superior military strength and regional economic integration. Internally, Chile also faces little threat; however, militants from the Mapuche ...considered a significant threat.11 The most significant internal security concern is the ongoing campaign by Mapuche indigenous community militants to
Brown, Marion Ray
This study examined current thought concerning the role of mass communication in economic development in developing nations; analyzed existing efforts to diffuse agricultural technology in Chile; assessed the effectiveness of various approaches; and tested the effects (primarily on knowledge levels) of an experimental technical information service…
Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the
The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations
CEMREL, Inc., St. Ann, MO.
One of three projects reported by the Central Midwestern Regional Educational Laboratory included analysis of 178 existing consumer information products. Steps in the analytical scheme were preparation of an annotated bibliography and development of a plan for providing objective, comparative information on such products. These were found in the…
Uribe, S; Mariño, R J
As part of a larger cross-country survey of dental students, students from the School of Dentistry, The University of Valparaiso, were invited to participate in a study to describe their use of information and communication technology (ICT). Information was derived from a 124-item questionnaire which included 14 socio-demographic items and 29 items asking about ICT use. ICT items were derived from a University of Birmingham, UK, battery. Data was collected in July and August 2004. A total of 162 of the 249 dental students participated in the study. The average age of students was 21.0 years (SD 2.4 years). The majority of participants (62.1%) were female. All participants had access to a computer, and 96.4% used the Internet. Most students had home Internet connections (73.4%). The most commonly used Internet sites on at least a weekly basis were: email (92.2%); and search engines (88.3%). However, a very few (21.1%) used the Internet to search for dental information for their studies on at least a weekly basis. Furthermore, although the majority (70.4%) found Internet use easy/very easy, 56.2% indicated that any search for information was easy/very easy. The majority (72.2%) indicated that the use of virtual education would not affect their class attendance. The final multivariate model explained 26% of the variance in ICT use, significant predictors for ICT use were gender, year of study, level of difficulty in using Internet, and place of Internet use. However, Internet use was mostly for non-dental purposes.
THIS REPORT IS A BRIEF REVIEW OF RESULTS OF AN EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE THE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL EFFICIENCY OF A MANUAL SPECIALIZED INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON 700,000 DOCUMENTS IN THE FIELDS OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, STRESS, MAST CELLS, AND ANAPHYLACTOID REACTIONS. THE SYSTEM RECEIVES 30,000 PUBLICATIONS ANNUALLY. DETAILED INFORMATION IS REPRESENTED BY…
Sherratt, Christine S.; And Others
In 1991-1992, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Libraries conducted an Information Services Study with support from the Office of the Provost. Its purpose was to study how faculty, research staff, and students in three disciplines on campus gather information for their work. Members of the departments of Brain and Cognitive Sciences,…
Choate, Larry; And Others
A tech prep/associate degree program in information technology was developed to prepare workers for entry into and advancement in occupations entailing applications of scientific principles and higher mathematics in situations involving various office machines. According to the articulation agreement reached, students from five country regional…
This final report contains research findings on the characterization of the quality and value of road weather information resources used by members of the surface transportation community in their decision-making process. The objectives of the projec...
This final rule replaces the Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information Systems (S/TACWIS) rule with the Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System (CCWIS) rule. The rule also makes conforming amendments in rules in related requirements. This rule will assist title IV-E agencies in developing information management systems that leverage new innovations and technology in order to better serve children and families. More specifically, this final rule supports the use of cost-effective, innovative technologies to automate the collection of high-quality case management data and to promote its analysis, distribution, and use by workers, supervisors, administrators, researchers, and policy makers.
Program PIA Program GO-FAAR Program Other Opportunities Tourism Visits to Tololo Astro tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Information for travelers Visit Tololo Media Relations News Press Release Publications
This Working Paper will summarize the lessons learned from the initial implementation of the Information Clearinghouse and outline the proposed configuration and functional capabilities of the Final Network. In addition, all new users added since Mar...
Program PIA Program GO-FAAR Program Other Opportunities Tourism Visits to Tololo Astro tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Information for travelers Visit Tololo Media Relations News Press Release Publications â¹âº You are here CTIO Home Â» Outreach Â» Tourism Â» Tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Map of
Capurro, Daniel; Echeverry, Aisen; Figueroa, Rosa; Guiñez, Sergio; Taramasco, Carla; Galindo, César; Avendaño, Angélica; García, Alejandra; Härtel, Steffen
Despite the continuous technical advancements around health information standards, a critical component to their widespread adoption involves political agreement between a diverse set of stakeholders. Countries that have addressed this issue have used diverse strategies. In this vision paper we present the path that Chile is taking to establish a national program to implement health information standards and achieve interoperability. The Chilean government established an inter-agency program to define the current interoperability situation, existing gaps, barriers, and facilitators for interoperable health information systems. As an answer to the identified issues, the government decided to fund a consortium of Chilean universities to create the National Center for Health Information Systems. This consortium should encourage the interaction between all health care stakeholders, both public and private, to advance the selection of national standards and define certification procedures for software and human resources in health information technologies.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC or Commission) is issuing a final rule to amend the regulations implementing Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 as they relate to employer-sponsored wellness programs. This rule addresses the extent to which an employer may offer an inducement to an employee for the employee's spouse to provide information about the spouse's manifestation of disease or disorder as part of a health risk assessment (HRA) administered in connection with an employer-sponsored wellness program. Several technical changes to the existing regulations are included. Published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the EEOC also issued a final rule to amend the regulations and interpretive guidance implementing Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) that addresses the extent to which employers may use incentives to encourage employees to participate in wellness programs that ask them to respond to disability-related inquiries and/or undergo medical examinations.
In an electoral process in 1988 and 1989, voters replaced General Augusto Pinochet as leader of Chile. The use of political cartoons by both pro- and anti-Pinochet forces is explored in this paper. Cartoons have long been recognized as a form of mass communication. In the Chilean elections cartoons played an important role in the battle for the…
A survey was conducted to identify the information needs of a five percent sample of men and women incarcerated in seven Maryland State Correctional Facilities for use in planning relevant library services to this population. Findings indicated a lack of basic information concerning rules for correct institutional behavior, with one third of the…
Patterson, Douglas; And Others
A project was developed to design and implement a management information system (MIS) to provide decision makers with accurate, usable, and timely data and information concerning input, output, and impact of vocational education. The objectives were to (1) design an MIS embracing student accounting, fiscal accounting, manpower analysis, and…
Denver Univ., CO. Graduate School of Librarianship and Information Management.
A demonstration project was undertaken to determine whether 1978 telefacsimile technology could address the needs of rural public libraries in a cost-effective manner. The TALINET design utilized local public library staff and a research/resource information staff at the University of Denver to research questions and deliver information to five…
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Final Information Quality Guidelines Policy AGENCY: Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice and request for public comment on Final Information Quality Guidelines. SUMMARY: These guidelines should be used to ensure and maximize the quality of disseminated information...
ZWICKEL, I.; AND OTHERS
STATE- AND FEDERAL-LEVEL DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS WERE DEVELOPED FOR A SYSTEM CAPABLE OF COLLECTING AND REDUCING NATIONWIDE STATISTICAL DATA ON VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. THESE SPECIFICATIONS WERE EXPECTED TO PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR THE ADOPTION BY ALL STATES OF AN INFORMATION REPORTING SYSTEM THAT WOULD MEET BOTH PRESENT AND FUTURE FEDERAL REPORTING…
During the historical development of typhoid fever in Chile, its confusion with other infectious diseases is particularly noteworthy, especially with murine typhus, a problem that was mainly resolved during the 1918 epidemic. The importance of chloramphenicol treatment is also highlighted, which meant an enormous improvement in typhoid/paratyphoid fevers, in combination with public health and health education actions that allowed to almost eliminate these infectious diseases in our country.
O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa
Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile
Toro A, Richard; Campos, Claudia; Molina, Carolina; Morales S, Raul G E; Leiva-Guzmán, Manuel A
A critical analysis of Chile's National Air Quality Information System (NAQIS) is presented, focusing on particulate matter (PM) measurement. This paper examines the complexity, availability and reliability of monitoring station information, the implementation of control systems, the quality assurance protocols of the monitoring station data and the reliability of the measurement systems in areas highly polluted by particulate matter. From information available on the NAQIS website, it is possible to confirm that the PM2.5 (PM10) data available on the site correspond to 30.8% (69.2%) of the total information available from the monitoring stations. There is a lack of information regarding the measurement systems used to quantify air pollutants, most of the available data registers contain gaps, almost all of the information is categorized as "preliminary information" and neither standard operating procedures (operational and validation) nor assurance audits or quality control of the measurements are reported. In contrast, events that cause saturation of the monitoring detectors located in northern and southern Chile have been observed using beta attenuation monitoring. In these cases, it can only be concluded that the PM content is equal to or greater than the saturation concentration registered by the monitors and that the air quality indexes obtained from these measurements are underestimated. This occurrence has been observed in 12 (20) public and private stations where PM2.5 (PM10) is measured. The shortcomings of the NAQIS data have important repercussions for the conclusions obtained from the data and for how the data are used. However, these issues represent opportunities for improving the system to widen its use, incorporate comparison protocols between equipment, install new stations and standardize the control system and quality assurance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The OCC, Board, FDIC, OTS, and NCUA (Agencies) are publishing final rules to implement section 411 of the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003 (FACT Act). The final rules create exceptions to the statute's general prohibition on creditors obtaining or using medical information pertaining to a consumer in connection with any determination of the consumer's eligibility, or continued eligibility, for credit for all creditors. The exceptions permit creditors to obtain or use medical information in connection with credit eligibility determinations where necessary and appropriate for legitimate purposes, consistent with the Congressional intent to restrict the use of medical information for inappropriate purposes. The final rules also create limited exceptions to permit affiliates to share medical information with each other without becoming consumer reporting agencies. The final rules are substantially similar to the rules adopted by the Agencies on an interim final basis in June 2005.
The transformation of the present manual system of data manipulation at the Universidad de Santiago de Chile into a computer-based information system capable of supporting decision making is proposed. The information system would be used to determine the number of faculty required by each academic department, based on the number of weekly hours…
Lopez, C S; Krauskopf, E; Villota, C E; Burzio, L O; Villegas, J E
Cervical cancer is the most common gynaecologic malignancy worldwide and is the sixth cause of cancer death in Chile. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for most cervical cancers. Individuals seeking basic information about HPV frequently turn to health information websites. We hypothesized that some of their data may be inaccurate. Comparative analysis of information. We analyze the content of highly accessed websites such as the Spanish version of Wikipedia and Yahoo Answers through the application of a questionnaire, as well as a website managed by the Chilean Ministry of Health (Minsal). The accuracy of each answer was confirmed by comparison with information retrieved from articles published by indexed journals. The information provided by the Spanish version of Wikipedia was accurate; nevertheless a few omissions were detected. The quality of the information provided by the Spanish version of Yahoo Answers was inaccurate and confusing. The Minsal website lacked important information on several topics about HPV even though it is managed and endorsed by the government. We suggest periodical content reviews to increase the completeness, transparency and correctness of the website. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Program PIA Program GO-FAAR Program Other Opportunities Tourism Visits to Tololo Astro tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Information for travelers Visit Tololo Media Relations News Press Release Publications â¹âº You are here CTIO Home Â» Outreach Â» Tourism Â» Astro Tourism in Chile Astro Tourism in
Ibarra, Cecilia; Parada, Mirtha
Penicillin production in Chile was a pioneering development; however there is not much information to learn about it. The Chilean Institute for Bacteriology (Instituto Bacteriológico de Chile) produced penicillin between 1944 and 1973. The stage starting in 1953 is better known since there was an agreement with United Nations. Our research focused on building a story about production between 1944 and 1954 based on archival information and the national and international historic context. Our results place Chile amongst the pioneer countries in the successful industrialization of the drug. Our conclusions are that this was a proper industrial production as opposite to a pilot plant - a name commonly used to call the early factory. We explain the production plant trajectory by making relations between technological change and governance. Finally, we believe the later expansion of the plant, in the context of the agreement with the United Nations, took place under unpromising governance conditions, which called for passive innovation and technology management.
Bioethical issues emerge each time health care reform projects are discussed. These affect diverse moral values and principles and have an impact on cultural, social and political areas. Thus, they demand more than just organizational, financial or administrative solutions. This review analyses discrimination, free election of professionals and informed consent. All three concepts are alluded in the legislative debate raised upon the actual process for health reform. Having clear ideas about these subjects is crucial to foresee the reactions expected to arise among physicians and the general public, when confronting the proposed changes.
The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.
Mascayano, Franco; Schilling, Sara; Tapia, Eric; Santander, Felipe; Burrone, María S.; Yang, Lawrence H.; Alvarado, Rubén
Background: There is an increasing concern for addressing suicide among adolescents in Latin America. Recent mental health policies encourage the development and implementation of preventive interventions for suicide. Such initiatives, however, have been scarcely developed, even in countries with solid mental health services such as Chile. The use of information and communications technology (ICT) might contribute to create accessible, engaging, and innovative platforms to promote well-being and support for adolescents with mental health needs and suicide risk. Objective: To evaluate a program based on ICT to prevent suicide and enhance mental health among adolescents in Chile. Method: A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted including 428 high-school students aged 18–14 years in two regions of Chile. Study procedures will take place as follows: (1) design of the intervention model and creation of prototype; (2) selection and randomization of the participating public schools; (3) implementation of the 3-month intervention and evaluation at baseline, post-intervention period, and a 2-month follow-up. Suicidal ideation at the 2-month follow up is the primary outcome in this study. Secondary outcomes include negative psychological outcomes (e.g., stigma, depression, anxiety) as well as a number of protective psychological and social factors. Indicators regarding the study implementation will be also gathered. Discussion: Here we describe a novel program based on technological devices and aimed to target youth suicide in Chile. This is the first clinical trial of such a program in Latin America, and to our knowledge, the first of its kind in any middle income country. Trial Registration: gov Identifier: NCT03514004 PMID:29922187
Riggins, R.E.; Young, V.T.; Goran, W.D.
This report provides a guide to techniques for collecting, using and maintaining data about each of the 13 environmental technical specialties in the Environmental Impact Computer System (EICS). The technical specialties are: (1) ecology, (2) environmental health, (3) air, (4) surface water, (5) ground water, (6) sociology, (7) economics, (8) earth science, (9) land use, (10) noise, (11) transportation, (12) aesthetics, and (13) energy and resource conservation. Acquisition techniques are classified by the following general categories: (1) secondary data, (2) remote sensing, (3) mathematical modeling, (4) field work, (5) mapping/maps and (6) expert opinion. A matrix identifies the most appropriatemore » techniques for collecting information on the EICS technical specialties. After selecting a method, the user may read an abstract of the report explaining that technique, and may also wish to obtain the original document for detailed information about applying the technique. Finally, this report offers guidelines on storing environmental information for future use, and on presenting that information effectively in environmental documents.« less
that the best VLT site would be the Paranal Mountain, 700 km north of La Silla and 130 km south of Antofagasta, the capital of the Second Region in Chile. In October 1988, the Chilean Government by an official act donated the land surrounding Paranal (in all 725 sq. km) to ESO. As is the case for La Silla, this would serve to protect the planned, incredibly sensitive mega-telescope against all possible future sources of outside interference. The donation was made on the condition that ESO would indeed proceed with the construction of the VLT at Paranal within the next five years. The corresponding decision was taken by the ESO Council in December 1990. The construction of the VLT observatory site at Paranal started immediately thereafter, thus fulfilling the condition attached to the donation. The construction of the VLT is now well advanced. In Europe, the main parts of the first VLT unit 8.2-metre telescope will be pre-assembled later this year and the first two of the enormous mirrors are being polished. In Chile, the extensive landscaping of the Paranal peak was finished in 1993, during which around 300,000 cubic metres of rock and soil was removed to provide a 100x100 sq. metres platform for the VLT, and the concrete foundations are now ready. The installation of the first telescope enclosure can now begin and the next will start later this year. The first of the four telescopes is expected to start observations in late 1997. All in all, ESO has until now committed about 70 percent of the expected total investment for the VLT, estimated to be approximately 570 million DEM. THE OWNERSHIP OF PARANAL According to information later received, the Chilean Ministry of National Properties ("Bienes Nacionales") inscribed in 1977 in its name various lands in the commune of Taltal, including the area of the Paranal peak. At that time, i.e. ten years before ESO decided to construct the VLT, nobody in this Organisation could imagine that this telescope would one day be
Salomone, Claudia; Majerson, Daniela; Molgó, Montserrat; de Santa María, Mariá Luisa Sáenz; Romero, William
In recent years, the use of artificial tanning devices has become very popular in Chile. In April, 2007, a new law was established to regulate the non-medical use of tanning beds and tanning booths. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level and quality of information provided by tanning salon staff to clients before deciding on using the services. This information was collected before and 6 months after the law was enacted by researchers visiting tanning salons posing as potential clients. Using a previously designed questionnaire, 24 tanning salons in Santiago, Chile, were evaluated by researchers acting as potential customers without experience with artificial tanning devices. Employees were questioned using a hidden questionnaire before and 6 months after enactment of the law. Before the law, 25% of the establishments gave spontaneous information about the risks of using tanning beds, which increased to 45.8% after enactment of the law. Clients never received written information, either before or after enactment of the law. On both evaluations, more than 1/3 of the employees affirmed that there were no risks in using tanning beds. Before enactment of the law, only 12.5% of the tanning salons required the use of goggles, while after the law, this increased to 25% (P=NS). Only two establishments required that clients sign an informed consent form after enactment of the law. The level of knowledge among employees in tanning salons was very low and the quality of the information they provided to the clients was very poor. It was important to legislate on ultraviolet tanning services, but at present, the impact of the law has been very limited.
...; technical information in final safety analysis report. The application must contain a final safety analysis...) Information sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the applicable requirements regarding testing, analysis... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contents of applications; technical information in final...
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...; technical information in final safety analysis report. The application must contain a final safety analysis...) Information sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the applicable requirements regarding testing, analysis... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contents of applications; technical information in final...
...; technical information in final safety analysis report. The application must contain a final safety analysis...) Information sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the applicable requirements regarding testing, analysis... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contents of applications; technical information in final...
... Information Collection: Comment Request; Final Endorsement of Credit Instrument AGENCY: Office of the.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Final Endorsement of Credit... proposed use: The information collected on the ``Final Endorsement of Credit Instrument'' form is used to...
questioning of ESO's privileges and immunities at the designated VLT site on the Paranal mountain south of the city of Antofagasta (see ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994), and also around the ownership of the land. ESO is now very worried about the timely completion of this 500 million DEM project. Unless a clarification of this problem is achieved as soon as possible, it is unlikely that the current plan for the construction of the VLT observatory at Paranal can be maintained. The ESO delegation expressed the opinion that these uncertainties must be removed, before the final negotiations about the above mentioned Treaty can proceed. RECEPTION BY THE PRESIDENT OF CHILE During its stay in Santiago, the ESO delegation was honoured to be received by the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz Tagle. ESO extended a warm invitation to the President to lay the cornerstone of the VLT observatory at Paranal later in 1994 at the appropriate moment. Twenty-five years ago, in 1969, the ESO La Silla observatory was inaugurated by his predecessor and father, Don Eduardo Frei Montalva. DECISIONS BY THE ESO COUNCIL The ESO delegation reported about the discussions in Santiago to the ESO Council, during its ordinary semi-annual session on June 7 - 8, 1994. The Council noted with satisfaction the clear attitude expressed by the Chilean Government, especially what concerns ESO's privileges and immunities in the host country. The ESO Council expects that the Chilean courts will also confirm these privileges and immunities. The ESO Council expressed the hope that it will now be possible to arrive at a resolution of the outstanding issues. However, in view of the increasingly tight VLT schedule - it is planned to ship the first VLT building to Paranal in the month of September this year - the Council was also much concerned about any further delays. Council requested the ESO management to ensure that the authorities of the member countries will be kept closely informed
Berger, Erich; Balmert, David; Richter, Jürgen
The project WEIN was funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF | Berlin, Germany) in the framework of the high-tech strategy of Germany's program "KMU-Innovativ". The project started in 2012 and was completed in 2014. In the scope of the project, an integrated system for analysis, monitoring and information at river basin level was developed, which provides relevant information for all stakeholders that are concerned with water resource issues. The main objective of the project was to improve water use efficiency and hence ensure the agricultural production in the region. The pilot region, in which this system was implemented, is the semi-arid Limarí basin in Northern Central Chile. One of the main parts of the project was the development and implementation of a web- and app-based irrigation water ordering and accounting system for local farmers.
Phelps, William R.
This programmed instruction rehabilitation counseling information test attempts to cover six areas as follows: testing, psychological information, medical information, counseling concepts, history of rehabilitation, and counselor-agency functioning. The information may be utilized for research purposes and/or replicated by others. (Author)
Weather presents considerable challenges to highway agencies both in terms of safety and operations. State transportation agencies have developed road weather information systems (RWIS) to address such challenges. Road weather information has been us...
The Transit Reliability Information Program (TRIP) is a government-initiated program to assist the transit industry in satisfying its need for rail transit car subsystem reliability information. TRIP provided this assistance through the operation of ...
Page, John; Szentivanyi, Tibor
Results of a survey of the information resources available in industrialized countries which might be used in a United Nations technology transfer program for developing countries are presented. Information systems and networks, organized information collections of a scientific and technical character, and the machinery used to disseminate this…
Work, Robert W.; Phillips, Dennis M.
The Textile Information Retrieval Program (TIRP), a study made at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to develop an interactive information retrieval system operating on a time sharing computer, was demonstrated to and operated by research scientists, information specialists, and numerous other persons at North Carolina State University at…
Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo
Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.
Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA. Social Studies Curriculum Center.
This is the final scientific research report for the research in programing at Carnegie-Mellon University during 1968-1970. Three team programing efforts during the past two years have been the development of (1) BLISS--a system building language on the PDP-10 computer, (2) LC2--a conversational system on the IBM/360, and L*--a system building…
Privacy Protection Study Commission, Washington, DC.
This report of the Privacy Protection Study Commission was prepared in response to a Congressional mandate to study data banks, automatic data processing programs, and information systems of governmental, regional and private organizations to determine standards and procedures in force for the protection of personal information. Recommendations…
Phillips, Michelle; St. John, Mark
Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA) is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project consisting of six three-way partnerships between the Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) and an informal science education institution (ISEI) partnered with an institution of higher education (IHE). Together, educators from the ISEI (often…
This study examined the information seeking behavior of gatekeepers in five ethnolinguistic communities: American Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Latino. Personal interviews were conducted with 129 gatekeepers and a conceptual information model was used to generate an analytical framework for presenting and discussing the data. The major…
Observations of children's daily activities and interviews with the children's caretakers provided information on preschool children's informal home education in Utuado, Puerto Rico. Three kinds of skills were examined: literacy, chores, and rule-bound games. The unit of analysis was the "Potential Learning Activity" (PLA), a…
Kowitz, Albert C.; Clark, Richard E.
A description was sought of the types of sources of information about marijuana used by 300 middle class fifth, seventh, and eleventh grade students. During individual meetings with experienced female interviewers, students were asked to relate sources which were most influential in providing information about marihuana at the following stages:…
Macro Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.
The Occupational Training Information System (OTIS), which is in operation in Oklahoma and in a developmental stage in Kentucky, was evaluated. The principle objective of OTIS is to provide the information necessary to formulate educational, manpower, and economic development plans and policies. OTIS consists primarily of a manpower demand…
The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute (NMSEI) conducted a concentrated information and education program during 1985. This report summarizes NMSEI's Information and Education project activities. It provides detailed descriptions of project costs and concise recommendations for similar programs. Individual sections contain explanations of the scope…
... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Final Comment Request AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Final... Reduction Act of 1995, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (Commission or EEOC) gives notice that it...
The overall objective of the research was to develop a pilot scale Culvert Information Management System (CIMS) that will : comply with both requirements stipulated by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB-34) and new federal : storm wate...
... comment may address the accuracy, reliability, or probative value of such information by reference to... INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...
In 1999 the U.S. Congress earmarked funds for selected projects that were assessed as supporting the improvements of transportation efficiency, promoting safety, increasing traffic flow, reducing emissions, improving traveler information, enhancing a...
The North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) sponsored research aimed at enhancing the departments : ability to assess the effectiveness of traveler information tools. The NCDOT has and will continue to make investments in : Intelligent...
This project was directed toward research in the development of spatial information systems for transportation. The project and all software development was done in the Intergraph MGE environment. One objective was to investigate software tools for l...
Developing techniques for extracting information requires a good understanding of methods used to compress the traces. Many techniques for compressing trace data : consisting of position (i.e., latitude/longitude) and time values have been developed....
Pichler, T.; Ridley, W.I.; Nelson, E.
A suite of submarine volcanic rocks from the Southern Chile Ridge has been examined in order to investigate the early stages of low temperature alteration. Alteration in these samples proceeded as follows: (1) Fe-staining on sample surface and along fractures, (2) filling of vesicles with secondary material, (3) breakdown of glassy matrix, (4) breakdown of microcrystalline matrix, and (5) breakdown and replacement of olivine. Plagioclase and pyroxene were sometimes found to be slightly altered along internal fissures. Secondary or alteration phases generally showed high K (3-5 wt.%), Fe (30-70 wt.%) and low Al ( Rb > K. During initial stages of alteration the behavior of some trace elements such as rare-earth elements (REE), Ba, Zr, Hf, Ta, Nb, and Mo are solely controlled by the precipitation of Mn-rich Fe-oxyhydroxides. The preferred incorporation of Ce into Mn-rich Fe-oxyhydroxides may be a principal factor explaining the Ce depletion in seawater. We conclude that the earliest stages of submarine weathering are controlled by Eh and pH gradients between the rock and seawater. In the absence of a buffer, oxidation of ferrous iron causes a decrease in solution pH.
We, the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board or Board), are revising and updating, in a single rulemaking, our standards for electronic and information technology developed, procured, maintained, or used by Federal agencies covered by section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as well as our guidelines for telecommunications equipment and customer premises equipment covered by Section 255 of the Communications Act of 1934. The revisions and updates to the section 508-based standards and section 255-based guidelines are intended to ensure that information and communication technology covered by the respective statutes is accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities.
The Department of Geology and Geophysics, which is under the faculties of Mathematics and Physical Sciences of the University of Chile, is the organization that is responsible for the Seismological Service of Chile and for installing,operating, and maintaining the seismological stations as well as all the strong-motion stations in Chile.
Black, Donald V.
The Library Information System Time-Sharing (LISTS) experiment was based on three innovations in data processing technology: (1) the advent of computer time-sharing on third-generation machines, (2) the development of general-purpose file-management software and (3) the introduction of large, library-oriented data bases. The main body of the…
Dick, A. O.
The experiments discussed in this report do not have a direct relationship to each other but represent work on a series of sub-issues within the general framework of visual processing of information. Because of this discreteness, the report is organized into a series of papers. The first is a general review of tachistoscopic work on iconic memory…
Hall, Homer J.
The value systems by which the users of purchased information services select which one to use or buy are found to differ sharply among different user populations, but the variable found to control them is a function of use, not of the user as an individual. Selection variables are summarized in a matrix of user values and interaction effects. The…
The Massachusetts Special Education Manpower Planning Project is described. Relying on cooperative planning, the project developed a system to provide information on manpower planning, a system to link other agencies with the project, and annual statements of state special education training priorities. The project also collaborated with six other…
Valdés, Patricio R; Alarcon, Ana M; Munoz, Sergio R
To generate and validate a scale to measure the Informed Choice of contraceptive methods among women attending a family health care service in Chile. The study follows a multimethod design that combined expert opinions from 13 physicians, 3 focus groups of 21 women each, and a sample survey of 1,446 women. Data analysis consisted of a qualitative text analysis of group interviews, a factor analysis for construct validity, and kappa statistic and Cronbach alpha to assess scale reliability. The instrument comprises 25 items grouped into six categories: information and orientation, quality of treatment, communication, participation in decision making, expression of reproductive rights, and method access and availability. Internal consistency measured with Cronbach alpha ranged from 0.75 to 0.89 for all subscales (kappa, 0.62; standard deviation, 0.06), and construct validity was demonstrated from the testing of several hypotheses. The use of mixed methods contributed to developing a scale of Informed Choice that was culturally appropriate for assessing the women who participated in the family planning program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Information Collection: Comment Request; Final Endorsement of Credit Instrument AGENCY: Office of the... Proposal: Final Endorsement of Credit Instrument. OMB Control Number, if applicable: 2502-0016. Description... Endorsement of Credit Instrument'' form is used to request to request final endorsement by HUD of the credit...
