter Safar brought in the combination of artificial ventilation and chest compressions as the standard for implementing resuscitation. Adrenalin and defibrillation were introduced into the resuscitation techniques by Dr Redding and Dr Kouwenhaven, respectively; thus beginning the advance life support administration, which has been applied, with minor changes, until today.

  17. Cardiopulmonary adaptation to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.; Guy, H. J.; Elliott, A. R.; West, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The lung is profoundly affected by gravity. The absence of gravity (microgravity) removes the mechanical stresses acting on the lung paranchyma itself, resulting in a reduction in the deformation of the lung due to its own weight, and consequently altering the distribution of fresh gas ventilation within the lung. There are also changes in the mechanical forces acting on the rib cage and abdomen, which alters the manner in which the lung expands. The other way in which microgravity affects the lung is through the removal of the gravitationally induced hydrostatic gradients in vascular pressures, both within the lung itself, and within the entire body. The abolition of a pressure gradient within the pulmonary circulation would be expected to result in a greater degree of uniformity of blood flow within the lung, while the removal of the hydrostatic gradient within the body should result in an increase in venous return and intra-thoracic blood volume, with attendant changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, and pulmonary diffusing capacity. During the 9 day flight of Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) we collected pulmonary function test data on the crew of the mission. We compared the results obtained in microgravity with those obtained on the ground in both the standing and supine positions, preflight and in the week immediately following the mission. A number of the tests in the package were aimed at studying the anticipated changes in cardiopulmonary function, and we report those in this communication.

  18. Very late nonfatal consequences of fractionated TBI in children undergoing bone marrow transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Faraci, Maura; Cohen, Amnon; Lanino, Edoardo; Sacco, Oliviero; Cabria, Manlio; De Marco, Riccardo; Stella, Gilberto; Dallorso, Sandro; Vitale, Vito; Dini, Giorgio

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To describe long-term late consequences in children who received total body irradiation (TBI) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 10 years earlier. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 42 children treated with TBI between 1985 and 1993, still alive at least 10 years after fractionated TBI (FTBI), was evaluated. Twenty-five patients received FTBI at 330 cGy/day for 3 days (total dose 990 cGy), whereas 17 children were administered fractions of 200 cGy twice daily for 3 days (total dose 1200 cGy). Twenty-seven patients received autologous and 16 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Median age at TBI was 6.3 years, and 18.4 years at most recent follow-up. Results: Cataract was diagnosed in 78% of patients after a median of 5.7 years. Hypothyroidism was detected in 12%, whereas thyroid nodules were observed in 60% of our population after a median interval of 10.2 years. Patients treated with 990 cGy developed thyroid nodules more frequently than those treated with 1200 cGy (p = 0.0002). Thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed in 14% of the total population. Females who received FTBI after menarche more frequently developed temporary ovarian dysfunction than those treated before menarche, but cases of persistent ovarian dysfunction did not differ between the two groups. Indirect signs of germinal testicular dysfunction were detected in 87% of males. Restrictive pulmonary disease was observed in 74% of patients. Osteochondroma was found in 29% of patients after a median interval of 9.2 years. This latter complication appeared more frequently in patients irradiated before the age of 3 years (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study shows that late effects that are likely permanent, although not fatal, are frequent in survivors 10 years after TBI. However, some of the side effects observed shortly after TBI either disappeared or remained unchanged without signs of evolution. Monitoring is recommended to pursue secondary prevention strategies and counseling

  19. Correlation of pancreatic histopathologic findings and islet yield in children with chronic pancreatitis undergoing total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Manivel, Juan C; Bellin, Melena D; Carlson, Annelisa M; Moran, Antoinette; Freeman, Martin L; Hering, Bernhard J; Sutherland, David E R

    2010-01-01

    The probability of insulin independence after intraportal islet autotransplantation (IAT) for chronic pancreatitis (CP) treated by total pancreatectomy (TP) relates to the number of islets isolated from the excised pancreas. Our goal was to correlate the islet yield with the histopathologic findings and the clinical parameters in pediatric (age, <19 years) CP patients undergoing TP-IAT. Eighteen pediatric CP patients aged 5 to 18 years (median, 15.6 years) who underwent TP-IAT were studied. Demographics and clinical history came from medical records. Histopathologic specimens from the pancreas were evaluated for presence and severity of fibrosis, acinar cell atrophy, inflammation, and nesidioblastosis by a surgical pathologist blinded to clinical information. Fibrosis and acinar atrophy negatively correlated with islet yield (P = 0.02, r = -0.50), particularly in hereditary CP (P = 0.01). Previous duct drainage surgeries also had a strong negative correlation (P = 0.01). Islet yield was better in younger (preteen) children (P = 0.02, r = -0.61) and in those with pancreatitis of shorter duration (P = 0.04, r = -0.39). For preserving beta cell mass, it is best to perform TP-IAT early in the course of CP in children, and prior drainage procedures should be avoided to maximize the number of islets available, especially in hereditary disease.

  20. Searching the optimal PTH target range in children undergoing peritoneal dialysis: new insights from international cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Haffner, Dieter; Schaefer, Franz

    2013-04-01

    The treatment of the mineral and bone disorder associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) remains a major challenge in pediatric patients. The principal aims of therapeutic measures are not only to prevent the debilitating skeletal complications and to achieve normal growth but also to preserve long-term cardiovascular health. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are used as a surrogate parameter of bone turnover. Whereas it is generally accepted that serum calcium and phosphate levels should be kept within the range for age, current pediatric consensus guidelines differ markedly with respect to the optimal PTH target range and operate on a limited evidence base. Recently, the International Pediatric Dialysis Network (IPPN) established a global registry collecting detailed clinical and biochemical information, including data relevant to CKD-MBD in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). This review highlights the current evidence basis regarding the optimal PTH target range in pediatric CKD patients, and re-assesses the current guidelines in view of the outcome data collected by the IPPN registry. Based on a comprehensive evaluation of CKD-MBD outcome measures in this global patient cohort, a PTH target range of 1.7-3 times the upper limit of normal (i.e. 100-200 pg/ml) appears reasonable in children undergoing chronic PD.

  1. Model of oronasal rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome undergoing rapid maxillary expansion: Research review

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Lorusso, Paola; Caprioglio, Alberto; Magnani, Augusta; Diaféria, Giovana; Bittencourt, Lia; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is a widely used practice in orthodontics. Scientific evidence shows that RME can be helpful in modifying the breathing pattern in mouth-breathing patients. In order to promote the restoration of physiological breathing we have developed a rehabilitation program associated with RME in children. The aim of the study was a literature review and a model of orofacial rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing treatment with rapid maxillary expansion. Muscular training (local exercises and general ones) is the key factor of the program. It also includes hygienic and behavior instructions as well as other therapeutic procedures such as rhinosinusal washes, a postural re-education (Alexander technique) and, if necessary, a pharmacological treatment aimed to improve nasal obstruction. The program should be customized for each patient. If RME is supported by an adequate functional rehabilitation, the possibility to change the breathing pattern is considerably amplified. Awareness, motivation and collaboration of the child and their parents, as well as the cooperation among specialists, such as orthodontist, speech therapist, pediatrician and otolaryngologist, are necessary conditions to achieve the goal. PMID:26483933

  2. Arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide difference in children undergoing mechanical ventilation of the lungs during general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Onodi, C; Bühler, P K; Thomas, J; Schmitz, A; Weiss, M

    2017-07-11

    Capnography (ETCO2 ) is routinely used as a non-invasive estimate of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2 ) levels in order to modify ventilatory settings, whereby it is assumed that there is a positive gap between PaCO2 and ETCO2 of approximately 0.5 kPa. However, negative values (ETCO2 > PaCO2 ) can be observed. We retrospectively analysed arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide differences in 799 children undergoing general anaesthesia with mechanical ventilation of the lungs in order to elucidate predictors for a negative gap. A total of 2452 blood gas analysis readings with complete vital sign monitoring, anaesthesia gas analysis and spirometry data were analysed. Mean arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide difference was -0.18 kPa (limits of 95% agreement -1.10 to 0.74) and 71.2% of samples demonstrated negative values. The intercept model revealed PaCO2 to be the strongest predictor for a negative PaCO2 -ETCO2 difference. A decrease in PaCO2 by 1 kPa resulted in a decrease in the PaCO2 -ETCO2 difference by 0.23 kPa. This study demonstrates that ETCO2 monitoring in children whose lungs are mechanically ventilated may paradoxically lead to overestimation of ETCO2 (ETCO2 > PaCO2 ) with a subsequent risk of unrecognised hypocarbia. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Comparison of caudal tramadol vs bupivacaine for post-operative analgesia in children undergoing hypospadias surgery.

    PubMed

    Batra, Y K; Prasad, M K; Arya, V K; Chari, P; Yaddanapudi, L N

    1999-05-01

    In a prospective double-blind study, 40 children scheduled for hypospadias repair were allocated randomly to receive either caudal tramadol (1 mg/kg) or 0.25% plain bupivacaine (0.5 ml/kg). Postoperative pain score, side-effects and oxygen saturation (SaO2) were recorded during 24-hour observation period. The results point toward a significantly lower pain scores with caudal bupivacaine in the immediate postoperative period, whereas caudal tramadol caused a significantly lower pain score in the late postoperative period. Total consumption of rescue analgesics was significantly higher in bupivacaine group as compared to tramadol group during the study period (p < 0.001). The incidence of side-effects such as vomiting was more frequent with caudal tramadol, but there was no detectable difference in SaO2. We conclude that caudal tramadol can safely be used for postoperative analgesia with a longer duration as compared to caudal bupivacaine.

  4. Post-traumatic stress symptoms among mothers of children with leukemia undergoing treatment: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Aloisio, Donatella; Schiavo, Simone; Carli, Modesto; Pillon, Marta

    2013-06-01

    To assess post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in mothers of children over 2 years of leukemia treatment, to identify possible early family and child predictors of this symptomatology and to indicate the temporal trajectory of PTSS. Participants were 76 Italian mothers (mean age = 37.30 years; SD = 6.07) of children receiving treatment for acute lymphoblastic (n = 69) or myeloid (n = 7) leukemia. Mothers had 12.05 years of education (SD = 3.87), and their incomes were average (52.1%), high (26%) and low (21.9%) for Italian norms, never in poverty. The pediatric patients with leukemia were equally distributed by gender with their mean age of 7.10 years (SD = 4.18). Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured by a 17-item checklist. Scales assessing anxiety, depression, physical (Brief Symptom Inventory 18) and cognitive functioning (Problem Scale), and life evaluation were also used. There were five assessment points: 1 week (T1), 1 month (T2), 6 months (T3), 12 months (T4) and 24 months post-diagnosis (T5). The main results indicated moderate presence of clinical PTSS (≥9 symptoms: 24% at T2, 18% at T3, 16% at T4 and 19% at T5) that remained stable across time points, whereas Brief Symptom Inventory 18 Global score decreased and life evaluation improved. A series of hierarchical regression models identified cognitive functioning early after the diagnosis as the best predictive factor of PTSS across time points. Specific psychological interventions could be devised for mothers at risk for short and long-term PTSS just after the diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Barriers to Pediatric Pain Management in Children Undergoing Surgery: A Survey of Health Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Bawa, Monika; Mahajan, Jai K; Aggerwal, Neel; Sundaram, Jegadeesh; Rao, K L N

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate pain management in neonates and children is lacking. Factors that prevent the execution of proper pain relief vary from center to center. We studied the factors responsible for it in a surgical unit. We conducted a survey at a tertiary-level institute among the resident doctors and nursing staff by means of an informal questionnaire analyzing their basic knowledge. The questions pertained mainly to pain assessment, analgesic usage, role of opioids, and formal training, and the responses so obtained were analyzed under these four headings. Seventy-three percent (22/30) of the residents and 74% (26/35) of the nursing staff knew about pain assessment scoring system in pediatric patients. However, assessment of pain in emergency cases was always done by only 6.6% of the residents. Effect of analgesia on severity of pain was never recorded by 33% (10/30) of the residents. Eighty-six percent (26/30) of the residents and 91% (32/35) of the nursing staff had adequate knowledge about analgesic dosage and interval for routine use. Ten of the 30 (33%) residents believed that analgesic administration in an acute abdomen, before definitive diagnosis, will always mask the symptoms. During a minor procedure, 56% (17/30) of the residents always used analgesia. Only 3.3% (1/30) of residents and 2.8% (1/35) of the nursing staff had received a structured training for pain management. Although, 93% (28/30) of the residents claimed to know about the safety of use of opioids, only 46% (14/30) used them routinely as analgesics. Pain management in surgical neonates and children is often ignored. Lack of formal training, inadequate knowledge, and standard protocols are the barriers in our setup, which may in turn be due to overwhelming attention given to the surgical condition.

  6. Off-label use of medications in children undergoing sedation and anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael C; Williamson, Julie; Yaster, Myron; Boyd, Geoffrey J C; Heitmiller, Eugenie S

    2012-11-01

    Many drugs used for anesthesia and analgesia in children are administered "off-label." We undertook an audit of drugs commonly used for pediatric anesthesia to determine which drugs have United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling for pediatric use, which drugs are age-restricted, and which have no labeling for pediatric use. We identified drugs administered during anesthesia to pediatric patients from the operating room pharmacy. FDA approval and indications were determined by using the Thomson Micromedex® online database. Drugs without FDA approval for pediatric use were further examined for strength of evidence and strength of recommendation for their listed indications in the database. We then examined the rate of off-label drug administration to patients younger than the age of 18 years between July 1, 2010, and August 31, 2011. One hundred six drugs were identified. Thirty-six (34%) were not FDA-labeled for use in any pediatric age group, 40 (38%) were FDA-labeled for use in all pediatric age groups, and 30 (28%) were FDA-labeled for use in only specific age groups. Drugs were administered off-label in 73.4% of cases. Of those not labeled for any pediatric age group, some were among the most commonly used drugs in pediatric anesthesia, including neostigmine, hydromorphone, and dopamine. Many drugs used for children during anesthesia continue to lack FDA labeling for pediatric use. Off-label use of these drugs is an accepted practice that is considered superior to the alternative of withholding needed medications. Studies are still needed to determine the safety and efficacy of drugs that lack FDA labeling for this vulnerable patient population.

