Science.gov

Sample records for chilean native moss

  1. Differences in the responses of native and transplanted mosses to atmospheric pollution: a possible role of selenium.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A

    2000-10-01

    Native and transplanted mosses of the species Scleropodium purum were used to study the possible adaptation of the former to atmospheric contamination. A total of seven assays were carried out with transplanted moss exposed at sites around a thermal power station for 28 and 56 days, and native moss collected from the sites at the same time. Irrigated moss bags were used in order to maintain stable conditions throughout the exposure periods. Determinations were made of levels of Co, Cr, Cu, K, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn in the mosses. No significant differences were found, throughout the exposure time studied, in metal bioconcentration in the native mosses, whereas in the transplanted mosses the differences were significant for all metals except Ni. The degree of bioconcentration was higher at the start of the exposure period and later became more stable. The high levels of Se found in the native mosses compared to the transplanted mosses indicates a possible mechanism of adaptation by detoxification.

  2. Rhizobacterial Community Structures Associated with Native Plants Grown in Chilean Extreme Environments.

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Milko A; Maruyama, Fumito; Ogram, Andrew V; Navarrete, Oscar U; Lagos, Lorena M; Inostroza, Nitza G; Acuña, Jacquelinne J; Rilling, Joaquín I; de La Luz Mora, María

    2016-10-01

    Chile is topographically and climatically diverse, with a wide array of diverse undisturbed ecosystems that include native plants that are highly adapted to local conditions. However, our understanding of the diversity, activity, and role of rhizobacteria associated with natural vegetation in undisturbed Chilean extreme ecosystems is very poor. In the present study, the combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454-pyrosequencing approaches was used to describe the rhizobacterial community structures of native plants grown in three representative Chilean extreme environments: Atacama Desert (ATA), Andes Mountains (AND), and Antarctic (ANT). Both molecular approaches revealed the presence of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria as the dominant phyla in the rhizospheres of native plants. Lower numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed in rhizosphere soils from ATA compared with AND and ANT. Both approaches also showed differences in rhizobacterial community structures between extreme environments and between plant species. The differences among plant species grown in the same environment were attributed to the higher relative abundance of classes Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. However, further studies are needed to determine which environmental factors regulate the structures of rhizobacterial communities, and how (or if) specific bacterial groups may contribute to the growth and survival of native plants in each Chilean extreme environments. PMID:27406732

  3. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Wuxi, China: estimation based on native moss analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, G Geoff; Fang, Yan-Ming

    2016-06-01

    We studied atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Wuxi, China, using moss (Haplocladium microphyllum and H. angustifolium) as a biomonitoring agent. Moss samples were collected from 49 sites determined by a systematic sampling method. The top layer of soil on each site was also sampled. No significant correlation (P < 0.05) was observed between the moss and soil concentrations for any of the six heavy metal elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn), indicating that the soil substrate had little effect on the heavy metal concentrations in the moss materials. The metal enrichment capacity of the moss material, characterized by the concentration ratio between the moss and soil samples for each heavy metal, was topped by Cd and then followed by Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Ni, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations were found among the six elements in mosses, suggesting potential anthropogenic inputs of these heavy metal pollutants. Based on concentrations of the heavy metals in mosses and the calculated contamination factors, we evaluated the contamination level of each heavy metal on the 49 sampling sites. Spatial distribution maps of heavy metal deposition for each element were interpolated using ArcGIS 9.0. A total pollution coefficient was calculated for each sampling site to identify the seriously polluted areas in the region.

  4. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Wuxi, China: estimation based on native moss analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, G Geoff; Fang, Yan-Ming

    2016-06-01

    We studied atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Wuxi, China, using moss (Haplocladium microphyllum and H. angustifolium) as a biomonitoring agent. Moss samples were collected from 49 sites determined by a systematic sampling method. The top layer of soil on each site was also sampled. No significant correlation (P < 0.05) was observed between the moss and soil concentrations for any of the six heavy metal elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn), indicating that the soil substrate had little effect on the heavy metal concentrations in the moss materials. The metal enrichment capacity of the moss material, characterized by the concentration ratio between the moss and soil samples for each heavy metal, was topped by Cd and then followed by Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Ni, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations were found among the six elements in mosses, suggesting potential anthropogenic inputs of these heavy metal pollutants. Based on concentrations of the heavy metals in mosses and the calculated contamination factors, we evaluated the contamination level of each heavy metal on the 49 sampling sites. Spatial distribution maps of heavy metal deposition for each element were interpolated using ArcGIS 9.0. A total pollution coefficient was calculated for each sampling site to identify the seriously polluted areas in the region. PMID:27207630

  5. Chilean native fruit extracts inhibit inflammation linked to the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of extracts of these fruits to block the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in vitro and to compare its effect with blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract treatment, which has been already described to possess several biomedical benefits. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 5 μg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with conditioned media (CM) from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, or in a coculture (CC) with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in the presence or absence of 100 μM [total polyphenolic content] of each extract for 24 h. The gene expression and secretion profile of several inflammatory markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide secretion induced by LPS, CM, and CC was reduced by the presence of maqui (-12.2%, -45.6%, and -14.7%, respectively) and calafate (-27.6%, -43.9%, and -11.8%, respectively) extracts. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α was inhibited and of IL-10 was induced by maqui and calafate extract incubation. In conclusion, the extracts of these fruits present important inhibitory-like features over the inflammatory response of the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, comprising a potential therapeutic tool against comorbidities associated with obesity development. PMID:25302660

  6. Chilean Native Fruit Extracts Inhibit Inflammation Linked to the Pathogenic Interaction Between Adipocytes and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of extracts of these fruits to block the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in vitro and to compare its effect with blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract treatment, which has been already described to possess several biomedical benefits. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 5 μg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with conditioned media (CM) from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, or in a coculture (CC) with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in the presence or absence of 100 μM [total polyphenolic content] of each extract for 24 h. The gene expression and secretion profile of several inflammatory markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide secretion induced by LPS, CM, and CC was reduced by the presence of maqui (−12.2%, −45.6%, and −14.7%, respectively) and calafate (−27.6%, −43.9%, and −11.8%, respectively) extracts. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α was inhibited and of IL-10 was induced by maqui and calafate extract incubation. In conclusion, the extracts of these fruits present important inhibitory-like features over the inflammatory response of the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, comprising a potential therapeutic tool against comorbidities associated with obesity development. PMID:25302660

  7. How to define nativeness in vagile organisms: lessons from the cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Pisa, S; Vanderpoorten, A; Patiño, J; Werner, O; González-Mancebo, J M; Ros, R M

    2015-09-01

    The distinction between native and introduced biotas presents unique challenges that culminate in organisms with high long-distance dispersal capacities in a rapidly changing world. Bryophytes, in particular, exhibit large distribution ranges, and some species can truly be qualified as cosmopolitan. Cosmopolitan species, however, typically occur in disturbed environments, raising the question of their nativeness throughout their range. Here, we employ genetic data to address the question of the origin of the cosmopolitan, weedy moss Bryum argenteum on the island of Tenerife. The genetic diversity of B. argenteum on Tenerife was comparable to that found in continental areas due to recurrent colonisation events, erasing any signature of a bottleneck that would be expected in the case of a recent colonisation event. The molecular dating analyses indicated that the first colonisation of the island took place more than 100,000 years ago, i.e. well before the first human settlements. Furthermore, the significant signal for isolation-by-distance found in B. argenteum within Tenerife points to the substantial role of genetic drift in establishing the observed patterns of genetic variation. Together, the results support the hypothesis that B. argenteum is native on Tenerife; although the existence of haplotypes shared between Tenerife and continental areas suggests that more recent, potentially man-mediated introduction also took place. While defining nativeness in organisms that are not deliberately introduced, and wherein the fossil record is extremely scarce, is an exceedingly challenging task, our results suggest that population genetic analyses can represent a useful tool to help distinguish native from alien populations. PMID:25980839

  8. How to define nativeness in vagile organisms: lessons from the cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Pisa, S; Vanderpoorten, A; Patiño, J; Werner, O; González-Mancebo, J M; Ros, R M

    2015-09-01

    The distinction between native and introduced biotas presents unique challenges that culminate in organisms with high long-distance dispersal capacities in a rapidly changing world. Bryophytes, in particular, exhibit large distribution ranges, and some species can truly be qualified as cosmopolitan. Cosmopolitan species, however, typically occur in disturbed environments, raising the question of their nativeness throughout their range. Here, we employ genetic data to address the question of the origin of the cosmopolitan, weedy moss Bryum argenteum on the island of Tenerife. The genetic diversity of B. argenteum on Tenerife was comparable to that found in continental areas due to recurrent colonisation events, erasing any signature of a bottleneck that would be expected in the case of a recent colonisation event. The molecular dating analyses indicated that the first colonisation of the island took place more than 100,000 years ago, i.e. well before the first human settlements. Furthermore, the significant signal for isolation-by-distance found in B. argenteum within Tenerife points to the substantial role of genetic drift in establishing the observed patterns of genetic variation. Together, the results support the hypothesis that B. argenteum is native on Tenerife; although the existence of haplotypes shared between Tenerife and continental areas suggests that more recent, potentially man-mediated introduction also took place. While defining nativeness in organisms that are not deliberately introduced, and wherein the fossil record is extremely scarce, is an exceedingly challenging task, our results suggest that population genetic analyses can represent a useful tool to help distinguish native from alien populations.

  9. MADS about MOSS

    PubMed Central

    Singer, SD

    2009-01-01

    Classic MIKC-type MADS-box genes (MIKCc) play diverse and crucial roles in angiosperm development, the most studied and best understood of which is the specification of floral organ identities. To shed light on how the flower evolved, phylogenetic and functional analyses of genes involved in its ontogeny, such as the MIKCc genes, must be undertaken in as broad a selection as possible of plants with disparate ancestries. Since little is known about the functions of these genes in non-seed plants, we investigated the developmental roles of a subset of the MIKCc genes present in the moss, Physcomitrella patens, which is positioned informatively near the base of the land plant evolutionary tree. We observed that transgenic lines possessing an antisense copy of a MIKCc gene characteristically displayed knocked-down expression of the corresponding native MIKCc gene as well as multiple diverse phenotypic alterations to the haploid gametophytic and diploid sporophytic generations of the life cycle.1 In this addendum, we re-examine our findings in the light of recent pertinent literature and provide additional data concerning the effects of simultaneously knocking out multiple MIKCc genes in this moss. PMID:19649183

  10. Potential of Chilean native corn (Zea mays L.) accessions as natural sources of phenolic antioxidants and in vitro bioactivity for hyperglycemia and hypertension management.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Adrian; Quesille-Villalobos, Ana Maria; Fuentealba, Claudia; Shetty, Kalidas; Gálvez Ranilla, Lena

    2013-11-20

    Thirty-three Chilean corn accessions were screened for the first time regarding their phenolic profiles, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS), and in vitro inhibition against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension (angiotensin I-converting enzyme, ACE-I) in both free and cell wall-bound fractions. TPC varied from 132.2 to 262.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100g dry weight (DW), and around 88% of TPC and antioxidant capacity were found in the bound form. Vanillin, vanillic, protocatechuic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids were detected by HPLC in free fractions, whereas ferulic and p-coumaric acids were found in the bound form. Pisankalla accession (red kernel) had the highest ferulic acid content (269.5 mg/100g DW). No α-amylase and ACE-I inhibition were found; however, all free fractions inhibited α-glucosidase (10.8-72.5%). Principal component analysis revealed that darker samples (free fraction) showed higher TPC and antioxidant capacity, while α-glucosidase inhibition was related to yellow-colored samples.

  11. Moss hair water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Wu, Nan; Hurd, Randy; Thomson, Scott; Pitt, William; Truscott, Tadd

    2013-11-01

    We present an investigation of water transportation on a moss (Syntrichia caninervis) indigenous to temperate deserts. The moss typically appears to be in a dry, brown state, but is rehydrated by water during the wet season, making the desert green. Small hairs (500-2000 μm in length, and 40 μm in diameter, d) growing out from the tip of the moss leaves transport water back to the leaves. Through high speed observations and mathematical modeling it appears that this transportation is driven by two different mechanisms. 1) Droplet transport is achieved in three ways: i) A large (10d) droplet attached between two intersecting fibers will move toward the bases of the leaves by the changing angle between the two hairs. ii) The shape of the moss hair is conical, thicker at the base, producing a gradient that moves fluid (5d) toward the leaf similar to cactus spines. iii) We also observe that in some cases a Plateau-Rayleigh instability trigger a series of droplets moving toward the base. 2) Micro-grooves on the moss hair transport a film of water along the moss hair when larger droplets are not available. These various water transportation strategies combine to help the moss to survive in the desert and provide valuable insight.

  12. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  13. GIRAS TO MOSS INTERFACE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiNardo, Thomas P.; Jackson, R. Alan

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of land use change for an area in Boulder County, Colorado, was conducted using digital cartographic data. The authors selected data in the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (GIRAS) format which is digitized from the 1:250,000-scale land use and land cover map series. The Map Overlay and Statistical System (MOSS) was used as an analytical tool for the study. The authors describe the methodology used in converting the GIRAS file into a MOSS format and the activities associated with the conversion.

  14. [Annual production of moss layer in dark coniferous forests of Ket-Chulym Forest District (by the example of Moss Hylocomium splendens)].

    PubMed

    Koshurnikova, N N

    2007-01-01

    The biological production of the moss layer was analyzed in dark coniferous stands in progressive succession in the southern taiga in West Siberia. The rate of organic matter production by mosses changed from 15-22.2 g/(m2 y) in 50-90-year-old fir forests to 51.6 g/(m2 y) in 170-year-old mixed Siberian pine-spruce-fir stands. In forest phytocenosis that were formed with species replacement (after cuttings with understory clearing), the annual moss production (net primary production) ranged from 2.8 to 20.6 g/(m2 y). The annual moss cover production amounted to 35-36% of the moss photosynthetic biomass irrespective of the type of native stand progressive succession and the stand age.

  15. Contact sensitivity to oak moss.

    PubMed

    Gonçalo, S; Cabral, F; Gonçalo, M

    1988-11-01

    Oak moss allergy was the principle allergen in contact sensitivity to perfumes (45%); 31 patients reacting to oak moss were studied. The sensitivity was attributed to contact with perfumes in 20, lichens in 7 and unknown in 4. Atranorin was the most frequent allergen, followed by usnic, evernic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Concomitant allergy occurred to several lichen acids and also to balsam of Peru, colophony and other fragrance components.

  16. Contact sensitivity to oak moss.

    PubMed

    Gonçalo, S; Cabral, F; Gonçalo, M

    1988-11-01

    Oak moss allergy was the principle allergen in contact sensitivity to perfumes (45%); 31 patients reacting to oak moss were studied. The sensitivity was attributed to contact with perfumes in 20, lichens in 7 and unknown in 4. Atranorin was the most frequent allergen, followed by usnic, evernic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Concomitant allergy occurred to several lichen acids and also to balsam of Peru, colophony and other fragrance components. PMID:3233955

  17. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns.

    PubMed

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography. PMID:25778948

  18. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns.

    PubMed

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M

    2015-03-17

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography.

  19. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns

    PubMed Central

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I.; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography. PMID:25778948

  20. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  1. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  2. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  3. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  4. Mosses new to New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bryophyte inventory was conducted in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP), New Mexico, from 2009 to 2011. Specimens representing 113 species of bryophytes were collected. Of those bryophytes, seven of the mosses were new to New Mexico: Atrichum tenellum (Rohling) Bruch & Schimper, Dicranum ...

  5. MOSS2D V1

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  6. [The Beca's in Chilean psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Escobar, E

    2000-07-01

    The Chilean psychiatrists, Manuel and Francisco Beca, father and son, who lived at the turn of the XIX century and in the first half of the XX respectively, dedicated their lives to the care of mental patients and to the teaching of psychiatry, contributing in their own way and time to the development of the specialty in Chile. Manuel Beca, a clinician, published the first mental patient statistics and Francisco, an academic, became professor of Psychiatry at the Catholic University. Although they dedicated themselves to different fields in the area of mental health, such as clinical research and teaching, both have outstanding merits to become a part of the historical memory of Chilean psychiatry. PMID:11050844

  7. [Tungiasis affects a chilean turist].

    PubMed

    Vergara M, Cristian; Barthel M, Elizabeth; Labarca M, Eduardo; Neira O, Patricia; Espinoza E, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    Tungiasis is a cutaneous ectoparasitosis caused by the female sand flea Tunga penetrans whose higher prevalence occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa, South América and the Caribbean. We report a case of a 23 year old chilean male who presented dermal lesions suggestive of tungiasis on his return from Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy, identifying the arthropod and an egg from one of the lesions. The natural history, co-morbidities and treatment options were reviewed. PMID:19621162

  8. Direct uptake of soil nitrogen by mosses.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Edward; van der Wal, René; Sommerkorn, Martin; Bardgett, Richard D

    2006-06-22

    Mosses are one of the most diverse and widespread groups of plants and often form the dominant vegetation in montane, boreal and arctic ecosystems. However, unlike higher plants, mosses lack developed root and vascular systems, which is thought to limit their access to soil nutrients. Here, we test the ability of two physiologically and taxonomically distinct moss species to take up soil- and wet deposition-derived nitrogen (N) in natural intact turfs using stable isotopic techniques (15N). Both species exhibited increased concentrations of shoot 15N when exposed to either soil- or wet deposition-derived 15N, demonstrating conclusively and for the first time, that mosses derive N from the soil. Given the broad physiological and taxonomic differences between these moss species, we suggest soil N uptake may be common among mosses, although further studies are required to test this prediction. Soil N uptake by moss species may allow them to compete for soil N in a wide range of ecosystems. Moreover, since many terrestrial ecosystems are N limited, soil N uptake by mosses may have implications for plant community structure and nutrient cycling. Finally, soil N uptake may place some moss species at greater risk from N pollution than previously appreciated.

  9. Solute Transport in Unsaturated Sphagnum Mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J. S.; Faux, E. A.

    2009-05-01

    Natural Sphagnum cushions develop an upwardly increasing concentration of dissolved solutes during periods of sustained upward capillary flow of solutes, and become enriched by evaporative loss of water. The transport process is poorly documented as a consequence of poor parameterization of unsaturated flow parameters, and the lack of transport parameters such as dispersivity and solute retardation coefficients for flow in unsaturated mosses. Sphagnum mosses contain hyaline cells and dead-end pores that can store but not transmit water and solute. Since these spaces do not drain at moderate (negative) pressures (ψ), the ratio of fluid actively flowing in films in the unsaturated moss to that which is stored decreases as the moss drains. Solutes can pass by diffusion from the film of flowing water into these closed spaces resulting in increased dispersion of the flowing solute, and retardation of even conservative solutes like chloride. These processes were demonstrated in unsaturated Sphagnum mosses using a step input solute (NaCl) source from a constant head device for undecomposed near-surface moss (~5 cm depth), and slightly more decomposed deeper moss (~25 cm depth). Smaller water retention in the undecomposed upper moss sample resulted in lower unsaturated hydraulic conductivity thus lower flow rates. When the sample was initially drained (ψ = ~ 4 cm of water) it was determined that the solute breakthrough expressed as relative concentration (C/C0 = 0.5) occurred at a cumulative discharge of 91.5 ml and at 5.8 minutes in the upper moss, compared to 233.2 ml after 2.8 minutes in the lower (more decomposed) sample. In a drier state (ψ = ~ 16 cm of water), C/C0 = 0.5 was reached after 67.9 ml of discharge at 37.9 minutes in the upper moss compared to 109.2 ml and at 22.4 minutes in the lower sample. Thus less solute flow is required for breakthrough in less decomposed mosses, and in mosses that are relatively dry. Dispersivity was determined on the basis of

  10. 78 FR 41397 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on June 28, 2013, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC (Moss Bluff) filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC) pursuant to sections 284.123 and 284.224 of the Commission's regulations, (18 CFR 284.123 and 284.224). Moss...

  11. Sphagnum mosses on cutover peat: Moss layer structural controls on water exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Jonathan; McCarter, Colin; Ketcheson, Scot

    2013-04-01

    The structure of Sphagnum moss communities strongly affect their ability to retain and redistribute water in a peatland ecosystem. This moss structure varies by species, and within species depending on certain abiotic factors (e.g. shade). On cutover bogs mosses that have regenerated, either spontaneously or through managed restoration, may develop a relatively loose structure that can vary significantly from those growing in undisturbed ecosystems. For example, the structure of a 15-20 cm layer of Sphagnum mosses regenerated over a ten-year period at the "restored" Bois-des-Bel peatland (Quebec, Canada) restricts its ability to sequester carbon and control site scale hydrological fluxes, including E and runoff. Further, the loose structure of the mosses also decreases their soil-water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, reducing their ability to draw water up from the water table (WT) and to sustain evaporation (E) and photosynthesis. Stark structural differences between moss communities and cutover peat in abandoned (or restored) peatlands strongly affects water exchanges between cutover peat and overlying moss. At relatively dry locations (e.g. WT > 20 cm below the interface of cutover peat) the moss is effectively decoupled from the influence of the WT in the cutover substrate, and must rely on the atmospheric or internally redistributed moisture to hydrate the upper (living) layer. Wetter locations where the moss structure is particularly loose may also exhibit limited connectivity.

  12. NASA Provides Assistance to Trapped Chilean Miners

    NASA Video Gallery

    Responding to a request received through the U.S. Department of State from the Chilean minister of health, NASA will provide advice in nutritional and behavioral sciences to assist miners trapped a...

  13. Characterization of Chilean hazel nut sweet cookies.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Bravo, S; Carrasco, P; Ríos, P

    1993-05-01

    A series of studies were carried out to test the effect of the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour in sweet cookies at the levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The proximate chemical analysis of the different flour mixtures showed a regular increase from 7.2 to 12.2%, 14.5% to 18.8% and 1% to 2.2%, respectively, decreasing at the same time with the percentages of water and carbohydrates. Chemical amino acid scores of leucine and threonine in wheat flour improved with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour. The farinographic evaluation made to the different blends showed several changes occurred with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour to wheat flour. These included increase in water absorption, decrease in dough developing time and weakening of the dough. Sensory characteristics such as appearance, texture, flavor and also acceptability improved with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour into the cookie formulas.

  14. Chilean Volcano: June 24-26

    NASA Video Gallery

    This GOES-13 satellite imagery shows the Chilean caldera still emitting a steady stream of ash, three weeks after the initial eruption on June 4, 2011. The cold winter wind from the south carries i...

  15. Oxylipins in moss development and defense

    PubMed Central

    de León, Inés Ponce; Hamberg, Mats; Castresana, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Oxylipins are oxygenated fatty acids that participate in plant development and defense against pathogen infection, insects, and wounding. Initial oxygenation of substrate fatty acids is mainly catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOXs) and α-dioxygenases but can also take place non-enzymatically by autoxidation or singlet oxygen-dependent reactions. The resulting hydroperoxides are further metabolized by secondary enzymes to produce a large variety of compounds, including the hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and short-chain green leaf volatiles. In flowering plants, which lack arachidonic acid, oxylipins are produced mainly from oxidation of polyunsaturated C18 fatty acids, notably linolenic and linoleic acids. Algae and mosses in addition possess polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, which can also be oxidized by LOXs and transformed into bioactive compounds. Mosses are phylogenetically placed between unicellular green algae and flowering plants, allowing evolutionary studies of the different oxylipin pathways. During the last years the moss Physcomitrella patens has become an attractive model plant for understanding oxylipin biosynthesis and diversity. In addition to the advantageous evolutionary position, functional studies of the different oxylipin-forming enzymes can be performed in this moss by targeted gene disruption or single point mutations by means of homologous recombination. Biochemical characterization of several oxylipin-producing enzymes and oxylipin profiling in P. patens reveal the presence of a wider range of oxylipins compared to flowering plants, including C18 as well as C20-derived oxylipins. Surprisingly, one of the most active oxylipins in plants, JA, is not synthesized in this moss. In this review, we present an overview of oxylipins produced in mosses and discuss the current knowledge related to the involvement of oxylipin-producing enzymes and their products in moss development and defense. PMID:26191067

  16. Boreal feather mosses secrete chemical signals to gain nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Bay, Guillaume; Nahar, Nurun; Oubre, Matthieu; Whitehouse, Martin J; Wardle, David A; Zackrisson, Olle; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Rasmussen, Ulla

    2013-10-01

    The mechanistic basis of feather moss-cyanobacteria associations, a main driver of nitrogen (N) input into boreal forests, remains unknown. Here, we studied colonization by Nostoc sp. on two feather mosses that form these associations (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) and two acrocarpous mosses that do not (Dicranum polysetum and Polytrichum commune). We also determined how N availability and moss reproductive stage affects colonization, and measured N transfer from cyanobacteria to mosses. The ability of mosses to induce differentiation of cyanobacterial hormogonia, and of hormogonia to then colonize mosses and re-establish a functional symbiosis was determined through microcosm experiments, microscopy and acetylene reduction assays. Nitrogen transfer between cyanobacteria and Pleurozium schreberi was monitored by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). All mosses induced hormogonia differentiation but only feather mosses were subsequently colonized. Colonization on Pleurozium schreberi was enhanced during the moss reproductive phase but impaired by elevated N. Transfer of N from cyanobacteria to their host moss was observed. Our results reveal that feather mosses likely secrete species-specific chemo-attractants when N-limited, which guide cyanobacteria towards them and from which they gain N. We conclude that this signalling is regulated by N demands of mosses, and serves as a control of N input into boreal forests.

  17. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  18. Translocation in the nonpolytrichaceous moss grimmia laevigata

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, P. )

    1989-10-01

    A superficially rhizomatous habit suggested that the moss Grimmia laevigata might function as a clonal, rhizomatous plant and translocate photoassimilates to below ground organs, even though the species is outside the order Polytrichales, which includes the only mosses known to posses sieve cells. Labelling with {sup 14}CO{sub 2} indicated that at least 10% of newly assimilated carbon was translocated out of leafy shoot portions within 26 hr. Of this carbon, approximately 75% was apparently moved into leafless, basal shoot portions and 25% into below ground stems. Infrared gas analysis of net CO{sup 2} flux was used to check that labelling gave a realistic measure of photosynthesis. Physiological integration and clonal spread may account for the unusual ability of this moss to colonize extremely xeric microsites.

  19. A study on the Moss relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. R.; Nazeer Ahammed, Y.

    1995-08-01

    A simple empirical relationship has been established for the estimation of refractive indices for various materials directly from their energy gaps. Its validity is tested in various classes of materials such as semiconductors, insulators and oxides. There has been no report in the literature which explains the dependence of energy gap and refractive index in a variety class of solids. Its performance is compared with Moss and Ravindra's relations. A simple analysis on the average percentage deviation for low and high n value materials is also presented. The average percentage deviation in the present approach reveals that the modified Moss relation proves its identity and soundness compared to that of Moss and Ravindra's relations. Good agreement is observed between the computed and literature values of refractive indices. The present proposed empirical relation cannot be applied when Eg ⩽ 0.36 and therefore cannot be applied to some classes of semiconductors such as lead salts, InSb etc.

  20. Mosses beta radioactivity in Katirli mountain-Bursa, TURKEY

    SciTech Connect

    Kahraman, A. G.; Kaynak, G.; Akkaya, G.; Gultekin, A.; Gurler, O.; Yalcin, S.

    2007-04-23

    Mosses are one of the most widely used procedures to determine via plant of radioactive contamination. The high concentrating capacity of mosses may be used as bioindicator of environmental radioactive contamination. In this study, the mosses were collected in region of Katirli Mountain in northwestern Turkey, activities were determined using TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector. Samples of mosses growing on soil, rock, and tree bark were collected.

  1. The Moss Techniques for Air Pollution Study in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, S.; Marinov, A.; Frontasyeva, M.; Strelkova, L.; Yurukova, L.; Steinnes, E.

    2010-01-21

    The paper presents new results on atmospheric deposition of 41 elements in four areas of Bulgaria during the European moss survey in 2005. The results have been obtained by the moss biomonitoring technique. Ninety seven moss samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS).

  2. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  6. 77 FR 70431 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 15, 2012, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC, (Moss Bluff) filed to revise its Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC)...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  8. Thermal energy storage composition comprising peat moss

    SciTech Connect

    Rueffel, P.G.

    1980-11-04

    Peat moss is used in a thermal energy storage composition to provide a network in which to trap an incongruently melting salt hydrate capable of storing thermal energy as latent heat of phase change. The peat moss network is effective in preventing the segregation of a dehydrated form of the salt between heating and cooling cycles. In a preferred embodiment that salt hydrate is the decahydrate of sodium sulphate. A nucleating agent such as sodium tetraborate decahydrate is included to prevent supercooling in the composition, and promote crystallization of the decahydrate of sodium sulphate.

  9. 77 FR 14963 - Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... Lake, Moss Point, MS, on April 28- 29, 2012. This action is necessary for the safeguarding...

  10. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  11. Consort contact dermatitis due to oak moss.

    PubMed

    Held, J L; Ruszkowski, A M; Deleo, V A

    1988-02-01

    An allergic contact dermatitis in a woman was found to be due to oak moss in her husband's after-shave lotion. When routine patch testing reveals a positive reaction, the dermatologist should consider exposure to the antigen not only in the patient but also through contact with the patient's consort.

  12. Moss cell walls: structure and biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Alison W.; Roberts, Eric M.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of the moss Physcomitrella patens has stimulated new research examining the cell wall polysaccharides of mosses and the glycosyl transferases that synthesize them as a means to understand fundamental processes of cell wall biosynthesis and plant cell wall evolution. The cell walls of mosses and vascular plants are composed of the same classes of polysaccharides, but with differences in side chain composition and structure. Similarly, the genomes of P. patens and angiosperms encode the same families of cell wall glycosyl transferases, yet, in many cases these families have diversified independently in each lineage. Our understanding of land plant evolution could be enhanced by more complete knowledge of the relationships among glycosyl transferase functional diversification, cell wall structural and biochemical specialization, and the roles of cell walls in plant adaptation. As a foundation for these studies, we review the features of P. patens as an experimental system, analyses of cell wall composition in various moss species, recent studies that elucidate the structure and biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in P. patens, and phylogenetic analysis of P. patens genes potentially involved in cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:22833752

  13. EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM MOSSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isoprene emission has been documented and characterized from species in all major groups of vascular plants. We report in our survey that isoprene emission is much more common in mosses and ferns than later divergent land plants but is absent in liverworts and hornworts. The li...

  14. Chemical Composition Analysis, Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity Screening of Moss Extracts (Moss Phytochemistry).

    PubMed

    Klavina, Laura; Springe, Gunta; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Martsinkevich, Illia; Nakurte, Ilva; Dzabijeva, Diana; Steinberga, Iveta

    2015-09-18

    Mosses have been neglected as a study subject for a long time. Recent research shows that mosses contain remarkable and unique substances with high biological activity. The aim of this study, accordingly, was to analyze the composition of mosses and to screen their antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The total concentration of polyphenols and carbohydrates, the amount of dry residue and the radical scavenging activity were determined for a preliminary evaluation of the chemical composition of moss extracts. In order to analyze and identify the substances present in mosses, two types of extrahents (chloroform, ethanol) and the GC/MS and LC-TOF-MS methods were used. The antimicrobial activity was tested on four bacteria strains, and the anticancer activity on six cancer cell lines. The obtained results show the presence of a high number of primary (fatty acids and amino acids), but mainly secondary metabolites in moss extracts-including, sterols, terpenoids, polyphenols and others-and a high activity with respect to the studied test organisms.

  15. Fostering Teaching Quality in Chilean Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman Cruzat, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explain the strategies that have been carried out by three Chilean universities in order to advance the quality of their teaching. The studied institutions are the Universidad de los Andes, the Universidad de Talca and the Universidad Catolica de Chile. In each of these three cases the analysis included, both the policies…

  16. Examining Text Environments in Elementary Chilean Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orellana-Garcia, Pelusa; Sailors, Misty

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the social practices related to literacy in classrooms in Chile in order to examine school-based literacy practices. We also examined the constraints and affordances literacy learning offered Chilean students. Through our case study and cross-case analysis, we discovered that although the classrooms contained an…

  17. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  18. Chilean Universities and Institutional Quality Assurance Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Daniel A.; Rojas, Maria J.; López, Boris A.; López, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conduct a quantitative analysis of the university accreditation processes in Chilean universities. The aim is to determine the effects of the different variables, especially the type of institutions (state- and privately owned, with and without state financial support) on the results obtained.…

  19. ICT & Learning in Chilean Schools: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    By the early nineties a Chilean network on computers and education for public schools had emerged. There were both high expectancies that technology could revolutionize education as well as divergent voices that doubted the real impact of technology on learning. This paper presents an evaluation of the Enlaces network, a national Information and…

  20. Dynamic Moss Observed with Hi-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Caroline; Winebarger, Amy; Morton, Richard; Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), flown on 11 July 2012, has revealed an unprecedented level of detail and substructure within the solar corona. Hi-­-C imaged a large active region (AR11520) with 0.2-0.3'' spatial resolution and 5.5s cadence over a 5 minute period. An additional dataset with a smaller FOV, the same resolution, but with a higher temporal cadence (1s) was also taken during the rocket flight. This dataset was centered on a large patch of 'moss' emission that initially seemed to show very little variability. Image processing revealed this region to be much more dynamic than first thought with numerous bright and dark features observed to appear, move and disappear over the 5 minute observation. Moss is thought to be emission from the upper transition region component of hot loops so studying its dynamics and the relation between the bright/dark features and underlying magnetic features is important to tie the interaction of the different atmospheric layers together. Hi-C allows us to study the coronal emission of the moss at the smallest scales while data from SDO/AIA and HMI is used to give information on these structures at different heights/temperatures. Using the high temporal and spatial resolution of Hi-C the observed moss features were tracked and the distribution of displacements, speeds, and sizes were measured. This allows us to comment on both the physical processes occurring within the dynamic moss and the scales at which these changes are occurring.

  1. Dynamic Moss Observed with Hi-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Caroline; Winebarger, Amy; Morton, Richard; Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), flown on 11 July 2012, has revealed an unprecedented level of detail and substructure within the solar corona. Hi-C imaged a large active region (AR11520) with 0.2-0.3'' spatial resolution and 5.5s cadence over a 5 minute period. An additional dataset with a smaller FOV, the same resolution, but with a higher temporal cadence (1s) was also taken during the rocket flight. This dataset was centered on a large patch of 'moss' emission that initially seemed to show very little variability. Image processing revealed this region to be much more dynamic than first thought with numerous bright and dark features observed to appear, move and disappear over the 5 minute observation. Moss is thought to be emission from the upper transition region component of hot loops so studying its dynamics and the relation between the bright/dark features and underlying magnetic features is important to tie the interaction of the different atmospheric layers together. Hi-C allows us to study the coronal emission of the moss at the smallest scales while data from SDO/AIA and HMI is used to give information on these structures at different heights/temperatures. Using the high temporal and spatial resolution of Hi-C the observed moss features were tracked and the distribution of displacements, speeds, and sizes were measured. This allows us to comment on both the physical processes occurring within the dynamic moss and the scales at which these changes are occurring.

  2. [The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors].

    PubMed

    Reyes, H

    2001-01-01

    On September 29th, 2000, The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors was founded, sponsored by the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)" (the Governmental Agency promoting and funding scientific research and technological development in Chile) and the "Sociedad Médica de Santiago" (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine). The Association adopted the goals of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and therefore it will foster "cooperation and communication among Editors of Chilean biomedical journals; to improve editorial standards, to promote professionalism in medical editing through education, self-criticism and self-regulation; and to encourage research on the principles and practice of medical editing". Twenty nine journals covering a closely similar number of different biomedical sciences, medical specialties, veterinary, dentistry and nursing, became Founding Members of the Association. A Governing Board was elected: President: Humberto Reyes, M.D. (Editor, Revista Médica de Chile); Vice-President: Mariano del Sol, M.D. (Editor, Revista Chilena de Anatomía); Secretary: Anna María Prat (CONICYT); Councilors: Manuel Krauskopff, Ph.D. (Editor, Biological Research) and Maritza Rahal, M.D. (Editor, Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello). The Association will organize a Symposium on Biomedical Journal Editing and will spread information stimulating Chilean biomedical journals to become indexed in international databases and in SciELO-Chile, the main Chilean scientific website (www.scielo.cl).

  3. Novel labeling technique illustrates transfer of 15N2 from Sphagnum moss to vascular plants via diazotrophic nitrogen fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorp, N. R.; Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.

    2013-12-01

    We used 15N2 gas to trace nitrogen (N) from biological N2-fixation to vascular plant uptake in an Alberta bog in order to determine if neighboring bog plants acquire recently fixed N from diazotrophs associating with Sphagnum mosses. Recent evidence indicates high rates of N2-fixation in Sphagnum mosses of Alberta bogs (Vile et al. 2013). Our previous work has shown that mosses can assimilate fixed N from associated diazotrophs as evidenced by the high N content of mosses despite minimal inputs from atmospheric deposition, retranslocation, and N mineralization. Therefore, the potential exists for vascular plants to obtain N from ';leaky' tissues of live mosses, however, this phenomenon has not been tested previously. Here we document the potential for relatively rapid transfer to vascular plants of N fixed by Sphagnum moss-associated diazotrophs. We utilized the novel approach of incubating mosses in 15N2 to allow the process of diazotrophic N2-fixation to mechanistically provide the 15N label, which is subsequently transferred to Sphagnum mosses. The potential for vascular bog natives to tap this N was assessed by planting the vascular plants in the labeled moss. Sphagnum mosses (upper 3 cm of live plants) were incubated in the presence of 98 atom % 15N2 gas for 48 hours. Two vascular plants common to Alberta bogs; Picea mariana and Vaccinium oxycoccus were then placed in the labeled mosses, where the mosses served as the substrate. Tissue samples from these plants were collected at three time points during the incubation; prior to 15N2 exposure (to determine natural abundance 15N), and at one and two months after 15N2 exposure. Roots and leaves were separated and run separately on a mass spectrometer to determine 15N concentrations. Sphagnum moss capitula obtained N from N2-fixation (δ15N of -2.43 × 0.40, 122.76 × 23.78, 224.92 × 68.37, 143.74 × 54.38 prior to, immediately after, and at 1 and 2 months after exposure to 15N2, respectively). Nitrogen was

  4. Calculating the Velocity in the Moss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womebarger, Amy R.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The velocity of the warm (1 MK) plasma in the footpoint of the hot coronal loops (commonly called moss) could help discriminate between different heating frequencies in the active region core. Strong velocities would indicated low-frequency heating, while velocities close to zero would indicate high-frequency heating. Previous results have found disparaging observations, with both strong velocities and velocities close to zero reported. Previous results are based on observations from Hinode/EIS. The wavelength arrays for EIS spectra are typically calculated by assuming quiet Sun velocities are zero. In this poster, we determine the velocity in the moss using observations with SoHO/SUMER. We rely on neutral or singly ionized spectral lines to determine accurately the wavelength array associated with the spectra. SUMER scanned the active region twice, so we also report the stability of the velocity.

  5. Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil

    2002-03-01

    Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin acids which are ingredients of another lichen, tree moss. Resin acids, e.g. abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid, are also the main allergens in colophonium. The aim of the study was to assess whether the contamination of oak moss absolute and thus the FM with resin acids had affected their diagnostic value so that they, instead of indicating fragrance allergy, had become indicators of allergy to resin acids and thus colophonium. Two studies were undertaken. First the relationship between patch test reactions to FM, oak moss absolute, both with contents of resin acids, and colophonium were assessed in 885 consecutive patients. A significant relationship between reactions to colophonium and FM was seen (p < 0.001) as well as a significant relationship between oak moss absolute and colophonium (p < 0.001). The relationship between colophonium and FM was still significant when all reactions to oak moss absolute were disregarded (p < 0.001), showing a relationship also between colophonium and fragrance ingredients other than oak moss absolute. Second, 119 consecutive patients were tested with an old and a new version of oak moss absolute containing resin acid (0.05%) and no measurable resin acid, respectively, and with the corresponding FM. No overall difference in reactivity to the old and new version of oak moss absolute/FM was seen. It is concluded the diagnostic value of oak moss absolute as indicator fragrance contact allergy has been and is unaffected by the resin acid contamination.