This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) regulations to implement section 204 of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. This regulatory change will provide authority for VA to provide individually-identifiable VA medical records of veterans or dependents of veterans who are deceased or whose death is imminent to representatives of organ procurement organizations (OPOs) as defined in section 371(b) of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act), eye banks, and tissue banks to determine whether the patients are suitable potential donors.
until 1818. By 1932, Chile had established a mass electoral democracy, which endured until 1973. During much of this period, Chile was governed by...served as “senators-for-life” and nine senators were designated by the armed forces and other bodies. 14 Peter M. Siavelis, “ Electoral System...Course in Democracy,” Washington Post , November 25, 2006. 24 “Chile: Pinochet-era Education Law Finally Replaced,” Latin News Weekly Report, August 20
The project scope is to develop an advanced user interface utilizing speech and/or handwriting recognition technology that will improve the accuracy and speed of recording transactions in the dynamic environment of a foreign exchange (FX) trading floor. The project`s desired result is to improve the base technology for trader`s workstations on FX trading floors. Improved workstation effectiveness will allow vast amounts of complex information and events to be presented and analyzed, thus increasing the volume of money and other assets to be exchanged at an accelerated rate. The project scope is to develop and demonstrate technologies that advance interbank checkmore » imaging and paper check truncation. The following describes the tasks to be completed: (1) Identify the economics value case, the legal and regulatory issues, the business practices that are affected, and the effects upon settlement. (2) Familiarization with existing imaging technology. Develop requirements for image quality, security, and interoperability. Adapt existing technologies to meet requirements. (3) Define requirements for the imaging laboratory and design its architecture. Integrate and test technology from task 2 with equipment in the laboratory. (4) Develop and/or integrate and test remaining components; includes security, storage, and communications. (5) Build a prototype system and test in a laboratory. Install and run in two or more banks. Develop documentation. Conduct training. The project`s desired result is to enable a proof-of-concept trial in which multiple banks will exchange check images, exhibiting operating conditions which a check experiences as it travels through the payments/clearing system. The trial should demonstrate the adequacy of digital check images instead of paper checks.« less
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
Written in response to a request by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) for information on the extent to which federal agencies are not complying with the clearance provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, this brief narrative report presents the results of an Information Management and Technology Division survey of 90 out of 2,551…
... requirement described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as... mortgagee/lender submits information to indicate the schedule of advances made on the project and the final advance to be disbursed immediately upon final endorsement. DATES: Comments Due Date: September 1, 2010...
This final report describes the national evaluation of the Greater Yellowstone Regional Traveler and Weather Information System (GYRTWIS). This evaluation complements the ongoing GYRTWIS evaluation being conducted by WTI/MSU by investigating three ar...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Final Rule--Management of Federal Agency Disbursements. AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management...
This final report contains research findings on the characterization of the quality and value of road weather information resources used by members of the surface transportation community in their decision-making process. This report focuses on the r...
Koizumi, Masatoshi; Imamura, Satoshi
The effects of syntactic and information structures on sentence processing load were investigated using two reading comprehension experiments in Japanese, a head-final SOV language. In the first experiment, we discovered the main effects of syntactic and information structures, as well as their interaction, showing that interaction of these two factors is not restricted to head-initial languages. The second experiment revealed that the interaction between syntactic structure and information structure occurs at the second NP (O of SOV and S of OSV), which, crucially, is a pre-head position, suggesting the incremental nature of the processing of both syntactic structure and information structure in head-final languages.
Caglevic, Christian; Silva, Shirley; Mahave, Mauricio; Rolfo, Christian; Gallardo, Jorge
Gastric cancer is a neoplasm with a high incidence and mortality rate in Chile where more than 3000 people die every year from this type of cancer. This study shows the clinical and epidemiological considerations of this disease, information about translational research on this pathology in Chile, the contribution of Chilean doctors to the development of gastric cancer management awareness and the general situation of gastric cancer in Chile. PMID:28105078
Caglevic, Christian; Silva, Shirley; Mahave, Mauricio; Rolfo, Christian; Gallardo, Jorge
Gastric cancer is a neoplasm with a high incidence and mortality rate in Chile where more than 3000 people die every year from this type of cancer. This study shows the clinical and epidemiological considerations of this disease, information about translational research on this pathology in Chile, the contribution of Chilean doctors to the development of gastric cancer management awareness and the general situation of gastric cancer in Chile.
Chile is the only member of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in South America. It is the fifth-largest consumer of energy on the continent, but unlike most other large economies in the region, it is only a minor producer of fossil fuels. Therefore, Chile is heavily dependent on energy imports.
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE U.S. [Public Notice 2011-076] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for OMB... between a U.S. exporter, Ex-Im Bank, and a foreign export credit agency; the information collected...
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE U.S. [Public Notice 2011-0080] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for OMB... between a U.S. exporter, Ex-Im Bank, and a foreign export credit agency; the information collected...
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0017] Agency Information Collection (Annual-Final Report and Account) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...), Department of Veterans Affairs, will submit the collection of information abstracted below to the Office of...
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0017] Proposed Information Collection (Annual-Final Report and Account) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department... of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995, Federal...
Koizumi, Masatoshi; Imamura, Satoshi
The effects of syntactic and information structures on sentence processing load were investigated using two reading comprehension experiments in Japanese, a head-final SOV language. In the first experiment, we discovered the main effects of syntactic and information structures, as well as their interaction, showing that interaction of these two…
Wang, Chih; And Others
This is the final report of the Guam Governor's Conference on Library and Information Services (GGCLIS), 1990. Approximately 160 delegates, representing library and information professionals, active library supporters, territorial and federal government officials, and the reading public, gathered together to develop recommendations for the…
Curiac, Daniel-Ioan; Pachia, Mihai
Information security represents the cornerstone of every data processing system that resides in an organisation's trusted network, implementing all necessary protocols, mechanisms and policies to be one step ahead of possible threats. Starting from the need to strengthen the set of security services, in this article we introduce a new and innovative process named controlled information destruction (CID) that is meant to secure sensitive data that are no longer needed for the organisation's future purposes but would be very damaging if revealed. The disposal of this type of data has to be controlled carefully in order to delete not only the information itself but also all its splinters spread throughout the network, thus denying any possibility of recovering the information after its alleged destruction. This process leads to a modified model of information assurance and also reconfigures the architecture of any information security management system. The scheme we envisioned relies on a reshaped information lifecycle, which reveals the impact of the CID procedure directly upon the information states.
Lorenzi, Nancy M.; And Others
This report summarizes the third phase of the Telecommunications Information Network (TIN), which provides a telecommunications link between four remote southwest Ohio hospitals and the University of Cincinnati Medical Center, thereby reducing the isolation of healthcare providers at the remote hospitals. A description of the system explains the…
The following ideas are widely accepted in Chile with respect to scientific activity: is carried out mainly in universities and science is considered a naturally university activity, that was developed in a period of more than 150 years by isolated individual efforts, c) it was transformed into an institutionalized activity at the universities after the university reform movement at the end of the 1960 decade, d) the activity is finally institutionalized in the country with the creation of the “Comisión Nacional de Investigatión Científica y Tecnológica, CONICYT (National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research) in 1967. This work presents preliminary findings showing that there are other institutional initiatives, different to the efforts from universities and directly dependent of the Chilean Government, in order to produce science and technology in Chile. This governmental initiatives start at the beginning of the Republic of Chile circa of 1810.
Clouet-Huerta, Diego E; González, Bárbara; Correa, Katherine
Medical graduates face different postgraduate training options, but their priority is to obtain a primary medical specialty, defined as a specialty that does not derive from other. There are different specialty training programs in Chile, which can be dependent or independent of the Ministry of Health. The information about these programs is available in different Internet sites. However a centralized information service that groups and synthetize these programs is lacking, hampering graduate choice decisions. This article aims to review all specialization program modalities, providing a general vision of the institutional structure and implications that govern the specialization process in Chile.
This perspective view from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission of coastal Chile indicates the epicenter red marker of the 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010, just offshore of the Maule region in the Bahia de Chanco.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is finalizing, without change, the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking published in the Federal Register on March 31, 2008 (73 FR 16793). The Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 (CMEA) requires DEA to collect from importers of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine all information known to the importer on the foreign chain of distribution of the chemical from the manufacturer to the importer. This rule amends DEA regulations to incorporate the requirement for this information.
A great deal of effort went into producing both the model and the prototype software for this contract. The purpose of this final report is not to duplicate the information provided about these and other topics in previous reports. The purpose is to ...
This final rule will extend enhanced funding for Medicaid eligibility systems as part of a state's mechanized claims processing system, and will update conditions and standards for such systems, including adding to and updating current Medicaid Management Information Systems (MMIS) conditions and standards. These changes will allow states to improve customer service and support the dynamic nature of Medicaid eligibility, enrollment, and delivery systems.
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE U.S. [Public Notice 2011-076] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for OMB...'s determination of the appropriate term for the transaction. The form can be view at: http://www...
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE U.S. [Public Notice 2012-0110] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for OMB Review and Comments Request. Form Title: EIB 11-05 Exporter's Certificate For Loan Guarantee & MT...
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE U.S. [Public Notice 2011-0052] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for OMB...'s Letter of Interest (LI) is a pre-export tool to help get financing off to a quick start. The LI is...
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE U.S. [Public Notice 2011-076] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for OMB... be considered in the overall evaluation of the transaction, including Export-Import Bank's...
... EXPORT[dash]IMPORT BANK OF THE U.S. [Public Notice 145] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for OMB... affects entities involved in the export of U.S. goods and services. Annual Number of Respondents: 84...
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE U.S. [Public Notice 2012-0111] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for OMB... Credit Insurance Policy. SUMMARY: The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank), as a part of...
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice 2013-0115] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION...-Im Bank approved insurance claims. Affected Public: This form affects entities involved in the export...
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice 2012-0136] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for... Financial Institution of Medium Term Export Credit Insurance Policy. SUMMARY: The Export-Import Bank of the...
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice 2012-0134] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for...: The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank), as a part of its continuing effort to reduce...
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE U.S. [Public Notice 2012-0555] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for OMB.... SUMMARY: The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank), as a part of its continuing effort to...
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2012-0505] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for OMB Review and... Bank under its insurance, guarantee, and direct loan programs. Affected Public: This form affects...
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE U.S. [Public Notice 2012-0087] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for OMB... Credit Insurance Policy. SUMMARY: The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank), as a part of...
Auster, Ethel; Lawton, Stephen B.
This final report describing the operation and research of the EISO project, which provides online bibliographic search services to educators of Ontario, briefly summarizes the first and second interim reports. In addition, it discusses users and the uses of EISO information by providing mini-case studies to illustrate quantitative data and…
The Mechanized Information Center (MIC) at the Ohio State University conducts retrospective and current awareness searches for faculty, students, and staff using data bases for agriculture, chemistry, education, psychology, and social sciences, as well as a multidisciplinary data base. The final report includes (1) a description of the background…
Williams, David L., Jr.; And Others
This final report describes the development and field evaluation of teacher training materials (for inservice workshops) and elementary school language arts materials. The basic goal of the training materials, called Teacher Development Packages (TDPs), was to provide teachers with the information and skills needed to utilize games and informal…
... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Finality of manufacturing licenses; information requests. 52.171 Section 52.171 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND... manufactured reactor, the costs and benefits of severe accident mitigation design alternatives, and the bases...
... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Finality of manufacturing licenses; information requests. 52.171 Section 52.171 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND... manufactured reactor, the costs and benefits of severe accident mitigation design alternatives, and the bases...
... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Finality of manufacturing licenses; information requests. 52.171 Section 52.171 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND... manufactured reactor, the costs and benefits of severe accident mitigation design alternatives, and the bases...
... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Finality of manufacturing licenses; information requests. 52.171 Section 52.171 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND... manufactured reactor, the costs and benefits of severe accident mitigation design alternatives, and the bases...
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE U.S. [Public Notice 2011-0002] Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for OMB...-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank), as a part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and...
Cabieses, Baltica; Chepo, Macarena; Oyarte, Marcela; Markkula, Niina; Bustos, Patricia; Pedrero, Víctor; Delgado, Iris
Children and young international migrants face different health challenges compa red with the local population, particularly if they live in insecure environments or adverse social conditions. This study seeks to identify gaps in health outcomes of children between immigrant and local population in Chile. This study analyses data from three sources: (i) Born in Chile: Electronic records of antenatal visits from all municipal antenatal clinics of Recoleta in 2012; (ii) Growing up in Chile: Population survey "National Socioeconomic Characterization" (CASEN) from 2013 and (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Data of all hospital discharges in 2012, provided by the department of statistics and health information (DEIS) of the Ministry of Health. (I) Born in Chile: Im migrants more frequently have psychosocial risk (62.3% vs 50.1% in Chileans) and enter later into the program (63.1% vs 33.4% enter later than 14 weeks of pregnancy). All birth outcomes were better among immigrants (e.g. caesarean sections rates: 24.2% immigrants vs % Chileans). (ii) Growing up in Chile: A higher proportion of migrant children is outside the school system and lives in multidi mensional poverty (40% immigrants vs 23.2% Chileans). (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Injuries and other external causes were more frequent cause of hospitalisation among migrants (23.6%) than the local population (16.7%) aged between 7 and 14 years. Addressing the needs of the children in Chile, regardless of their immigration status, is an ethical, legal and moral imperative.
This document adopts, with changes, a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) interim final rule that implemented provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006 concerning disclosure of information to organ, tissue and eye procurement organizations. The regulation will provide authority for VA to provide individually-identifiable VA medical records of veterans or dependents of veterans who are deceased or whose death is imminent to representatives of organ procurement organizations, eye banks, and tissue banks to determine whether the patients are suitable potential donors. This document modifies the interim final rule to clarify the definition of "near death" and to correct a grammatical error in the definition of "procurement organization." This document also clarifies that eye bank and tissue bank registration with FDA must have an active status.
electoral democracy, which endured until 1973. During much of this period, Chile was governed by presidents who pursued import-substitution...the armed forces and other bodies. 6 Peter M. Siavelis, “ Electoral System, Coalitional Disintegration, and the Future of Chile’s Concertación...Course in Democracy,” Washington Post , November 25, 2006. 16 “Chile: Pinochet-era Education Law Finally Replaced,” Latin News Weekly Report, August 20
Pungent green chile (genus /Capsicum/, also spelled chili) is a large, fragile fruit growing on berry shrubs. Chile is harvested by hand to maximize yields and minimize fruit damage. Labor for hand harvesting chile is increasingly costly and difficult to obtain. Harvest mechanization is viewed as...
Sanhueza, Guillermo E; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela
The study of neighborhood characteristics and their effects on individuals has become an area of increasing attention by scholars from various disciplines in developed countries. Although there are various methods to study neighborhoods and their impact on human populations, one of the most used is the Systematic Social Observation -Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios (OSV), in Spanish-because it allows the collection of information about various features of the physical, social, environmental and economic characteristics of neighborhoods. The purpose of this article is to (i) briefly present some research on neighborhood effects influential in the U.S., ii) describe how they Systematic Social Observation was designed and implemented in the city of Santiago, Chile, iii) discuss some facilitators and obstacles of the implementation process and, finally iv) list possible contributions and limitations this approach would offer the profession of social work in Chile.
This paper seeks to highlight the problems of gaps in health infrastructure in Chile, and to analyze the mechanisms by which it is provided. In Chile this is done in two ways: the first is through competitive bidding or sector-wide modality. The second way is through hospital concessions. Both mechanisms have had difficulties in recent years, which are reported. Finally, we propose ways to improve the provision of health infrastructure in Chile.
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information will MMS publish in the... information will MMS publish in the Proposed Sale Notice and Final Sale Notice? For each competitive lease sale, MMS will publish a Proposed Sale Notice and a Final Sale Notice in the Federal Register. In the...
... How is the final performance report to be sent to the Defense Technical Information Center? (a... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How is the final performance report to be sent to the Defense Technical Information Center? 37.895 Section 37.895 National Defense Department of...
... How is the final performance report to be sent to the Defense Technical Information Center? (a... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How is the final performance report to be sent to the Defense Technical Information Center? 37.895 Section 37.895 National Defense Department of...
... How is the final performance report to be sent to the Defense Technical Information Center? (a... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How is the final performance report to be sent to the Defense Technical Information Center? 37.895 Section 37.895 National Defense Department of...
... information may the Corporation consider in making final funding decisions? (a) The Corporation will seek to... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What other factors or information may the Corporation consider in making final funding decisions? 2522.470 Section 2522.470 Public Welfare Regulations...
... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How is the final performance report to be sent to the Defense Technical Information Center? 37.895 Section 37.895 National Defense Department of... How is the final performance report to be sent to the Defense Technical Information Center? (a...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must air taxi operators... COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Application Procedures § 330.29 What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C? As an air taxi operator, you must complete Form 330 (Final) in...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What information must air taxi operators... COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Application Procedures § 330.29 What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C? As an air taxi operator, you must complete Form 330 (Final) in...
In response to the progressive environmental deterioration, the Ecological Society of America has made a proposal, called "Sustainable Biosphere Initiative", to do research, teaching and decision making processes on biodiversity, global change and the effects of human activities on environment. The goal of appropriate environmental protection and welfare for mankind includes health and quality of life. Presently, Chile faces a number of environmental problems such as pollution, excessive urban growth, loss of agricultural areas, disposal of solid waste and species extinction. The lack of education and information in Chile, on these problems, is worrisome. The role of universities to overcome this deficit should be crucial in the future sustainable development of Chile.
Thompson, Nadine; Lewis, Sarah; Brennan, Patrick; Robinson, John
It is necessary for Medical Radiation Science (MRS) students to become information literate in order to interact with and thrive in the professional health care arena. All health care professionals require information literacy (IL) skills to be independent learners and critical thinkers. To achieve this, effective search and evaluation methods must be cultivated in students. Twenty-eight final year MRS students participated in a 30-minute digitally recorded interview regarding their knowledge of information sources, where they locate information, and how they evaluate these sources. Constant comparative analysis via grounded theory was used to thematise the data. A conceptual framework was developed demonstrating the link between the key concepts of convenience, confidence and competence. The impact of the internet on the IL skills of students has been profound, due mainly to convenience. Most students had little confidence in their IL skills, however there were still some students who were confident with their skills and were competent who still preferred to access information sources that were convenient because there was nothing preventing them from doing so. By identifying problem areas, educators can redesign curricula around the strengths and weaknesses of students' IL skills, thus promoting lifelong learning and using electronic based learning to its full potential.
Under the authority granted to the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology by section 3001(c)(5) of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) as added by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, this final rule establishes a process for addressing instances where the ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) engages in improper conduct or does not perform its responsibilities under the permanent certification program. This rule also addresses the status of ONC-Authorized Certification Bodies (ONC-ACBs) in instances where there may be a change in the accreditation organization serving as the ONC-AA and clarifies the responsibilities of the new ONC-AA.
Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.
Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG) examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using an interdisciplinary and interservice QA approach they compared existing military policies with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Rule to identify gaps and discrepancies. The final report, including a plain English explanation of the individual standards and relevance to the Department of Defense (DoD), a comparative analysis and recommendations, will feed in to the security management process and HIPAA implementation efforts at multiple levels within the DoD. In light of High Reliability Theory, this process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains, building consensus on key policy reforms among military stakeholders across different disciplines, levels of command hierarchy and services.
The document represents the final project report for a study entitled 'Truck Driver Informational Overload' sponsored by the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association through its Motor Truck Research Committee and associated Operations/Performance Panels. As stated in an initial project statement, the objective of the work was to provide guidance for developing methods for measuring driving characteristics during information processing tasks. The contents of the report contain results from two basic project activities: (1) a literature review on multiple task performance driver information overload, and (2) a description of driving simulator side-task experiments and a discussion of findings from tests conducted withmore » eight subjects. Two of the key findings from a set of disturbance-input tests conducted with the simulator and the eight test subjects were that: (1) standard deviations of vehicle lateral position and heading (yaw) angle measurements showed the greatest sensitivity to the presence of side-task activities during basic information processing tasks, and (2) corresponding standard deviations of driver steering activity, vehicle yaw rate, and lateral acceleration measurements were seen to be largely insensitive indicators of side-task activity.« less
2000-01-01This ASTER images was acquired on May 2, 2000 over the North Patagonia Ice Sheet, Chile near latitude 47 degrees south, longitude 73 degrees west. The image covers 36 x 30 km. The false color composite displays vegetation in red. The image dramatically shows a single large glacier, covered with crevasses. A semi-circular terminal moraine indicates that the glacier was once more extensive than at present. ASTER data are being acquired over hundreds of glaciers worldwide to measure their changes over time. Since glaciers are sensitive indicators of warming or cooling, this program can provide global data set critical to understand climate change.This image is located at 46.5 degrees south latitude and 73.9 degrees west longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud
... Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Final Authorization for Hazardous Waste Management Programs... Request (ICR) concerning final authorization for State Hazardous Waste Management Programs. This ICR is... potentially affected by this action are States. Title: Final Authorization for Hazardous Waste Management...
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC or Commission) is issuing its final rule to amend the regulations and interpretive guidance implementing Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to provide guidance on the extent to which employers may use incentives to encourage employees to participate in wellness programs that ask them to respond to disability-related inquiries and/or undergo medical examinations. This rule applies to all wellness programs that include disability-related inquiries and/or medical examinations whether they are offered only to employees enrolled in an employer-sponsored group health plan, offered to all employees regardless of whether they are enrolled in such a plan, or offered as a benefit of employment by employers that do not sponsor a group health plan or group health insurance. Published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the EEOC also issued a final rule to amend the regulations implementing Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) that addresses the extent to which employers may offer incentives for an employee's spouse to participate in a wellness program.
Currently the red chile crop is mechanically harvested. Because the pods will be dehydrated before consumption, breakage and bruising of red pods is not a concern. Green chile, however, is currently hand harvested because of the fragile nature of the fruit and the need to avoid pod damage. Hand h...
American Indian Journal, 1979
This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)
Sepúlveda, Maritza; Newsome, Seth D; Pavez, Guido; Oliva, Doris; Costa, Daniel P; Hückstädt, Luis A
Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL) and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD) contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common.
Sepúlveda, Maritza; Newsome, Seth D.; Pavez, Guido; Oliva, Doris; Costa, Daniel P.; Hückstädt, Luis A.
Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL) and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD) contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common. PMID:26309046
Santiago, Chile, ranks among the world's fastest growing cities. Chile is South America's fifth largest economy with strong export and tourism markets. More than a third of Chile's population lives in Santiago as of 2009. Taken on January 9, 1985, and January 30, 2010, this pair of images from the Landsat 5 satellite illustrates the city's steady growth. The images were made with infrared and visible light (Landsat bands 4, 3, and 2) so that plant-covered land is red. Bare or sparsely vegetated land is tan, and the city is dark silver. In the fifteen years that elapsed between 1985 and 2010, the city expanded away from the Andes Mountains along spoke-like lines, which are major roads. ---- NASA and the U.S. Department of the Interior through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) jointly manage Landsat, and the USGS preserves a 40-year archive of Landsat images that is freely available over the Internet. The next Landsat satellite, now known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and later to be called Landsat 8, is scheduled for launch in 2013. In honor of Landsat’s 40th anniversary in July 2012, the USGS released the LandsatLook viewer – a quick, simple way to go forward and backward in time, pulling images of anywhere in the world out of the Landsat archive. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Phillips, Mark
Current projections indicate that Chile will host approximately 70% of the astronomical collecting area on Earth by 2030, augmenting the enormous area of ALMA with that of three next-generation optical telescopes: LSST, GMTO, and E-ELT. These cutting-edge facilities represent billions of dollars of investment in the astronomical facilities hosted in Chile. The Chilean government, Chilean astronomical community, and the international observatories in Chile have recognized that these investments are threatened by light pollution, and have formed a strong collaboration to work at managing the threats. We will provide an update on the work being done in Chile, ranging from training municipalities about new lighting regulations to exploring international recognition of the dark sky sites of Northern Chile.
2002-01-01A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A
Chuquicamata, in Chile's Atacama Desert, is the largest open pit copper mine in the world, by excavated volume. The copper deposits were first exploited in pre-Hispanic times. Open pit mining began in the early 20th century when a method was developed to work low grade oxidized copper ores. The image was acquired September 2, 2007, covers an area of 19.5 by 29.3 km, and is located at 22.1 degrees south, 68.9 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20973
St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu
Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Griffiths, Jose-Marie; And Others
This document contains validated activities and competencies needed by information professionals working in an information analysis center. The activities and competencies are organized according to the functions which information professionals in such centers perform: acquisitions; indexing/abstracting; reference; information analysis research;…
Griffiths, Jose-Marie; And Others
This document contains validated activities and competencies needed by information professionals working in an information center/clearinghouse. The activities and competencies are organized according to the functions which information center professionals perform: acquisitions; thesaurus development and control; indexing/abstracting;…
Griffiths, Jose-Marie; And Others
This document contains validated activities and competencies needed by information professionals working in an information service company. The activities and competencies are organized according to the functions which information professionals in such companies perform: project management; reference/analysis of secondary data; research, analysis,…
Mason, Robert M.; And Others
This document presents a research effort intended to improve the economic information available for formulating politics and making decisions related to Information Analysis Centers (IAC's) and IAC services. The project used a system of IAC information activities to analyze the functional aspects of IAC services, calculate the present value of net…
Rulf Fountain, Alyssa; Levy, Abigail Jurist
This report was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA), Office of Education in July 2009 to evaluate the Informal Education Program. The goals of the evaluation were twofold: (1) to gain insight into its investment in informal education; and (2) to clarify existing distinctions between its informal education…
Guillou, Michèle; Carabantes C, Jorge; Bustos F, Verónica
The availability and planning of Human Resources are important issues in many countries, as it is a key factor to cope with the critical challenges of Health Care Systems. In Chile, the Ministry of Health has undertaken several studies in order to improve knowledge about the medical workforce both in public and private sectors. The aim of this paper is to update and systematize the existing data on physicians and specialists availability in Chile. Several information sources were crossed to obtain new and more precise figures about this topic. According to the Internal Revenue System, 29.996 physicians practice medicine in the country, 43% of them hired in public services, part or full time. There is a high concentration of professionals in the central regions of Chile. Being the overall density of physicians of one per 559 inhabitants, the figures in the central region is one per 471 and one per more than 800 in the South and North. Between 2004 and 2008, the public sector increased its physician workforce by more than 80% in primary health care and more than 20% in the secondary and tertiary levels. This paper presents a method for a more rigorous identification of the categories of general practitioner and specialist respectively, and the results obtained from the databases used.
The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.
THE L-95 CORRIDOR COALITION'S TRAVELER INFORMATION SERVICES (TIS) PROJECT IS INTENDED TO IMPLEMENT AN ADVANCED TRAVELER INFORMATION SYSTEM TAILORED TO THE UNIQUE NEEDS OF THE NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. THE SYSTEM WILL ACQUIRE AND DISSEMINATE INFORMATION ON ...
This ASTER image was acquired on May 2, 2000 over the North Patagonia Ice Sheet, Chile near latitude 47 degrees south, longitude 73 degrees west. The image covers 36 x 30 km. The false color composite displays vegetation in red. The image dramatically shows a single large glacier, covered with crevasses. A semi-circular terminal moraine indicates that the glacier was once more extensive than at present. ASTER data are being acquired over hundreds of glaciers worldwide to measure their changes over time. Since glaciers are sensitive indicators of warming or cooling, this program can provide global data set critical to understand climate change. This image is located at 46.5 degrees south latitude and 73.9 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02670
On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC
The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programsmore » as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.« less
This is the Final Report for the FRATIS Dallas-Fort Worth DFW prototype system. The FRATIS prototype in DFW consisted of the following components: optimization algorithm, terminal wait time, route specific navigation/traffic/weather, and advanced not...
This Demonstration Team Final Report has been prepared to provide an overview of the conduct and qualitative findings of the LA-Gateway FRATIS development and testing program. More specifically, this document provides: A description of the testin...
This Demonstration Team Final Report has been prepared to provide an overview of the conduct and qualitative findings of the South Florida FRATIS development and testing program. More specifically, this document provides: A description of the tes...