  7. Assessment of adenotonsillar size and caregiver-reported sleep symptoms among 3-6 year old children undergoing adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Onur; Walia, Hina; Tumin, Dmitry; Jatana, Kris R; Raman, Vidya; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-12-01

    Adenotonsillectomy remains the accepted first-line treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children. Tonsillar size may be especially relevant in risk stratification as it may impact symptoms of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). This study assesses correlations among subjective tonsillar grading, measured tonsillar size, and degree of adenoid obstruction in patients age 3-6 years with caregiver-reported symptoms. Children 3-6 years old undergoing adenotonsillectomy for OSAS were enrolled prospectively. The subjective tonsillar grade and degree of adenoid obstruction were recorded on physical examination by the otolaryngologist, and the objective tonsillar size was obtained from pathology reports. Spearman's rho was used to assess agreement among measures of tonsillar size and adenoid obstruction; and to correlate these measures with caregiver-reported SDB symptoms obtained from a pre-operative standardized questionnaire. The cohort included 103 boys and 97 girls of median age 4.8 (interquartile range [IQR]: 3.9, 5.9) years. Median subjective tonsillar grade was 3+ (IQR: 3+, 4+) while median tonsillar size was 2.7 cm (IQR: 2.5, 3) and median adenoid obstruction was 60% (IQR: 50%, 80%). The subjective tonsillar grade and measured tonsillar size were strongly correlated (ρ = 0.31, p < 0.001), whereas adenoid obstruction was uncorrelated with either subjective tonsillar grade (ρ = 0.01, p = 0.860) or measured size (ρ = -0.05, p = 0.497). Tonsillar grade was positively correlated with 3 common caregiver-reported SDB symptoms (loud snoring, trouble breathing at night, and daytime sleepiness). Objective tonsillar size was positively correlated only with difficulty organizing tasks or activities, and adenoid obstruction was positively correlated only with stopping breathing during sleep. Subjective tonsillar grading by the otolaryngologist achieved better correlation than measured tonsillar size or degree of adenoid obstruction with

  8. The efficacy of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil versus dexmedetomidine-propofol in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy: A retrospective trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongquan; Fang, Baojun; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-01-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy has been more and more used for diagnosis and management diseases of respiratory system in pediatrics. Previous studies have reported that remifentanil (RF) and propofol are safe and effective for flexible bronchoscopy in adults, however, there have no trials evaluate the efficacy of DEX-RF versus dexmedetomidine-propofol in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy.We divided 123 children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy with DEX-RF or dexmedetomidine-propofol into 2 groups: Group DR (n = 63, DEX infusion at 1.0 μg kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5-0.7 μg kg h; RF infusion at 1.0 μg kg for 5 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05-0.2 μg kg min), Group DP (n = 60, DEX infusion at 1.0 μg kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5-0.7 μg kg h; propofol infusion at 10 μg kg for 5 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05-0.1 μg kg min). Ramsay sedation scale of the 2 groups was maintained at 3. Anesthesia onset time; total number of intraoperative patient movements; hemodynamics; total cumulative dose of DEX; amount of and time to first-dose rescue midazolam and lidocaine; postoperative recovery time; adverse events; and bronchoscopist satisfaction score were recorded.Anesthesia onset time was significantly shorter in DP (8.22 ± 2.48 vs 12.25 ± 6.43 minutes, respectively, for DP, DR, P = 0.015). The perioperative hemodynamic profile was more stable in DR than DP group. More children moved during flexible bronchoscopy in DP group (P = 0.009). Total dose of rescue midazolam and lidocaine was significantly higher in DR than in DP (P < 0.001). Similarly, the time to first dose of rescue midazolam and lidocaine was significantly longer in DP than in DR (P < 0.001). Total cumulative dose of DEX was more in DR than DP group (P < 0.001). The time to recovery for discharge from the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) was significantly shorter in DP than in DR group (P < 0

  9. Psychological morbidity, burden, and the mediating effect of social support in adult children caregivers of oncological patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ricardo J; Pereira, Maria Graça

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the association between psychological morbidity, social support, and demographic and clinical variables in adult children of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Special attention was given to the variable level of parental dependency. The main predictors of caregiving burden were tested, as well as the mediating role of social support in the relationship between psychological morbidity and burden. A total of 214 adult children caregivers of parents with cancer were recruited in Northern Portugal central hospitals. Caregivers completed Portuguese versions of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Satisfaction with Social Support Scale, and Burden Assessment Scale. Significant associations among psychological, demographic, and clinical variables were found. Adult children with a greater perception of parent's dependency showed more distress, higher posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, greater caregiving burden, and less satisfaction with social support. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed the main predictors of caregiver burden to be as follows: being a woman, caregiving duration, having a dependent parent, more distress and PTSD symptoms, and poorer social support. Social support was found to be a partial mediator in the relationship between psychological morbidity and caregiver burden. Results underscore the importance of perceived parental dependency in offspring's caregivers. Findings support the multidimensional issues associated to burden in this specific population, stressing satisfaction with social support as an important mediator between distress/PTSD and burden. Implications for further research as well as limitations of the present study are discussed. Psychosocial interventions should focus on caregivers' social resources to facilitate psychological well-being. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of a therapeutic play intervention on outcomes of children undergoing inpatient elective surgery: study protocol.

    PubMed

    He, Hong Gu; Zhu, Lixia; Li, Ho Cheung William; Wang, Wenru; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Chan, Sally Wai Chi

    2014-02-01

    To report a trial protocol to determine if a therapeutic play intervention leads to significant reduction in perioperative anxiety, negative emotional manifestations and postoperative pain of children undergoing inpatient elective surgery and in their parents' perioperative anxiety. Children undergoing surgery often experience anxiety, exhibit negative emotional manifestations pre-operatively and postoperative pain. Previous studies report that therapeutic play intervention has positive effects on anxiety reduction, while few studies have examined the effects of such intervention on children undergoing major elective surgery. Randomized controlled trial with repeated measures is proposed. This study will recruit 106 pairs of 6-14-year-old children undergoing elective surgery in a Singaporean public hospital and their parents (protocol approved in October 2011). Eligible participants will be randomly allocated to either a control group (receiving routine care) or an experimental group (receiving 1-hour therapeutic play intervention plus routine care). Outcome measures include children's anxiety, emotional manifestation and postoperative pain, their parents' anxiety and process evaluation. Data will be collected at baseline (3-7 days before the operation), on the day of surgery and around 24 hours after the surgery. This study will identify a clinically useful and potentially effective approach to prepare children for surgery by reducing anxiety of both children and their parents during the perioperative period. The reduction of anxiety may lead to reduction of postoperative pain, which will eventually improve the physical and psychological well-being of children. This study was funded by the National Medical Research Council in Singapore. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparison of ketamine and ketofol for deep sedation and analgesia in children undergoing laser procedure.

    PubMed

    Stevic, Marija; Ristic, Nina; Budic, Ivana; Ladjevic, Nebojsa; Trifunovic, Branislav; Rakic, Ivan; Majstorovic, Marko; Burazor, Ivana; Simic, Dusica

    2017-07-12

    The aim of our study was to research and evaluate cardiovascular and respiratory stability, clinical efficacy, and safety of two different anesthetic agents in pediatric patients who underwent Pulse dye (wavelength 595 nm, pulse duration 0-40 ms, power 0-40 J) and CO2 (wavelength 10,600 nm, intensity-fraxel mod with SX index 4 to 8, power 0-30 W) laser procedure. This prospective non-blinded study included 203 pediatric patients ASA I-II, aged between 1 month and 12 years who underwent short-term procedural sedation and analgesia for the laser procedure. After oral premedication with midazolam, 103 children were analgo-sedated with ketamine and fentanyl (K group) and 100 with ketofol and fentanyl (KT group). Vital signs, applied drug doses, pulse oximetry, and parental satisfaction questionnaire were used to compare these two groups. Statistical differences were tested using Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the cut-off value of the duration of anesthesia predicting apnea. Tachycardia was recorded in a significantly higher number of patients who received ketamine as the anesthetic agent (35.9 vs. 3% respectively). Hypertension was also significantly more frequent in patients who received ketamine in comparison with patients who received ketofol (25.2 vs. 3%). Laryngospasm was not observed in both examined groups. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in satisfaction of parents and doctors. Apnea and respiratory depression occurred significantly more frequent in ketofol than in ketamine group (12 vs. 0.97% and 13 vs. 0%). Based on ROC analysis for apnea, we found a significantly higher number of patients with apnea in the ketofol group when duration of anesthesia was longer than 17 min. Our study has shown that ketofol is more comfortable than ketamine in short-term laser procedures in children, causing less

  12. Evaluation of serum Resistin in children with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamshary, Abd El-Hamid Salah; El-Shaaer, Osama Saad; Soliman, Doaa Refaay; El-Mashad, Ghada Mohamed; Hussien, Ahmed Ibraheem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High serum resistin levels are associated with the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objectives of this study were to determine the serum concentrations of resistin in children that present with chronic renal failure (CRF) and end stage renal disease (ESRD), in order to examine the impact of hemodialysis (HD) on serum resistin levels, and to determine if a correlation exists between resistin and growth retardation in patients with CRF. Methods This case control study was undertaken in the pediatric hemodialysis unit of the Benha and Menoufia University hospitals from April 2014 to March 2015. The case group consisted of 50 patients with CRF aged from 6–18 years (25 of them under HD and 25 of them under conservative treatment) and 30 healthy children who constituted the control group. Urea, creatinine, and serum resistin were measured before and after the HD session for patients with CRF who are already under HD. Results A highly significant difference was found between the resistin levels in the two groups with mean level of 20.2 ± 7.58 ng/ml in the patient case group as compared to 4.9 ± 1.72 ng/ml in the control group. This highly significant difference found in the resistin level differed according to the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) stage of progression as patients on regular HD had resistin levels with a mean of 24.6 ± 7.28 ng/ml while the CKD patients under conservative treatment have resistin level mean of 15.6 ± 4.72 ng/ml. there was a highly significant difference in resistin levels before HD (mean = 24.6 ± 7.28) and after hemodialysis (mean = 14.7 ± 5.2). Conclusion Patients with CRF experienced higher than normal resistin levels as compared to the case control group and it was found that patients on HD had more elevated levels of resistin than did those patients who were on conservative treatment. HD treatments were found to be capable of lowering a patient’s resistin levels. A highly significant negative correlation

  13. Ability of PROMIS Pediatric Measures to Detect Change in Children With Cerebral Palsy Undergoing Musculoskeletal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mulcahey, Mary J; Haley, Stephen M; Slavin, Mary D; Kisala, Pamela A; Ni, Pengsheng; Tulsky, David S; Jette, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was developed to provide patient-reported outcome measures that are designed as being universally relevant across health conditions, low burden, and precise. A major problem for research and clinical practice in cerebral palsy (CP) is the void of outcomes instruments that are capable of evaluating the wide range of abilities and broad age spectrum inherent in this clinical population. Given the tremendous potential of PROMIS, the research questions for this study were "How do PROMIS pediatric computer adaptive tests and short forms detect change in children with CP following elective musculoskeletal surgery?" and "How do PROMIS instruments compare to the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Cerebral Palsy Module Version 3.0 (PedsQL CP), Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), the Timed Up and Go (TUG), and the Gross Motor Functional Measure (GMFM)." PROMIS Pediatric computer adaptive tests and short forms and the PedsQL, PODCI, TUG, and GMFM were administered before and after surgery. Effect size (ES) and standardized response mean (SRM) were calculated. Floor and ceiling effects were evaluated and, exposure rates for the PROMIS item banks were examined. ES and SRM for all PROMIS Pediatric Measures were nonsignificant. PedsQL CP detected significant, positive change in mobility at 6 (ES=0.26; SRM=0.31) and 12 (ES=0.36; SRM=0.36) months; pain at 12 months (ES=0.29; SRM=0.34); and fatigue at 6 (ES=0.24; SRM=0.22) and 12 (ES=0.36; SRM=0.41) months. Significant negative changes were detected by the PODCI (ES=-0.20; SRM=-0.26), GMFM (ES=-0.13; SRM=-0.24), and TUG (ES=-0.29; SRM=-0.25). Ceiling effects were high. Exposure to an appropriate range of the PROMIS Mobility item bank was limited. PROMIS measures were less able to detect change than other measures. PROMIS measures may be improved by tailoring start/stop rules or by adding items to include content appropriate for children with

  14. PRES in Children Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell or Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Masetti, Riccardo; Cordelli, Duccio Maria; Zama, Daniele; Vendemini, Francesca; Biagi, Carlotta; Franzoni, Emilio; Pession, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical neuroradiologic entity that is becoming increasingly well known and documented in pediatrics. It is characterized by a variable association of seizures, headache, vomiting, altered mental status, visual disturbances, and seizures, as well as imaging suggesting white-gray matter edema involving the posterior regions of the central nervous system in most cases. The pathophysiology of PRES remains unclear. Although PRES has been associated with a widespread range of clinical conditions, namely infections, adverse drug events, autoimmune diseases, and many others, its onset after hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation remains the most commonly reported. Historically, PRES has proved to be generally reversible and associated with good clinical outcomes; however, severe complications, sometimes life-threatening, can also occur. Most reported cases of childhood PRES after hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation have been case reports or series across a broad spectrum of different transplant settings, and no clear consensus exists regarding how best to manage the syndrome. Thus, in this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the pathophysiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of PRES in children, with a specific focus on the transplant scenario. Differential diagnoses with other neurologic complications after pediatric transplantation are reviewed, and crucial issues in the management of PRES and the development of future research are ultimately addressed.

  15. Methylene Blue for Vasoplegia When on Cardiopulmonary Bypass During Double-Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Carley, Michelle; Schaff, Jacob; Lai, Terrance; Poppers, Jeremy

    2015-10-15

    Vasoplegia syndrome, characterized by hypotension refractory to fluid resuscitation or high-dose vasopressors, low systemic vascular resistance, and normal-to-increased cardiac index, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality after cardiothoracic surgery. Methylene blue inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and guanylyl cyclase, and has been used to treat vasoplegia during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, because methylene blue is associated with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, its use in patients undergoing lung transplantion has been limited. Herein, we report the use of methylene blue to treat refractory vasoplegia during cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient undergoing double-lung transplantation.