  6. Methanotrophy Induces Nitrogen Fixation in Boreal Mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiirola, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Many methanotrophic bacterial groups fix nitrogen in laboratory conditions. Furthermore, nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient in many environments where methane concentrations are highest. Despite these facts, methane-induced N fixation has previously been overlooked, possibly due to methodological problems. To study the possible link between methanotrophy and diazotrophy in terrestrial and aquatic habitats, we measured the co-occurrence of these two processes in boreal forest, peatland and stream mosses using a stable isotope labeling approach (15 N2 and 13 CH4 double labeling) and sequencing of the nifH gene marker. N fixation associated with forest mosses was dependent on the annual N deposition, whereas methane stimulate N fixation neither in high (>3 kg N ha -1 yr -1) nor low deposition areas, which was in accordance with the nifH gene sequencing showing that forest mosses (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens ) carried mainly cyanobacterial N fixers. On the other extreme, in stream mosses (Fontinalis sp.) methane was actively oxidized throughout the year, whereas N fixation showed seasonal fluctuation. The co-occurrence of the two processes in single cell level was proven by co-localizing both N and methane-carbon fixation with the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) approach. Methanotrophy and diazotrophy was also studied in peatlands of different primary successional stages in the land-uplift coast of Bothnian Bay, in the Siikajoki chronosequence, where N accumulation rates in peat profiles indicate significant N fixation. Based on experimental evidence it was counted that methane-induced N fixation explained over one-third of the new N input in the younger peatland successional stages, where the highest N fixation rates and highest methane oxidation activities co-occurred in the water-submerged Sphagnum moss vegetation. The linkage between methanotrophic carbon cycling and N fixation may therefore constitute an important mechanism in the rapid

  7. PREFACE: XV Chilean Physics Symposium, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, José; Ávila, Ricardo; Cubillos, Karla

    2008-02-01

    The Chilean Physics Symposium is the main gathering of Physics in Chile, and its organization is one of the central activities of the Chilean Physical Society (Sociedad Chilena de Física, SOCHIFI). The Symposium assembles the largest number of Chilean and foreign physicists resident in the country. Recent advances in the various research areas in Physics are presented, by researchers from Universities and national research centres. At the same time this is an occasion for the participation of Physics students from both the pre- and post-graduate programs. The Symposium has gathered continuously every two years, since 1978. The organization of the XV symposium was in charge of the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, and it took place on 15-17 November 2006, at La Reina Nuclear Studies Centre, in the city of Santiago, Chile. During this symposium the relation of research in Physics with education and with the productive sector in the country was also analysed. During the Symposium, 121 abstracts were submitted, from 255 authors. All authors were invited to submit articles for publication in the Symposium Proceedings. The articles received were reviewed by the Symposium Scientific Committee and by invited peers. The criteria for review focussed on the demand for a consistent piece of research, and a clear statement of results. Most of the articles received report the work of research groups where advanced students and young investigators are prominent. Thanks to their enthusiasm, 52 articles are presented in this issue. We would like to express our appreciation to their authors. Finally, my personal apology is in order regarding my delay in publishing these proceedings. A sequence of personal and professional highly demanding circumstances have been in the way. I would like to thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series for providing very fast publication of the proceedings, having published them online less than 4 weeks after my

  8. Language, Identity, Education, and Transmigration: Chilean Adolescents in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kendall; Ganuza, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    This article examines patterns of national, cultural, and linguistic identification among Chilean-Swedish transmigrant adolescents in and around Stockholm, Sweden. Drawing from ethnographic interviews and observations, analysis focuses on adolescents' (a) views on ethnic and national identity; (b) general perceptions of Chileans and Swedes; and…

  9. Some Thoughts on the Evaluation of the Chilean Voucher System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapelli, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Many papers describe the Chilean voucher system as the "textbook" voucher case. But this is mistaken and has prevented research to undertake the key question of how the particular design of the Chilean voucher system determines the results obtained in Chile. This also prevents discussion of how a voucher system with a different design could lead…

  10. Intra and Inter-Population Morphological Variation of Shape and Size of the Chilean Magnificent Beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis in the Baker River Basin, Chilean Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Benítez, Hugo A.; Briones, Raúl; Jerez, Viviane

    2011-01-01

    The alteration of habitat generates different degrees of stress in insects. It has been suggested that the degrees of phenotypic disturbances reflect the ability of an individual to overcome the effects of stress. The Baker River Basin in the Aysén Region, Chilean Patagonia has a very fragmented landscape, due to the destruction of the native forest and the use of land for agriculture and animal husbandry. This alteration should generate different degrees of disturbances in the insect communities, whose effects may be quantified by geometric morphometric tools. We analyzed morphological differences in 244 males and 133 females of the the Chilean magnificent beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected in January, 2007, in mixed forests of Nothofagus dombeyi Mirbel (Ørsted) (Fagales: Nothofagaceae) and N. nitida Hofmus and in Second-growth forest of N. pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser. Males were generally wider in the pronotum, while females had wider abdominal sternites. Although there were significant differences in shape and size between mature forests and second-growth forest, these were less significant among the sites within each type of vegetal formation. Individuals had more shape variations in the mature forest. We suggest that differences in shape are due at least in part to the isolation of the habitat. The differences found between sexes raises the question of how morphological variations and sexual dimorphism may be affected spatially by natural selection. PMID:21870986

  11. Moss on a Roof, and What Lives in It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbet, Sarah; Lan, Oey Biauw

    1974-01-01

    Based on the assumption that even city dwellers have access to clumps of moss growing on buildings and on pavements, information concerning some of the inhabitants of these mosses and some aspects of the environment in which they live is presented. (PEB)

  12. 78 FR 21930 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 29, 2013, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC filed to revise its Statement of Operating Conditions to modify Sections 3.4.4,...

  13. 76 FR 10581 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 11, 2011, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC filed to revise its Statement of General Terms and Standard Operating Conditions...

  14. Pythium infection activates conserved plant defense responses in mosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The moss Physcomitrella patens (P. patens) is a useful model to study abiotic stress responses since it is highly tolerant to drought, salt and osmotic stress. However, little is known about the defense mechanisms activated in this moss after pathogen assault. Here the induction of defense responses...

  15. Lichen-moss interactions within biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Williams, Laura; Büdel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) create well-known hotspots of microbial activity, being important components of hot and cold arid terrestrial regions. They colonize the uppermost millimeters of the soil, being composed of fungi, (cyano-) bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and archaea in varying proportions. Biocrusts protect the (semi-) arid landscape from wind and water erosion, and also increase water holding capacity and nutrient content. Depending on location and developmental stage, composition and species abundance vary within biocrusts. As species live in close contact, they are expected to influence each other, but only a few interactions between different organisms have so far been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lichen Fulgensia fulgens whilst growing on the moss Trichostomum crispulum. While 77% of Fulgensia fulgens thalli were found growing associated with mosses in a German biocrust, up to 95% of Fulgensia bracteata thalli were moss-associated in a Swedish biocrust. In 49% (Germany) and in 78% (Sweden) of cases, thalli were observed on the moss T. crispulum and less frequently on four and three different moss species. Beneath F. fulgens and F. bracteata thalli, the mosses were dead and in close vicinity to the lichens the mosses appeared frail, bringing us to the assumption that the lichens may release substances harming the moss. We prepared a water extract from the lichen F. fulgens and used this to water the moss thalli (n = 6) on a daily basis over a time-span of three weeks. In a control setup, artificial rainwater was applied to the moss thalli (n = 6). Once a week, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates of the thalli were measured under constant conditions and at the end of the experiment the chlorophyll content of the moss samples was determined. In the course of the experiment net photosynthesis (NP) of the treatment samples decreased concurrently with an increase in dark respiration (DR). The control samples

  16. Monitoring nitrogen accumulation in mosses in central European forests.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Schmidt, Gunther; Genssler, Lutz

    2008-10-01

    In order to assess whether nitrogen (N) loads in mosses reflect different land uses, 143 sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, the Weser-Ems Region and the Euro Region Nissa were sampled between 2000 and 2005. The data were analysed statistically with available surface information on land use and forest conditions. N bioaccumulation in mosses in the Weser-Ems Region with high densities of agricultural land use and livestock exceeded the concentrations in the more industrialised Euro Region Nissa. In all three study areas agricultural and livestock spatial densities were found to be positively correlated with N bioaccumulation in mosses. In North Rhine-Westphalia, the N concentrations in mosses was also moderately correlated with N concentrations in leaves and needles of forest trees. The moss method proved useful to assess the spatial patterns of N bioaccumulation due to land use.

  17. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: a review.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Foan, L; Simon, V; Mills, G

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes.

  18. [Morphogenesis of proximal branch leaves in mosses].

    PubMed

    Ignatov, M S; Spirina, U N

    2012-01-01

    The formation of deeply dissected and compound leaves at the bases of branches, their homology between different groups of mosses, and probable factors responsible for their development are considered. Previous authors differ in the interpretation of such leaves and in most cases describe them as special morphological structures named pseudoparaphyllia. It is shown, however, that this term has been applied both to whole leaves and to separate leaf parts. Among the patterns of leaf formation deviating from the basic type, a special place belongs to the Hampeella variant, where deeply dissected and compound leaves are formed due to the delayed development of branch primordia. The families representing this variant occupy a basal position in the phylogenetic tree of pleurocarpous mosses. The Leucodon variant, where splitting of leaves into lobes is apparently explained by strong stem extension, is not specific for any definite phylogenetic group and manifests itself in different families. The Hypnum variant is also not associated with certain phylogenetic lineages, but it provides an example of more profound specialization.

  19. Is the Chilean diet a Mediterranean-type diet?

    PubMed

    Rozowski, Jaime; Castillo, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece), both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet.

  20. [CO2-gas exchange of mosses following water vapour uptake].

    PubMed

    Lange, O L

    1969-03-01

    The CO2-gas exchange of dry mosses which were exposed to air of high water vapour content has been followed. Some moss species behave as do lichens and aerophilic green algae: they are able to take up enough water vapour to make a rather high photosynthetic activity possible. Other species lack this ability. They need liquid water for reactivation of photosynthesis, as do poikilohydric ferns and phanerogams. In this respect too the mosses are located between the real thallophytes and the cormophytes. From this point of view they are useful objects for studying the relationships between water vapour reactivation, morphological organisation and ecological capability.

  1. [CO2-gas exchange of mosses following water vapour uptake].

    PubMed

    Lange, O L

    1969-03-01

    The CO2-gas exchange of dry mosses which were exposed to air of high water vapour content has been followed. Some moss species behave as do lichens and aerophilic green algae: they are able to take up enough water vapour to make a rather high photosynthetic activity possible. Other species lack this ability. They need liquid water for reactivation of photosynthesis, as do poikilohydric ferns and phanerogams. In this respect too the mosses are located between the real thallophytes and the cormophytes. From this point of view they are useful objects for studying the relationships between water vapour reactivation, morphological organisation and ecological capability. PMID:24504355

  2. Evaporation Dynamics of Moss and Bare Soil in Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, S.; Young, J. M.; Barron, C. G.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Evaporation dynamics of mosses is a critical process in boreal and arctic systems and represents a key uncertainty in hydrology and climate models. At this point, moss evaporation is not well quantified at the plot or landscape scale. Relative to bare soil or litter evaporation, moss evaporation can be challenging to predict because the water flux is not isolated to the moss surface. Evaporation can originate from nearly 10 cm below the surface. Some mosses can wick moisture from even deeper than 10 cm, which subsequently evaporates. The goal of this study was to use field measurements to quantify the moss evaporation dynamics in a coniferous forest relative to bare ground or litter evaporation dynamics in a deciduous forest in Interior Alaska. Measurements were made in two ecosystem types within the boreal forest of Interior Alaska: a deciduous forest devoid of moss and a coniferous forest with a thick moss layer. A small clear chamber was attached to a LiCor 840 infrared gas analyzer in a closed loop system with a low flow rate. Water fluxes were measured for ~ 90 seconds on each plot in dry and wet soil and moss conditions. Additional measurements included: soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, barometric pressure, dew point, relative humidity, and wind speed. Thermal infrared images were also captured in congruence with water flux measurements to determine skin temperature. We found that the moss evaporation rate was over 100% greater than the soil evaporation rate (0.057 g/min vs. 0.024 g/min), and evaporation rates in both systems were most strongly driven by relative humidity and surface temperature. Surface temperature was lower at the birch site than the black spruce site because trees shade the surface beneath the birch. High fluxes associated with high water content were sustained for a longer period of time over the mosses compared to the bare soil. The thermal IR data showed that skin temperature lagged the evaporation flux, such that the

  3. New moss species with gravitropic protonemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobachevska, O. V.

    Gravitropism of 30 moss species was analysed at different stages of development: germination of spores, protonemata, gametophore and sporophyte formation. Spores were sowed in sterile conditions from the closed capsules on 1 % bactoagar with 0,2 % glucose and cultivated in the dark in vertically oriented petri dishes. In the same conditions fragments of protonemata and gametophores were grown being transferred aseptically from sterile cultures of spores germinated in controled light conditions. To assess gravity sensitivity the dishes were kept upright for 7 10 days in darkness and then 90o turned. After 20 h gravistimulation the angles of apical cell gravity bending were determined. The amount of amyloplasts and their distribution during growth and spatial reorientation of sporophytes selected from nature samples on different stages of species-specific capsule formation were analyzed after JK2J staining. The gravitropic sensing was established in 7 new moss species only. The general traits of all such species were the ark-like cygneous seta bending and inclined, to pendulous, capsules. JK2J staining of young isolated sporophytes has shown, that twisting and bending of seta as well as the spatial capsule reorientation result from the changes of distribution of amyloplasts in the direction of gravitropic growth or caused by their lateral sedimentation. In the dark protonemata of investigated mosses grew upwards on agar surface giving rise to bundles of negatively gravitropic stolons in 7-10 days. During germination at first negatively gravitropic primary chloronema and then positively gravitropic primary rizoid appeared. In 3 days, however, the growth of all primary filaments was negatively gravitropic. In Dicranella cerviculata majority of primary filaments were negatively gravitropic from the very beginning. After 20 h gravistimulation of protonemata of different moss species the following mean values of gravity bending (degrees) were established: Leptobryum

  4. Comparison of heavy metal immobilization in contaminated soils amended with peat moss and peat moss-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Seul-Ji; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Chung, Jae Woo

    2016-04-01

    There have been contradictory viewpoints whether soil amendments immobilize or mobilize heavy metals. Therefore, this study evaluated the mobility and bioavailability of Pb, Cu, and Cd in contaminated soil (1218 mg Pb per kg, 63.2 mg Cu per kg, 2.8 mg Cd per kg) amended with peat moss (0.22, 0.43, and 1.29% carbon ratio) and peat moss-derived biochar (0.38, 0.75, and 2.26% carbon ratio) at 0.5, 1, 3% levels. The more peat moss added, the stronger both mobility and bioavailability of Pb, Cu, and Cd would be. In contrast, the addition of peat moss-derived biochar significantly reduced both mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals through the coordination of metal electrons to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C (π-electron) bonds and increased pH. Maximum immobilization was observed in 3% peat moss-derived biochar treatment after 10 days of incubation, which was measured at 97.8%, 100%, and 77.2% for Pb, Cu, and Cd, respectively. Since peat moss and peat moss-derived biochar showed conflicting effectiveness in mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals, soil amendments should be carefully applied to soils for remediation purposes.

  5. Comparison of heavy metal immobilization in contaminated soils amended with peat moss and peat moss-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Seul-Ji; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Chung, Jae Woo

    2016-04-01

    There have been contradictory viewpoints whether soil amendments immobilize or mobilize heavy metals. Therefore, this study evaluated the mobility and bioavailability of Pb, Cu, and Cd in contaminated soil (1218 mg Pb per kg, 63.2 mg Cu per kg, 2.8 mg Cd per kg) amended with peat moss (0.22, 0.43, and 1.29% carbon ratio) and peat moss-derived biochar (0.38, 0.75, and 2.26% carbon ratio) at 0.5, 1, 3% levels. The more peat moss added, the stronger both mobility and bioavailability of Pb, Cu, and Cd would be. In contrast, the addition of peat moss-derived biochar significantly reduced both mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals through the coordination of metal electrons to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C (π-electron) bonds and increased pH. Maximum immobilization was observed in 3% peat moss-derived biochar treatment after 10 days of incubation, which was measured at 97.8%, 100%, and 77.2% for Pb, Cu, and Cd, respectively. Since peat moss and peat moss-derived biochar showed conflicting effectiveness in mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals, soil amendments should be carefully applied to soils for remediation purposes. PMID:27055368

  6. Post-Fire Moss Recovery in Northern Peatlands: Separating the Effects of Species and Water Content on Moss Water Repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Paul; Lukenbach, Max; Waddington, James Michael

    2016-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, where northern peat reserves are becoming increasingly vulnerable to wildfire as climate change is projected to enhance the length and severity of the fire season. However, little is known about the spatio-temporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e., Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands has been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate effects of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a drying experiment in the lab where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes as well as for unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ~3 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by combustion. Based on field GWC, we show that there are significant differences in the frequency distribution of near-surface GWC between moss type and burn severity. The differences in the distributions of field GWC are related to characteristic moisture retention curves of unburned samples measured in the lab, as well as morphological differences between moss type.

  7. 'NASA Helps Chilean Miners' Tops This Week @NASA

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA experts journeyed to Chile to assist the Chilean government on everything from what the trapped miners should eat and drink to how they could best adapt to their cramped, prolonged confinement...

  8. Nutrition education in Chilean primary schools.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Sonia; Zacarías, Isabel; Andrade, Margarita; Kain, Juliana; Lera, Lydia; Vio, Fernando; Morón, Cecilio

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to incorporate nutrition education in Chilean primary schools. The baseline information included nutritional status, food consumption and physical activity of 1701 children from 3rd to 7th grade in ten urban and rural schools. Main results showed a high prevalence of obesity (15.4%) and overweight (19.6%), low consumption of vegetables, fruits, and dairy products, high intake of snacks and a low level of physical activity, especially in girls. Because the Ministry of Education does not allow the incorporation of new programs into the curriculum, the educational strategy was based on the development of a text book, a teacher's guide, five practical guides for students from third to eighth grade and a CD-Rom. These materials were validated by 36 teachers in six schools through an educational intervention. Teachers and students considered the educational materials useful, motivational and easy to understand. This program is being implemented in 57 schools.

  9. The use of mosses as environmental metal pollution indicators.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Abollino, Ornella; Conca, Raffaele; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo; Sarzanini, Corrado

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of using mosses as environmental indicators of metal pollution has been investigated. Mosses of the species Bryum argenteum were collected from different parts of Piedmont (Italy), ranging from highly polluted areas to nearly uncontaminated mountain areas. Periodical samplings were planned in every site on a monthly base, in order to check variations of metal uptake throughout one year; correlations with pluviometric and thermal patterns were investigated for all sampling stations. On every moss sample 20 elements, ranging from major (K, P, Al, Ca, Fe and Mg) to minor (Mn, Na, Ti and Zn) and trace (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb and Sr), were quantitatively determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry or graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry, depending on the needed sensitivity. Statistical analyses, carried out with principal component analysis and cluster analysis methods, revealed that a good correlation exists between metal content in mosses and pollution degree in the areas sampled.

  10. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting boreal peatlands, however, little is known about the controls on post-fire peatland vegetation recovery. While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce post-fire moss water availability, high water table (WT) positions following wildfire are also critical to enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Thus, post-fire moss water availability is also likely a function of landscape-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands in Alberta's Boreal Plains. At all sites, variation in burn severity resulted in a dichotomy between post-fire surface covers that: (1) exhibited low water availability, regardless of WT position, and had minimal (<5%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned feather mosses and severely burned Sphagnum fuscum) or (2) exhibited high water availability, depending on WT position, and had substantial (>50%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned S. fuscum and where depth of burn was >0.05 m). Notably, hydrogeological setting influenced the spatial coverage of these post-fire surface covers by influencing pre-fire WTs and stand characteristics (e.g., shading). Because feather moss cover is controlled by tree shading, lightly burned feather mosses were ubiquitous (>25%) in drier peatlands (deeper pre-fire WTs) that were densely treed and had little connection to large groundwater flow systems. Moreover, hydrogeological setting also controlled post-fire WT positions, thereby affecting moss re-establishment in post-fire surface covers that were dependent on WT position (e.g., lightly burned S. fuscum). Accordingly, higher recolonization rates were observed in a peatland located in a groundwater flow through

  11. Moss tested to remove manganese from mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    Work at Pennsylvania State University on the treatment of acid mine drainage for the removal of Mn and Fe is reported. The project involves the use of sphagnum moss in settling ponds: this has been shown to be particularly effective in Mn removal. It is suggested that the method may be particularly helpful to small US mine operators who are finding the cost of chemical treatment to comply with Mn discharge limits prohibitive. Field trials of the moss treatment are planned.

  12. Differentiation and Tropisms in Space-Grown Moss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Fred D.; Kern, Volker

    1999-01-01

    This grant supported a Space Shuttle experiment on the effects of microgravity on moss cells. Moss provides a rich system for gravitational and spaceflight research. The early phase of the moss life cycle consists of chains of cells that only grow only at their tips. In the moss Ceratodon purpureus these filaments (protonemata) grow away from gravity in the dark, in a process called gravitropism. The tipmost cells, the apical cells, contain heavy starch-filled bodies called amyloplasts that probably function in g-sensing and that sediment within the apical cell. The SPM-A (Space Moss aka SPAM) experiment flew in November - December, 1997 on STS-87 as part of the Collaborative US Ukrainian Experiment (CLTE). The experiment was accommodated in hardware purpose-built by NASA KSC and Bionetics and included Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU) and BRIC-LEDs. Together, this hardware allowed for the culture of the moss on agar in commercial petri dishes, for unilateral illumination with red light of varying intensity, and for chemical fixation in situ. The key findings of the spaceflight were quite unexpected. Neither the orientation of tip-growth nor the distribution of amyloplasts was random in microgravity.

  13. Moss-made pharmaceuticals: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Reski, Ralf; Parsons, Juliana; Decker, Eva L

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, the moss Physcomitrella patens has been developed from scratch to a model species in basic research and in biotechnology. A fully sequenced genome, outstanding possibilities for precise genome-engineering via homologous recombination (knockout moss), a certified GMP production in moss bioreactors, successful upscaling to 500 L wave reactors, excellent homogeneity of protein glycosylation, remarkable batch-to-batch stability and a safe cryopreservation for master cell banking are some of the key features of the moss system. Several human proteins are being produced in this system as potential biopharmaceuticals. Among the products are tumour-directed monoclonal antibodies with enhanced antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), complement factor H (FH), keratinocyte growth factor (FGF7/KGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), asialo-erythropoietin (asialo-EPO, AEPO), alpha-galactosidase (aGal) and beta-glucocerebrosidase (GBA). Further, an Env-derived multi-epitope HIV protein as a candidate vaccine was produced, and first steps for a metabolic engineering of P. patens have been made. Some of the recombinant biopharmaceuticals from moss bioreactors are not only similar to those produced in mammalian systems such as CHO cells, but are of superior quality (biobetters). The first moss-made pharmaceutical, aGal to treat Morbus Fabry, is in clinical trials.

  14. [Distribution patterns of moss species in Shanghai city].

    PubMed

    Cao, Tong; Chen, Yi; Yu, Jing; Song, Guoyuan

    2004-10-01

    The mosses on the floor of 22 sites at 20 main parks and 2 chemical plants in Shanghai city were investigated and sampled. Based on 75 recorded moss species and their coverage, Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) were used to analyze their distribution patterns. The results showed that the study sites could be identified as three groups. Group 1 included two chemical plants and two parks at the center of the city, with 23 moss species and the smallest total coverage of 21.29%; group 2 included part of the parks at the center of the city and surrounding areas, with 44 moss species and total coverage of 37.94%; and group 3 mainly included the parks at surrounding areas and suburbs of the city, with 49 moss species and total coverage of 49.66%. The results reflected a certain correlation of the distribution of moss species with different habitats and polluted and disturbed environments in the city.

  15. Spatial analysis and indicator building for metal accumulation in mosses.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland

    2004-11-01

    Mosses are used as passive accumulation monitors for metal accumulation in terrestrial ecosystems. Under leadership of the Federal Agency for Environmental Protection Germany took part in the previous European-wide moss monitoring campaigns 1990, 1995 and 2000. The investigations accomplished thereby cannot be presented completely in this article. The remarks rather concentrate on methodical aspects of the statistical data analysis. In Chapter 2 the design of data collection is summarized. Chapter 3 treats the geostatistical analysis and transformation of point data to areal information. Chapter 4 describes the aggregation of the element-specific metal concentrations in mosses to a spatially and temporally differentiated indicator of metal accumulation by means of descriptive and multivariate statistics. The work presented is only a small part of geostatistics and multivariate statistics which fit for analysis of moss monitoring data. Taking the results presented here as a basis, the following steps would further be of great importance: cluster-analytic evaluation of the results of the Moss Monitoring 1990 and 1995, detailing the cluster results using additional empirical and location describing information (e.g. moss species, ecoregions, site and species specific variability of metal accumulation) as well as optimizing the indicator buildung by testing of multivariate statistical regression models (e.g. Classification and Regression Trees). PMID:15473533

  16. Freeze avoidance: a dehydrating moss gathers no ice.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Thomas; Bryant, Gary; Hocart, Charles H; Huang, Cheng X; Ball, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    Using cryo-SEM with EDX fundamental structural and mechanical properties of the moss Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. were studied in relation to tolerance of freezing temperatures. In contrast to more complex plants, no ice accumulated within the moss during the freezing event. External ice induced desiccation with the response being a function of cell type; water-filled hydroid cells cavitated and were embolized at -4 °C while parenchyma cells of the inner cortex exhibited cytorrhysis, decreasing to ∼ 20% of their original volume at a nadir temperature of -20 °C. Chlorophyll fluorescence showed that these winter acclimated mosses displayed no evidence of damage after thawing from -20 °C while GCMS showed that sugar concentrations were not sufficient to confer this level of freezing tolerance. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry showed internal ice nucleation occurred in hydrated moss at ∼-12 °C while desiccated moss showed no evidence of freezing with lowering of nadir temperature to -20 °C. Therefore the rapid dehydration of the moss provides an elegantly simple solution to the problem of freezing; remove that which freezes. PMID:20525002

  17. Heterologous stable expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes using the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Bach, Søren Spanner; King, Brian Christopher; Zhan, Xin; Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Hamberger, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Heterologous and stable expression of genes encoding terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes in planta is an important tool for functional characterization and is an attractive alternative to expression in microbial hosts for biotechnological production. Despite improvements to the procedure, such as streamlining of large scale Agrobacterium infiltration and upregulation of the upstream pathways, transient in planta heterologous expression quickly reaches limitations when used for production of terpenoids. Stable integration of transgenes into the nuclear genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens has already been widely recognized as a viable alternative for industrial-scale production of biopharmaceuticals. For expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes, and reconstruction of heterologous pathways, Physcomitrella has unique attributes that makes it a very promising biotechnological host. These features include a high native tolerance to terpenoids, a simple endogenous terpenoid profile, convenient genome editing using homologous recombination, and cultivation techniques that allow up-scaling from single cells in microtiter plates to industrial photo-bioreactors. Beyond its use for functional characterization of terpenoid biosynthetic genes, engineered Physcomitrella can be a green biotechnological platform for production of terpenoids. Here, we describe two complementary and simple procedures for stable nuclear transformation of Physcomitrella with terpenoid biosynthetic genes, selection and cultivation of transgenic lines, and metabolite analysis of terpenoids produced in transgenic moss lines. We also provide tools for metabolic engineering through genome editing using homologous recombination. PMID:24777804

  18. Heterologous stable expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes using the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Bach, Søren Spanner; King, Brian Christopher; Zhan, Xin; Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Hamberger, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Heterologous and stable expression of genes encoding terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes in planta is an important tool for functional characterization and is an attractive alternative to expression in microbial hosts for biotechnological production. Despite improvements to the procedure, such as streamlining of large scale Agrobacterium infiltration and upregulation of the upstream pathways, transient in planta heterologous expression quickly reaches limitations when used for production of terpenoids. Stable integration of transgenes into the nuclear genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens has already been widely recognized as a viable alternative for industrial-scale production of biopharmaceuticals. For expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes, and reconstruction of heterologous pathways, Physcomitrella has unique attributes that makes it a very promising biotechnological host. These features include a high native tolerance to terpenoids, a simple endogenous terpenoid profile, convenient genome editing using homologous recombination, and cultivation techniques that allow up-scaling from single cells in microtiter plates to industrial photo-bioreactors. Beyond its use for functional characterization of terpenoid biosynthetic genes, engineered Physcomitrella can be a green biotechnological platform for production of terpenoids. Here, we describe two complementary and simple procedures for stable nuclear transformation of Physcomitrella with terpenoid biosynthetic genes, selection and cultivation of transgenic lines, and metabolite analysis of terpenoids produced in transgenic moss lines. We also provide tools for metabolic engineering through genome editing using homologous recombination.

  19. The Complete Moss Mitochondrial Genome in the Angiosperm Amborella Is a Chimera Derived from Two Moss Whole-Genome Transfers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Z Nathan; Rice, Danny W; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of the 4-Mb mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Amborella trichopoda has shown that it contains unprecedented amounts of foreign mitochondrial DNA, including four blocks of sequences that together correspond almost perfectly to one entire moss mitochondrial genome. This implies whole-genome transfer from a single moss donor but conflicts with phylogenetic results from an earlier, PCR-based study that suggested three different moss donors to Amborella. To resolve this conflict, we conducted an expanded set of phylogenetic analyses with respect to both moss lineages and mitochondrial loci. The moss DNA in Amborella was consistently placed in either of two positions, depending on the locus analyzed, as sister to the Ptychomniales or within the Hookeriales. This agrees with two of the three previously suggested donors, whereas the third is no longer supported. These results, combined with synteny analyses and other considerations, lead us to favor a model involving two successive moss-to-Amborella whole-genome transfers, followed by recombination that produced a single intact and chimeric moss mitochondrial genome integrated in the Amborella mitochondrial genome. Eight subsequent recombination events account for the state of fragmentation, rearrangement, duplication, and deletion of this chimeric moss mitochondrial genome as it currently exists in Amborella. Five of these events are associated with short-to-intermediate sized repeats. Two of the five probably occurred by reciprocal homologous recombination, whereas the other three probably occurred in a non-reciprocal manner via microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR). These findings reinforce and extend recent evidence for an important role of MMBIR in plant mitochondrial DNA evolution.

  20. Interaction of metal ions with acid sites of biosorbents peat moss and Vaucheria and model substances alginic and humic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, R.H.; Martin, J.R.; Crist, D.R.

    1999-07-01

    The interaction between added metal ions and acid sites of two biosorbents, peat moss and the alga Vaucheria, was studied. Results were interpreted in terms of two model substances, alginic acid, a copolymer of guluronic and mannuronic acids present in marine algae, and humic acid in peat moss. For peat moss and Vaucheria at pH 4--6, two protons were displaced per Cd sorbed, after correction for sorbed metals also displaced by the heavy metal. The frequent neglect of exchange of heavy metals for metals either sorbed on the native material or added for pH adjustment leads to erroneous conclusions about proton displacement stoichiometry. Proton displacement constants K{sub ex}{sup H} decreased logarithmically with pH and had similar slopes for alginic acid and biosorbents. This pH effect was interpreted as an electrostatic effect of increasing anionic charge making proton removal less favorable. The maximum number of exchangeable acid sites (capacity C{sub H}) decreased with pH for alginic acid but increased with pH for biosorbents. Consistent with titration behavior, this difference was explained in terms of more weak acid sites in the biosorbents.

  1. Native Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Amid concerns from tribal leaders that No Child Left Behind testing is squeezing out electives that have traditionally covered their history and cultures, an ambitious brace of programs is making Native America part of the core curriculum at David Wolfle Elementary School and other schools in the western Washington State. By tapping into…

  2. Results of Chilean water markets: Empirical research since 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Carl J.

    2004-09-01

    Chile's free-market Water Code turned 20 years old in October 2001. This anniversary was an important milestone for both Chilean and international debates about water policy because Chile has become the world's leading example of the free-market approach to water law and water resources management, the textbook case of treating water rights not merely as private property but also as a fully marketable commodity. The predominant view outside of Chile is that Chilean water markets and the Chilean model of water management have been a success, and this perception has encouraged other countries to follow Chile's lead in water law reform. Much of the debate about Chilean water markets, however, has been based more on theoretical or political beliefs than on empirical study. This paper reverses that emphasis by reviewing the evolution of empirical research about these markets since 1990, when Chile returned to democratic government after 16 years of military rule. During the period since 1990, understanding of how Chilean water markets have worked in practice has gradually improved. There have been two major trends in this research: first, a gradual shift from exaggerated claims of the markets' success toward more balanced assessments of mixed results and, second, a heavy emphasis on the economics of water rights trading with very little attention given to the Water Code's impacts on social equity, river basin management, environmental protection, or resolution of water conflicts. The analysis in this study is qualitative and interdisciplinary, combining law, economics, and institutions.

  3. Metal adsorption on mosses: Toward a universal adsorption model.

    PubMed

    González, A G; Pokrovsky, O S

    2014-02-01

    This study quantifies the adsorption of heavy metals on 4 typical moss species used for environmental monitoring in the moss bag technique. The adsorption of Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) onto Hypnum sp., Sphagnum sp., Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachytecium rutabulum has been investigated using a batch reactor in a wide range of pH (1.3-11.0) and metal concentrations in solution (1.6μM-3.8mM). A Linear Programming Model (LPM) was applied for the experimental data to derive equilibrium constants and the number of surface binding sites. The surface acid-base titration performed for 4 mosses at a pH range of 3-10 in 0.1M NaNO3 demonstrated that Sphagnum sp. is the most efficient adsorbent as it has the maximal number of proton-binding sites on the surface (0.65mmol g(-1)). The pKa computed for all the moss species suggested the presence of 5 major functional groups: phosphodiester, carboxyl, phosphoryl, amine and polyphenols. The results of pH-edge experiments demonstrated that B. rutabulum exhibits the highest percentage of metal adsorption and has the highest number of available sites for most of the metals studied. However, according to the results of the constant pH "Langmuirian" isotherm, Sphagnum sp. can be considered as the strongest adsorbent, although the relative difference from other mosses is within 20%. The LPM was found to satisfactorily fit the experimental data in the full range of the studied solution parameters. The results of this study demonstrate a rather similar pattern of five metal adsorptions on mosses, both as a function of pH and as a metal concentration, which is further corroborated by similar values of adsorption constants. Therefore, despite the species and geographic differences between the mosses, a universal adsorption edge and constant pH adsorption isotherm can be recommended for 4 studied mosses. The quantitative comparison of metal adsorption with other common natural organic and inorganic materials demonstrates

  4. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution.

    PubMed

    Debén, S; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A; Aboal, J R

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p < 0.01) than the oven-drying treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum. PMID:26803787

  5. Moisture content measurements of moss (Sphagnum spp.) using commercial sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshikawa, K.; Overduin, P.P.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Sphagnum (spp.) is widely distributed in permafrost regions around the arctic and subarctic. The moisture content of the moss layer affects the thermal insulative capacity and preservation of permafrost. It also controls the growth and collapse history of palsas and other peat mounds, and is relevant, in general terms, to permafrost thaw (thermokarst). In this study, we test and calibrate seven different soil moisture sensors for measuring the moisture content of Sphagnum moss under laboratory conditions. The soil volume to which each probe is sensitive is one of the important parameters influencing moisture measurement, particularly in a heterogeneous medium such as moss. Each sensor has a unique response to changing moisture content levels, solution salinity, moss bulk density and to the orientation (structure) of the Sphagnum relative to the sensor. All of the probes examined here require unique polynomial calibration equations to obtain moisture content from probe output. We provide polynomial equations for dead and live Sphagnum moss (R2 > 0.99. Copyright ?? 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Surrogates for macrofungi and mosses in reservation planning.

    PubMed

    McMullan-Fisher, Sapphire J M; Kirkpatrick, Jamie B; May, Tom W; Pharo, Emma J

    2010-06-01

    Our knowledge of cryptogam taxonomy and species distributions is currently too poor to directly plan for their conservation. We used inventory data from four distinct vegetation types, near Hobart Tasmania, to address the proposition that vegetation type, vascular plant taxon composition, and environmental variables can act as surrogates for mosses and macrofungi in reservation planning. The four vegetation types proved distinct in their taxon composition for all macrofungi, mosses, and vascular plants. We tested the strength of the relationships between the composition of cryptogam taxonomic groups and vascular plant composition and between the environmental variables and canopy cover. Taxon composition of woody vascular plants and vascular plants was the best predictor of the taxon composition of mosses and macrofungi. Combinations of environmental variables and canopy cover were also strong predictors of the taxon composition of mosses and macrofungi. We used an optimization routine for vascular plant taxa and woody plant species and determined the representation of cryptogam taxa in these selections. We identified sites with approximately 10% and 30% of the greatest proportions of vascular plants and woody vascular plants and calculated representation of mosses and macrofungi at these sites. We compared the results of these site selections with random site selections and random selections stratified by vegetation type. Random selection of sites by vegetation type generally captured more cryptogams than site selection by vascular plants at the 10% level. Vascular plant and woody plant taxon composition, vegetation type, and environmental and structural characteristics, all showed promise as surrogates for capturing common cryptogams in reserve systems.

  7. Cloning and characterization of micro-RNAs from moss.

    PubMed

    Arazi, Tzahi; Talmor-Neiman, Mali; Stav, Ran; Riese, Maike; Huijser, Peter; Baulcombe, David C

    2005-09-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are one class of endogenous tiny RNAs that play important regulatory roles in plant development and responses to external stimuli. To date, miRNAs have been cloned from higher plants such as Arabidopsis, rice and pumpkin, and there is limited information on their identity in lower plants including Bryophytes. Bryophytes are among the oldest groups of land plants among the earth's flora, and are important for our understanding of the transition to life on land. To identify miRNAs that might have played a role early in land plant evolution, we constructed a library of small RNAs from the juvenile gametophyte (protonema) of the moss Physcomitrella patens. Sequence analysis revealed five higher plant miRNA homologues, including three members of the miR319 family, previously shown to be involved in the regulation of leaf morphogenesis, and miR156, which has been suggested to regulate several members of the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE (SPL) family in Arabidopsis. We have cloned PpSBP3, a moss SPL homologue that contains an miR156 complementary site, and demonstrated that its mRNA is cleaved within that site suggesting that it is an miR156 target in moss. Six additional candidate moss miRNAs were identified and shown to be expressed in the gametophyte, some of which were developmentally regulated or upregulated by auxin. Our observations suggest that miRNAs play important regulatory roles in mosses. PMID:16146523

  8. Native Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benningfield, Damond

    2001-03-01

    People native to North America practiced their own version of astronomy. They tracked the motions of the Sun to help them decide when to plant crops, move their camps, and stage sacred rituals. Some tribes built great circles of stones to help them predict the changing seasons. Others built great mounds of earth to reflect the patterns they saw in the heavens and to align their ceremonial centers with the Sun and the Moon.

  9. Culturable bacteria in hydroponic cultures of moss Racomitrium japonicum and their potential as biofertilizers for moss production.

    PubMed

    Tani, Akio; Akita, Motomu; Murase, Haruhiko; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2011-07-01

    The use of Racomitrium japonicum, a drought resistant bryophyte used for roof-greening, is gradually increasing. However, its utilization is hampered by slow growth rate. Here we isolated culturable bacteria from hydroponic cultivation samples to identify isolates that could promote moss growth. Most of the isolates belonged to Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Duganella species. The isolates were biochemically characterized according to their type of interaction with plants, i.e., production of auxin, siderophores, or hydrogen cyanate, growth in the absence of an added nitrogen source, calcium phosphate solubilization, utilization of sugars, polymers, or aliphatic compounds, and antifungal activity. The isolates were applied to sterile protonemata and non-sterile adult gametophytes of R. japonicum to evaluate their effect on plant growth. Furthermore, we isolated fungi that inhibited moss growth. Our results suggest that the microbial community structure in hydroponic cultures is important to stabilize moss production and the isolates that promote moss growth have potential to be utilized as biofertilizers for moss production.

  10. Culturable bacteria in hydroponic cultures of moss Racomitrium japonicum and their potential as biofertilizers for moss production.

    PubMed

    Tani, Akio; Akita, Motomu; Murase, Haruhiko; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2011-07-01

    The use of Racomitrium japonicum, a drought resistant bryophyte used for roof-greening, is gradually increasing. However, its utilization is hampered by slow growth rate. Here we isolated culturable bacteria from hydroponic cultivation samples to identify isolates that could promote moss growth. Most of the isolates belonged to Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Duganella species. The isolates were biochemically characterized according to their type of interaction with plants, i.e., production of auxin, siderophores, or hydrogen cyanate, growth in the absence of an added nitrogen source, calcium phosphate solubilization, utilization of sugars, polymers, or aliphatic compounds, and antifungal activity. The isolates were applied to sterile protonemata and non-sterile adult gametophytes of R. japonicum to evaluate their effect on plant growth. Furthermore, we isolated fungi that inhibited moss growth. Our results suggest that the microbial community structure in hydroponic cultures is important to stabilize moss production and the isolates that promote moss growth have potential to be utilized as biofertilizers for moss production. PMID:21498111

  11. The nature of moss and lower atmospheric seismology.

    PubMed

    De Pontieu, B; Erdélyi, R

    2006-02-15

    The discovery of so-called solar 'moss', i.e. dynamic and bright upper transition region emission at chromospheric heights above active region plage, provides a novel diagnostic to probe the structure, dynamics, energetics and coupling of the magnetized solar chromosphere and transition region. We briefly review observations of the morphology and connectivity in the low solar atmosphere, with a particular focus on the propagation of oscillations and waves in the moss. We also present recent work that combines moss observations and numerical modelling, and which sheds light on the (quasi-periodic) formation of dynamic jets (spicules), and the propagation of normally evanescent oscillations into the corona. We also briefly explore how coronal oscillations could be exploited to determine the connectivity between photosphere and corona, i.e. perform seismology of the lower solar atmosphere. PMID:16414885

  12. The nature of moss and lower atmospheric seismology.

    PubMed

    De Pontieu, B; Erdélyi, R

    2006-02-15

    The discovery of so-called solar 'moss', i.e. dynamic and bright upper transition region emission at chromospheric heights above active region plage, provides a novel diagnostic to probe the structure, dynamics, energetics and coupling of the magnetized solar chromosphere and transition region. We briefly review observations of the morphology and connectivity in the low solar atmosphere, with a particular focus on the propagation of oscillations and waves in the moss. We also present recent work that combines moss observations and numerical modelling, and which sheds light on the (quasi-periodic) formation of dynamic jets (spicules), and the propagation of normally evanescent oscillations into the corona. We also briefly explore how coronal oscillations could be exploited to determine the connectivity between photosphere and corona, i.e. perform seismology of the lower solar atmosphere.

  13. Chilean Virtual Observatory services implementation for the ALMA public data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antognini, Jonathan; Solar, Mauricio; Ibsen, Jorge; Araya, Mauricio; Nyman, Lars; Mardones, Diego; Valenzuela, Camilo; Ramirez, Patricio; Fernandez, Christopher; Garces, Mario

    2014-07-01

    The success of an observatory is usually measured by its impact in the scientific community, so a common objective is to provide transparent ways to access the generated data. The Chilean Virtual Observatory (ChiVO), started working in the implementation of a prototype, in collaboration with ALMA, considering the current needs of the Chilean astronomical community, in addition to the protocols and standards of IVOA, and the comparison of different existing data access toolkit services. Based on this efforts, a VO prototype was designed and implemented for the ALMA large scale of data.

  14. 76 FR 79066 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Escatawpa River, Moss Point, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Escatawpa River, Moss Point, MS... of the Mississippi Export Railroad Company swing bridge across the Escatawpa River, mile 3.0, at Moss... operating schedule for the swing span bridge across Escatawpa River, mile 3.0, at Moss Point, Jackson...