Gituma, Adrian; Masika, Moses; Muchangi, Eric; Nyagah, Lily; Otieno, Vincent; Irimu, Grace; Wasunna, Aggrey; Ndiritu, Moses; English, Mike
Background Globally many doctors, particularly in low-income countries, have no formal training in using new information to improve their practice. As a first step clinicians must have access to information and so we explored reported access in graduating medical students in Nairobi. Objectives To evaluate final year medical students’ access to new medical information. Methods A cross-sectional survey of fifth (final) year medical students at the University of Nairobi using anonymous, self-administered questionnaires. Findings Questionnaires were distributed to 291 (85%) of a possible 343 students and returned by 152 (44%). Within the previous 12 months half reported accessing some form of new medical information most commonly from books and the internet. However, only a small number reported regular access and specific, new journal articles were rarely accessed. Absence of internet facilities, slow internet speeds and cost were common barriers to access while current training seems rarely to encourage students to seek new information. Conclusion Almost half the students had not accessed any new medical information in their final year in medical school suggesting they are ill prepared for a career that may increasingly demand life-long, self-learning. PMID:19152558
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time limit for WRC final determinations regarding requests for information appealed by the requester from an initial adverse determination. 701.206 Section 701.206 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time limit for WRC final determinations regarding requests for information appealed by the requester from an initial adverse determination. 701.206 Section 701.206 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Time limit for WRC final determinations regarding requests for information appealed by the requester from an initial adverse determination. 701.206 Section 701.206 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time limit for WRC final determinations regarding requests for information appealed by the requester from an initial adverse determination. 701.206 Section 701.206 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time limit for WRC final determinations regarding requests for information appealed by the requester from an initial adverse determination. 701.206 Section 701.206 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES...
EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information. This report is a review of decision-making processes of selected land protection prog...
...-Federal Regional Information Coordination Entities (RICE) as Approved by the Interagency Ocean Observing... final RICE certification criteria. These certification criteria establish eligibility for non-federal...) and are applicable to RICEs as defined in the Act, including Regional Associations. ADDRESSES: The...
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Proposed Extension of Information... Individual Account Plans AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Department of Labor. ACTION... opportunity to comment on proposed and continuing collections of information. This helps the Department assess...
The amount of available weather information and the methods by which this information can be disseminated to travelers have grown considerably in recent years. This growth includes weather gathering devices (sensors, satellites), models and forecasti...
Academy for Educational Development, 2005
The purpose of the Community Learning and Information Center (CLIC) project was "to accelerate economic, social and political growth by providing residents in twelve underserved Malian communities with access to easily accessible development information and affordable access to information and communication technology (ICT), high-value…
Rath, Gustave J.; And Others
A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of establishing a regional information transfer center within the context of the National Network of Transportation Research Information Services (TRISNET). The principle areas of investigation were: (1) the transportation information needs of the public and private sectors; (2) the utility of…
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah
Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago (Chile).
In areas such as Latin America and the Caribbean, many institutions are setting up databases using existing computerized information and documentation networks, and relying on new microcomputer equipment for their implementation. Increasing awareness of the implications of this practice prompted this conference, which provided the first step of a…
Purchasing contributes significantly to an organization and to its business strategy only if its activities and contracts with suppliers are guided by support criteria for the final products that the organization sells. Outlined in this paper are four innovative purchasing strategies: capitation contracts; product life cycle cost contracts;…
The final phase of a two phase effort was undertaken to establish data forms and communication protocols to provide the New York State Department of Transportation access to the unique highway data resource, HIVIS developed in the initial phase of th...
... assurance program will be implemented; (26) The applicant's organizational structure, allocations or... presents a safety analysis of the structures, systems, and components of the facility as a whole. The final... contain an analysis and evaluation of the major structures, systems, and components of the facility that...
This ASTER image covers 30 by 37 km in the Atacama Desert, Chile and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida Cu-Au-Ag open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and came on stream in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentration of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9 pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. This image is a conventional 3-2-1 RGB composite. Figure 1 displays SWIR bands 4-6-8 in RGB, and highlights lithologic and alteration differences of surface units. The image is located at 24.3 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11090
Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team
2001-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version This ASTER image covers 30 by 37 km in the Atacama Desert, Chile and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida Cu-Au-Ag open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and came on stream in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentration of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9 pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. This image is a conventional 3-2-1 RGB composite. Figure 1 displays SWIR bands 4-6-8 in RGB, and highlights lithologic and alteration differences of surface units. The image is located at 24.3 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
In 1566 Alonso de Villadiego was nominated by the Chilean Cabildo as "Adviser and Examiner in Surgery". By means of this edict, the Spanish Crown paralleled its classical health organization, inspired in rules coming from XIIIth century. The Hospital del Socorro was the focal point of these activities. It turned to be prosperous under the administration of "San Juan de Dios" monks (1617), who rebaptized the Hospital with their name. During the administration of the "Universidad de San Felipe" (1738-1839), the Protomedicato followed the standards imposed by the Cahir of Prima Medicina. Domingo Nevin, Frenchman, and José Antonio Ríos, Chilean, were the first and the last doctors in charge of this task. Ríos conducted the antivariolic campaign, supervised the "Midwifery Law" and controlled the medical and paramedical practice. Afterwards, the Institution plunged into a profound crisis to reflourish in 1833 when it was incorporated within the structure of the School of Medicine. Blest, Cox, Bustillos and Moran were the architects of its splendour. With the foundation of the Universidad de Chile in 1842, its Faculty of Medicine took over the Protomedicato functions. The Institution came to an end in 1892.
Montoya Leiva, M
Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.
Reyes B, Humberto
One of the biggest earthquakes recorded in human history has recently devastated a large part of the Chilean territory and, followed by a Tsunami, destroyed cities, seaports, fishermen's coves, bridges, and countryside houses. This cataclysm affected a large proportion of our population, leaving homeless families, no working tools for work places, hospitals, schools, public buildings, museums. However, the loss of human Uves was small compared to similar disasters. It destroyed part of the national heritage as well as damaged people's living conditions. A national movement started immediately to help and recover, and international resources, both human and technological were also set in motion. As after previous earthquakes in Chile, young M.D.'s and medical students were organized in voluntary groups backed by institutions or by their own organizations and went from large cities as Santiago and others to provide medical and psychological care to those in most need. Young members and students of other health professions (nurses, physical therapists, etc.) were included in these groups or worked in their own ones. National and international experience indicates that the forthcoming months require special care of psychological reactions and sequel (posttraumatic stress symptoms) and health consequences after water pollution, restrictions in housing and deteriorated sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, our country will stand up once more.
Health information technology: standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria for electronic health record technology, 2014 edition; revisions to the permanent certification program for health information technology. Final rule.
With this final rule, the Secretary of Health and Human Services adopts certification criteria that establish the technical capabilities and specify the related standards and implementation specifications that Certified Electronic Health Record (EHR) Technology will need to include to, at a minimum, support the achievement of meaningful use by eligible professionals, eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs beginning with the EHR reporting periods in fiscal year and calendar year 2014. This final rule also makes changes to the permanent certification program for health information technology, including changing the program's name to the ONC HIT Certification Program.
Concha, Nanette Liberona; Mansilla, Miguel Ángel
In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services - particularly the public health system - at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants' access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed in relation to theories of power asymmetries and interethnic relations. The research results highlight the lack of compliance with existing regulations and the exercise of discretionary personal judgment as barriers to access. It is concluded that in Chile immigrants in general, and undocumented immigrants in particular, are considered to be illegitimate patients.
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah
Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. A total of 16 Mapuches participated voluntarily and showed some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are effective. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for further understanding their perceptions and health care needs.
KOMOSKI, P. KENNETH
THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DESIGN AN EASILY ACCESSIBLE NATIONWIDE SYSTEM FOR EXCHANGING DESCRIPTIVE, EVALUATIVE PRODUCT INFORMATION AMONG ALL SECTORS OF THE EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY ON A COOPERATIVE COST-SHARING BASIS. THE FEASIBILITY OF SUCH A COLLECTION AND EXCHANGE OF DESCRIPTIVE AND EVALUATIVE INFORMATION ABOUT INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SYSTEMS…
Hood, Paul D.; McCutchan, Nancy A.
The primary objective of this project was to design a system to provide information services that would fulfill the information requirements of federal planners, instructional material developers, training program directors and instructors, students, interns, employers, and practitioners concerned with problems relating to personnel and training…
City Univ. of New York, NY. Inst. for Research and Development in Occupational Education.
To support the New York State Education Department's efforts, a project was carried out to design and implement information and reporting systems that serve the needs of occupational information. Technical assistance was provided throughout the project to implement an occupational education reporting system in New York City and coordinate that…
The objective of this research was to explore the relationship between information access and design solution quality of high school students presented with an engineering design problem. This objective is encompassed in the research question driving this inquiry: How does information access impact the design process? This question has emerged in…
Ascension Parish School Board, Donaldsonville, LA.
This demonstration introduced microcomputers into St. Amant High School in Louisiana by instituting a word/information processing program. Microcomputers, printers, and necessary software were purchased, and the manufacturer's educational representative instructed the word/information processing teacher on the operation of the equipment. The…
Capital Systems Group, Inc., Rockville, MD.
The aim of this guide is to alert persons with an operational interest in scientific communication to new ideas, techniques, and equipment in the field of communication media and publications. The focus is on the dissemination of scientific information via the technical journal or its equivalent. Secondary dissemination of information such as…
Chen, Ching-chih; Hernon, Peter
This two-part publication reports on a study of consumer information delivery by library and non-library networks, which involved an extensive literature review, a telephone survey of 620 library networks, the development of an assessment model for the effectiveness of network information delivery, the development of an in-depth guide for…
Kauffman, Dan; And Others
A study was made to derive an equation for predicting the "subjective" textual information contained in a text of material written in the English language. Specifically, this investigation describes, by a mathematical equation, the relationship between the "subjective" information content of written textual material and the relative number of…
Rankin, Jocelyn A.
This report describes the development of the Georgia Interactive Network for Medical Information (GaIN), a project initially funded by a three-year (1983-1986) National Library of Medicine resource project grant. Designed to serve as a model network to transmit information via computer directly to health professionals, GaIN now operates through a…
Walker, Kristen L.; Kiesler, Tina; Malone, Summer
This project involved the development of a comprehensive and educational social marketing communications plan designed to help educate middle-school-aged youth about information use and abuse online. We achieved our goal of enhancing digital information literacy while developing critical thinking and creative communication skills for…
Donoso, Patricio; Gajardo, Marcela
This document contains two case studies of adult education programs in Chile. Both case studies begin with a "face sheet" on which is recorded basic information about the program and the description. The first case study, prepared by Patricio Donoso, reports on Centro El Canelo de Nos, an inservice center for educators who work with…
Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan
This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…
de Educaci6n en Chile a Partir de 1973." (Paper presented at workshop "Six...34Salud en Chile : El Problema de Fondo," Mensaje [Santiago], 28, No. 282, September 1979, 558-66. Goldrich, Daniel, Raymond B. Pratt, and C. R. Schuller...Transforma- ciones del Sistema de Ateni6n M6dica en Chile ." (Paper pre- sented at workshop "Six Years of Military Rule in Chile ," sponsored by
... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley... viticultural area are four 1:24,000 Scale U.S.G.S. topography maps. They are titled: (1) St. Helena, CA 1960 photorevised 1980; (2) Rutherford, CA 1951 photorevised 1968; (3) Chiles Valley, CA 1958 photorevised 1980; (4...
Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) have experienced significant growth since their initial inception in the 1990s. Technologies have continued to evolve at a rapid pace, enabling the integration of advanced solutions for traveler informatio...
... Information and Regulatory Affairs, 725 17th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20038 attn: OMB 3048- xxxx...-xxxx. Type of Review: New. Need and Use: The Application for Express Insurance will be used to...
Molholm, K.N.; Blados, W.N.; Bulca, C.
This report provides a functional description of the requirements for a NATO Scientific and Technical Information Service (NSTIS). The user requirements and much of the background information in this report were derived primarily from interviews with more than 60 NATO Headquarters staff members between 2 March and 25 March 1987. In addition, representatives of the Supreme Headquarters Applied Powers Europe (SHAPE) Technical Centre (STC), the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (Anti-Submarine Warfare Research) Centre (SACLANTCEN), the NATO Communications and Information Systems Agency (NACISA), The Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD), the U.S. Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC), and themore » Technical Documentation Center for the Armed Forces in the Netherlands (TDCK), were interviewed, either in person or by telephone.« less
The Commercial Skills Test Information Management System (CSTIMS) was developed to address the fraudulent issuance of commercial drivers licenses (CDLs) across the United States. CSTIMS was developed as a Web-based, software-as-a-service system to...
This report presents the findings of an independent evaluation of the Freight Information Real-time System for Transport (FIRST) intermodal freight Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) prototype system. FIRST is an Internet-based, real-time networ...
Traffic-monitoring systems, such as those using loop detectors, are prone to coverage gaps, arising from sensor noise, processing errors and : transmission problems. Such gaps adversely affect the accuracy of Advanced Traveler Information Systems. Th...
... exported goods covered under its short and medium-term export credit insurance policies. It also alerts Ex... policies. It also alerts Ex-Im Bank staff of defaults, so they can manage the portfolio in an informed...
In Chile there are six established medical schools at public (Chile, Valparaiso and Temuco) or private (Catholic, Concepción and Austral) universities created between 1833 and 1971. Since 1990, three new medical schools (two private) were created and a fourth is projected, concerning the chilean medical corps. We present three position articles on the subject written by Dean Pedro Rosso, from the Catholic University, Dr Pedro Castillo, Chief of Human Resources of the Ministry of Health and Dean Alejandro Goic from the University of Chile. Dean Rosso emphasizes the need to have assessment procedures that guarantee quality standards in the new medical schools. Dr Castillo attracts attention on preserving the compromise with the society, inherent to chilean medicine. Dean Goic analyzes systematically the reasons to prevent the proliferation of medical schools in the country, maintaining an equilibrium between freedom of teaching and public faith protection.
Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.
Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.
A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24, 2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen. The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03493
Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo
This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.
Funding from the Department of Energy and the Annenberg/CPB Math and Science Project have helped the Association of Science-technology Centers Incorporated (ASTC) to establish and sustain an on-line community of informal science educators nationwide. The Project, called the Informal Science Educators Network Project (ISEN), is composed primarily of informal science educators and exhibit developers from science centers, museums, zoos, aquariums, botanical gardens, parks, and nature centers. Although museum-based professionals represent the majority of subscribers to ISEN, also involved are some classroom teachers and teacher educators from colleges and universities. Common to all ISEN participants is a commitment to school andmore » science education reform. Specifically, funding from the Department of Energy helped to boot strap the effort, providing Barrier Reduction Vouchers to 123 educators that enabled them participate in ISEN. Among the major accomplishments of the Project are these: (1) assistance to 123 informal science educators to attend Internet training sessions held in connection with the Project and/or purchase hardware and software that linked them to the Internet; (2) Internet training for 153 informal science educators; (3) development of a listserv which currently has over 180 subscribers--an all-time high; (4) opportunity to participate in four web chats involving informal science educators with noted researchers; (5) development of two sites on the World Wide Web linking informal science educators to Internet resources; (6) creation of an on-line collection of over 40 articles related to inquiry-based teaching and science education reform. In order to continue the momentum of the Project, ASTC has requested from the Annenberg/CPB Math and Science project a no/cost extension through December 1997.« less
Pereira S, Ana; Valenzuela B, María Teresa; Mora, Judith; Vera, Lilian
Hepatitis B virus infection generates carriers and 8% will evolve to a chronic phase. To perform a compilation of studies on hepatitis B in Chile and other sources of information to estimate the impact of this disease in our country. Published and unpublished evidence about the infection, in the general population and risk groups in our country, was compiled and reviewed critically. Informal interviews with experts, revision of the mandatory notification book of the Ministry of Health and collection of data from laboratories that study hepatitis B virus, were also carried out. The seroprevalence of chronic carriers in blood donors is nearly O.3%. Among risk groups such as health care personnel, the figure is O.7%, among homosexuals 29%, among HIV positive patients 30%, among sexual workers 2% and among children with chronic hemodialysis, 9%. Prevalence rate according to notified cases in 2004 was 1.8 x 100,000 inhabitants. Detection of viral hepatitis B surface antigen in laboratories occurs in 0.2% of donors and 1.396 of non donors. The seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus, the lack of notification, and the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine to our Regular Program of Immunizations, are arguments to develop in Chile a hepatitis B and C surveillance system.
Kahaner, David K.
The Asian Technology Information Program (ATIP) conducted a seven-month Asian science and technology information program for the Office:of Energy Research (ER), U.S: Department of Energy (DOE.) The seven-month program consists of 1) monitoring, analyzing, and dissemiuating science and technology trends and developments associated with Asian high performance computing and communications (HPC), networking, and associated topics, 2) access to ATIP's annual series of Asian S&T reports for ER and HPC related personnel and, 3) supporting DOE and ER designated visits to Asia to study and assess Asian HPC.
Luger, Herbert P.; Booser, Ronald J.
A survey of the literature in the last ten years and interviews with library and security personnel indicated: (1)the problems of handling classified information in libraries have been scanted; (2) there is wide divergence in policies and practices of disseminating such materials; (3)interlibrary cooperation with respect to classified holdings is…
... review and comments request. Form Title: EIB 99-14 Export-Import Bank Trade Reference form. SUMMARY: The... Reference form provides essential credit information used by Ex-Im Bank credit officers when analyzing... (longer than 360 days), for the export of their U.S. goods and services. Additionally, this form is an...
Hough, R. W.; And Others
The scope of the research reported here is summarized as follows: (1) consider items of information that could conceivably be transmitted electrically or electronically, (2) concentrate on domestic U.S. rather than international traffic, (3) concentrate on point-to-point service, (4) consider data collection and broadcasting services only as they…
Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others
The fundamental objective of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study is to provide the Air Force with an enhanced in-house capability to incorporate LCC considerations during all stages of the system acquisition process. The purpose of this report is to describe the technical approach, results, and conclusions…
Goclowski, John C.; And Others
Designed to identify and quantify the potential impacts of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) on weapon system personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC), this study postulated a typical close-air-support (CAS) mission avionics suite to serve as a basis for comparing present day and DAIS configuration specifications. The purpose…
Handel, Michael J.
This paper provides an extensive review of the research literature on the effects of information technology (IT) on employment levels, job skill requirements, and wages. The first sections provide historical background on earlier waves of concern regarding automation, contemporary public opinion regarding new workplace technology, and trends in…
The Commercial Skills Test Information Management System (CSTIMS) was developed as a Web-based, software-as-a-service system to prevent and deter fraud perpetrated by third-party commercial drivers license (CDL) examiners in the portion of the CDL...
Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.
The Parent Child Center Management Information System, the first operational MIS for a social action program relating to child welfare, consists of three interlocking components: a standard set of recordkeeping forms for the local Parent Child Center; a set of quarterly reporting forms that interface with the recordkeeping forms; and a series of…
... use only in those cases where the company chooses to make use of some aspects of the additional... the option of ``Ex-Im Bank Sole Risk'' as an obligor type; added the option ``CAD or SDDP'' to the...: 3048-0021. Type of Review: Regular. Need and Use: The information collected enables Ex-Im Bank to...
Bernstein, George B.
This study developed a variation of the DELPHI approach, a polling technique for systematically soliciting opinions from experts, to produce a technological forecast of developments in the information-processing industry. SEER (System for Event Evaluation and Review) combines the more desirable elements of existing techniques: (1) intuitive…
The study was directed toward developing a manual for establishing societal benefits and costs of vocational and manpower programs in Wisconsin. After first outlining the background of benefit-cost analysis, problems in establishing cost functions in education are presented along with some important cost concepts and uses of cost information in…
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE U.S. [Public Notice 2010-0035] Agency Information Collection Activities... continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal.... This is a new application form for use by small U.S. businesses with limited export experience...
Grignetti, Mario C.; Warnock, Eleanor H.
A description of the NET-SCHOLAR system, an on-line aid for naive users of the Advanced Research Projects Administration (ARPA) Computer Network, is provided. The discussion focuses upon the system's representation and handling of functional and procedural information and its ability to deal with action verbs, all within the context of the ARPA…
Seven experiments were run to determine the precise nature of some of the variables which affect the processing of short-term visual information. In particular, retinal location, report order, processing order, lateral masking, and redundancy were studied along with the nature of the confusion errors which are made in the full report procedure.…
Corplan Associates, Chicago, IL. Technology Center.
THE BASIC OBJECTIVE OF THE SURVEY WAS TO GATHER INFORMATION HELPFUL IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION PRIMARILY WITHIN THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM. OCCUPATIONAL NEEDS WERE IDENTIFIED FROM FORECASTS OF CHANGES IN CURRENT OCCUPATIONS, AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLICATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS, AND…
Gourova, Elissaveta; Burgelman, Jean-Claude; Bogdanowicz, Marc; Herrmann, Christoph
Trends in the development and utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the 13 candidate countries for admission into the European Union(the CC13) were examined by a 12-member panel of experts and its staff. The analysis focused on the following topics: (1) the communication infrastructure available in the CC13; (2) issues…
... Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank), as a part of its continuing effort to reduce....regulations.gov or by mail to Vasilios Giannpooulos, Export Import Bank of the United States, 811 Vermont Ave... proposed information collection, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The purpose of this...
Price Waterhouse and Co., New York, NY.
This volume on Phase II of the New York State Educational Information System (NYSEIS) describes the Gross Systems Analysis and Design, which includes the general flow diagram and processing chart for each of the student, personnel, and financial subsystems. Volume II, Functional Specifications, includes input/output requirements and file…
Sinclair, Beth; Carroll, Janet
This report summarizes data that address several aspects of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act's Title I program. It includes information on districts, schools and students served, range of instructional and support services provided, Title I staffing patterns, and schools' progress toward meeting performance standards as reported in Title…
Ritterbusch, Stanley; Golay, Michael; Duran, Felicia
OAK B188 Summary of methods proposed for risk informing the design and regulation of future nuclear power plants. All elements of the historical design and regulation process are preserved, but the methods proposed for new plants use probabilistic risk assessment methods as the primary decision making tool.
Humpback whales wintering in Hawaii may be affected by human activities in the nearshore waters apparently favored by the whales. The report reviews available information on the number, age/sex composition, reproductive status, distribution, movements, and essential habitats of the whales in Hawaii. It then identifies human activities that may be affecting the whales or their habitats and describes their nature, magnitude, and significance. This is followed by: a review of existing local, state, and Federal laws and regulations and their adequacy for avoiding or mitigating the effects of human activities on the whales; an identification of critical information gaps regardingmore » the whales and the human activities.« less
achieve full independence until 1818. By 1932, Chile had established a mass electoral democracy, which endured until 1973. During much of this period...by the armed forces and other bodies. 6 Peter M. Siavelis, “ Electoral System, Coalitional Disintegration, and the Future of Chile’s Concertación...finally replaced,” Latin News Weekly Report, August 20, 2009. 13 Monte Reel, “Chile’s Student Activists: A Course in Democracy,” Washington Post
Marion, Jeffrey L.; Wimpey, Jeremy F.
Managers at Alaska?s Denali National Park and Preserve (DENA) sponsored this research to assess and monitor visitor-created informal trails (ITs). DENA is located in south-central Alaska and managed as a six million acre wilderness park. This program of research was guided by the following objectives: (1) Investigate alternative methods for monitoring the spatial distribution, aggregate lineal extent, and tread conditions of informal (visitor-created) trails within the park. (2) In consultation with park staff, develop, pilot test, and refine cost-effective and scientifically defensible trail monitoring procedures that are fully integrated with the park?s Geographic Information System. (3) Prepare a technical report that compiles and presents research results and their management implications. This report presents the protocol development and field testing process, illustrates the types of data produced by their application, and provides guidance for their application and use. The protocols described provide managers with an efficient means to document and monitor IT conditions in settings ranging from pristine to intensively visited.
Rene Escobar R.; Manuel Sanchez O.; Guillermo Pereira C.
The forest economy in Chile is based on products from artificial reforestation efforts on approximately 2 million ha. From these, about 1.5 million ha (75%) are planted with Pinus radiata, 400,000 ha (20%) with species of Eucalyptus, principally E. globulus and E. nitens, and the rest (5%) composed by other...
This color-coded shaded relief view from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission of coastal Chile indicates the epicenter red marker of the 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010, just offshore of the Maule region in the Bahia de Chanco.
This study, conducted by Black & Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report, produced for the Ministry of National Resources, Energy and Environment (MNRE) of Swaziland, determines the least cost capacity expansion option to meet the future power demand and system reliability criteria of Swaziland, with particular emphasis on the proposed interconnector between Swaziland and Mozambique. Volume 2, the Final Report, contains the following sections: (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Review of SEB Power System; (3.0) SEB Load Forecast and Review; (4.0) SEB Load Forecast Revision; (5.0) The SEB Need for Power; (6.0) SEB System Development Planmore » Review; (7.0) Southern Mozambique EdM power System Review; (8.0) Southern Mozambique EdM Energy and Demand; (9.0) Supply Side Capacity Options for Swaziland and Mozambique; (10.0) SEB Expansion Plan Development; (11.0) EdM Expansion Plan Development; (12.0) Cost Sharing of the Interconnector; (13.0) Enviroinmental Evaluation of Interconnector Options; (14.0) Generation/Transmission Trade Offs; (15.0) Draft Interconnection Agreement and Contract Packages; (16.0) Transmission System Study; (17.0) Automatic General Control; (18.0) Automatic Startup and Shutdown of Hydro Electric Power Plants; (19.0) Communications and Metering; (20.0) Conclusions and Recommendations; Appendix A: Demand Side Management Primer; Appendix B. PURPA and Avoided Cost Calculations.« less
The report describes hypotheses, aims, methods and results of the project 20170675PRD2, “Controlling Quantum Information by Quantum Correlations”, which has been run from July 31, 2017 to January 7, 2018. The technical work has been performed by Director’s Fellow Davide Girolami of the T-4 Division, Physics of Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, under the supervision of Wojciech Zurek (T-4), Lukasz Cincio (T-4), and Marcus Daniels (CCS-7). The project ended as Davide Girolami has been converted to J. R. Oppenheimer Fellow to work on the project 20180702PRD1, “Optimal Control of Quantum Machines”, started on January 8, 2018.
These regulations set forth a new procedure to improve Medicaid management by explicitly authorizing HCFA to expand or revise State Medicaid Management Information Systems (MMIS) as necessary to meet program needs. Under this procedure, HCFA will publish major new requirements for comment before deciding to adopt them, and will provide increased Federal matching and reasonable phase-in time for their implementation. HCFA will also periodically review ongoing systems to determine whether all system requirements and performance standards are being met and may reduce the level of Federal matching for those MMIS systems which do not meet prescribed standards.
d’opérations interarmées de la région ( COIR ), il contient principalement de l’information sur la position et sur l’identité pertinente pour les...permet à diverses organisations maritimes (p. ex. les COIR et les centres des opérations de la sécurité maritime (COSM)) de mieux comprendre les...production de documents importants qui décrivent les besoins et le développement de technologies de visualisation de pointe. Portée : Les COIR peuvent
McInerney, J.D.; Micikas, L.B.
The Human Genome Project is a large, internationally coordinated effort in biological research directed at creating a detailed map of human DNA. This report describes the access of information, management, and regulation of the project. The project led to the development of an instructional module titled The Human Genome Project: Biology, Computers, and Privacy, designed for use in high school biology classes. The module consists of print materials and both Macintosh and Windows versions of related computer software-Appendix A contains a copy of the print materials and discs containing the two versions of the software.
The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is issuing this interim final rule with a request for comments to adopt an initial set of standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria, as required by section 3004(b)(1) of the Public Health Service Act. This interim final rule represents the first step in an incremental approach to adopting standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria to enhance the interoperability, functionality, utility, and security of health information technology and to support its meaningful use. The certification criteria adopted in this initial set establish the capabilities and related standards that certified electronic health record (EHR) technology will need to include in order to, at a minimum, support the achievement of the proposed meaningful use Stage 1 (beginning in 2011) by eligible professionals and eligible hospitals under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs.
Khmelevskaya, A. V.; Klyuchnikova, O. E.; Golovin, P. V.; Yakushev, A. S.
This article discusses the use of business games in the field of Infocommunications and information security. The authors consider the developed business game "Interview - rules of successful employment," "The tender to design Local Area Network," "Emergency situation in telecommunications company." This business games allows students to develop many skills and abilities. This games gives students the opportunity to take advantage of their theoretical knowledge and already in student years to begin them practically to realize and apply, producing own preparation the same for a further successful professional growth. The games is recommended for use as a new integrated form of organization-semester independent students work with a public defense of result and demonstration all professional competencies.
Hughes, Leanne; Bateson, Luke; Ford, Jonathan; Napier, Bruce; Creixell, Christian; Contreras, Juan-Pablo; Vallette, Jane
The unique challenges of geological mapping in remote terrains can make cross-organisation collaboration challenging. Cooperation between the British and Chilean Geological Surveys and the Chilean national mining company used the BGS digital Mapping Workflow and virtual field reconnaissance software (GeoVisionary) to undertake geological mapping in a complex area of Andean Geology. The international team undertook a pre-field evaluation using GeoVisionary to integrate massive volumes of data and interpret high resolution satellite imagery, terrain models and existing geological information to capture, manipulate and understand geological features and re-interpret existing maps. This digital interpretation was then taken into the field and verified using the BGS digital data capture system (SIGMA.mobile). This allowed the production of final geological interpretation and creation of a geological map. This presentation describes the digital mapping workflow used in Chile and highlights the key advantages of increased efficiency and communication to colleagues, stakeholders and funding bodies.