  16. Cardiopulmonary bypass with bivalirudin in type II heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Stephanie B; Acsell, Jeffrey R; Crumbley, Arthur J; Uber, Walter E

    2004-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with type II heparin induced-thrombocytopenia poses significant challenges. Inadequate pharmacokinetic profiles, monitoring, reversibility, and availability often limit alternative anticoagulation strategies. Bivalirudin, a semisynthetic direct thrombin inhibitor, was recently approved for use in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Its unique properties, including a relatively short half-life, an anticoagulation effect that closely correlates with activated clotting time, and an alternate metabolic pathway for elimination, make bivalirudin an attractive agent for cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with type II heparin induced-thrombocytopenia. We report our experience using bivalirudin in 2 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

  17. New insights into the pharmacokinetics of intravenous busulfan in children with sickle cell anemia undergoing bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gaziev, Javid; Isgrò, Antonella; Mozzi, Alessia Francesca; Petain, Aurèlie; Nguyen, Laurent; Ialongo, Cristiano; Dinallo, Vincenzo; Sodani, Pietro; Marziali, Marco; Andreani, Marco; Testi, Manuela; Paciaroni, Katia; Gallucci, Cristiano; De Angelis, Gioia; Alfieri, Cecilia; Ribersani, Michela; Lucarelli, Guido

    2015-04-01

    Busulfan (Bu) is an integral part of conditioning regimens for patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) undergoing transplantation. Patients with SCA might predispose to transplant-related neurological and pulmonary toxicities due to pre-existing disease-related cerebrovascular and lung injury. Bu therapy appears to be an important contributing factor in this context. We studied the pharmacokinetics of intravenous Bu and clinical outcomes of 36 children with SCA undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Most patients had pre-existing organ system damage. Busulfan was administered every 6 hr for 4 days with pharmacokinetic-guided dose adjustment to target a conservative area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) range of 900-1,350 µMol*min. We found that the first-dose Bu clearance was significantly higher (P < 0.0005) than the subsequent daily clearance, which remained unchanged during the following days. After the first-dose, 69% of patients achieved the target range. We adapted a new dose-adjustment strategy targeting exposures to the lower end (900 µMol*min) of the AUC range after the first dose of Bu to avoid unnecessary dose increases on subsequent days due to differences in clearance. This strategy enabled most patients to maintain the AUC within therapeutic range following dose adjustments. Differences in Bu clearance after the first-dose and subsequent daily doses in patients with SCA should be considered for pharmacokinetic-guided dose adjustment. Conservative AUC range and targeting exposures to the lower end of the range after the first dose was associated with negligible toxicity, and high engraftment and sickle cell-free survival rates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Update in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Bradley, S M

    2011-06-01

    Despite the passage of 50 years since the introduction of closed chest compression and mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing as the techniques of modern cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the simple techniques remain the backbone of successful resuscitation of victims of cardiac arrest. In particular, the importance of high quality chest compressions is increasingly clear. Current evidence demonstrates chest compressions should be provided at a rate of 100 compressions a minute to a depth of 4 to 5 cm (1.5 to 2 inches) with full chest recoil between compressions. Additionally, all efforts should be made to minimize interruptions in chest compressions, including single shock defibrillation and elimination of pulse check postdefibrillation in favor of continued chest compressions immediately postshock. The emphasis on high quality chest compressions is echoed in the most recent CPR guidelines of the American Heart Association and the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. The role of rescue breathing is currently debated; however, it is likely important in prolonged arrests or those of non-cardiac etiology. Current recommendations encourage inclusion of rescue breaths by trained responders, but allow for elimination of rescue breathing and emphasis on chest compressions for responders untrained or unconfident in rescue breathing. Early defibrillation is a key component to successful resuscitation of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation arrest; however, implementation of defibrillation should be coordinated with CPR to minimize interruptions in chest compressions. Aside from early defibrillation, there are no clear adjuncts to CPR that improve survival. However, postresuscitation therapies such as therapeutic hypothermia may become an important part of early resuscitation management as tools to provide hypothermia become increasingly portable and capable of rapid cooling.

  19. Cryptosporidium infection in children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy: how important is the prevention of opportunistic parasitic infections in patients with malignancies?

    PubMed

    Berahmat, Reza; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Rezamand, Azim; Spotin, Adel; Aminisani, Nayyereh; Ghoyounchi, Roghayeh; Madadi, Solmaz

    2017-07-20

    Cryptosporidiosis is a relatively uncommon disease in healthy individuals but could be potentially worrisome in immunocompromised patients. This study aimed to evaluate Cryptosporidium infection in children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. A case-control study was conducted in 132 children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy and 132 non-cancer controls. The modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) staining and polymerase chain reaction methods were used for the detection of Cryptosporidium parasite. All positive isolates were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 16 and Fisher exact test. The rate of cryptosporidiosis in children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy was 3.8%, which was higher than that of the control group. Other intestinal parasites detected in patients with cancer included Giardia lamblia (3%), Entamoeba coli (1.5%), and Chilomastix mesnili (0.8%). In the control group, only two (1.5%) cases were positive for G. lamblia. No significant difference was observed between the gender, age, residency, contact with domestic animals, stool appearance, neutropenia, chemotherapy period, and type of malignancy with regard to cryptosporidiosis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Cryptosporidium parvum isolates in this study relied on a branch that represents similar sequences from Iran and other countries. Although the rate of Cryptosporidium infection was relatively higher in children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy compared to the control group, any statistically significant difference has not been found between them. These findings should not be contrary to the need for healthcare to prevent opportunistic parasitic infections in malignant and immunocompromised patients.

  20. Acute kidney injury and the risk of mortality in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kizilbash, Sarah J.; Kashtan, Clifford E.; Chavers, Blanche M.; Cao, Qing; Smith, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-documented complication of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Dialysis after HSCT is associated with a lower overall survival (OS); however, the association between less severe AKI and OS is unclear. Method We retrospectively studied 205 consecutive pediatric HSCT patients to determine the incidence and impact of all stages of AKI on OS in pediatric HSCT recipients. We used the peak pRIFLE grade during the first 100 days to classify AKI (R=risk, I= injury, F= failure, L= loss of function, E= End-stage renal disease) and used the modified Schwartz formula to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Results AKI was observed in 173 of the 205 patients (84%). The 1-year OS decreased significantly with an increasing severity of pRIFLE grades (p < 0.01). There was no difference in the OS between patients without AKI and the R/I group. Regardless of the dialysis status, stages F/L/E had significantly lower OS compared with patients without AKI or R/I (p < 0.01). There was no difference in OS among patients with dialysis and F/L/E without dialysis (p 0.65). Stages F/L/E predicted mortality independent of acute graft versus host disease, gender, and malignancy. Conclusion The OS of children after HSCT decreases significantly with an increasing severity of AKI within the first 100 days posttransplant. While our data did not show an increased risk of mortality with stages R/I, stages F/L/E predicted mortality regardless of dialysis. Prevention and minimization of AKI may improve survival after pediatric HSCT. PMID:27034153

  1. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hess, Clayton B; Thompson, Holly M; Benedict, Stanley H; Seibert, J Anthony; Wong, Kenneth; Vaughan, Andrew T; Chen, Allen M

    2016-04-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning--a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of "gentle IGRT."

  2. Reduced embolic load during clinical cardiopulmonary bypass using a 20 micron arterial filter.

    PubMed

    Jabur, G N S; Willcox, T W; Zahidani, S H; Sidhu, K; Mitchell, S J

    2014-05-01

    To compare the efficiency of 20 and 40 µm arterial line filters during cardiopulmonary bypass for the removal of emboli from the extracorporeal circuit. Twenty-four adult patients undergoing surgery were perfused using a cardiopulmonary bypass circuit containing either a 20 µm or 40 µm arterial filter (n = 12 in both groups). The Emboli Detection and Classification system was used to count emboli upstream and downstream of the filter throughout cardiopulmonary bypass. The mean proportion of emboli removed by the filter was compared between the groups. The 20 µm filter removed a significantly greater proportion of incoming emboli (0.621) than the 40 µm filter (0.334) (p=0.029). The superiority of the 20 µm filter persisted across all size groups of emboli larger than the pore size of the 40 µm filter. The 20 µm filter removed substantially more emboli than the 40 µm filter during cardiopulmonary bypass in this comparison.

  3. A Comparison of Three Different Volumes of Levobupivacaine for Caudal Block in Children Undergoing Orchidopexy and Inguinal Hernia Repair.

    PubMed

    Marjanovic, Vesna; Budic, Ivana; Stevic, Marija; Simic, Dusica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 3 different volumes of 0.25% levobupivacaine caudally administered on the effect of intra- and postoperative analgesia in children undergoing orchidopexy and inguinal hernia repair. Forty children, aged 1-7 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II, were randomized into 3 different groups according to the applied volumes of 0.25% levobupivacaine: group 1 (n = 13): 0.6 mL∙kg-1; group 2 (n = 10): 0.8 mL∙kg-1; and group 3 (n = 17): 1.0 mL∙kg-1. The age, weight, duration of anesthesia, onset time of intraoperative analgesic, dosage, and addition of intraoperative fentanyl were compared among the groups. The time to first use of the analgesic and the number of patients who required analgesic 24 h after surgery in the time intervals within 6 h, between 6 and 12 h, and between 12 and 24 h postoperatively were evaluated among the groups. Statistical analyses were performed with a Dunnett t test, ANOVA, or Kruskal-Wallis test and χ2 test. Logistic regression analysis was used in order to examine predictive factors on duration of postoperative analgesia. Age, weight, duration of anesthesia, onset time of intraoperative analgesic, dosage, and addition of intraoperative fentanyl were similar among the groups. The time to first analgesic use did not differ among the groups, and logistic regression modelling showed that using the 3 different volumes of levobupivacaine had no predictive influence on duration of postoperative analgesia. The numbers of patients who required analgesics within 6 h (3/2/3), between 6 and 12 h (3/1/3), and between 12 and 24 h (1/0/2) after surgery were similar among the groups. The 3 different volumes of 0.25% levobupivacaine provided the same quality of intra- and postoperative pain relief in pediatric patients undergoing orchidopexy and inguinal hernia repair. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Comparison between intranasal dexmedetomidine and intranasal ketamine as premedication for procedural sedation in children undergoing MRI: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gyanesh, Prakhar; Haldar, Rudrashish; Srivastava, Divya; Agrawal, Prashant Mohan; Tiwari, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, P K

    2014-02-01

    Providing anesthesia to children undergoing MRI is challenging. Adequate premedication, administered noninvasively, would make the process smoother. In this study, we compare the efficacy of intranasal dexmedetomidine (DXM) with the intranasal administration of ketamine for procedural sedation in children undergoing MRI. We studied 150 children, between 1 and 10 years of age, divided randomly into three groups (DXM, K, and S). For blinding, every child received the intranasal drugs twice; syringe S1, 60 min before, and syringe S2, 30 min before intravenous (IV) cannulation. For children in group DXM, S1 contained DXM (1 μg/kg) and S2 was plain saline. Children in group K received saline in S1 and ketamine (5 mg/kg) in S2 whereas children in group S received saline in both S1 and S2. The child's response to drug administration, ease of IV cannulation, the satisfaction of the anesthesiologist and child's parents with the premedication, and the total propofol dose required for the satisfactory conduct of the procedure were compared. We also compared the time to awakening and discharge of the child as well as the occurrence of any side effects with these drugs. Both DXM and ketamine were equally effective as premedication in these patients. Most of the children accepted the intranasal drugs with minimal discomfort; 90.4 % of the anesthesiologists in the DXM group and 82.7 % in the ketamine group were satisfied with the conditions for IV cannulation whereas only 21.3 % were satisfied in the saline group. The total dose of propofol used was less in the study groups. Furthermore, children in group DXM and group K had earlier awakening and discharge than those in group S. DXM and ketamine were equally effective, by the intranasal route, as premedication in children undergoing MRI.

  5. Pepsin deteriorates prognosis of children with otitis media with effusion who undergo myringotomy or tympanostomy tube insertion.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hua-Nan; Ma, Si-Jing; Sheng, Ying; Yan, Jing; Hou, Jin; Zhu, Kang; Ren, Xiao-Yong

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the concentrations of pepsin and pepsinogen within the middle ear cavity and determine whether pepsin and pepsinogen affect the prognosis of children with otitis media with effusion (OME). All middle-ear lavage fluid from patients with OME undergoing myringotomy (M subgroup) or tympanostomy tube insertion (T subgroup) was collected and pepsin and pepsinogen were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After close follow-up over 2 years, the effects of pepsin and pepsinogen on the prognosis of the patients with OME in the M and T subgroups were analyzed. The average pepsin and pepsinogen concentrations were significantly lower in the M subgroup (n=54; 24.38±16.10mg/mL and 286.49±91.95mg/mL, respectively) than in the T subgroup (n=55; 45.56±16.60mg/mL and 664.92±107.06mg/mL; t=2.484, P=0.018 and t=2.670, P=0.011, respectively). In the M subgroup, the average time to tympanic membrane healing and tympanic pressure restoration to normal was much longer in pepsin(+) patients (17.0±2.0 days and 26.0±2.5 days, respectively) than in pepsin(-) patients (14.0±1.1 days and 22.0±1.0 days; t=3.871, P=0.001 and t=5.734, P=0.000, respectively), and the hearing level of pepsin(+) patients with OME ascended to 13.08±1.19dB, which was much lower than that of pepsin(-) patients (18.29±1.27dB; t=11.001, P=0.000). In the T subgroup, the complication rate including otorrhea and myringosclerosis was much higher in patients with high pepsin concentrations than in those with low pepsin concentrations (P<0.05). Finally, in both subgroups, the recurrence rates of OME in pepsin(+) or patients with high pepsin concentrations (34.6% [9/26] and 28.6% [10/35]) were significantly higher than those in pepsin(-) or low pepsin concentrations (10.7% [3/28] and 5.0% [1/20]; χ(2)=4.456, P=0.035 and χ(2)=4.420, P=0.036). However, pepsinogen had no significant effect on OME prognosis or recurrence. Pepsin but not pepsinogen could postpone tympanic membrane healing and

  6. Validation of viscoelastic coagulation tests during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, E; Rubino, A; Altemimi, B; Collier, T; Besser, M W; Klein, A A

    2015-07-01

    Viscoelastic point-of-care tests such as thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) are increasingly used to guide hemostatic therapy after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to assess their clinical utility during cardiopulmonary bypass to predict postbypass coagulation status and to guide therapy. In this prospective study, TEG and ROTEM tests were performed in 52 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery at two time points: near the end of cardiopulmonary bypass and after heparin reversal with protamine. The 95% confidence intervals of the mean difference were compared with a prespecified clinically relevant limit of ± 20% of the value after protamine. Both viscoelastic fibrinogen assays were well within the prespecified clinically relevant limit (≥ 79% of patients). The laboratory Clauss fibrinogen was much lower during cardiopulmonary bypass than after protamine (mean difference 1.2 g L(-1) , 95% CI 1.03-1.4, which was outside a clinically acceptable difference. For intrinsically activated tests, clotting times (CT) were different and outside the prespecified limit on TEG (mean difference -1.2 min, 95% CI -1.8 to -0.6) but not on ROTEM (mean difference 2.3 sec, 95% CI -8.6 to 13.2), while clot strength was well within the clinical limit on both devices (≥ 94% of patients). For extrinsically activated tests, clot strength on both TEG and ROTEM was within the pre-specified limit in 98% of patients. Results from TEG and ROTEM tests performed toward the end of cardiopulmonary bypass are similar to results after reversal of heparin. Amplitudes indicating clot strength were the most stable parameters across all tests, whereas CT showed more variability. In contrast, laboratory testing of fibrinogen using the Clauss assay was essentially invalid during cardiopulmonary bypass. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  7. Role of Information Available Over the Internet: What are the Parents of Children Undergoing Tonsillectomy Likely to Find?