  15. Epiphytic Moss as a Biomonitor for Nitrogen Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, T.; Deakova, T.; Shortlidge, E.; Rao, M.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Rice, A. L.; George, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tracking nitrogen (N) deposition patterns is important for understanding how anthropogenic sources of nitrogen affect natural habitats, human health, and for evaluating computer models of future N deposition. It can also aid in tracking and modeling anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions. This pilot study investigated the use of Orthotrichum lyellii, a common urban epiphytic moss, as a possible bioindicator for N deposition through the analysis of total moss N content and N isotopic fractionation ( δ15N) for evaluating N sources. In the spring/summer of 2013 we collected 168 O. lyellii samples from the trunks of deciduous trees in 53 locations in the Portland metropolitan area. In the winter of 2013-14, we resampled the same locations to investigate the effect of seasonality. The averaged summer moss N content were plotted against a land use regression model (LUR) developed by taking NOx samples from 144 sites in the Portland area within the Urban Growth Boundary. The correlation between moss N and modeled NO2 was found to be significant at p < 0.001, r=0.625. Summer moss samples N content ranged between 0.71% and 3.36% (mean of 1.87%), the δ15N ranged -8.97‰ and 11.78‰ (mean of -0.91‰). Moss winter N content ranged between .77% and 3.12% (mean of 1.71%), and the δ15N ranged -10.40‰ and 10.27‰ (mean of -3.73‰). The average values for %N and δ15N fall within the range of previous studies in other moss samples, however the maximum values are higher than what other studies have typically found for both %N and δ15N. A significant correlation between δ15N and %N was found (r = 0.67). The moss samples showed a similar pattern of higher N content and δ15N near the urban center decreasing with distance from major roadways and other significant sources of fossil fuel derived NOx. These results indicated the sensitivity of O.lyellii to N and the potential for its use as a biomonitor. With sufficient sampling density, using O. lyellii as an inexpensive

  16. Unmanned aerial optical systems for spatial monitoring of Antarctic mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony; Malenovsky, Zbynek; Harwin, Stephen; Wallace, Luke; Kelcey, Josh; Robinson, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    The Antarctic continent has experienced major changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone levels during the last 50 years. In a manner similar to tree rings, old growth shoots of Antarctic mosses, the only plants on the continent, also preserve a climate record of their surrounding environment. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Spatially extensive ground sampling of mosses is laborious and time limited due to the short Antarctic growing season. Obviously, there is a need for an efficient method to monitor spatially climate change induced stress of the Antarctic moss flora. Cloudy weather and high spatial fragmentation of the moss turfs makes satellite imagery unsuitable for this task. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS), flying at low altitudes and collecting image data even under a full overcast, can, however, overcome the insufficiency of satellite remote sensing. We, therefore, developed scientific UAS, consisting of a remote-controlled micro-copter carrying on-board different remote sensing optical sensors, tailored to perform fast and cost-effective mapping of Antarctic flora at ultra-high spatial resolution (1-10 cm depending on flight altitude). A single lens reflex (SLR) camera carried by UAS acquires multi-view aerial photography, which processed by the Structure from Motion computer vision algorithm provides an accurate three-dimensional digital surface model (DSM) at ultra-high spatial resolution. DSM is the key input parameter for modelling a local seasonal snowmelt run-off, which provides mosses with the vital water supply. A lightweight multispectral camera on-board of UVS is collecting images of six selected spectral wavebands with the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm. The spectral bands can be used to compute various vegetation optical indices, e.g. Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), assessing the actual physiological state of polar vegetation. Recently

  17. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, Max; Devito, Kevin; Kettridge, Nicholas; Petrone, Richard; Waddington, James

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, however, little is known about the spatiotemporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table (WT) positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce capillary flow from the WT and lead to a dry surface after fire, steep WT declines can also limit post-fire moss water availability. As such, post-fire moss water availability is also a function of large-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability by measuring peatland WTs, soil tension (Ψ) and surface volumetric moisture content (θ) in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings for three years following wildfire. The effect of burn severity on post-fire moss water availability did not vary with hydrogeological setting, however, the spatial coverage of high and low burn severity did vary between peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings due to its influence on pre-fire fuel loads and species cover. Locations covered by S. fuscum prior to fire exhibited decreasing post-fire water availability with increasing burn severity. In contrast, the lowest water availability (Ψ > 400 cm, θ < 0.02) was observed in feather mosses that underwent low burn severity (residual branches identifiable). Where depth of burn was > 0.05 m (high burn severity) and pre-fire species were not identifiable, water availability was highest (Ψ < 90 cm). Where burn severity did not limit water availability through a reduction of capillary flow, depth to WT (and therefore hydrogeological setting) played a large role in affecting post

  18. The 2011 Chilean Student Movement against Neoliberal Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristián; Cabalin, Cristian; Orellana, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the 2011 Chilean student movement, the most relevant social mobilisation in Chile since the restoration of democracy in 1990. Based on available material and secondary sources, it describes the main features of this student movement, analyses the key components of the students' discourse and its relationship with the…

  19. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales) was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P < 0.0001), "emotional overeating" (P < 0.001) and "food responsiveness" (P < 0.0001). Food-avoidant subscales "satiety responsiveness" and "slowness in eating" were inversely associated with childhood obesity (P < 0.001). There was a graded relation between the magnitude of these eating behavior scores across groups of normal-weight, overweight and obesity groups. Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile. PMID:21985269

  20. Quality of Chilean Early Childhood Education from an International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalon, Malva; Suzuki, Emy; Herrera, Maria Olivia; Mathiesen, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the quality of different types of early childhood care and education programs in Chile according to international standards. Recorded structural and process characteristics observed in the classrooms. Found that Chilean preschool programs showed a minimum level of quality, with a high proportion of centers in the inadequate range.…

  1. Detection, isolation, and characterization of acidophilic methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses.

    PubMed

    Kip, Nardy; Ouyang, Wenjing; van Winden, Julia; Raghoebarsing, Ashna; van Niftrik, Laura; Pol, Arjan; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; van Donselaar, Elly G; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jetten, Mike S M; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J M

    2011-08-15

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs was found. With Sphagnum mosses as the inoculum, alpha- and gammaproteobacterial acidophilic methanotrophs were isolated using established and newly designed media. The 16S rRNA, pmoA, pxmA, and mmoX gene sequences showed that the alphaproteobacterial isolates belonged to the Methylocystis and Methylosinus genera. The Methylosinus species isolated are the first acid-tolerant members of this genus. Of the acidophilic gammaproteobacterial strains isolated, strain M5 was affiliated with the Methylomonas genus, and the other strain, M200, may represent a novel genus, most closely related to the genera Methylosoma and Methylovulum. So far, no acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs in the Gammaproteobacteria class are known. All strains showed the typical features of either type I or II methanotrophs and are, to the best of our knowledge, the first isolated (acidophilic or acid-tolerant) methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses.

  2. Airborne radionuclides in mosses collected at different latitudes.

    PubMed

    Krmar, M; Wattanavatee, K; Radnović, D; Slivka, J; Bhongsuwan, T; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S

    2013-03-01

    Terrestrial mosses are a promising medium for investigation and monitoring of airborne radionuclide depositions due to their widespread occurrence, ease of sampling, and the possibility of high-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements without preparatory chemical treatment of samples. The overall objective of the present study was to compare (7)Be, (210)Pb and (137)Cs activity concentrations (in Bq/kg) in moss samples collected at two different climate zones: the south of Thailand (7 °N) and in Serbia (∼45 °N) in order to examine deposition of airborne radionuclide in these distant areas. Significant difference of the (210)Pb content (almost a factor of 2) in mosses was observed. The mean value of (7)Be activity in samples from Serbia was almost 40% higher than activity of those collected in Thailand. Level of (137)Cs in Thailand mosses was below the detection limit. It was shown that air transport of water droplets in the area of waterfalls and strong turbulence can deposit U and Th daughter nuclei. PMID:21880403

  3. Reversible Photoinhibition in Antarctic Moss during Freezing and Thawing.

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, C. E.; Jackson, A. E.; Melick, D. R.; Seppelt, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    Tolerance of antarctic moss to freezing and thawing stress was investigated using chlorophyll a fluorescence. Freezing in darkness caused reductions in Fv/Fm (ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence) and Fo (initial fluorescence) that were reversible upon thawing. Reductions in Fv/Fm and Fo during freezing in darkness indicate a reduction in the potential efficiency of photosystem II that may be due to conformational changes in pigment-protein complexes due to desiccation associated with freezing. The absorption of light during freezing further reduced Fv/Fm and Fo but was also reversible. Using dithiothreitol (DTT), which inhibits the formation of the carotenoid zeaxanthin, we found reduced flurorescence quenching during freezing and reduced concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin after freezing in DTT-treated moss. Reduced concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin in DTT-treated moss were partially associated with reductions in nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching. The reversible photoinhibition observed in antarctic moss during freezing indicates the existence of processes that protect from photoinhibitory damage in environments where freezing temperatures occur in conjunction with high solar radiation levels. These processes may limit the need for repair cycles that require temperatures favorable for enzyme activity. PMID:12228644

  4. Moss tasiRNAs Make the Auxin Network Robust.

    PubMed

    Estelle, Mark

    2016-02-01

    The TAS3 tasiRNA pathway has been coopted to regulate diverse developmental processes in plants. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Plavskin et al. (2016) explore the role of the pathway in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Their results suggest that frequent cooption may be related to unique qualities of tasiRNA-mediated regulation. PMID:26859346

  5. Chemical and structural characterization of copper adsorbed on mosses (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    González, Aridane G; Jimenez-Villacorta, Felix; Beike, Anna K; Reski, Ralf; Adamo, Paola; Pokrovsky, Oleg S

    2016-05-01

    The adsorption of copper on passive biomonitors (devitalized mosses Hypnum sp., Sphagnum denticulatum, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachythecium rutabulum) was studied under different experimental conditions such as a function of pH and Cu concentration in solution. Cu assimilation by living Physcomitrella patents was also investigated. Molecular structure of surface adsorbed and incorporated Cu was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Devitalized mosses exhibited the universal adsorption pattern of Cu as a function of pH, with a total binding sites number 0.05-0.06 mmolg(dry)(-1) and a maximal adsorption capacity of 0.93-1.25 mmolg(dry)(-1) for these devitalized species. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fit of the first neighbor demonstrated that for all studied mosses there are ∼4.5 O/N atoms around Cu at ∼1.95 Å likely in a pseudo-square geometry. The X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis demonstrated that Cu(II)-cellulose (representing carboxylate groups) and Cu(II)-phosphate are the main moss surface binding moieties, and the percentage of these sites varies as a function of solution pH. P. patens exposed during one month to Cu(2+) yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu-S(CN) complexes, suggesting metabolically-controlled reduction of adsorbed and assimilated Cu(2+). PMID:26852210

  6. Moss Phylogeny Reconstruction Using Nucleotide Pangenome of Complete Mitogenome Sequences.

    PubMed

    Goryunov, D V; Nagaev, B E; Nikolaev, M Yu; Alexeevski, A V; Troitsky, A V

    2015-11-01

    Stability of composition and sequence of genes was shown earlier in 13 mitochondrial genomes of mosses (Rensing, S. A., et al. (2008) Science, 319, 64-69). It is of interest to study the evolution of mitochondrial genomes not only at the gene level, but also on the level of nucleotide sequences. To do this, we have constructed a "nucleotide pangenome" for mitochondrial genomes of 24 moss species. The nucleotide pangenome is a set of aligned nucleotide sequences of orthologous genome fragments covering the totality of all genomes. The nucleotide pangenome was constructed using specially developed new software, NPG-explorer (NPGe). The stable part of the mitochondrial genome (232 stable blocks) is shown to be, on average, 45% of its length. In the joint alignment of stable blocks, 82% of positions are conserved. The phylogenetic tree constructed with the NPGe program is in good correlation with other phylogenetic reconstructions. With the NPGe program, 30 blocks have been identified with repeats no shorter than 50 bp. The maximal length of a block with repeats is 140 bp. Duplications in the mitochondrial genomes of mosses are rare. On average, the genome contains about 500 bp in large duplications. The total length of insertions and deletions was determined in each genome. The losses and gains of DNA regions are rather active in mitochondrial genomes of mosses, and such rearrangements presumably can be used as additional markers in the reconstruction of phylogeny. PMID:26615445

  7. Are Alcohol Expectancies Associations? Comment on Moss and Albery (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiers, Reinout W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2010-01-01

    Moss and Albery (2009) presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that…

  8. Chemical and structural characterization of copper adsorbed on mosses (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    González, Aridane G; Jimenez-Villacorta, Felix; Beike, Anna K; Reski, Ralf; Adamo, Paola; Pokrovsky, Oleg S

    2016-05-01

    The adsorption of copper on passive biomonitors (devitalized mosses Hypnum sp., Sphagnum denticulatum, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachythecium rutabulum) was studied under different experimental conditions such as a function of pH and Cu concentration in solution. Cu assimilation by living Physcomitrella patents was also investigated. Molecular structure of surface adsorbed and incorporated Cu was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Devitalized mosses exhibited the universal adsorption pattern of Cu as a function of pH, with a total binding sites number 0.05-0.06 mmolg(dry)(-1) and a maximal adsorption capacity of 0.93-1.25 mmolg(dry)(-1) for these devitalized species. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fit of the first neighbor demonstrated that for all studied mosses there are ∼4.5 O/N atoms around Cu at ∼1.95 Å likely in a pseudo-square geometry. The X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis demonstrated that Cu(II)-cellulose (representing carboxylate groups) and Cu(II)-phosphate are the main moss surface binding moieties, and the percentage of these sites varies as a function of solution pH. P. patens exposed during one month to Cu(2+) yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu-S(CN) complexes, suggesting metabolically-controlled reduction of adsorbed and assimilated Cu(2+).

  9. Nitrogen accumulation in forests. Exposure monitoring by mosses.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Schmidt, Gunther

    2007-03-21

    At present, there is still little information on nitrogen (N) accumulation in forests contrasting with the crucial importance of N in forest ecosystems. This work analyzes the N bioaccumulation in mosses from forested areas from Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia (two of 16 federal states of Germany), the Weser Ems Region (part of Lower Saxony), and the Euro Region Nissa (covering the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland). The studies involved samples collected from 190 sites between 1998 and 2005. Different spatial scales and regional differences in land use were chosen to assess the factors affecting N bioaccumulation in forested areas. A continuous reduction of N bioaccumulation was found from Lower Saxony (a region where agriculture is most predominant) to North Rhine-Westphalia (mostly urban). The Weser Ems Region (an agricultural region) showed a higher N concentration in mosses than the Euroregion Nissa (a former industrial region). Statistical analyses performed at the different spatial scales revealed that the areas showing greater agricultural and livestock spatial densities favor N bioaccumulation in mosses. N concentration in mosses was moderately correlated with the N concentration in the leaves and needles of the surrounding trees. No significant relationships were found regarding the crown density of forest trees or N deposition estimations from a combination of atmospheric models and deposition measurements.

  10. Cesium-137 monitoring using mosses from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsikritzis, Lazaros; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos

    2009-06-01

    (137)Cs activities in mosses and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece were measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous studies was also used for comparison and diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in the epilithic mosses in comparison to the epiphytic ones. The (137)Cs content in the bark of the two broad-leaved species (oak and fagus) was higher than that of the conifer (pinus). Bark specimens of about 50 cm height were in general more contaminated than those of 200 cm. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in moss thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in mosses 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of radionuclide fallout pattern.

  11. Entropic interpretation of the Hawking-Moss bounce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshita, Naritaka; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2016-05-01

    We revisit the derivation of the Hawking-Moss transition rate. Using the static coordinates, we show that the Euclidean action is entirely determined by the contribution of the entropy of de Sitter space that is proportional to the surface area of the horizon. This holographic feature is common to any static spacetime with a horizon on which the shift vector vanishes.

  12. Metal accumulation capacity of five species of Sphagnum moss

    SciTech Connect

    Aulio, K.

    1985-10-01

    The present paper describes the first experimental evidence of the species-specific differences in the cation accumulation properties in Sphagnum mosses. Manganese was chosen for the object of the experiments because this element appears to show the greatest variability under natural conditions.

  13. Airborne radionuclides in mosses collected at different latitudes.

    PubMed

    Krmar, M; Wattanavatee, K; Radnović, D; Slivka, J; Bhongsuwan, T; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S

    2013-03-01

    Terrestrial mosses are a promising medium for investigation and monitoring of airborne radionuclide depositions due to their widespread occurrence, ease of sampling, and the possibility of high-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements without preparatory chemical treatment of samples. The overall objective of the present study was to compare (7)Be, (210)Pb and (137)Cs activity concentrations (in Bq/kg) in moss samples collected at two different climate zones: the south of Thailand (7 °N) and in Serbia (∼45 °N) in order to examine deposition of airborne radionuclide in these distant areas. Significant difference of the (210)Pb content (almost a factor of 2) in mosses was observed. The mean value of (7)Be activity in samples from Serbia was almost 40% higher than activity of those collected in Thailand. Level of (137)Cs in Thailand mosses was below the detection limit. It was shown that air transport of water droplets in the area of waterfalls and strong turbulence can deposit U and Th daughter nuclei.

  14. The cyanobacterial role in the resistance of feather mosses to decomposition--toward a new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Rousk, Kathrin; Deluca, Thomas H; Rousk, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria-plant symbioses play an important role in many ecosystems due to the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) by the cyanobacterial symbiont. The ubiquitous feather moss Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. is colonized by cyanobacteria in boreal systems with low N deposition. Here, cyanobacteria fix substantial amounts of N₂ and represent a potential N source. The feather moss appears to be resistant to decomposition, which could be partly a result of toxins produced by cyanobacteria. To assess how cyanobacteria modulated the toxicity of moss, we measured inhibition of bacterial growth. Moss with varying numbers of cyanobacteria was added to soil bacteria to test the inhibition of their growth using the thymidine incorporation technique. Moss could universally inhibit bacterial growth, but moss toxicity did not increase with N₂ fixation rates (numbers of cyanobacteria). Instead, we see evidence for a negative relationship between moss toxicity to bacteria and N₂ fixation, which could be related to the ecological mechanisms that govern the cyanobacteria-moss relationship. We conclude that cyanobacteria associated with moss do not contribute to the resistance to decomposition of moss, and from our results emerges the question as to what type of relationship the moss and cyanobacteria share. PMID:23614013

  15. The Cyanobacterial Role in the Resistance of Feather Mosses to Decomposition—Toward a New Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Rousk, Kathrin; DeLuca, Thomas H.; Rousk, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria-plant symbioses play an important role in many ecosystems due to the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) by the cyanobacterial symbiont. The ubiquitous feather moss Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. is colonized by cyanobacteria in boreal systems with low N deposition. Here, cyanobacteria fix substantial amounts of N2 and represent a potential N source. The feather moss appears to be resistant to decomposition, which could be partly a result of toxins produced by cyanobacteria. To assess how cyanobacteria modulated the toxicity of moss, we measured inhibition of bacterial growth. Moss with varying numbers of cyanobacteria was added to soil bacteria to test the inhibition of their growth using the thymidine incorporation technique. Moss could universally inhibit bacterial growth, but moss toxicity did not increase with N2 fixation rates (numbers of cyanobacteria). Instead, we see evidence for a negative relationship between moss toxicity to bacteria and N2 fixation, which could be related to the ecological mechanisms that govern the cyanobacteria – moss relationship. We conclude that cyanobacteria associated with moss do not contribute to the resistance to decomposition of moss, and from our results emerges the question as to what type of relationship the moss and cyanobacteria share. PMID:23614013

  16. Response of stable carbon isotope in epilithic mosses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Li, You-Yi; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yan-Li

    2010-06-01

    Epilithic mosses are characterized by insulation from substratum N and hence meet their N demand only by deposited N. This study investigated tissue C, total Chl and delta13C of epilithic mosses along 2 transects across Guiyang urban (SW China), aiming at testing their responses to N deposition. Tissue C and total Chl decreased from the urban to rural, but delta13C(moss) became less negative. With measurements of atmospheric CO2 and delta13CO2, elevated N deposition was inferred as a primary factor for changes in moss C and isotopic signatures. Correlations between total Chl, tissue C and N signals indicated a nutritional effect on C fixation of epilithic mosses, but the response of delta13C(moss) to N deposition could not be clearly differentiated from effects of other factors. Collective evidences suggest that C signals of epilithic mosses are useful proxies for N deposition but further works on physiological mechanisms are still needed.

  17. Limited accumulation of copper in heavy metal adapted mosses.

    PubMed

    Antreich, Sebastian; Sassmann, Stefan; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-04-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient but has toxic effects at high concentrations. Bryophytes are remarkably tolerant to elevated levels of copper but we wondered if this tolerance might be species dependent. Therefore, in three moss species, Physcomitrella patens, Mielichhoferia elongata and Pohlia drummondii, the accumulation of copper was compared with semiquantitative SEM-EDX analyses after six weeks of cultivation on copper containing media. We investigated the role of the copper-linked anion and applied copper as CuCl2, CuSO4 and CuEDTA, respectively. Line scans along the growth axis of moss gametophores allowed for a detailed analysis of copper detection from the base towards the tip. Mosses originating from metal-containing habitats (i.e. M. elongata and P. drummondii) revealed a lower accumulation of copper when compared to the non-adapted P. patens. CuEDTA had a shielding effect in all three species and copper levels differed greatly from CuCl2 or CuSO4. The detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 and O2(-), was further used to indicate stress levels in the gametophore stems. ROS staining was increased along the whole stem and the tip in the non-adapted species P. patens whereas the tolerant species M. elongata and P. drummondii generally showed less staining located mainly at the base of the stem. We discuss the relation between metal accumulation and ROS production using indicator dyes in the three moss species. As moss gametophores are very delicate structures, ROS staining provide an excellent alternative to spectrophotometric analyses to estimate stress levels. PMID:26878481

  18. Seismotectonic segmentation along the Chilean megathrust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, D.; Moreno, M.

    2010-12-01

    This study focuses on understanding seismotectonic segmentation of megathrusts (MT). Recent research suggests elements associated to MT segmentation include: oceanic features, such as seamounts, seismic and aseismic ridges, and fracture zones; thickness and nature of trench sediments; and upper-plate heterogeneities as changes in density, lithology, and presence of splay faults or microplates, features usually manifested in coastline morphology. The 3500-km-long Chilean MT includes all these elements with various amplitudes under fairly constant kinematics and strike. Along the Nazca-South America boundary, the dense GPS network and knowledge of MT geometry allows inverting for the degree of interplate coupling or locking rate. Here we compare locking, historical MT ruptures, and long-term structure. Along-strike changes in locking rate occur at wavelengths of ~100-500 km, and locally correlate with historical ruptures as well as with lower and/or upper plate features, but without a clear systematic pattern. The transition between the 1960 M9.5 and 2010 M8.8 earthquake segments at Arauco (38.5S) has 100 km overlap deduced from land-level changes. Coherent deformation suggest this boundary has been stationary over 4 Myr, and is associated to margin-parallel collision of a forearc microplate along a Paleozoic shear zone. Seismically-active reverse splay faults bound the Peninsula and may absorb coseismic MT slip and stall rupture propagation. To the north, rupture of the 2010 M8.8 event stopped before the prominent J.Fernandez Ridge and its boundary may be associated to the Pichilemu fault, a steep oblique structure that generated a M6.9 aftershock. The change from accretionary to erosive character across this Ridge, from variable thickness of trench sediments, is manifested in narrowing of the coupling zone northwards and a small local decrease in locking rate. This local decrease is coincident with the Maipo orocline axis and a sharp bend in the orogen, which

  19. Moss as bio-indicator of long term pollution spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gombert, S.; Leblond, S.; Losno, R.; Rausch de Traubenberg, C.; Costes, S.; Colin, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    Bio indicators are very interesting to track atmospheric pollution on large time and space scale because of the very low cost of the sampling system. As a replicate of a similar campaign made in France during the year 1996, moss field sampling was carried out during the summer 2000 (July-September). Moss samples were collected on 528 sites, located in a 33x33 km grid, leading to a density of 1 site per 1000 square kilometer. Samples sites were located as far as possible from local contamination. Five moss species were collected: Scleropodium purum (Hedw.) Limpr. (56% of all the samples collected), Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. (18%), Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. (18%), Thuidium tamariscinum (Hedw.) B.S.G. (4.5%), and Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. (3.5%). All the sampling and analytical procedures were carried out with ultra-trace measurement standards. Beside the geographical distribution of the elements, we will compare here the temporal evolution of measured moss concentration for more than 25 elements. This comparison is not evident because of many possible artifacts, and we will discuss here their relative importance. This includes: 1/ The analytical comparison between the two laboratories implicated in the year respectively 1996 and 2000. 2/ The behaviour of the elements between the different species. 3/ The behaviour of the elements between different parts of the moss (green apical or brown basal part) used for deposition monitoring. 4/ The residence time of the elements in the living moss. Concerning the last point, we have chosen a rural site where we continuously monitor atmospheric deposition by classical method. There we have sprayed diluted solution containing spikes of dissolved metals to provide a transient signal sharper and stronger than the atmospheric fluxes. We have followed the evolution of these metal concentrations during 6 months showing large differences between elements especially after a rain event. The usage of bio indicator

  20. [Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  1. Caulonemal gravitropism and amyloplast sedimentation in the moss Funaria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J. M.; Kim, D.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    Caulonemata of the moss Funaria were examined to determine whether they are gravitropic. Funaria and Physcomitrella were also evaluated to compare amyloplast sedimentation with that of Ceratodon. Protonemata were either chemically fixed in place or examined alive using infrared timelapse videomicroscopy. Funaria caulonemata were found to be negatively gravitropic, i.e., they grew upwards in the dark. Upward curvature reversed temporarily before cytokinesis in Funaria, a phenomenon already known for Ceratodon and Physcomitrella. Most horizontal and upward-curving Funaria tip cells contained a broad subapical zone where plastid sedimentation occurred. In dark-grown Physcomitrella caulonemata, sedimentation was detected by the presence of a thin, amyloplast-free strip of cytoplasm at the top of the cell. These results suggest that gravitropism and subapical amyloplast sedimentation may be relatively common in moss caulonemata.

  2. The sorption of Zectran on bottom sediments and peat moss

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, E.W.; Faust, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    A modified analytical method employed to determine the insecticide Zectran in natural waters frequently has resulted in erroneous data. The errors have been attributed to interferences from particulate matter in these waters. In order to evaluate analytical interferences due to sorption of Zectran on particulates, a series of experiments was performed using bottom sediments and a peat moss in contact with aqueous solutions of zectran at a pH values of 6.0 and 20 degrees C. Isotherm studies confirmed that Zectran sorption occurs in a direct relation to the amount of chemically oxidizable carbon present in the bottom sediments or peat moss. However, the extent of sorption was limited, which suggested that particulates may not be the primary interference in the modified analytical method.

  3. BOREAS HYD-6 Moss/Humus Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Carroll, Thomas; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-6 team collected several data sets related to the moisture content of soil and overlying humus layers. This data set contains water content measurements of the moss/humus layer, where it existed. These data were collected along various flight lines in the Southern Study Area (SSA) and Northern Study Area (NSA) during 1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-06 moss/humus moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  4. The Moss Flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Canli, Kerem; Çetin, Barbaros

    2014-01-01

    The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey) was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér.) W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab.) M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp.), Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb.) Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey. PMID:25587573

  5. The Chilean health system: 20 years of reforms.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Annick

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990) aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces.

  6. Multicarrier orthogonal spread-spectrum (MOSS) data communications

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Dress, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for multicarrier orthogonal spread-spectrum (MOSS) data communication. A method includes individually spread-spectrum modulating at least two of a set of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed carriers, wherein the resulting individually spread-spectrum modulated at least two of a set of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed carriers are substantially mutually orthogonal with respect to both frequency division multiplexing and spread-spectrum modulation.

  7. [Heavy metal concentrations in mosses from Qiyi Glacier region].

    PubMed

    Ma, Juan-Juan; Li, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Heavy metal (Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) concentrations were measured in 17 moss samples which were collected at Qiyi Glacier Region in July, August and September, 2009 in a preliminary investigation of heavy metal pollution situation in this area. The results indicated that heavy metal concentrations in mosses were relatively high and concentrations of Fe were at the highest level (varied between 15 160.00 and 34 960.00 microg x g(-1)), followed by Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, As, with average concentrations of 169.56, 134.81, 34.52, 26.16, 9.15 microg x g(-1). Enrichment factor analysis and correlation analysis indicated that Fe and Cr in mosses mainly stemmed from crustal dust, and concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd were influenced by human activities; As was moderately enriched which means As in mosses was mainly originated from anthropogenic pollution. According to the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) meteorological data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of 2009 and the simulation of the HYSPLIT v4.9 Model on 3-dimension back trajectories of air mass at Qiyi glacier district, several trajectories reflecting the main characteristics of air flow were obtained based on the classification of cluster analysis on the hundreds of back trajectories. The back trajectories revealed that atmospheric transport characteristics in the study area changed obviously by season. Compared to Spring and Autumn, atmospheric transmission sources were relatively more in Winter and Summer. The main sources of atmospheric pollutants in Qiyi Glacier region were transported from Jiuquan and Jiayuguan regions.

  8. [Minimum legal drinking age in the Chilean context].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Jorge; Heller, Nereida

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is harmful to minors. One of the most wide ly accepted measures for the prevention of harm associated with alcohol consumption for young people is to establish a minimum legal drinking age. This document presents the evidence available on this policy, offers a condensed analysis of its characteristics in the United States of America, describes current consumption patterns of Chilean youth, and proposes concrete solutions to be implemented. PMID:26998989

  9. Prevalence of Astrovirus Infection among Chilean Children with Acute Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Gaggero, Aldo; O’Ryan, Miguel; Noel, Jacqueline S.; Glass, Roger I.; Monroe, Stephan S.; Mamani, Nora; Prado, Valeria; Avendaño, Luis F.

    1998-01-01

    The frequency of astrovirus infection in 456 Chilean children with diarrhea was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcriptase PCR, and cell culture. Astrovirus was detected in 16.5% of rotavirus-negative and 7% of rotavirus-positive samples obtained from emergency rooms or hospitals and in 11% of samples from day care centers. HAst-1 was the predominant serotype identified. PMID:9817899

  10. Women and changes in the Chilean economy: some questions.

    PubMed

    Smiaroski, M S

    1996-10-01

    The author argues that a new development model that encourages greater participation of women in the work force in domestic piecework, temporary work, and subcontracting may further lead to the exploitation of women in Chile. The importance of women in economic development in Chile should be based on building skills, providing support child care services, reorienting women's education, and tax incentives. Chile over the past decade has achieved relatively stable economic growth and increased employment of women. During 1990-93 the growth of women in the work force increased at a rate of 16.8%, while men's presence increased by only 9.8%. The Chilean economy is based on a sophisticated modern sector and a labor-intensive informal sector. The Chilean model of development relies on cheap, flexible labor and a government approval of this model. Increased participation of women in the labor force is usually perceived as increased economic empowerment. A 1994 Oxfam study found that women were being forced into the labor market due to declines in family income and low wages. 46% of men and women received wages that did not cover basic necessities. The Chilean labor market is gender-stratified. Men are paid better than women for the same work. Men are in more permanent positions. Labor laws are either inadequate or violated, particularly for hours of work and overtime pay and conditions of employment and benefits. Traditional female jobs are those that rely on women's natural attributes. These unskilled attributes are rewarded with low wages. Little opportunity is provided for upgrading skills or acquiring new skills. Some women turn down advancement because of a lack of role models. Women have little opportunity to develop their self-image as workers. Poor self-images affect women's work attitudes and motivation. Some firms use competition between women to boost production. Chilean women remain in subordinate roles.

  11. [Chemical-nutritional characterization of the moss Spagnum magellanicum].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Mario; Biolley, Edith; Yáñez, Enrique; Peralta, Rosario

    2002-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to know the chemical characteristics of the moss Sphagnum magellanicum (S.M.) growing in the southern part of Chile, spreading approximately. in a geographic area of 500.000 Has. Very few antecedents are reported in the literature concerning the functional properties of this resource, with the exception of the water absorption and holding capacity. Many of the industrial or agricultural uses of this moss are strongly related with this characteristic. Looking for other alternatives of utilization, it has been planned its incorporation to staple foods as a source of dietary fiber. But first it is necessary to know its chemical characteristics Representative samples of this material were submitted to different chemical analysis such as proximal analysis, fractional fiber analysis and anti nutrient factors.. Results of those analysis show the high amount of dietary fiber founded in this resource (77%), higher than reported data for other traditional fiber sources such as lupin bran, rice hull, barley hull, oat bran, etc. Finally it is important emphasize the absence of antinutrient factor in this moss, that could make feasible its use for human nutrition.

  12. Glyco-engineering for biopharmaceutical production in moss bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Eva L.; Parsons, Juliana; Reski, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals (pharmaceutical proteins) is a strongly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. While most products to date are produced in mammalian cell cultures, namely Chinese hamster ovary cells, plant-based production systems gained increasing acceptance over the last years. Different plant systems have been established which are suitable for standardization and precise control of cultivation conditions, thus meeting the criteria for pharmaceutical production. The majority of biopharmaceuticals comprise glycoproteins. Therefore, differences in protein glycosylation between humans and plants have to be taken into account and plant-specific glycosylation has to be eliminated to avoid adverse effects on quality, safety, and efficacy of the products. The basal land plant Physcomitrella patens (moss) has been employed for the recombinant production of high-value therapeutic target proteins (e.g., Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Complement Factor H, monoclonal antibodies, Erythropoietin). Being genetically excellently characterized and exceptionally amenable for precise gene targeting via homologous recombination, essential steps for the optimization of moss as a bioreactor for the production of recombinant proteins have been undertaken. Here, we discuss the glyco-engineering approaches to avoid non-human N- and O-glycosylation on target proteins produced in moss bioreactors. PMID:25071817

  13. Biomonitoring heavy metal contaminations by moss visible parameters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Yang, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Ming; Song, Chun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Han-Mei; Wang, Chang-Quan; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

    2015-10-15

    Traditional sampling for heavy metal monitoring is a time-consuming and inconvenient method, which also does not indicate contaminants non-invasively and instantaneously. Moss is sensitive to heavy metals and is therefore considered a pollution indicator. However, it is unknown what kind physiological parameters can indicate metal contaminations quickly and non-invasively. Here, we systematically examined the effects of six heavy metals on physiological parameters and photosynthetic activities of two moss species grown in aquatic media or moist soil surface. We suggest that a phenotype with anthocyanin accumulation pattern and chlorosis pattern and two chlorophyll fluorescence parameters with their images can roughly reflect metal species groups, concentrations and differences between the two moss species. In other words, metal contaminations could be roughly estimated visually using the naked eye. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative abilities and photosynthetic protein contents of Eurhynchium eustegium were higher than those of Taxiphyllum taxirameum, indicating their differential metal tolerance. Neither anti-oxidative abilities nor photosynthetic proteins were found to be ideal indicators. This study provides new ideas to monitor heavy metals rapidly and non-invasively in water or on wetland and moist soil surface.

  14. Gravitropism in caulonemata of the moss Pottia intermedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, C. I.; Kern, V. D.; Ripetskyj, R. T.; Demkiv, O. T.; Sack, F. D.

    1998-01-01

    The gravitropism of caulonemata of Pottia intermedia is described and compared with that of other mosses. Spore germination produces primary protonemata including caulonemata which give rise to buds that form the leafy moss plant, the gametophore. Primary caulonemata are negatively gravitropic but their growth and the number of filaments are limited in the dark. Axenic culture of gametophores results in the production of secondary caulonemata that usually arise near the leaf base. Secondary protonemata that form in the light are agravitropic. Secondary caulonemata that form when gametophores are placed in the dark for several days show strong negative gravitropism and grow well in the dark. When upright caulonemata are reorientated to the horizontal or are inverted, upward bending can be detected after 1 h and caulonemata reach the vertical within 1-2 d. Clear amyloplast sedimentation occurs 10-15 minutes after horizontal placement and before the start of upward curvature. This sedimentation takes place in a sub-apical zone. Amyloplast sedimentation also takes place along the length of upright and inverted Pottia protonemata. These results support the hypothesis that amyloplast sedimentation functions in gravitropic sensing since sedimentation occurs before gravitropism in Pottia and since the location and presence of a unique sedimentation zone is conserved in all four mosses known to gravitropic protonomata.

  15. Moss biomonitoring of air pollution with chromium in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vučković, Ivana; Spirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajče; Kušan, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the atmospheric deposition of chromium in Croatia by using moss biomonitoring technique and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Moss samples (Hylocomium splendens, Hypnum cupressiforme, Brachythecium rutabulum and Homalothecium Sericeum) were collected from 121 sampling sites evenly distributed over the country, during the summer and autumn of 2010. Collected samples were air dried, then cleaned and digested by using microwave digestion system. The median value obtained in this study (1.94 mg kg⁻¹) compared with the median value of previous investigation performed in 2006 (2.75 mg kg⁻¹) shows that the content of chromium decreased. Higher contents of chromium were found in moss samples collected in the regions of Central Croatia, in/near the cities of Zagreb, Sisak and Kutina, which, in the most of the cases, are result of anthropogenic activities. In Costal Croatia, higher values have a natural origin due to the significantly higher content of Cr in soil from this region. The results were compared with those from similar studies in neighboring and other Balkan countries. It was established that the content of chromium in Croatia is lower than in the most of these countries.

  16. Biomonitoring heavy metal contaminations by moss visible parameters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Yang, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Ming; Song, Chun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Han-Mei; Wang, Chang-Quan; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

    2015-10-15

    Traditional sampling for heavy metal monitoring is a time-consuming and inconvenient method, which also does not indicate contaminants non-invasively and instantaneously. Moss is sensitive to heavy metals and is therefore considered a pollution indicator. However, it is unknown what kind physiological parameters can indicate metal contaminations quickly and non-invasively. Here, we systematically examined the effects of six heavy metals on physiological parameters and photosynthetic activities of two moss species grown in aquatic media or moist soil surface. We suggest that a phenotype with anthocyanin accumulation pattern and chlorosis pattern and two chlorophyll fluorescence parameters with their images can roughly reflect metal species groups, concentrations and differences between the two moss species. In other words, metal contaminations could be roughly estimated visually using the naked eye. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative abilities and photosynthetic protein contents of Eurhynchium eustegium were higher than those of Taxiphyllum taxirameum, indicating their differential metal tolerance. Neither anti-oxidative abilities nor photosynthetic proteins were found to be ideal indicators. This study provides new ideas to monitor heavy metals rapidly and non-invasively in water or on wetland and moist soil surface. PMID:25919648

  17. Strong environmental tolerance of moss Venturiella under very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, F.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Nishihira, N.; Shindo, A.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Yamashita, M.

    2010-03-01

    It was shown by the present authors group that tardigrade can survive under high pressure of 7.5 GPa. In the case of land plants, however, no result of such experiment has been reported. We have extended our experiments to moss searching for lives under very high pressure. Spore placentas of moss Venturiella were sealed in a small Teflon capsule together with a liquid pressure medium. The capsule was put in the center of a pyrophillite cube, and the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa was applied using a two-stage cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant at the maximum pressure for12, 24, 72 and 144 hours. After the pressure was released, the spores were seeded on a ager medium, and incubated for one week and more longer at 25°C with white light of 2000 lux. It was proved that 70-90% of the spores were alive and germinated after exposed to the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa for up to 72 hours. However, after exposed to 7.5 GPa for 6 days, only 4 individuals in a hundred were germinated. The pressure tolerance of moss Venturiella is found to be stronger than a small animal, tardigrade.

  18. BOREAS HYD-8 1994 Gravimetric Moss Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xuewen; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-8 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes that were collected at the Northern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (NSA-OBS) Tower Flux site in 1994 and at Joey Lake, Manitoba, to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. The data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gravimetric moss moisture measurements from June to September 1994. A nested spatial sampling plan was implemented to support research into spatial variations of the measured hydrological processes and ultimately the impact of these variations on modeled carbon and water budgets. These data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-08 1994 gravimetric moss moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  19. Copper and cobalt in aquatic mosses and stream sediments from the Idaho Cobalt Belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, J.A.; Modreski, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of stream sediments and aquatic mosses were collected from nine sites across several mineralized zones at the southeasternmost extension of the Idaho Cobalt Belt. Because the steepness of the terrain and the attendant high flow rate of the streams made it difficult to obtain adequate sediment samples, mosses were considered as an alternative sampling medium. The results not only showed that the Cu and Co content of the mosses correlated almost perfectly with that of the sediments, but that the contrast between samples taken from mineralized and background areas was greater in mosses, especially for Co. Maximum concentrations of 35,000 ??g/g Cu and 2000 ??g/g Co were observed in the ash of mosses, compared to maximum concentrations of 1700 ??g/g and 320 ??g/g, respectively, in the associated sediments. Species identification was considered unimportant, which should dispel some reluctance to use mosses in mineral exploration. ?? 1984.

  20. Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Norris, D A; Cooper, D M; Mills, G; Steinnes, E; Kubin, E; Thöni, L; Aboal, J R; Alber, R; Carballeira, A; Coşkun, M; De Temmerman, L; Frolova, M; González-Miqueo, L; Jeran, Z; Leblond, S; Liiv, S; Maňkovská, B; Pesch, R; Poikolainen, J; Rühling, A; Santamaria, J M; Simonèiè, P; Schröder, W; Suchara, I; Yurukova, L; Zechmeister, H G

    2011-10-01

    In 2005/6, nearly 3000 moss samples from (semi-)natural location across 16 European countries were collected for nitrogen analysis. The lowest total nitrogen concentrations in mosses (<0.8%) were observed in northern Finland and northern UK. The highest concentrations (≥ 1.6%) were found in parts of Belgium, France, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia and Bulgaria. The asymptotic relationship between the nitrogen concentrations in mosses and EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition (averaged per 50 km × 50 km grid) across Europe showed less scatter when there were at least five moss sampling sites per grid. Factors potentially contributing to the scatter are discussed. In Switzerland, a strong (r(2) = 0.91) linear relationship was found between the total nitrogen concentration in mosses and measured site-specific bulk nitrogen deposition rates. The total nitrogen concentrations in mosses complement deposition measurements, helping to identify areas in Europe at risk from high nitrogen deposition at a high spatial resolution.