Barja, Boris; Zamorano, Felix; Ristori, Pablo; Otero, Lidia; Quel, Eduardo; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Santana, Jorge
A tropospheric lidar system was installed in Punta Arenas, Chile (53.13°S, 70.88°W) in September 2016 under the collaboration project SAVERNET (Chile, Japan and Argentina) to monitor the atmosphere. Statistical analyses of the clouds and aerosols behavior and some cases of dust detected with lidar, at these high southern latitude and cold environment regions during three months (austral spring) are discussed using information from satellite, modelling and solar radiation ground measurements.
Griner, James H.; Jirberg, Russ; Frantz, Brian; Kachmar, Brian A.
NASA s Aviation Safety Program was created for the purpose of making a significant reduction in the incidents of weather related aviation accidents by improving situational awareness. The objectives of that program are being met in part through advances in weather sensor technology, and in part through advances in the communications technology that are developed for use in the National Airspace System. It is this latter element, i.e., the improvements in aviation communication technologies, that is the focus of the Weather Information Communications project. This report describes the final flight test results completed under the WINCOMM project at the NASA Glenn Research Center of the 1090 Extended Squitter (1090ES) and VDL Mode 3 (VDL-3) data links as a medium for weather data exchange. It presents the use of 1090ES to meet the program objectives of sending broadcast turbulence information and the use of VDL-3 to send graphical weather images. This report provides the test requirements and test plans, which led to flight tests, as well as final results from flight testing. The reports define the changes made to both avionics and ground-based receivers as well as the ground infrastructure to support implementation of the recommended architecture, with a focus on the issues associated with these changes.
deportation is simply not practical . Statistics of cocaine coming into Chile by "ant smuggling" do not exist. Carabineros mentions that according to...existing evidence is contradictory. A recent report ordered by the Ministry of Foreign 10 Affairs does not support the allegation that Chile is being used...Gugliotta and Jeff Leen, Kings of Cocaine (New York: Harper and Row, 1989) p.23. 11 industry based in Chile and controlled by a few refiners who bought
Hall, M F
Male attitudes toward family planning education were assessed through a study of 720 men in Santiago and 240 men in a nearby rural area of Chile. Interviews were conducted by male students at the University of Chile School of Public Health. A large majority of the men were using or planned to use contraception in the future. There was a near consensus that adults should be informed regarding family planning. More than a majority of the respondents favored provision of contraceptive information for unmarried women, but most did not approve of premarital sexual activity for females. Most respondents favored the teaching of sex education in schools "according to the age of the children." Younger and higher class males tended to hold the most liberal attitudes.
This document contains final regulations providing guidance toemployers that are subject to the information reporting requirements under section 6056 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code), enacted by the Affordable Care Act (generally employers with at least 50 full-time employees, including full-time equivalent employees). Section 6056 requires those employers to report to the IRS information about the health care coverage, if any, they offered to full-time employees, in order to administer the employer shared responsibility provisions of section 4980H of the Code. Section 6056 also requires those employers to furnish related statements to employees that employees may use to determine whether, for each month of the calendar year, they may claim on their individual tax returns a premium tax credit under section 36B (premium tax credit). The regulations provide for a general reporting method and alternative reporting methods designed to simplify and reduce the cost of reporting for employers subject to the information reporting requirements under section 6056. The regulations affect those employers, employees and other individuals.
Otzen, Tamara; Sanhueza, Antonio; Manterola, Carlos; Hetz, Monica; Melnik, Tamara
Homicide, an external cause of morbidity and mortality, caused 473,000 deaths worldwide in 2012, a rate of 6.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. The aim of this study was to describe homicide mortality trends in Chile between 2000 and 2012 by year, gender, age group, geographic distribution (by zone and by region) and type of homicide. This was a population-based study. Data for homicide mortality in Chile between 2000 and 2012 were used and they were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health's Department of Statistics and Health Information (DEIS) and PAHO/WHO. The homicide mortality rates were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants. The study variables were year, geographic distribution, gender, age group and type of homicide. The annual percentage change (APC) of the rates was analyzed, and a logarithm of the rates by year and region was fitted by applying linear regression models. In addition, relative risks (RR) were calculated. 95% confidence intervals were considered in all the analyses. The average yearly rate of homicide (HMR) in Chile (2000-2012) was 4.9. The rates were higher in men (8.7) than in women (1.1), with a RR of 8.2. The rates were higher in the country's central zone (5.0), increasing in recent years in the southern zone, with a significant positive APC of 1.1%. The Aisén Region had the highest rate (7.6), although Antofagasta was the region with the most significant APC (3.1%). The highest rate (9.2) was verified in the 25 to 39 age group. The highest rate (5.5) was recorded in 2005. The most frequent type of homicide was assault with an object (44.8%). Although the homicide rates are higher in the southern zone of the country, the northern zone is showing a tendency to increase, becoming an even more serious problem, which not only affects those directly involved, but society as a whole.
Santiago, Paulo; Fiszbein, Ariel; Jaramillo, Sandra García; Radinger, Thomas
This country review report for Chile provides, from an international perspective, an independent analysis of major issues facing the use of school resources in Chile, current policy initiatives, and possible future approaches. The report serves three purposes: i) to provide insights and advice to Chilean education authorities; ii) to help other…
Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima
Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…
Bonilla, Carlos A.; Vidal, Karim L.
SummaryOne of the most widely used indicators of potential water erosion risk is the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor ( R) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). R is traditionally determined by calculating a long-term average of the annual sum of the product of a storm's kinetic energy ( E) and its maximum 30-min intensity ( I30), known as the EI30. The original method used to calculate EI30 requires pluviograph records for at most 30-min time intervals. Such high resolution data is difficult to obtain in many parts of the world, and processing it is laborious and time-consuming. In Chile, even though there is a well-distributed rain gauge network, there is no systematic characterization of the territory in terms of rainfall erosivity. This study presents a rainfall erosivity map for most of the cultivated land in the country. R values were calculated by the prescribed method for 16 stations with continuous graphical record rain gauges in Central Chile. The stations were distributed along 800 km (north-south), and spanned a precipitation gradient of 140-2200 mm yr -1. More than 270 years of data were used, and 5400 storms were analyzed. Additionally, 241 spatially distributed R values were generated by using an empirical procedure based on annual rainfall. Point estimates generated by both methods were interpolated by using kriging to create a map of rainfall erosivity for Central Chile. The results show that the empirical procedure used in this study predicted the annual rainfall erosivity well (model efficiency = 0.88). Also, an increment in the rainfall erosivities was found as a result of the rainfall depths, a regional feature determined by elevation and increasing with latitude from north to south. R values in the study area range from 90 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the north up to 7375 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the southern area, at the foothills of the Andes Mountains. Although the map and the estimates could be improved in the future by
Fuentes, Patricio; Albala, Cecilia
Chile is in an advanced demographic transition stage with the population over 60 years of age representing 15% of the total population and whose number of elderly has more than doubled between 1990 and 2014. Rapid economic advancement has promoted significant changes in social organization to which the country is not accustomed. The mental health problems of the elderly are particularly challenging to the country's present social and health structures. The prevalence of dementia in people over 60 years exceeds 8% and is even higher in the rural population. There is more training on dementia in the local medical and scientific community, increased awareness within the civilian community but insufficient responsiveness from the state to the broad diagnostic and therapeutic requirements of patients and caregivers. The objective of the present study was to provide an update of the information on dementia in the context of the ageing process in Chile. PMID:29213920
Breastfeeding practices have greatly diminished in all industrialized countries in the past 30 years; only now breastfeeding is enjoying a revival, especially among better educated people, as data gathered in Sweden and in the U.S. show. In Chile, as in most underdeveloped countries, the practice of breastfeeding began declining in urban, then in rural areas, reaching the largest decline in 1930. Modernization and all the factors connected with it, and especially urbanization, are accountable for this change. To encourage breastfeeding in Chile several recommendations are possible, among which is the education of parents on the advantages of breastfeeding. Mass media and all communication channels should be used; 2) better alimentation, when necessary at government expenses, for pregnant and nursing mothers; 3) legislation regulating the advertisement and distribution of infant formulas; 4) information on the possible effects of oral contraception on lactation; and 5) new social legislation protecting pregnant and nursing mothers.
Mejoramiento de la Produccion de Materiales de Educacion en Poblacion para la Ensenanza Primaria y la Post-Alfabetizacion. Taller Regional (Santiago, Chile, 27 mayo-5 junio, 1987). Informe Final (Upgrading the Production of Population Education Materials for Primary Education and Post-Literacy. Regional Workshop (Santiago, Chile, May 27-June 5, 1987). Final Report.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.
This report contains the results of an operational training workshop covering 11 case studies on the production of teaching materials for population education and used for elementary education, literacy, and post-literacy programs. The workshop covered the planning and design for the production of teaching materials including an eight step…
The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346
Araya, Juan Francisco
The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described.
Chile's long term social policy has produced very impressive outcomes in general health indicators, with a national health service established as early as 1952. During the years of the Pinochet dictatorship (1973-89) public health institutions were greatly affected, with sharp diminution in financing which affected investment and salaries. The democratic government initiated in 1990 faced a difficult situation, with underpaid staff and decrepit hospitals. The ministry took immediate action to improve salaries and start an ambitious health sector reform including investment in infrastructure, technology, and modern management. Decentralisation and autonomy, changes in payment for service mechanisms, and a public-private mix are the main objectives of this reform, keeping the public role as predominant in the proposed structure. This process has been affected by union unrest and public opinion dissatisfaction, which tend to present obstacles to progress in this complicated issue. Imagesp729-ap730-a
Barrientos, S.; Vera, E.; Alvarado, P.; Monfret, T.
Both the genesis and rates of activity of shallow intraplate seismic activity in central Chile are poorly understood, mainly because of the lack of association of seismicity with recognizable fault features at the surface and a poor record of seismic activity. The goal of this work is to detail the characteristics of seismicity that takes place in the western flank of the Andes in central Chile. This region, located less than 100 km from Santiago, has been the site of earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.9, including several 5+ magnitude shocks in recent years. Because most of the events lie outside the Central Chile Seismic Network, at distances up to 60 km to the east, it is essential to have adequate knowledge of the velocity structure in the Andean region to produce the highest possible quality of epicentral locations. For this, a N-S refraction line, using mining blasts of the Disputada de Las Condes open pit mine, has been acquired. These blasts were detected and recorded as far as 180 km south of the mine. Interpretation of the travel times indicates an upper crustal model consisting of three layers: 2.2-, 6.7-, and 6.1-km thick, overlying a half space; their associated P wave velocities are 4.75-5.0 (gradient), 5.8-6.0 (gradient), 6.2, and 6.6 km/s, respectively. Hypocentral relocation of earthquakes in 1986-2001, using the newly developed velocity model, reveals several regions of concentrated seismicity. One clearly delineates the fault zone and extensions of the strike-slip earthquake that took place in September 1987 at the source of the Cachapoal River. Other regions of activity are near the San José volcano, the source of the Maipo River, and two previously recognized lineaments that correspond to the southern extension of the Pocuro fault and Olivares River. A temporary array of seismographs, installed in the high Maipo River (1996) and San José volcano (1997) regions, established the hypocentral location of events with errors of less than 1 km
Molina C, Ramiro; Molina G, Temístocles; González A, Electra
Teenage fecundity rates are an indicator of epidemiological discrimination in developing countries. To study fertility rates of girls under 14 years of age in Chile from 1993 to 2003. Information of children born alive from mothers aged 10 to 15 years, was obtained from the Chilean National Institute of Statistics. Age segmented population data was obtained from the Ministry of Health. Trends were analyzed by regions and single ages. The rates in communities of the Metropolitan Region were compared. Between 1993 and 2003, there was an increasing trend in fecundity rates, ratios and crude numbers. These rates duplicate from 14 to 15 years of age. In the Metropolitan Region, the fecundity ratios of communities with lower economical incomes is seven times greater than those with higher incomes. During 2003, the fecundity rates in Chile were 100 and 10 higher than those of Holland and Sweden in 1981. In developing countries with very low infant mortality rates such as Chile, the high fecundity rates of young girls is an indicator of a deficient human and social development. Sexual Education and Health Services for adolescents are essential to prevent this public health problem.
Langdon, M C; Gazmuri, C; Venegas, L
The leading health problems of children and adolescents in Chile is reviewed. The Chilean educational system and how the system addresses its principal health problems are described. A school health program is described as well as other educational programs designed and developed by nongovernmental institutions which have a smaller coverage. Current research studies regarding growth and development, child morbidity, nutritional level, and mental health studies are reviewed. In addition, principal challenges that include developing more efficient ways of referring children, enriching the curriculum and teacher training, assigning school hours for health teachers, and enlarging coverage of the health care evaluation programs are outlined. Of special importance is developing prevention programs for parents and children using school and community leaders to prevent health problems in areas such as human sexuality education, decision-making, social abilities, and alcohol and drug abuse. Main efforts should be directed toward low-income families and children to improve life conditions.
This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at themore » experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.« less
The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since
Talhouk, Aline; Hoang, Lien N; McConechy, Melissa K; Nakonechny, Quentin; Leo, Joyce; Cheng, Angela; Leung, Samuel; Yang, Winnie; Lum, Amy; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han; Soslow, Robert A; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake; McAlpine, Jessica N
predicts the molecular features in the final hysterectomy specimens, demonstrating concordance superior to grade and histotype. This biologically relevant information, available at initial diagnosis, has the potential to inform management (surgery, adjuvant therapy) from the earliest time point in cancer care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Real time and predicted traffic information plays a key role in the successful implementation of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) and advance traffic management systems (ATMS). Traffic information is essentially valuable to both transport...
Herrera, C.; Cassidy, J. F.; Dosso, S. E.
The ground shaking assessment allows quantifying the hazards associated with the occurrence of earthquakes. Chile and western Canada are two areas that have experienced, and are susceptible to imminent large crustal, in-slab and megathrust earthquakes that can affect the population significantly. In this context, we compare the current GMPEs used in the 2015 National Building Code of Canada and the most recent GMPEs calculated for Chile, with observed accelerations generated by four recent Chilean megathrust earthquakes (MW ≥ 7.7) that have occurred during the past decade, which is essential to quantify how well current models predict observations of major events.We collected the 3-component waveform data of more than 90 stations from the Centro Sismologico Nacional and the Universidad de Chile, and processed them by removing the trend and applying a band-pass filter. Then, for each station, we obtained the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), and by using a damped response spectra, we calculated the Pseudo Spectral Acceleration (PSA). Finally, we compared those observations with the most recent Chilean and Canadian GMPEs. Given the lack of geotechnical information for most of the Chilean stations, we also used a new method to obtain the VS30 by inverting the H/V ratios using a trans-dimensional Bayesian inversion, which allows us to improve the correction of observations according to soil conditions.As expected, our results show a good fit between observations and the Chilean GMPEs, but we observe that although the shape of the Canadian GMPEs is coherent with the distribution of observations, in general they under predict the observations for PGA and PSA at shorter periods for most of the considered earthquakes. An example of this can be seen in the attached figure for the case of the 2014 Iquique earthquake.These results present important implications related to the hazards associated to large earthquakes, especially for western Canada, where the probability of a
A toll-free adult education information and referral hotline provided information and referral services to approximately 1500 adults in Region IX in Texas from September 1980 to June 1981. Adult education co-ops and testing centers forwarded pertinent program information (class schedules, General Educational Development testing information) to the…
Corrêa, Felipe; Stoore, Caroll; Horlacher, Pamina; Jiménez, Mauricio; Hidalgo, Christian; Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Figueiredo Barros, Guilherme; Bunselmeyer Ferreira, Henrique; Hernández, Marcela; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Paredes, Rodolfo
Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a parasitic disease caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.), is a worldwide zoonotic infection. Although endemic in Chile, information on the molecular characteristics of CE in livestock remains scarce. Therefore we aimed to describe the status of infection with E. granulosus s.l. in cattle from central Chile and also to contribute to the study of the molecular epidemiology of this parasite. According to our results, the prevalence of CE is 18.84% in cattle, similar to previous reports from Chile, suggesting that the prevalence in Santiago Metropolitan area has not changed in the last 30 years. Most of the cysts were found only in lungs (51%), followed by concurrent infection in liver and lungs (30%), and only liver (19%). Molecular characterization of the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus s.l. from cattle in central Chile was performed using a section of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial gene. E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) (G1-G3 genotypes) was confirmed by RFLP-PCR to be the dominant species affecting cattle (284 samples/290 samples); we also report for the first time in Chile the presence of E. ortleppi (G5 genotype) (2 samples/61 samples). The Chilean E. granulosus s.s. parsimony network displayed 1 main haplotype. Additional studies using isolates from many locations across Chile and different intermediate hosts will provide more data on the molecular structure of E. granulosus s.s. within this region. Likewise, investigations of the importance of E. ortleppi in human infection in Chile deserve future attention.
This Final Architecture and Design report has been prepared to describe the structure and design of all the system components for the LA-Gateway FRATIS Demonstration Project. More specifically, this document provides: Detailed descriptions of the...
García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana
This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…
Olea, Andrea; Díaz, Janepsy; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Vaquero, Alejandra; García, Maritza
Foodborne disease outbreaks are one of the main health problems globally, having an extensive impact on human welfare. The World Health Organization considers them as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and responsible for high levels of loss of productivity in developed countries. To describe the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks according to data contained in an automated surveillance system. Descriptive observational study of notified outbreaks from the surveillance system, between 2005 and 2010 in Chile. The information was based on etiology, temporal and spatial distribution, and epidemiologic description of outbreaks during this period. There were 5,689 notified outbreaks. Most of them occurred during 2006 (1,106 outbreaks, rate 6.7 per 100,000 inhabitants) and 2008 (1,316 outbreaks, rate 7.9 per 100, 000 inhabitants) with an increase during summer. Fifty four percent occurred in the Metropolitan region. The group aged 15 to 44 years old, was the most affected one. Sixty four percent of the outbreaks had the food involved registered, of which fish and fishery products reached 42%. An 81% of the outbreaks did not have a precise etiologic diagnosis. Of all patients involved, 97% were outpatients, 3,2% were hospitalized patients, and 0,1% died. Only 49% of the outbreaks had information about the lack of food safety, with a 34,1% related to food handling procedures. Through the information on the epidemiology of foodborne diseases obtained by the Chilean surveillance system, appropriate control measures could be taken.
International Symposium on Harmonization of Education and Training Programmes in Information Science, Librarianship and Archival Studies. (Paris, France, October 8-12, 1984). Final Report and Introductory Statement.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Information Programme.
This two-part document comprises an introductory statement and final report of a meeting that promoted the harmonized development, at regional and national levels, of theoretical and practical training programs for all kinds of information specialists. The meeting was attended by 19 experts from 17 countries--Brazil, Ethiopia, France, India,…
California Univ., Los Angeles. Graduate School of Library and Information Science.
This final report on a project at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) on strategic planning for libraries and information resources in the research university begins with an introductory section on levels of consideration in planning; issues of current concern (effects of technology, economics of libraries, changes in the academic…
A common challenge for government administrations that aim to improve the delivery of information and services to citizens is to go beyond a government-centred approach. By focusing on citizens and the needs of a wide range of citizens, Universal Design (UD) can help to increase the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of government services. This paper examines the case of an internationally recognised Chilean government service delivery programme inspired by UD principles known as ChileAtiende ("ChileService"). A brief account of its creation and current status is provided.
McCrink, Carmen L.; Whitford, Heidi
This chapter describes the results of case study research on a partnership between a community college in the United States and a university in Chile that attempted to develop the first community college system in Chile.
McCormick, Ernest J.
The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is a job analysis instrument consisting of 187 job elements organized into six divisions. The PAQ was used in the eight studies summarized in this final report. The studies were: (1) ratings of the attribute requirements of PAQ job elements, (2) a series of principal components analyses of these attribute…
Townley, Charles T.
As the final report on the National Indian Education Association's (NIEA) Library Project, this document presents the following: (1) an introduction (describes the general condition of American Indian library service, the involvement of NIEA, and the project's objectives and time line); (2) the methodology of Phase I: identification of…
Zull, Carolyn Gifford, Ed.; And Others
This third volume of the Comparative Systems Laboratory (CSL) Final Technical Report is a collection of relatively independent studies performed on CSL materials. Covered in this document are studies on: (1) properties of files, including a study of the growth rate of a dictionary of index terms as influenced by number of documents in the file and…
Guerrero-Lillo, Lisette; Medrano-Díaz, Jorge; Pérez, Carmen; Chacón, Rodrigo; Silva-Urra, Juan; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J
Because information about travel medicine in Chile is lacking, a knowledge, attitudes, and practices evaluation in international travelers and medical students was done. The travelers and medical students did not know the travel medicine and sanitary conditions of their destinations, although they perceived travel-associated health risks, but <10% had any vaccination and 5% got sick during international trips.
Holst, John D.
In this article, John Holst presents findings of his historical research on Paulo Freire's educational work in Chile from 1964 to 1969. Freire's "Education as the Practice of Freedom", which was written in 1965 from notes he brought from Brazil, was informed by a liberal developmentalist outlook. In contrast, his "Pedagogy of the…
Page, Randy M.; Dennis, Megan; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Merrill, Ray M.
The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between adolescent substance use and psychosocial distress indicators among 30,851 adolescents aged 11 to 16 in four countries (Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia). Global School-Based Student Health Survey data from these countries provided information about frequency and…
... diverse and includes innovative programs, and projects in rural, high poverty, and economically distressed... poverty rate, unemployment rate, labor force participation, and median household income; (ii) Information...
... diverse and includes innovative programs, and projects in rural, high poverty, and economically distressed... poverty rate, unemployment rate, labor force participation, and median household income; (ii) Information...
... diverse and includes innovative programs, and projects in rural, high poverty, and economically distressed... poverty rate, unemployment rate, labor force participation, and median household income; (ii) Information...
The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.
de las colecistopatias en Chile . Rev.Med.Chile 100:1376- 1381, 1972. 8. Medina, E., Kaempffer, A.M., DeCroizet, V.A., Yrrazaval, Toporowicz, M...Epidemoologia de las colecistopatias en Chile . II. Factores de importancia en estudios de autopsia. Rev.Med.Chile 100:1382-1389, 1972. 9. Marinovio, I...necesario ef ec tuar previamente ex5menes bactereol.’gicos de inocuidad y potencia_ de la vacuna en el Instituto de Salud Priblica de
California Univ., Los Angeles. Inst. of Library Research.
The general conclusions of the planning study on Mechanized Information Services in the University Library are that such services represent a desirable, even necessary, extension of the library's traditional functions. Preliminary specifications for such a library-based "Center for Information Services" (CIS) are presented in this report. Covered…
Freeman, Robert R.; And Others
The main results of the survey-and-analysis stage include a substantial collection of preliminary data on the language-sciences information user community, its professional specialties and information channels, its indexing tools, and its terminologies. The prospects and techniques for the development of a modern, discipline-based information…
Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.
This report describes the results of an assessment of Sailor, Maryland's Online Public Information Network, which provides statewide Internet connection to 100% of Maryland public libraries. The concept of a "statewide networked environment" includes information services, products, hardware and software, telecommunications…
Griffiths, Jose-Marie; And Others
This document contains validated activities and competencies needed by information professionals working in an archive or museum. The activities and competencies are organized according to the functions which information professionals in archives or museums perform: acquisitions; cataloging/indexing; reference; exhibit management; and…
Griffiths, Jose-Marie; And Others
This document contains validated activities and competencies needed by information professionals working in a library system supplier organization. The activities and competencies are organized according to the functions which information professionals working in such organizations perform: research and development; marketing; customer support;…
... SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Pre-Award Disputes § 137.424 Is the recommended decision from the informal... from the informal conference, it may still appeal the initial decision within 30 days of receiving the... appeal within 30 days, or before the expiration of the extension it has received under § 137.426 , the...
BIVONA, WILLIAM A.
A SET OF GUIDELINES FOR IMPLEMENTING AND OPERATING A REPLICA OF A PROTOTYPE SELECTIVE DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION (SDI) SYSTEM TESTED AT U.S. ARMY NATICK LABORATORIES, AND REPORTED IN LI 000 273, IS GIVEN IN THIS MANUAL. INFORMATION IS SUPPLIED WHICH IS USEFUL IN THE INITIAL STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION. THE APPLICATION OF SPECIFIC CRITERIA FOR…
Sikorski, Linda A.; And Others
Research was conducted to show how segments of the population of minority and disadvantaged youth might be positively influenced by selective information campaigns to participate in vocational education programs. The first-year effort (stage 1) undertook to measure student attitudes and to develop recommendations for using this information in…
Michael, Mary Ellen; Encarnacion, Leticia
An evaluation of Chicago's El Centro de la Causa Library and Information Center was undertaken by the University of Illinois Library Research Center in 1974. Evaluation methods included: (1) a survey of user and nonuser characteristics and attitudes concerning library services; (2) a survey of the needs and information-seeking behavior of people…
On-site visits were made to all federal and some state prisons in 10 selected states to provide current information on which decisions could be based for prison library and information services. The focus was on the broad issues of library goals and objectives, relationship of the library to the total institution and the outside community, the…
Tóth, J.; Kaniansky, S.
The Slovak Video Meteor Network operates since 2009 (Tóth et al., 2011). It currently consists of four semi-automated all-sky video cameras, developed at the Astronomical Observatory in Modra, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Two new generations of AMOS (All-sky Meteor Orbit System) cameras operate fully automatically at the Canary Islands, Tenerife and La Palma, since March 2015 (Tóth et al., 2015). As a logical step, we plan to cover the southern hemisphere from Chile. We present observational experiences in meteor astronomy from the Atacama Desert and other astronomical sites in Chile. This summary of the observations lists meteor spectra records (26) between Nov.5-13, 2015 mostly Taurid meteors, single and double station meteors as well as the first light from the permanent AMOS stations in Chile.
Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio
In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ~160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ~40 to experimental physicists; ~178 are men and only ~22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ~160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is insufficient
Wimpey, Jeremy; Marion, Jeffrey L.
This report presents the results of research on the conditions of formal and informal (visitorcreated) trails conducted within the Great Falls Park (GFP) portion of George Washington Memorial Parkway (GWMP), Virginia, and the adjacent Maryland portions of the C&O Canal National Historical Park (CHOH). This research was prompted primarily by concerns about the impact of extensive informal trail networks within both parks on native vegetation and rare plant communities, rare flora and fauna, and historic and archaeological resources. Resource conditions on formal park trails were also assessed to provide information supporting the development of park planning and management decision-making.
Zitko Melo, Pedro; Cabieses Valdes, Báltica
Disability is a worldwide public health priority. A shift from a biomedical perspective of dysfunction to a broader social understanding of disability has been proposed. Among many different social factors described in the past, socioeconomic position remains as a key multidimensional determinant of health. The study goal was to analyze the relationship between disability and different domains of socioeconomic position in Chile. Cross-sectional analysis of an anonymized population-based survey conducted in Chile in 2006. Any disability (dichotomous variable) and 6 different types of disability were analyzed on the bases of their relationship with income quintiles, occupational status, educational level, and material living standards (quality of the housing, overcrowding rate and sanitary conditions). Confounding and interaction effects were explored using R statistical program. Income, education, occupation, and material measures of socioeconomic position, along with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, were independently associated with the chance of being disabled in Chile. Interestingly, classic measures of socioeconomic position (income, education, and occupation) were consistently associated with any disability in Chile, whereas material living conditions were partially confounded by these classic measures. In addition to this, each type of disability showed a particular pattern of related social determinants, which also varied by age group. This study contributed to the understanding of disability in Chile and how different domains of socioeconomic position might be associated with this prevalent condition. Disability remains a complex multidimensional public health problem in Chile that requires the inclusion of a wide range of risk factors, of which socioeconomic position is particularly relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This project conducted a thorough review of the existing Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) database, : performance models, needs estimates, utility curves, and scores calculations, as well as a review of District practices : concerning th...
Description: This following MIB has been developed for use by FDOT. This : proposed Florida-Specific NTCIP Management Information Base (MIB) For : Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) Camera MIB is based on the following : documentations: : NTCIP 120...
This report contains the results, findings and conclusions generated from the evaluation and field testing of a specific subset of ITS Standards applicable to the center-to-center exchange of advanced traveler information as deployed by the Nebraska ...
The Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks Model Deployment Initiative (CVISN MDI) is funded by the Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) and managed by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA),...