    PubMed Central

    Roshan, A; Agarwal, S; England, RJA

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to assess the quality of information available on the world wide web to parents of children undergoing tonsillectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The main data source was from internet searches using the five most popular search engines and the keyword ‘tonsillectomy’ with default settings. The first 50 web links in each search were evaluated with the LIDA Instrument (assessing accessibility, usability and reliability criteria). We also assessed the readability of the sites using the Flesch reading ease score (FRES). RESULTS Of the 250 possible links, 113 new links were included the remaining being repetitions, inactive links or restricted access sites. The websites had an average accessibility score of 42/63 (66.7%; range, 26–57), a usability score of 29/54 (53.7%; range, 7–49), and are liability score of 17/51 (33.3%; range, 0–49). The Flesch reading ease score was 43.8 (range, 3–84.4). CONCLUSIONS Health information available on the internet varies greatly. Highly ranked websites on popular search engines may not be the most reliable. Overall, the websites had low scores for reliability, with poor engagability, content production and conflict of interest declaration. Patients should be given previously assessed references on the internet to prevent them being misled by in accurate or commercially motivated information. PMID:18701014

  8. Prediction of area under the cyclosporine concentration versus time curve in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, L Lee; Seto, Winnie; Teuffel, Oliver; Gibson, Paul; Schultz, Kirk R; Doyle, John D; Gassas, Adam; Egeler, R Maarten; Sung, Lillian; Schechter, Tal

    2013-03-01

    This prospective study aimed to validate a previously developed first-dose limited sampling strategy (LSS) to predict the area under the cyclosporine concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) and to develop and then validate an LSS to predict cyclosporine AUC at steady state. This two-center Canadian study included children (ages .4 to 17.2 years) undergoing myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation receiving cyclosporine for acute graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. There were three cohorts, each incorporating 24 AUC determinations: first-dose LSS validation, steady-state LSS development, and steady-state LSS validation. Patients contributing data to either of the development cohorts were excluded from the corresponding validation group. Cyclosporine was given every 12 hours as a 2-hour infusion. Cyclosporine AUC was determined after administration of the first cyclosporine dose (8 samples) and then once weekly (9 samples) until engraftment. Steady-state LSSs were developed using stepwise multiple linear regression. An LSS was considered to provide an acceptable estimate of AUC if the lower limit of the 95% confidence limit (CL) of the intraclass coefficient was .8 or higher and both bias and precision were 15% or less. Fifty-three children age .4 to 18 years participated. Cyclosporine concentrations drawn up to 4 hours from the start of the infusion correlated most strongly with AUC. The previously developed first-dose LSSs and three steady-state LSSs met criteria for acceptability. The intraclass coefficients of the three-point first-dose LSS validation cohort, three-point steady-state LSS development cohort, and three-point steady-state LSS validation cohort were .974 (95% CL: .941 to .988), .984 (95% CL: .965 to .993), and .993 (95% CL: .984 to .997), respectively. The three-point first-dose (2, 6, and 8 hours) and steady-state (2, 2.5, and 8 hours) LSSs are valid measures of cyclosporine AUC after intravenous administration over 2 hours

  9. Sevoflurane-emergence agitation: Effect of supplementary low-dose oral ketamine premedication in preschool children undergoing dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Ahmed Metwally; El-Seify, Zeinab Ahmed

    2009-07-01

    children undergoing dental surgery reduced sevoflurane-related emergence agitation without delaying discharge.

  10. The effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in reducing perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain in children undergoing elective surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Gu; Zhu, Lixia; Chan, Sally Wai Chi; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Wang, Wenru

    2015-06-01

    Children undergoing surgical procedures commonly experience stress and anxiety, exhibit negative behaviors, and complain of postoperative pain. Parents also experience anxiety when their children undergo surgery. Therapeutic play intervention has been used to prepare hospitalized children for invasive medical procedures for decades. However, there has been no systematic review to examine the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention for improving children's health-related outcomes such as perioperative anxiety and postoperative pain. The aim of this review was to synthesize current empirical evidence on the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in reducing perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain in children undergoing elective surgery and in reducing their parents' perioperative anxiety. Systematic searches of electronic databases of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Scopus, and Web of Science and screening of the reference lists of included articles from these databases identified studies on the topic. Relevant studies were methodologically assessed and appraised by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument. Six studies were identified. The outcome measurements were heterogeneous across all six studies. These studies had conflicting outcomes regarding the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in children's perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain. Two studies showed that the intervention significantly reduced parents' preoperative anxiety. The current empirical evidence on the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in children's perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain is inconclusive. More studies on the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention using rigorous designs and involving parents are needed

  11. The effect of KETODEX on the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane based-anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Sally M; Saleh, Amin J; Tang, Yong Zhong; Daoud, Ahmed; Mei, Xi; Ouyang, Wen

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative emergency agitation (EA) is a common problem often observed in children undergoing general anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a bolus of intraoperative low-dose ketamine followed by dexmedetomidine i.v. could reduce the incidence of EA in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy following sevoflurane-based anesthesia. A total of 92 children undergoing adenotonsillectomy, aged 3-7 years, were randomly allocated to receive either low-doseketamine 0.15 mg/kg followed by dexmedetomidine 0.3 μg/kg i.v. (KETODEX, n=45) or volume-matched normal saline (Control, n=47), about 10 min before the end of surgery. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane. Postoperative pain and EA were assessed with objective pain score (OPS) and the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale (PAED), respectively. EA was defined as a PAED≥10 points. Recovery profile and postoperative complications were recorded. The incidence and severity of EA was lower in KETODEX group than controls (11% vs. 47%) and (2% vs. 13%), respectively (P<0.05). The frequency of fentanyl rescue was lower in KETODEX group than in controls (13.3 vs. 38.3%, P<0.05). Heart rate during extubation was significantly higher in the control group compared with children who received KETODEX (P<0.05). The incidence of postoperative pain was significantly less in the KETODEX group (15.5% vs. 63.8%, P<0.05). Times to interaction and extubation were significantly longer in the KETODEX group (P<0.05). KETODEX reduces the incidence and severity of EA in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy following sevoflurane-based anesthesia and provided smooth extubation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Pediatric and Cardiac Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Robert M; Morgan, Ryan W; Kilbaugh, Todd J; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Berg, Robert A

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 5000 to 10,000 children suffer an in-hospital cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) each year in the United States. Importantly, 2% to 6% of all children admitted to pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) receive CPR, as do 4% to 6% of children admitted to pediatric cardiac ICUs. Survival from pediatric ICU cardiac arrest has improved substantially during the past 20 years presumably due to improved training methods, CPR quality, and post-resuscitation care. Extracorporeal life support CPR remains an important treatment option for both cardiac and noncardiac ICU patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Establishment of a coculture model for studying inflammation after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Wollersheim, Sonja; Fedarava, Katisaryna; Huebler, Michael; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Berger, Felix; Miera, Oliver; Schmitt, Katharina R

    2012-06-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been known to induce an inflammatory response that is influenced by various factors. Hypothermia is supposed to reduce inflammation after CPB. We developed an in vitro coculture model for CPB and compared the effects of hypothermia on the inflammatory response in the coculture model with results from a clinical prospective randomized trial. The coculture model consisted of endothelial cells and monocytes. Cells were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and exposed to deep hypothermia (20°C) or normothermia (37°C). In the clinical trial, 20 patients undergoing CPB for ventricular septum defect receive either normothermic (37°C) or mild hypothermic (32°C) CPB. We observed a significant interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 release in the coculture model 2 and 24 h after the experimental start. In the clinical trial, cytokines were significantly increased directly after weaning from CPB and remained elevated until 24 h. IL-8 and IL-6 secretions were similar in the hypothermic and normothermic group of the coculture model and the patients after 24 h. These results demonstrate that the inflammatory reaction observed in our coculture model is comparable with the cytokine increase in the blood of children undergoing CPB. Our coculture model could be useful for studies on the mechanisms of CPB-induced inflammation.

  14. Silent meningioma - a rare cause of stroke in post-cardiopulmonary bypass patients.

    PubMed

    Chow, Hon K; Yousafzai, Sajjad M; Ugurlucan, Murat; Canver, Charles C

    2010-04-30

    Stroke in cardiac patients undergoing surgery is usually attributed to the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. In this report, we present an unusual cause of cerebral dysfunction: a meningioma leading to stroke, following coronary artery bypass grafting in a 62-year-old patient. Diagnosis and treatment options of the pathology are discussed with the guidance of the literature.

  15. Silent meningioma – a rare cause of stroke in post-cardiopulmonary bypass patients

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Hon K.; Yousafzai, Sajjad M.; Canver, Charles C.

    2010-01-01

    Stroke in cardiac patients undergoing surgery is usually attributed to the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. In this report, we present an unusual cause of cerebral dysfunction: a meningioma leading to stroke, following coronary artery bypass grafting in a 62-year-old patient. Diagnosis and treatment options of the pathology are discussed with the guidance of the literature. PMID:22371743

  16. Caudal Levobupivacaine Supplemented with Caudal or Intravenous Clonidine in Children Undergoing Infraumbilical Surgery: A Randomized, Prospective Double-blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Potti, Laxmi Ramya; Bevinaguddaiah, Yatish; Archana, S.; Pujari, Vinayak Seenappa; Abloodu, C. Manjunath

    2017-01-01

    Background: Caudal analgesia is the most popular regional anesthesia technique in pediatric population for intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. Clonidine, an α2 agonist, prolongs analgesia without causing significant respiratory depression after systemic or neuraxial administration. However, the most beneficial route of its administration is still controversial. Thus, we compared the effects of caudal and intravenous (i.v) clonidine on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal levobupivacaine in children undergoing infraumbilical surgery. Methods: A comparative three group study was carried out in seventy-five pediatric patients who underwent elective surgery for infraumbilical procedures, under general anesthesia with caudal block. Group A (n = 25) received levobupivacaine 0.25% 1 mL/kg caudally and 5 mL of normal saline i.v, Group B (n = 25) received levobupivacaine 0.25% 1 mL/kg with 1 μg/kg clonidine caudally and 5 mL of normal saline i.v, and Group C (n = 25) received levobupivacaine 0.25% 1 mL/kg caudally and 1 μg/kg clonidine in 5 mL normal saline i.v. Postoperative pain was assessed for 24 h using the Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale Score. Ramsay sedation scale and modified Bromage scale were assessed at predetermined time intervals for sedation and motor blockade, respectively. Results: The mean duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly longer in Group B (16.68 ± 4.7 h) than in Group A (4.24 ± 1.42) and Group C (9.44 ± 3.88 h): P < 0.001. The number of patients not requiring rescue analgesia in Group B was 5, which was significantly higher than in Group C (one patient) and Group A (zero patient): P < 0.001. No motor blockade or sedation was observed in any of the groups. Conclusions: Clonidine in a dose of 1 μg/kg added to 0.25% levobupivacaine for caudal analgesia significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia, without any side effects. PMID:28298787

  17. The effect of magnesium sulphate infusion on the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Abdulatif, M; Ahmed, A; Mukhtar, A; Badawy, S

    2013-10-01

    This randomised, controlled, double-blind study investigated the effects of intra-operative magnesium sulphate administration on the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia. Seventy children were randomly allocated to receive a 30 mg.kg(-1) bolus of intravenous magnesium sulphate after induction of anaesthesia followed by a continuous infusion of 10 mg.kg(-1).h(-1) or an equal volume of saline 0.9%. All children received titrated sevoflurane anaesthesia adjusted to maintain haemodynamic stability. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Score were used for the assessment of postoperative emergence agitation and pain, respectively. Emergence agitation was more common in the control group than in the magnesium group (23 (72%) and 12 (36%), respectively (p = 0.004)), with a relative risk of 0.51 (95% CI 0.31-0.84), an absolute risk reduction of 0.35 (95% CI 0.10-0.54), and number needed to treat of 3 (95% CI 2-9). Postoperative pain scores were comparable in the two groups. Magnesium sulphate reduces the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia and is not associated with increased postoperative side-effects or delayed recovery. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of an educational intervention on outcomes of parents and their children undergoing inpatient elective surgery: study protocol.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Gu; Zhu, Lixia; Chan, Wai-Chi Sally; Xiao, Chunxiang; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Wang, Wenru; Cheng, Kin Fong Karis; Luo, Nan

    2015-03-01

    To report a study protocol that tests the effectiveness of an educational intervention on outcomes of parents and their children who undergo inpatient elective surgery. Inadequate children's postoperative pain management remains a global problem. Parents are required to be involved in their child's pain assessment and management, yet they often lack relevant knowledge and skills. Education is an effective strategy for enhancing a person's knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. However, few studies have examined its effectiveness in parents and their children undergoing inpatient elective surgery. Randomized controlled trial and embedded qualitative process evaluation. One hundred and sixty-two pairs of participants (each comprised of one parent and his/her child undergoing inpatient elective surgery) will be recruited (protocol approved in January 2013). Participants will be randomized to either a Control group (routine care), an Intervention group 1 (routine care and an educational intervention with face-to-face teaching), or an Intervention group 2 (routine care and an educational intervention without face-to-face teaching). Outcome measures will include parents' knowledge, attitude and behaviour related to postoperative pain management; their child's postoperative pain; and parents' satisfaction with their child's pain management at baseline and around 6, 12 and 24 hours after the operation. A standardized educational intervention protocol and detailed study procedure have been developed in this study to improve parents' knowledge, attitude and behaviour related to postoperative pain management and reduce their child's postoperative pain. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Intra Operative Use of Anti Emetic Drugs for Children Undergoing Full Dental Rehabilitation under General Anesthesia. A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    El Batawi, Hisham Y; Shorrab, Ahmed A

    Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) is a common complication following dental treatment under general anesthesia (DGA) that may lead to unplanned hospitalization, increased costs and dissatisfaction of parents. To investigate the incidence of Postoperative Vomiting (POV) on children who underwent dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia and to compare possible preventive effect of Dexamethasone and Ondansetron on occurrences of POV. A double blind randomized parallel clinical trial was carried out on 352 ASA I children who underwent DGA in a private Saudi hospital in Jeddah. Children were allocated randomly to four groups. Group D of 91 children, received Dexamethasone PONV prophylaxis, group O of 87 children received Ondansetron, group DO of 93 children received combination of the two drugs and group C the control group of 81 children. The three groups were investigated by blinded dental staff for POV episodes, number of times analgesia was needed and post anesthesia care unit time (PACUT). There was a no significant difference between the two drugs on POV. There was a significant difference in POV between control group and groups D, O, and DO. There was significant reduction in need for analgesia in the Dexamethasone groups. The three groups, which had PONV prophylaxis, showed significant reduction in PACUT compared to control group. Antiemetic drugs are useful adjuncts in DGA. Some dental procedures may have higher emetic potential than others. The type of dental procedures done is to be considered when deciding the drug profile in children undergoing DGA.