  1. Metal accumulation in mosses across national boundaries: uncovering and ranking causes of spatial variation.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland; Englert, Cordula; Harmens, Harry; Suchara, Ivan; Zechmeister, Harald G; Thöni, Lotti; Mankovská, Blanka; Jeran, Zvonka; Grodzinska, Krystyna; Alber, Renate

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at cross-border mapping metal loads in mosses in eight European countries in 1990, 1995, and 2000 and at investigating confounding factors. Geostatistics was used for mapping, indicating high local variances but clear spatial autocorrelations. Inference statistics identified differences of metal concentrations in mosses on both sides of the national borders. However, geostatistical analyses did not ascertain discontinuities of metal concentrations in mosses at national borders due to sample analysis in different laboratories applying a range of analytical techniques. Applying Classification and Regression Trees (CART) to the German moss data as an example, the local variation in metal concentrations in mosses were proved to depend mostly on different moss species, potential local emission sources, canopy drip and precipitation.

  2. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making.

  3. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making. PMID:26545537

  4. Balancing positive and negative plant interactions: how mosses structure vascular plant communities.

    PubMed

    Gornall, Jemma L; Woodin, Sarah J; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjorg S; van der Wal, René

    2011-07-01

    Our understanding of positive and negative plant interactions is primarily based on vascular plants, as is the prediction that facilitative effects dominate in harsh environments. It remains unclear whether this understanding is also applicable to moss-vascular plant interactions, which are likely to be influential in low-temperature environments with extensive moss ground cover such as boreal forest and arctic tundra. In a field experiment in high-arctic tundra, we investigated positive and negative impacts of the moss layer on vascular plants. Ramets of the shrub Salix polaris, herb Bistorta vivipara, grass Alopecurus borealis and rush Luzula confusa were transplanted into plots manipulated to contain bare soil, shallow moss (3 cm) and deep moss (6 cm) and harvested after three growing seasons. The moss layer had both positive and negative impacts upon vascular plant growth, the relative extent of which varied among vascular plant species. Deep moss cover reduced soil temperature and nitrogen availability, and this was reflected in reduced graminoid productivity. Shrub and herb biomass were greatest in shallow moss, where soil moisture also appeared to be highest. The relative importance of the mechanisms by which moss may influence vascular plants, through effects on soil temperature, moisture and nitrogen availability, was investigated in a phytotron growth experiment. Soil temperature, and not nutrient availability, determined Alopecurus growth, whereas Salix only responded to increased temperature if soil nitrogen was also increased. We propose a conceptual model showing the relative importance of positive and negative influences of the moss mat on vascular plants along a gradient of moss depth and illustrate species-specific outcomes. Our findings suggest that, through their strong influence on the soil environment, mat-forming mosses structure the composition of vascular plant communities. Thus, for plant interaction theory to be widely applicable to

  5. Native American Discursive Tactic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jason Edward

    2013-01-01

    This essay derives from a course called ‘"The Rhetoric of Native America,’" which is a historical-critical survey of Native American primary texts. The course examines the rhetoric employed by Natives to enact social change and to build community in the face of exigencies. The main goal of exploring a native text (particularly, Simon Pokagon's…

  6. Functional cross-kingdom conservation of mammalian and moss (Physcomitrella patens) transcription, translation and secretion machineries.

    PubMed

    Gitzinger, Marc; Parsons, Juliana; Reski, Ralf; Fussenegger, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Plants and mammals are separated by a huge evolutionary distance. Consequently, biotechnology and genetics have traditionally been divided into 'green' and 'red'. Here, we provide comprehensive evidence that key components of the mammalian transcription, translation and secretion machineries are functional in the model plant Physcomitrella patens. Cross-kingdom compatibility of different expression modalities originally designed for mammalian cells, such as native and synthetic promoters and polyadenylation sites, viral and cellular internal ribosome entry sites, secretion signal peptides and secreted product proteins, and synthetic transactivators and transrepressors, was established. This mammalian expression portfolio enabled constitutive, conditional and autoregulated expression of different product genes in a multicistronic expression format, optionally adjusted by various trigger molecules, such as butyrolactones, macrolide antibiotics and ethanol. Capitalizing on a cross-kingdom-compatible expression platform, we pioneered a prototype biopharmaceutical manufacturing scenario using microencapsulated transgenic P. patens protoplasts cultivated in a Wave Bioreactor. Vascular endothelial growth factor 121 (VEGF(121)) titres matched those typically achieved by standard protonema populations grown in stirred-tank bioreactors. The full compatibility of mammalian expression systems in P. patens further promotes the use of moss as a cost-effective alternative for the manufacture of complex biopharmaceuticals, and as a valuable host system to advance synthetic biology in plants. PMID:19021876

  7. Decadal trends in the pollinator assemblage of Eucryphia cordifolia in Chilean rainforests.

    PubMed

    Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia; Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Valdovinos, Fernanda S; Martínez, Paula; Castillo, Jessica A; Armesto, Juan J

    2014-09-01

    Long-term studies of plant-pollinator interactions are almost nonexistent in the scientific literature. The objective of the present study was to determine changes and trends in the pollinator assemblage of ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia; Cunoniaceae), a canopy-emergent tree found in Chilean temperate rainforests. We assessed the temporal variability of the pollinator assemblage and identified possible modulators of the observed temporal shifts. We sampled insect visitors to the flowers of 16 individual trees of E. cordifolia during 10 consecutive flowering seasons (2000-2009), recording a total of 137 pollinator species with a mean number of species per year of 44. Only three pollinator species (2.2%) were recorded every year. Two bee species accounted for 50% of all insect visits to flowers. One bee species, Bombus dahlbomii (native), was dominant in one season, whereas Apis mellifera (exotic) dominated during the next season. These interannual shifts in population abundances presented first-order dynamics that were characterized by oscillations with a period of 2 years. Changes in the abundances of the dominant pollinators, as well as differences in temperature and precipitation during insect emergence and flowering, led to a nested temporal structure of pollinator composition. Furthermore, the abundances of less common pollinators were sensitive to the abundance of the dominant bee species and to monthly maximum temperatures and the average precipitation during spring and summer. Based on our results and those from other studies, we predict a decline in the numbers of Bombus dahlbomii and nondominant native pollinators in response to new exotic arrivals. PMID:25001339

  8. Chilean Student Movements: Sustained Struggle to Transform a Market-Oriented Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristian; Cabalin, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, Chilean society was shaken by sharply critical and powerful student movements: secondary students led the 2006 "Penguin Revolution" and university students led the 2011 "Chilean Winter." This article describes and analyzes these student movements to illustrate how students can be highly relevant…

  9. Chilean Family Reminiscing about Emotions and Its Relation to Children's Self-Regulation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyva, Diana; Nolivos, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the relation between Chilean parents' narrative participatory styles (i.e., the way in which parents scaffold children's participation in conversations) and children's self-regulation skills. A total of 210 low-income Chilean parent-child dyads participated in the study. Dyads were videotaped talking about a…

  10. Mosses in Ohio wetlands respond to indices of disturbance and vascular plant integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationships between an index of wetland habitat quality and disturbance (ORAM score) and an index of vascular plant integrity (VIBI-FQ score) with moss species richness and a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) in 45 wetlands in three vegetation types in Ohio, USA. Species richness of mosses and MQAI were positively associated with ORAM and VIBI-FQ scores. VIBI-FQ score was a better predictor of both moss species richness and MQAI than was either ORAM score or vegetation type. This result was consistent with the strict microhabitat requirements for many moss species, which may be better assessed by VIBI-FQ than ORAM. Probability curves as a function of VIBI-FQ score were then generated for presence of groups of moss species having the same degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities relative to other species in the moss flora (coefficients of conservatism, CCs). Species having an intermediate- or high degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities (i.e., species with CC ≥ 5) had a 50% probability of presence (P50) and 90% probability of presence (P90) in wetlands with intermediate- and high VIBI-FQ scores, respectively. Although moss species richness, probability of presence of species based on CC, and MQAI may reflect wetland habitat quality, the 95% confidence intervals around P50 and P90 values may be too wide for regulatory use. Moss species richness, MQAI, and presence of groups of mosses may be more useful for evaluating moss habitat quality in wetlands than a set of “indicator species.”

  11. Soil hydraulic properties of sphagnum moss and peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Tobias K. D.; Iden, Sascha C.; Scharnagl, Benedikt; Durner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The moisture state of the vadose zone (acrotelm) of ombrotrophic peatlands decisively determines whether carbon is contained in soil organic matter or released to the atmosphere. As the pore space is variably saturated with water throughout the year, oxygen diffusion, heat, and solute transport and thus the redox state are a function of water content over time. For prediction purposes, the hydrological processes must be epitomised in computer models which establish a link between the terrestrial water cycle and the carbon cycle. This requires a proper representation of effective soil hydraulic properties which are a mandatory input to the Richards equation, the standard model for variably-saturated flow processes in porous media. By applying the Richards equation to peatlands, one assumes that the acrotelm can be conceptualised as a rigid porous material. To test this approximation and select the most adequate set of soil hydraulic property functions, we conducted a series of specifically designed laboratory evaporation experiments on sphagnum moss and decomposed sphagnum peat. Sampling was carried out in five centimeter depth increments of an ombrotrophic bog profile in the Harz mountains. We selected sphagnum moss as it is a predominant plant species colonising bogs of the Boreal. Inverse modelling was used to test the adequacy of different parameterizations of soil hydraulic property functions. We used pressure head data measured by two tensiometers in the objective function to identify soil hydraulic properties. The Richards equation was used as process model. We critically assess the applicability of the van Genuchten/Mualem model, which finds frequent application in peatland hydrology, and discuss alternatives which account for (1) multimodal pore size distributions, (2) physical plausibility towards the dry end, (3) capillary and non-capillary storage and flow, and (4) isothermal flow of water vapour. Finally, our results indicate that applying the Richards

  12. Accumulation of heavy metals in mosses: a biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Miranda, G; Avila-Pérez, P; Gil-Vargas, P; Zarazúa, G; Sánchez-Meza, J C; Zepeda-Gómez, C; Tejeda, S

    2016-01-01

    The metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) extends over an area of 1208.55 km(2) and has 1,361,500 inhabitants making it the fifth highest populated area in the country and the second highest in the state. The MATV has several environmental problems, with regards to the air quality. Particles PM10 and PM2.5 are considered to be the main pollutant due to these particles frequently exceeding the limit laid down in the standards of the air quality in the country. For this reason, samples of the mosses Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata were collected at different sites in MATV, Mexico in order to establish the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals by means of the analysis of the mosses tissues. Results show the average metal concentrations in the mosses in the order of: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cd. The concentration capacities of heavy metals were higher in Fabriona ciliaris than Leskea angustata. Enrichment factors for Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd were obtained using the soils from the same sampling area. Enrichment factors results show that Cr is conservative in both sampling seasons with a terrigenous origin; Zn is moderately enriched in both sampling seasons and mainly associated to pedological-soil or substrate contribution and anthropogenic activities and Cd is highly enriched in the rainy season and Pb is highly enriched in both sampling seasons, with a predominantly anthropogenic origin. This study provides information to be considered in the strategies for similar environmental problems in the world.

  13. Accumulation of heavy metals in mosses: a biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Miranda, G; Avila-Pérez, P; Gil-Vargas, P; Zarazúa, G; Sánchez-Meza, J C; Zepeda-Gómez, C; Tejeda, S

    2016-01-01

    The metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) extends over an area of 1208.55 km(2) and has 1,361,500 inhabitants making it the fifth highest populated area in the country and the second highest in the state. The MATV has several environmental problems, with regards to the air quality. Particles PM10 and PM2.5 are considered to be the main pollutant due to these particles frequently exceeding the limit laid down in the standards of the air quality in the country. For this reason, samples of the mosses Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata were collected at different sites in MATV, Mexico in order to establish the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals by means of the analysis of the mosses tissues. Results show the average metal concentrations in the mosses in the order of: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cd. The concentration capacities of heavy metals were higher in Fabriona ciliaris than Leskea angustata. Enrichment factors for Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd were obtained using the soils from the same sampling area. Enrichment factors results show that Cr is conservative in both sampling seasons with a terrigenous origin; Zn is moderately enriched in both sampling seasons and mainly associated to pedological-soil or substrate contribution and anthropogenic activities and Cd is highly enriched in the rainy season and Pb is highly enriched in both sampling seasons, with a predominantly anthropogenic origin. This study provides information to be considered in the strategies for similar environmental problems in the world. PMID:27375984

  14. Cravity modulation of the moss Tortula modica branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava; Kit, Nadja

    Among various abiotic factors the sensor system of plants constantly perceives light and gravitation impulses and reacts on their action by photo- and gravitropisms. Tropisms play fundamental part in ontogenesis and determination of plant forms. Essentially important question is how light initiating phototropic bending modulates gravitropism. In contrast to flower plants, red light is phototropically active for mosses, and phytochromic system controls initiation of apical growth, branching and photomorphogenesis of mosses. The aim of this investigation was to analyse cell branching of protonemata Tortula modica Zander depending on the direction of light and gravitation vector. The influence of light and gravitation on the form of protonemal turf T. modica, branching and the angle of lateral branches relative to axis of mother cell growth has been investigated. As moss protonemata is not branched in the darkness, light is necessary for branching activation. Minimally low intensity of the red light (0.2 mmol (.) m (-2) ({) .}sec (-1) ) induced branching without visual display of phototropic growth. It has been established that unidirectional action of light and gravitation intensifies branching, and, on the contrary, perpendicularly oriented vectors of factors weaken branches formation. Besides, parallel oriented vectors initiated branching from both cell sides, but oppositely directed vectors initiated branching only from one side. Clinostate rotation the change of the vector gravity and causes uniform cell branching, hence, light and gravitation mutually influence the branching system form of the protonemata cell. It has been shown that the angle of lateral branches in darkness does not depend on the direction of light and gravitation action. After lighting the local growth of the cell wall took place mainly under the angle 90 (o) to the axes of mother cell growth. Then the angle gradually decreased and in 3-4 cell divisions the lateral branch grew under the angle

  15. Purification and identification of a cytokinin from moss callus cells.

    PubMed

    Beutelmann, P; Bauer, L

    1977-01-01

    A cytokinin was isolated from the culture medium of callus cells of the moss hybridFunaria hygrometrica (L.) Sibth xPhyscomitrium piriforme Brid. The purification procedure included ethyl-acetate extraction, silver-salt precipitation, crystallization as picrate, and ion exchange chromatography. The structure of the cytokinin was confirmed as N(6)-(Δ(2)-isopentenyl)adenine by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The concentration of the compound in the culture medium was determined at ca. 10(-6) M. PMID:24425252

  16. Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Navia, Rodrigo; Bezama, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    The new "Hazardous Waste Management Regulation" was published in the Official Newspaper of the Chilean Republic on 12 June 2003, being in force 365 days after its publication (i.e., 12 June 2004). During the next 180 days after its publication (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was obligated to present a "Hazardous Waste Management Plan" if the facility generates more than 12 ton/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. Based on the Chilean industrial figures and this new regulation, hazardous waste management plans were carried out in three facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood remanufacturing facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified in all facilities. Used oil and oil-contaminated materials were determined to be the most important hazardous wastes generated. Minimization measures were implemented and re-use and recycling options were analyzed. The use of used oil as alternative fuel in high energy demanding facilities (i.e., cement facilities) and the re-refining of the used oil were found to be the most suitable options. In the Zn and Pb mine facility, the most important measure was the beginning of the study for using spent oils as raw material for the production of the explosives used for metals recovery from the rock. In Chile, there are three facilities producing alternative fuels from used oil, while two plants are nowadays re-refining oil to recycle it as hydraulic fluid in industry. In this sense, a proper and sustainable management of the used oil appears to be promissory. PMID:18337002

  17. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turetsky, M.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Talbot, J. J.; Frolking, S.; McGuire, A.D.; Tuittila, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Mosses in northern ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, and strongly influence nutrient, carbon and water cycling. We use literature review, synthesis and model simulations to explore the role of mosses in ecological stability and resilience. Moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories. Simulations from two process-based models suggest that northern ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. But simulations with two other models suggest that loss of moss will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. It seems clear that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species. We highlight several issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, and parameter vs conceptual uncertainty in models. Mosses play an important role in several ecosystem processes that play out over centuries – permafrost formation and thaw, peat accumulation, development of microtopography – and there is a need for studies that increase our understanding of slow, long-term dynamical processes.

  18. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Turetsky, M R; Bond-Lamberty, B; Euskirchen, E; Talbot, J; Frolking, S; McGuire, A D; Tuittila, E-S

    2012-10-01

    Mosses in northern ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, and strongly influence nutrient, carbon and water cycling. We use literature review, synthesis and model simulations to explore the role of mosses in ecological stability and resilience. Moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories. Simulations from two process-based models suggest that northern ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. But simulations with two other models suggest that loss of moss will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. It seems clear that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species. We highlight several issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, and parameter vs conceptual uncertainty in models. Mosses play an important role in several ecosystem processes that play out over centuries - permafrost formation and thaw, peat accumulation, development of microtopography - and there is a need for studies that increase our understanding of slow, long-term dynamical processes. PMID:22924403

  19. The EV-1 airborne microwave observatory of subcanopy and subsurface (AirMOSS) investigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AirMOSS is one of the five Earth Venture-1 investigations selected in May 2010, with the goal of improving the estimates of the North American net ecosystem exchange (NEE) through high-resolution observations of root zone soil moisture (RZSM). The 5-year AirMOSS investigation is deigned to overlap w...

  20. Antarctic moss stress assessment based on chlorophyll content and leaf density retrieved from imaging spectroscopy data.

    PubMed

    Malenovský, Zbyněk; Turnbull, Johanna D; Lucieer, Arko; Robinson, Sharon A

    2015-10-01

    The health of several East Antarctic moss-beds is declining as liquid water availability is reduced due to recent environmental changes. Consequently, a noninvasive and spatially explicit method is needed to assess the vigour of mosses spread throughout rocky Antarctic landscapes. Here, we explore the possibility of using near-distance imaging spectroscopy for spatial assessment of moss-bed health. Turf chlorophyll a and b, water content and leaf density were selected as quantitative stress indicators. Reflectance of three dominant Antarctic mosses Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Ceratodon purpureus and Schistidium antarctici was measured during a drought-stress and recovery laboratory experiment and also with an imaging spectrometer outdoors on water-deficient (stressed) and well-watered (unstressed) moss test sites. The stress-indicating moss traits were derived from visible and near infrared turf reflectance using a nonlinear support vector regression. Laboratory estimates of chlorophyll content and leaf density were achieved with the lowest systematic/unsystematic root mean square errors of 38.0/235.2 nmol g(-1) DW and 0.8/1.6 leaves mm(-1) , respectively. Subsequent combination of these indicators retrieved from field hyperspectral images produced small-scale maps indicating relative moss vigour. Once applied and validated on remotely sensed airborne spectral images, this methodology could provide quantitative maps suitable for long-term monitoring of Antarctic moss-bed health.

  1. Sex-specific volatile compounds influence microarthropod-mediated fertilization of moss.

    PubMed

    Rosenstiel, Todd N; Shortlidge, Erin E; Melnychenko, Andrea N; Pankow, James F; Eppley, Sarah M

    2012-09-20

    Sexual reproduction in non-vascular plants requires unicellular free-motile sperm to travel from male to female reproductive structures across the terrestrial landscape. Recent data suggest that microarthropods can disperse sperm in mosses. However, little is known about the chemical communication, if any, that is involved in this interaction or the relative importance of microarthropod dispersal compared to abiotic dispersal agents in mosses. Here we show that tissues of the cosmopolitan moss Ceratodon purpureus emit complex volatile scents, similar in chemical diversity to those described in pollination mutualisms between flowering plants and insects, that the chemical composition of C. purpureus volatiles are sex-specific, and that moss-dwelling microarthropods are differentially attracted to these sex-specific moss volatile cues. Furthermore, using experimental microcosms, we show that microarthropods significantly increase moss fertilization rates, even in the presence of water spray, highlighting the important role of microarthropod dispersal in contributing to moss mating success. Taken together, our results indicate the presence of a scent-based 'plant-pollinator-like' relationship that has evolved between two of Earth's most ancient terrestrial lineages, mosses and microarthropods.

  2. Atmospheric deposition of organic micropollutants in Norway studied by means of moss and lichen analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, G.E.; Ofstad, E.B.; Drangsholt, H.; Steinnes, E.

    1983-01-01

    Moss and lichen samples from eleven remote sites from all parts of Norway were analyzed for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. The highest and lowest concentration levels were found in the most southwesterly and northerly locations, respectively. Moss and lichen samples from one site were also analyzed for other organic micropollutants. They were found to contain alkanes, mostly of biogenic origin, PAH and phthalates.

  3. The effects of drying following heat shock exposure of the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu-Jun; Liu, Chun-Jiang; Jiang, Ping-An; Cai, Wei-Min; Wang, Yan

    2009-03-15

    Desert mosses are components of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and their ecological functions make assessment and protection of these mosses a high-ranking management priority in desert regions. Drying is thought to be useful for desert mosses surviving heat shock. In this study, we investigated the role of drying by monitoring the responses of physiological characters and asexual reproduction in the typical desert moss Syntrichia caninervis. Heat significantly decreased chlorophyll content and weakened rapid recovery of photochemical activity, and increased carotenoid content and membrane permeability. Lethal temperatures significantly destroyed shoot regeneration potential. In comparison with heat alone, drying significantly increased protonema emergence time and depressed protonema emergence area. Drying combined with heat accelerated water loss, followed by a decrease of photosynthetic activity. Drying had different influences on membrane permeability at different temperatures. When moss leaves were subjected to a combined stress of drying and heat shock, photosynthesis was maintained mainly due to the effects of drying on physiological activity although the cellular morphological integrity was affected. Drying caused opposing effects on moss physiological and reproductive characteristics. On the one hand, drying caused a positive synergistic effect with heat shock when the temperature was below 40 degrees C. On the other hand, drying showed antagonism with heat shock when the moss was subjected to temperatures higher than 40 degrees C. These findings may help in understanding the survival mechanism of dessert mosses under heat shock stress which will be helpful for the artificial reconstruction of BSCs.

  4. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. 207.170 Section 207.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. (a) The level of the pool shall normally be maintained at elevation...

  5. 75 FR 33799 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing June 8, 2010. Take notice that on June 1, 2010, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC submitted a baseline filing of its Statement of General...

  6. 76 FR 53426 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on August 17, 2011, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC submitted a revised Statement of Operating Conditions, that governs...

  7. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. 207.170 Section 207.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. (a) The level of the pool shall normally be maintained at elevation...

  8. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. 207.170 Section 207.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. (a) The level of the pool shall normally be maintained at elevation...

  9. Predictors of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villlegas, Natalia; De Oliveira, Giovanna; Hires, Kimberly; Gattamorta, Karina; Ferrer, Lilian; Peragallo, Nilda

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives To investigate if socio-demographic factors, religiosity, HIV-related knowledge, Marianismo, history of having been tested for HIV, knowing someone who died of AIDS and HIV risk perception were predictive factors to HIV enacted stigma predictors among Chilean women. Background HIV infection is the number one cause of death among women during their reproductive years. In Chile, studies with people living with HIV demonstrate the existence of HIV-related stigma. However, limited evidence is available about the underlying causes of HIV enacted stigma that results in stigmatisation and discrimination. Design The current cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of data collected to assess the impact of an HIV prevention intervention (Mano a Mano-Mujer) designed for Chilean women. A quasi-experimental design was used in the original study. Methods This study was conducted in two communities in Santiago, Chile. The sample for this study consisted of 496 Chileans between ages 18–49. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for the analysis. Results Participants in the study reported high levels (77·8%) of HIV enacted stigma. Higher levels of HIV-related knowledge were associated with lower levels of HIV enacted stigma. Women with higher education had lower levels of HIV enacted stigma than women with elementary education. In addition, greater levels of marianismo (cultural belief that women should be passive, faithful, and devoted to family) were associated with higher HIV enacted stigma scores. Conclusions The findings reflected the presence of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women. Identifying the significant predictors of HIV enacted stigma can help the nursing community to design HIV prevention interventions that include the reduction in HIV enacted stigma. HIV evidence-based prevention interventions should incorporate contents related to stigma to contribute to prevent HIV enacted stigma at individual and community levels

  10. Self-selection and moral hazard in Chilean health insurance.

    PubMed

    Sapelli, Claudio; Vial, Bernardita

    2003-05-01

    We study the existence of self-selection and moral hazard in the Chilean health insurance industry. Dependent workers must purchase health insurance either from one public or several private insurance providers. For them, we analyze the relationship between health care services utilization and the choice of either private or public insurance. In the case of independent workers, where there is no mandate, we analyze the relationship between utilization and the decision to voluntarily purchase health insurance. The results show self-selection against insurance companies for independent workers, and against public insurance for dependent workers. Moral hazard is negligible in the case of hospitalization, but for medical visits, it is quantitatively important.

  11. EVOLUTION OF THE MOSS GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR 32-BIT COMPUTER SYSTEMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.J.; Oleson, Lyndon R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss the current status and plans regarding the 32-bit implementation of the Map Overly and Statistical System (MOSS) geographic information system. Increasing interest in this system is promoting significant expansion of its capabilities, but any such enhancements will require careful analysis and planning to ensure that the resulting system is functionally complete and efficient yet flexible enough to adapt to a variety of user requirements and systems. All enhancements must be coordinated among centers of development in order to ensure the continued viability of a single MOSS. A baseline software configuration must be defined, and procedures must be developed to ensure coordination of any modifications to the baseline. Finally, there is significant interest in maintaining the public-domain aspects of MOSS to promote its shared use in the Department of the Interior. For these reasons, coordination efforts such as those initiated by the IDCCC and the MOSS Users Workshop should be strongly supported by the MOSS user community.

  12. Influence of the physicochemical characteristics of pollutants on their uptake in moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Z.; Fernández, J. A.; Real, C.; Carballeira, A.; Aboal, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    Bryophytes are commonly used as biomonitors to estimate the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and metalloids. However, the tissue concentrations of these elements in moss do not always accurately reflect atmospheric levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether element uptake in moss is affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the elements. Factor analysis was used to identify any patterns of covariance in the accumulation of elements in samples of the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum collected from the surroundings of different factories and from control sites. The variation in the concentrations of elements was similar in moss from both types of sites and was related to the binding properties of the elements. This suggests that the physicochemical characteristics of the elements determine the uptake of metals and metalloids from the atmosphere. Therefore, in studies that use multiple correlations among elements as indicators of a common origin of contaminants, erroneous conclusions may be reached by overlooking the adsorption properties of the moss.

  13. Proposal of a procedure for the analysis of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses.

    PubMed

    Concha-Graña, Estefanía; Piñeiro-Iglesias, María; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; López-Mahía, Purificación; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2015-03-01

    A useful analytical procedure for the analysis of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in moss samples using microwave assisted extraction and programmed temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PTV-GC-MS/MS) determination is proposed. The state of art in PAHs analysis in mosses was reviewed. All the steps of the analysis were optimized regarding not only to the analytical parameters, but also the cost, the total time of analysis and the labour. The method was validated for one moss species used as moss monitor in ambient air, obtaining high recoveries (between 83-108%), low quantitation limits (lower than 2 ng g(-1)), good intermediate precision (relative standard deviation lower than 10%), uncertainties lower than 20%. Finally, the method was checked for other species, demonstrating its suitability for the analysis of different moss species. For this reason the proposed method can be helpful in air biomonitoring studies.

  14. Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: spatial patterns and temporal trends in Europe.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Norris, D A; Steinnes, E; Kubin, E; Piispanen, J; Alber, R; Aleksiayenak, Y; Blum, O; Coşkun, M; Dam, M; De Temmerman, L; Fernández, J A; Frolova, M; Frontasyeva, M; González-Miqueo, L; Grodzińska, K; Jeran, Z; Korzekwa, S; Krmar, M; Kvietkus, K; Leblond, S; Liiv, S; Magnússon, S H; Mankovská, B; Pesch, R; Rühling, A; Santamaria, J M; Schröder, W; Spiric, Z; Suchara, I; Thöni, L; Urumov, V; Yurukova, L; Zechmeister, H G

    2010-10-01

    In recent decades, mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. Although spatial patterns were metal-specific, in 2005 the lowest concentrations of metals in mosses were generally found in Scandinavia, the Baltic States and northern parts of the UK; the highest concentrations were generally found in Belgium and south-eastern Europe. The recent decline in emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals across Europe has resulted in a decrease in the heavy metal concentration in mosses for the majority of metals. Since 1990, the concentration in mosses has declined the most for arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead and vanadium (52-72%), followed by copper, nickel and zinc (20-30%), with no significant reduction being observed for mercury (12% since 1995) and chromium (2%). However, temporal trends were country-specific with sometimes increases being found.

  15. A method for eliminating bacterial contamination from in vitro moss cultures1

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Sarah B.; Payton, Adam C.; McDaniel, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Bacterial contamination is a major problem in plant tissue culture, resulting in loss of experimental strains or preventing use of field-collected isolates. Here we evaluated an agar embedding method for eliminating bacteria from experimental cultures of the mosses Ceratodon purpureus and Physcomitrella patens. • Methods and Results: We blended moss protonema that had been inoculated with bacteria and embedded the cell fragments in antibiotic-containing, low-concentration agar. The plants were placed in a growth chamber and allowed to grow until the moss grew out of the media. The plants were then transferred to new plates and observed for contamination. The embedding method consistently outperformed standard procedures. • Conclusions: The embedding method places moss in direct contact with antibiotics, arresting bacterial replication and allowing moss to outgrow contamination. We anticipate this method will prove valuable for other plants capable of clonal propagation by blending. PMID:25606353

  16. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Turetsky, Merritt; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Euskirchen, Eugenie S.; Talbot, Julie; Frolking, Steve; McGuire, A. David; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2012-08-24

    Mosses in boreal and arctic ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, represent an important component of plant diversity, and strongly influence the cycling of water, nutrients, energy and carbon. Here we use a literature review and synthesis as well as model simulations to explore the role of moss in ecological stability and resilience. Our literature review of moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories in boreal and arctic regions. Our modeling simulations suggest that loss of moss within northern plant communities will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. While two models (HPM and STM-TEM) showed a significant effect of moss removal, results from the Biome-BGC and DVM-TEM models suggest that northern, moss-rich ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. We highlight a number of issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, phenotypical plasticity in traits, and whether the effects of moss on ecosystem processes scale with local abundance. We also suggest that as more models explore issues related to ecological resilience, issues related to both parameter and conceptual uncertainty should be addressed: are the models more limited by uncertainty in the parameterization of the processes included or by what is not represented in the model at all? It seems clear from our review that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species.

  17. Mosses and the struggle for light in a nitrogen-polluted world.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, René; Pearce, Imogen S K; Brooker, Rob W

    2005-01-01

    The impact of reduced light conditions as an indirect effect of nitrogen (N) deposition was determined on three mosses in a montane ecosystem, where sedge and grass cover increase due to N enrichment. Additionally, in the greenhouse we established the importance of low light to moss growth as an indirect N deposition effect relative to the direct toxic effects of N. The amount of light reaching the moss layer was strongly and negatively related to graminoid abundance. Mosses showed differing sensitivities to reduced light in the field. Racomitrium lanuginosum biomass was found to be highest under high-light conditions, Polytrichum alpinum at intermediate light levels, whilst that of Dicranum fuscescens was unrelated to light availability. Moreover, Racomitrium biomass decreased with increasing amounts of graminoid litter, whereas the other species were little affected. All three mosses responded differently to the combination of elevated N (20 vs 10 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) and reduced light (60 and 80% reduction) in the greenhouse. Racomitrium growth was strongly influenced by both light reduction and elevated N, in combination reducing shoot biomass up to 76%. There was a tendency for Dicranum growth to be modestly reduced by elevated N when shaded, causing up to 19% growth reduction. Polytrichum growth was not influenced by elevated N but was reduced up to 40% by shading. We conclude that competition for light, induced by vascular plants, can strongly influence moss performance even in unproductive low biomass ecosystems. The effects of reduced light arising from N pollution can be as important to mosses as direct toxicity from N deposition. Yet, different sensitivities of mosses to both toxic and shading effects of elevated N prevent generalisation and can lead to competitive species replacement within moss communities. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding moss-vascular plant interactions to allow interpretation and prediction of ecosystem

  18. Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures as markers for methanotrophic bacteria in peat moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Winden, Julia F.; Talbot, Helen M.; Kip, Nardy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Pol, Arjan; McNamara, Niall P.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are bacterial biomarkers with a likely potential to identify present and past methanotrophic communities. To unravel the methanotrophic community in peat bogs, we report the BHP signatures of type I and type II methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum mosses and of an extreme acidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph. A type I Methylovulum-like strain (M200) contains a remarkable combination of BHPs, including a complete suite of mono-unsaturated aminobacteriohopanepentol, -tetrol and -triol. The Methylomonas-like strain (M5) mainly produces aminobacteriohopanepentol, characteristic for type I methanotrophs, and the Methylosinus-like strain (29) contains both aminobacteriohopanetetrol and aminobacteriohopanetriol, typical for a type II methanotroph. The type II methanotroph Methylocella palustris and the verrucomicrobial Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum strain SolV primarily produce aminotriol, which is also produced by many other bacteria. In Sphagnum mosses and underlying peat from a peat bog from Moorhouse, UK, the only detectable BHPs indicative of methanotrophs are aminobacteriohopanepentol (aminopentol) and aminobacteriohopanetetrol (aminotetrol), although both are relatively low in abundance compared to other BHPs. Aminopentol serves as a marker for type I methanotrophs, while aminotetrol may reflect the presence of both type I and type II methanotrophs. The similar quantities of aminotetrol and aminopentol indicate that the methanotrophic community in Sphagnum peat probably consist of a combination of both type I and type II methanotrophs, which is in line with previously published pmoA-based micro-array results.

  19. An Innate Immunity Pathway in the Moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Bressendorff, Simon; Azevedo, Raquel; Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Ponce de León, Inés; Olsen, Jakob V; Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Erbs, Gitte; Newman, Mari-Anne; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2016-06-01

    MAP kinase (MPK) cascades in Arabidopsis thaliana and other vascular plants are activated by developmental cues, abiotic stress, and pathogen infection. Much less is known of MPK functions in nonvascular land plants such as the moss Physcomitrella patens Here, we provide evidence for a signaling pathway in P. patens required for immunity triggered by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This pathway induces rapid growth inhibition, a novel fluorescence burst, cell wall depositions, and accumulation of defense-related transcripts. Two P. patens MPKs (MPK4a and MPK4b) are phosphorylated and activated in response to PAMPs. This activation in response to the fungal PAMP chitin requires a chitin receptor and one or more MAP kinase kinase kinases and MAP kinase kinases. Knockout lines of MPK4a appear wild type but have increased susceptibility to the pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassisicola Both PAMPs and osmotic stress activate some of the same MPKs in Arabidopsis. In contrast, abscisic acid treatment or osmotic stress of P. patens does not activate MPK4a or any other MPK, but activates at least one SnRK2 kinase. Signaling via MPK4a may therefore be specific to immunity, and the moss relies on other pathways to respond to osmotic stress.

  20. Are alcohol expectancies associations? Comment on Moss and Albery (2009).

    PubMed

    Wiers, Reinout W; Stacy, Alan W

    2010-01-01

    Moss and Albery presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that alcohol selectively reduces propositional reasoning. As a result, behavior comes under the control of associative processes after alcohol consumption. We agree with the second but not with the first assumption, based on theoretical and empirical arguments. Although in some cases expectancies may involve a simple association, they are propositional in nature. We demonstrate that this assertion is supported by existing literature cited in Moss and Albery. Moreover, 6 recent studies consistently demonstrated that under circumstances in which executive control is impaired (either as a stable individual difference or under the acute influence of alcohol), associative processes, over and above expectancies, predict alcohol-related behavior. Taken together, the evidence strongly suggests a fundamental distinction between expectancies and associations in memory: Effects of propositional expectancies and executive functions are impaired under the acute influence of alcohol, but memory associations are not. This difference in perspective not only has theoretical implications but also leads to different predictions regarding acute alcohol effects in society.

  1. Filial mistletoes: the functional morphology of moss sporophytes

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2013-01-01

    Background A moss sporophyte inherits a haploid set of genes from the maternal gametophyte to which it is attached and another haploid set of genes from a paternal gametophyte. Evolutionary conflict is expected between genes of maternal and paternal origin that will be expressed as adaptations of sporophytes to extract additional resources from maternal gametophytes and adaptations of maternal gametophytes to restrain sporophytic demands. Interpretation The seta and stomata of peristomate mosses are interpreted as sporophytic devices for increasing nutrient transfer. The seta connects the foot, where nutrients are absorbed, to the developing capsule, where nutrients are needed for sporogenesis. Its elongation lifts stomata of the apophysis above the boundary layer, into the zone of turbulent air, thereby increasing the transpirational pull that draws nutrients across the haustorial foot. The calyptra is interpreted as a gametophytic device to reduce sporophytic demands. The calyptra fits tightly over the intercalary meristem of the sporophytic apex and prevents lateral expansion of the meristem. While intact, the calyptra delays the onset of transpiration. Predictions Nutrient transfer across the foot, stomatal number and stomatal aperture are predicted to be particular arenas of conflict between sporophytes and maternal gametophytes, and between maternal and paternal genomes of sporophytes. PMID:23277472

  2. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  3. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

  4. Antimicrobial activity of submerged cultures of Chilean basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Aqueveque, Pedro; Anke, Timm; Saéz, Katia; Silva, Mario; Becerra, José

    2010-10-01

    This study is part of a screening program aimed at searching for bioactive metabolites from Chilean basidiomycetes. Submerged cultivation of fungal mycelia in liquid media was evaluated for antimicrobial activity. A total of 148 strains were obtained in vitro. The extracts produced from submerged cultures were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. In the primary antimicrobial assay, approximately 60% of the extracts presented positive biological activity. The highest frequencies of active strains were from the orders Agaricales (31.0%), Polyporales (20.6%), Sterales (18.3%), Boletales (11.4%), and Cortinariales (9.1%). Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Twelve extracts that exhibited strong antimicrobial activity showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 50 µL/mL against Bacillus brevis and 25∼50 µL/mL against Penicillium notatum and Paecilomyces variotii. The biological activity of some strains did not vary considerably, regardless of the substrate or collection site whereas, for others, it showed marked variations. Differences in antimicrobial activities observed in the different fungal genera suggested that the ability to produce bioactive compounds is not homogenously distributed among basidiomycetes. The information obtained from this study reveals that Chilean basidiomycetes are able to generate small and/or large variations in the normal pathway of compounds production. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate this biological and chemical wealth, which could be an unsuspected reservoir of new and potentially useful molecules.

  5. Positive discrimination in education: Its justification and a Chilean example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Huidobro, Juan Eduardo S.

    1994-05-01

    Educational policies in Latin America have centred on two main issues: raising the quality of education, and improving the equity of its distribution. Access to schooling was until recently at the heart of the debate, the degree of justice of the educational systems being measured by their capacity to enrol and retain the population. Attention is now concentrated on the strength of the cultural resources offered by schools and the effectiveness of provision. Learning is the priority of education policy. This article develops the theme of equity, examining the concept and describing a programme which focuses on improving the equity of the Chilean educational system. It is suggested that educational equity should no longer mean equality of access but equality of results. A just system therefore needs to concentrate on raising the quality of schools serving the poorest sectors of society. The Chilean "900 Schools Programme" is an example. Its aim was to raise levels of achievement by improving the learning of poor children from 1st to 4th grade in reading, writing and mathematics. To do so, it improved the school environment, textbooks and methodologies, and offered support to children outside school hours by the work of community monitors.

  6. Grandparenting and psychosocial health among older Chileans: A longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Emily M.; Albala, Cecilia; Allen, Elizabeth; Dangour, Alan D.; Elbourne, Diana; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate factors associated with Chilean grandparents’ provision of help to grandchildren and associations between provision of such help and grandparents’ mental well-being two years later. Methods: Data are drawn from a representative sample of 2000 people aged 66–68 resident in low- or middle-income areas of Santiago who were surveyed in 2005 and re-interviewed two years later. Multivariable analyses were used to investigate factors associated with provision of help to grandchildren at baseline and associations between providing such help and life satisfaction, SF36-Mental Component Summary scores, and depression two years later. Results: 41% of grandparents lived with one or more grandchildren and over half provided four or more hours per week of help to grandchildren. Models controlling for baseline mental health, grandchild characteristics, marital and household characteristics, socio-economic status and functional health showed that grandfathers who provided four or more hours per week of help to grandchildren had better life satisfaction two years later and that those providing material help had higher SF36 MCS scores at follow-up. Grandmothers providing four or more hours of help a week had lower risks of depression. Conclusion: Older Chileans make important contributions to their families through the provision of help to grandchildren and these appear to have some benefits for their own psychosocial health. Gender differences in the pattern of associations may reflect differences in overall family responsibilities and merit further investigation. PMID:22690765

  7. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President’s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitución, Concepción, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this

  8. Strigolactones inhibit caulonema elongation and cell division in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Beate; Proust, Hélène; Belcram, Katia; Labrune, Cécile; Boyer, François-Didier; Rameau, Catherine; Bonhomme, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In vascular plants, strigolactones (SLs) are known for their hormonal role and for their role as signal molecules in the rhizosphere. SLs are also produced by the moss Physcomitrella patens, in which they act as signaling factors for controlling filament extension and possibly interaction with neighboring individuals. To gain a better understanding of SL action at the cellular level, we investigated the effect of exogenously added molecules (SLs or analogs) in moss growth media. We used the previously characterized Ppccd8 mutant that is deficient in SL synthesis and showed that SLs affect moss protonema extension by reducing caulonema cell elongation and mainly cell division rate, both in light and dark conditions. Based on this effect, we set up bioassays to examine chemical structure requirements for SL activity in moss. The results suggest that compounds GR24, GR5, and 5-deoxystrigol are active in moss (as in pea), while other analogs that are highly active in the control of pea branching show little activity in moss. Interestingly, the karrikinolide KAR1, which shares molecular features with SLs, did not have any effect on filament growth, even though the moss genome contains several genes homologous to KAI2 (encoding the KAR1 receptor) and no canonical homologue to D14 (encoding the SL receptor). Further studies should investigate whether SL signaling pathways have been conserved during land plant evolution.