Frank S. Smallwood, M.A. •. Member Accepted this 5th day of June 1992 by: 9 4-A1 %/ Director, Graduate Philip J . Brookes, Ph.D. Degree Programs The...P. 2. 2 Jorge Palacios, CHILE: An Attempt at "Historic Compromise". (Chicago: Banner Press, 1979), p. 79. 3 David J . Bowen, The Land and People of...Washington, D. C. American University Press, 1982), p. 35. 6 Robert J . Alexander, The Tragedy of Chile. (London: Greenwood Press, 1978), p. 314. CHAPTER
Román, Oscar; Acuña, Miguel; Señoret, Miriam
The number of physicians available in a given country, their efficiency, quality and specialization is of utmost epidemiological importance. To evaluate the availability of physicians in Chile. The information about the number of physicians in Chile up to the year 2004, was obtained from the Ministry of Health, national universities and the register of immigrant physicians since 1950. The total number of physicians licensed to practice was 25,542, of whom 2,700 are immigrants. The physician/inhabitant ratio increased from 1/921 in 1998 to 1/612 in 2004. The greater impact in the increment of available physicians was given by the immigration of professionals and by the increase in the number of physicians graduated from national universities, mainly from the new private universities. Forty two percent of physicians work at public services and 61% of these are certified specialists. The regional distribution of general practitioners and basic specialists is adequate. Along the country, the mean physician/beneficiary ratio is 8.45/10,000, the specialist/beneficiary ratio is 4.9/10,000 and the general practitioner/beneficiary ratio is 2.3/10,000. The national information of available physicians, especially in the private sector, should be improved. Immigration of physicians should be regulated, maintaining validation examinations and a National Medical Test to assess medical proficiency should be instituted.
Shorikov, A. F.
In this article we consider a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of a set a controllable objects (region and forming it municipalities). The dynamics each of these is described by the corresponding linear or nonlinear discrete-time recurrent vector relations and its control system consist from two levels: basic level (control level I) that is dominating level and auxiliary level (control level II) that is subordinate level. Both levels have different criterions of functioning and united by information and control connections which defined in advance. In this article we study the problem of optimization of guaranteed result for program control by the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks vectors. For this problem we propose a mathematical model in the form of two-level hierarchical minimax program control problem of the final states of this system with incomplete information and the general scheme for its solving.
Özbıçakçı, Şeyda; Gezer, Nurdan; Bilik, Özlem
Information literate person are aware of where and how they can obtain the information they need. Little is known about student nurses information literacy skills in different education programs. To find out how final year nursing students rated their own abilities to acquire new information. This study used comparative and descriptive cross-sectional surveys. Participants were final year students in two different programs, in two different universities in Turkey. The study sample consisted of final year nursing students who received training in Classic Learning (N: 61) and Problem-Based Learning (N: 96). As an evaluation instrument for the perceptions of the students their own information literacy, a scale consisting of 28 questions with 7 Likert ratings for each was used (min: 28, max: 196). The return rates of the surveys were 96.7% in the school with classic training and 81.2% in the school with PBL. It was found that the average scores of the students were high, with a mean of 137±29 in the school where the classic training program was carried out, and 163±21 in the school where the training was PBL. A statistically significant difference was found by comparing the average scores of the two independent groups (t : -6.0; p<0.05). Students in both of the training programs rated themselves as high. However, PBL training had a stronger influence on the development of their self-perceptions regarding information literacy. We conclude that training programs should be reviewed, and new methods should be developed based on these concepts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
EPA delivered a two-day workshop in Santiago, Chile, on public participation. The course intended to enable students to increase the level of public impact through the levels of public participation, found on EPA’s Public Participation Guide.
EPA delivered a two-day workshop in Chile, on public participation. The course intended to enable students to increase the level of public impact through the levels of public participation, found on EPA’s Public Participation Guide.
Specifications of a Mechanized Center for Information Services for a Public Library Reference Center. Final Report. Part 1, Preliminary Specification: Mechanized Information Services in Public Library Reference Centers.
California Univ., Los Angeles. Inst. of Library Research.
This document presents preliminary specifications for a library-based Center for Information Services (CIS). Four sets of issues are covered: (1) data base inventory, providing a listing of magnetic tape data bases now available from national sources or soon to be so; (2) administrative issues, including the organization of the CIS within the…
LeVan, Jan; Arndt, Maridene
A report and related materials are provided from an activity to set up an operating information processing center that would do the work initiated by personnel in the district and to incorporate the center into the Modern Office/Word Processing Technology course. The report details objectives, population and sample, and conclusions and…
Memorial Univ., St. John's (Newfoundland).
The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in continuing health professional education (CHPE) was examined in a national survey of Canadian CHPE providers. Of the 3,044 surveys distributed to schools of medicine, nursing, and pharmacy, national/provincial health professional associations, nonprofit health advocacy organizations,…
Goclowski, John C.; And Others
This supplement to a technical report providing the results of a preliminary investigation of the potential impact of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) concept on system support personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC) includes: (1) additional details of the cost comparison of a hypothetical application of a conceptual…
Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others
This report provides a complete guide to the stand alone mode operation of the reliability and maintenance (R&M) model, which was developed to facilitate the performance of design versus cost trade-offs within the digital avionics information system (DAIS) acquisition process. The features and structure of the model, its input data…
Dick, James C.; And Others
The management information system (MIS) development project for California's Regional Occupational Centers and Programs (ROC/Ps) was conducted in 3 phases over a 12-month period. Phase I involved a literature review and field study to match MIS design features and development strategy with existing conditions in ROC/Ps. A decision support system…
Becker, David S.; Pyrce, Sharon R.
The goal of this project was to find ways of enhancing the efficiency of searching machine readable data bases. Ways are sought to transfer to the computer some of the tasks that are normally performed by the user, i.e., to further automate information retrieval. Four experiments were conducted to test the feasibility of a sequential processing…
Dillon, Martin; And Others
The Online Computer Library Center Internet Resource project focused on the nature of electronic textual information available through remote access using the Internet and the problems associated with creating machine-readable cataloging (MARC) records for these objects using current USMARC format for computer files and "Anglo-American…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Information Programme.
The purpose of this meeting was to solicit input for action on the topic of training information users in higher education with special reference to the needs of developing countries. Two documents which had been prepared to form the basis for discussion were introduced: a report of a survey that had investigated what was being done in selected…
In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period.
Describes Chile's restructuring of higher education which emphasizes professional preparation in the universities and conforms to market-oriented economic theories of the government. Many of the social sciences and some natural science degree programs will be banished under this restructuring. (DS)
Calbuco Volcano in southern Chile has erupted for the first time since 1972, with the last major eruption occurring in 1961 that sent ash columns 12-15 kilometers high. This image was taken by the Suomi NPP satellite's VIIRS instrument in a high resolution infrared channel around 0515Z on April 23, 2015. Credit: NOAA/NASA/NPP/VIIRS
Harvest mechanization as a system requires modifying or creating new components including cultivars, production practices, and harvest, transportation and processing plant machinery. New Mexican chile is one of the last segments of the pepper industry to still rely on hand labor. This paper reports ...
Reyes, Miguel T.
This paper begins with a discussion of the origins of Chilean television, including its channels, programs, and transmission times, and how education for television has arisen in Chile as a defense against its influence. The initial concern of sociologists' about this influence and later development of ideas and programs by a number of…
Molina, Alejandra; Falvey, Mark; Rondanelli, Roberto
Chile hosts some of the sunniest places on earth, which has led to a growing solar energy industry in recent years. However, the lack of high resolution measurements of solar irradiance becomes a critical obstacle for both financing and design of solar installations. Besides the Atacama Desert, Chile displays a large array of "solar climates" due to large latitude and altitude variations, and so provides a useful testbed for the development of solar irradiance maps. Here a new public database for surface solar irradiance over Chile is presented. This database includes hourly irradiance from 2004 to 2016 at 90 m horizontal resolution over continental Chile. Our results are based on global reanalysis data to force a radiative transfer model for clear sky solar irradiance and an empirical model based on geostationary satellite data for cloudy conditions. The results have been validated using 140 surface solar irradiance stations throughout the country. Model mean percentage error in hourly time series of global horizontal irradiance is only 0.73%, considering both clear and cloudy days. The simplicity and accuracy of the model over a wide range of solar conditions provides confidence that the model can be easily generalized to other regions of the world.
Ireland, Robert R; Bellolio, Gilda; Larraín, Juan; Rodríguez, Roberto
This is the final report on the moss flora of the Bío-Bío Region (Región VIII) in south-central Chile where collections were made in 2001-2003. Reported in this paper are one species new to South America, four species new to Chile and 16 species new to the Region. With these new additions the total number of taxa in the Bío-Bío Region is 343, corresponding to 331 species and 12 infraspecific taxa. A complete checklist of the mosses for all the provinces in the Region is presented.
Ireland, Robert R.; Bellolio, Gilda; Larraín, Juan; Rodríguez, Roberto
Abstract This is the final report on the moss flora of the Bío-Bío Region (Región VIII) in south-central Chile where collections were made in 2001–2003. Reported in this paper are one species new to South America, four species new to Chile and 16 species new to the Region. With these new additions the total number of taxa in the Bío-Bío Region is 343, corresponding to 331 species and 12 infraspecific taxa. A complete checklist of the mosses for all the provinces in the Region is presented. PMID:28814916
Mimica, Francisco; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Torres, Marisa; Padilla, Oslando
Toxoplasmosis, cosmopolitan parasitic zoonosis often found in humans, is transmitted mainly by food and water, and is considered a significant risk of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women, newborns and immunocompromised patients. To identify the information about this zoonosis and its first reports in Chile. Review of publications in Pubmed, Mesh search of systematic reviews, case studies, cross-sectional studies, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and specialty publications. In addition, other publications in parasitology journals were analyzed. There are reports of the presence of this disease in Chile for 60 years. During this time several differences in prevalence depending on geographic location, age and education level of the population have been detected. There is low epidemiological vigilance and lack of specific official preventive measures for this disease, despite the possible introduction of new parasite genotypes of an increased virulence and pathogenicity in the country through the importation of meat. New enigmas have arisen in relation to this disease associating it with Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease, autism, learning disabilities, among others.
Scherson, Rosa A; Thornhill, Andrew H; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael; Freyman, William A; Pliscoff, Patricio A; Mishler, Brent D
Current geographic patterns of biodiversity are a consequence of the evolutionary history of the lineages that comprise them. This study was aimed at exploring how evolutionary features of the vascular flora of Chile are distributed across the landscape. Using a phylogeny at the genus level for 87% of the Chilean vascular flora, and a geographic database of sample localities, we calculated phylogenetic diversity (PD), phylogenetic endemism (PE), relative PD (RPD), and relative PE (RPE). Categorical Analyses of Neo- and Paleo-Endemism (CANAPE) were also performed, using a spatial randomization to assess statistical significance. A cluster analysis using range-weighted phylogenetic turnover was used to compare among grid cells, and with known Chilean bioclimates. PD patterns were concordant with known centers of high taxon richness and the Chilean biodiversity hotspot. In addition, several other interesting areas of concentration of evolutionary history were revealed as potential conservation targets. The south of the country shows areas of significantly high RPD and a concentration of paleo-endemism, and the north shows areas of significantly low PD and RPD, and a concentration of neo-endemism. Range-weighted phylogenetic turnover shows high congruence with the main macrobioclimates of Chile. Even though the study was done at the genus level, the outcome provides an accurate outline of phylogenetic patterns that can be filled in as more fine-scaled information becomes available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta
This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Atwater, B. F.; Cisternas, M.; Salgado, I.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Shishikura, M.
Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the 1960 earthquake had nearly twice the seismic slip expected from plate convergence since 1837, much of the strain released in 1960 may have been accumulating since 1575. Geologic evidence for such incubation comes from new paleoseismic findings at the R¡o Maullin estuary, which indents the Pacific coast at 41.5§ S midway along the 1960 rupture. The 1960 earthquake lowered the area by 1.5 m, and the ensuing tsunami spread sand across lowland soils. The subsidence killed forests and changed pastures into sandy tidal flats. Guided by these 1960 analogs, we inferred tsunami and earthquake history from sand sheets, tree rings, and old maps. At Chuyaquen, 10 km upriver from the sea, we studied sand sheets in 31 backhoe pits on a geologic transect 1 km long. Each sheet overlies the buried soil of a former marsh or meadow. The sand sheet from 1960 extends the entire length of the transect. Three earlier sheets can be correlated at least half that far. The oldest one, probably a tsunami deposit, surrounds herbaceous plants that date to AD 990-1160. Next comes a sandy tidal-flat deposit dated by stratigraphic position to about 1000-1500. The penultimate sheet is a tsunami deposit younger than twigs from 1410-1630. It probably represents the 1575 earthquake, whose accounts of shaking, tsunami, and landslides rival those of 1960. In that case, the record excludes the 1737 and 1837 events. The 1737 and 1837 events also appear missing in tree-ring evidence from islands of Misquihue, 30 km upriver from the sea. Here the subsidence in 1960 admitted brackish tidal water that defoliated tens of thousands of
Fittipaldi, J.J.; Sliwinski, B.J.
Army environmental planning and compliance activities continue to grow in magnitude and complexity, straining the resources of installation environmental offices. New efficiencies must be found to meet the increasing demands of planning and compliance imperatives. This study examined how office automation/information technology (OA/IT) may boost productivity in U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) installation environmental offices between now and the year 2000. A survey of four TRADOC installation environmental offices revealed that the workload often exceeds the capacity of staff. Computer literacy among personnel varies widely, limiting the benefits available from OA/IT now in use. Since environmental personnel aremore » primarily gatherers and processors of information, better implementation of OA/IT could substantially improve work quality and productivity. Advanced technologies expected to reach the consumer market during the 1990s will dramatically increase the potential productivity of environmental office personnel. Multitasking operating environments will allow simultaneous automation of communications, document processing, and engineering software. Increased processor power and parallel processing techniques will spur simplification of the user interface and greater software capabilities in general. The authors conclude that full implementation of this report's OA/IT recommendations could double TRADOC environmental office productivity by the year 2000.« less
Johnson, S.R.; Burns, J.J.; Malme, C.I.
The study investigated the use of terrestrial haulout sites in the eastern Bering Sea by four species of pennipeds, northern fur seal, northern sea lion, harbor seal and pacific walrus. Historical information on the use of each site was summarized. Available information on the effects of airborne and waterborne noise, and human disturbance (from stationary and moving sources) was reviewed. The authors also conducted a detailed analysis of the acoustic environment of eight haulout sites that were representative of others used by each of the four species studied. The analyses included investigations of (1) characteristics airborne and underwater ambient noise,more » (2) characteristics of industrial noise sources, including aircraft, small boats, fishing trawlers and commercial cargo traffic, and (3) sound transmission loss in air, water, and through the air-water surface. As a means to evaluate the potential vulnerability of each haulout site to noise and disturbance, a quantitative rating system (IPSI) whereby an index of sensitivity was assigned to each site.« less
As U.S. demand for fresh market green chile rises green chile acreage in the U.S. is declining due to limited availability and high cost of hand labor to harvest it. Many farmers are opting to grow crops other than green chile. Green chile is a New Mexican pod-type chile that is harvested when the...
... Pomegranates From Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of approval... importation of fresh pomegranates from Chile into the continental United States. DATES: We will consider all...: For information on the importation of fresh pomegranates from Chile, contact Ms. Claudia Ferguson...
This final rule provides the additional requirements to the conditions and procedures for initial approval and reapproval of Medicaid Management Information Systems (MMIS) that were added by section 1903(r) of the Social Security Act (as amended by section 901 of the Mental Health Systems Act of 1980, Pub. L. 96-398). These provisions are intended to improve States' MMIS, ensure efficient system operations, and make the procedures for detection of fraud, waste, and abuse more effective. In addition, this final rule specifies the procedures we follow in reducing the level of Federal financial participation in State administrative expenditures if a State fails to meet the conditions for initial operation, initial approval, or reapproval of an MMIS.
Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; ...
A search is performed for anomalous interactions of the recently discovered Higgs boson using matrix element techniques with the information from its decay to four leptons and from associated Higgs boson production with two quark jets in either vector boson fusion or associated production with a vector boson. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 38.6 fb –1. These data are combined with the data collected at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 and 19.7more » fb –1, respectively. As a result, all observations are consistent with the expectations for the standard model Higgs boson.« less
Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.
A search is performed for anomalous interactions of the recently discovered Higgs boson using matrix element techniques with the information from its decay to four leptons and from associated Higgs boson production with two quark jets in either vector boson fusion or associated production with a vector boson. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 38.6 fb –1. These data are combined with the data collected at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 and 19.7more » fb –1, respectively. As a result, all observations are consistent with the expectations for the standard model Higgs boson.« less
Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Ambrogi, F.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Grossmann, J.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, N.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Madlener, T.; Mikulec, I.; Pree, E.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Spanring, M.; Spitzbart, D.; Waltenberger, W.; Wittmann, J.; Wulz, C.-E.; Zarucki, M.; Chekhovsky, V.; Mossolov, V.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; De Wolf, E. 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P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Álvarez Fernández, A.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Erice, C.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; González Fernández, J. R.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Sanchez Cruz, S.; Suárez Andrés, I.; Vischia, P.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chazin Quero, B.; Curras, E.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bianco, M.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Botta, C.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; Chapon, E.; Chen, Y.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Roeck, A.; Dobson, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Everaerts, P.; Fallavollita, F.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Glege, F.; Gulhan, D.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Karacheban, O.; Kieseler, J.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kornmayer, A.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lange, C.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Meijers, F.; Merlin, J. A.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Milenovic, P.; Moortgat, F.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Selvaggi, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Sphicas, P.; Stakia, A.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Tosi, M.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Verweij, M.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Caminada, L.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Wiederkehr, S. A.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Berger, P.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Klijnsma, T.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Reichmann, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Shchutska, L.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Vesterbacka Olsson, M. L.; Wallny, R.; Zhu, D. H.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; De Cosa, A.; Del Burgo, R.; Donato, S.; Galloni, C.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Seitz, C.; Takahashi, Y.; Zucchetta, A.; Candelise, V.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Steen, A.; Tsai, J. f.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Boran, F.; Cerci, S.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kara, O.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Kiminsu, U.; Oglakci, M.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Turkcapar, S.; Zorbakir, I. S.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Tekten, S.; Yetkin, E. A.; Agaras, M. N.; Atay, S.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Davignon, O.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Auzinger, G.; Bainbridge, R.; Breeze, S.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Di Maria, R.; Elwood, A.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; James, T.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Matsushita, T.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Palladino, V.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Scott, E.; Seez, C.; Shtipliyski, A.; Summers, S.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wardle, N.; Winterbottom, D.; Wright, J.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Smith, C.; Bartek, R.; Dominguez, A.; Buccilli, A.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; West, C.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Cutts, D.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Kwok, K. H. M.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Pazzini, J.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Yu, D.; Band, R.; Brainerd, C.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Shalhout, S.; Shi, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tos, K.; Tripathi, M.; Wang, Z.; Bachtis, M.; Bravo, C.; Cousins, R.; Dasgupta, A.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Mccoll, N.; Saltzberg, D.; Schnaible, C.; Valuev, V.; Bouvier, E.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Ghiasi Shirazi, S. M. A.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Si, W.; Wang, L.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Hashemi, B.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Kole, G.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Masciovecchio, M.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Amin, N.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Franco Sevilla, M.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Qu, H.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Newman, H. B.; Nguyen, T.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Ferguson, T.; Mudholkar, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Weinberg, M.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Mcdermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Zientek, M.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Apyan, A.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Canepa, A.; Cerati, G. B.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cremonesi, M.; Duarte, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Freeman, J.; Gecse, Z.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Schneider, B.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strait, J.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Joshi, Y. R.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Kolberg, T.; Martinez, G.; Perry, T.; Prosper, H.; Saha, A.; Santra, A.; Sharma, V.; Yohay, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Cavanaugh, R.; Chen, X.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hangal, D. A.; Hofman, D. J.; Jung, K.; Kamin, J.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trauger, H.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Castle, J.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Royon, C.; Sanders, S.; Schmitz, E.; Stringer, R.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jeng, G. Y.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kunkle, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Azzolini, V.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Demiragli, Z.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Tatar, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Loukas, N.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Higginbotham, S.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Mei, K.; Ojalvo, I.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Das, S.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Khatiwada, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Peng, C. C.; Schulte, J. F.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Cheng, T.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Ciesielski, R.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Montalvo, R.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Delannoy, A. G.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Sturdy, J.; Zaleski, S.; Brodski, M.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Hussain, U.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration
A search is performed for anomalous interactions of the recently discovered Higgs boson using matrix element techniques with the information from its decay to four leptons and from associated Higgs boson production with two quark jets in either vector boson fusion or associated production with a vector boson. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 38.6fb-1. They are combined with the data collected at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 and 19.7fb-1, respectively. All observations are consistent with the expectations for the standard model Higgs boson.
Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul
Chile is one of the few countries that faces the environmental challenge posed by extensive arsenic pollution, which exists in the northern part of the country. Chile has worked through various options to appropriately address the environmental challenge of arsenic pollution of water and air. Because of cost and other reasons, copying standards used elsewhere in the world was not an option for Chile. Approximately 1.8 million people, representing about 12% of the total population of the country, live in arsenic-contaminated areas. In these regions, air, water, and soil are contaminated with arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. For long periods, water consumed by the population contained arsenic levels that exceeded values recommended by the World Health Organization. Exposure to airborne arsenic also occurred near several large cities, as a consequence of both natural contamination and the intensive mining activity carried out in those areas. In rural areas, indigenous populations, who lack access to treated water, were also exposed to arsenic by consuming foods grown locally in arsenic-contaminated soils. Health effects in children and adults from arsenic exposure first appeared in the 1950s. Such effects included vascular, respiratory, and skin lesions from intake of high arsenic levels in drinking water. Methods to remove arsenic from water were evaluated, developed, and implemented that allowed significant reductions in exposure at a relatively low cost. Construction and operation of treatment plants to remove arsenic from water first began in the 1970s. Beginning in the 1990s, epidemiological studies showed that the rate of lung and bladder cancer in the arsenic-polluted area was considerably higher than mean cancer rates for the country. Cancer incidence was directly related to arsenic exposure. During the 1990s, international pressure and concern by Chile's Health Ministry prompted action to regulate arsenic emissions from copper smelters. A
Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way for this project (ROWs) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1)more » determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWs; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.« less
Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Castro, Ariel; Guajardo, Viviana; Torres, Pamela; Díaz, Berta
Chile is receiving immigrant populations coming from other Latin-American countries. To determine the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among immigrants who live in Independencia, a quarter in Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was carried out in the primary health care clinic and in the state-funded school of Independencia. A representative sample of 282 adults and 341 children were interviewed. Mental disorders were diagnosed using CIS-R and MINI structured interviews. The interviewed immigrants came mostly from Peru. The prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population was 17.8% and among children, it was 29.3%. The adult immigrants have a lower prevalence of mental disorders than the Chilean population but it increases among children. Barriers of access to health services, that should be solved, were detected.
Sánchez P, Katherin; Valderas J, Jaime; Messenger C, Karen; Sánchez G, Carolina; Barrera Q, Francisco
Migration is a growing phenomenon in Latin America influenced by several factors such as economic stability, employment, social welfare, education and health system. Currently Chile has a positive migration flow rate. Particularly, a significant number of Haitian immigrants has been observed du ring the last years, especially after earthquake of 2010. These immigrants present a different cultural background expressed in relevant aspects of living including parenting and healthcare. Knowing the Haitian culture and its health situation is relevant for a better understanding of their health needs. Haitian people come to Chile looking for a cordial reception and willing to find a place with better perspectives of wellbeing in every sense. Immigration represents a major challenge for Chilean health system that must be embraced. Integration efforts in jobs, health, education system and community living should be enhanced to ensure a prosper settlement in our country. A new immigration law is crucial to solving major problems derived from current law created in 1975.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global and national problem. In Chile the incidence rate has remained at 13 per 100,000 inhabitants for several years without tendency to the expected decline that would allow their elimination by 2020. As a low prevalence country, TB cases have been concentrated in risk groups, reaching 33% in 2013, and this proportion increases as younger people are analyzed. The main risk groups in Chile are HIV co-infection, foreigners and population of prisons. By 2013, the proportion of cases for these three groups was 8.7%, 8.4% and 3.9% respectively, and these percentages vary significantly when regional situation is analyzed. In addition, many of these patients have more than one risk factor, demons-rating the existence of clusters more vulnerable to TB.
The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain , the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers).  See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres
Astudillo Olivares, Pedro
Influenza control is based in two main components: a surveillance system and vaccination. In both aspects Chile has conquered high internacional standards and can exhibit the best results in the Region, obtaining a significant reduction in mortality attributable to influenza and pneumonia as vaccine coverage has increased over 11% of the total population. Pandemic influenza menace is permanent and obliges national authorities to prepare special strategies to face it.
Ebaugh, Cameron D.
Chile is a republic 2,630 miles long, extending along the western coast of South America from Peru to the southernmost tip of the continent. In width it averages about 110 miles, with snow-capped, volcano-studded Andes in the East, a low coastal range along the Pacific and a string of valleys and plains in between. It is estimated that 5,000…
Beckwith, Jonathan R.
The Conference, “Race, Genetics and Medicine: New Information, Enduring Questions,” was held on Saturday, April 9, 2005 in the Science Center, Lecture Hall D at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Approximately 150 people attended. The audience was composed mainly of college and graduate school science students and postdoctoral fellows, some science and medical school faculty, science teachers at various levels, journalists and interested members of the public. The keynote speaker and the panelists reflected different academic disciplines (genetics, medicine, anthropology, sociology) and a CEO of a biotechnology company with background in medicine and law. They also presented different perspectives on themore » utility of race concepts in medicine and even on the use of the word “race.” While the talks often involved descriptions of genetic approaches that were not simple to explain, the speakers did an effective job of getting across the gist of studies that have been carried out on these issues. Although no consensus was reached, the conference gave the audience the opportunity to understand the issues and to have the tools to follow the debates in the future. Our strongest feedback was from attendees who had heard of the race and genetics issues through various media, but did not have a sense of what they were really about. They reported to us that they now felt they understood the basis of these discussions. Our post-conference activities have been successfully completed. While we had proposed to make available transcripts of the talks to the public through a Website, some of the speakers would not agree to have their presentations available in this way. Therefore, we asked permission from the DOE to use the funds to prepare classroom lesson plans for high school students to discuss the issues. These were prepared over a year-long period by the Genetic Screening Study Group Members with an educator, Ms. Ronnee Yashon, who teaches at Tufts University
Publishers, 1992), 41. 26 Javier Martinez and Alvaro Diaz , Chile The Great Transformation (Harrisonburg, Virginia: The Brookings Institution, 1996...the world economy, by means of technological advancements, makes it necessary to reduce 32 Javier Martinez and Alvaro Diaz , Chile the Great...disapproves the executive’s budget. There is no 60 Alicia Frohman, "Chile: External Actors and the Transition to Democracy," in Beyond Sovereignty
Rangecroft, Sally; Van Loon, Anne; Maureira, Héctor; Rojas, Pablo; Alejandro Gutiérrez Valdés, Sergio; Verbist, Koen
Drought and water scarcity are important hazards and can lead to severe socio-economic impacts in many regions of the world. Given the interlinked interactions and feedbacks of hydrological droughts and their impacts and management, we need tools to evaluate these complexities and effects on the availability of water resources. Here we use a real-world case study of the Huasco basin (Northern Chile) in which we quantify the influence of human activities on hydrological drought signals. In this arid region, Andean snowmelt provides water essential for users, with agriculture acting as the main water consumer (85% of total). An increasing water demand from different water sectors (agriculture, mining, and domestic water usage) has increased pressure on available water and its management. Consequently, the Santa Juana dam was built by 1995 to increase irrigation security for downstream users, and recent management and restrictions have been established with the objective to limit impacts of hydrological droughts across the basin. The feedbacks between water availability and water management are explored for this water stressed region in Chile. Hydro-meteorological (e.g. precipitation, temperature, streamflow, reservoir levels) variables have been analysed to assess trends and drought patterns. Data over the past three decades has indicated a decrease in surface water supply, with the basin entering a situation of water scarcity during the recent multiyear drought (2007 - to-date), partly caused by meteorological drought and partly by abstraction. During this period, water supply failed to meet the demands of water users, resulting in the implementation of water restrictions. As well as the necessary continuous hydro-meteorological data, here we used information on human water users and scenario modeling, allowing for the analysis and quantification of feedbacks. This work highlights the importance of local knowledge, especially in understanding water laws, rights
In 1994, Chile had 15,451 active physicians (less than 70 years old) for a population of 14,027,344 with a ratio of 1 physician per 908 inhabitants, a satisfactory figure compared to other countries of similar socio-economical development. Ratios of 1:880 and 1:843 are projected for 1999 and 2004 respectively. The annual rate of physician's population growth (2.2%), that is superior to the general population's growth rate (1.6%), will increase to about 2.5% per annum in 2001 as a consequence of the creation of three new medical schools. However, the distribution of physicians along the country is unsatisfactory. While the capital (Metropolitan Region) has a ratio of 1 physician per 629 inhabitants, the figure for the Region of Maule is 1:2,113. Only two of ten regions, excepting the capital, have a ratio lower than 1:1,000. Sixty percent of physicians live in Santiago while only 40% of the general population does so, illustrating their high concentration. Median ratio in Chile, that better reflects the reality than the mean, is 1:1,280. The heterogeneous distribution of physicians in Chile is a sign of social inequity that must be corrected. In a free society a better physician distribution is achieved with economical and professional incentives given by health institutions.
Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo
The worldwide scarcity of cadaveric organs for transplants is on the rise, due in part to extended medical indications and longevity of chronic patients with organic insufficiencies. Chile has an extremely low donor rate of 6.7 per million. Although consent is presumed by law, and recently amended to include a reciprocity principle, nearly four million persons have expressed in writing their unwillingness to donate and, of those remaining, 53% of families have rejected donating the organs of their deceased. New proposals are urgently needed, even if some of them have previously been rejected: nonmaterial incentives, partial donations and unveiling anonymity to enhance personal ties between donors and recipients. Transparency, information and assistance are to be reinforced in order to regain trust in transplant procedures.
5 United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, “Chile Earthquake: Situation Report #2,” March 1, 2010; Gobierno de Chile...U.S. Department of State, March 2, 2010. 6 “Bachelet decreta primer Estado de Catástrofe desde terremoto de 1985,” El Mercurio (Chile), March 1...2010; “Amplían toque de queda en zonas más afectadas por terremoto en Chile,” Agence France Presse, March 1, 2010; “160 detained, one killed during
Reyes, H; Kauffmann, R; Goic, A
To identify those institutions granting medical research in Chile, every issue of Revista Médica de Chile published between 1987 and 1994 was reviewed, under the assumption that a vast majority (over 70%) of papers released by Chilean authors in topics of internal medicine and related subspecialties would have been submitted for publication in this journal. This assumption was based in the solid prestige of Revista Médica de Chile among Chilean physicians and investigators: it is one of the oldest medical journals in the world (founded in 1872) and its inclusion in the most important international indexes (e.g. Index Medicus, Current Contents) qualifies it in the "mainstream literature". Papers classified as "Original Articles", "Clinical Experiences", "Review Articles", "Public Health", "Case Reports", "Clinical Laboratory", "Special Articles" and "Medical Education" were screened for acknowledgment of financial support beyond the resources needed for routine clinical work. Among 1,528 manuscripts published, 344 were "Original Articles" and 61.3% of them acknowledged special financial support. Five hundred and one manuscripts were "Clinical Experiences" and 21.5% of them received special financial support; similar proportions were detected in "Review Articles" and "Public Health" topics. The institution ranked as providing support most often was the "Fondo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología" (FONDECYT), a governmental fund that assigns resources to research in all areas of science and technology through a peer-reviewed nationwide annual contest. FONDECYT was identified as provider of financial support to 45.2% of the "Original Articles" and "Clinical Experiences"; Chilean universities were mentioned by 33.6% and other entities (including pharmaceutical companies, other national and foreign organizations) by 23.1%. The University of Chile was the main Chilean university mentioned in the acknowledgments. The proportion of papers receiving special financial support
Nazif-Munoz, José Ignacio; Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; van den Berg, Axel
The objective of the current study is to determine to what extent the reduction of Chile's traffic fatalities and injuries during 2000-2012 was related to the police traffic enforcement increment registered after the introduction of its 2005 traffic law reform. A unique dataset with assembled information from public institutions and analyses based on ordinary least square and robust random effects models was carried out. Dependent variables were traffic fatality and severe injury rates per population and vehicle fleet. Independent variables were: (1) presence of new national traffic law; (2) police officers per population; (3) number of traffic tickets per police officer; and (4) interaction effect of number of traffic tickets per police officer with traffic law reform. Oil prices, alcohol consumption, proportion of male population 15-24 years old, unemployment, road infrastructure investment, years' effects and regions' effects represented control variables. Empirical estimates from instrumental variables suggest that the enactment of the traffic law reform in interaction with number of traffic tickets per police officer is significantly associated with a decrease of 8% in traffic fatalities and 7% in severe injuries. Piecewise regression model results for the 2007-2012 period suggest that police traffic enforcement reduced traffic fatalities by 59% and severe injuries by 37%. Findings suggest that traffic law reforms in order to have an effect on both traffic fatality and injury rates reduction require changes in police enforcement practices. Last, this case also illustrates how the diffusion of successful road safety practices globally promoted by WHO and World Bank can be an important influence for enhancing national road safety practices. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Claro, Magdalena; Preiss, David D.; San Martin, Ernesto; Jara, Ignacio; Hinostroza, J. Enrique; Valenzuela, Susana; Cortes, Flavio; Nussbaum, Miguel
This paper describes a study that evaluates fifteen-year-old Chilean students Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills. The paper presents an operational definition of ICT skills, an instrument measuring these skills as well as the students' results in the test. The definition of ICT skills used considers Chile's curricular framework,…
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in ten foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Burma, Chile, German Democratic Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, Poland, Singapore, St. Christopher/Nevis, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…
Lagos, Jaime; Couvin, David; Arata, Loredana; Tognarelli, Javier; Aguayo, Carolina; Leiva, Tamara; Arias, Fabiola; Hormazabal, Juan Carlos; Rastogi, Nalin; Fernández, Jorge
. Finally, we also observed exclusive emergence of patterns SIT4014/X1 and SIT4015 (unknown lineage signature) that have hitherto been found exclusively in Chile, indicating that conditions specific to Chile, along with the unique genetic makeup of the Chilean population, might have allowed for a possible co-evolution leading to the success of these emerging genotypes. PMID:27518286
This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah
Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824
Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín
During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications.
Krauskopf, Manuel; Krauskopf, Erwin
During the last decade Revista Médica de Chile increased its visibility, measured on citations and impact factor. To perform a scientometric analysis to assess the performance of Revista Médica de Chile. Thomson's-ISI Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports QCR) were consulted for performance indicators of Revista Médica de Chile and Latin American journals whose subject is General and Internal Medicine. We also report the h-index of the journal, which infers quality linked to the quantity of the output. According to the h-index, Revista Médica de Chile ranks 4 among the 36 journals indexed and published by Argentina, Brazil, Chile and México. The top ten articles published by Revista Médica de Chile and the institutions with the higher contribution to the journal, were identified using citations. In the Latin American region, Brazil relevantly increased its scientific output. However, Argentina, Chile and México maintain a plateau during the last decade. Revista Médica de Chile increased notoriously its performance. Its contribution to the Chilean scientific community dedicated to Medicine appears to be of central value.
New Mexico-type green chile (Capsicum annuum) is one of New Mexico’s leading horticultural commodities. The crop is harvested when fruit are fully sized, but in the physiologically immature green stage, for fresh and processed markets. Cultivated acreage of green chile in New Mexico is threatened du...
Walter, Amy R.
This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…
Society for Microbiology, Chapter 16. 10. Medina E, Yrarrazaval M. (1983) Fiebre tifoidea en Chile: Consideraciones epideniologicas. Revista Medica de...epidesiologia de la fiebre tifoidea . Boletin de !a Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia universidad catolica de Chile. 30:113-119. 14. Reyes H, Olea M, Hernandez
;alphabetical by project name. You can browse a project profile by clicking on the project name. Atacama-1 NREL Chile Concentrating solar power (CSP) projects in Chile are listed belowÃ¢â¬"
Skewes, Juan Carlos; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto Cioce; Conway, Frederick J.
Honors programs are rare in Latin America, and in Chile they were unknown before 2003. At the Universidad Austral de Chile, an interdisciplinary group of scholars linked to environmental studies put forward a pilot project for implementing a new experience in higher education. Challenged by an educational environment where (i) apathy and…
Fraude Electoral Designada por la Facultad de Derecho de la Pontifica Universidad de Chile," in Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno de Chile, Editorial...Chilean law, could not be invaded by the police. The MIR never became a formal political party. It completely rejected the electoral process
Barrientos, S. E.; Team, C.
Chile, along 3000 km of it 4200 km long coast, is regularly affected by very large earthquakes (up to magnitude 9.5) resulting from the convergence and subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate. These megathrust earthquakes exhibit long rupture regions reaching several hundreds of km with fault displacements of several tens of meters. Minimum delay characterization of these giant events to establish their rupture extent and slip distribution is of the utmost importance for rapid estimations of the shaking area and their corresponding tsunami-genic potential evaluation, particularly when there are only few minutes to warn the coastal population for immediate actions. The task of a rapid evaluation of large earthquakes is accomplished in Chile through a network of sensors being implemented by the National Seismological Center of the University of Chile. The network is mainly composed approximately by one hundred broad-band and strong motion instruments and 130 GNSS devices; all will be connected in real time. Forty units present an optional RTX capability, where satellite orbits and clock corrections are sent to the field device producing a 1-Hz stream at 4-cm level. Tests are being conducted to stream the real-time raw data to be later processed at the central facility. Hypocentral locations and magnitudes are estimated after few minutes by automatic processing software based on wave arrival; for magnitudes less than 7.0 the rapid estimation works within acceptable bounds. For larger events, we are currently developing automatic detectors and amplitude estimators of displacement coming out from the real time GNSS streams. This software has been tested for several cases showing that, for plate interface events, the minimum magnitude threshold detectability reaches values within 6.2 and 6.5 (1-2 cm coastal displacement), providing an excellent tool for earthquake early characterization from a tsunamigenic perspective.
Reyes B, Humberto
In Chile, undergraduate medical education starts after High School, it lasts seven years, with the final two dedicated to a rotary internship, taking to an M.D. degree that allows the graduate to enter working activities. The country needs more M.D.s in primary care, but there is also a shortage of specialists, mainly out of the main cities. In recent decades, post graduate programs leading to specialty titles have become competitively adopted by a large proportion of medical graduates. This is the case at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, stimulating its faculties and medical students to develop a collaborative review of their teaching programs, leading to a curricular reform with a new graduate profile and a new curriculum oriented to learning objectives, that will allow to obtain the M.D. degree in six instead of seven years of undergraduate education. This new program awakened expectations in other universities in Chile, that will have to face the attraction of this shortened program for future candidates to enter medical schools. However, any shortening of medical school careers should first consider the local conditions in quality of applicants, number of accepted students, the training of teachers in integrated teaching programs, the availability of adequate campuses. Furthermore, for students with different academic backgrounds and diverse personal and familial interests, the seven years programs may still be necessary to gain the expertise required to become medical doctors.
The natural color image below, acquired on April 25 by the Advanced Land Imager on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 satellite, shows Calbuco’s plume rising above the cloud deck over Chile. Read more here: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=85791&eocn... Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Reginato, A J; Hollander, J L; Martinez, V; Valenzuela, F; Schiapachasse, V; Covarrubias, E; Jacobelli, S; Arinoviche, R; Silcox, D; Ruiz, F
Studies about chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands (Chile) showed the high frequency of the disease there and how most of it is aggregated in a few highly involved families. Pedigrees and the high degree of consanguinity among parents of index cases pointed to a recessive inheritance. The presence of common Caucasian anthropological features of genetic value in the patients and the lack of Indian mixture in three of the involved families, documented back to 1600, suggest a Caucasian origin of the mutation. Biochemical studies of the patients' synovial fluid showed a significant rise in pyrophosphate concentration. Calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were not different from a control group. PMID:168817
Laval R, Enrique; Lepe I, Paulina
In this review international and national historical features of rabies are presented remarking the start of preventive immunization in Chile, at year 1896, with the creation of the first service for rabies vaccination and la descentralización of preventive treatment from year 1929. Figures of human cases produced by this zoonosis between 1950 and 1986 are described, señalándose changes that occurred in local epidemiology of rabies since 1990, with an endemic pattern in bats and almost disappearance of canine rabies.
Grigg, P; Macfarlane, T V; Shearer, A C; Jepson, N J; Stephens, C D
To identify computer facilities available in 3 dental schools where 3 different approaches to the use of technology-based learning material have been adopted and assess dental students' perception of their own computer skills and their attitudes towards information technology. Multicentre cross sectional by questionnaire. All 181 dental students in their final year of study (1997-8). The overall participation rate was 80%. There were no differences between schools in the students' self assessment of their IT skills but only 1/3 regarded themselves as competent in basic skills and nearly 50% of students in all 3 schools felt that insufficient IT training had been provided to enable them to follow their course without difficulty. There were significant differences between schools in most of the other areas examined which reflect the different ways in which IT can be used to support the dental course. 1. Students value IT as an educational tool. 2. Their awareness of the relevance of a knowledge of information technology for their future careers remains generally low. 3. There is a need to provide effective instruction in IT skills for those dental students who do not acquire these during secondary education.
Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo
This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…
Cabrera, Ileana; And Others
A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…
This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.
In Chile, researchers can apply to public research funds through specific research projects and must compete with other professionals of other disciplines. To perform a critical assessment of the allocation of public funds for health research in Chile by a public institution called CONICYT. A database was constructed with health projects financed by CONICYT, between 2002 and 2006. Projects were classified (according to their titles) in three methodological categories and nine topics. Age, gender and region where the main researcher is based, were also recorded. 768 research projects were analyzed. Biomedical, clinical and public health research projects accounted for 66, 24 and 10% of allocated funds, respectively. Main researchers were female in 31 % of projects, their mean age was 52 years and 76% worked in the Metropolitan region. These results show that some objectives of the National Research System lead by CONICYT, such as using research as a tool for regional development and allocating funds for conditions with a large burden, are not been met.
Vicuna, S.; Melo, O.; Meza, F. J.; Alvarez, P.; Maureira, F.; Sanchez, A.; Tapia, A.; Cortes, M.; Dale, L. L.
Future climate conditions could potentially affect water supply and demand on water basins throughout the world but especially on snowmelt-driven agriculture oriented basins that can be found throughout central Chile. Increasing temperature and reducing precipitation will affect both the magnitude and timing of water supply this part of the world. Different adaptation strategies could be implemented to reduce the impacts of such scenarios. Some could be incorporated as planned policies decided at the basin or Water Use Organization levels. Examples include changing large scale irrigation infrastructure (reservoirs and main channels) either physically or its operation. Complementing these strategies it is reasonable to think that at a disaggregated level, farmers would also react (adapt) to these new conditions using a mix of options to either modify their patterns of consumption (irrigation efficiency, crop mix, crop area reduction), increase their ability to access new sources of water (groundwater, water markets) or finally compensate their expected losses (insurance). We present a modeling framework developed to represent these issues using as a case study the Limarí basin located in Central Chile. This basin is a renowned example of how the development of reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure can reduce climate vulnerabilities allowing the economic development of a basin. Farmers in this basin tackle climate variability by adopting different strategies that depend first on the reservoir water volume allocation rule, on the type and size of investment they have at their farms and finally their potential access to water markets and other water supplies options. The framework developed can be used to study these strategies under current and future climate scenarios. The cornerstone of the framework is an hydrology and water resources model developed on the WEAP platform. This model is able to reproduce the large scale hydrologic features of the basin such as
Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Díaz, Hugo A; Esquerré, Damien; Urra, Felix A
The elongatus-kriegi complex is one of the most diverse clades of the Liolaemus (sensu stricto) subgenus of lizards. There are currently 29 species recognized in this group distributed between Chile and Argentina. Based on molecular evidence, there seem to be five main clades nested within this complex: the elongatus, leopardinus, kriegi, petrophilus and punmahuida clades. Liolaemusbuergeri and Liolaemuskriegi, both of the kriegi clade, were believed to inhabit the surroundings of the Laja Lagoon, in the Biobío Region of Chile. Moreover, this Chilean population of Liolaemuskriegi was recently recognized as an undescribed taxon called "Liolaemus sp. A" based on molecular phylogenetics. In this work, we studied these two populations of the Laja Lagoon and provided the morphological diagnosis to describe them as two new species: Liolaemusscorialis sp. n. and Liolaemuszabalai sp. n., previously considered Liolaemusbuergeri and "Liolaemuskriegi/Liolaemus sp. A" respectively. Additionally, we identified another population of Liolaemusscorialis in the vicinity of La Mula Lagoon in the Araucanía Region of Chile. Liolaemusscorialis differs from almost all of the species of the elongatus-kriegi complex by its considerably smaller size. Nevertheless, without molecular data we cannot assign it to any particular subclade. Liolaemuszabalai belongs to the kriegi clade based on published molecular phylogenies. Finally, we provide some natural history data on both species and we document for the first time the presence of Liolaemusneuquensis in Chile from a museum specimen from La Mula Lagoon.
Cabrol, N. A.; Thomas, G.; Witzke, B.
Nomad was deployed for a 45 day traverse in the Atacama Desert, Chile, during the summer of 1997. During this traverse, 1 week was devoted to science experiments. The goal of the science experiments was to test different planetary surface exploration strategies that included (1) a Mars mission simulation, (2) a science on the fly experiment, where the rover was kept moving 75% of the operation time. (The goal of this operation was to determine whether or not successful interpretation of the environment is related to the time spent on a target. The role of mobility in helping the interpretation was also assessed.) (3) a meteorite search using visual and instrumental methods to remotely identify meteorites in extreme environments, and (4) a time-delay experiment with and without using the panospheric camera. The results were as follow: the remote science team positively identified the main characteristics of the test site geological environment. The science on the fly experiment showed that the selection of appropriate targets might be even more critical than the time spent on a study area to reconstruct the history of a site. During the same operation the science team members identified and sampled a rock from a Jurassic outcrop that they proposed to be a fossil. The presence of paleolife indicators in this rock was confirmed later by laboratory analysis. Both visual and instrumental modes demonstrated the feasibility, in at least some conditions, of carrying out a field search for meteorites by using remote-controlled vehicles. Finally, metrics collected from the observation of the science team operations, and the use team members made of mission data, provided critical information on what operation sequences could be automated on board rovers in future planetary surface explorations.
Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Olivares, M. A.
This study proposes a method to develop efficient operational policies for a reservoir the southern Chile. The main water uses in this system are hydropower and irrigation, with conflicting seasonal demands. The conflict between these two uses is currently managed through a so-called "irrigation agreement" which defines a series of operational conditions on the reservoir by restricting volumes used for power production depending on reservoir storage level. Other than that, the reservoir operation is driven by cost-minimization over the power grid. Recent evidence shows an increasing degree of conflict in this basin, which suggests that the static approach of irrigation agreements, might no longer be appropriate. Moreover, this agreement could be revised in light of decreased water availability. This problem poses a challenge related to the spatial scope of analysis. Thus, irrigation benefits are driven by decisions made within the basin, whereas hydropower benefits depend on the operation of the entire power grid. Exploring the tradeoffs between these two water uses involves modeling both scales. The proposed methodology integrates information from both a grid-wide power operations model and a basin-wide agro-economic model into a decision model for optimal reservoir operation. The first model, a hydrothermal coordination tool, schedules power production by each plant in the grid, and allows capturing technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The agro-economic model incorporates economic features of irrigation in the basin, and allows obtaining irrigation water demand functions. Finally, the results of both models are integrated into a single model for optimal reservoir operation considering the tradeoffs between the two uses. The result of the joint operation of water resources, show a flexible coordination of uses, revealing the opportunity cost of irrigation, which it gives the possibility of negotiating transfers of water to
ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the
Fernández, Leonardo D; Lara, Enrique; Mitchell, Edward A D
Bringing together more than 170 years of data, this study represents the first attempt to construct a species checklist and analyze the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile, a country that encompasses the southwestern region of South America, countless islands and part of the Antarctic. In Chile, known diversity includes 416 testate amoeba taxa (64 genera, 352 infrageneric taxa), 24 of which are here reported for the first time. Species-accumulation plots show that in Chile, the number of testate amoeba species reported has been continually increasing since the mid-19th century without leveling off. Testate amoebae have been recorded in 37 different habitats, though they are more diverse in peatlands and rainforest soils. Only 11% of species are widespread in continental Chile, while the remaining 89% of the species exhibit medium or short latitudinal distribution ranges. Also, species composition of insular Chile and the Chilean Antarctic territory is a depauperated subset of that found in continental Chile. Nearly, the 10% of the species reported here are endemic to Chile and many of them are distributed only within the so-called Chilean biodiversity hotspot (ca. 25° S-47° S). These findings are here thoroughly discussed in a biogeographical and evolutionary context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Poblete, Fernando; Glasinovic, Andrés; Sapag, Jaime; Barticevic, Nicolás; Arenas, Artzy; Padilla, Oslando
Validate an instrument to measure the Perceived Social Support in outpatients who are in treatment to hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus ii. Observational and exploratory design with mixed methods, qualitative and quantitative. Two community health centers from the municipality of Puente Alto (Santiago, Chile). Hypertensive and/or diabetic patients between 18 and 65 years old. A purposive sample was undertaken for the qualitative study, and a random sample for the final survey. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the constructs of social support as perceived by patients. According to expert opinion and literature review, a scale of social support was selected and a pilot study was conducted in 40 patients, then we interviewed in depth to some of those participants. The instrument was modified according the results of this process. The final version was applied to 250 participants. The construct existence was verified in the population. In the adaptation, one item was eliminated. The alpha of Cronbach was 0.89 and the factorial analysis had the same four factors from the original study. Nine new items obtained from the focal groups were added to the instrument, obtaining an alpha of Cronbach of 0.92. The final instrument has good psychometric proprieties, and is applicable in our population. The additional items from the qualitative study improve its internal consistency, but don't add new information about Perceived Social Support. This is consistent with other studies, and suggests the application of the original version of the instrument. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
The recent 2010 Chilean tsunami revealed the need to optimize methodologies for assessing the risk of disaster. In this context, modern techniques and criteria for the evaluation of the tsunami phenomenon were applied in the coastal zone of south-central Chile as a specific methodology for the zoning of tsunami risk. This methodology allows the identification and validation of a scenario of tsunami hazard; the spatialization of factors that have an impact on the risk; and the zoning of the tsunami risk. For the hazard evaluation, different scenarios were modeled by means of numerical simulation techniques, selecting and validating the results that better fit with the observed tsunami data. Hydrodynamic parameters of the inundation as well as physical and socioeconomic vulnerability aspects were considered for the spatialization of the factors that affect the tsunami risk. The tsunami risk zoning was integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) by means of multicriteria evaluation (MCE). The results of the tsunami risk zoning show that the local characteristics and their location, together with the concentration of poverty levels, establish spatial differentiated risk levels. This information builds the basis for future applied studies in land use planning that tend to minimize the risk levels associated to the tsunami hazard. This research is supported by Fondecyt 11090210.
Hayes, G. P.; Herman, M. W.; Barnhart, W. D.; Furlong, K. P.; Riquelme, S.; Benz, H.; Bergman, E.; Barrientos, S. E.; Earle, P. S.; Samsonov, S. V.
The seismic gap theory, which identifies regions of elevated hazard based on a lack of recent seismicity in comparison to other portions of a fault, has successfully explained past earthquakes and is useful for qualitatively describing where future large earthquakes might occur. A large earthquake had been expected in the subduction zone adjacent to northern Chile, which until recently had not ruptured in a megathrust earthquake since a M~8.8 event in 1877. On April 1 2014, a M 8.2 earthquake occurred within this northern Chile seismic gap, offshore of the city of Iquique; the size and spatial extent of the rupture indicate it was not the earthquake that had been anticipated. Here, we present a rapid assessment of the seismotectonics of the March-April 2014 seismic sequence offshore northern Chile, including analyses of earthquake (fore- and aftershock) relocations, moment tensors, finite fault models, moment deficit calculations, and cumulative Coulomb stress transfer calculations over the duration of the sequence. This ensemble of information allows us to place the current sequence within the context of historic seismicity in the region, and to assess areas of remaining and/or elevated hazard. Our results indicate that while accumulated strain has been released for a portion of the northern Chile seismic gap, significant sections have not ruptured in almost 150 years. These observations suggest that large-to-great sized megathrust earthquakes will occur north and south of the 2014 Iquique sequence sooner than might be expected had the 2014 events ruptured the entire seismic gap.
-deterministic approach. With regard to tsunami, the information has been provided by SHOA (Servicio Hidrografico y Oceanografico de la Armada de Chile). Tsunami scenarios and inundation maps (for both the 1906 and 1985 earthquakes) have been evaluated by the Italian team, taking into account also worse scenarios (namely the 1730 seismic event). Landslide hazard (identifying main flow areas and pointing out most affected zones, with a deeper investigation in the Cerro Cordillera, pilot area for the MAR VASTO Project) and fire hazard have been also evaluated. Finally, a GIS database has been developed, to store the hazard maps produced in the project. In addition, the GIS database has been verified by using the data obtained by a DGPS survey, performed during the in situ work in Valparaiso. In the framework of the MAR VASTO Project a building stock located in the Cerro Cordillera, partially inside the UNESCO area, has been investigated. The work done in the above said Cerro Cordillera sector by the Italian team can be considered a pilot experience which would be enlarged to all the Valparaiso City area in the framework of the town planning, actually in progress.
Balcells, M. Elvira; Rabagliati, Ricardo; García, Patricia; Poggi, Helena; Oddó, David; Concha, Marcela; Abarca, Katia; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L.; Fuerst, Paul A.
We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloé Island in southern Chile in 2006. A molecular sample, identified as related to Orientia tsutsugamushi based on the sequence of the16S rRNA gene, was obtained from a biopsy specimen of the eschar on the patient’s leg. Serologic analysis showed immunoglobulin G conversion against O. tsutsugamushi whole cell antigen. This case and its associated molecular analyses suggest that an Orientia-like agent is present in the Western Hemisphere that can produce scrub typhus–like illness. The molecular analysis suggests that the infectious agent is closely related, although not identical, to members of the Orientia sp. from Asia. PMID:21888791
Canales Ceron, A
"This study analyzes the effect of agrarian change on regional settling dynamics in Chile during the last 35 years. The transformations of agrarian structure have produced important changes in the spatial configuration of country-city relations, particularly regarding the new features of rural-urban migration in regional contexts. Whereas until the sixties rural-urban migration was associated with an occupational shift from agriculture to urban employment, after the seventies this relation practically disappeared, leaving a virtual disassociation between the territorial mobility of the population and the occupational mobility of the labor force. This disassociation is a central trait of the current regional pattern of country-city relations." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
Calbuco Volcano in southern Chile has erupted for the first time since 1972, with the last major eruption occurring in 1961 that sent ash columns 12-15 kilometers high. This image was taken by the Suomi NPP satellite's VIIRS instrument in a high resolution infrared channel around 0515Z on April 23, 2015. Credit: NOAA/NASA/NPP/VIIRS Credit: NOAA/NASA GOES Project NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Preston, Sandra Lee; Arnett, Dinah; Hardy, Eduardo; Cabezón, Sergio; Spuck, Tim; Fields, Mary Sue; Smith, R. Chris
The first Chile-U.S. Astronomy Education Outreach Summit occurred March 22-28, 2015. The Summit was organized and supported by the U.S. Embassy in Chile, Associated Universities Inc., Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, the Carnegie Institution for Science, the Image of Chile Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and La Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica. The Summit brought together a team of leading experts and officials from Chile and the U.S. to share best practices in astronomy education and outreach. In addition, Summit participants discussed enhancing existing partnerships, and building new collaborations between U.S. Observatories and astronomy education outreach leaders in Chile.The Summit was an exciting and intense week of work and travel. Discussions opened in Santiago on March 22 with a variety of astronomy education and public outreach work sessions, a public forum, and on March 23 the U.S. Embassy sponsored a Star Party. On Tuesday, March 24, the Summit moved to San Pedro de Atacama, where activities included work sessions, a visit to the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array telescope facilities, and a second public forum. From San Pedro, the team traveled to La Serena for additional work sessions, visits to Gemini and Cerro Tololo, a third public forum, and the closing session. At each stop, authorities and the broader community were invited to participate and provide valuable input on the current state, and the future, of astronomy education and public outreach.Following the Summit a core working committee has continued meeting to draft a “roadmap document” based on findings from the Summit. This document will help to identify potential gaps in astronomy outreach efforts, and how the U.S. facilities and Chilean institutions might work together strategically to address these needs. The first draft of this “roadmap document” will be made available for comment in both Spanish and
Salinas, Judith; Muñoz, Carolina; Albagli, Andrea; Araya, Gloria; Vio, Fernando
The objective of this paper is to present the distance education's contribution to developing health promotion in Chile, through evaluation of a postgraduate certificate program for professionals, and a training course for nurse technicians working in primary healthcare, with an 8-month follow-up after program completion. The program methodology was participatory, interactive and reflective, with mentoring support, exercises, group work and discussions as well as content pertinent to the needs of practice. The evaluation was quali-quantitative with an analysis of the student profile, the implementation process, outcomes at the end of the training and impacts on workplace changes. The results showed a high rate of student approval (87 and 76%), good academic performance and a high level of satisfaction with the methodology and knowledge delivered. The participants' final projects were adapted to local work places realities and were implemented by 62.6% of technicians and 43% of professionals, in addition to changes in work practices that favor health promotion. The level of fulfillment of participants' expectations was very high and the most frequent barriers to implementing the final project were lack of time and personnel, along with minimal support from management and low prioritization of health promotion. This study shows the effectiveness of a distance training model for professionals and technicians that can reach the most remote parts of the country, where there is no access to presencial training, with an educational program centered on work activities and current health challenges. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Primera Reunion de la Comision Nacional de Analisis y Evaluacion del Sistema Educativo: Informe Final (The First Meeting of the National Committee for Analysis and Evaluation of the Educational System: Final Report).