  20. Survival and neurological outcome following in-hospital paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation in North India.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Vinay; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C; Singhi, Pratibha; Muralidharan, Jayashree

    2016-05-01

    Data on outcome of children undergoing in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. To describe the clinical profile and outcome of children undergoing in-hospital CPR. This prospective observational study was undertaken in the Advanced Pediatric Center, PGIMER, Chandigarh. All patients aged 1 month to 12 years who underwent in-hospital CPR between July 2010 and March 2011 were included. Data were recorded using the 'Utstein style'. Outcome variables included 'sustained return of spontaneous circulation' (ROSC), survival at discharge and neurological outcome at 1 year. The incidence of in-hospital CPR in all hospital admissions (n = 4654) was 6.7% (n = 314). 64.6% (n = 203) achieved ROSC, 14% (n = 44) survived to hospital discharge and 11.1% (n = 35) survived at 1 year. Three-quarters of survivors had a good neurological outcome at 1-year follow-up. Sixty per cent of patients were malnourished. The Median Pediatric Risk of Mortality-III (PRISM-III) score was 16 (IQR 9-25). Sepsis (71%), respiratory (39.5%) and neurological (31.5%) illness were the most common diagnoses. The most common initial arrhythmia was bradycardia (52.2%). On multivariate logistic regression, duration of CPR, diagnosis of sepsis and requirement for vasoactive support prior to arrest were independent predictors of decreased hospital survival. The requirement for in-hospital CPR is common in PGIMER. ROSC was achieved in two-thirds of children, but mortality was higher than in high-income countries because of delayed presentation, malnutrition and severity of illness. CPR >15 min was associated with death. Survivors had good long-term neurological outcome, demonstrating the value of timely CPR.

  1. New thoughts on cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Evans, A T

    1999-05-01

    The results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have been distressingly poor when one considers the amount of research in this field since 1960. Accordingly, some improvements to present protocols have been suggested. Some of the suggestions can be applied by practicing veterinarians to increase the success rate for external chest massage. In addition, veterinarians are encouraged to switch to internal cardiac massage early in the resuscitation period.

  2. Nasopharyngeal and Adenoid Colonization by Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae in Children Undergoing Adenoidectomy and the Ability of Bacterial Isolates to Biofilm Production.

    PubMed

    Kosikowska, Urszula; Korona-Głowniak, Izabela; Niedzielski, Artur; Malm, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Haemophili are pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria often colonizing the upper respiratory tract mucosa. The prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae (with serotypes distribution), and H. parainfluenzae in the nasopharynx and/or the adenoid core in children with recurrent pharyngotonsillitis undergoing adenoidectomy was assessed. Haemophili isolates were investigated for their ability to biofilm production.Nasopharyngeal swabs and the adenoid core were collected from 164 children who underwent adenoidectomy (2-5 years old). Bacteria were identified by the standard methods. Serotyping of H. influenzae was performed using polyclonal and monoclonal antisera. Biofilm formation was detected spectrophotometrically using 96-well microplates and 0.1% crystal violet.Ninety seven percent (159/164) children who underwent adenoidectomy were colonized by Haemophilus spp. The adenoid core was colonized in 99.4% (158/159) children, whereas the nasopharynx in 47.2% (75/159) children (P < 0.0001). In 32% (51/159) children only encapsulated (typeable) isolates of H. influenzae were identified, in 22.6% (36/159) children only (nonencapsulated) H. influenzae NTHi (nonencapsulated) isolates were present, whereas 7.5% (12/159) children were colonized by both types. 14.5% (23/159) children were colonized by untypeable (rough) H. influenzae. In 22% (35/159) children H. influenzae serotype d was isolated. Totally, 192 isolates of H. influenzae, 96 isolates of H. parainfluenzae and 14 isolates of other Haemophilus spp. were selected. In 20.1% (32/159) children 2 or 3 phenotypically different isolates of the same species (H. influenzae or H. parainfluenzae) or serotypes (H. influenzae) were identified in 1 child. 67.2% (129/192) isolates of H. influenzae, 56.3% (54/96) isolates of H. parainfluenzae and 85.7% (12/14) isolates of other Haemophilus spp. were positive for biofilm production. Statistically significant differences (P = 0.0029) among H. parainfluenzae biofilm producers and

  3. Nasopharyngeal and Adenoid Colonization by Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae in Children Undergoing Adenoidectomy and the Ability of Bacterial Isolates to Biofilm Production

    PubMed Central

    Kosikowska, Urszula; Korona-Głowniak, Izabela; Niedzielski, Artur; Malm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Haemophili are pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria often colonizing the upper respiratory tract mucosa. The prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae (with serotypes distribution), and H. parainfluenzae in the nasopharynx and/or the adenoid core in children with recurrent pharyngotonsillitis undergoing adenoidectomy was assessed. Haemophili isolates were investigated for their ability to biofilm production. Nasopharyngeal swabs and the adenoid core were collected from 164 children who underwent adenoidectomy (2–5 years old). Bacteria were identified by the standard methods. Serotyping of H. influenzae was performed using polyclonal and monoclonal antisera. Biofilm formation was detected spectrophotometrically using 96-well microplates and 0.1% crystal violet. Ninety seven percent (159/164) children who underwent adenoidectomy were colonized by Haemophilus spp. The adenoid core was colonized in 99.4% (158/159) children, whereas the nasopharynx in 47.2% (75/159) children (P < 0.0001). In 32% (51/159) children only encapsulated (typeable) isolates of H. influenzae were identified, in 22.6% (36/159) children only (nonencapsulated) H. influenzae NTHi (nonencapsulated) isolates were present, whereas 7.5% (12/159) children were colonized by both types. 14.5% (23/159) children were colonized by untypeable (rough) H. influenzae. In 22% (35/159) children H. influenzae serotype d was isolated. Totally, 192 isolates of H. influenzae, 96 isolates of H. parainfluenzae and 14 isolates of other Haemophilus spp. were selected. In 20.1% (32/159) children 2 or 3 phenotypically different isolates of the same species (H. influenzae or H. parainfluenzae) or serotypes (H. influenzae) were identified in 1 child. 67.2% (129/192) isolates of H. influenzae, 56.3% (54/96) isolates of H. parainfluenzae and 85.7% (12/14) isolates of other Haemophilus spp. were positive for biofilm production. Statistically significant differences (P = 0.0029) among H. parainfluenzae

  4. Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrests in a Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishkin, Barbara H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a simulated interdisciplinary role rehearsal for cardiopulmonary arrest to prepare nurses to function effectively. Includes needs analysis, program components, and responses of program participants. (Author)

  5. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure... the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...

  6. Adaptation of glutathion-peroxidase activity to oxidative stress occurs in children but not in adult patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sommerburg, O; Grune, T; Ehrich, J H H; Siems, W G

    2002-07-01

    Lipid peroxidation (LPO) products formed after reaction of free radicals with membrane lipids are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases. Also in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) LPO was shown to be accelerated and concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants were measured lower than in control subjects. However, up to now only limited knowledge about the role of antioxidant enzymes was available. Whether or not activity of those antioxidants might be induced due to oxidative stress in ESRD patients is not known. To answer the question the activity of 3 enzymatic antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathion peroxidase (GPx), was measured in red blood cells of the ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis (2 groups: children and adults) and matching controls. LPO in these subjects was determined by measurement of the LPO product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) in blood plasma. Plasma HNE was significantly increased by factor 3 in both patient groups children and adults compared to the control groups. The activity of the enzymatic antioxidants was measured differently. While SOD was significantly lower in patients (children and adults) than in the matching controls this was not the case for catalase and GPx. While GPx activity in adult patients was comparable to that in the control groups (childrens and adults), the GPx in children with ESRD was almost twice as high than in the other groups. Since children were shown to have higher levels of glutathion, activated GPx might be a sign of adaptation of these children to the increased rate of oxidation.

  7. The compromised inflammatory response to bacterial components after pediatric cardiac surgery is associated with cardiopulmonary bypass-suppressed Toll-like receptor signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-ping; Huang, Jie; Huang, Shun-gen; Xu, Yong-gen; Xu, Yun-yun; Liao, Jian-yi; Feng, Xing; Zhang, Xue-guang; Wang, Jiang Huai; Wang, Jian

    2014-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during pediatric cardiac surgery often elicits a systemic inflammatory response followed by a compromised immune response, which has been attributed to the morbidity of postoperative infection; however, the underlying mechanism(s) has not yet been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that CPB inhibits the activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal transduction pathways, thereby causing an immunosuppressive state after pediatric cardiac surgery. We examined 20 children with congenital heart disease undergoing pediatric cardiac surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass differentially affected lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or bacterial lipoprotein (BLP)-stimulated ex vivo production of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, with significantly diminished tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, and IL-8, but substantially enhanced IL-10 production. Consistent with the reduced inflammatory response, CPB strongly inhibited LPS- or BLP-activated TLR signal transduction pathways in monocytes with down-regulated expression of CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 and with suppressed phosphorylation of nuclear factor κB p65, p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. These results indicate that CPB during pediatric cardiac surgery causes substantially reduced production of inflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial component LPS or BLP stimulation, which is associated with CPB-induced suppression of TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. This reduced inflammatory response after CPB in children with congenital heart disease may predispose them to an increased risk of postoperative infection. © 2014.

  8. Review and Outcome of Prolonged Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Youness, Houssein; Al Halabi, Tarek; Hussein, Hussein; Awab, Ahmed; Jones, Kellie; Keddissi, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The maximal duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is unknown. We report a case of prolonged CPR. We have then reviewed all published cases with CPR duration equal to or more than 20 minutes. The objective was to determine the survival rate, the neurological outcome, and the characteristics of the survivors. Measurements and Main Results. The CPR data for 82 patients was reviewed. The median duration of CPR was 75 minutes. Patients mean age was 43 ± 21 years with no significant comorbidities. The main causes of the cardiac arrests were myocardial infarction (29%), hypothermia (21%), and pulmonary emboli (12%). 74% of the arrests were witnessed, with a mean latency to CPR of 2 ± 6 minutes and good quality chest compression provided in 96% of the cases. Adjunct therapy included extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (18%), thrombolysis (15.8%), and rewarming for hypothermia (19.5%). 83% were alive at 1 year, with full neurological recovery reported in 63 patients. Conclusion. Patients undergoing prolonged CPR can survive with good outcome. Young age, myocardial infarction, and potentially reversible causes of cardiac arrest such as hypothermia and pulmonary emboli predict a favorable result, especially when the arrest is witnessed and followed by prompt and good resuscitative efforts. PMID:26885387

  9. History of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

    PubMed

    Hessel, Eugene A

    2015-06-01

    The development of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), thereby permitting open-heart surgery, is one of the most important advances in medicine in the 20th century. Many currently practicing cardiac anesthesiologists, cardiac surgeons, and perfusionists are unaware of how recently it came into use (60 years) and how much the practice of CPB has changed during its short existence. In this paper, the development of CPB and the many changes and progress that has taken place over this brief period of time, making it a remarkably safe endeavor, are reviewed. The many as yet unresolved questions are also identified, which sets the stage for the other papers in this issue of this journal.

  10. The Effect of 1 µg/kg Dexmedetomidine Combined with High-Volume/Low-Concentration Caudal Ropivacaine in Children Undergoing Ambulatory Orchiopexy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jang Eun; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Sang Jae; Kil, Hae Keum

    2015-01-01

    When local anesthetics are used, the administration of dexmedetomidine (DEX) can prolong analgesic duration. However, the effect of caudal DEX on high volume/low concentration (HVLC) local anesthetics has not been studied. We investigated the analgesic effect of DEX added to a HVLC of ropivacaine for caudal block in children. Eighty children (the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status I; age, 1-6 years) undergoing ambulatory orchiopexy were enrolled in the study. Children were randomly assigned to undergo a caudal block with 1.5 mL/kg of 0.15% ropivacaine and either 1 µg/kg of DEX (DEX group, n=40) or the same amount of saline (Control group, n=40) under general anesthesia. The results showed that the time to first analgesic request was significantly longer in the DEX group than in the control group. The sevoflurane requirement for anesthesia and frequency of emergence agitation (EA) were also significantly lower in the DEX group. There was no difference in adverse events between the two groups. In conclusion, a dose of 1 µg/kg of caudal DEX prolonged the first analgesic request time, although the immediate postoperative pain scores were comparable in both groups. Furthermore, caudal DEX significantly reduced the sevoflurane requirement and the frequency of EA.