  9. Comparison of the pebbles of the Shinarump and Moss Back members of the Chinle formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albee, Howard Franklin

    1956-01-01

    Lithology, color, size, sphericity, and roundness of pebbles from the Shinarurnp and Moss Back members of the Chinle formation were analyzed and compared. The difference in the quartz:quartzite:chert ratios of the pebbles, the presence of limestone and siltstone pebbles, and to a lesser degree,the difference in color of pebbles serve to distinguish the Moss Back from the Shinarump. In areas where both the Moss Back and Shinarump are present, the average ratios of quartz, quartzite, a.nd chert are respectively about 12:37:51 and 82:16:2. Limestone and siltstone pebbles are commonly found in the Moss Back, whereas they are rarely found in the Shinarump. The colors of the Moss Back pebbles are generally darker than those of the Shinarump pebbles. The Moss Back contains more gray to black pebbles and fewer light-colored pebbles, such as red, orange, and white, than the Shinarump. Size, sphericity, and roundness of pebbles do not show a significant difference between the two units. Fossiliferous pebbles in the Moss Back and Shinarump were derived chiefly from sediments of Carboniferous and Permian ages and could have had common sources.

  10. Life at the boundary: photosynthesis at the soil-fluid interface. A synthesis focusing on mosses.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Colmer, Timothy D

    2016-03-01

    Mosses are among the earliest branching embryophytes and probably originated not later than the early Ordovician when atmospheric CO2 was higher and O2 was lower than today. The C3 biochemistry and physiology of their photosynthesis suggests, by analogy with tracheophytes, that growth of extant bryophytes in high CO2 approximating Ordovician values would increase the growth rate. This occurs for many mosses, including Physcomitrella patens in suspension culture, although recently published transcriptomic data on this species at high CO2 and present-day CO2 show down-regulation of the transcription of several genes related to photosynthesis. It would be useful if transcriptomic (and proteomic) data comparing growth conditions are linked to measurements of growth and physiology on the same, or parallel, cultures. Mosses (like later-originating embryophytes) have been subject to changes in bulk atmospheric CO2 and O2 throughout their existence, with evidence, albeit limited, for positive selection of moss Rubisco. Extant mosses are subject to a large range of CO2 and O2 concentrations in their immediate environments, especially aquatic mosses, and mosses are particularly influenced by CO2 generated by, and O2 consumed by, soil chemoorganotrophy from organic C produced by tracheophytes (if present) and bryophytes. PMID:26842980

  11. Life at the boundary: photosynthesis at the soil-fluid interface. A synthesis focusing on mosses.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Colmer, Timothy D

    2016-03-01

    Mosses are among the earliest branching embryophytes and probably originated not later than the early Ordovician when atmospheric CO2 was higher and O2 was lower than today. The C3 biochemistry and physiology of their photosynthesis suggests, by analogy with tracheophytes, that growth of extant bryophytes in high CO2 approximating Ordovician values would increase the growth rate. This occurs for many mosses, including Physcomitrella patens in suspension culture, although recently published transcriptomic data on this species at high CO2 and present-day CO2 show down-regulation of the transcription of several genes related to photosynthesis. It would be useful if transcriptomic (and proteomic) data comparing growth conditions are linked to measurements of growth and physiology on the same, or parallel, cultures. Mosses (like later-originating embryophytes) have been subject to changes in bulk atmospheric CO2 and O2 throughout their existence, with evidence, albeit limited, for positive selection of moss Rubisco. Extant mosses are subject to a large range of CO2 and O2 concentrations in their immediate environments, especially aquatic mosses, and mosses are particularly influenced by CO2 generated by, and O2 consumed by, soil chemoorganotrophy from organic C produced by tracheophytes (if present) and bryophytes.

  12. Microphotometry of underwater shadowing by a moss from a Niagara Escarpment waterfall.

    PubMed

    Swatland, Howard J

    2011-02-01

    Microscope and fiber-optic spectrophotometry of transmittance and backscattering both showed moss leaves to be capable of casting strong shadows, with a single leaf blocking approximately 90% of incident light from a point source. In leaves with only one layer of cells, the transmittance through the cytoplasm of single cells was similar to that for whole leaves. Analysis of cell wall birefringence by polarized-light interferometry indicated that cell walls might normally scatter rather than transmit light. Spectra transmitted through, or backscattered from, the upper green layers of moss were dominated by selective absorbance from chlorophyll, but there was also evidence of wavelength-dependent scattering, as detected in the lower layers of brown, dead moss. Specular reflectance from moss leaves was detected by polarimetry and may have contributed to the relatively high macroscopic transmittance of stationary moss in water. Shadowing by moss leaves was confirmed by dynamic measurements of mosses in turbulent water without bubbles. Flicker patterns from leaves were superimposed on the underwater flicker pattern created at the air-water interface, thus flecks of light were reduced in intensity, increased in frequency, and decreased in duration. This was detected with both point source and diffuse illumination of samples.

  13. [Impact of moss soil crust on vegetation indexes interpretation].

    PubMed

    Fang, Shi-bo; Zhang, Xin-shi

    2011-03-01

    Vegetation indexes were the most common and the most important parameters to characterizing large-scale terrestrial ecosystems. It is vital to get precise vegetation indexes for running land surface process models and computation of NPP change, moisture and heat fluxes over surface. Biological soil crusts (BSC) are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid, polar and sub-polar regions. The spectral characteristics of dry and wet BSCs were quite different, which could produce much higher vegetation indexes value for the wet BSC than for the dry BSC as reported. But no research was reported about whether the BSC would impact on regional vegetation indexes and how much dry and wet BSC had impact on regional vegetation indexes. In the present paper, the most common vegetation index NDVI were used to analyze how the moss soil crusts (MSC) dry and wet changes affect regional NDVI values. It was showed that 100% coverage of the wet MSC have a much higher NDVI value (0.657) than the dry MSC NDVI value (0.320), with increased 0.337. Dry and wet MSC NDVI value reached significant difference between the levels of 0.000. In the study area, MSC, which had the average coverage of 12.25%, would have a great contribution to the composition of vegetation index. Linear mixed model was employed to analyze how the NDVI would change in regional scale as wet MSC become dry MSC inversion. The impact of wet moss crust than the dry moss crust in the study area can make the regional NDVI increasing by 0.04 (14.3%). Due to the MSC existence and rainfall variation in arid and semi-arid zones, it was bound to result in NDVI change instability in a short time in the region. For the wet MSC's spectral reflectance curve is similar to those of the higher plants, misinterpretation of the vegetation dynamics could be more severe due to the "maximum value composite" (MVC) technique used to compose the global vegetation maps in the study of vegetation dynamics. The researches would be useful for

  14. Expression of the moss PpLEA4-20 gene in rice enhances membrane protection and client proteins stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Deng, Dandan; Chen, Xi; Wu, Baomei; Hu, Ke; Qiu, Tianhang; Cui, Suxia; Huang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Green vegetative tissues of the moss Physcomitrella patens possess a powerful ability to tolerate severe drought stress. Proteomics analysis have revealed that a large number of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins were key players in the drought tolerance of the photosynthetic tissues. PpLEA4-20, a member of the moss LEA protein family, was selected for further function study using an ectopic expression method in rice. Through molecular identification via PCR, southern blotting and TAIL-PCR, we demonstrated that the PpLEA4-20 gene was transformed and inserted into a non-encoded region in chromosome 4 of rice and expressed stably in transgenic rice. Unexpectedly, PpLEA4-20 protein emerged as two high-expressed spots on 2-D gels generated from transgenic rice, suggesting that PpLEA4-20 proteins are complete compatible and might be modified in rice. Both growth and physiological analysis showed that seedlings of transgenic PpLEA4-20 rice displayed altered phenotypes and tolerance to salt. In addition, electrolyte leakage was reduced in transgenic PpLEA4-20 compared to wild type under stress conditions. Anti-aggregation analysis found that the PpLEA4-20 protein expressed in rice remained soluble at high temperature and in addition to some native proteins from transgenic PpLEA4-20 rice. Based on Nano LC MS/MS analysis, we identified several proteins from transgenic PpLEA4-20 rice of increased heat-stability. Our results provide evidence for a role of PpLEA4-20 in salt tolerance and stabilization of client proteins. PMID:25791479

  15. Moss-cyanobacteria associations as biogenic sources of nitrogen in boreal forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rousk, Kathrin; Jones, Davey L.; DeLuca, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) is a major pathway for available N entering ecosystems. In N-limited boreal forests, a significant amount of N2 is fixed by cyanobacteria living in association with mosses, contributing up to 50% to the total N input. In this review, we synthesize reports on the drivers of N2 fixation in feather moss-cyanobacteria associations to gain a deeper understanding of their role for ecosystem-N-cycling. Nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is inhibited by N inputs and therefore, significant fixation occurs only in low N-deposition areas. While it has been shown that artificial N additions in the laboratory as well as in the field inhibit N2 fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations, the type, as well as the amounts of N that enters the system, affect N2 fixation differently. Another major driver of N2 fixation is the moisture status of the cyanobacteria-hosting moss, wherein moist conditions promote N2 fixation. Mosses experience large fluctuations in their hydrological status, undergoing significant natural drying and rewetting cycles over the course of only a few hours, especially in summer, which likely compromises the N input to the system via N2 fixation. Perhaps the most central question, however, that remains unanswered is the fate of the fixed N2 in mosses. The cyanobacteria are likely to leak N, but whether this N is transferred to the soil and if so, at which rates and timescales, is unknown. Despite our increasing understanding of the drivers of N2 fixation, the role moss-cyanobacteria associations play in ecosystem-N-cycling remains unresolved. Further, the relationship mosses and cyanobacteria share is unknown to date and warrants further investigation. PMID:23785359

  16. Sensitivity of the xerophytic moss Syntrichia caninervis to chronic simulated nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanming

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts, complex of cyanobacteira, fungi, lichens and mosses, are common in dryland area and act as important elements of these ecosystems. Syntrichia caninervis is the dominant species in moss crusts in many desert ecosystems. Increasing N deposition has lead to great changes in community structure and function in the desert ecosystem worldwide. However, it is unclear how moss crusts respond to increased atmospheric N deposition, especially in term of growth and physiological parameters. The population and individual growth, and physiological responses of S. caninervis to six different doses of simulated N deposition (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0 g N m-2 a-1) over three years were studied. Simulated N deposition in the Gurbantunggut Desert affected growth and physiological indices of the xerophytic moss S.caninervis. Low N addition increased individual plant length and leaf size. High N addition was detrimental to almost all growth characteristics monitored, although moss abundance was increased. The photosynthesis-related indices were moderately increased at low N addition rates and significantly decreased by high N addition. Changes in osmotic adjustment substance concentrations and activities of antioxidant enzymes facilitated protection of leaf cells from oxidative damage under N addition. Low rates of N additiondid not significantly affect, and may even stimulate growth and physiological activity of moss crusts. However, high rates of N addition decreased moss vitality and might affect the function of moss crusts. Moss crusts are sensitive to N addition and greater attention should be paid to protection of such kinds of biological complexes in desert ecosystems under increasing N deposition. Key words: antioxidant enzyme, chlorophyll, fluorescence, nitrogen deposition, osmotic substance, Syntrichia caninervis

  17. [Influences of petrophytia moss on vegetation development in evergreen broad-leaved forest].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongsheng; Fang, Yanming

    2003-06-01

    In order to examine the role of Petrophytia moss in maintaining the stability and integrity of forest vegetation, the distribution patterns of vascular plants among Petrophytia moss layer were investigated in five heterogeneous patches of evergreen broad-leaved forest at Longwangshan, Zhejiang Province. The distribution and composition of vascular plants were jointly affected by various factors, such as disturbance degree in patch, moss growth condition, and water and soil conservation ability of moss layer. Original habitats patch 1 and patch 5 were kept well, and hence, the even depth, dry weight and maximum water-holding capacity of moss layer, as well as the dry weight of soil and the soil water-absorbing rate in moss layer for patch 1 and patch 5 were much more than other patches. For example, the even depth (cm) of moss layer were decreased in the order of patch 5(2.2) > patch 1(2.0) > patch 2(1.5) > patch 3(1.1) > patch 4(0.9); the ranking of vascular plant diversities among moss layer in each patch was patch 5(16) > patch 1(14) > patch 3(9) > patch 4(7), and the general cover of these plants was followed as patch 3(30.0%) > patch 1(28.5%) > patch 5 (26.5%) > patch 2 (17.0%) > patch 4(4.5%). It was concluded that Petrophytia moss had the roles of reserving water and soil, holding litter, concentrating nutrient elements, and corrupting rock, which could improve the environmental condition of rock surface, help to the regeneration of vascular plants, and bring positive effects on the restoration or conversation of vegetation in disturbance sites and on the extension of forest scale.

  18. Production of greenhouse-grown biocrust mosses and associated cyanobacteria to rehabilitate dryland soil function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reed, Sasha C.; Doherty, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Mosses are an often-overlooked component of dryland ecosystems, yet they are common members of biological soil crust communities (biocrusts) and provide key ecosystem services, including soil stabilization, water retention, carbon fixation, and housing of N2 fixing cyanobacteria. Mosses are able to survive long dry periods, respond rapidly to precipitation, and reproduce vegetatively. With these qualities, dryland mosses have the potential to be an excellent dryland restoration material. Unfortunately, dryland mosses are often slow growing in nature, and ex situ cultivation methods are needed to enhance their utility. Our goal was to determine how to rapidly produce, vegetatively, Syntrichia caninervis and S. ruralis, common and abundant moss species in drylands of North America and elsewhere, in a greenhouse. We manipulated the length of hydration on a weekly schedule (5, 4, 3, or 2 days continuous hydration per week), crossed with fertilization (once at the beginning, monthly, biweekly, or not at all). Moss biomass increased sixfold for both species in 4 months, an increase that would require years under dryland field conditions. Both moss species preferred short hydration and monthly fertilizer. Remarkably, we also unintentionally cultured a variety of other important biocrust organisms, including cyanobacteria and lichens. In only 6 months, we produced functionally mature biocrusts, as evidenced by high productivity and ecosystem-relevant levels of N2 fixation. Our results suggest that biocrust mosses might be the ideal candidate for biocrust cultivation for restoration purposes. With optimization, these methods are the first step in developing a moss-based biocrust rehabilitation technology.

  19. Mosses influence phosphorus cycling in rich fens by driving redox conditions in shallow soils.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Katherine F; Bedford, Barbara L

    2011-09-01

    Mosses play an integral role in the hydrologic regimes of ecosystems where they cover the soil surface, and thus affect biogeochemical cycling of elements influenced by soil oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, including the plant growth-limiting nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus (P). In rich fens where P often limits plant growth, we hypothesized that feedbacks between mosses and redox conditions would determine P availability to shallow-rooted forb species that constitute much of these wetlands' unusually high plant species diversity. In a moss removal experiment in three fens, forb tissue P and microbial P were greater while anion exchange membrane (AEM) resin P was lower where mosses occurred than where they were removed, suggesting both higher availability and greater demand for P in moss-covered soils. Coupled physicochemical and biological mechanisms drove moss effects on P cycling, ultimately through effects on soil oxygenation or reduction: higher redox potential underlying mosses corresponded to greater microbial activity, phosphatase enzyme activity, and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), all of which can promote greater P availability to plants. These more oxidized soils stimulated: (1) greater microbial activity and root vigor; (2) correspondingly greater P demand via microbial uptake, forb uptake, and iron (Fe)-P reactions; and (3) greater P supply through soil and root phosphatase activity and AMF colonization. This work demonstrates that mosses improve vascular plant P acquisition by alleviating stresses caused by reducing conditions that would otherwise prevail in shallow underlying soils, thus providing a mechanism by which mosses facilitate plant species diversity in rich fens.

  20. Is it possible to estimate atmospheric deposition of heavy metals by analysis of terrestrial mosses?

    PubMed

    Aboal, J R; Fernández, J A; Boquete, T; Carballeira, A

    2010-11-15

    Here we present a critical review of diverse research studies involving estimation of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals from the concentrations of the contaminants in terrestrial moss. The findings can be summarized as follows: i) significant correlations between the concentrations of contaminants in moss and bulk deposition were observed in only 40.1% of the cases in which the relationship was studied and in only 14.1% of the cases, the coefficient of correlation was >0.7; ii) some method-related problems were identified (i.e. small sample sizes, elimination of some data from the regression analyses, large distances between the moss sampling sites and the bulk precipitation collectors, differences in times of exposure of the moss samples and collection times for the bulk precipitation), so that the results of the studies may not be completely valid, and iii) evidence was found in the relevant literature that moss does not actually integrate the atmospheric deposition received. We also discuss the reason why, in accordance with the published data, bulk deposition cannot be correctly estimated by determination of the final concentrations of contaminants in the organism, such as the existence of different sources of contamination, the physicochemical characteristics of the sources of deposition, physicochemical processes to which the organism is subjected and the biological processes that take place in the moss. Taking into account the above findings, it was concluded that, except for certain elements and specific cases (i.e. Pb and Cd), atmospheric deposition of elements cannot be accurately estimated from the concentrations of metals and metalloids in moss tissues. However, the analysis of moss does provide information about the presence of contaminants in the atmosphere, their spatial and temporal patterns of distribution and how they are taken up by live organisms. Use of mosses is therefore recommended as a complementary (rather than an alternative

  1. Content in Native Literature Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    Including Native literature in school curricula is an important way of enhancing the Native student's self-concept and providing accurate Native cultural knowledge to Native and non-Native students alike. Nevertheless, Canadian school literature programs generally contain neither contemporary nor traditional Native literature. Some programs…

  2. Momilactone A and B as allelochemicals from moss Hypnum plumaeforme: first occurrence in bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nishimura, Naoki; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Akihiko; Takaoka, Daisuke

    2007-12-01

    Momilactones A (1) and B (2), which have been identified as phytoalexins in rice, were isolated from extracts of the moss Hypnum plumaeforme. This is the first isolation and identification of momilactones as allelochemicals from a bryophyte. H. plumaeforme produces considerable amounts of momilactones (isolated yield: 8.4 mg/Kg plant for 1; 4.2 mg/Kg for 2). EtOAc extracts from H. plumaeforme and 2 showed growth inhibitory activity against angiosperms, moss, and liverwort plants. On the other hand, the growth of H. plumaeforme was insensitive to its extract and 2. Our finding suggests that momilactones play an important role as allelochemicals in this moss.

  3. Epiphytic algae on mosses in the Altindere Valley National Park (Maçka-Trabzon/Turkey).

    PubMed

    Sahin, B; Ozdemir, T

    2008-09-15

    Species composition and abundance of epiphytic algae on mosses growing in the Altindere Valley National Park were investigated in March 2008. The epiphytic algae identified in these samples were 27 species in total, 15 of the Bacillariophyta, 7 of the Cyanophyta, 4 of the Chlorophyta and a single of the Euglenophyta species. The members of the Bacillariophyta were more frequently found among these epiphytic algae on mosses. Netrium digitus (Ehrenb.) Itzigs and Rothe var. curtum (Borge) Willi Krieg. was recorded for the first time in the desmids flora of Turkey. The epiphytic algal flora on mosses at the submerged habitat was the richest of the three habitats.

  4. Effects of sulphuric compounds on the ATP content of the peat moss Sphagnum fuscum

    SciTech Connect

    Aulio, K.

    1984-01-01

    Luminometric determination of ATP in the photosynthetic tissues of the peat moss Sphagnum fuscum proved to be a suitable technique in studying the effects of bisulphite and sulphate on the metabolism of the mosses. The method has the advantage that it is rapid and easy to perform, and that the results are reliable and equal with those obtained by using other techniques. Bisulphite (HSO/sub 3//sup -/) caused marked reductions in the ATP contents at the 1 mM level, and the 5 mM level was clearly detrimental to the energy metabolism of the mosses. In contrast, sulphate (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/) increased the ATP contents markedly.

  5. Response of mosses to the heavy metal deposition in Poland--an overview.

    PubMed

    Grodzińska, K; Szarek-Łukaszewska, G

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) in Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., a common moss species, were used to indicate relative levels of atmospheric deposition in Poland in the years 1975-1998. Spatial and temporal differences in the heavy metal concentrations in mosses were found. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in the moss samples from the southern, most industrialised part of the country, and the lowest from north-eastern Poland. A significant decrease of heavy metals over 20 years (1975-1998) was found. PMID:11584642

  6. Perfume allergy due to oak moss and other lichens.

    PubMed

    Thune, P; Solberg, Y; McFadden, N; Staerfelt, F; Sandberg, M

    1982-11-01

    During a period of 2 1/2 years, 7 of 2000 patients routinely tested at our laboratory revealed contact allergy to oak moss in perfumes. All reacted to a mixture of different lichens and to some specific lichen compounds. The sensitivity was probably induced by cosmetics containing lichen substances. The following 3 compounds caused reactions in all patients tested: atranorin, evernic and usnic acids. 3 patients were photosensitive, but stronger reactions were elicited by prolonged contact during occlusion of the patches and complete protection against light, rather than by irradiation alone. The data suggest that the sensitizing capacity of the lichen compounds is primarily of a contact rather than of a photocontact nature.

  7. Phototropism in gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Liang; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2015-01-01

    Shoot phototropism enables plants to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions and thus benefits growth and metabolism in land plants. To understand the evolution of this response, we established an experimental system to study phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phototropic response of gametophores occurs slowly; a clear response takes place more than 24 hours after the onset of unilateral light irradiation, likely due to the slow growth rate of gametophores. We also found that red and far-red light can induce phototropism, with blue light being less effective. These results suggest that plants used a broad range of light wavelengths as phototropic signals during the early evolution of land plants. PMID:25848889

  8. Perfume allergy due to oak moss and other lichens.

    PubMed

    Thune, P; Solberg, Y; McFadden, N; Staerfelt, F; Sandberg, M

    1982-11-01

    During a period of 2 1/2 years, 7 of 2000 patients routinely tested at our laboratory revealed contact allergy to oak moss in perfumes. All reacted to a mixture of different lichens and to some specific lichen compounds. The sensitivity was probably induced by cosmetics containing lichen substances. The following 3 compounds caused reactions in all patients tested: atranorin, evernic and usnic acids. 3 patients were photosensitive, but stronger reactions were elicited by prolonged contact during occlusion of the patches and complete protection against light, rather than by irradiation alone. The data suggest that the sensitizing capacity of the lichen compounds is primarily of a contact rather than of a photocontact nature. PMID:7172655

  9. Phototropism in gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Bao, Liang; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2015-01-01

    Shoot phototropism enables plants to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions and thus benefits growth and metabolism in land plants. To understand the evolution of this response, we established an experimental system to study phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phototropic response of gametophores occurs slowly; a clear response takes place more than 24 hours after the onset of unilateral light irradiation, likely due to the slow growth rate of gametophores. We also found that red and far-red light can induce phototropism, with blue light being less effective. These results suggest that plants used a broad range of light wavelengths as phototropic signals during the early evolution of land plants.

  10. Stereological analysis of gravitropism in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1997-01-01

    Apical cells of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Cerotodon purpureus are negatively gravitropic. Previous light microscopy has shown that reorientation to the horizontal induces amyloplast sedimentation and redistribution of microtubules. To determine whether other components become redistributed laterally or axially, the apical 35 micrometers of both vertical and horizontal apical cells were compared stereologically using transmission electron microscopy. Reorientation to the horizontal changed the longitudinal distributions of tubular ER, Golgi stacks, and vesicles but not cisternal ER, mitochondria, and plastids. Only plastids showed a statistically significant lateral redistribution after horizontal placement. Qualitative examination of the sedimentation zone showed plastids sedimented close to peripherally located ER with vacuoles displaced above plastids. These results argue against a model where differential tip growth results from a redistribution of Golgi stacks or exocytic vesicles.

  11. Phylogenetic evidence of a rapid radiation of pleurocarpous mosses (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Shaw, A J; Cox, C J; Goffinet, B; Buck, W R; Boles, S B

    2003-10-01

    Pleurocarpous mosses, characterized by lateral female gametangia and highly branched, interwoven stems, comprise three orders and some 5000 species, or almost half of all moss diversity. Recent phylogenetic analyses resolve the Ptychomniales as sister to the Hypnales plus Hookeriales. Species richness is highly asymmetric with approximately 100 Ptychomniales, 750 Hookeriales, and 4400 Hypnales. Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences were obtained to compare partitioning of molecular diversity among the orders with estimates of species richness, and to test the hypothesis that either the Hookeriales or Hypnales underwent a period (or periods) of exceptionally rapid diversification. Levels of biodiversity were quantified using explicitly historical "phylogenetic diversity" and non-historical estimates of standing sequence diversity. Diversification rates were visualized using lineage-through-time (LTT) plots, and statistical tests of alternative diversification models were performed using the methods of Paradis (1997). The effects of incomplete sampling on the shape of LTT plots and performance of statistical tests were investigated using simulated phylogenies with incomplete sampling. Despite a much larger number of accepted species, the Hypnales contain lower levels of (cpDNA) biodiversity than their sister group, the Hookeriales, based on all molecular measures. Simulations confirm previous results that incomplete sampling yields diversification patterns that appear to reflect a decreasing rate through time, even when the true phylogenies were simulated with constant rates. Comparisons between simulated results and empirical data indicate that a constant rate of diversification cannot be rejected for the Hookeriales. The Hypnales, however, appear to have undergone a period of exceptionally rapid diversification for the earliest 20% of their history.

  12. Accumulation of airborne trace elements in mosses, lichens and synthetic materials exposed at urban monitoring stations: towards a harmonisation of the moss-bag technique.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S; Adamo, P; Spagnuolo, V; Tretiach, M; Bargagli, R

    2013-01-01

    Mosses, lichens and cellulose filters were exposed for 17 weeks at four urban monitoring stations in Naples (S Italy) to assess the accumulation of airborne Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn. In each site, the element accumulation was significantly higher in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme than in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Acid washed mosses accumulated the highest amount of trace elements, but the differences in element concentrations among the moss samples exposed after water washing and different devitalisation treatments (acid washing, oven drying and water boiling) and between the lichen samples exposed with and without the nylon bag were not statistically significant. The cellulose filters showed the lowest accumulation capability. The reciprocal ordination of sites and exposed materials showed an increasing contamination gradient (especially for Pb, Cu and Zn) from the background site to the trafficked city streets; this pattern was undetectable from PM(10) data recorded by the automatic monitoring devices operating in the four exposure sites. The element profile in exposed materials did not change substantially throughout the urban area and particles of polluted urban soils seem the main source of airborne metals in Naples. Through a comprehensive evaluation of the results from this and previous studies, a protocol is suggested for the moss-bag monitoring of trace element deposition in urban environments.

  13. "How and when Chilean Pharmacology started to be experimental and became a science".

    PubMed

    Bustos, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M; Noriega, Viviana; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón

    2015-11-01

    Pharmacology in Chile has about 75 years of history and from its beginning until today has grown exponentially. Today, pharmacology is taught in the biomedical careers of the main Chilean universities and research centers in pharmacology are in the north, central and south of Chile. This editorial offers an overview of the main milestones that have led to the consolidation of Chilean pharmacology in Latin America and the world.

  14. Tectonics of the Argentine and Chilean Andes: An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folguera, Andrés; Alvarado, Patricia; Arriagada, César; Ramos, Victor A.

    2015-12-01

    This Special Issue gathers a series of contributions derived from presentations at the 19° Congreso Geológico Argentino held in Córdoba in 2-6 June 2014. Specific subjects cover a wide variety of topics and regions of the Argentine and Chilean Andes, varying from sedimentological analyses and U/Pb dating of detrital zircons in different rocks to determine source areas for different times and regions along the southern Andes; satellite gravity data for monitoring earthquakes at the subduction zone to understand their complex rupture structure; fission track data from the Andes to the foreland region; use of seismic tomographies and conventional seismic reflection data for analyzing crustal structure; to paleomagnetic data and structural and morphological analyses (Fig. 1).

  15. IATROGENIC MICROCHIP ARTERIAL EMBOLISM IN A CHILEAN FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS CHILENSIS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Ewing, Jacob; Arruda, Paulo; Kuyper, Jennifer; Riedesel, Elizabeth; Miles, Kristina M

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant microchip migration has been reported in domestic animal species, but in most cases, this migration is atraumatic to the patient. Reports of microchip-associated trauma and sarcoma development also have been reported in a variety of mammal species. This report describes accidental arterial microchip insertion causing obstruction of the iliac artery in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Diagnostic imaging included digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography to determine the location of the microchip. Surgical removal of the microchip was attempted; however, the flamingo died intraoperatively. Postmortem evaluation found trauma to the epicardium, without penetration of the ventricle. The descending aorta was found traumatized and identified as the most likely insertion point leading to the embolism.

  16. [Sodium and potassium content of various Chilean foods].

    PubMed

    Alvarez de Araya, C; Farah, M; Zuccarelli, M T; Masson, L

    1981-03-01

    Sodium and potassium contents of 40 high-protein dietary products were determined in order to complete the Table de Composición Química se Alimentos Chilenos (Chemical Composition Table of Chilean Foods). These cations' level must be strictly controlled in diets of many renal and heart patients. In Chile, Nutritionists who are in charge of preparing these diets, do not have a national composition table related to the sodium and potassium content for most of the food products. Samples of fluid cow's milk, dried milk with different fat contents, some cheeses, hen eggs, bovine entrails, some meat derivates and several meat cuts, including bovine, pork, lamb and chicken were studied.

  17. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  18. IATROGENIC MICROCHIP ARTERIAL EMBOLISM IN A CHILEAN FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS CHILENSIS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Ewing, Jacob; Arruda, Paulo; Kuyper, Jennifer; Riedesel, Elizabeth; Miles, Kristina M

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant microchip migration has been reported in domestic animal species, but in most cases, this migration is atraumatic to the patient. Reports of microchip-associated trauma and sarcoma development also have been reported in a variety of mammal species. This report describes accidental arterial microchip insertion causing obstruction of the iliac artery in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Diagnostic imaging included digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography to determine the location of the microchip. Surgical removal of the microchip was attempted; however, the flamingo died intraoperatively. Postmortem evaluation found trauma to the epicardium, without penetration of the ventricle. The descending aorta was found traumatized and identified as the most likely insertion point leading to the embolism. PMID:27468052

  19. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food. PMID:25898415

  20. Bayesian spatiotemporal interpolation of rainfall in the Central Chilean Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossa-Moreno, Juan; Keir, Greg; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Water availability in the populous and economically significant Central Chilean region is governed by complex interactions between precipitation, temperature, snow and glacier melt, and streamflow. Streamflow prediction at daily time scales depends strongly on accurate estimations of precipitation in this predominantly dry region, particularly during the winter period. This can be difficult as gauged rainfall records are scarce, especially in the higher elevation regions of the Chilean Andes, and topographic influences on rainfall are not well understood. Remotely sensed precipitation and topographic products can be used to construct spatiotemporal multivariate regression models to estimate rainfall at ungauged locations. However, classical estimation methods such as kriging cannot easily accommodate the complicated statistical features of the data, including many 'no rainfall' observations, as well as non-normality, non-stationarity, and temporal autocorrelation. We use a separable space-time model to predict rainfall using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference, using the gridded CHIRPS satellite-based rainfall dataset and digital elevation models as covariates. We jointly model both the probability of rainfall occurrence on a given day (using a binomial likelihood) as well as amount (using a gamma likelihood or similar). Correlation in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model if desired. It is possible to evaluate the GMRF at relatively coarse temporal resolution to speed up computations, but still produce daily rainfall predictions. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, which we use to objectively select from competing models with various combinations of temporal smoothing, likelihoods, and autoregressive model orders.

  1. VOCALS-CUpEx: the Chilean Upwelling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garreaud, R. D.; Rutllant, J. A.; Muñoz, R. C.; Rahn, D. A.; Ramos, M.; Figueroa, D.

    2010-11-01

    The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was a major field experiment conducted in spring of 2008 off southern Peru and northern Chile, aimed at better understanding the coupled climate systems of the southeast Pacific. Because of logistical constrains, the coastal area around 30° S was not sampled during VOCALS-REx. This area not only marks the poleward edge of the subtropical stratocumulus cloud regime (thus acting as a source of transient disturbances) but is also one of the most active upwelling centers and source of surface ocean kinetic energy along the Chilean coast. To fill such an observational gap, a small, brief, but highly focused field experiment was conducted in late spring 2009 in the near-shore region around 30° S. The Chilean Upwelling Experiment (CUpEx) was endorsed by VOCALS as a regional component. CUpEx included long-term monitoring, an intensive two-week field campaign and off-shore research flights. Our goal was to obtain an atmospheric/oceanic dataset with enough temporal and spatial coverage to be able to document (a) the mean diurnal cycles of the lower-troposphere and upper-ocean in a region of complex topography and coastline geometry, and (b) the ocean-atmosphere response to the rapid changes in coastal winds from strong, upwelling-favorable southerly winds to relaxed southerlies or even downwelling-favorable northerlies. In this paper we describe the measurement platforms and sampling strategy, and provide an observational overview, highlighting some key mean and transient features.

  2. VOCALS-CUpEx: the Chilean Upwelling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garreaud, R. D.; Rutllant, J. A.; Muñoz, R. C.; Rahn, D. A.; Ramos, M.; Figueroa, D.

    2011-03-01

    The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was a major field experiment conducted in spring of 2008 off southern Peru and northern Chile, aimed at better understanding the coupled climate systems of the southeast Pacific. Because of logistical constrains, the coastal area around 30° S was not sampled during VOCALS-REx. This area not only marks the poleward edge of the subtropical stratocumulus cloud regime (thus acting as a source of transient disturbances) but is also one of the most active upwelling centers and source of surface ocean kinetic energy along the Chilean coast. To fill such an observational gap, a small, brief, but highly focused field experiment was conducted in late spring 2009 in the near-shore region around 30° S. The Chilean Upwelling Experiment (CUpEx) was endorsed by VOCALS as a regional component. CUpEx included long-term monitoring, an intensive two-week field campaign and off-shore research flights. Our goal was to obtain an atmospheric/oceanic dataset with enough temporal and spatial coverage to be able to document (a) the mean diurnal cycles of the lower-troposphere and upper-ocean in a region of complex topography and coastline geometry, and (b) the ocean-atmosphere response to the rapid changes in coastal winds from strong, upwelling-favorable equatorward flow (southerly winds) to downwelling-favorable poleward flow (northerly winds). In this paper we describe the measurement platforms and sampling strategy, and provide an observational overview, highlighting some key mean-state and transient features.

  3. Twilight vertical migrations of zooplankton in a Chilean fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Castro, Leonardo; Cáceres, Mario; Pizarro, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    Time series of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at three sites along a Chilean fjord with the purpose of determining dominant structures of vertical migrations of the sound scattering layer. Ancillary data obtained with stratified net samples indicated that the sound scattering layer may have been dominated by euphausiids and decapods. Therefore, distributions of acoustic backscatter anomalies and vertical velocities were attributed to vertical migrations of predominantly these organisms. Migration patterns were dominated by twilight excursions in which organisms swam toward the water surface at sunset, spent <0.5 h at a depth near the pycnocline (∼10 m) and then swam downward to depths between ∼20 and ∼60 m. After congregating at those depths during night-time, organisms swam upward again toward the pycnocline at sunrise, spent <1 h near the pycnocline and swam downward to their day-time depths (>100 m). This migration strategy can also be termed 'semidiel migration' as two double excursions were linked to light levels. The reasons for this twilight migration remain uncertain. But it is possible that the up and down motion around sunset was related to predation avoidance, hunger-satiation state, ontogeny, seaward transport evasion, or reaction to the environmental shock from the pycnocline, or a combination of all or some of them. In contrast, the sunrise double excursion was probably linked to feeding requirements by organisms that need to spend the day at great depth with no food available. This study demonstrated the existence of semidiel patterns throughout the fjord and through prolonged periods. In addition, identification of this pattern by acoustic backscatter was complemented by direct vertical velocity measurements. It is proposed that twilight vertical migration is a common strategy in Chilean fjords.

  4. An investigation of the allergenic constituents of Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pous & Vezda ('silver moss', 'reindeer moss' or 'reindeer lichen').

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Emde, L; Marks, V

    1993-02-01

    The sensitizing potency of Cladonia stellaris ('reindeer lichen', 'silver moss') extracts was determined in guinea pigs by a modified FCA (Freund's complete adjuvant) test. The lichen showed a moderate sensitizing potency. Similar investigations with pure common lichen constituents revealed a moderate sensitizing potency for fumarprotocetraric acid and atranorin and a weak one for evernic acid, stictic acid and both forms of usnic acid. Although generally weak, (-)-usnic acid was at least 2 x stronger than (+)-usnic acid. After separation of the Cladonia ether extract into 'usnic-acid-free' and 'usnic-acid-containing' fractions, perlatolic acid was identified as the main allergenic constituent of the 'usnic-acid-free' fraction. Stictic, evernic, fumarprotocetraric acid and atranorin were not detectable. Lichens and lichen products generally possess a weak to moderate sensitizing capacity. Compared with common sensitizers of occupational and environmental importance, these products play only a minor rôle. PMID:8458221

  5. Molecular characterization of three PRORP proteins in the moss Physcomitrella patens: nuclear PRORP protein is not essential for moss viability.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Chieko; Komura, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Korechika; Kometani, Kazuki; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    RNase P is a ubiquitous endonuclease that removes the 5' leader sequence from pre-tRNAs in all organisms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RNA-free proteinaceous RNase Ps (PRORPs) seem to be enzyme(s) for pre-tRNA 5'-end processing in organelles and the nucleus and are thought to have replaced the ribonucleoprotein RNase P variant. However, the evolution and function of plant PRORPs are not fully understood. Here, we identified and characterized three PRORP-like proteins, PpPPR_63, 67, and 104, in the basal land plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens. PpPPR_63 localizes to the nucleus, while PpPPR_67 and PpPPR_104 are found in both the mitochondria and chloroplasts. The three proteins displayed pre-tRNA 5'-end processing activity in vitro. Mutants with knockout (KO) of the PpPPR_63 gene displayed growth retardation of protonemal colonies, indicating that, unlike Arabidopsis nuclear RPORPs, the moss nuclear PpPPR_63 is not essential for viability. In the KO mutant, nuclear-encoded tRNAAsp (GUC) levels were slightly decreased, whereas most nuclear-encoded tRNA levels were not altered. This indicated that most of the cytosolic mature tRNAs were produced normally without proteinaceous RNase P-like PpPPR_63. Single PpPPR_67 or 104 gene KO mutants displayed different phenotypes of protonemal growth and chloroplast tRNA(Arg) (ACG) accumulation. However, the levels of all other tRNAs were not altered in the KO mutants. In addition, in vitro RNase P assays showed that PpPPR_67 and PpPPR_104 efficiently cleaved chloroplast pre-tRNA(Arg) (CCG) and pre-tRNA(Arg) (UCU) but they cleaved pre-tRNA(Arg) (ACG) with different efficiency. This suggests that the two proteins have overlapping function but their substrate specificity is not identical.

  6. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. PMID:26969058

  7. Monitoring Airborne Heavy Metal Using Mosses in the City of Xuzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Zhou, Peng; Fang, Yanming

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of six elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured in moss (Haplocladium microphyllum) samples collected from 55 urban sites in the summer of 2013. The objectives were to evaluate variations in the heavy metal concentrations in mosses across Xuzhou, and to develop maps of metal pollution for this region. Despite great variations in the concentrations of the six heavy metals in the mosses, significant correlations among certain heavy metals were identified, suggesting that these pollutants likely originated from identical sources. With the exception of Cr, there was no significant correlation in metal concentration between the moss tissues and adhering soils. The highest concentration of Cr occurred in the west. However, the spatial distribution for the other metals generally showed higher concentrations in the northeast, likely due to greater contamination by industrial activities and higher traffic volume. PMID:27010395

  8. Beryllium-7 and (210)Pb atmospheric deposition measured in moss and dependence on cumulative precipitation.

    PubMed

    Krmar, M; Mihailović, D T; Arsenić, I; Radnović, D; Pap, I

    2016-01-15

    This paper focuses on analysis of the time series of (7)Be and (210)Pb activity measured in moss, and the amount, as well as duration of precipitation, to gain a better understanding of the possible relationships between airborne radionuclide deposition and precipitation. Here we consider whether the amount of these airborne radionuclides in moss samples is a cumulative measure of radionuclide deposition and decay, and a new approach for analyses of the relationships between precipitation and moss activity concentrations is suggested. Through these analyses it was shown that comparison of cumulative activity measured at one location using moss, normalized by values of cumulative amount or duration of precipitation, showed different regimes of airborne radionuclide deposition. PMID:26461139

  9. Beryllium-7 and (210)Pb atmospheric deposition measured in moss and dependence on cumulative precipitation.

    PubMed

    Krmar, M; Mihailović, D T; Arsenić, I; Radnović, D; Pap, I

    2016-01-15

    This paper focuses on analysis of the time series of (7)Be and (210)Pb activity measured in moss, and the amount, as well as duration of precipitation, to gain a better understanding of the possible relationships between airborne radionuclide deposition and precipitation. Here we consider whether the amount of these airborne radionuclides in moss samples is a cumulative measure of radionuclide deposition and decay, and a new approach for analyses of the relationships between precipitation and moss activity concentrations is suggested. Through these analyses it was shown that comparison of cumulative activity measured at one location using moss, normalized by values of cumulative amount or duration of precipitation, showed different regimes of airborne radionuclide deposition.

  10. Correlated evolution of sexual system and life-history traits in mosses.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Monique; Jesson, Linley K; Garnock-Jones, Phil J

    2009-05-01

    In mosses, separate and combined sexes are evolutionarily labile, yet factors selecting for this variation are unknown. In this study, we investigate phylogenetic correlations between sexual system and five life-history traits (asexual reproduction, chromosome number, gametophore length, spore size, and seta length). We assigned states to species on a large-scale phylogeny of mosses and used maximum likelihood analyses to test for the correlations and investigate the sequence of trait acquisition. Mosses in lineages with separate sexes were significantly more likely to be large, whereas those in lineages with combined sexes had higher chromosome numbers. Moreover, evolutionary transitions to separate sexes were more likely to occur in lineages with small spores. There was no support for a correlation between asexual reproduction and separate sexes. These results suggest that sexual system evolution is influenced by traits affecting mate availability and the dispersal of gametes and spores, and provides evidence for the existence of syndromes of life-history traits in mosses.