Ministerio de Cultura y Educacion, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro National de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa.
This document contains the legislation creating the National Committee for Analysis and Evaluation of the Educational System and the final report of that committee's first meeting. The report deals with each level from elementary to higher education. For each level it describes and considers curriculum, school buildings, human resources, current…
Convenio "Andres Bello:" Informe Final [de la] Segunda Reunion de Ministros de Educacion de la Region Andina ("Andres Bello" Agreement: Final Report of the Second Meeting of the Andean Region Ministers of Education).
Ministros de Educacion de la Region Andina, Lima (Peru).
This final report of the second meeting of the Andean Region Ministers of Education subscribing to the Andres Bello Agreement on education and culture contains a resume of the individual sessions and the proposals approved during that meeting. The proposals cover various educational problems and issues and begin with the Declaration of Lima which…
Chile has experienced rapid economic growth for more than a decade. Demand for basic infrastructure services has grown in tandem with the economic expansion, quickly outstripping the supply capacity of existing assets. In the early 90's a policy deci...
... if the fruit is fumigated either in Chile or at the port of first arrival in the United States with methyl bromide for B. chilensis in accordance with part 305 of this chapter. An APHIS inspector will...
... if the fruit is fumigated either in Chile or at the port of first arrival in the United States with methyl bromide for B. chilensis in accordance with part 305 of this chapter. An APHIS inspector will...
... Chile following any post-harvest processing. A biometric sample must be drawn and examined from each... States. (2) A biometric sample of the boxes, crates, or other APHIS-approved packing containers from each...
... NPPO of Chile after the post-harvest processing. A biometric sample will be drawn and examined from... fruit is released for entry into the United States. (ii) A biometric sample of boxes from each...
... Chile following any post-harvest processing. A biometric sample must be drawn and examined from each... States. (2) A biometric sample of the boxes, crates, or other APHIS-approved packing containers from each...
... NPPO of Chile after the post-harvest processing. A biometric sample will be drawn and examined from... fruit is released for entry into the United States. (ii) A biometric sample of boxes from each...
... NPPO of Chile after the post-harvest processing. A biometric sample will be drawn and examined from... fruit is released for entry into the United States. (ii) A biometric sample of boxes from each...
Armand Stanica, Dragos, ,, Dr.; Stanica, Dumitru, ,, Dr.; Vladimirescu, Nicoleta
In this paper, we retrospectively analyzed the geomagnetic data collected, via internet (www.intermagnet.com), on the interval 01 July-30 September 2015 at the observatories Easter Island (IMP) and Pilar (PIL), placed in Chile and Argentina, respectively, to emphasize a possible relationship between the pre-seismic anomalous behavior of the normalized function Bzn and M8.3 earthquake, that occurred in Offshore Coquimbo (Chile) on September 16-th, 2015. The daily mean distributions of the normalized function Bzn=Bz/Bperp (where Bz is vertical component of the geomagnetic field; Bperp is geomagnetic component perpendicular to the geoelectrical strike) and its standard deviation (STDEV) are performed in the ULF frequency range 0.001Hz to 0.0083Hz by using the FFT band-pass filter analysis. It was demonstrated that in pre-seismic conditions the Bzn has a significant enhancement due to the crustal electrical conductivity changes, possibly associated with the earthquake-induced rupture-processes and high-pressure fluid flow through the faulting system developed inside the foci and its neighboring area. After analyzing the anomalous values of the normalized function Bzn obtained at Easter Island and Pilar observatories, the second one taken as reference, we used a statistical analysis, based on a standardized random variable equation, to identify on 1-2 September 2015 a pre-seismic signature related to the M8.3 earthquake. The lead time was 14 days before the M8.3 earthquake occurrence. The final conclusion is that the proposed geomagnetic methodology might be used to provide suitable information for the extreme earthquake hazard assessment.
Cid, Camilo; Herrera, Cristian; Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Bastías, Gabriel; Jiménez, Jorge
This paper aims to determine the economic impact that cancer represents to Chile, exploring the share of costs for the most important cancers and the differences between the public and private sector. We used the cost of illness methodology, through the assessment of the direct and indirect costs associated with cancer treatment. Data was obtained from 2009 registries of the Chilean Ministry of Health and the Superintendence of Health. Indirect costs were calculated by days of job absenteeism and potential years of life lost. Over US$ 2.1 billion were spent on cancer in 2009, which represents almost 1% of Chiles Gross Domestic Product. The direct per capita cost was US$ 47. Indirect costs were 1.92 times more than direct costs. The three types of cancer that embody the highest share of costs were gastric cancer (17.6%), breast cancer (7%) and prostate cancer (4.2%) in the public sector, and breast cancer (14%), lung cancer (7.5%) and prostate cancer (4.1%) in the private sector. On average men spent 30.33% more than women. There are few studies of this kind in Chile and the region. The country can be classified as having a cancer economic impact below the average of those in European Union countries. We expect that this information can be used to develop access policies and resource allocation decision making, and as a first step into further cancer-costing studies in Chile and the Latin American and Caribbean region.
Caris, Luis; Varas, Marianela; Anthony, Christopher B; Anthony, James C
To examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in Chile. Data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of Chile. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. The conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. The prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of Chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. The estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. These findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on Central American youths. Although the magnitude of observed associations in Chile was not as great as that for the associations found in Central America, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout Chile. This is the first study in Chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.
Serey, A.; Sepulveda, S. A.; Murphy, W.; Petley, D. N.
Landslides are a major source of fatalities and damage during strong earthquakes in mountain areas. Detailed geomodels of coseismic landslides environments are essential parts of seismic landslide hazard analyses. The development of a site specific geological model is required, based on consideration of the regional and local geological and geomorphological history and the current ground surface conditions. An engineering geological model is any approximation of the geological conditions, at varying scales, created for the purpose of solving an engineering problem. In our case, the objective is the development of a methodology for earthquake-induced landslide hazard assessment applicable to urban/territorial planning and disaster prevention strategies assessment at a regional scale adapted for the Chilean tectonic conditions. We have developed the only 2 complete inventories of landslides triggered by earthquakes in Chile. The first from the Mw 6.2, shallow crustal Aysén earthquake in 2007. Second one from the Mw 8.8, megathrust subduction Maule earthquake in 2010. From the comparison of these 2 inventories with others from abroad, as well as analysis of large, prehistoric landslide inventories proposed as likely induced by seismic activity we have determined topographic, geomorphological, geological and seismic controlling factors in the occurrence of earthquake-triggered landslides. With the information collected we have defined different environments for generation of coseismic landslides based on the construction of geomodels. As a result we have built several geomodels in the Santiago Cordillera in central Chile (33°S), based upon the San Ramón Fault, a west-vergent reverse fault that outcrops at the edge of Santiago basin recently found to be active and a likely source of seismic activity in the future, with potential of triggering landslides in the Santiago mountain front as well as inland into the Mapocho and Maipo Cordilleran valleys. In conclusion
Mardones, F O; Martinez-Lopez, B; Valdes-Donoso, P; Carpenter, T E; Perez, A M
Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) infection is a constant major threat to farmed and wild Atlantic salmon worldwide. Many epidemics have recently been reported in the most important salmon farming regions of the world, including Chile (2007-2009), where ISAV generated the most important disease and economic crisis in history of the salmon industry of the country. The spread of ISAV within a region is most likely by local or neighborhood spread from an infected farm; however, there is evidence that anthropogenic activities, such as movement of live or harvested fish or their byproduct, may have played a more important role than environmental or passive transmission in the 2007-2009 outbreak. Atlantic salmon farms (n=421) were retrospectively followed from stocking to harvesting in southern Chile at the time of the ISAV epidemic (2007-2009). The effect of husbandry and spatial risk factors, in addition to contact-network risk factors, which were obtained from the social network analyses, on time to first ISAV infection was estimated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Five variables were retained in the final fitted model: co-existing multiple generations on a farm (hazard ratio [HR]=2.585), mean smolt weight at stocking greater than 120g (HR=1.165), farm area (perkm(2)) (HR=1.005), and increased number of shipments entering a farm, i.e. the farm input degree (HR=1.876) were associated with reduced time to infection; whereas time-to-infection was longer for farms located farther from an ongoing ISAV outbreak (HR=0.943). It was demonstrated that movements of latently infected fish resulted in approximately 7 outbreaks, and potentially explain about 6% of the total number of cases during the epidemic. Results from this study provide new information about the mechanisms of spread of ISAV in one the largest documented ISAV epidemics in the world. Findings may be used to support the design and implementation of risk-based surveillance and control
Torres, A; Lopez Boo, F; Parra, V; Vazquez, C; Segura-Pérez, S; Cetin, Z; Pérez-Escamilla, R
Chile Crece Contigo (ChCC) is defined as a comprehensive, intersectoral, and multicomponent policy that aims to help all children reach their full potential for development, regardless of their socio-economic status. This case study was developed on the basis of grey literature review and key informants' interviews. ChCC behaves as a complex adaptive system that combines universal and targeted benefits for the more vulnerable starting since gestation and until the children are 4 years old. Three key ministries are involved in ChCC management: health, education, and social development. Studies show adequate programme implementation and positive effects of ChCC on child development. In addition, it was found that the more families use ChCC benefits and the longer the subsystem has been operating in the commune, the greater the positive effects. Strong political support based on principles of equity and child rights combined with strong evidence and funding commitment from government has been central to emergence, scaling up, and sustainability of ChCC. Further sustainability of ChCC will rely on firmly establishing a well-trained and compensated cadre of early child development professionals and paraprofessionals as well as an improved management and evaluation decentralized system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen
Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925
On 26 April 2010, the ESO Council selected Cerro Armazones as the baseline site for the planned 42-metre European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). Cerro Armazones is a mountain at an altitude of 3060 metres in the central part of Chile's Atacama Desert, some 130 kilometres south of the town of Antofagasta and about 20 kilometres from Cerro Paranal, home of ESO's Very Large Telescope. "This is an important milestone that allows us to finalise the baseline design of this very ambitious project, which will vastly advance astronomical knowledge," says Tim de Zeeuw, ESO's Director General. "I thank the site selection team for the tremendous work they have done over the past few years." ESO's next step is to build a European extremely large optical/infrared telescope (E-ELT) with a primary mirror 42 metres in diameter. The E-ELT will be "the world's biggest eye on the sky" - the only such telescope in the world. ESO is drawing up detailed construction plans together with the community. The E-ELT will address many of the most pressing unsolved questions in astronomy, and may, eventually, revolutionise our perception of the Universe, much as Galileo's telescope did 400 years ago. The final go-ahead for construction is expected at the end of 2010, with the start of operations planned for 2018. The decision on the E-ELT site was taken by the ESO Council, which is the governing body of the Organisation composed of representatives of ESO's fourteen Member States, and is based on an extensive comparative meteorological investigation, which lasted several years. The majority of the data collected during the site selection campaigns will be made public in the course of the year 2010. Various factors needed to be considered in the site selection process. Obviously the "astronomical quality" of the atmosphere, for instance, the number of clear nights, the amount of water vapour, and the "stability" of the atmosphere (also known as seeing) played a crucial role. But other
Prior to 1976, voluntary female sterilization was 1 of the regular family planning services offered in Chile. After that the Ministry of Public Health declared that it could not be considered a fertility regulation activity and could thus be performed only for health reasons. Between 1971-75, there was almost a 6-fold increase in the number of sterilizations performed at the Valdivia Regional Hospital, with a rise to 2400 procedures. Such an unprecedented increase in voluntary sterilization prompted this study. The results are based on a 1976 survey of women sterilized between 1971-75 at the Valdivia Regional Hospital. Personal interviews were conducted. The number of voluntary sterilizations there during the aforementioned period showed a sustained upward trend; the number of births increased only moderately during that time. The data on sterilization in the Valdivia area is compared to that collected by the Santiago study. Age, marital status, place of origin or residence, education, and religion were compared. Socioeconomic and occupational data were also examined. 9 of 10 women in Valdivia were from low-income families. This agrees closely with the Santiago data. About 1/4 of the women in both samples were employed outside the home. Also in both samples, about 1/2 of the spouses of sterilized women were blue collar workers; only 1/5 or less were white collar, and very few were professionals. About 52% in Valdivia and 45% in Santiago had borne 7 or more viable offspring. The average number of spontaneous abortions was also similar. A significantly higher percentage (P0.01) of Valdivia women used contraceptives. There are some general trends apparent in both groups as to the reasons for sterilization; most were prompted by difficult socioeconomic conditions. 37.9% of the Santiago women felt their families were complete and 27.3% of the other group cited the same reason. Other reasons were medical, failure of contraception, problems with spouse, and other. Medical
Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.
Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition
Coria, Jessica; Löfgren, Asa; Sterner, Thomas
Whether tradable permits are appropriate for use in transition and developing economies--given special social and cultural circumstances, such as the lack of institutions and lack of expertise with market-based policies--is much debated. We conducted interviews and surveyed a sample of firms subject to emissions trading programs in Santiago, Chile, one of the first cities outside the OECD that has implemented such trading. The information gathered allows us to study what factors affect the performance of the trading programs in practice and the challenges and advantages of applying tradable permits in less developed countries. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Calvo, Esteban; Berho, Maureen; Roqué, Mónica; Amaro, Juan Sebastián; Morales, Fernando; Rivera, Emiliana; Gutiérrez Robledo, Luis Miguel F; López, Elizabeth Caro; Canals, Bernardita; Kornfeld, Rosa
This investigation uses case studies and comparative analysis to review and analyze aging policy in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Mexico, and uncovers similarities and relevant trends in the substance of historical and current aging policy across countries. Initial charity-based approaches to poverty and illness have been gradually replaced by a rights-based approach considering broader notions of well-being, and recent reforms emphasize the need for national, intersectoral, evidence-based policy. The results of this study have implications for understanding aging policy in Latin America from a welfare regime and policymakers' perspective, identifying priorities for intervention, and informing policy reforms in developing countries worldwide.
Rodríguez-Benito, C.; Haag, C.; Alvial, A.
A pilot project has been carried out to demonstrate the applicability of remote sensing in the Xth region of Chile, related to the monitoring of algal blooms. Most of the fish farms of the country are located in this area, where considerable economic losses for this activity are the consequence of algal blooms. The implementation of new technologies to monitor this natural disaster is one of the main goals of local institutions. The project has been developed using ENVISAT/MERIS and AATSR images and oceanographic instrumentation in order to improve the information of the ongoing coastal monitoring programs.
Cárcamo-Huechante, Luis E; Legnani, Nicole Delia
Indigenous cultures throughout the Americas and the rest of the world have to deal with problems of cultural assimilation, migration, and dissemination of their populations. Some of them, in countries such as Argentina, Chile, and Nigeria, have developed radio programming to maintain home languages; gain access to health, education, and employment information; greet friends and relatives; and re-create traditional culture under circumstances of modern pressures but also to open up opportunities. This article explores the capacity and awareness of these contributions in a multicultural world.
Vega, Marcela; Nerenberg, Robert; Vargas, Ignacio T
This paper reviews the unique situation of perchlorate contamination in Chile, including its sources, presence in environmental media and in the human population, and possible steps to mitigate its health impacts. Perchlorate is a ubiquitous water contaminant that inhibits thyroid function. Standards for drinking water range from 2 to 18 µg L -1 in United States and Europe. A major natural source of perchlorate contamination is Chile saltpeter, found in the Atacama Desert. High concentrations of perchlorate have presumably existed in this region, in soils, sediments, surface waters and groundwaters, for millions of years. As a result of this presence, and the use of Chile saltpeter as a nitrogen fertilizer, perchlorate in Chile has been found at concentrations as high as 1480 µg L -1 in drinking water, 140 µg/kg -1 in fruits, and 30 µg L -1 in wine. Health studies in Chile have shown concentrations of 100 µg L - 1 in breast milk and 20 µg L -1 in neonatal serum. It is important to acknowledge perchlorate as a potential health concern in Chile, and assess mitigation strategies. A more thorough survey of perchlorate in Chilean soils, sediments, surface waters, groundwaters, and food products can help better assess the risks and potentially develop standards. Also, perchlorate treatment technologies should be more closely assessed for relevance to Chile. The Atacama Desert is a unique biogeochemical environment, with millions of years of perchlorate exposure, which can be mined for novel perchlorate-reducing microorganisms, potentially leading to new biological treatment processes for perchlorate-containing waters, brines, and fertilizers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.
EPA announced the availability of the final contractor report entitled, Development of an Analytic Approach to Determine How Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Is Used By Non EPA Decision Makers. This contractor report analyzed how ...
Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela
Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to add to the growing empirical evidence concerning the potential relationship between increased corporal punishment and undesirable youth outcomes across cultures. Analysis was based on 919 adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which parents' use of corporal punishment and positive family measures were associated with youth externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the associations between self-reported externalizing behavior and infrequent, as well as frequent, use of corporal punishment were investigated to understand how varying levels of parental use of corporal punishment were differently related to youth outcomes. Both mothers' and fathers' use of corporal punishment were associated with greater youth externalizing behavior. Additionally, increases in positive parenting practices, such as parental warmth and family involvement, were met with decreases in youth externalizing behavior when controlling for youth demographics, family socioeconomic status, and parents' use of corporal punishment. Finally, both infrequent and frequent use of corporal punishment were positively associated with higher youth problem behaviors, though frequent corporal punishment had a stronger relationship with externalizing behavior than did infrequent corporal punishment. Parental use of corporal punishment, even on an occasional basis, is associated with greater externalizing behavior for youth while a warm and involving family environment may protect youth from serious problem behaviors. Therefore, findings of this study add to the growing evidence concerning the negative consequences of
Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela
Objectives Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to add to the growing empirical evidence concerning the potential relationship between increased corporal punishment and undesirable youth outcomes across cultures. Methods Analysis was based on 919 adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which parents’ use of corporal punishment and positive family measures were associated with youth externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the associations between self-reported externalizing behavior and infrequent, as well as frequent, use of corporal punishment were investigated to contribute to understanding how varying levels of parental use of corporal punishment were differently related to youth outcomes. Results Both mother’s and father’s use of corporal punishment were associated with greater youth externalizing behavior. Additionally, increases in positive parenting practices, such as parental warmth and family involvement, were met with decreases in youth externalizing behavior when controlling for youth demographics, family socioeconomic status, and parents’ use of corporal punishment. Finally, both infrequent and frequent use of corporal punishment were positively associated with higher youth problem behaviors, though frequent corporal punishment had a stronger relationship with externalizing behavior than did infrequent corporal punishment. Conclusions Parental use of corporal punishment, even on an occasional basis, is associated with greater externalizing behavior for youth while a warm and involving family environment may protect youth from serious problem behaviors. Therefore, findings of this study add
Lostarnau, Carla; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Señoret, Michelle; Soto, Manuel; Rötting, Tobias S; Amezaga, Jaime M; Oyarzún, Ricardo
The main objective of this paper is to present a critical analysis of the stakeholder participation process within the Environmental Impact Assessment System in Chile, after ca. 14 years of being enforced. This analysis is sustained by the description and analysis of the stakeholder participation possibilities in a representative rural area of North-Central Chile. The Environmental Basis Act 19300, enacted in 1994, considers the participation of the local community in the environmental impact assessment of new projects. However, this possibility is very limited and difficult to exert, often resulting in frustration for the participants. This is due to a number of reasons, such as the imbalance of resources and knowledge among the majority of participating communities and project proponents, the complexity and administrative and legal constraints to participation, and the dominant interest of the Central Government in approving investments, specifically in energy and natural resources related projects, which generate wealth and jobs. Also, the State's rush to develop Internet-based communication and management systems has built a barrier for poor, traditional communities. This factor is clearly reflected in the case study considered. Results show that there is generally a significant lack of knowledge about institutions and participation tools. From this base, we intend to raise concern on these selected aspects that could be addressed to improve the effectiveness of the existing framework, both in Chile and in other developing countries, where immature environmental impact assessment and public management systems face similar pressures in relation to the sustainable use of their natural resources. Finally, some basic steps are proposed in order to make the community participation an effective tool for sustainable development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The purpose of the Advanced Transportation Weather Information System (ATWIS) was to provide en-route weather forecasts and road condition information to the traveling public across North Dakota and South Dakota. ATWIS was the first system to develop...
One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile. The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992–2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index. Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly. PMID:23937894
Núñez, Alicia; Chi, Chunhuei
One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile.The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992-2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index.Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly.
Barrientos, Jaime E; Páez, Dario
This study analyzed psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile using data from the COSECON survey. Participants were 5,407 subjects (2,244 min and 3,163 women, aged 18-69 years). We used a cross-sectional questionnaire with a national probability sample. Data were collected using a thorough sexual behavior questionnaire consisting of 190 face-to-face questions and 24 self-reported questions. A single item included in the COSECON questionnaire assessed sexual satisfaction. Results showed that high education level, marital status, and high socioeconomic levels were associated with sexual satisfaction in women but not in men. The results also showed important gender differences and sustain the idea that sexuality changes may be more present in middle and high social classes. The proximal variables typically used for measuring sexual satisfaction, such as the frequency of sexual intercourse and orgasm, showed a positive but smaller association with sexual satisfaction. Other important variables related to sexual satisfaction were being in love with the partner and having a steady partner. The results confirmed previous findings and are discussed in the frame of approaches like the exchange, equity, and sexual scripts theories.
Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H
The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.
Cisternas, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Torrejon, F.; Sawai, Y.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Youlton, C.; Salgado, I.; Kamataki, T.; Shishikura, M.; Rajendran, C.P.; Malik, J.K.; Rizal, Y.; Husni, M.
It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.
Plank, S J
Family allowances designed to promote maternal and child health and welfare could be self-defeating if they stimulated otherwise unwanted births, as often assumed. That assumption, with its public health and demographic implications, needs testing. An attempt to test it was made in Chile in 1969--1970 through interviews with 945 wives receiving an allowance and 690 non-recipients. Recipients practiced contraception significantly more than did non-recipients. This was not explained by wives' educational attainment or employment, the couples' earnings, or number of living children, but was associated with a 50 per cent greater utilization of professional prenatal care by recipients during the most recent pregnancy; women with such care (regardless of allowance status) were 75 per cent more likely than others to control their fertility. Prenatal care was probably sought more by recipients in part because an additional stipend was provided as soon as pregnancy was confirmed, usually at clinics with integrated family planning. Greater family income, attributable to the allowance, probably also contributed to the recipients' better prenatal attention and to contraceptive practice. Noteworthy, too, was the finding that with the number of living children controlled, contraceptive practice was significantly greater amoung couples who had never lost a child. PMID:717610
Vicente, Benjamin; Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Torres, Silverio
The Mapuche are the largest indigenous group in Chile; yet almost all data on the mental health of indigenous populations are from North America. The study examines the differential DSM-III-R prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and service utilization among indigenous and non-indigenous community residence. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to a stratified random sample of 75 Mapuche and 434 non-Mapuche residents of the province of Cautín. Lifetime prevalence and 12-month prevalence rates were estimated. Approximately 28.4% of the Mapuche population had a lifetime, and 15.7% a 12-month, prevalent psychiatric disorder compared to 38.0% and 25.7%, respectively, of the non-Mapuche. Few significant differences were noted between the two groups; however, generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia, and drug dependence were less prevalent among the Mapuche. Service utilization among the Mapuche with mental illness was low. This is a preliminary study based on a small sample size. Further research on the mental health of indigenous populations of South America is needed.
Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C P; Malik, Javed K; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad
It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended.
Scheffler, F. L.; And Others
A feasibility study examined the capability of a computer-based system's handling of technical information pertinent to the design of instructional systems. Structured interviews were held to assess the information needs of both researchers and practitioners and an investigation was conducted of 10 computer-based information storage and retrieval…
Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Lillo-Saavedra, Mario; Lagos, Octavio
Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and for the case of the two long-term products the applicability for agricultural drought were evaluated when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite data. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite products, and nine statistics were used to evaluate their performance to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to analyze
Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye
Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30 years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and evaluate their applicability for agricultural drought evaluation when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in-situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite-based precipitation estimates. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite-based estimates. Nine statistics were used to evaluate the performance of satellite products to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to
... information collection: Chile, Singapore, Australia, Morocco, Bahrain, Jordan, Oman, and Peru. These... hours based on the addition of free trade agreements with Oman and Peru. Type of Review: Extension (with...
Luengo, Carolina; Paravic, Tatiana; Valenzuela, Sandra
Objective To describe the causes of underreporting of occupational injuries and adverse events as identified in the international literature and by key informants in the area of health and risk prevention in Chile. Methods The study uses a qualitative descriptive approach. This includes a systematized literature review that follows the SALSA method (Search, Appraisal, Synthesis and Analysis) and is in line with the PRISMA statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). In addition, interviews were conducted with informants in the area of health and risk prevention in Chile. Results The leading causes of underreporting of occupational injuries as described in the literature and by key informants were economic factors and ignorance. With regard to adverse events, the principal causes indicated were fear of sanctions, limited support provided by the authorities, lack of knowledge, and excessive workload. Conclusions It is important to continue working to strengthen the reporting of occupational injuries and adverse events and to implement measures aimed at minimizing factors that appear to be the leading causes of underreporting. In the case of occupational injuries, this means making sure that economic factors are not an impediment but rather an incentive to reporting. With respect to adverse events, steps should be taken to eliminate the fear of sanctions and to develop recommendations, focusing more on systemic improvements than on individuals, to promote joint learning. In both cases it will be necessary to combat ignorance through continuous, systematic training and support.
Pickler, Carolyne; Gurza Fausto, Edmundo; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Suárez, Francisco; Chacon-Oecklers, Arlette; Blin, Nicole; Cortés Calderón, Maria Teresa; Montenegro, Alvaro; Harris, Rob; Tassara, Andres
We have compiled, collected, and analyzed 31 temperature-depth profiles from boreholes in the Atacama Desert in central and northern Chile. After screening these profiles, we found that only nine profiles at four different sites were suitable to invert for ground temperature history. For all the sites, no surface temperature variations could be resolved for the period 1500-1800. In the northern coastal region of Chile, there is no perceptible temperature variation at all from 1500 to present. In the northern central Chile region, between 26 and 28° S, the data suggest a cooling from ≈ 1850 to ≈ 1980 followed by a 1.9 K warming starting ≈ 20-40 years BP. This result is consistent with the ground surface temperature histories for Peru and the semiarid regions of South America. The duration of the cooling trend is poorly resolved and it may coincide with a marked short cooling interval in the 1960s that is found in meteorological records. The total warming is greater than that inferred from proxy climate reconstructions for central Chile and southern South America, and by the PMIP3-CMIP5 surface temperature simulations for the north-central Chile grid points. The differences among different climate reconstructions, meteorological records, and models are likely due to differences in spatial and temporal resolution among the various data sets and the models.
Seminario Regional para el Desarrollo de Materiales Educativos para la Paz (San Jose, Costa Rica, 27-31 de octubre de 1986). Informe Final (Regional Seminar for the Development of Educational Materials on the Theme of Peace--San Jose, Costa Rica, October 27-31, 1986. Final Report).
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.
In conjunction with United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's 40th anniversary, 1986 was named the International Year of Peace. During 1986, UNESCO selected the theme "peace" as an education project to be undertaken in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico,…
Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela Rosa; Sagbakken, Mette
Sexual and reproductive rights include access to accurate and appropriate information in order to make informed decisions. In the current age of media globalization and Internet, adolescents are exposed to information about sexual health and sexuality from a myriad of sources. The objective of this study was to explore sources of information and adolescent learning about sexual health and sexuality in Santiago, Chile. Data collection included four focus group discussions with a total of 24 adolescents 18-19 years old, 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents 16-19 years old, and seven interviews with key informants working with adolescents. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. The primary sources of sexual health and sexuality information were parents, teachers and friends, whilst secondary sources included health professionals for females and Internet for males. Information provided by the trusted sources of parents, teachers and health professionals tended to focus on biological aspects of sexuality, particularly pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Limited emphasis was placed on topics such as love, attraction, pleasure, relationships, abstinence and sexual violence. Information focused primarily on heterosexual relations and reproduction. Adolescents learnt about relationships and sexual acts through friends, partners and, for many males, pornography. Findings indicate a lack of available information on partner communication, setting personal limits, and contraception, including morally neutral and medically correct information about emergency contraception. This study highlights numerous gaps between adolescent information needs and information provided by parents, teachers and health professionals. The priority these trusted sources place on providing biological information overshadows learning about emotional and relational aspects of sexuality. This biological rationalization of adolescent sexual
Fisher, Harold S.; And Others
This is the final volume of a four-volume report of a research project designed to (1) identify job needs for agricultural occupations which will result from the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System and perform a task analysis on each occupation, (2) develop instructional modules and determine their place in either high school or 2-year…
2014 Edition Release 2 Electronic Health Record (EHR) certification criteria and the ONC HIT Certification Program; regulatory flexibilities, improvements, and enhanced health information exchange. Final rule.