  11. Comparison of oral midazolam with intranasal dexmedetomidine premedication for children undergoing CT imaging: a randomized, double-blind, and controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Babita; Jain, Kajal; Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Bhatia, Nidhi; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh

    2017-01-01

    Children undergoing computerized tomography (CT) frequently require sedation to allay their anxiety, and prevent motion artifacts and stress of intravenous (IV) cannulation. The aim of this trial was to compare the effectiveness of oral midazolam and intranasal dexmedetomidine as sole premedicants in children for carrying out both IV cannulation as well as CT scanning, without the need for additional IV sedatives. Fifty-nine children, aged 1-6 years, scheduled to undergo CT imaging under sedation were randomized to receive either 0.5 mg·kg(-1) oral midazolam (group M) or 2.5 mcg·kg(-1) intranasal dexmedetomidine (group D). After 20-30 min, intravenous cannulation was performed and response to its placement was graded using the Groningen Distress Rating Scale (GDRS). After cannulation, children were transferred on the CT table, and assessed using the Ramsay sedation score (RSS). CT imaging was performed without any further sedative if the RSS was ≥4. If there was movement or decrease in sedation depth (RSS ≤ 3), ketamine 1 mg·kg(-1) IV was given as an initial dose, followed by subsequent doses of 0.5 mg·kg(-1) IV if required. A Significantly higher proportion of children in group D (67%) achieved RSS ≥ 4 as compared to group M (24%) (P-0.002). The risk ratio (95% CI) was 2.76 (1.38-5.52). Significantly lower GDRS scores were noted in group D (1(1-2)) as compared to group M (2(1-2)) at the time of venipuncture (P = 0.04). In the doses and time intervals used in our study, intranasal dexmedetomidine (2.5 μg·kg(-1) ) was found to be superior to oral midazolam (0.5 mg·kg(-1) ) for producing satisfactory sedation for CT imaging. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comparison of Four Different Supraglottic Airway Devices in Terms of Efficacy, Intra-ocular Pressure and Haemodynamic Parameters in Children Undergoing Ophthalmic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Peker, Gökhan; Takmaz, Suna Akın; Baltacı, Bülent; Başar, Hülya; Kotanoğlu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare insertion parameters of four different types of supraglottic airway devices (SGAD) (Classic LMA, I-gel LMA, Proseal LMA, Cobra PLA) in children undergoing ophthalmic surgery and to determine the effect on intra-ocular pressure (IOP) and haemodynamic responses during insertion. Methods Sixty American society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I–II children aged 1–10 years undergoing extra-ocular ophthalmic surgery were randomly divided into four groups (Group LMA, Group I-gel LMA, Group PLMA and Group CPLA) in this prospective, randomised study. Anaesthesia was induced with decreasing sevoflurane concentrations (8%–2%) in a mixture of 50% N2O-O2. All SGADs were inserted under deep anaesthesia. The characteristics of insertion (number of attempts, ease and time), oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) and complications were recorded. IOP in both eyes, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and EtCO2 were measured before and 2 and 5 min after insertion of the SGADs. Results There was no difference between the groups in terms of the characteristics of insertion. The mean IOP did not increase significantly in all groups. MAP and HR changes were similar among the groups during follow-up. In all groups, HR increased 2 min after insertion (statistically insignificant) and returned to the baseline value 5 min after insertion. A statistically significant correlation was seen between HR increase and IOP values before and after insertion of the SGADs (p=0.006, correlation coefficient=0.352). Desaturation was seen in one patient in Groups LMA, PLMA and CPLA, and laryngospasm was seen in two patients in Group CPLA and in one patient in Group LMA. Conclusion It was seen that during insertion of Classic LMA, I-gel LMA, Proseal LMA and Cobra PLA, IOP did not increase and haemodynamic stability was maintained in children undergoing extra-ocular ophthalmic surgery. PMID:27366519

  13. Different strategies for mechanical VENTilation during CardioPulmonary Bypass (CPBVENT 2014): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bignami, Elena; Guarnieri, Marcello; Saglietti, Francesco; Maglioni, Enivarco Massimo; Scolletta, Sabino; Romagnoli, Stefano; De Paulis, Stefano; Paternoster, Gianluca; Trumello, Cinzia; Meroni, Roberta; Scognamiglio, Antonio; Budillon, Alessandro Maria; Pota, Vincenzo; Zangrillo, Alberto; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2017-06-07

    There is no consensus on which lung-protective strategies should be used in cardiac surgery patients. Sparse and small randomized clinical and animal trials suggest that maintaining mechanical ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass is protective on the lungs. Unfortunately, such evidence is weak as it comes from surrogate and minor clinical endpoints mainly limited to elective coronary surgery. According to the available data in the academic literature, an unquestionable standardized strategy of lung protection during cardiopulmonary bypass cannot be recommended. The purpose of the CPBVENT study is to investigate the effectiveness of different strategies of mechanical ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass on postoperative pulmonary function and complications. The CPBVENT study is a single-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled trial. We are going to enroll 870 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with planned use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients will be randomized into three groups: (1) no mechanical ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass, (2) continuous positive airway pressure of 5 cmH2O during cardiopulmonary bypass, (3) respiratory rate of 5 acts/min with a tidal volume of 2-3 ml/Kg of ideal body weight and positive end-expiratory pressure of 3-5 cmH2O during cardiopulmonary bypass. The primary endpoint will be the incidence of a PaO2/FiO2 ratio <200 until the time of discharge from the intensive care unit. The secondary endpoints will be the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications and 30-day mortality. Patients will be followed-up for 12 months after the date of randomization. The CPBVENT trial will establish whether, and how, different ventilator strategies during cardiopulmonary bypass will have an impact on postoperative pulmonary complications and outcomes of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02090205 . Registered on 8 March 2014.

  14. Impaired cerebral autoregulation and elevation in plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein level during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for CHD.

    PubMed

    Easley, Ronald B; Marino, Bradley S; Jennings, Jacky; Cassedy, Amy E; Kibler, Kathleen K; Brady, Ken M; Andropoulos, Dean B; Brunetti, Marissa; Hogue, Charles W; Heitmiller, Eugenie S; Lee, Jennifer K; Spaeth, James; Everett, Allen D

    2017-08-24

    Cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring has been used to identify the lower limit of pressure autoregulation in adult patients with brain injury. We hypothesise that impaired cerebrovascular reactivity and time spent below the lower limit of autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass will result in hypoperfusion injuries to the brain detectable by elevation in serum glial fibrillary acidic protein level. We designed a multicentre observational pilot study combining concurrent cerebrovascular reactivity and biomarker monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass. All children undergoing bypass for CHD were eligible. Autoregulation was monitored with the haemoglobin volume index, a moving correlation coefficient between the mean arterial blood pressure and the near-infrared spectroscopy-based trend of cerebral blood volume. Both haemoglobin volume index and glial fibrillary acidic protein data were analysed by phases of bypass. Each patient's autoregulation curve was analysed to identify the lower limit of autoregulation and optimal arterial blood pressure. A total of 57 children had autoregulation and biomarker data for all phases of bypass. The mean baseline haemoglobin volume index was 0.084. Haemoglobin volume index increased with lowering of pressure with 82% demonstrating a lower limit of autoregulation (41±9 mmHg), whereas 100% demonstrated optimal blood pressure (48±11 mmHg). There was a significant association between an individual's peak autoregulation and biomarker values (p=0.01). Individual, dynamic non-invasive cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring demonstrated transient periods of impairment related to possible silent brain injury. The association between an impaired autoregulation burden and elevation in the serum brain biomarker may identify brain perfusion risk that could result in injury.

  15. The Role of Social and Cognitive Processes in the Relationship between Fear Network and Psychological Distress among Parents of Children Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Shannon Myers; Manne, Sharon; Mee, Laura; Bartell, Abraham; Sands, Stephen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Gajda, Tina Marie

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether cognitive and social processing variables mediated the relationship between fear network and depression among parents of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Parents whose children were initiating HSCT (N = 179) completed survey measures including fear network, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), cognitive processing variables (positive reappraisal and self-blame) and social processing variables (emotional support and holding back from sharing concerns). Fear network was positively correlated with depression (p < .001). Self-blame and holding back emerged as individual partial mediators in the relationship between fear network and depression. Together they accounted for 34.3% of the variance in the relationship between fear network and depression. Positive reappraisal and emotional support did not have significant mediating effects. Social and cognitive processes, specifically self-blame and holding back from sharing concerns, play a negative role in parents’ psychological adaptation to fears surrounding a child’s HSCT. PMID:25081956

  16. Improving access to preparatory information for children undergoing general anaesthesia for tooth extraction and their families: study protocol for a Phase III randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children can find anaesthesia induction especially distressing and postoperative psychological and physical morbidity are common. Preparation programmes for general anaesthesia (GA) are highly effective in reducing this distress. A Phase II study has already verified the effectiveness of a prototype preoperative GA-coping computer game to help children cope with induction in a dental GA setting. The biggest patient users of pediatric GA services in the UK are children who need to have teeth removed (estimated to be 100,000 yearly). Tooth decay is the most common disease in children worldwide. This study is a Phase III randomized controlled trial (RCT) and will evaluate the effectiveness of the new internet version of this game. Methods/design The Phase III RCT will use a double-blind three-armed design. The clinical trial will recruit up to 210 children and will compare the web-based game against standard care and another non-medical game. At least 53 patients in each group will be required for 90% statistical power. Distress will be assessed through an evaluation of the child’s behaviour during the visit and later parental reports of physical and psychological morbidity. The satisfaction of parents and children will be measured; the mode of usage of the web-based game will be automatically recorded and the impact on the service (for example, recovery time and throughput) will be reported. The Phase III study primary outcome will measure: (1) patient experience: acceptance of anaesthetic induction, child cooperation and distress, reduction of peri- and postoperative morbidity, child and family satisfaction, and (2) service improvement: anaesthetic time and improvement in throughput. Measures will be administered at baseline, at the time of the GA treatment visit, and at 48 hours and one week postoperatively. Discussion This study aims to determine the effectiveness of an online GA-coping game for children and families undergoing tooth extraction under

  17. Guideline for the prevention of oral and oropharyngeal mucositis in children receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Lillian; Robinson, Paula; Treister, Nathaniel; Baggott, Tina; Gibson, Paul; Tissing, Wim; Wiernikowski, John; Brinklow, Jennifer; Dupuis, L Lee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the prevention of oral mucositis in children (0–18 years) receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods The Mucositis Prevention Guideline Development Group was interdisciplinary and included internationally recognised experts in paediatric mucositis. For the evidence review, we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in either children or adults evaluating the following interventions selected according to prespecified criteria: cryotherapy, low level light therapy (LLLT) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). We also examined RCTs of any intervention conducted in children. For all systematic reviews, we synthesised the occurrence of severe oral mucositis. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach was used to describe quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. Results We suggest cryotherapy or LLLT may be offered to cooperative children receiving chemotherapy or HSCT conditioning with regimens associated with a high rate of mucositis. We also suggest KGF may be offered to children receiving HSCT conditioning with regimens associated with a high rate of severe mucositis. However, KGF use merits caution as there is a lack of efficacy and toxicity data in children, and a lack of long-term follow-up data in paediatric cancers. No other interventions were recommended for oral mucositis prevention in children. Conclusions All three specific interventions evaluated in this clinical practice guideline were associated with a weak recommendation for use. There may be important organisational and cost barriers to the adoption of LLLT and KGF. Considerations for implementation and key research gaps are highlighted. PMID:25818385

  18. The eFOSTr PROJECT: design, implementation and evaluation of a web-based Personal Health Record to support health professionals and families of children undergoing transplants.

    PubMed

    Popkin, James; Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth; Guarin, Desmond; Mozley, Lynne; Kilarski, Norm; Robson, Laurie; Creed, Walter

    2009-01-01

    We describe the eFOSTr PROJECT, which has involved the design, implementation and testing of a unique Internet-based Personal Health Record (PHR) to support the families of transplant children and their healthcare providers. There are many gaps in the way that information is stored for children undergoing or about to undergo transplants. This group of children presents the most challenging exercise in information support between geographic and institutionally separated medical teams. They are, however, supported by highly motivated parents and families in life-threatening circumstances. A PHR was designed that allows for secure data entry, data storage, and easy controlled data access by the children's guardians or parents. The record includes contact and team member names, and medical data such as growth charts, immunizations, allergies, medications, lab values and scanned or digitized medical reports. Families can record the progress of their child as they would with a paper binder and customize their child's record with a photograph gallery and Internet link section for personal and general interest. Extensive computer-based testing of the PHR is complete. The system is being evaluated to determine the extent to which it meets the information needs of families and health providers in differing situations across Canada. The effectiveness of the system as a means for providing continuity of information and education is also being assessed. To conduct these evaluations, new users are being interviewed and tracked in a qualitative longitudinal study. Characteristics of the needs of the transplant families known to the David Foster Foundation (DFF) in Canada are described so that comparisons can be made to other patient groups who could benefit from their own adapted and specialized PHRs.

  19. A comparative study of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl as adjuvants to levobupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Elfawal, SM; Abdelaal, WA; Hosny, MR

    2016-01-01

    Background: Levobupivacaine is an effective local anesthetic agent with less systemic toxicity than racemic bupivacaine, but it has short postoperative analgesic duration. Dexmedetomidine and fentanyl are promising adjuncts to provide excellent and prolonged postoperative caudal analgesia. This study compared the effects of caudal levobupivacaine plus dexmedetomidine and levobupivacaine plus fentanyl for postoperative analgesia and sedation in children undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery. Patients and Methods: Ninety children, whose age ranged from 1 to 7 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II, undergoing orthopedic lower limb surgery under general anesthesia received caudal block for postoperative analgesia. The children were randomly allocated into three groups: Group L (control) received 0.75 ml/kg levobupivacaine 0.25% diluted in saline; Group LD received 0.75 ml/kg levobupivacaine 0.25% with dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg; and Group LF received 0.75 ml/kg levobupivacaine 0.25% with fentanyl 1 μg/kg. Following the administration of the drugs; hemodynamic variables, the total anesthesia time, sedation score, Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability score, duration of analgesia, and side effects were recorded. Results: Demographically, all the groups were comparable, both the baseline and the intraoperative hemodynamic profile were similar in all groups. The mean duration of analgesia and the mean sedation score in the Group LD were significantly greater as compared to both the other groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine may be a better additive to levobupivacaine than fentanyl for caudal postoperative analgesia, arousable sedation with comparable hemodynamic and side effect profile in children. PMID:27833486

  20. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control is a... control the speed of blood pumps used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (b) Classification. Class...

  1. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control is a... control the speed of blood pumps used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (b) Classification. Class...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control is a... control the speed of blood pumps used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (b) Classification. Class...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control is a... control the speed of blood pumps used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (b) Classification. Class...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control is a... control the speed of blood pumps used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (b) Classification. Class...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge...

  9. A trial of fresh autologous whole blood to treat dilutional coagulopathy following cardiopulmonary bypass in infants.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Robert H; Perryman, Kathy M; Weigers, Kim R; Mitchell, Max B; Friesen, Richard M

    2006-04-01

    Transfusion of fresh whole blood is superior to blood component therapy in correcting coagulopathies in children following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); however, a supply of fresh homologous whole blood is difficult to maintain. We hypothesized that transfusion of fresh autologous whole blood obtained prior to heparinization for CPB and infused following CPB would be associated with improved coagulation function when compared with standard therapy. A total of 32 infants 5-12 kg undergoing noncomplex open cardiac surgery were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group. In the treatment group, 15 ml x kg(-1) of autologous whole blood was collected into a CPDA bag prior to heparinization while 15 ml x kg(-1) of 5% albumin was infused intravenously. After reversal of heparin, coagulation tests were drawn in both groups, and the autologous whole blood was infused over 20 min in the treatment group. The treatment group had greater (P < 0.05) improvement in platelet count, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen than the control group. We conclude that collection of fresh autologous whole blood prior to heparinization and reinfusion following CPB is associated with greater improvement of coagulation status after CPB in infants.