  11. Sorption of cadmium and zinc in selected species of epigeic mosses.

    PubMed

    Kłos, Andrzej; Gordzielik, Ewelina; Jóźwiak, Małgorzata Anna; Rajfur, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    The sorption abilities of seven moss species growing on the area of Bory Stobrawskie forest (southern Poland) were tested in laboratory. Sorption was carried out in solutions of Zn and Cd chlorides. It has been shown that the sorption properties depend on the moss species and increases in the series as follows: Polytrichum commune < Leucobryum glaucum < Eurhynchium praelongum < Thuidium tamtariscifolium ≤ Dicranum scoparium ≤ Pleurozium schreberi < Sphagnum sp. With help of microscope images, it was also demonstrated that one of the factors affecting the sorption properties of mosses was the level of their surface development. The determined sorption capacity of Zn varies according to species of mosses from 0.0491 to 0.1287 mmol g(-1), and in relation to Cd from 0.0319 to 0.1335 mmol g(-1). The described results may be important in the process of biomonitoring research design and in the test results interpretation.

  12. Heavy metal contents of epiphytic acrocarpous mosses within inhabited sites in southwest Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Onianwa, P.C.; Ajayi, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    The levels of the metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Fe accumulated in acrocarpous mosses within inhabited parts of villages and towns in the southwest region of Nigeria were determined, and then used for a classification of the area into relative pollution zones. Ibadan City was found to be the most polluted in the study area. Other zones of low and medium polluted villages and towns were identified. The zonations based on metal levels in these mosses were to some extent similar to that already obtained in a separate study of the same area with epiphytic forest mosses. The enrichment factors show that the gradients between zones of different pollution levels were higher in mosses within the inhabited sites.

  13. Air Pollution Studies in Tver Region of Russia using Moss-Biomonitoring with Nuclear Analytical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vergel, K. N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Povtoreyko, E. A.

    2007-11-26

    Results of the trace element atmospheric deposition in the Tver region based on moss analysis are presented. Moss samples were collected in the summer of 1999 and 2004 from 174 sites evenly distributed over the region. As bioaccumulators, two common mosses were used: Pleurozium schreberi ({approx}80%) and Hylocomium splendens ({approx}20%). The moss samples were subject to neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor JINR Dubna. The purpose of this study was to determine deposition patterns of potent sources of air pollution such as the largest Russian thermal power plant nearby the town of Konakovo and to reveal previously unknown pollution sources located in towns and settlements within the sampled territory. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to determine possible pollution sources over the examined territory. Comparison of the results obtained with those from other surveys in Russia and Europe shows that Tver region could be considered as a background territory for the Russian Federation.

  14. Ammonium first: natural mosses prefer atmospheric ammonium but vary utilization of dissolved organic nitrogen depending on habitat and nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Koba, Keisuke; Makabe, Akiko; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yoh, Muneoki; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2013-07-01

    Mosses, among all types of terrestrial vegetation, are excellent scavengers of anthropogenic nitrogen (N), but their utilization of dissolved organic N (DON) and their reliance on atmospheric N remain uncharacterized in natural environments, which obscures their roles in N cycles. Natural (15) N abundance of N sources (nitrate (NO(3)(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and DON in deposition and soil) for epilithic and terricolous mosses was analyzed at sites with different N depositions at Guiyang, China. Moss NO(3)(-) assimilation was inhibited substantially by the high supply of NH(4)(+) and DON. Therefore, contributions of NH(4)(+) and DON to moss N were partitioned using isotopic mass-balance methods. The N contributions averaged 56% and 46% from atmospheric NH(4)(+), and 44% and 17% from atmospheric DON in epilithic and terricolous mosses, respectively. In terricolous mosses, soil NH(4)(+) and soil DON accounted for 16% and 21% of bulk N, which are higher than current estimations obtained using (15) N-labeling methods. Moreover, anthropogenic NH(4)(+) deposition suppressed utilization of DON and soil N because of the preference of moss for NH(4)(+) under elevated NH(4)(+) deposition. These results underscore the dominance of, and preference for, atmospheric NH(4)(+) in moss N utilization, and highlight the importance of considering DON and soil N sources when estimating moss N sequestration and the impacts of N deposition on mosses.

  15. Monitoring of Antarctic moss ecosystems using a high spatial resolution imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malenovsky, Zbynek; Lucieer, Arko; Robinson, Sharon; Harwin, Stephen; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony

    2013-04-01

    The most abundant photosynthetically active plants growing along the rocky Antarctic shore are mosses of three species: Schistidium antarctici, Ceratodon purpureus, and Bryum pseudotriquetrum. Even though mosses are well adapted to the extreme climate conditions, their existence in Antarctica depends strongly on availability of liquid water from snowmelt during the short summer season. Recent changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone are stimulating faster evaporation, which in turn influences moss growing rate, health state and abundance. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Very short growing season, lasting only about three months, requires a time efficient, easily deployable and spatially resolved method for monitoring the Antarctic moss beds. Ground and/or low-altitude airborne imaging spectroscopy (called also hyperspectral remote sensing) offers a fast and spatially explicit approach to investigate an actual spatial extent and physiological state of moss turfs. A dataset of ground-based spectral images was acquired with a mini-Hyperspec imaging spectrometer (Headwall Inc., the USA) during the Antarctic summer 2012 in the surroundings of the Australian Antarctic station Casey (Windmill Islands). The collection of high spatial resolution spectral images, with pixels about 2 cm in size containing from 162 up to 324 narrow spectral bands of wavelengths between 399 and 998 nm, was accompanied with point moss reflectance measurements recorded with the ASD HandHeld-2 spectroradiometer (Analytical Spectral Devices Inc., the USA). The first spectral analysis indicates significant differences in red-edge and near-infrared reflectance of differently watered moss patches. Contrary to high plants, where the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) represents an estimate of green biomass, NDVI of mosses indicates mainly the actual water content. Similarly to high plants, reflectance of visible wavelengths is

  16. Effect of 30 years of road traffic abandonment on epiphytic moss diversity.

    PubMed

    Plášek, Vítězslav; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Nobis, Marcin; Kusza, Grzegorz; Kochanowska, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    Road traffic emits a cocktail of pollutants that can influence the vegetation and plant diversity in neighboring areas. However, the recovery potential of bryophytes after traffic abandonment is still little explored. In addition, the effects of the main pollutants of road verges, such as metals and salinity, on moss flora need to be investigated. In our study, we compared the moss richness and diversity in two closely related veteran tree allees of high conservation importance. The allees in Gryżów and Lubrza, Poland, were chosen because of their similarity in age, geographical location, type of surrounding areas, and tree species. The only difference was that the trees in Gryżów had not been exposed to direct road pollution for almost 30 years. The moss richness and diversity differed significantly between the sites. Altogether, 20 moss species were recorded on 229 trees, 17 species in Gryżów (abandoned road), and 13 in Lubrza (busy road). We found considerable differences between moss cover on the road-facing and opposite sides of tree trunks. In Lubrza, mosses on the road-facing side were very scarce. The moss cover in Gryżów was highly balanced between trunk sides as well as among trunk heights. Typical epiphytic species such as Bryum moravicum, Dicranoweisia cirrata, Leskea polycarpa, and Orthodicranum tauricum preferred the Gryżów tree stands, where they were present in numbers almost twice as high as that at Lubrza. The study shows that constructing a bypass road could be an effective conservation measure for veteran tree protection with their epiphytic moss flora.

  17. Metal and proton adsorption capacities of natural and cloned Sphagnum mosses.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Aridane G; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Beike, Anna K; Reski, Ralf; Di Palma, Anna; Adamo, Paola; Giordano, Simonetta; Fernandez, J Angel

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial mosses are commonly used as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. However, there is a lack of standardization of the biomonitoring preparation technique and the efficiency of metal adsorption by various moss species is poorly known. This is especially true for in vitro-cultivated moss clones, which are promising candidates for a standardized moss-bag technique. We studied the adsorption of copper and zinc on naturally grown Sphagnum peat moss in comparison with in vitro-cultivated Sphagnum palustre samples in order to provide their physico-chemical characterization and to test the possibility of using cloned peat mosses as bioindicators within the protocol of moss-bag technique. We demonstrate that in vitro-grown clones of S. palustre exhibit acid-base properties similar to those of naturally grown Sphagnum samples, whereas the zinc adsorption capacity of the clones is approx. twice higher than that of the samples from the field. At the same time, the field samples adsorbed 30-50% higher amount of Cu(2+) compared to that of the clones. This contrast may be related to fine differences in the bulk chemical composition, specific surface area, morphological features, type and abundance of binding sites at the cell surfaces and in the aqueous solution of natural and cloned Sphagnum. The clones exhibited much lower concentration of most metal pollutants in their tissues relative to the natural samples thus making the former better indicators of low metal loading. Overall, in vitro-produced clones of S. palustre can be considered as an adequate, environmentally benign substitution for protected natural Sphagnum sp. samples to be used in moss-bags for atmospheric monitoring. PMID:26407060

  18. Implicit Attitudes towards Native and Non-Native Speaker Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, R. Watson; Pojanapunya, Punjaporn

    2009-01-01

    The academic literature and educational principle suggest that native and non-native English speaking teachers should be treated equally, yet in many countries there is a broad social and commercial preference for native speaker teachers which may also involve racial issues. Attitudes towards native and non-native English speaking teachers have…

  19. Building Native Nations through Native Student's Commitment to Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tiffany S.

    2009-01-01

    One aspect of building Native nations entails motivating American Indian/Alaska Native youth to become committed to their communities so as to sustain and move forward with the goals of American Indian/Alaska Native nations. This study determined the impact of one Native American Studies department on its Native students' life goals. Through its…

  20. The Chilean wild raspberry (Rubus geoides Sm.) increases intracellular GSH content and protects against H2O2 and methylglyoxal-induced damage in AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Ávila, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Mardones, Claudia; von Baer, Dietrich; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    The Chilean raspberry Rubus geoides Sm. (Rosaceae) is a native species occurring in the Patagonia. Five R. geoides samples were assessed for phenolic content and composition, antioxidant activity, effect on total reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis and protective effect against H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced stress in epithelial gastric AGS cells. The HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS profiles allowed the tentative identification of 39 phenolics including flavonol glycosides and tannins. R. geoides presented higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than Rubus idaeus. Two out of the five phenolic enriched R. geoides extracts (PEEs) exhibited better antioxidant activity than R. idaeus in the DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays. A significant cytoprotective activity was observed when AGS cells were pre-incubated with extracts and subsequently challenged with H2O2 or MGO. Treatment with the PEEs increased the intracellular GSH content. R. geoides fruit extracts may induce the activation of intracellular protection mechanisms against oxidative and dicarbonyl-induced stress.

  1. Spatial variation, mapping, and classification of moss families in semi-arid landscapes in NW Turkey.

    PubMed

    Abay, Gökhan; Gül, Ebru; Günlü, Alkan; Erşahin, Sabit; Ursavaş, Serhat

    2015-03-01

    Geostatistics and remote sensing techniques are frequently used in analyzing the spatial variability of terrestrial ecosystems. We analyzed spatial variation of moss families by geostatistics and Landsat imagery in a typical semi-arid landscape in North Central Anatolia, Turkey. We sampled 49 sites, chosen based on elevation, slope steepness, and slope aspect. Moss families were determined in a 10-m(2) representative area at each sampling site. The samples were transported to a laboratory and identified for moss families. In total, 10 families were found. Semivariogram analysis was performed to analyze the spatial structure of these families. The semivariogram analysis showed that the moss families were spatially dependent within 117 m in the study area. Thirteen thematic classes were categorized by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image in the study area. The classification resulted in an overall kappa statistic of 0.8535, producer accuracy of 74.29, and user accuracy of 86.67. The family with the lowest classification accuracy was Orthotrichaceae (kappa of 0.6379, producer accuracy of 64.52, and user accuracy of 66.67). The moss families and the other classes were identified with a 0.78 kappa statistic value and an 80.74 % accuracy level by using the Landsat TM. The classification showed that Brachytheciaceae, Pottiaceae, Bryaceae, and Grimmiaceae were the most abundant moss families in this semi-arid environment.

  2. The Contribution of Moss to Plot-Based Spectral Signals in Moist Acidic Low Arctic Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J. L.; Beamish, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    To determine the contribution of moss to peak season normalized difference index (NDVI) field measurement of intact vegetation communities were compared to communities with individual species and litter successively removed until only the moss layer remained. Spectral measurements (n=3) were collected using a field radiometer in five upland and five lowland plots in a moist acidic tundra ecosystem at the Imnaviat Creek Watershed, North Slope Alaska. After spectral measurements were taken individual species were removed in the same order in each plot by clipping them at the moss layer. As individual species were removed NDVI values decreased. Decreases were greatest when dwarf shrub species Salix richardsonii sb. pulchra and Betula nana were removed. Notable increases in NDVI were observed once standing litter was removed. The NDVI values of the moss layer were comparable to intact vegetation communities depending on the bryophyte species composition. This suggests that the NDVI signal of moss is largely masked by vascular species but represents a significant factor missing from overall, large-scale NDVI signals. The results of this study corroborate recent data that points to the mismatch between ground based NDVI and aerial and satellite derived NDVI. This preliminary case study provides a strong basis for better characterization of the contribution of moss to NDVI for improved correction of air and space borne imagery.

  3. 350 my of mitochondrial genome stasis in mosses, an early land plant lineage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Medina, Rafael; Goffinet, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    Among land plants, angiosperms have the structurally most labile mitochondrial (mt) genomes. In contrast, the so-called early land plants (e.g., mosses) seem to have completely static mt chromosomes. We assembled the complete mt genomes from 12 mosses spanning the moss tree of life, to assess 1) the phylogenetic depth of the conserved mt gene content and order and 2) the correlation between scattered sequence repeats and gene order lability in land plants. The mt genome of most mosses is approximately 100 kb in size, and thereby the smallest among land plants. Based on divergence time estimates, moss mt genome structure has remained virtually frozen for 350 My, with only two independent gene losses and a single gene relocation detected across the macroevolutionary tree. This is the longest period of mt genome stasis demonstrated to date in a plant lineage. The complete lack of intergenic repeat sequences, considered to be essential for intragenomic recombinations, likely accounts for the evolutionary stability of moss mt genomes.

  4. The role of mosses in carbon uptake and partitioning in arctic vegetation.

    PubMed

    Street, Lorna E; Subke, Jens-Arne; Sommerkorn, Martin; Sloan, Victoria; Ducrotoy, Helene; Phoenix, Gareth K; Williams, Mathew

    2013-07-01

    The Arctic is already experiencing changes in plant community composition, so understanding the contribution of different vegetation components to carbon (C) cycling is essential in order to accurately quantify ecosystem C balance. Mosses contribute substantially to biomass, but their impact on carbon use efficiency (CUE) - the proportion of gross primary productivity (GPP) incorporated into growth - and aboveground versus belowground C partitioning is poorly known. We used (13) C pulse-labelling to trace assimilated C in mosses (Sphagnum sect. Acutifolia and Pleurozium schreberi) and in dwarf shrub-P. schreberi vegetation in sub-Arctic Finland. Based on (13) C pools and fluxes, we quantified the contribution of mosses to GPP, CUE and partitioning. Mosses incorporated 20 ± 9% of total ecosystem GPP into biomass. CUE of Sphagnum was 68-71%, that of P. schreberi was 62-81% and that of dwarf shrub-P. schreberi vegetation was 58-74%. Incorporation of C belowground was 10 ± 2% of GPP, while vascular plants alone incorporated 15 ± 4% of their fixed C belowground. We have demonstrated that mosses strongly influence C uptake and retention in Arctic dwarf shrub vegetation. They increase CUE, and the fraction of GPP partitioned aboveground. Arctic C models must include mosses to accurately represent ecosystem C dynamics.

  5. Distribution of trace metals in moss biomonitors and assessment of contamination sources in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Figueira, R; Sérgio, C; Sousa, A J

    2002-01-01

    A biomonitoring survey using the moss species [Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. and Scelopodium touretii (Brid.) L. Kock] was performed in the whole territory of Portugal, in order to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of the following elements: Cd. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. The concentrations of the same elements were also obtained in two types of soil samples, collected under the moss and in nearby plots without any plant coverage, and relationships between moss and soil concentrations was investigated using the multivariate statistical method of Co-inertia Analysis. Also, relationships between concentrations in moss and several anthropogenic, geologic, pedologic and environmental parameters were screened using the same method of Co-inertia Analysis. Higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were found in areas of higher population density, with higher gasoline consumption, while higher values of Fe and Cr occur in the driest region, with lower plant coverage, indicating strong contamination by resuspended soil particles. Results also show good agreement between moss and soil contents, even for elements with high contribution of anthropogenic sources. The spatial pattern in Portugal of element contents in mosses were also detected and discussed in relation to local contamination sources. PMID:11996378

  6. Dehydration protection provided by a maternal cuticle improves offspring fitness in the moss Funaria hygrometrica

    PubMed Central

    Budke, Jessica M.; Goffinet, Bernard; Jones, Cynthia S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In bryophytes the sporophyte offspring are in contact with, nourished from, and partially surrounded by the maternal gametophyte throughout their lifespan. During early development, the moss sporophyte is covered by the calyptra, a cap of maternal gametophyte tissue that has a multilayered cuticle. In this study the effects on sporophyte offspring fitness of removing the maternal calyptra cuticle, in combination with dehydration stress, is experimentally determined. Methods Using the moss Funaria hygrometrica, calyptra cuticle waxes were removed by chemical extraction and individuals were exposed to a short-term dehydration event. Sporophytes were returned to high humidity to complete development and then aspects of sporophyte survival, development, functional morphology, and reproductive output were measured. Key Results It was found that removal of calyptra cuticle under low humidity results in significant negative impacts to moss sporophyte fitness, resulting in decreased survival, increased tissue damage, incomplete sporophyte development, more peristome malformations, and decreased reproductive output. Conclusions This study represents the strongest evidence to date that the structure of the calyptra cuticle functions in dehydration protection of the immature moss sporophyte. The investment in a maternal calyptra with a multilayered cuticle increases offspring fitness and provides a functional explanation for calyptra retention across mosses. The moss calyptra may represent the earliest occurance of maternal protection via structural provisioning of a cuticle in green plants. PMID:23471009

  7. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President’s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitución, Concepción, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this

  8. Native and transplanted Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.)Mitt. as a bioindicator of N deposition in a heavily industrialized area of Upper Silesia (S Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosior, G.; Samecka-Cymerman, A.; Chmielewski, A.; Wierzchnicki, R.; Derda, M.; Kempers, A. J.

    Over a period of 90 days, an assay was carried out with the moss Pleurozium schreberi transplanted from an uncontaminated control site to the most polluted industrialized region of Upper Silesia (centring around Katowice) in southern Poland. Within the same period, samples of native P. schreberi growing in the same industrialized region were collected, as well as P. schreberi from an unpolluted control site. The soils from the polluted sites contained high levels of N, and the concentrations of Pb and Zn in mosses also greatly exceeded those in plants from the unpolluted control sites. The deposition of atmospheric NH 4+ significantly exceeded that of airborne NO 3- at all industrialized sites. The transplanted P. schreberi was a better nitrogen accumulator than the native moss in the less polluted parts of the area, showing a relation between the δ 15N signature and tissue N concentration on the one hand and wet N deposition on the other after 45 and 90 days of exposure. P. schreberi transplanted into the more polluted sites of the industrialized area did not reach the level of nitrogen of the native species within 90 days of exposure and showed a relation to atmospheric N deposition only after 90 days of exposure. The transplants were thus poorer indicators of nitrogen deposition in heavily polluted areas than in less polluted regions. Transplanted P. schreberi was also a poorer indicator of nitrogen deposition in heavily polluted areas than native P. schreberi.

  9. Legends of Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Presents a theme unit that includes elementary-level, cross-curricular lessons about lifestyle, belief systems, traditions, and history of Native Americans. The unit includes a poster which offers a traditional Cherokee story, literature on Native American legends, and a variety of cross-curricular activities. The unit ends with students writing…

  10. Native American Preparatory School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native American Preparatory School, Rowe, NM.

    This booklet provides information on the Native American Preparatory School, a residential secondary school in Rowe, New Mexico, for high-achieving Native American students. The school sponsors two programs: a 5-week rigorously academic summer school for junior high school students and, beginning in fall 1995, a 4-year college preparatory program.…

  11. Traditional Native Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    1985-01-01

    While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

  12. Native American Entrepreneurship. Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Nicole

    Although Native Americans have owned and started the fewest small businesses of all U.S. minority groups, entrepreneurship is considered to be an efficient tool for alleviating their economic problems. Barriers to Native American entrepreneurship include poverty, scarce start-up capital, poor access to business education and technical assistance,…

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the moss Oxystegus tenuirostris (Hook. & Taylor) A.J.E. Sm. (Pottiaceae, Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Alonso, Marta; Medina, Rafael; Cano, María Jesús; Jiménez, Juan Antonio; Goffinet, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial genome of mosses is characterized by a highly conserved structure and genic content. This is confirmed here through the assembly and annotation of the mt genome of the moss Oxystegus tenuirostris, family Pottiaceae, for which it is assembled. A phylogenetic tree is inferred from the whole genome of 16 species of mosses to validate the sequence of O. tenuirostris by confirming its shared ancestry with Syntrichia. The genome is 105 001 bp long, with a GC content of 39.2%, comprising 40 protein coding, 24 tRNA, and 3 rRNA genes. All introns reported from the mt genome of all but one peristomate moss are present, whereas no region of 50 bp or more is repeated within the genome. The genic content and order is identical to that of most mosses, highlighting that the mt genome is static not only across the phylogenetic depth but also breadth of the moss tree of life.

  14. Bringing back the rare - biogeochemical constraints of peat moss establishment in restored cut-over bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Peter; Blodau, Christian; Hölzel, Norbert; Kleinebecker, Till; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2016-04-01

    In rewetted cut-over bogs in north-western Germany and elsewhere almost no spontaneous recolonization of hummock peat mosses, such as Sphagnum magellanicum, S. papillosum or S. rubellum can be observed. However, to reach goals of climate protection every restoration of formerly mined peatlands should aim to enable the re-establishment of these rare but functionally important plant species. Besides aspects of biodiversity, peatlands dominated by mosses can be expected to emit less methane compared to sites dominated by graminoids. To assess the hydrological and biogeochemical factors constraining the successful establishment of hummock Sphagnum mosses we conducted a field experiment by actively transferring hummock species into six existing restoration sites in the Vechtaer Moor, a large peatland complex with active peat harvesting and parallel restoration efforts. The mosses were transferred as intact sods in triplicate at the beginning of June 2016. Six weeks (mid-July) and 18 weeks later (beginning of October) pore water was sampled in two depths (5 and 20 cm) directly beneath the inoculated Sphagnum sods as well as in untreated control plots and analysed for phosphate, ferrous iron, ammonia, nitrate and total organic carbon (TOC). On the same occasions and additionally in December, the vitality of mosses was estimated. Furthermore, the increment of moss height between July and December was measured by using cranked wires and peat cores were taken for lab analyses of nutrients and major element inventories at the depths of pore water sampling. Preliminary results indicate that vitality of mosses during the period of summer water level draw down was strongly negatively related to plant available phosphate in deeper layers of the residual peat. Furthermore, increment of moss height was strongly negatively related to TOC in the upper pore waters sampled in October. Concentration of ferrous iron in deeper pore waters was in general significantly higher beneath

  15. Heavy - metal biomonitoring by using moss bags in Florence urban area, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2013-04-01

    In the last century, pollution has become one of the most important risks for environment. In particular, heavy metal presence in air, water and soil induces toxic effects on ecosystems and human health. Monitoring airborne trace element over large areas is a task not easy to reach since the concentrations of pollutants are variable in space and time. Data from automatic devices are site-specific and very limited in number to describe spatial-temporal trends of pollutants. In addition, especially in Italy, trace elements concentrations are not often recorded by most of the automated monitoring stations. In the last decades, development of alternative and complementary methods as bio-monitoring techniques, allowed to map deposition patterns not only near single pollution sources, but also over relatively large areas at municipal or even regional scale. Bio-monitoring includes a wide array of methodologies finalised to study relationships between pollution and living organisms. Mosses and lichens have been widely used as bio-accumulators for assessing the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in natural ecosystems and urban areas. In this study bio-monitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as bio-indicator for estimating atmospheric traces metal deposition in the urban area of Florence. Moss carpets were collected in a forested area of central Sardinia (municipality of Bolotana - Nuoro), which is characterised by absence of air pollution. Moss bags were located in the urban area of Florence close to three monitoring air quality stations managed by ARPAT (Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente Toscana). Two stations were located in high-traffic roads whereas the other one was located in a road with less traffic density. In each site moss bags were exposed during three campaigns of measurement conducted during the periods March-April, May-July, and August-October 2010. Two moss bags, used as control

  16. Chilean Teachers Begin Exchange Program Visit in Magdalena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    . Kelly. The Chilean teachers are visiting Magdalena while they are on their Southern Hemisphere summer vacation, and Magdalena's schools are in session. Two Magdalena teachers, Joleen Welborn and Sandra Montoya, will visit San Pedro in June, while they are on summer vacation and the Chilean schools will be in session. Dr. Eduardo Hardy, the AUI/NRAO representative in Chile, will accompany the Chilean teachers on their visit, which has been coordinated by Harrison. "ALMA is a groundbreaking example of the type of international cooperation that marks the future of astronomy. We are especially pleased to sponsor a program that brings together two communities that both enjoy proximity to world-class astronomical research facilities," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "While separated by many miles, San Pedro de Atacama and Magdalena have much in common. Both are small communities in high desert environments, and both are next to telescopes where the world's astronomers will be making many exciting discoveries in the coming decades. Bringing these two communities together will advance education and international understanding," Harrison said. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  17. Microstructural Observations of the San Gregorio Fault, Moss Beach, CA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, S. H.; Tobin, H. J.; Gettemy, G. L.

    2001-12-01

    The Seal Cove Strand of the San Gregorio Fault at Moss Beach, Ca. is an active, large-offset, dominantly strike-slip fault which is exceptionally well exposed. It cuts the Miocene Purisima Formation at the surface, juxtaposing moderately lithified sandstone and conglomerate interbeds in the hanging wall with mudstones in the footwall. Previous and ongoing work shows that styles of deformation and seismic velocities are dissimilar across the fault zone, and within individual lithologic units. Architectural elements of the fault zone include a 12-30 m wide, variably-foliated central clay-rich core zone, an apparent mixed zone (as described recently for faults in unlithified clastic sediments in other tectonic settings), and a surrounding damage zone. In tandem with an ongoing seismic velocity study, we have characterized microstructural textures present across the fault exposure, applying petrographic study, backscatter electron (BSE) and SEM imaging, and electron microprobe analysis. The resulting characterization elucidates both mineralogic and lithification-state controls on deformation mechanisms. Detailed analysis of microstructural fabrics documents a diversity of deformation mechanisms, including cataclasis, particulate flow, and fracturing, consistent with an interpreted stress path based on deposition, progressive lithification, and finally uplift unloading of the fault rocks, all during ongoing fault displacement. Documentation of characteristics of fabrics in each structural element, especially micro-fracture density, has important implications for interpretation of the fault zone seismic velocity structure.

  18. Microfilament distribution in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    Microfilaments were visualized in dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon to assess their possible role in tip growth and gravitropism. The relative effectiveness of rhodamine phalloidin (with or without m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (MBS)) and of immunofluorescence (using the C4 antibody) was evaluated for actin localization in the same cell type. Using immunofluorescence, microfilaments were primarily in an axial orientation within the apical cell. However, a more complex network of microfilaments was observed using rhodamine phalloidin after MBS pretreatment, especially when viewed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. This method revealed a rich three dimensional network of fine microfilaments throughout the apical cell, including the extreme apex. Although there were numerous internal microfilaments, peripheral microfilaments were more abundant. No major redistribution of microfilaments was detected after gravistimulation. The combination of MBS, rhodamine phalloidin, and confocal laser scanning microscopy preserves and reveals microfilaments remarkably well and documents perhaps the most extensive F-actin network visualized to date in any tip-growing cell.

  19. Bioindicating potential of strontium contamination with Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guiling; Pemberton, Robert; Li, Peng

    2016-02-01

    Tillandsia species have been recognized as efficient biomonitors of air pollution, but rarely exploited in bioindicating of strontium, an important nuclide. We exposed Tillandsia usneoides, colloquially known as Spanish moss due to its filamentous morphology but is an atypical angiosperm in the family Bromeliaceae, to the solutions with different Sr concentrations (0.1-100 mmol/L). The results showed that plants were able to endure Sr stress for a relatively long period, which suggests that T. usneoides is able to resist this toxic element. T. usneoides had the highest uptake ratio of Sr (82.21 ± 0.12%) when the plants were exposed to 0.1 mmol/L Sr solutions. Sr contents in T. usneoides increased significantly with the increase in applied metal solution concentrations. Low Sr stimulated the formation of chlorophyll, but high Sr decreased the contents of chlorophyll, and no significant effect on the total biomass was found in T. usneoides. In contrast, the permeability of plasma membrane based on the relative electronic conductivity in T. usneoides increased significantly under Sr stress, indicating that Sr probably caused oxidative stress. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that the leaf relative conductivity was significantly positively correlated with Sr contents in the plants after Sr treatments. Therefore, T. usneoides has considerable potential for monitoring Sr polluted environments through measuring Sr contents in the plant directly or exploiting the leaf relative conductivity as an indirect biomarker.

  20. Microtubules restrict plastid sedimentation in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J.; Sack, F. D.

    1994-01-01

    Apical cells of protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus are unusual among plant cells with sedimentation in that only some amyloplasts sediment and these do not fall completely to the bottom of vertical cells. To determine whether the cytoskeleton restricts plastid sedimentation, the effects of amiprophos-methyl (APM) and cytochalasin D (CD) on plastid position were quantified. APM treatments of 30-60 min increased the plastid sedimentation that is normally seen along the length of untreated or control cells. Longer APM treatments often resulted in more dramatic plastid sedimentation, and in some cases almost all plastids sedimented to the lowermost point in the cell. In contrast, the microfilament inhibitor CD did not affect longitudinal plastid sedimentation compared to untreated cells, although it did disturb or eliminate plastid zonation in the tip. These data suggest that microtubules restrict the sedimentation of plastids along the length of the cell and that microtubules are load-bearing for all the plastids in the apical cell. This demonstrates the importance of the cytoskeleton in maintaining organelle position and cell organization against the force of gravity.

  1. Moss-associated methylobacteria as phytosymbionts: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornschuh, M.; Grotha, R.; Kutschera, U.

    2006-10-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria inhabit the surface of plant organs, but the interaction between these microbes and their host cells is largely unknown. Protonemata (gametophytes) of the moss Funaria hygrometrica were cultivated in vitro under axenic conditions and the growth of the protonemal filaments recorded. In the presence of methylobacteria (different strains of Methylobacterium), average cell length and the number of cells per filament were both enhanced. We tested the hypothesis that auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA), secreted by the epiphytic bacteria and taken up by the plant cells, may in part be responsible for this promotion of protonema development. The antiauxin parachlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB) was used as a tool to analyze the role of IAA and methylobacteria in the regulation of cell growth. In the presence of PCIB, cell elongation and protonema differentiation were both inhibited. This effect was compensated for by the addition of different Methylobacterium strains to the culture medium. Biosynthesis and secretion of IAA by methylobacteria maintained in liquid culture was documented via a colorimetric assay and thin layer chromatography. Our results support the hypothesis that the development of Funaria protonemata is promoted by beneficial phytohormone-producing methylobacteria, which can be classified as phytosymbionts.

  2. Hawking-Moss instanton in nonlinear massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying-li; Saito, Ryo; Sasaki, Misao E-mail: rsaito@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-02-01

    As a first step toward understanding a lanscape of vacua in a theory of non-linear massive gravity, we consider a landscape of a single scalar field and study tunneling between a pair of adjacent vacua. We study the Hawking-Moss (HM) instanton that sits at a local maximum of the potential, and evaluate the dependence of the tunneling rate on the parameters of the theory. It is found that provided with the same physical HM Hubble parameter H{sub HM}, depending on the values of parameters α{sub 3} and α{sub 4} in the action (2.2), the corresponding tunneling rate can be either enhanced or suppressed when compared to the one in the context of General Relativity (GR). Furthermore, we find the constraint on the ratio of the physical Hubble parameter to the fiducial one, which constrains the form of potential. This result is in sharp contrast to GR where there is no bound on the minimum value of the potential.

  3. Microbispora bryophytorum sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from moss (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang; Zhang, Yuejing; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Haiyan; Zhao, Junwei; Li, Lianjie; Zhang, Zhongwen; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-04-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-TX2-2(T), was isolated from moss and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The isolate was found to have morphological characteristics typical of the genus Microbispora . The isolate formed longitudinally paired spores on the tips of short sporophores that branched from aerial hyphae. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence supported the assignment of the novel strain to the genus Microbispora , and strain NEAU-TX2-2(T) exhibited 99.08 and 98.62% gene sequence similarities to Microbispora amethystogenes JCM 3021(T) and Microbispora rosea subsp. rosea JCM 3006(T), respectively. However two tree-making algorithms supported the position that strain NEAU-TX2-2(T) formed a distinct clade with M. rosea subsp. rosea JCM 3006(T). A low level of DNA-DNA relatedness allowed the isolate to be differentiated from M. amethystogenes JCM 3021(T) and M. rosea subsp. rosea JCM 3006(T). Moreover, strain NEAU-TX2-2(T) could also be distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relatives by morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-TX2-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Microbispora for which the name Microbispora bryophytorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-TX2-2(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7138(T) = DSM 46710(T)).

  4. Microtubule distribution in gravitropic protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J.; Sack, F. D.; Hartmann, E.

    1990-01-01

    Tip cells of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus are negatively gravitropic (grow upward). They possess a unique longitudinal zonation: (1) a tip group of amylochloroplasts in the apical dome, (2) a plastid-free zone, (3) a zone of significant plastid sedimentation, and (4) a zone of mostly non-sedimenting plastids. Immunofluorescence of vertical cells showed microtubules distributed throughout the cytoplasm in a mostly axial orientation extending through all zones. Optical sectioning revealed a close spatial association between microtubules and plastids. A majority (two thirds) of protonemata gravistimulated for > 20 min had a higher density of microtubules near the lower flank compared to the upper flank in the plastid-free zone. This apparent enrichment of microtubules occurred just proximal to sedimented plastids and near the part of the tip that presumably elongates more to produce curvature. Fewer than 5% of gravistimulated protonemata had an enrichment in microtubules near the upper flank, whereas 14% of vertical protonemata were enriched near one of the side walls. Oryzalin and amiprophos-methyl (APM) disrupted microtubules, gravitropism, and normal tip growth and zonation, but did not prevent plastid sedimentation. We hypothesize that a microtubule redistribution plays a role in gravitropism in this protonema. This appears to be the first report of an effect of gravity on microtubule distribution in plants.

  5. A third mitochondrial RNA polymerase in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Richter, Uwe; Richter, Björn; Weihe, Andreas; Börner, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    In most organisms, the mitochondrial genes are transcribed by RNA polymerases related to the single-subunit RNA polymerases of bacteriophages like T3 and T7. In flowering plants, duplication(s) of the RpoTm gene coding for the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (RPOTm) led to the evolution of additional RNA polymerases transcribing genes in plastids (RPOTp) or in both mitochondria and plastids (RPOTmp). Two putative RPOTmp enzymes were previously described to be encoded by the nuclear genes RpoTmp1 and RpoTmp2 in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Here, we report on a third Physcomitrella RpoT gene. We determined the sequence of the cDNA. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with sequences of plant organellar RNA polymerases suggests that this gene encodes a functional phage-type RNA polymerase. The 78 N-terminal amino acids of the putative RNA polymerase were fused to GFP and found to target the fusion protein exclusively to mitochondria in Arabidopsis protoplasts. P. patens is the only known organism to possess three mitochondrial RNA polymerases.

  6. Pollution Levels in Fog at the Chilean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sträter, E.; Klemm, O.; Westbeld, A.

    2010-07-01

    oceanic dimethylsulfide (DMS). With regard to the back trajectories, the air masses generally reach the study site from southerly directions after travelling along the Chilean coast. Presumably the air masses pick up pollutants in the densely populated cities, industrial plants and power plants along the Chilean coast and transport them over hundreds of kilometers to Patache. Here, they were detected as ingredients in fog water and lead to high pollution levels therein.

  7. [Risk factors for gallbladder cancer in Chilean females].

    PubMed

    Endoh, K; Nakadaira, H; Yamazaki, O; Yamamoto, M; Tajima, K; Serra, I; Calvo, A; Baez, S

    1997-02-01

    A case-control study of gallbladder cancer was conducted with 90 Chilean cases registered at one hospital in Santiago city, Chile from January, 1992 to August, 1994. Controls were selected among outpatients of the hospital who received abdominal echography. Each case was assigned 2 age- and sex-matched controls; either with or without gallstone(s). Study subjects were all directly interviewed by well-trained medical students. The present study focused on 74 female pairs and the following findings were obtained: 1) Odds Ratio(OR)s were significantly high for education years less than or equal to 6, body mass index greater than or equal to 24.0, constipation, and consumption of egg, fried meals, green and red chili. Chili pepper consumption of both types in cases showed significantly elevated risks with higher frequency. 2) While high ORs were observed, biliary symptoms such as dyspepsia and past history of cholelithiasis were strongly involved with present gallstone(s) and may not be independent factors for gallbladder cancer. 3) Significantly low ORs were seen for past history of intestinal parasitosis and surgical operation, hormone therapy, all industrial workers and workers in clothes & textile industry. However results may be influenced by more years of education or recall bias. 4) When a conditional logistic model was applied and controls with gallstone(s) were taken as reference, those with the habit of constipation showed a significantly high risk of 2.10 (95% CI: 1.01-4.38), and the consumers of red chili with a frequency > or = 1 time/day had elevated risks of 2.16 (1.27-3.66) vs those < 1 time/day and 4.66 (1.63-13.40) vs non-consumers, respectively. From the above results, the occurrence of gallbladder cancer in Chilean females may be related to constipation and chili pepper consumption, based on the presence of gallstone(s). Further investigations are needed to elucidate whether these are actual risk factors or whether only a false association was

  8. The Usefulness of Edible and Medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: Environmental Availability and Other Sources of Supply

    PubMed Central

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60%) in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 species), mainly woody, conspicuous plants, are collected for food or medicines. Most of the species used grow in arid environments. Cultivation and purchase/barter enrich the Fabaceae offer, bringing it up to a total of 63 species. The richness of native and exotic species, and the existence of multiple strategies for obtaining these plants, indicates hybridization of knowledge and practices. Only 22% of the total species used are mentioned in bothcontexts of food and medicine, reflecting low-use complementation. This study suggests a significant ecological appearance and a high level of availability in shops and exchange networks in Patagonia, highlighting the need to consider the full set of environmental and socioeconomic factors in research related to the use and cultural importance of plants in regional contexts. PMID:22194774

  9. Development of Waste Reduction System of Wastewater Treatment Process Using a Moss: Production of Useful Materials from Remainder of a Moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumihisa, Kobayashi

    Landfill leachate pollution presents a serious environmental problem. It would be valuable to develop a sustainable method, one that is inexpensive and requires little energy, to eliminate the pollution and dispose of the waste. In a previous study, we reported the results of a leachate treatment for landfills in which we relied on the moss, Scopelophia cataractae, to support a sustainable method of waste reduction. In this study, for the development of a waste reduction system of landfill leachate treatment, we attempted to produce zinc as useful metal and ethanol as fuel from the remainder of moss after wastewater treatment. Steam explosions, which were used as physicochemical pretreatments to expose the raw material to saturated steam under high pressure and temperature, were used to pretreat the moss. By electrolysis, zinc recovered, and the maximum zinc recovery after wastewater treatment was 0.504 at 2.0 MPa steam pressure (211 °C) and 5 min steaming time. After that time, by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using a Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 0.42 g dm-3 of the maximum ethanol concentration was produced from 10 g dm-3 of exploded moss at 2.5 MPa steam pressure (223 °C) and 1 min steaming time.

  10. Moss and soil contributions to the annual net carbon flux of a maturing boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; O'Neill, K. P.; Trumbore, S.E.; Veldhuis, H.; Stocks, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    We used input and decomposition data from 14C studies of soils to determine rates of vertical accumulation of moss combined with carbon storage inventories on a sequence of burns to model how carbon accumulates in soils and moss after a stand-killing fire. We used soil drainage - moss associations and soil drainage maps of the old black spruce (OBS) site at the BOREAS northern study area (NSA) to areally weight the contributions of each moderately well drained, feathermoss areas; poorly drained sphagnum - feathermoss areas; and very poorly drained brown moss areas to the carbon storage and flux at the OBS NSA site. On this very old (117 years) complex of black spruce, sphagnum bog veneer, and fen systems we conclude that these systems are likely sequestering 0.01-0.03 kg C m-2 yr-' at OBS-NSA today. Soil drainage in boreal forests near Thompson, Manitoba, controls carbon storage and flux by controlling moss input and decomposition rates and by controlling through fire the amount and quality of carbon left after burning. On poorly drained soils rich in sphagnum moss, net accumulation and long-term storage of carbon is higher than on better drained soils colonized by feathermosses. The carbon flux of these contrasting ecosystems is best characterized by soil drainage class and stand age, where stands recently burned are net sources of CO2, and maturing stands become increasingly stronger sinks of atmospheric CO2. This approach to measuring carbon storage and flux presents a method of scaling to larger areas using soil drainage, moss cover, and stand age information.