This final rule introduces regulatory flexibilities and general improvements for certification to the 2014 Edition EHR certification criteria (2014 Edition). It also codifies a few revisions and updates to the ONC HIT Certification Program for certification to the 2014 Edition and future editions of certification criteria as well as makes administrative updates to the Code of Federal Regulations.
Nerden, J. T.; And Others
Designed for the exclusive purpose of accompanying the Project EDNEED (Empirical Determination of Nationally Essential Educational Data) classification document, this volume comprises the third of a five-volume final report. It provides uniform definitions for vocational education terms found in the EDNEED classification document, and aids in…
Stevens, Gemma; Jahoda, Andrew; Matthews, Lynsay; Hankey, Catherine; Melville, Craig; Murray, Heather; Mitchell, Fiona
Background: The prevalence of obesity is higher in those with intellectual disabilities than the general population. The aim of the study was to understand the determinants of physical activity and dietary patterns in this population during their final year of school. Method: Qualitative data were generated from 10 interviews with adolescents with…
Due to its nature, it is very hard to measure tobacco illicit trade in any product. In the case of Latin American countries, there is scant information on the magnitude and characteristics of this trade in the case of cigarettes. The goal of this article is to provide estimates on the evolution of the illicit cigarette trade in five South American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru. Gap analysis estimates for cigarette tax evasion/avoidance (a comparison on the evolution of the difference between registered cigarette sales and measured population consumption) is developed for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru. Nationally representative surveys, conducted regularly, are used to measure population consumption. Confidence intervals constructed by bootstrapping sample estimates are generated in order to statistically evaluate the evolution of the gap. Cigarette illicit trade has increased as a percentage of total sales in Brazil in recent years. In the case of Argentina, after a relative decrease between 2005 and 2009 it seems to have stabilized. There is no statistical evidence to argue that there has been an increase of cigarette illicit trade in Chile, Colombia and Peru, despite substantial price increases in Chile and tax increase in both Colombia and Peru. Using simple statistical methods, it is possible to assess the trend in tobacco illicit trend over time to better inform policy-makers. Getting reliable and regular population consumption surveys can also help to track tobacco illicit trade. Claims by tobacco industry of a positive association between price/tax changes and illicit trade are unsubstantiated. Evolution of cigarette illicit trade in five Latin American countries show different trajectories, not in line with tobacco industry estimates, which highlight the importance of producing solid, independent estimates. There are inexpensive methodologies that can provide estimates of the evolution of the relative importance of
... Live Swine, Pork, and Pork Products from Certain Regions Free of Classical Swine Fever in Chile and... revise an information collection associated with regulations for the importation of live swine, pork, and pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever in Chile and Mexico and to request...
Bagga, Suman; Apodaca, Kimberly; Lucero, Yvonne
Chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important high valued crop worldwide, and when grown on a large scale has problems with weeds. One important herbicide used is glyphosate. Glyphosate inactivates the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids. A transgenic approach towards making glyphosate resistant plants, entails introducing copies of a gene encoding for glyphosate-resistant EPSPS enzyme into the plant. The main objective of our work was to use an intragenic approach to confer resistance to glyphosate in chile which would require using only chile genes for transformation including the selectable marker. Tobacco was used as the transgenic system to identify different gene constructs that would allow for the development of the intragenic system for chile, since chile transformation is inefficient. An EPSPS gene was isolated from chile and mutagenized to introduce substitutions that are known to make the encoded enzyme resistant to glyphosate. The promoter for EPSPS gene was isolated from chile and the mutagenized chile EPSPS cDNA was engineered behind both the CaMV35S promoter and the EPSPS promoter. The leaves from the transformants were checked for resistance to glyphosate using a cut leaf assay. In tobacco, though both gene constructs exhibited some degree of resistance to glyphosate, the construct with the CaMV35S promoter was more effective and as such chile was transformed with this gene construct. The chile transformants showed resistance to low concentrations of glyphosate. Furthermore, preliminary studies showed that the mutated EPSPS gene driven by the CaMV35S promoter could be used as a selectable marker for transformation. We have shown that an intragenic approach can be used to confer glyphosate-resistance in chile. However, we need a stronger chile promoter and a mutated chile gene that encodes for a more glyphosate resistant EPSPS protein. PMID:29649228
Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee
Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…
...)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade... preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of... mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...
... Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead... Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-776-779 (Second Review). By...
Estadísticas, “ Inmigrantes en Chile ”, Santiago Census, 2002 20 ...Studies and Research Center, 1998), 13 22 Military Studies and Research Center, Chile en la Region. CESIM. 2001; available from <http...Estatuto de Inversiones Extranjeras en Chile ”, ( Santiago: 1974), Capitulo I,19 35 The International Center for Adjustment of Disputes of Investment
... the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement; and (4) the Environmental Review of the U.S.-Chile Free Trade....- Chile Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The Commission is to meet every two years to advance environmental... granting of money is directly associated with this request for suggestions for the Work Program. There is...
...-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China... orders on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the PRC, pursuant to...
Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo
On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.
Solimano, G; Hakim, P
This study is an historical analysis of food consumption and nutrition in Chile emphasizing the influence of political and economic factors on nutritional standards. It attempts to document and explain the persistence of malnutrition as a widespread social problem in Chile even as the country achieved a relatively advanced state of economic development and boasted an unusually progressive record of social legislation. The major findings of the study were: (a) Chile's pattern of development, social reform efforts notwithstanding, consistently discriminated against low-income groups, and (b) this discrimination perpetuated low standards of nutrition and low levels of food consumption among the country's poor and undermined the effectiveness of specific measures to alleviate malnutrition.
Carn, Simon A.; Zogorski, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo
On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.
Albala, Cecilia; Vio, Fernando; Kain, Juliana; Uauy, Ricardo
The purpose of this study was to analyse the determinants and consequences of the nutrition transition in Chile and describe the related health promotion policies. This is a descriptive, population-based study including data on demographic, diet, nutrition and biomedical related variables. Data came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the National Institute of Statistics (INE), the Ministries of Planning, Health and Education surveillance systems, and national surveys. As malnutrition decreased during the 1980s, obesity increased rapidly in all age groups. In adults, currently about 25% of women are obese (body mass index >30 kg m(-2)); particularly those from low socio-economic levels. Among preschoolers, obesity is now 10% while in 6-year-old children it is 17.5% (weight/height greater than two standard deviations (>2SD) of the World Health Organization reference). Nutritional risk factors are prevalent, diet is changing to a 'Western diet' with an increasing fat consumption, and sedentarianism is constant in all groups. High blood pressure (>140/90) is greater than 10% in adults. Diabetes is increasing in urban areas, including in the indigenous population, and more than 40% of adults have a cholesterol level of more than 200 mg ml(-1). Promotion of healthy lifestyles is the main strategy to cope with this situation, particularly changing behaviour in food habits, physical activity and psychosocial factors. Changes in lifestyles will not only allow the prolonged life expectancy to be of better quality, but also will favour a decrease in the morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, mainly cardiovascular diseases.
BIVONA, WILLIAM A.
THIS REPORT PRESENTS AN ANALYSIS OF OVER EIGHTEEN SMALL, INTERMEDIATE, AND LARGE SCALE SYSTEMS FOR THE SELECTIVE DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION (SDI). SYSTEMS ARE COMPARED AND ANALYZED WITH RESPECT TO DESIGN CRITERIA AND THE FOLLOWING NINE SYSTEM PARAMETERS--(1) INFORMATION INPUT, (2) METHODS OF INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING, (3) USER INTEREST PROFILE…
Valdés S, Gloria; Armas M, Rodolfo; Reyes B, Humberto
Biomedical research is a fundamental tool for the development of a country, requiring human and financial resources. To define some current characteristics of biomedical research, in Chile. Data on entities funding bio-medical research, participant institutions, and the number of active investigators for the period 2007-2009 were obtained from institutional sources; publications indexed in PubMed for 2008-2009 were analysed. Most financial resources invested in biomedical research projects (approximately US$ 19 million per year) came from the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica" (CONICYT), a state institution with 3 independent Funds administering competitive grant applications open annually to institutional or independent investigators in Chile. Other sources and universities raised the total amount to US$ 26 million. Since 2007 to 2009, 408 investigators participated in projects funded by CONICYT. The main participant institutions were Universidad de Chile and Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, both adding up to 84% of all funded projects. Independently, in 2009,160 research projects -mainly multi centric clinical trials- received approximately US$ 24 million from foreign pharmaceutical companies. Publications listed in PubMed were classified as "clinical research" (n = 879, including public health) or "basic biomedical research" (n = 312). Biomedical research in Chile is mainly supported by state funds and university resources, but clinical trials also obtained an almost equivalent amount from foreign resources. Investigators are predominantly located in two universities. A small number of MD-PhD programs are aimed to train and incorporate new scientists. Only a few new Medical Schools participate in biomedical research. A National Registry of biomedical research projects, including the clinical trials, is required among other initiatives to stimulate research in biomedical sciences in Chile.
2015 Edition Health Information Technology (Health IT) Certification Criteria, 2015 Edition Base Electronic Health Record (EHR) Definition, and ONC Health IT Certification Program Modifications. Final rule.
This final rule finalizes a new edition of certification criteria (the 2015 Edition health IT certification criteria or "2015 Edition'') and a new 2015 Edition Base Electronic Health Record (EHR) definition, while also modifying the ONC Health IT Certification Program to make it open and accessible to more types of health IT and health IT that supports various care and practice settings. The 2015 Edition establishes the capabilities and specifies the related standards and implementation specifications that Certified Electronic Health Record Technology (CEHRT) would need to include to, at a minimum, support the achievement of meaningful use by eligible professionals (EPs), eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals (CAHs) under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs (EHR Incentive Programs) when such edition is required for use under these programs.
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0102] Application for Final... items being exported: To be used for long-haul passenger and cargo air service from Chile and Brazil to... before February 8, 2013 to be assured of consideration before final consideration of the transaction by...
Barrera, Constanza R; Negrón, Camila P; Barría, R Mauricio; Méndez, Claudio A
To explore the perceptions of health professionals in an integrated network of public provision of health services regarding the implementation of the Law on Rights and Duties of People in Chile. Qualitative descriptive study. A stratified qualitative sample of 53 professionals from five low complexity centres and one from a high complexity centre, all part of the integrated network of health services in Valdivia, Los Rios Region, Chile, were selected according to the criteria of an overall saturation of the explored dimensions. The information was gathered through a semi-structured, in-depth interview carried out after signing the informed consent. Data were analysed using an inductive approach of content analysis. Three categories emerged from the interviews: conceptualization and knowledge, factors influencing the implementation and recommendations for strengthening the implementation, and seven subcategories. It was highlighted that health professionals in the health-care network perceived difficulties in implementing the Law on rights and duties of patients. Among them were the lack of knowledge about the Law, poor exposure and a lack of resources for its implementation. They suggested adapting the infrastructure of the institution and offering training as recommendations to improve the implementation of the Law. There are hindering factors for the implementation of the Law related to organizational and professional gaps in the institutions providing health care. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Matus-Lopez, Mauricio; Cid Pedraza, Camilo
Little is known about long-term care policies in developing regions. Latin America is one of those regions. In less than 20 years, it will surpass Europe's elderly population. At that point, Chile will be the country with the largest share of elderly population in the region. For that reason, long-term care pilot programs have been implemented in recent years. This article describes the long-term care policy in Chile, analyzed according to the international experience. National directors of these programs were asked to complete questionnaires with a description of each, and the results of the past year. This information was compared with interviews to experts and official information available online. Programs follow the international trends, although they are underfinanced and lack the necessary mechanisms to control service quality. It is suggested that budgets should be increased, and there should be higher requirements for caregiver training. Also, mechanisms for quality control should be established, and policies should be evaluated for formal direct hiring through a cash-for-care system. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oyarte, Marcela; Delgado, Iris; Pedrero, Víctor; Agar, Lorenzo; Cabieses, Báltica
To compare cancer hospital morbidity among the local population and the immigrant population in Chile. This is a prevalence study based on the analysis of hospital discharges of all the health centers of Chile. Cancer hospital discharges were characterized in 2012 according to the migratory status. The crude and specific rates of hospital morbidity for this cause were estimated for the analysis of their association with migratory status using zero-inflated negative binomial regression, adjusted for sociodemographic variables. The neoplasms were the third cause of hospital discharges for immigrants and the seventh one for Chileans. The adjusted rate of cancer hospital discharges was higher for Chileans than immigrants, and the latter had fewer days of hospitalization and greater proportion of surgical interventions. In the group of immigrants, cancer hospital discharges mainly corresponded to patients belonging to the private system (46%), and in the group of Chileans they mainly corresponded to patients in the public system (71.1%). We observed a large difference in the proportion of cancer hospital discharges for patients with no health insurance between the two populations (22.6%: immigrants, 1.0%: Chileans). In both populations, the three most frequent types of cancer were: (i) lymphoid tissue, hematopoietic organs, and related tissues, (ii) digestive organs, and (iii) breast cancer. Models of differentiated care should be considered for immigrants, with the creation of specific programs of information, coverage, and protection against cancer. More information on this problem must be generated at the local and international level.
Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Díaz, Hugo A.; Esquerré, Damien; Urra, Felix A.
Abstract The elongatus-kriegi complex is one of the most diverse clades of the Liolaemus (sensu stricto) subgenus of lizards. There are currently 29 species recognized in this group distributed between Chile and Argentina. Based on molecular evidence, there seem to be five main clades nested within this complex: the elongatus, leopardinus, kriegi, petrophilus and punmahuida clades. Liolaemus buergeri and Liolaemus kriegi, both of the kriegi clade, were believed to inhabit the surroundings of the Laja Lagoon, in the Biobío Region of Chile. Moreover, this Chilean population of Liolaemus kriegi was recently recognized as an undescribed taxon called “Liolaemus sp. A” based on molecular phylogenetics. In this work, we studied these two populations of the Laja Lagoon and provided the morphological diagnosis to describe them as two new species: Liolaemus scorialis sp. n. and Liolaemus zabalai sp. n., previously considered Liolaemus buergeri and “Liolaemus kriegi/Liolaemus sp. A” respectively. Additionally, we identified another population of Liolaemus scorialis in the vicinity of La Mula Lagoon in the Araucanía Region of Chile. Liolaemus scorialis differs from almost all of the species of the elongatus-kriegi complex by its considerably smaller size. Nevertheless, without molecular data we cannot assign it to any particular subclade. Liolaemus zabalai belongs to the kriegi clade based on published molecular phylogenies. Finally, we provide some natural history data on both species and we document for the first time the presence of Liolaemus neuquensis in Chile from a museum specimen from La Mula Lagoon. PMID:25987873
Aden-Antoniow, F.; Satriano, C.; Poiata, N.; Bernard, P.; Vilotte, J. P.; Aissaoui, E. M.; Ruiz, S.; Schurr, B.; Sobiesiak, M.
The 2014 Iquique seismic crisis, culminating with the main Mw 8.2 Iquique earthquake (Chile), 1st of April 2014, and the largest Mw 7.7 aftershock, 3rd of April, highlighted a complex unlocking of the North Chile subduction interface. Indeed, during many months preceding this event, at least three large seismic clusters have been observed, in July 2013, in January and in March 2014. Their location and final migration towards the mainshock rupture area represents the main motivation of this work.We built a new, more complete catalogue for the period over December 2013 to March 2014 in Northern Chile, using a new automated array method for earthquake detection and location [Poiata et al. 2015]. With the data-set provided by the IPOC and ILN networks, we detected an average of 8000 events per month, forty times more than the catalogue produced by Centro Sismologico National del Chile. The new catalogue decreases the magnitude of completeness by more than two units, from 3.3 to 1.2. We observe two shallow clusters offshore of the cities of Iquique and Pisagua in January 2014, and a strong one covering the rupture zone of Mw 8.2 mainshock in March. A spatial-temporal statistical analysis of these three clusters allows us to better characterize the whole preparatory phase. We interpret our results in light of the location, timing and energy of several aseismic slip events, evidenced by Boudin et al. [AGU 2014], which coincide with the seismic clusters. We propose that the preparatory phase of the Iquique earthquake consists of a complex interplay of seismic and aseismic slip along the subduction surface. Furthermore, our analysis raises new questions regarding the complex slip during the Mw 7.7 aftershock, and the spatial variation of the effective coupling along the subduction interface, imaged by GPS studies, suggesting new research direction that will be outlined.
Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno
The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one
Abarca, Esmeralda; Campos, Solange; Herskovic, Valeria; Fuentes, Carolina
Informal caregivers of bedridden elders need a respite. One form of obtaining a respite is through volunteers who are contacted by means of information and communication technology (ICT). A qualitative study was carried out in a low-income district in Santiago, Chile, to learn about how caregivers of bedridden elders perceive the possibility of using ICT to access this respite. In-depth interviews were carried out and transcribed verbatim, then analysed using open coding. Results: The results reveal that caregivers are willing to receive a volunteer in their home and use ICT to communicate with them, although a discrepancy exists between the use of devices connected to the Internet and feature phones. Conclusion: This study concludes that informal caregivers of bedridden elders have a favourable disposition towards accessing a respite system by means of ICT based on a peer-to-peer economy.
Abarca, Esmeralda; Campos, Solange; Herskovic, Valeria; Fuentes, Carolina
ABSTRACT Purpose: Informal caregivers of bedridden elders need a respite. One form of obtaining a respite is through volunteers who are contacted by means of information and communication technology (ICT). Method: A qualitative study was carried out in a low-income district in Santiago, Chile, to learn about how caregivers of bedridden elders perceive the possibility of using ICT to access this respite. In-depth interviews were carried out and transcribed verbatim, then analysed using open coding. Results: The results reveal that caregivers are willing to receive a volunteer in their home and use ICT to communicate with them, although a discrepancy exists between the use of devices connected to the Internet and feature phones. Conclusion: This study concludes that informal caregivers of bedridden elders have a favourable disposition towards accessing a respite system by means of ICT based on a peer-to-peer economy. PMID:29336722
The ultimate goal of this evaluation is to identify any benefits in operational efficiency, air quality, and customer satisfaction with the implementation of the FIRST information technology system for the intermodal freight industry at the Port of N...
Current Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) allow travelers to change their route, mode, departure time, route choice or destination to avoid delays and congestions, which results in improved traffic flow. This means higher vehicle speed, lo...
This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.
Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Gallagher, Mary C.
This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled An Innovative, Multidisciplinary Educational Program in Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-12. The project objectives are to develop a set of transportable, hands-on, data base management courses for science and engineering students to facilitate their utilization of information storage and retrieval programs.
A fertility study was carried out by the Chilean Association for Protection of the Family (APROFA) in metropolitan Chile in 1989 to update data from the most recent fertility study in 1974. A random and self-weighted sample of 600 women aged 15-44 in 32 urban communes of the metropolitan region were interviewed in November 1989. 55% were married or in stable consensual unions, 39.1% were single, and 5.9% were separated, divorced, or widowed. 24.1% had primary educations, 15.5% had some form of higher education, and .2% were illiterate. 64.2% of the women had children, of whom 63.8% had 1 or 2. Only 2.1% had 6 or more children. 46.2% felt that the ideal family size was 1-2 children and 30.7% that it was 3 children. 40.4% of women with children wanted another child and 59.6% did not. 25.1% of the sample had never had sexual relations, 7.3% had not had sexual relations in the 12 months prior to the interview, and the remaining 67.6% were sexually active. At the time of the survey 6.1% were pregnant and 11.1% had had a birth in the preceding 12 months. 28.3% of these pregnancies were considered unwanted, usually for economic reasons or because the family was considered complete. 55.6% of the sample reported using contraceptives. 48.6% used IUDs, 26.0% used oral contraceptives, 6.9% periodic abstinence methods, and 1.8% barrier methods. Only 7.5% of women aged 15-19 used contraception. Rates of use stabilized after age 25 at about 72%. 80.9% of women married or in union used a method, as did 20.2% of single and 59.3% of separated or divorced women. The data for the survey are still under analysis and all statistics are provisional.
Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas
Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (< 2 Hz) P-wave arrivals. Full waveform finite difference modelling is used to test the low velocity slab structure that cause this P-wave dispersion. The synthetic waveforms produced by these models are compared to the recorded waveforms. Spectrograms are used to compare the relative arrival times of different frequencies, while the velocity spectra is used to constrain the relative amplitude of the arrivals. Constraining the waveform in these two ways means that the full waveform is also matched, and the low pass filtered observed and synthetic waveforms can be compared. A combined misfit between synthetic and observed waveforms is then calculated following Garth & Rietbrock (2014). Based on this misfit criterion we constrain the velocity model by using a grid search approach. Modelling the guided wave arrivals suggest that the observed dispersion cannot be solely accounted for by a single low velocity layer as suggested by previous guided wave studies. Including dipping low velocity normal fault structures in the synthetic model not only accounts for the observed strong P-wave coda, but also produces a clear first motion dispersion. We therefore propose that the lithospheric mantle of the subducting Nazca plate is highly hydrated at intermediate
Braun, Andreas; Stötzer, Johanna; Kubisch, Susanne; Dittrich, Andre; Keller, Sina
Natural hazards impose considerable threats to the physical and socio-economic wellbeing of people, a fact, which is well understood and investigated for many regions. However, not only people are vulnerable. During the last decades, a considerable amount of literature has focussed the particular vulnerability of the critical infrastructure: for example road networks. Considering critical infrastructure, far less reliable information exists for many regions worldwide - particularly, regions outside of the so called developed world. Critical infrastructure is destroyed in many disasters, causing cascade and follow up effects, for instance, impediments during evacuation, rescue and during the resilience phase. These circumstances, which are general enough to be applied to most regions, aggravate in regions characterized by high disparities between the urban and the rural sphere. Peripheral rural areas are especially prone to get isolated due to defects of the few roads which connect them to larger urban centres (where, frequently, disaster and emergency actors are situated). The rural area of Central Chile is a appropriate example for these circumstances. It is prone to destruction by several geo-hazards and furthermore, characterized by the aforementioned disparities. Past disasters, e.g. the 1991 Cerro Hudson eruption and the 2010 Maule earthquake have led to follow up effects (e.g. farmers, being unable to evacuate their animals due to road failures in the first case, and difficultires to evacuate people from places such as Caleta Tumbes or Dichato, which are connected by just a single road only in the second). The contribution develops a methodology to investigate into the critical infrastructure of such places. It develops a remoteness index for Chile, which identifies remote, peripheral rural areas, prone to get isolated due to road network failures during disasters. The approach is graph based. It offers particular advantages for regions like rural Chile since
Astorga, F; Escobar, L E; Poo-Muñoz, D A; Medina-Vogel, G
dog population parameters may be informative to determine risk areas for bat-rabies spillover events. In addition, we confirm that dog abundance is a neglected and emerging public health concern in Chile, particularly within urban areas, which deserves prompt intervention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
The teacher research movement in Chile has, historically, been an expression of the profession's concerns with the ways in which schooling reproduces and produces the social order in the broader society. The work currently done by members of the union's Pedagogical Movement is described, showing the connections between the scope of problems…
In Strangers on Familiar Soil, Edward Dallam Melillo shows how Californians and Chileans each have one foot on their land and the other connecting them through the Pacific Ocean. Melillo reframes our understanding of US history in the west and links the histories and destinies of Chile and California from 1786 to the current day. Contrary to popular belief, Melillo...
McEwan, Patrick J.
Chile operates one of the oldest and largest school feeding programs in Latin America, targeting higher-calorie meals to relatively poorer schools. This paper evaluates the impact of higher-calorie meals on the education outcomes of public, rural schools and their students. It applies a regression-discontinuity design to administrative data,…
Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.
This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…
OECD Publishing, 2017
Chile's education system can foster stronger economic, democratic and social development in the country. There are significant macroeconomic benefits to education, such as increased productivity. That said, individuals tend to benefit the most from high-quality, equitable education systems. In 2004, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…
This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…
Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela Alejandra; Lozoff, Betsy
Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation…
This book examines the decentralization and privatization of schools in Chile. It analyzes whether the introduction of market mechanisms in the supply of, and demand for, schools enhances educational performance. The text discusses the microeconomic assumptions underlying the proposition that elementary and secondary education could function as a…
Carrasco, Alejandro; Fromm, Germán
Chile is well known worldwide for its extensive use of market-driven mechanisms in education. Using a case study strategy in three schools, this paper shows that "universal" voucher system and mixed provision (co-existence of subsidised private and state-funded schools) policies are reshaping school management practices. The paper draws…
Olivares, Roberto; Vidal, Pamela; Sotomayor, Camila; Norambuena, Mackarenna; Luppi, Mario; Silva, Francisco; Cifuentes, Marcela
Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp. It may be acquired by consuming unpasteurized dairy products. Brucellosis has a low incidence in Chile, thus, we have a scarce data. To report and to characterize the first series of clinical cases of adult patients diagnosed with brucellosis in Chile. We describe a series of 13 clinical cases in patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2016 in three different centers in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical presentation, laboratory, antibiotic treatment, morbidity and mortality. The mean age was 50 years old. Eight cases had a record of consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. The most frequently reported complaints were fever. The most frequent focal point involved was the spine. Only one patient had a positive blood culture, while the diagnosis was made using serological techniques in the other part of the group. The most indicated antibiotic regimens were doxycycline-rifampicin and doxycycline-gentamicin. The hospital stay was 20 days approximately as an average. Clinical cure was achieved in all cases. Brucellosis is an infrequent zoonosis in Chile, and it produces a nonspecific clinical picture, so it is necessary to have high suspicion to make the diagnosis based in the antecedent of consumption of unpasteurized dairy or raw meat.
John S. Pallister; Jon J. Major; Thomas C. Pierson; Richard P. Hoblitt; Jacob B. Lowenstern; John C. Eichelberger; Lara Luis; Hugo Moreno; Jorge Munoz; Jonathan M. Castro; Andres Iroume; Andrea Andreoli; Julia Jones; Fred Swanson; Charlie Crisafulli
There was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaiten volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which...
Gallegos, Doris; Olea, Andrea; Sotomayor, Viviana; González, Claudia; Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Ramos, Mónica; Espinoza, M Cecilia; Mendoza, Gladys; Torres, Graciela; Espiñeira, Emilio; Andrade, Winston; Fernández, Jorge; Fasce, Rodrigo
Strategies for accelerated control of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Chile included mass vaccination of women of childbearing age in 1999 but did not include vaccination of adult men. We reviewed data from Chile's integrated surveillance system for measles, rubella, and CRS from 2004 through 2009 and describe the epidemiology of rubella outbreaks and implementation of control measures in 2005 and 2007 following mass vaccination of women. Population estimates from census data were used to calculate rubella incidence rates. The age distribution of rubella cases during 2007 was compared with rubella vaccination opportunities by birth cohort to orient mass vaccination of adult men. In 2005, an institutional outbreak of rubella occurred among male naval recruits 18-22 years of age, with 46 confirmed cases over a 5-month period. Beginning in March 2007, rubella outbreaks among young adults in the capital of Santiago spread throughout Chile, resulting in >4000 confirmed rubella cases. Delayed control measures and rapid dissemination among young adults led to widespread transmission. From 2007 through 2009, rubella incidence was highest among adult men not included in previous vaccination strategies. Mass vaccination of men 19-29 years of age was conducted in November 2007 to interrupt rubella transmission. Chile's experience suggests that vaccination strategies for rubella and CRS elimination need to include both men and women.
Many of the most primitive Neotropical bush katydids (Phaneropterinae) — including species of Cosmophyllum Blanchard, Stenophylla Brunner von Wattenwyl, Marenestha Brunner von Wattenwyl, Anisophya Karabag, Coryphoda Brunner von Wattenwyl, and Burgilis Stål — are endemic in Chile. The Chilean species...
One of the larger of the native peoples of South America, the Araucanians include different ethnic subgroups, some of which are now extinct. Once geographically spread extensively over the southern cone of South America, at present they are reduced to only two closely related groups: (1) the Mapuche of southern Chile, the largest one; and (2) the…