  10. Behavioural and physiological outcomes of biofeedback therapy on dental anxiety of children undergoing restorations: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dedeepya, P; Nuvvula, S; Kamatham, R; Nirmala, S V S G

    2014-04-01

    To explore the efficacy of biofeedback as possible alternative means of psychological behaviour guidance in children receiving dental restorations. Randomised clinical trial with a cross over design carried out on 40 children (19 boys and 21 girls) to determine the efficacy of biofeedback in reducing the dental anxiety through subjective and objective measures during restorative treatments under cotton roll isolation without administration of local analgesia. Highly anxious children with a minimum of five carious lesions were trained to lower their anxiety using biofeedback in five sessions within a 4-week interval, each session lasting for 45 min. After initial training, children were randomly divided into two groups and restorations were placed in four sequential therapeutic sessions with a 1-week interval and a follow-up visit 3 months later. First group received biofeedback in the second and third sessions; whereas the second group received biofeedback in the first and third sessions. Biofeedback therapy in children led to lower levels of anxiety in the initial appointments when assessed objectively, however the subjective methods of evaluation could not depict any statistically significant difference. Biofeedback can be used in the initial visits for dentally anxious children and the usage of simpler biofeedback machines for these appointments in dental setup is suggested.

  11. Cardiopulmonary readjustments in passive tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matalon, S. V.; Farhi, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    The readjustment of cardiopulmonary variables in human volunteers at various tilt angles on a tilt board is studied. Five healthy subjects (18-31 yr) with thorough knowledge of the experimental protocol are tested, passively tilted from the supine to the upright position in 15-deg increments in random sequence. The parameters measured are cardiac output (Q), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), minute and alveolar ventilation /V(E) and V(A)/, functional residual capacity (FRC), and arterial-end-tidal P(CO2) pressure difference. It is found that changes in Q and FRC are linearly related to the sine of the tilt angle, indicating that either reflexes are absent or their net effect is proportional to the effects of gravity. This is clearly not the case for other variables /HR, SV, V(E), V(A)/, where it is possible to demonstrate threshold values for the appearance of secondary changes.

  12. Mini cardiopulmonary bypass: Anesthetic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Alsatli, Raed A.

    2012-01-01

    This review article is going to elaborate on the description, components, and advantages of mini-cardiopulmonary bypass (mini-CPB), with special reference to the anesthetic management and fast track anesthesia with mini-CPB. There are several clinical advantages of mini-CPB like, reduced inflammatory reaction to the pump, reduced need for allogenic blood transfusion and lower incidence of postoperative neurological complications. There are certainly important points that have to be considered by anesthesiologists to avoid sever perturbation in the cardiac output and blood pressure during mini-CPB. Fast-track anesthesia provides advantages regarding fast postoperative recovery from anesthesia, and reduction of postoperative ventilation time. Mini bypass offers a sound alternative to conventional CPB, and has definite advantages. It has its limitations, but even with that it has a definite place in the current practice of cardiac surgery. PMID:25885494

  13. Cardiopulmonary involvement in Takayasu's arteritis.

    PubMed

    Brennan, David N; Warrington, Kenneth J; Crowson, Cynthia S; Schmidt, Jean; Koster, Matthew J

    2017-06-12

    To evaluate cardiopulmonary (CP) involvement in patients with Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) and assess the impact on disease outcomes. A retrospective cohort of patients with newly diagnosed TAK from 1984 to 2009 was assembled. Demographics, baseline disease characteristics, relapse events, surgeries and mortality were abstracted from direct medical record review. Angiograms, advanced imaging and cardiac studies were reviewed for evidence of CP involvement. Cox models with time-dependent covariates were used to assess the association between CP involvement and outcomes. A total of 124 patients with TAK were identified. Forty-five (36%) patients had at least one objective CP abnormality observed within 6 months of TAK diagnosis. Age at diagnosis was higher in those with CP involvement than those without (34.6 vs 30.1 yrs; p=0.04). Baseline characteristics and symptoms were similar, except shortness of breath, which was more frequently observed at TAK diagnosis in patients with CP involvement compared to those without (53% vs 21%; p=0.001). Composite CP involvement was not associated with risk of first surgery [Hazard ratio (95% CI): 1.21 (0.64-2.30); p=0.56]. However, pulmonary hypertension (PH) on echocardiogram was significantly associated with risk of first surgery [HR (95% CI): 12.9 (1.86- 89.14); p=0.01]. CP involvement was not significantly associated with mortality [HR (95% CI): 2.51 (0.45- 14.02); p=0.29]. Cardiopulmonary abnormalities in TAK are common at the time of initial presentation. In this population, the presence of PH predicted a 13-fold increased risk for vascular or valvular surgery. In this cohort, the presence of CP involvement did not increase mortality.

  14. Embolic Activity During In Vivo Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    DeFoe, Gordon R.; Dame, Norman A.; Farrell, Mark S.; Ross, Cathy S.; Langner, Craig W.; Likosky, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Neurologic injury after cardiac surgery is principally associated with emboli. Although much work has focused on surgical sources of emboli, less attention has been focused on emboli associated with the heart–lung machine. We tested whether emboli are associated with discrete processes during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). One hundred patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery were enrolled between April 2008 and May 2011 at a single medical center. During each surgical procedure, emboli were counted in three CPB locations: the venous side (Channel 1), before the arterial line filter (Channel 2), and after the arterial line filter (Channel 3). We used prespecified event markers to identify perfusionist interventions. Identical circuits were used on all patients. Of the 100 patients enrolled, 62 underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 17 underwent isolated valve operations, and 21 underwent CABG plus valve. Median counts across Channels 1, 2, and 3 were 69,853, 3,017, and 1,251, respectively. The greatest contributor to emboli in Channels 1, 2, and 3, respectively, were achieving the calculated CPB flow, opening of the electronic arterial line clamp, and introducing a hemofilter. The circuit technology was efficient in reducing total emboli counts from Channels 1–2 irrespective of the size of the emboli. Nearly 71% of all emboli 30–100 mm in size were removed from the circuit between Channels 2 and 3. No significant association was found between emboli counts and S100B release. Emboli occur frequently during CPB and are predominantly associated with the initiation of bypass, operation of the electronic arterial line clamp, and the initiation of a hemofilter. Continued work to reduce the occurrence of emboli is warranted. PMID:25208432

  15. Pre-anesthetic echocardiographic findings in children undergoing non-cardiac surgery at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, E Sadoh,; Paul, Ikhurionan; Charles, Imarengiaye,

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background A pre-anaesthestic echocardiogram (echo) is requested for most non-cardiac surgeries to identify possible cardiac structural anomalies Objective To describe the prevalence and spectrum of structural cardiac abnormalities seen in various non-cardiac conditions Methods We carried out a retrospective review of pre-anaesthetic echos performed over five years on children scheduled for non-cardiac surgery. The requests were categorised according to referring specialities, and the biodata and echo findings were noted Results A total of 181 children and 181 echocardiograms were studied, and 100 (55.2%) of the patients were male. Most of the children (87, 48.1%) with oro-facial clefts were referred from dentistry. Of the 181 children, 39 (21.5%) had cardiac abnormalities, most (34, 87.2%) of whom had congenital heart disease (CHD). Ophthalmic requests with suspected congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) had the highest prevalence of 8/12 (66.7%) while the lowest was oro-facial clefts at 15/87 (17.2%). Atrial septal defect was the commonest abnormality, found in 14 patients (35.9%) Conclusion Pre-anaesthetic echo should be performed, especially for children with suspected CRS and other congenital anomalies, requiring non-cardiac surgery. PMID:27701485

  16. Anxiety, depression, stress, and cortisol levels in mothers of children undergoing maintenance therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Neu, Madalynn; Matthews, Ellyn; King, Nancy A; Cook, Paul F; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare anxiety, depression, and stress between mothers of children during maintenance treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and matched controls. Twenty-six mothers were recruited from the hematology unit at a children's hospital, and 26 mothers were recruited from the community. Participants were matched to their child's age and gender. Mothers completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Perceived Stress Sale, and collected salivary cortisol 4 times a day for 3 consecutive days. Compared with mothers of healthy children, anxiety scores did not differ (P=.10), but depression scores were higher (P=.003) in mothers of children with ALL. More mothers in the ALL group scored above the cutoff of 7 indicating clinical anxiety (46%) and depressive symptoms (27%). A trend toward increased stress was found in mothers in the ALL group. No difference was found in overall daily cortisol (area under the curve), daily decrease in cortisol (slope), and cortisol awakening response. Mothers of children with ALL experienced emotional symptoms many months after the initial diagnosis.

  17. Cardiopulmonary risk index does not predict complications after thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Melendez, J A; Carlon, V A

    1998-07-01

    The preoperative cardiopulmonary risk index (CPRI) is a multifactorial index intended to predict postoperative outcome after thoracic surgery. It combines cardiac and pulmonary information into one parameter that ranges from 1 to 10, with 10 being the worst. A CPRI > or = 4 has been advocated as an effective predictor of postoperative pulmonary and cardiac complications. This study prospectively evaluates the predictive value of CPRI in a large population of patients undergoing thoracic surgery. We performed prospective calculation of CPRI in patients about to undergo thoracic surgery. Postthoracic surgery occurrence of pneumonia, atelectasis, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, respiratory failure requiring therapy, or death occurring within 30 days of surgery was compared with preoperative CPRI and its components. One hundred eighty consecutive patients, aged 15 to 87 years, were studied. Operations performed included 114 lobectomies, 35 wedge resections, 19 pneumonectomies, 5 pleurectomies, 5 lymph node dissections, 1 thoracic wall resection, and 1 paravertebral tumor resection. Twenty-seven percent of patients experienced complications. CPRI and its components did not predict complications, deaths, or the number of in-hospital days. We found a CPRI > or = 4 to be a moderate predictor of outcome for patients undergoing pneumonectomy (n = 19). It correctly identified four of nine postpneumonectomy complications. The preoperative CPRI and its components are inadequate predictors of medical complications after thoracic surgery in a general population. In the subgroup of patients undergoing pneumonectomy, the index may be of some value in forecasting outcome.

  18. An audit of the use of an opiate sparing, multimodal analgesic regime in children with Sleep Disordered Breathing/Obstructive Sleep Apnoea undergoing adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Hack, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Children with Sleep Disordered Breathing/Obstructive Sleep Apnoea have an increased incidence of respiratory complications following adenotonsillectomy. This may be partly related to an increase in sensitivity to opiates. An audit of such cases undergoing adenotonsillectomy was performed with the following aims: All patients had Sleep Disordered Breathing/Obstructive Sleep Apnoea confirmed preoperatively by Overnight Oximetry Studies. Oximetry data was expressed as the lowest recorded saturation (SpO2 Low %) and number of significant desaturations (see text) per hour (ODI4%). Case notes and oximetry studies were scrutinized for relevant perioperative anaesthetic and analgesic data, risk factors and complications. The overall incidence of major and minor respiratory complications was low (1.6% and 27% respectively). Children who suffered any complication were more likely to be younger (p=0.0078), have a lower SpO2 Low (p=0.004) and higher ODI4% (p=<0.0001). Multiple logistic regression showed ODI4% to be the best predictor of a potential respiratory complication (p=0.0032). An ODI4% of >8 may be the best cut off point in predicting complications (AUC=0.78, sensitivity=0.90) but it showed a poor specificity (0.57). Primary/secondary haemorrhage occurred in 0.4%/1.2% respectively and postoperative nausea and vomiting in 4.4%. A low dose opiate-based, multi modal analgesic regime appears to be effective and safe in children with Sleep Disordered Breathing/Obstructive Sleep Apnoea undergoing adenotonsillectomy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dose Optimization to Minimize Radiation Risk for Children Undergoing CT and Nuclear Medicine Imaging Is Misguided and Detrimental.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jeffry A; Sacks, Bill; Pennington, Charles W; Welsh, James S

    2017-06-01

    A debate exists within the medical community on whether the linear no-threshold model of ionizing radiation exposure accurately predicts the subsequent incidence of radiogenic cancer. In this article, we evaluate evidence refuting the linear no-threshold model and corollary efforts to reduce radiation exposure from CT and nuclear medicine imaging in accord with the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principle, particularly for children. Further, we review studies demonstrating that children are not, in fact, more radiosensitive than adults in the radiologic imaging dose range, rendering dose reduction for children unjustifiable and counterproductive. Efforts to minimize nonexistent risks are futile and a major source of persistent radiophobia. Radiophobia is detrimental to patients and parents, induces stress, and leads to suboptimal image quality and avoidance of imaging, thus increasing misdiagnoses and consequent harm while offering no compensating benefits. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  20. FNIRS-based evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-03-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2 ± 2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger tapping task were quantified before, immediately after, and six months after CIMT. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8 ± 1.3 years old) were also imaged at the same time points to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. In children with CP the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted six months later. In contrast to this longer term improvement in localized activation response, the laterality index that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed six months later.

  1. [Local anesthesia in the children undergoing the fibroendoscopic study of the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and larynx: are topical anesthetics needed?].

    PubMed

    Soldatsky, Yu L; Denisova, O A; Mazur, E M

    2015-01-01

    This prospective randomized study with double blind control was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of various anesthetic techniques employed prior to fibroendoscopy of the nose, nasopharynx, and larynx of the children. The study included 160 children at the age varying from 3 to 14 (mean 7.4±2.96) years randomly allocated to four statistically comparable groups matched for age and sex. The following preparations were used to treat the children prior to fibroendoscopy: physiological solution (group 1), a 0.05% xylometazoline solution (group 2), a 10% lidocaine solution (group 3), and a mixture of 0.05% xylometazoline and 10% lidocaine solutions (group 4). The evaluation of the tolerance to the pretreatment of the nasal cavity with lidocaine and lidocaine plus xylometazoline (groups 3 and 4) showed that it was significantly (p<0.05) worse than in groups 1 and 2. The subjective tolerance to fibroendoscopy as reported by the patients was on the average similar in the children of all four groups (p>0.05). The doctors found the tolerance of fibroendoscopy to be the worst following pretreatment with the physiological solution (group 1) and the best after pretreatment with a mixture of lidocaine and xylometazoline (group 4) (p=0.03). The children comprising groups 2 and 3 were not significantly different in terms of the tolerance to fibroendoscopy (p>0.05). It is concluded that the pretreatment of the nasal cavity of the children with a 10% lidocaine solution before fibroendoscopy has no advantage over the pretreatment with a 0.05% xylometazoline solution; at the same time, insuflation of lidocaine as an anesthetic induces more pronounced negative emotions compared with the application of 0.05% xylometazoline.