  11. Moss harvest truncates the successional development of epiphytic bryophytes in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Peck, Jerilynn E; Frelich, Lee E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of commercial moss harvest on the development of an understory epiphyte community in the Pacific Northwest by characterizing natural development stages using data from both a long-term regrowth study and demographic sampling. First, experimentally stripped 1 m long cylindrats on 46 shrub stems in the Oregon Coast Range were monitored for species composition and abundance annually during the first five years of recovery and again in year 10. Second, a pathway of community development was inferred by examining the relative species composition and abundance of epiphytic species present in moss mats in a four-stage chronosequence. We (1) characterized the change in richness and composition from year 1 through 10 of regrowth following experimental disturbance, (2) quantified the proportion of approximately 1-, 10-, 25-, and 50-year-old moss mats of commercially harvestable species that were monodominant, diverse, and late successional, and (3) contrasted these proportions with estimates from a compositional transition matrix derived from long-term monitoring. Roughly half of the observed moss mats demonstrated neutral dynamics and were composed of a mixture of readily dispersed acrocarps and pleurocarps. The remaining half exhibited positive dynamics and were dominated by aggressively growing pleurocarpous species such as Isothecium myosuroides. Following structural developmental pathways well established for vascular plants, moss mats shift with time from high diversity and evenness in the initial colonization and extended establishment phases to increasing Isothecium dominance during a presumed competitive-exclusion phase. Old mats exist in alternate states of either Isothecium dominance or mixed composition, either of which may have late-successional species. Patchy historic commercial moss harvest likely facilitated high diversity by increasing the simultaneous occurrence of all moss mat age classes, while modern strip harvesting methods are

  12. Moss biomonitoring of air pollution with heavy metals in the vicinity of a ferronickel smelter plant.

    PubMed

    Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče; Sajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the atmospheric deposition of various elements in the Kavadarci region, Republic of Macedonia (known for its ferronickel mining and metallurgical activities) using moss biomonitoring, and to determine whether the deposition is anthropogenic or from geogenic influences. The sampling network includes 31 moss samples evenly distributed over a territory of about 600 km(2). A total of 46 elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hg, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn, Zr) were determined by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS). Based on a distribution pattern of elements determined in moss, two anthropogenic geochemical associations (Co-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mg-Ni and As-Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Zn), were detected. The distribution of these elements shows an increased content (especially Ni, Co and Cr) in the moss samples from the surroundings of the smelter plant compared to the rest of the samples. Thus, the median value of Ni in moss samples from the whole region (40 mg kg(-1)) is much higher than the median for Macedonia (5.82 mg kg(-1)). Moreover, the median content of Ni in the moss samples from the polluted area (around the smelter) is 178 mg kg(-1) with an enrichment ratio in the moss samples of almost 5.5 times higher than the unpolluted areas (32 mg kg(-1)). This fact confirms the influence of the dust from the ferronickel plant to the air pollution in this region.

  13. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cinthya Lee; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Torres, Jose Sulla; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-07-09

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  14. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  15. A review of molecular-clock calibrations and substitution rates in liverworts, mosses, and hornworts, and a timeframe for a taxonomically cleaned-up genus Nothoceros.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Renner, Susanne S

    2014-09-01

    Absolute times from calibrated DNA phylogenies can be used to infer lineage diversification, the origin of new ecological niches, or the role of long distance dispersal in shaping current distribution patterns. Molecular-clock dating of non-vascular plants, however, has lagged behind flowering plant and animal dating. Here, we review dating studies that have focused on bryophytes with several goals in mind, (i) to facilitate cross-validation by comparing rates and times obtained so far; (ii) to summarize rates that have yielded plausible results and that could be used in future studies; and (iii) to calibrate a species-level phylogeny for Nothoceros, a model for plastid genome evolution in hornworts. Including the present work, there have been 18 molecular clock studies of liverworts, mosses, or hornworts, the majority with fossil calibrations, a few with geological calibrations or dated with previously published plastid substitution rates. Over half the studies cross-validated inferred divergence times by using alternative calibration approaches. Plastid substitution rates inferred for "bryophytes" are in line with those found in angiosperm studies, implying that bryophyte clock models can be calibrated either with published substitution rates or with fossils, with the two approaches testing and cross-validating each other. Our phylogeny of Nothoceros is based on 44 accessions representing all suspected species and a matrix of six markers of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA. The results show that Nothoceros comprises 10 species, nine in the Americas and one in New Zealand (N. giganteus), with the divergence between the New Zealand species and its Chilean sister species dated to the Miocene and therefore due to long-distance dispersal. Based on the new tree, we formally transfer two species of Megaceros into Nothoceros, resulting in the new combinations N. minarum (Nees) J.C. Villarreal and N. schizophyllus (Gottsche ex Steph.) J.C. Villarreal, and we also

  16. Microcystin in cyanobacterial blooms in a Chilean lake.

    PubMed

    Campos, V; Cantarero, S; Urrutia, H; Heinze, R; Wirsing, B; Neumann, U; Weckesser, J

    1999-05-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis sp. occurred in lake Rocuant ("marisma", near Concepción/Chile) in February 1995 and 1996. In the bloom samples collected in both years the hepatotoxin microcystin was detected by RP-HPLC in both samples and in the sample of 1995 also by a toxicity assay using primary rat hepatocytes. In the bloom of 1995, the microcystin content of the dry bloom biomass was determined to be 130 micrograms/g on the basis of the RP-HPLC peak area and 800 micrograms/g on the basis of the rat hepatotoxicity assay, respectively. In the bloom of 1996, RP-HPLC analysis revealed a microcystin content of 8.13 micrograms/g bloom material dry weight. In this year no hepatotoxicity was measured using a concentration range up to 0.8 mg (d. w.) of bloom material per ml in the rat hepatotoxicity assay. This is the first report on the detection of microcystins in Chilean water bodies. PMID:10390867

  17. Microcystin in cyanobacterial blooms in a Chilean lake.

    PubMed

    Campos, V; Cantarero, S; Urrutia, H; Heinze, R; Wirsing, B; Neumann, U; Weckesser, J

    1999-05-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis sp. occurred in lake Rocuant ("marisma", near Concepción/Chile) in February 1995 and 1996. In the bloom samples collected in both years the hepatotoxin microcystin was detected by RP-HPLC in both samples and in the sample of 1995 also by a toxicity assay using primary rat hepatocytes. In the bloom of 1995, the microcystin content of the dry bloom biomass was determined to be 130 micrograms/g on the basis of the RP-HPLC peak area and 800 micrograms/g on the basis of the rat hepatotoxicity assay, respectively. In the bloom of 1996, RP-HPLC analysis revealed a microcystin content of 8.13 micrograms/g bloom material dry weight. In this year no hepatotoxicity was measured using a concentration range up to 0.8 mg (d. w.) of bloom material per ml in the rat hepatotoxicity assay. This is the first report on the detection of microcystins in Chilean water bodies.

  18. Paleomagnetism of Permian and Triassic rock, central Chilean Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Randall D.; Kent, Dennis V.; Mpodozis, Constantino; Davidson, John

    The first paleomagnetic data from Permian and Triassic formations west of the Andean divide are presented. Four formations of Permian or Triassic age in the central Chilean Andes have been investigated: two are located in the coastal ranges, and two are in the main cordillera. Of the formations in the main cordillera (Pastos Blancos and Matahuaico formations), only the Pastos Blancos Formation has yielded characteristic directions. While a fold test is absent, magnetizations are most likely secondary and yield pre-tilt corrected concordant inclinations, but yield declinations discordant 30° clockwise in comparison to the South American apparent polar wander path. Both formations from the coastal ranges (Cifuncho and Pichidangui formations) yielded stable directions. Postfolding magnetizations in the Cifuncho Formation also show declinations discordant 30° clockwise and concordant inclinations. The Pichidangui Formation has two stable components: one of postfolding age is concordant to apparent polar wander path data, and one of probable prefolding (Late Triassic) age is concordant in declination, but discordant in inclination. Further work is needed to better define the prefolding magnetizations in the Pichidangui Formation, but at present these preliminary results are the first paleomagnetic signs of displaced terranes along the Pacific margin of Chile. If correct, the results suggest that the Pichidangui Formation was some 15° of latitude farther south during the Late Triassic and had likely moved northward to its present latitudinal position with respect to cratonic South America by Middle to Late Jurassic.

  19. [Training of specialists in the Chilean national health services].

    PubMed

    Román, Oscar; Feliú, Mauricio; Echavarría, Luis A

    2011-06-01

    Several institutions, such as the Ministry of Health, Universities, the Chilean Medical Association, Scientific societies and public opinion, recognize that there is a deficiency of specialized physicians in Chile. To overcome this shortage of specialists, the Ministry of Health, along with universities, is developing diverse initiatives to train specialists and cope with the requirements of the country. Seventy five percent of posts offered were filled by physicians. The number of positions increased from 173 in 2007 to 576 in 2010, with a cumulative total of 1582 physicians in four years. Fifty two percent are being trained in Basic Primary Specialties and 48% in primary specialties. Thirty three percent of graduates have the obligation to continue working in the public service during a certain lapse. This figure will increase to 50% in the following years. These specialists are mainly working in the more densely populated regions of the country. The universities that offer the higher number of training positions are the University of Chile, The Catholic University of Chile and the University of Santiago.

  20. Case Report: Strawberry Disease in Farmed Chilean Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Carlos; Infante, Jorge; Abad, Jessica; Ferguson, Hugh W; Paredes, Enrique; Valdebenito, Samuel; Yáñez, Alejandro J; Ilardi, Pedro; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    Strawberry disease is a chronic, nonlethal skin condition that affects Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the United States and several European countries, where it is also known as red-mark syndrome. We provide the first identification and characterization of three strawberry disease outbreaks occurring at two aquaculture farms in southern Chile. Clinically affected fish weighing an average of 400 g presented multiple bright-red, usually raised, skin lesions on the flank, ventral surface, and dorsal surface. A PCR using Rickettsia-like-organism (RLO)-specific primers was performed on nine affected fish, and all skin samples were positive for the RLO 16S ribosomal RNA sequence. All PCR results for Flavobacterium psychrophilum and other bacterial and viral pathogens were negative. Histopathological examination of the skin lesions revealed extensive dermatitis, with severe lymphocytic infiltration in advanced cases. This report is the first to describe strawberry disease in farmed Chilean Rainbow Trout. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the risk for Rainbow Trout culture; fish challenge experiments should be performed to fulfill Koch's postulates and to demonstrate that RLO is the cause of this disease. Received December 27, 2014; accepted October 23, 2015. PMID:26913369

  1. Case Report: Strawberry Disease in Farmed Chilean Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Carlos; Infante, Jorge; Abad, Jessica; Ferguson, Hugh W; Paredes, Enrique; Valdebenito, Samuel; Yáñez, Alejandro J; Ilardi, Pedro; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    Strawberry disease is a chronic, nonlethal skin condition that affects Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the United States and several European countries, where it is also known as red-mark syndrome. We provide the first identification and characterization of three strawberry disease outbreaks occurring at two aquaculture farms in southern Chile. Clinically affected fish weighing an average of 400 g presented multiple bright-red, usually raised, skin lesions on the flank, ventral surface, and dorsal surface. A PCR using Rickettsia-like-organism (RLO)-specific primers was performed on nine affected fish, and all skin samples were positive for the RLO 16S ribosomal RNA sequence. All PCR results for Flavobacterium psychrophilum and other bacterial and viral pathogens were negative. Histopathological examination of the skin lesions revealed extensive dermatitis, with severe lymphocytic infiltration in advanced cases. This report is the first to describe strawberry disease in farmed Chilean Rainbow Trout. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the risk for Rainbow Trout culture; fish challenge experiments should be performed to fulfill Koch's postulates and to demonstrate that RLO is the cause of this disease. Received December 27, 2014; accepted October 23, 2015.

  2. Native American Tribal Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Eric L.

    1999-01-01

    Lists Web sites maintained by 38 different Native American nations that deal with topics ranging from tribal history, news, arts and crafts, tourism, entertainment, and commerce. Represented nations include Apache, Blackfeet, Creek, Iroquois, Mohegan, and Sioux. (CMK)

  3. Native American Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horse, Perry G.

    2005-01-01

    Many issues and elements--including ethnic nomenclature, racial attitudes, and the legal and political status of American Indian nations and Indian people--influence Native American identity. (Contains 3 notes.)

  4. Native American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Native Americans.

  5. Stable sulphur and nitrogen isotopes of the moss Haplocladium microphyllum at urban, rural and forested sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Tang, Cong-Guo; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xue-Yan; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2010-11-01

    Elemental (S and N) and isotopic ( δ34S and δ15N) contents in the moss Haplocladium microphyllum at urban, rural and forested sites in acid rain area of South China have been analyzed for comparisons to show whether they are different and can be effectively used to identify S and N sources of atmospheric deposition. Average moss S content at rural sites (0.29 ± 0.06%) was found to be in between those at urban (0.35 ± 0.05%) and forested (0.25 ± 0.04%) sites, which are significantly different. Average N contents of urban (2.60 ± 0.56%) and rural mosses (2.84 ± 0.77%) are not significantly different, while both are significantly different to that of forested mosses at most areas, indicating that the atmosphere over rural sites has been polluted by N as seriously as that over urban sites. Nitrogen supply, relative to S supply, was in excess of the requirement for protein synthesis, especially at rural and forested sites. Moss stable isotope signatures have been proven to be effective tools for deciphering atmospheric S and N sources at these sites. Through moss δ34S signatures, we found that atmospheric S at urban and forested sites was mainly from local coal combustion and domestic biomass burning, respectively, whereas northerly air masses contributed more S to forested sites. The relatively negative moss δ15N values (-7.5 ± 3.0, -3.4 ± 2.1 and -0.8 ± 2.1‰) demonstrated that the main form in the N deposition was NH x in these sites. More negative δ15N signatures in urban mosses (-7.5 ± 3.0‰) indicated the contribution of NH 3 released from untreated city sewage and wastes, while relatively less negative δ15N for rural and forested mosses (3.4 ± 2.1 and -0.8 ± 2.1‰) was largely derived from agricultural NH 3.

  6. Changes to dryland rainfall result in rapid moss mortality and altered soil fertility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Sasha C.; Coe, Kirsten K.; Sparks, Jed P.; Housman, David C.; Zelikova, Tamara J.; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems cover ~40% of Earth’s terrestrial surface, but we know little about how climate change will affect these widespread landscapes. Like many drylands, the Colorado Plateau in southwestern United States is predicted to experience elevated temperatures and alterations to the timing and amount of annual precipitation. We used a factorial warming and supplemental rainfall experiment on the Colorado Plateau to show that altered precipitation resulted in pronounced mortality of the widespread moss Syntrichia caninervis. Increased frequency of 1.2 mm summer rainfall events reduced moss cover from ~25% of total surface cover to <2% after only one growing season, whereas increased temperature had no effect. Laboratory measurements identified a physiological mechanism behind the mortality: small precipitation events caused a negative moss carbon balance, whereas larger events maintained net carbon uptake. Multiple metrics of nitrogen cycling were notably different with moss mortality and had significant implications for soil fertility. Mosses are important members in many dryland ecosystems and the community changes observed here reveal how subtle modifications to climate can affect ecosystem structure and function on unexpectedly short timescales. Moreover, mortality resulted from increased precipitation through smaller, more frequent events, underscoring the importance of precipitation event size and timing, and highlighting our inadequate understanding of relationships between climate and ecosystem function in drylands.

  7. Moss and vascular plant indices in Ohio wetlands have similar environmental predictors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Adams, Jean V.; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Mosses and vascular plants have been shown to be reliable indicators of wetland habitat delineation and environmental quality. Knowledge of the best ecological predictors of the quality of wetland moss and vascular plant communities may determine if similar management practices would simultaneously enhance both populations. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to identify models predicting a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) and a vascular plant index of biological integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) from 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. The set of predictors included the six metrics from a wetlands disturbance index (ORAM) and two landscape development intensity indices (LDIs). The best single predictor of MQAI and one of the predictors of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assesses habitat alteration and disturbance within the wetland, such as mowing, grazing, and agricultural practices. However, the best single predictor of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assessed wetland vascular plant communities, interspersion, and microtopography. LDIs better predicted MQAI than VIBI-FQ, suggesting that mosses may either respond more rapidly to, or recover more slowly from, anthropogenic disturbance in the surrounding landscape than vascular plants. These results supported previous predictive studies on amphibian indices and metrics and a separate vegetation index, indicating that similar wetland management practices may result in qualitatively the same ecological response for three vastly different wetland biological communities (amphibians, vascular plants, and mosses).

  8. Changes in Species, Areal Cover, and Production of Moss across a Fire Chronosequence in Interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; Munster, J.; Manies, K.L.; Mack, M.C.; Bubier, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to characterize the species and production rates of various upland mosses and their relationship to both site drainage and time since fire, annual net primary production of six common moss species was measured. Several stands located near Delta Junction, interior Alaska, were located. These stands ranged from one to 116 years since fire in well-drained (dry) and moderately to somewhat poorly drained (wet) black spruce (Picea mariana)-feathermoss systems. Moss species composition varied greatly during the fire cycle, with Ceratodon purpureus dominating the earliest years after a fire, Aulacomnium palustre dominating the transitional and older stages, and Hylocomium splendens dominating the oldest, mature sites. Polytrichum spp. was found at all sites. Average moss cover ranged from <10 percent in the youngest sites to almost 90 percent in the mature sites. Species from the genus Polytrichum were the most productive and contributed up to 30 g m2 of organic matter in one growing season. Least productive was Rhytidium rugosum, which contributed about 1.5 g m2 of organic matter in mature stands. Recovery of moss productivity after fire was not significantly different for wet and dry sites.

  9. Vertical distribution of a deep-water moss and associated epiphytes in Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntire, C.D.; Phinney, H.K.; Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    A one-person submersible was used to examine the vertical distribution of the deep-water moss Drepanocladus aduncus (Hedw.) Warnst in Crater Lake (Oregon). Living specimens were found attached to sediment and rocks at depths between 25 m and 140 m. Dense beds of the moss were observed at depths between 30 m and 80 m, a region that corresponded roughly to the zone of maximum primary production by phytoplankton. The moss population supported a diverse assemblage of epiphytic algae, of which the most abundant genera included Cladophora,Oedogonium, Rhizoclonium, Tribonema, Vaucheria, and the diatoms Cocconeis, Cymbella, Epithemia, Fragilaria, Gomphonema, Melosira, Navicula, and Synedra. Chemical and physical data supported the hypothesis that the lower limit of distribution of the moss is determined by light limitation, whereas the upper limit is related to the availability of nutrients, particularly nitrate-nitrogen and trace elements. Deep-water videotapes of the moss population indicated that D. aduncus with its epiphytic algae was abundant enough in regions associated with the metalimnion and upper hypolimnion to have a potential influence on the nutrient dynamics of the Crater Lake ecosystem. Although the maximum depth at which living bryophytes occur in Crater Lake is similar to that found for Lake Tahoe, conditions in Lake Tahoe allow the growth and survival of a much more diverse assemblage of bryophytes and charophytes than is present in Crater Lake.

  10. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements.

    PubMed

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Hammer, Kathrine Jul

    2012-10-01

    Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species richness, and evaluated duration of plant activity during desiccation as a function of ground area, for a large collection of moss cushions. We found that lower evaporation and higher water storage contributed equally to extending the desiccation period with increasing cushion size. Evaporation rates declined by the -0.36 power of cushion diameter, and were not significantly different from -0.50 for the square root function previously predicted for the increasing thickness of the boundary layer, with greater linear dimensions for smooth flat objects at low wind velocities. Size dependence vanished under stagnant conditions. One moss species was added to the species pool for every nine-fold increase in cushion area. Vascular plants were absent from the smallest cushions, whereas one or two species, on average, appeared in 375- and 8,500-cm(2) cushions with water available for 6 and 10 days during desiccation. Phosphorus concentrations increased stepwise and four-fold from detritus to surface mosses and to vascular plants, and all three pools increased with cushion size. We conclude that cushion mosses and cushion size play a critical role in this resource-limited limestone environment by offering an oasis of improved water and nutrient supply to colonization and growth of plants.

  11. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements.

    PubMed

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Hammer, Kathrine Jul

    2012-10-01

    Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species richness, and evaluated duration of plant activity during desiccation as a function of ground area, for a large collection of moss cushions. We found that lower evaporation and higher water storage contributed equally to extending the desiccation period with increasing cushion size. Evaporation rates declined by the -0.36 power of cushion diameter, and were not significantly different from -0.50 for the square root function previously predicted for the increasing thickness of the boundary layer, with greater linear dimensions for smooth flat objects at low wind velocities. Size dependence vanished under stagnant conditions. One moss species was added to the species pool for every nine-fold increase in cushion area. Vascular plants were absent from the smallest cushions, whereas one or two species, on average, appeared in 375- and 8,500-cm(2) cushions with water available for 6 and 10 days during desiccation. Phosphorus concentrations increased stepwise and four-fold from detritus to surface mosses and to vascular plants, and all three pools increased with cushion size. We conclude that cushion mosses and cushion size play a critical role in this resource-limited limestone environment by offering an oasis of improved water and nutrient supply to colonization and growth of plants. PMID:22481304

  12. Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country.

  13. Historical and current use of spanish moss as a monitor of atmospheric trace metals

    SciTech Connect

    Whitten, M.L.; Mossler, M.A.; Kosalwat, P.; Newman, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usnesoides) is an epiphytic member of the pineapple family, Historically, tissue levels in this plant have illustrated the elevated concentration of lead near well traveled roads, as well as nickel and tin in the vicinity of battery fabrication or smelting facilities, respectively. From a survey of Spanish moss plants growing throughout the Southeast, mercury at or slightly above the limit of detection was present in eight of 128 samples. Five of these samples were collected in Florida. As part of a biomonitoring project, Spanish moss was collected from 1991 to 1993 around a waste-to-energy facility in Lake County, Florida, After three years, the percentage of Spanish moss samples which contained detectable levels of arsenic and cadmium decreased over time. Lead was detected in all samples collected throughout the monitoring period, but the mean concentration decreased from 3.7 mg/kg on a dry weight basis (1991) to 1.4 mg/kg (1993). This trend in lead levels may indicate clearance that is occurring due to the discontinuation of leaded gasoline. The percentage of moss samples containing mercury above the limit of detection increased from 67% (1991) to 97% (1993); however, mean concentrations do not support a trend in increasing concentration of this element (0.30 mg/kg on a fresh weight basis in 1991 vs. 0.19 mg/kg in 1993). Apparently, atmospheric metal concentrations are not increasing in the vicinity of the facility at this time.

  14. Trade-Offs in Resource Allocation Among Moss Species Control Decomposition in Boreal Peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Turetsky, M. R.; Crow, S. E.; Evans, R. J.; Vitt, D. H.; Wieder, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    We separated the effects of plant species controls on decomposition rates from environmental controls in northern peatlands using a full factorial, reciprocal transplant experiment of eight dominant bryophytes in four distinct peatland types in boreal Alberta, Canada. Standard fractionation techniques as well as compound-specific pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry were used to identify a biochemical mechanism underlying any interspecific differences in decomposition rates. We found that over a 3-year field incubation, individual moss species and not micro-environmental conditions controlled early stages of decomposition. Across species, Sphagnum mosses exhibited a trade-off in resource partitioning into metabolic and structural carbohydrates, a pattern that served as a strong predictor of litter decomposition. Decomposition rates showed a negative co-variation between species and their microtopographic position, as species that live in hummocks decomposed slowly but hummock microhabitats themselves corresponded to rapid decomposition rates. By forming litter that degrades slowly, hummock mosses appear to promote the maintenance of macropore structure in surface peat hummocks that aid in water retention. Many northern regions are experiencing rapid climate warming that is expected to accelerate the decomposition of large soil carbon pools stored within peatlands. However, our results suggest that some common peatland moss species form tissue that resists decomposition across a range of peatland environments, suggesting that moss resource allocation could stabilize peatland carbon losses under a changing climate.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in lichens and mosses from King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Yogui, G T; Sericano, J L

    2008-11-01

    Lichens and mosses are considered good indicators of atmospheric pollution as they absorb contaminants directly from the air. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are man-made chemicals used as flame retardants in materials such as plastics, textiles, electronic circuitry and furnishing foam. Few studies have investigated PBDEs in the southern hemisphere including Antarctica. This paper presents the first evaluation of PBDEs in lichens (Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra) and mosses (Sanionia uncinata) collected at King George Island, maritime Antarctica. PBDEs were detected at low levels in all lichen and moss samples. On average, the levels of PBDEs in mosses (818 pg g(-1) dry weight; 101 ng g(-1) lipid) were significantly higher than in lichens (168 pg g(-1) dry weight; 9.11 ng g(-1) lipid). This difference is most likely due to the differing mechanisms of PBDEs uptake from the atmosphere which are controlled by a number of chemical, environmental and plant variables. Contaminant concentrations were not statistically different at sites close to and distant from human facilities. Long-range atmospheric transport is believed to be the primary source of PBDEs to King George Island. The pattern of congeners in plants resembles those found in commercial mixtures of Penta-BDE. In addition, the presence of BDE-183 in lichens and mosses suggests that other technical formulations (e.g., Octa-BDE and Deca-BDE) have reached Antarctica. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Antarctic vegetation as a sink for anthropogenic organic pollutants.

  16. Comparison of elicitation potential of chloroatranol and atranol--2 allergens in oak moss absolute.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Jeanne D; Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Bruze, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus E

    2006-04-01

    Chloroatranol and atranol are degradation products of chloroatranorin and atranorin, respectively, and have recently been identified as important contact allergens in the natural fragrance extract, oak moss absolute. Oak moss absolute is widely used in perfumery and is the cause of many cases of fragrance allergic contact dermatitis. Chloroatranol elicits reactions at very low levels of exposure. In oak moss absolute, chloroatranol and atranol are present together and both may contribute to the allergenicity and eliciting capacity of the natural extract. In this study, 10 eczema patients with known sensitization to chloroatranol and oak moss absolute were tested simultaneously to a serial dilution of chloroatranol and atranol in ethanol, in equimolar concentrations (0.0034-1072 microM). Dose-response curves were estimated and analysed by logistic regression. The estimated difference in elicitation potency of chloroatranol relative to atranol based on testing with equimolar concentrations was 217% (95% confidence interval 116-409%). Both substances elicited reactions at very low levels of exposure. It is concluded that the differences in elicitation capacity between the 2 substances are counterbalanced by exposure being greater to atranol than to chloroatranol and that both substances contribute to the clinical problems seen in oak moss absolute-sensitized individuals. PMID:16650093

  17. Characterization of the GPI-anchored lipid transfer proteins in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Edstam, Monika M; Laurila, Maiju; Höglund, Andrey; Raman, Amitha; Dahlström, Käthe M; Salminen, Tiina A; Edqvist, Johan; Blomqvist, Kristina

    2014-02-01

    The non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are characterized by a compact structure with a central hydrophobic cavity very suitable for binding hydrophobic ligands, such as lipids. The nsLTPs are encoded by large gene families in all land plant lineages, but seem to be absent from green algae. The nsLTPs are classified to different types based on molecular weight, sequence similarity, intron position or spacing between the cysteine residues. The Type G nsLTPs (LTPGs) have a GPI-anchor in the C-terminal region which may attach the protein to the exterior side of the plasma membrane. Here, we present the first characterization of nsLTPs from an early diverged plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens. Moss LTPGs were heterologously produced and purified from Pichia pastoris. The purified moss LTPGs were found to be extremely heat stable and showed a binding preference for unsaturated fatty acids. Structural modeling implied that high alanine content could be important for the heat stability. Lipid profiling revealed that cutin monomers, such as C16 and C18 mono- and di-hydroxylated fatty acids, could be identified in P. patens. Expression of a moss LTPG-YFP fusion revealed localization to the plasma membrane. The expressions of many of the moss LTPGs were found to be upregulated during drought and cold treatments.

  18. Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapalee, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.

    2001-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important; particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Is the sword moss (Bryoxiphium) a preglacial Tertiary relict?

    PubMed

    Patiño, Jairo; Goffinet, Bernard; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-03-01

    The disjunction of floras between East Asia, Southeast North America, West North America, and Southwest Eurasia has been interpreted in terms of the fragmentation of a once continuous mixed mesophytic forest that occurred throughout the Northern Hemisphere due to the climatic and geological changes during the late Tertiary. The sword moss, Bryoxiphium, exhibits a distribution that strikingly resembles that of the mesophytic forest elements such as Liriodendron and is considered as the only living member of an early Tertiary flora in Iceland. These hypotheses are tested here using molecular dating analyses and ancestral area estimations. The results suggest that the extant range of Bryoxiphium results from the fragmentation of a formerly wider range encompassing North America and Southeast Asia about 10 million years ago. The split of continental ancestral populations is too recent to match with a continental drift scenario but is spatially and temporally remarkably congruent with that observed in Tertiary angiosperm relict species. The timing of the colonization of Iceland from Macaronesian ancestors, about two million years ago, is, however, incompatible with the hypothesis that Bryoxiphium is the only living member of an early Tertiary flora of the island. Alaska was recurrently colonized from East Asia. The ability of Bryoxiphium to overcome large oceanic barriers is further evidenced by its occurrence on remote oceanic archipelagos. In particular, Madeira was colonized twice independently from American and East Asian ancestors, respectively. The striking range disjunction of Bryoxiphium is interpreted in terms of its mating system, as the taxon exhibits a very singular pattern of spatial segregation of the sexes. PMID:26708122

  20. Is the sword moss (Bryoxiphium) a preglacial Tertiary relict?

    PubMed

    Patiño, Jairo; Goffinet, Bernard; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-03-01

    The disjunction of floras between East Asia, Southeast North America, West North America, and Southwest Eurasia has been interpreted in terms of the fragmentation of a once continuous mixed mesophytic forest that occurred throughout the Northern Hemisphere due to the climatic and geological changes during the late Tertiary. The sword moss, Bryoxiphium, exhibits a distribution that strikingly resembles that of the mesophytic forest elements such as Liriodendron and is considered as the only living member of an early Tertiary flora in Iceland. These hypotheses are tested here using molecular dating analyses and ancestral area estimations. The results suggest that the extant range of Bryoxiphium results from the fragmentation of a formerly wider range encompassing North America and Southeast Asia about 10 million years ago. The split of continental ancestral populations is too recent to match with a continental drift scenario but is spatially and temporally remarkably congruent with that observed in Tertiary angiosperm relict species. The timing of the colonization of Iceland from Macaronesian ancestors, about two million years ago, is, however, incompatible with the hypothesis that Bryoxiphium is the only living member of an early Tertiary flora of the island. Alaska was recurrently colonized from East Asia. The ability of Bryoxiphium to overcome large oceanic barriers is further evidenced by its occurrence on remote oceanic archipelagos. In particular, Madeira was colonized twice independently from American and East Asian ancestors, respectively. The striking range disjunction of Bryoxiphium is interpreted in terms of its mating system, as the taxon exhibits a very singular pattern of spatial segregation of the sexes.

  1. Allelopathy and allelopathic substance in the moss Rhynchostegium pallidifolium.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Seki, Takahiro; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2010-04-15

    An aqueous methanol extract of the moss Rhynchostegium pallidifolium, which often forms large pure colonies on soils and rocks, inhibited the growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), alfalfa (Medicaga sativa), lettuce (Lepidium sativum), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Phleum pratense) and Digitaria sanguinalis seedlings. Increasing the extract concentration increased the inhibition. These results suggest that R. pallidifolium may show allelopathic activity. The extract was purified and a putative compound causing this growth inhibitory effect was isolated. The chemical structure of the growth inhibitor was determined by MS, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data as 3-hydroxy-beta-ionone. 3-Hydroxy-beta-ionone inhibited the shoot and root growth of cress seedlings at concentrations greater than 1 and 3 micromol/L, respectively. The doses required for 50% growth inhibition on the shoot and roots of cress seedlings were 16.3 and 14.9 micromol/L, respectively. The endogenous concentration of 3-hydroxy-beta-ionone in R. pallidifolium was 28.2 microg/g and the concentration of 3-hydroxy-beta-ionone in the growth medium of R. pallidifolium was 6.7 microg/g. These results suggest that 3-hydroxy-beta-ionone was likely secreted into the medium during the incubation of R. pallidifolium. In addition, 3-hydroxy-beta-ionone was found in the soil under the pure colonies of R. pallidifolium. Therefore, 3-hydroxy-beta-ionone may play an important role in the allelopathic activity of R. pallidifolium and may help competition with neighboring plants, resulting in the formation of pure colonies. PMID:20018404

  2. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.

  3. Native Knowledge in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1985-01-01

    Native American science is defined as activities of native peoples of the New World in observing physical phenomena and attempting to explain and control them. Problems in studying native science, ethnoscience and native science, archaeostronomy and ethnoastronomy, ethnobotany, agriculture, technology, and future directions are discussed. (JN)

  4. [Cooperation between Chili and France in management training in the Chilean public health sector].

    PubMed

    Guillou, Michèle; Carabantes Cárcamo, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    A cooperation programme launched in 1999 by the Chilean Health Department and the French National College of Public Health (ENSP France) has now been running for four years. Its aim was to create and validate a national scheme for manager and executive training within the Chilean public hospital systems. Developed in partnership with the Public Health National College of Rio de Janeiro (Fondation Oswaldo Cruz) with whom ENSP France has teamed up for 10 years, this cooperation was designed by the Chilean partner as a contribution to the definition and implementation of a national policy on Human Resources which might follow the vast reform of the health system currently underway in the country. The scheme which gained international support is backed by a network of 5 universities (7 in 2004) associated with the Chilean Health Department, in a joint national development project for in-house management training for the management teams already in office. More than 100 manager and senior executives et 150 intermediate executives were thus trained between 2000 and 2003. The present scheme est presently being modified to meet new challenges arising from the need to support important changes occurring in the management of Chilean public hospitals, to give them more independence, while encouraging a network of all carers. The ENSP input concerns a line of transfer of competence in training and teaching engineering for all the Chilean partners involved. A module on know-how development support in 'remote control' open training engineering was added in 2002, resulting in the French ENSP concluding a collaboration agreement with the Université de Technologie de Compiègne (France). Moreover, support for implementing an accreditation scheme for management training for the Chilean health sector is under way, linking both French and Brazilian ENSP. Designed from the start on a regional South Cone/Brazil basis, a new expansion phase will be added to this international programme

  5. Eating Disorders Among a Community-based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Granillo, M Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that those with higher symptoms of anxiety and who had tried cigarettes were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Findings indicate that Chilean female adolescents are at risk of eating disorders and that eating disorders, albeit maladaptive, may be a means to cope with negative affect, specifically anxiety.

  6. [Cooperation between Chili and France in management training in the Chilean public health sector].

    PubMed

    Guillou, Michèle; Carabantes Cárcamo, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    A cooperation programme launched in 1999 by the Chilean Health Department and the French National College of Public Health (ENSP France) has now been running for four years. Its aim was to create and validate a national scheme for manager and executive training within the Chilean public hospital systems. Developed in partnership with the Public Health National College of Rio de Janeiro (Fondation Oswaldo Cruz) with whom ENSP France has teamed up for 10 years, this cooperation was designed by the Chilean partner as a contribution to the definition and implementation of a national policy on Human Resources which might follow the vast reform of the health system currently underway in the country. The scheme which gained international support is backed by a network of 5 universities (7 in 2004) associated with the Chilean Health Department, in a joint national development project for in-house management training for the management teams already in office. More than 100 manager and senior executives et 150 intermediate executives were thus trained between 2000 and 2003. The present scheme est presently being modified to meet new challenges arising from the need to support important changes occurring in the management of Chilean public hospitals, to give them more independence, while encouraging a network of all carers. The ENSP input concerns a line of transfer of competence in training and teaching engineering for all the Chilean partners involved. A module on know-how development support in 'remote control' open training engineering was added in 2002, resulting in the French ENSP concluding a collaboration agreement with the Université de Technologie de Compiègne (France). Moreover, support for implementing an accreditation scheme for management training for the Chilean health sector is under way, linking both French and Brazilian ENSP. Designed from the start on a regional South Cone/Brazil basis, a new expansion phase will be added to this international programme

  7. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T.; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L.; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A.; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-06-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle.

  8. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution by moss bags: Discriminating urban-rural structure in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Di Palma, A; Spagnuolo, V; De Nicola, F; Adamo, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility to use moss bags to detect pollution inputs - metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in sites chosen for their different land use (agricultural, urban/residential scenarios) and proximity to roads (sub-scenarios), in a fragmented conurbation of Campania (southern Italy). We focused on thirty-nine elements including rare earths. For most of them, moss uptake was higher in agricultural than in urban scenarios and in front road sites. Twenty PAHs were analyzed in a subset of agricultural sites; 4- and 5-ringed PAHs were the most abundant, particularly chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Overall results indicated that investigated pollutants have a similar spatial distribution pattern over the entire study area, with road traffic and agricultural practices as the major diffuse pollution sources. Moss bags proved a very sensitive tool, able to discriminate between different land use scenarios and proximity to roads in a mixed rural-urban landscape.

  9. Distributions and impact factors of antimony in topsoils and moss in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Sun, Liguang; He, Xin; You, Kehua; Zhou, Xin; Long, Nanye

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of antimony (Sb) in topsoil and moss (Dicranum angustum) in disturbed and undisturbed areas, as well as coal and gangue, in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic was examined. Results show that the weathering of coal bed could not contribute to the increase of Sb concentrations in topsoil and moss in the study area. The distribution of Sb is partially associated with traffic and historical mining activities. The occurrence of the maximum Sb concentration is due to the contribution of human activities. In addition, the decrease of Sb content in topsoil near the coastline may be caused by the washing of seawater. Compared with topsoils, moss could be a useful tool for monitoring Sb in both highly and lightly polluted areas.

  10. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-06-26

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle.

  11. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution by moss bags: Discriminating urban-rural structure in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Di Palma, A; Spagnuolo, V; De Nicola, F; Adamo, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility to use moss bags to detect pollution inputs - metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in sites chosen for their different land use (agricultural, urban/residential scenarios) and proximity to roads (sub-scenarios), in a fragmented conurbation of Campania (southern Italy). We focused on thirty-nine elements including rare earths. For most of them, moss uptake was higher in agricultural than in urban scenarios and in front road sites. Twenty PAHs were analyzed in a subset of agricultural sites; 4- and 5-ringed PAHs were the most abundant, particularly chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Overall results indicated that investigated pollutants have a similar spatial distribution pattern over the entire study area, with road traffic and agricultural practices as the major diffuse pollution sources. Moss bags proved a very sensitive tool, able to discriminate between different land use scenarios and proximity to roads in a mixed rural-urban landscape. PMID:26855226

  12. Persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses after fire at the Brazilian Antarctic Station.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Cipro, Caio Vinícius Zecchin; da Silva, Josilene; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2015-04-15

    A fire at the Brazilian Antarctic Station on February 25th, 2012 led to the burning of material that produced organic pollutants. To evaluate the impact in the surrounding area, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analyzed in moss samples collected in the vicinities of the station before and after the incident and compared to findings from previous studies in the same region. PCBs were on the same magnitude as that reported in previous studies, which could be associated to the global dispersion of these compounds and may not be related to the local fire. In contrast, concentrations of HCB and PAHs were higher than those reported in previous studies. No PBDEs were found above the method detection limit. Organic contaminant concentrations in mosses decreased a few months after the fire, which is an important characteristic when considering the use of mosses for monitoring recent exposure.

  13. Monitoring temporal trends of air pollution in an urban area using mosses and lichens as biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Gerdol, Renato; Marchesini, Roberta; Iacumin, Paola; Brancaleoni, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring air quality by using living organisms as biomonitors has received increasing attention in recent years. However, rather few studies were based on the concomitant use of passive biomonitoring (based on the different sensitivity of living organisms to air pollution) and active biomonitoring (based on their capacity to accumulate pollutants in the tissues). We carried out a repeated survey of an urban area in Northern Italy, with the objective of comparing temporal trends of different kinds of air pollutants with bioindication (passive biomonitoring) and bioaccumulation (active biomonitoring) techniques. During a five-year interval, temporal patterns of moss metal concentrations underwent significant changes probably due to intercurring variations in the importance of different pollution sources. Nitrogen (N) concentration in moss tissues also decreased and was paralleled by increasing diversity of epiphytic lichens. Increasing δ(15)N in moss tissues suggested a higher contribution of oxidized N species compared with reduced N species.

  14. Representativity of mosses as biomonitor organisms for the accumulation of environmental chemicals in plants and soils

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.

    1986-06-01

    The suitability of mosses for air pollution monitoring of benzohexachloride isomers and polyaromatic hydrocarbons is shown by residue data of different samples from Europe. The interpretation of the results makes it obvious that next to regional pattern analysis, hypotheses for atmospheric transport and deposition processes of different environmental chemicals can also be formed. An evaluation of these kinds of bioindicator methods is presented by a quantitative comparison of air pollution data and accumulated residues in plants. The results indicate a high retention efficiency of mosses for pollutants dominantly adsorbed to particulate matter in the air, like polyaromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The comparison of residue data of trace pollutants in mosses and other plants underlines the indicator functions of lower plants for air monitoring patterns with the exception of chlorinated hydrocarbons. They are more effective enriched by coniferous plants which contain ingredients able to absorb and transport these groups of environmental pollutants in the organism.

  15. Upgrading of biomass materials as energy sources: Liquefaction of mosses from Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.; Oezdemir, T.; Sahin, B.; Guellue, D.; Akdeniz, F.; Caglar, A.

    2000-06-01

    Air-dried and ground moss samples were subjected to supercritical and catalytic fluid extractions by using water, acetone, glycerol, or benzene as solvent at different temperatures in noncatalytic runs. Ground moss samples were suspended in water containing sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate catalysts at 575 K in a 0.1-liter autoclave. Yields of 71.7--79.8% were obtained by catalytic liquefaction of the samples. The proximate analysis data and the higher heating values (HHV) of the samples were determined. The HHV as MJ/kg of the moss samples as a function of fixed carbon (FC) were calculated from the following equation: HHV = 0.322(FC%) + 10.742. The correlation coefficient was 0.999. The calorific values calculated from the above equation showed a mean difference of {minus}0.78%.

  16. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle. PMID:24967601

  17. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  18. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  19. Moss inhabiting flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) with description of a new genus from Cangshan, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversity of moss cushion inhabiting and moss feeding flea beetles is documented and discussed. A new genus (Cangshanaltica) with a single new species (C. nigra) from Yunnan Province in China is described and illustrated. It is similar to Benedictus Scherer, Ivalia Jacoby, Minota Weise, Paraminota S...

  20. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the athabasca bituminous sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of "heavy metals".

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Belland, Rene; Duke, John; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie A; Wieder, Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-11-01

    Sphagnum moss was collected from 21 ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca bituminous sands in Alberta (AB). In comparison to contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th, and V. Except for V, in comparison to the "cleanest", ancient peat samples ever tested from the northern hemisphere (ca. 6000-9000 years old), the concentrations of each of these metals in the AB mosses are within a factor of 3 of "natural, background" values. The concentrations of "heavy metals" in the mosses, however, are proportional to the concentration of Th (a conservative, lithophile element) and, therefore, contributed to the plants primarily in the form of mineral dust particles. Vanadium, the single most abundant trace metal in bitumen, is the only anomaly: in the AB mosses, V exceeds that of ancient peat by a factor of 6; it is therefore enriched in the mosses, relative to Th, by a factor of 2. In comparison to the surface layer of peat cores collected in recent years from across Canada, from British Columbia to New Brunswick, the Pb concentrations in the mosses from AB are far lower.