  2. Cardiopulmonary Syndromes (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about common conditions that produce chest symptoms. The cardiopulmonary syndromes addressed in this summary are cancer-related dyspnea, malignant pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and superior vena cava syndrome.

  3. Teaching Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carveth, Stephen W.

    1979-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a key part of emergency cardiac care. It is a basic life support procedure that can be taught in the schools with the assistance of the American Heart Association. (JMF)

  4. Cardiopulmonary helminths in foxes from the Pyrenees.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Castañé, Ignasi; Ortuño, Anna; Marco, Ignasi; Castellà, Joaquim

    2015-12-01

    The present survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of cardiopulmonary helminths in red foxes in Pyrenees area and to evaluate the role of foxes in the eco-epidemiology of these nematodes. Hearts and entire respiratory tracts were obtained from 87 foxes from Vall d'Aran region, Pyrenees, Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. The cardiopulmonary tracts were dissected, flushed and examined for nematodes using sedimented flushing water. Of the 87 examined foxes, 53 (61%) were positive for cardiopulmonary helminths. The identified nematodes were Crenosoma vulpis (44.8%), Eucoleus aerophilus (29.9%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.4%). Statistical differences were observed only on comparing age and C.vulpis prevalence, with young foxes being more infected than adults. The high prevalence of cardiopulmonary nematodes suggested that red foxes may play an important role in their transmission and maintenance in the studied area.

  5. Evaluation of the estimated continuous cardiac output monitoring system in adults and children undergoing kidney transplant surgery: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Terada, Takashi; Maemura, Yumi; Yoshida, Akiko; Muto, Rika; Ochiai, Ryoichi

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of the estimated continuous cardiac output (esCCO) allows non-invasive and continuous assessment of cardiac output. However, the applicability of this approach in children has not been assessed thus far. We compared the correlation coefficient, bias, standard deviation (SD), and the lower and upper 95 % limits of agreement for esCCO and dye densitography-cardiac output (DDG-CO) measurements by pulse dye densitometry (PDD) in adults and children. On the basis of these assessments, we aimed to examine whether esCCO can be used in pediatric patients. DDG-CO was measured by pulse dye densitometry (PDD) using indocyanine green. Modified-pulse wave transit time, obtained using pulse oximetry and electrocardiography, was used to measure esCCO. Correlations between DDG-CO and esCCO in adults and children were analyzed using regression analysis with the least squares method. Differences between the two correlation coefficients were statistically analyzed using a correlation coefficient test. Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate bias and SD for DDG-CO and esCCO in both adults and children, and 95 % limits of agreement (bias ± 1.96 SD) and percentage error (1.96 SD/mean DDG-CO) were calculated and compared. The average age of the adult patients (n = 10) was 39.3 ± 12.1 years, while the average age of the pediatric patients (n = 7) was 9.4 ± 3.1 years (p < 0.001). For adults, the correlation coefficient was 0.756; bias, -0.258 L/min; SD, 1.583 L/min; lower and upper 95 % limits of agreement for DDG-CO and esCCO, -3.360 and 2.844 L/min, respectively; and percentage error, 42.7 %. For children, the corresponding values were 0.904; -0.270; 0.908; -2.051 and 1.510 L/min, respectively; and 35.7 %. Due to the high percentage error values, we could not establish a correlation between esCCO and DDG-CO. However, the 95 % limits of agreement and percentage error were better in children than in adults. Due to the high percentage error, we could not confirm a correlation

  6. Factors influencing neurologic outcome after neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass: what we can and cannot control.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Tain-Yen; Gruber, Peter J

    2006-06-01

    Advances in cardiopulmonary bypass and surgical techniques have led to progress in the early repair of congenital heart defects in children. However, as increasing numbers survive their initial cardiac operation, an awareness is emerging that significant early and late neurologic morbidities continue to complicate otherwise successful operative repairs. Adverse neurologic outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgery are multifactorial and relate to both fixed and modifiable mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to (1) review mechanisms of brain injury after neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass, (2) examine risk factors, and (3) speculate on how investigations may improve our understanding of neurologic injury.

  7. Play distraction versus pharmacological treatment to reduce anxiety levels in children undergoing day surgery: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Al-Yateem, N; Brenner, M; Shorrab, A A; Docherty, C

    2016-07-01

    pharmacological premedication for children undergoing day surgery. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cardiopulmonary bypass: Evidence or experience based?

    PubMed

    Bartels, Claus; Gerdes, Anja; Babin-Ebell, Jörg; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Boeken, Udo; Doenst, Torsten; Feindt, Peter; Heiermann, Michael; Schlensak, Christian; Sievers, Hans-Hinrich

    2002-07-01

    Evidence-based medicine is emerging as a new paradigm for medical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of scientific evidence supporting principles that are currently applied for cardiopulmonary bypass performance. A survey of all German departments of cardiac surgery regarding cardiopulmonary bypass performance disclosed major differences. Consequently, for 48 major principles of cardiopulmonary bypass performance, relevant Medical Subject Headings were identified, and a literature search of the Medline database was performed. Two sequentially applied sets of inclusion-exclusion criteria were selected to assess the best available evidence. Thirty-three thousand articles relating to the subject were identified. Among these, 1500 fulfilled the first set of inclusion criteria: meta-analysis of (randomized) controlled clinical trials and in vitro and animal studies. Rigorous methodological criteria were then applied to further select remaining publications. Ultimately, 225 articles referring to major cardiopulmonary bypass principles were identified as providing the best available evidence. These were graded according to their methodological rigor (susceptibility to bias). The scientific evidence on the investigated cardiopulmonary bypass principles did not prove to be of a high enough level to allow general recommendations to be made. The scientific data concerning the effectiveness and safety of key principles of cardiopulmonary bypass are insufficient in both amount and quality of scientific evidence to serve as a basis for practical, evidence-based guidelines.

  9. Measurement of effective aortic valve area using three-dimensional echocardiography in children undergoing aortic balloon valvuloplasty for aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Tara; Fernandes, Fernanda; Slorach, Cameron; Mertens, Luc; Friedberg, Mark Kevin

    2012-04-01

    Pressure gradient is used for timing of balloon aortic valvuloplasty for aortic stenosis (AS) in children, but does not correlate well with outcome and is limited if ventricular function is poor. In adults, effective orifice area (EOA) is used to assess AS severity, but EOA by continuity equation or 2D echo is unreliable in children. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) may reliably assess EOA but has not been studied in children. We assessed measurement of aortic valve EOA by 3DE in children with AS before and after balloon aortic valvuloplasty and compared results with change in aortic valve gradient. 3DE was performed at time of catheterization before and after balloon aortic valvuloplasty. Using 3DE multiplanar review mode, valve annulus diameter, area, and EOA were measured and compared with change in aortic gradient and degree of aortic insufficiency. Twenty-four 3DE studies in 12 children (mean age 4.4 ± 5.0 years) were analyzed. EOA was measurable in all. Catheter peak gradient decreased from 45 ± 10 to 26 ± 17 mmHg (P = 0.0018). 3DE EOA increased after balloon aortic valvuloplasty (0.59 ± 0.52 cm(2) vs 0.80 ± 0.70 cm(2) ; P = 0.03), without change in valve diameter. EOA change correlated with change in peak (r = 0.77; P = 0.005) and mean (r = 0.60; P = 0.03) aortic valve gradient post balloon aortic valvuloplasty. 3DE facilitates EOA measurement in pediatric AS and correlates with change in aortic valve gradient after balloon valvuloplasty. © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Heparin Reversal After Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Are Point-of-Care Coagulation Tests Interchangeable?

    PubMed

    Willems, Ariane; Savan, Veaceslav; Faraoni, David; De Ville, Andrée; Rozen, Laurence; Demulder, Anne; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Protamine is used to neutralize heparin after patient separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Different bedside tests are used to monitor the adequacy of heparin neutralization. For this study, the interchangeability of the activated coagulation time (ACT) and thromboelastometry (ROTEM; Tem Innovations GmbH, Basel, Switzerland) clotting time (CT) ratios in children undergoing cardiac surgery was assessed. Single-center, retrospective, cohort study between September 2010 and January 2012. University children's hospital. The study comprised children 0 to 16 years old undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB. Exclusion criteria were preoperative coagulopathy, Jehovah's witnesses, and children in a moribund condition (American Society of Anesthesiologists score 5). None. After heparin neutralization with protamine, the ratio between ACT, with and without heparinase, and the CT measured with INTEM/HEPTEM (intrinsic test activated with ellagic acid was performed without heparinase [INTEM] and with heparinase [HEPTEM]) using tests of ROTEM were calculated. Agreement was evaluated using Cohen's kappa statistics, Passing-Bablok regression, and Bland-Altman analysis. Among the 173 patients included for analysis, agreement between both tests showed a Cohen's kappa statistic of 0.06 (95% CI: -0.02 to 0.14; p = 0.22). Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of 0.01, with a standard deviation of 0.13, and limits of agreement between -0.24 and 0.26. Passing-Bablok regression showed a systematic difference of 0.40 (95% CI: 0.16-0.59) and a proportional difference of 0.61 (95% CI: 0.42-0.86). The residual standard deviation was 0.11 (95% CI: -0.22 to 0.22), and the test for linearity showed p = 0.10. ACT, with or without heparinase, and the INTEM/HEPTEM CT ratios are not interchangeable to evaluate heparin reversal after pediatric patient separation from CPB. Therefore, the results of these tests should be corroborated with the absence/presence of bleeding and integrated into

  11. Influence of norepinephrine and phenylephrine on frontal lobe oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Brassard, Patrice; Pelletier, Claudine; Martin, Mickaël; Gagné, Nathalie; Poirier, Paul; Ainslie, Philip N; Caouette, Manon; Bussières, Jean S

    2014-06-01

    Although utilization of vasopressors recently has been associated with reduced cerebral oxygenation, the influence of vasopressors on cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with diabetes is unknown. The aim of this study was to document the impact of norepinephrine and phenylephrine utilization on cerebral oxygenation in patients with and without diabetes during cardiopulmonary bypass. Prospective, clinical study. Academic medical center. Fourteen patients with diabetes and 17 patients without diabetes undergoing cardiac surgery. During cardiopulmonary bypass, norepinephrine (diabetics n = 6; non-diabetics n = 8) or phenylephrine (diabetics n = 8; non-diabetics n = 9) was administered intravenously to maintain mean arterial pressure above 60 mmHg. Mean arterial pressure, venous temperature, arterial oxygenation, and frontal lobe oxygenation (monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy) were recorded before anesthesia induction (baseline) and continuously during cardiopulmonary bypass. Frontal lobe oxygenation was lowered to a greater extent in diabetics versus non-diabetics with administration of norepinephrine (-14±13 v 3±12%; p<0.05). There was also a trend towards a greater reduction in cerebral oxygenation in diabetics versus non-diabetics with administration of phenylephrine (-12±8 v -6±7%; p = 0.1) during cardiopulmonary bypass. Administration of norepinephrine to restore mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with a reduction in frontal lobe oxygenation in diabetics but not in patients without diabetes. Administration of phenylephrine also were associated with a trend towards a greater reduction in frontal lobe oxygenation in diabetics. The clinical implications of these findings deserve future consideration. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On the development of a decision support intervention for mothers undergoing BRCA1/2 cancer genetic testing regarding communicating test results to their children

    PubMed Central

    Peshkin, Beth N.; DeMarco, Tiffani A.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Parent communication of BRCA1/2 test results to minor-age children is an important, yet understudied, clinical issue that is commonly raised in the management of familial cancer risk. Genetic counseling professionals and others who work with parents undergoing this form of testing often confront questions about the risks/benefits and timing of such disclosures, as well as the psychosocial impact of disclosure and nondisclosure on children’s health and development. This paper briefly reviews literature on the prevalence and outcome of parent-child communication surrounding maternal BRCA1/2 test results. It also describes a formative research process that was used to develop a decision support intervention for mothers participating in genetic counseling and testing for BRCA1/2 mutations to address this issue, and highlights the conceptual underpinnings that guided and informed the intervention’s development. The intervention consists of a print-based decision aid to facilitate parent education and counseling regarding if, when, and potentially how to disclose hereditary cancer risk information to children. We conclude with a summary of the role of social, behavioral, and decision science research to support the efforts of providers of familial cancer care regarding this important decision, and to improve the outcomes of cancer genetic testing for tested parents and their nontested children. PMID:19609726

  13. Can Intraoperative Text Messages Reduce Parental Anxiety of Children Undergoing Posterior Spinal Fusion Surgery for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis?

    PubMed

    Kwan, Mun Keong; Chiu, Chee Kidd; Gan, Chiao Chin; Chan, Chris Yin Wei

    2016-02-01

    A prospective, nonrandomized study. To evaluate the effectiveness of periodic intraoperative text messages (SMS) in reducing parental anxiety level during posterior spinal fusion (PSF) surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. No studies have reported the use of intraoperative SMS to reduce level of anxiety in parents of patients who are undergoing AIS corrective surgery. Parents of 50 AIS patients were studied at two centers. Group 1 did not receive any SMS whereas those in Group 2 received periodic SMS. Parents' anxiety were assessed using a validated Visual Analog Scale for anxiety (VAS-A) and the anxiety component of the Hospital Anxiety Depression Score (HADS). The assessment was carried out at five different periods: (P1) 6 hours before the surgery; (P2) at separation in the operation theatre; (P3) 1 hour after commencement of surgery; (P4) immediately after completion of surgery; (P5) 1 day postsurgery. A total of 96 parents (47 fathers, 49 mothers) were involved in this study. Both groups were comparable in terms of demographics and education level. The mean VAS for Group 1 peaked at P2 and the HADS scores peaked at P3. The anxiety level of Group 1 remained high at P2, P3, and P4. There was a steady decline in parental anxiety in Group 2 from P1 to P5. There were significantly lower mean VAS score and HADS score for both father and mother in Group 2 during P3 and P4. The mean HADS scores for parents in Group 1 at P2 and P3 were higher than 8, which indicate abnormal anxiety. The anxiety levels of parents receiving the SMS were significantly lower than parents who did not receive any messages. Thus, intraoperative SMS is an effective intervention to decrease parental anxiety of AIS patients undergoing PSF surgery. 3.

  14. Long-term quality-of-life outcomes in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnoea: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, P S; Cetto, R; Chilvers, G; Georgalas, C; Narula, A A

    2011-10-01

    To assess a cohort of patients who underwent adenotonsillectomy for obst