  1. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  2. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  3. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  4. Using NLDAS-2 for initializing integrated watershed models: Model spin-up for the AirMOSS Campaign

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) investigation has been developed for high-resolution in time and space root-zone soil moisture and carbon estimation. AirMOSS will build an ultra-high frequency (UHF) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has the capability to penetr...

  5. Moss bag biomonitoring of airborne toxic element decrease on a small scale: A street study in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Škrivanj, Sandra; Milićević, Tijana; Dimitrijević, Dragoljub; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2016-01-15

    A database of potentially hazardous substances, necessary for estimating the exposure of humans to air pollutants, may be deficient because of a limited number of regulatory monitoring stations. This study was inspired by undeniably harmful effects of human long-term exposure to intense traffic emissions in urban area. Moss bag biomonitors were used to characterize spatial variation of airborne toxic elements near crossroads and two- and one-lane streets. The Sphagnum girgensohnii and Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were exposed for 10 weeks to 48 sampling sites across Belgrade (Serbia) during the summer of 2014. In addition, oven-drying pretreatment of the moss bags was tested. During the experimental period, traffic flows were estimated at each site by counting the number of vehicles during the rush hours. The concentrations of 39 elements were determined in the moss samples. There was no significant difference between the results obtained for nontreated and oven-dried moss bags. For the majority of elements, the moss bags identified a common pattern of decrease in the concentration from crossroads to two- and one-lane streets. The exposed moss bags were enriched with Sb, Cu and Cr. The correlation coefficients (r=0.65-0.70) between the moss concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe and Sb and the site-counted traffic flows also confirmed a dependence of the airborne element content on traffic emissions. A strong correlation with traffic flows makes Sb, Cu and Cr reliable traffic tracers. PMID:26520264

  6. The role of sample preparation in interpretation of trace element concentration variability in moss bioindication studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.; Galuszka, A.; Dolegowska, S.

    2011-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in plant bioindicators are often determined to assess the quality of the environment. Instrumental methods used for trace element determination require digestion of samples. There are different methods of sample preparation for trace element analysis, and the selection of the best method should be fitted for the purpose of a study. Our hypothesis is that the method of sample preparation is important for interpretation of the results. Here we compare the results of 36 element determinations performed by ICP-MS on ashed and on acid-digested (HNO3, H2O2) samples of two moss species (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) collected in Alaska and in south-central Poland. We found that dry ashing of the moss samples prior to analysis resulted in considerably lower detection limits of all the elements examined. We also show that this sample preparation technique facilitated the determination of interregional and interspecies differences in the chemistry of trace elements. Compared to the Polish mosses, the Alaskan mosses displayed more positive correlations of the major rock-forming elements with ash content, reflecting those elements' geogenic origin. Of the two moss species, P. schreberi from both Alaska and Poland was also highlighted by a larger number of positive element pair correlations. The cluster analysis suggests that the more uniform element distribution pattern of the Polish mosses primarily reflects regional air pollution sources. Our study has shown that the method of sample preparation is an important factor in statistical interpretation of the results of trace element determinations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Invited review: climate change impacts in polar regions: lessons from Antarctic moss bank archives.

    PubMed

    Royles, Jessica; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-03-01

    Mosses are the dominant plants in polar and boreal regions, areas which are experiencing rapid impacts of regional warming. Long-term monitoring programmes provide some records of the rate of recent climate change, but moss peat banks contain an unrivalled temporal record of past climate change on terrestrial plant Antarctic systems. We summarise the current understanding of climatic proxies and determinants of moss growth for contrasting continental and maritime Antarctic regions, as informed by 13C and 18O signals in organic material. Rates of moss accumulation are more than three times higher in the maritime Antarctic than continental Antarctica with growing season length being a critical determinant of growth rate, and high carbon isotope discrimination values reflecting optimal hydration conditions. Correlation plots of 13C and 18O values show that species (Chorisodontium aciphyllum / Polytrichum strictum) and growth form (hummock / bank) are the major determinants of measured isotope ratios. The interplay between moss growth form, photosynthetic physiology, water status and isotope composition are compared with developments of secondary proxies, such as chlorophyll fluorescence. These approaches provide a framework to consider the potential impact of climate change on terrestrial Antarctic habitats as well as having implications for future studies of temperate, boreal and Arctic peatlands. There are many urgent ecological and environmental problems in the Arctic related to mosses in a changing climate, but the geographical ranges of species and life-forms are difficult to track individually. Our goal was to translate what we have learned from the more simple systems in Antarctica, for application to Arctic habitats.

  8. Key Factors Influencing Rapid Development of Potentially Dune-Stabilizing Moss-Dominated Crusts.

    PubMed

    Bu, Chongfeng; Zhang, Kankan; Zhang, Chunyun; Wu, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are a widespread photosynthetic ground cover in arid and semiarid areas. They have many positive ecological functions, such as increasing soil stability, and reducing water and wind erosion. Using artificial technology to achieve the rapid development of BSCs is expected to become a low-cost and highly beneficial ecological restoration measure. In the present study, typical moss-dominated crusts in a region characterized by mobile dunes (Mu Us Sandland, China) were collected, and a 40-day cultivation experiment was performed to investigate key factors, including watering frequency, light intensity and a nutrient addition, which affect the rapid development of moss crusts and their optimal combination. The results demonstrated that watering frequency and illumination had a significant positive effect (P=0.049, three-factor ANOVA) and a highly significant, complicated effect (P=0.000, three-factor ANOVA), respectively, on the plant density of bryophytes, and a highly significant positive effect on the chlorophyll a and exopolysaccharide contents (P=0.000, P=0.000; P=0.000, P=0.000; one-way ANOVA). Knop nutrient solution did not have a significant positive but rather negative effect on the promotion of moss-dominated crust development (P=0.270, three-factor ANOVA). Moss-dominated crusts treated with the combination of moderate-intensity light (6,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) - Knop had the highest moss plant densities, while the treatment with high-intensity light (12,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) + Knop nutrient solution had higher chlorophyll a contents than that under other treatments. It is entirely feasible to achieve the rapid development of moss crusts under laboratory conditions by regulating key factors and creating the right environment. Future applications may seek to use cultured bryophytes to control erosion in vulnerable areas with urgent needs.

  9. [Seasonal dynamics of soil net nitrogen mineralization under moss crust in Shapotou region, northern China].

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Xin-ping; Pan, Yan-xia; Zhang, Ya-feng; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Ning

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal variations of soil inorganic nitrogen (N) pool and net N transformation rate in moss-covered soil and in the bare soil were comparatively observed by incubating intact soil columns with parafilm capping in the field in a natural vegetation area of Shapotou, southeastern fringe of the Tengger Desert. We found pronounced seasonal variations in soil available N content and net N transformation rate in both moss-covered soil and bare soil, with significant differences among different months. In non-growing season, soil available N content and net N transformation rate were significantly higher in March and October than in other months. Furthermore, immobilization was the dominant form of N mineralization, and no significant difference in net soil N mineralization rate was found between the two sampling soils. In growing season, soil available N content and net N transformation rate markedly increased and reached their peak values during June to August (17.18 mg x kg(-1) and 0.11 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively). Both soil net nitrification and N mineralization rates in moss-covered soil were significantly higher than in bare soil. Soil ammonium and nitrate N content in April and May were higher in moss-covered soil (2.66 and 3.16 mg x kg(-1), respectively) than in bare soil (1.02 and 2.37 mg x kg(-1), respectively); while the tendency was the converse in June and September, with 7.01 mg x kg(-1) for soil ammonium content and 7.40 mg x kg(-1) for nitrate N content in bare soil, and they were 6.39 and 6.36 mg x kg(-1) in moss-covered soil, respectively. Therefore, the existence and succession of moss crusts could be considered as one of the important biological factors affecting soil N cycling through regulating soil available N content and promoting soil N mineralization process. PMID:26259453

  10. Identifying the change in atmospheric sulfur sources in China using isotopic ratios in mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Tang, Cong-Guo; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xue-Yan; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2009-08-01

    A considerable number of studies on rainwater sulfur isotopic ratios (δ34Srain) have been conducted to trace sulfur sources at a large number of sites in the past. If longitudinal studies on the isotope composition of precipitation sulfate were conducted, it is possible to relate that to changes in sulfur emissions. But direct measurement needs considerable labor and time. So, in this study, sulfur isotopic ratios in rainwater and mosses were analyzed at Guiyang and Nanchang to evaluate the possibility of using mosses as a substitute for rainwater. We found that present moss sulfur isotopic ratios were comparable to those of present rainwater. Additionally, we investigated the changes of atmospheric sulfur sources and sulfur concentrations using an isotopic graphic analysis at five industrial cities, two forested areas, and two remote areas in China. Mosses in industrial cities show a wide range of δ34S values, with the highest occurring at Chongqing (+3.9‰) and the lowest at Guiyang (-3.1‰). But as compared to those in forested and remote areas, δ34S values of mosses in all the five industrial cities are lower. On the basis of isotopic comparisons between past rainwater (reported in the literature) and present mosses, in the plot of δ34Smoss versus δ34Srain, six zones indicating different atmospheric sulfur change are separated by the 1:1 line and δ34S values of potential sulfur sources. Our results indicate that atmospheric sulfur pollution in most of the industrial cities decreased, while at the two forested areas, no significant changes were observed, and a new anxiousness coming from new energy sources (e.g., oil) appeared in some cities. Studies on the change of ambient SO2 concentrations support these results.

  11. [Seasonal dynamics of soil net nitrogen mineralization under moss crust in Shapotou region, northern China].

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Xin-ping; Pan, Yan-xia; Zhang, Ya-feng; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Ning

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal variations of soil inorganic nitrogen (N) pool and net N transformation rate in moss-covered soil and in the bare soil were comparatively observed by incubating intact soil columns with parafilm capping in the field in a natural vegetation area of Shapotou, southeastern fringe of the Tengger Desert. We found pronounced seasonal variations in soil available N content and net N transformation rate in both moss-covered soil and bare soil, with significant differences among different months. In non-growing season, soil available N content and net N transformation rate were significantly higher in March and October than in other months. Furthermore, immobilization was the dominant form of N mineralization, and no significant difference in net soil N mineralization rate was found between the two sampling soils. In growing season, soil available N content and net N transformation rate markedly increased and reached their peak values during June to August (17.18 mg x kg(-1) and 0.11 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively). Both soil net nitrification and N mineralization rates in moss-covered soil were significantly higher than in bare soil. Soil ammonium and nitrate N content in April and May were higher in moss-covered soil (2.66 and 3.16 mg x kg(-1), respectively) than in bare soil (1.02 and 2.37 mg x kg(-1), respectively); while the tendency was the converse in June and September, with 7.01 mg x kg(-1) for soil ammonium content and 7.40 mg x kg(-1) for nitrate N content in bare soil, and they were 6.39 and 6.36 mg x kg(-1) in moss-covered soil, respectively. Therefore, the existence and succession of moss crusts could be considered as one of the important biological factors affecting soil N cycling through regulating soil available N content and promoting soil N mineralization process.

  12. Key Factors Influencing Rapid Development of Potentially Dune-Stabilizing Moss-Dominated Crusts.

    PubMed

    Bu, Chongfeng; Zhang, Kankan; Zhang, Chunyun; Wu, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are a widespread photosynthetic ground cover in arid and semiarid areas. They have many positive ecological functions, such as increasing soil stability, and reducing water and wind erosion. Using artificial technology to achieve the rapid development of BSCs is expected to become a low-cost and highly beneficial ecological restoration measure. In the present study, typical moss-dominated crusts in a region characterized by mobile dunes (Mu Us Sandland, China) were collected, and a 40-day cultivation experiment was performed to investigate key factors, including watering frequency, light intensity and a nutrient addition, which affect the rapid development of moss crusts and their optimal combination. The results demonstrated that watering frequency and illumination had a significant positive effect (P=0.049, three-factor ANOVA) and a highly significant, complicated effect (P=0.000, three-factor ANOVA), respectively, on the plant density of bryophytes, and a highly significant positive effect on the chlorophyll a and exopolysaccharide contents (P=0.000, P=0.000; P=0.000, P=0.000; one-way ANOVA). Knop nutrient solution did not have a significant positive but rather negative effect on the promotion of moss-dominated crust development (P=0.270, three-factor ANOVA). Moss-dominated crusts treated with the combination of moderate-intensity light (6,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) - Knop had the highest moss plant densities, while the treatment with high-intensity light (12,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) + Knop nutrient solution had higher chlorophyll a contents than that under other treatments. It is entirely feasible to achieve the rapid development of moss crusts under laboratory conditions by regulating key factors and creating the right environment. Future applications may seek to use cultured bryophytes to control erosion in vulnerable areas with urgent needs. PMID:26230324

  13. Key Factors Influencing Rapid Development of Potentially Dune-Stabilizing Moss-Dominated Crusts

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Chongfeng; Zhang, Kankan; Zhang, Chunyun; Wu, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are a widespread photosynthetic ground cover in arid and semiarid areas. They have many positive ecological functions, such as increasing soil stability, and reducing water and wind erosion. Using artificial technology to achieve the rapid development of BSCs is expected to become a low-cost and highly beneficial ecological restoration measure. In the present study, typical moss-dominated crusts in a region characterized by mobile dunes (Mu Us Sandland, China) were collected, and a 40-day cultivation experiment was performed to investigate key factors, including watering frequency, light intensity and a nutrient addition, which affect the rapid development of moss crusts and their optimal combination. The results demonstrated that watering frequency and illumination had a significant positive effect (P=0.049, three-factor ANOVA) and a highly significant, complicated effect (P=0.000, three-factor ANOVA), respectively, on the plant density of bryophytes, and a highly significant positive effect on the chlorophyll a and exopolysaccharide contents (P=0.000, P=0.000; P=0.000, P=0.000; one-way ANOVA). Knop nutrient solution did not have a significant positive but rather negative effect on the promotion of moss-dominated crust development (P=0.270, three-factor ANOVA). Moss-dominated crusts treated with the combination of moderate-intensity light (6,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) - Knop had the highest moss plant densities, while the treatment with high-intensity light (12,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) + Knop nutrient solution had higher chlorophyll a contents than that under other treatments. It is entirely feasible to achieve the rapid development of moss crusts under laboratory conditions by regulating key factors and creating the right environment. Future applications may seek to use cultured bryophytes to control erosion in vulnerable areas with urgent needs. PMID:26230324

  14. Science of Tsunami Forecasting: 2010 Chilean Tsunami Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Vasily; Bernard, Eddie; Tang, Rachel; Wei, Yong; Uslu, Burak; Eble, Marie

    2010-05-01

    Tsunami forecasting with real-time models and real-time data has always been one of the main goals of tsunami research. The February 27th, 2010 Chile tsunami provided the challenge and the opportunity to test the modern state of the science in tsunami forecasting. By contrast with the previous basin-wide tsunami generated by the third largest 2004 Sumatra earthquake, the fifth largest Chilean earthquake occurred at the time and in the area where a variety of real-time measurements and model forecast models have been available to assess the generated tsunami in real-time. The Chile tsunami was generated by a Mw 8.8 earthquake (35.846S, 72.719W ), at 06:34 UTC, 115 km (60 miles) NNE of Concepcion, Chile (according to the USGS). It has been recorded at coastal sea level gages around the Pacific Ocean, staring from the near-field record that caught the wave half an hour after generation at Valparaiso, to the coastal recordings of the wave arrived at Japan and Russian Far East almost a day later. In approximately 3 hours after the earthquake, the tsunami was first recorded at DART buoy 32412, providing real-time deep ocean signature of the propagating tsunami. All that measurements provided ample data for the real-time forecast analysis and for the model performance and forecast skills assessment throughout the Pacific basin. We present results of the performance of the NOAA forecast. The forecast method uses MOST model with the data assimilated from the earthquake and deep-ocean tsunami DART measurement. The comparison with tide gages and coastal impacts provide opportunity to assess the accuracy and efficiency of the forecast. The successes, lessons learned and future challengers for the tsunami forecast science are discussed.

  15. Organic carbon in glacial fjords of Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Gutiérrez, Marcelo; Tapia, Fabián; Abarzúa, Leslie; Daneri, Giovanni; Reid, Brian; Díez, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Ice Field in Chilean Patagonia is the largest (13,000 km2) temperate ice mass in the Southern hemisphere, yearly transporting ca. 40 km3 of freshwater to fjords. This volume of fresh and cold water likely affects adjacent marine ecosystems by changing circulation, productivity, food web dynamics, and the abundance and distribution of planktonic and benthic organisms. We hypothesize that freshwater-driven availability of inorganic nutrient and transport of organic and inorganic suspended matter, as well as microbes, become a controlling factor for productivity in the fjord associated with the Baker river and Jorge Montt glacier. Both appear to be sources of silicic acid, but not of nitrate and particulate organic carbon, especially during summer, when surface PAR and glacier thawing are maximal. In contrast to Baker River, the Jorge Montt glacier is also a source of dissolved organic carbon towards a proglacial fjord and the Baker Channel, indicating that a thorough chemical description of sources (tidewater glacier and glacial river) is needed. Nitrate in fiord waters reaches ca. 15 μM at 25 m depth with no evidence of mixing up during summer. Stable isotope composition of particulate organic nitrogen reaches values as low as 3 per mil in low-salinity waters near both glacier and river. Nitrogen fixation could be depleting δ15N in organic matter, as suggested by the detection at surface waters of nif H genes belonging to diazotrophs near the Montt glacier. As diazotrophs have also been detected in other cold marine waters (e.g. Baltic Sea, Arctic Ocean) as well as glaciers and polar terrestrial waters, there is certainly a potential for both marine and freshwater microbes to contribute and have a significant impact on the Patagonian N and C budgets. Assessing the impact of freshwater on C and N fluxes and the microbial community structure in Patagonian waters will allow understanding future scenarios of rapid glacier melting. This research was funded

  16. Maximal oxygen uptake in Chilean workers of normal nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Donoso, H

    1988-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured directly and predicted from cardiac frequency measurements in 54 healthy Chilean industrial workers aged 20 to 55 years, together with assessment of their dietary intake, body composition and blood chemistry. Measurement of VO2 was performed on a motor-driven treadmill. The predicted VO2max was obtained using a cycle ergometer by two methods: 1) the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and 2) the linear relationship between "steady state" heart rate (HR) and submaximum work, with subsequent extrapolation to "maximum" heart rate. Extrapolation of the HR/load regression line to 170 bpm permitted determination of the physical working capacity at 170 bpm (W170). VO2max for the 20-29 year group (Group I) averaged 3624 ml.min-1 and decreased to 3066 ml.min-1 in the 50-55 year group (Group IV). Lower values were obtained using the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and HR/load regression (-15% and -9% respectively). W170 was also affected by age (Group I: 190.6 W and Group IV: 158.5 W). No significant correlation were found between VO2max and plasma variables, with the exception of cholesterol (r = 0.59). On the contrary, anthropometric variables showed significant correlations with VO2max, which permitted the prediction of VO2max using multiple regression equations. The two best correlations were: 1. VO2max = 0.800 - 0.0225.(A) +0.0189.(W)+1.26.(H) (r = 0.87; p less than 0.001) 2. VO2max = 0.996 - 0.0176.(A) + 0.025.(W) + 0.838.(H) + 0.0255.(LBM) (r = 0.88; p less than 0.001) where A = years of age; W = body weight in kg; H = height in m and LBM = lean body mass in kg.

  17. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources

    PubMed Central

    Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P.; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H.; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S.; Castilla, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social–ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world. PMID:20837530

  18. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S; Castilla, Juan C

    2010-09-28

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social-ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world.

  19. Maximal oxygen uptake in Chilean workers of normal nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Donoso, H

    1988-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured directly and predicted from cardiac frequency measurements in 54 healthy Chilean industrial workers aged 20 to 55 years, together with assessment of their dietary intake, body composition and blood chemistry. Measurement of VO2 was performed on a motor-driven treadmill. The predicted VO2max was obtained using a cycle ergometer by two methods: 1) the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and 2) the linear relationship between "steady state" heart rate (HR) and submaximum work, with subsequent extrapolation to "maximum" heart rate. Extrapolation of the HR/load regression line to 170 bpm permitted determination of the physical working capacity at 170 bpm (W170). VO2max for the 20-29 year group (Group I) averaged 3624 ml.min-1 and decreased to 3066 ml.min-1 in the 50-55 year group (Group IV). Lower values were obtained using the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and HR/load regression (-15% and -9% respectively). W170 was also affected by age (Group I: 190.6 W and Group IV: 158.5 W). No significant correlation were found between VO2max and plasma variables, with the exception of cholesterol (r = 0.59). On the contrary, anthropometric variables showed significant correlations with VO2max, which permitted the prediction of VO2max using multiple regression equations. The two best correlations were: 1. VO2max = 0.800 - 0.0225.(A) +0.0189.(W)+1.26.(H) (r = 0.87; p less than 0.001) 2. VO2max = 0.996 - 0.0176.(A) + 0.025.(W) + 0.838.(H) + 0.0255.(LBM) (r = 0.88; p less than 0.001) where A = years of age; W = body weight in kg; H = height in m and LBM = lean body mass in kg. PMID:3342789

  20. Temporal trends (1990-2000) in the concentration of cadmium, lead and mercury in mosses across Europe.

    PubMed

    Harmens, Harry; Norris, David A; Koerber, Georgia R; Buse, Alan; Steinnes, Eiliv; Rühling, Ake

    2008-01-01

    The European heavy metals in mosses survey provides data on the concentration of 10 heavy metals in naturally growing mosses. The survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals and in this paper we report on the temporal trends in the concentration of cadmium, lead and mercury between 1990 and 2000. Metal- and country-specific temporal trends were observed. In general, the concentration of lead and cadmium in mosses decreased between 1990 and 2000; the decline was higher for lead than cadmium. For mercury not enough data were available to establish temporal trends between 1990 and 1995, but between 1995 and 2000 the mercury concentration in mosses did not change across Europe. The observed temporal trends for the concentrations in mosses were similar to the trends reported for the modelled total deposition of cadmium, lead and mercury in Europe.

  1. Country-specific correlations across Europe between modelled atmospheric cadmium and lead deposition and concentrations in mosses.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Ilyin, I; Mills, G; Aboal, J R; Alber, R; Blum, O; Coşkun, M; De Temmerman, L; Fernández, J Á; Figueira, R; Frontasyeva, M; Godzik, B; Goltsova, N; Jeran, Z; Korzekwa, S; Kubin, E; Kvietkus, K; Leblond, S; Liiv, S; Magnússon, S H; Maňkovská, B; Nikodemus, O; Pesch, R; Poikolainen, J; Radnović, D; Rühling, A; Santamaria, J M; Schröder, W; Spiric, Z; Stafilov, T; Steinnes, E; Suchara, I; Tabors, G; Thöni, L; Turcsányi, G; Yurukova, L; Zechmeister, H G

    2012-07-01

    Previous analyses at the European scale have shown that cadmium and lead concentrations in mosses are primarily determined by the total deposition of these metals. Further analyses in the current study show that Spearman rank correlations between the concentration in mosses and the deposition modelled by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) are country and metal-specific. Significant positive correlations were found for about two thirds or more of the participating countries in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 (except for Cd in 1990). Correlations were often not significant and sometimes negative in countries where mosses were only sampled in a relatively small number of EMEP grids. Correlations frequently improved when only data for EMEP grids with at least three moss sampling sites per grid were included. It was concluded that spatial patterns and temporal trends agree reasonably well between lead and cadmium concentrations in mosses and modelled atmospheric deposition.

  2. Element concentrations in the forest moss Hylocomium splendens: variation associated with altitude, net primary production and soil chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gerdol, Renato; Bragazza, Luca; Marchesini, Roberta

    2002-01-01

    Net primary production (NPP) of the forest moss Hylocomium splendens increased significantly along an elevational gradient in the southern Alps of Italy. Extracellularly bound metals (Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Mo, Ni, Pb) showed declining concentrations in moss tissue with increasing altitude, presumably because the amount of exchange sites on the cell wall increases less than total biomass. Concentrations of intracellular elements did not vary (Cd, Cu, Mg, Na, Zn), or even increased (K) with altitude. The observed patterns were always independent of precipitation amount and soil concentrations of exchangeable elements. A higher soil nutrient status only enhanced K uptake by the moss. We concluded that variations in moss NPP, associated with elevational gradients, may significantly affect estimates of atmospheric deposition based on moss analysis in mountainous regions.

  3. Evaluating mechanisms and relationships between water and nutrient fluxes in Sphagnum mosses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, T.; Price, J.

    2009-05-01

    The dominant ground cover of fens and bogs are Sphagnum mosses. The mosses grow in colonies and physiochemical and morphological adaptations enable Sphagnum communities to occupy unique niches within a peatland. Raised above the water table, hummock-forming species contribute to the unsaturated zone, where the physical mechanisms governing water flow remain elusive. Evaluating unsaturated flow through Sphagnum mosses remains complicated because of multiphase flow (vapour and liquid), and the inherent difficulties in obtaining hydrophysical parameters of the moss. Further complications arise because diurnal moisture and temperature fluctuations likely provide the mosses with additional sources of water through dewfall and distillation. Though potentially minor contributions, at a diurnal scale they could be physiologically important to help alleviate the water stress incurred by the mosses during highly evaporative days. These two potential water sources have yet to be examined with scientific rigor. Water and heat, inputs and fluxes, are dynamic, shifting seasonally and daily, creating implications for nutrient distribution within the ecohydrological system. Examining the mosses at a small spatial (hummock), and temporal scale (diurnal), coupled with large-scale studies will help improve restoration and management techniques. Two 'study' hummocks from a fen in Parc du Bic, PQ, will be instrumented for measurements of moisture content, temperature, relative humidity and heat fluxes across a surface-to-depth profile, while a nearby meteorological station will provide measurements of ambient conditions. Sampling of nearby hummocks will provide a means for determining moss hydrophyscial properties as well as provide water samples which will be examined for ionic and isotopic composition. The objectives of the in situ experiments are: one; obtain a diurnal energy budget coupling heat and water fluxes and two; examine the diurnal moisture and temperature fluctuations

  4. Phototolerance of lichens, mosses and higher plants in an alpine environment: analysis of photoreactions.

    PubMed

    Heber, U; Bilger, W; Bligny, R; Lange, O L

    2000-11-01

    Adaptation to excessive light is one of the requirements of survival in an alpine environment particularly for poikilohydric organisms which in contrast to the leaves of higher plants tolerate full dehydration. Changes in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and 820-nm absorption were investigated in the lichens Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr. and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC, in the moss Grimmia alpestris Limpr. and the higher plants Geum montanum L., Gentiana lutea L. and Pisum sativum L., all collected at altitudes higher than 2000 m above sea level. In the dehydrated state, chlorophyll fluorescence was very low in the lichens and the moss, but high in the higher plants. It increased on rehydration in the lichens and the moss, but decreased in the higher plants. Light-induced charge separation in photosystem II was indicated by pulse-induced fluorescence increases only in dried leaves, not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Strong illumination caused photodamage in the dried leaves, but not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Light-dependent increases in 820-nm absorption revealed formation of potential quenchers of chlorophyll fluorescence in all dehydrated plants, but energy transfer to quenchers decreased chlorophyll fluorescence only in the moss and the lichens, not in the higher plants. In hydrated systems, coupled cyclic electron transport is suggested to occur concurrently with linear electron transport under strong actinic illumination particularly in the lichens because far more electrons became available after actinic illumination for the reduction of photo-oxidized P700 than were available in the pool of electron carriers between photosystems II and I. In the moss Grimmia, but not in the lichens or in leaves, light-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was extensive even under nitrogen, indicating anaerobic thylakoid acidification by persistent cyclic electron transport. In the absence of actinic illumination, acidification by ca. 8% CO2 in

  5. Lichens and mosses on shrub-steppe soils in Southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Steven O.; Ryan, Bruce D.; Downs, Janelle L. ); Cadwell, Larry L. ); Soll, Jonathan A.; Hawke, Mary Ann; Ponzetti, Jeanne

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the lichens and mosses found on soils of the shrub-steppe at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Thirteen sites primarily at low elevation were intensively sampled. Twenty nine lichens and six moss species were identified. Three lichens were considered undescribed species. Based on comparison with other studies and herbarium records, we conclude the soil lichen flora of the Hanford Site is substantially different than that of the Great Basin or of the shrub-steppe in Idaho.

  6. Precipitation-driven carbon balance controls survivorship of desert biocrust mosses.

    PubMed

    Coe, Kirsten K; Belnap, Jayne; Sparks, Jed P

    2012-07-01

    Precipitation patterns including the magnitude, timing, and seasonality of rainfall are predicted to undergo substantial alterations in arid regions in the future, and desert organisms may be more responsive to such changes than to shifts in only mean annual rainfall. Soil biocrust communities (consisting of cyanobacteria, lichen, and mosses) are ubiquitous to desert ecosystems, play an array of ecological roles, and display a strong sensitivity to environmental changes. Crust mosses are particularly responsive to changes in precipitation and exhibit rapid declines in biomass and mortality following the addition of small rainfall events. Further, loss of the moss component in biocrusts leads to declines in crust structure and function. In this study, we sought to understand the physiological responses of the widespread and often dominant biocrust moss Syntrichia caninervis to alterations in rainfall. Moss samples were collected during all four seasons and exposed to two rainfall event sizes and three desiccation period (DP) lengths. A carbon balance approach based on single precipitation events was used to define the carbon gain or loss during a particular hydration period. Rainfall event size was the strongest predictor of carbon balance, and the largest carbon gains were associated with the largest precipitation events. In contrast, small precipitation events resulted in carbon deficits for S. caninervis. Increasing the length of the DP prior to an event resulted in reductions in carbon balance, probably because of the increased energetic cost of hydration following more intense bouts of desiccation. The season of collection (i.e., physiological status of the moss) modulated these responses, and the effects of DP and rainfall on carbon balance were different in magnitude (and often in sign) for different seasons. In particular, S. caninervis displayed higher carbon balances in the winter than in the summer, even for events of identical size. Overall, our results

  7. Live Cell Microscopy-Based RNAi Screening in the Moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Miki, Tomohiro; Nakaoka, Yuki; Goshima, Gohta

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful technique enabling the identification of the genes involved in a certain cellular process. Here, we discuss protocols for microscopy-based RNAi screening in protonemal cells of the moss Physcomitrella patens, an emerging model system for plant cell biology. Our method is characterized by the use of conditional (inducible) RNAi vectors, transgenic moss lines in which the RNAi vector is integrated, and time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. This method allows for effective and efficient screening of >100 genes involved in various cellular processes such as mitotic cell division, organelle distribution, or cell growth. PMID:27581297

  8. Native American medicine.

    PubMed

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  9. Evaluation of the use of moss transplants (Pseudoscleropodium purum) for biomonitoring different forms of air pollutant nitrogen compounds.

    PubMed

    Varela, Z; García-Seoane, R; Arróniz-Crespo, M; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R

    2016-06-01

    We investigated whether three different types of moss transplants (devitalized moss bags with and without cover and auto-irrigated moss transplants) are suitable for use as biomonitors of the deposition of oxidised and/or reduced forms of N. For this purpose, we determined whether the concentration of atmospheric NO2 was related to the % N, δ(15)N and the activity of the enzyme biomarkers phosphomonoesterase (PME) and nitrate reductase (NR) in the tissues of moss transplants. We exposed the transplants in 5 different environments of Galicia (NW Spain) and Cataluña (NE Spain): industrial environments, urban and periurban environments, the surroundings of a cattle farm and in a monitoring site included in the sampling network of the European Monitoring Programme. The results showed that the moss in the auto-irrigated transplants was able of incorporating the N in its tissues because it was metabolically active, whereas in devitalized moss bags transplants, moss simply intercepts physically the N compounds that reached it in particulate or gaseous form. In addition, this devitalization could limit the capacity of moss to capture gaseous compounds (i.e. reduced N) and to reduce the oxidised compounds that reach the specimens. These findings indicate that devitalized moss transplants cannot be used to monitor either oxidised or reduced N compounds, whereas transplants of metabolically active moss can be used for this purpose. Finally, the NR and PME biomarkers should be used with caution because of the high variability in their activities and the limits of quantification should be evaluated in each case. PMID:27038571

  10. Gravi-photomorphogenesis of the moss Pottia intermedia protonemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkiv, O. T.; Kyjak, N. Y.; Khorkavtsiv, Y. D.; Kit, N. A.

    The protonemata development proceeds in the process of gradual differentiation of growing apical cells and intercalar cells the shortened lateral branches of the latters being transformed into three-dimensional gametophore buds (Demkiv et al., 1991). Normal course of plant development needs favourable external conditions. Sometimes, however, external environment agents can accelerate the development of organism. So, apical protonema cells of darkgrown gravitropic P. intermedia differentiate gametophore-buds in light of low intensity (Ripetskyj, 1999). We investigate the influence of gravistimulation on bud formation in haploid and diploid P. intermedia protonema. Diploid protonema was found to react on light weaker than haploid one. Under the influence of light the darkgrown apical cells and lateral branches of haploid protonema were directly transformed into buds, while in diploid protonema at first the formation of bundles of rhizoid type filaments takes place on the tips of caulonema and buds appeared in center of such bundles. The participation of gravity in gametophore bud formation was assessed by clinorotating protonema in darkness. Being illuminated such protonema also developed buds quickly the latters being formed along all stolon. It can be suggested that at 1g the growth zone of apical cells actively attract inductors of bud formation. During clinorotation the inductors probably are transferred much more slower than under stationary state and that is why the buds arised not only at the tips of stolons but along all their length. It is known that gametophore bud formation can be stimulated by exogenous phytohormones. As M. Bopp (1980) has shown, that kinetin selectively promotes bud formation on moss protonema. Our observations have shown 0,5 -- 50 μ M of kinetin stimulate the bud formation on diploid aposporic protonema much more effectively that on haploid one. It can be concluded that the amount of endogenous cytokinins in haploid protonemal cells is

  11. Light-dependent reversion gravitropism of the moss Pohlia nutans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorkavtsiv, O.

    Plants have evolved highly sensitive mechanisms adapting their growth to the environmental conditions. Light and gravity are critical importance factors, which exerts an essential and specific influence on the determination of the growth direction and regulation of the early stages of plants ontogeny, sometimes effects of these factors being independent. The negative gravitropic resp onse of moss protonemata causes their spatial orientation towards light, which in its turn is the source of photosynthetic efficiency and phototropism. The gravitropism system does not function independently of other sensory response systems in plants. The competence of protonemata to gravity might be altered and the gravitropic response be reversed from negative to positive by light. It has been shown that response of apical cells to light depend on wavelenght: red light (max = 660 nm) represses the gravitropism and blue ( = 450 nm) inverts the protonemal gravitropism. Light, has also been shown for seed plants to modulate gravitropism of roots and stems through the action of phy B in red/far-red reversible way and by phy A in a non-reversible, very - low-fluence response (Hangarter, 1997). In P. nutans blue light reversed the gravitropism protonemal filaments. The mean angle after 24 h blue irradiation was 83 0, like that of negative gravitropic protonemata in darkness. We compared the effect of blue light on gravitropism of chloronemal filaments of Funaria hygrometrica having very low sensitivity to gravity. After action of blue light, however, the positive gravitropism of F. hygrometrica chloronemata was fairly high - 370 . Among blue light spectrum the highest reversion effectiveness in P. nutans had the UV light ( = 350 nm) initiated bends in 90% of protonemata. If a far-red pulse (5 min per h) was added to the blue/UV the gravitropic growth of protonemata resembled that in the dark control. Phytochrome has maxima of absorption in blue and red spectrum region and in our

  12. Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications.

    PubMed

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Rodríguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2016-01-20

    Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The results showed that the addition of GA decreased water solubility, swelling, water vapor permeability of MC films, and the release of antioxidant substances from the active materials increased with the concentration of GA. Natural extract and active cross-linked films were characterized in order to obtain the optimal formulation with the highest antioxidant activity and the best physical properties for latter active food packaging application.

  13. Assessment of Strawberry mild yellow edge virus Infection in Different Ecotypes of the Chilean Native Strawberry Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fragaria chiloensis ssp chiloensis (L.) Duch, is distributed naturally in Chile. Two botanical forms have been described: the white-fruited chiloensis, which is cultivated in coastal mountains between latitudes 35° and 39°S, and the small-red fruited patagonica, which grows widely between latitudes ...

  14. Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications.

    PubMed

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Rodríguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2016-01-20

    Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The results showed that the addition of GA decreased water solubility, swelling, water vapor permeability of MC films, and the release of antioxidant substances from the active materials increased with the concentration of GA. Natural extract and active cross-linked films were characterized in order to obtain the optimal formulation with the highest antioxidant activity and the best physical properties for latter active food packaging application. PMID:26572446

  15. Native plant diversity increases herbivory to non-natives.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Ian S; Hipp, Andrew L

    2014-11-01

    There is often an inverse relationship between the diversity of a plant community and the invasibility of that community by non-native plants. Native herbivores that colonize novel plants may contribute to diversity-invasibility relationships by limiting the relative success of non-native plants. Here, we show that, in large collections of non-native oak trees at sites across the USA, non-native oaks introduced to regions with greater oak species richness accumulated greater leaf damage than in regions with low oak richness. Underlying this trend was the ability of herbivores to exploit non-native plants that were close relatives to their native host. In diverse oak communities, non-native trees were on average more closely related to native trees and received greater leaf damage than those in depauperate oak communities. Because insect herbivores colonize non-native plants that are similar to their native hosts, in communities with greater native plant diversity, non-natives experience greater herbivory.

  16. The Impact of Powerful Oral Language Lab on Chilean EFL Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Hsuying Chiou; Andruske, Cynthia Lee

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative case study reports the impact of using a public-speaking structure (Powerful Oral Language Lab [POLL]) in teaching preservice Chilean English pedagogy students. It describes how this task-based method of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher training is related to language strategic competence. Twenty students…

  17. Bringing the Schools Back in: The Stratification of Educational Achievement in the Chilean Voucher System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizala, Alejandra; Torche, Florencia

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the socioeconomic stratification of achievement in the Chilean voucher system using a census of 4th and 8th graders, a multilevel methodology, and accounting for unobserved selectivity into school sector. Findings indicate that the association between the school's aggregate family socioeconomic status (SES) and test scores is…

  18. New English Cultures and Learner Autonomy for Intrinsic Motivation and Democratic Empowerment in the Chilean Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Katharina; Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.

    2013-01-01

    Chilean youth are currently demanding access to better-quality education for all: greater democracy and curricula that respect the country's indigenous cultural roots form part of their petitions. This article puts forward a twofold pedagogical proposal for English Language Teaching intended to foster intrinsic motivation and democratic…

  19. Remaking Education from Below: The Chilean Student Movement as Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jo

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the Chilean student movement and its ten-year struggle for public education as an example of public pedagogy. Secondary and university students, along with the parents, teachers, workers and community members who have supported them, have engaged in the most sustained political activism seen in Chile since the democratic…

  20. Chilean Adolescents' and Parents' Views on Autonomy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, M. Loreto; Pérez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand Chilean parents' and adolescents' conceptions of autonomy and whether they hold different expectations for autonomous behaviors by generation and socioeconomic level. A qualitative approach to data collection was used through separate focus groups of parents and adolescents from different socioeconomic…

  1. The Influence of Ethnicity on Warfarin Dosage Requirements in the Chilean Population

    PubMed Central

    Subiabre, Valeska; Palomo, Ivan; Guzmán, Neftalí; Retamales, Eduardo; Henríquez, Hugo; Gonzalez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin K antagonists are drugs that are widely prescribed around the world and their use has helped improve the prognosis of patients with thromboembolic disease. However, a high interindividual variability has been observed in dosage requirements to reach the desired anticoagulation range that could be due to environmental and genetic factors. Studies suggest that ethnicity influences coumarin response, supporting the observed differences in dose requirements across various populations. Studies using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers have suggested that the Chilean population has a predominantly Amerindian genetic pool. Objective To evaluate the influence of ethnicity, defined by the presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups, on the variability in therapeutic response to warfarin in the Chilean population. Methods A total of 191 patients treated with warfarin were included in this study. Analysis of the mitochondrial genome for detecting the presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups was performed using polymerase chain reaction and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. The evaluation of warfarin requirements according to each haplogroup was performed by ANOVA with a 95% CI and assuming statistical significance at P < 0.05. Results Based on the presence of an mtDNA haplogroup, 91% of the Chilean population had an Amerindian background. There were no significant differences in warfarin dosage requirements among the different Amerindian haplogroups (P = 0.083). Conclusions The presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroup does not influence warfarin dosage requirements in the Chilean population. PMID:25709720

  2. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  3. [Recommendations for Chilean travelers to the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Perret, Cecilia; Weitzel, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This article provides a checklist of precautions and vaccines for Chilean travelers attending the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil. It aims to help physicians to prepare visitors of this mass gathering and summarizes useful hints to avoid infectious diseases considering the circumstances and availabilities in Chile.

  4. The CAF Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire in a Sample of Chilean Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Leandro Navas; Llorca, Jose Antonio Soriano; Tello, Francisco Pablo Holgado

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to verify whether the six-dimension structure of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire is maintained with Chilean students, and to assess its psychometric qualities in this population. Method: One thousand seven hundred sixty-seven students took part in this research, from Central and South Chile; 45.8%…

  5. Cutaneous tumour-like lesions due to poxvirus infection in Chilean flamingos.

    PubMed

    Arai, S; Arai, C; Fujimaki, M; Iwamoto, Y; Kawarada, M; Saito, Y; Nomura, Y; Suzuki, T

    1991-05-01

    Cutaneous tumour-like growths were observed on the face and other areas of the body surface of young Chilean flamingos. In the cells of these lesions, avian pox-specific cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed by light microscopy and virus particles were detected under an electron-microscope. It was diagnosed as avian pox.

  6. The Dad in the Che Guevara T-Shirt: Narratives of Chilean English Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Building on previous critical research regarding student resistance to English Language Teaching (ELT), this paper illustrates Chilean high-school English teachers' use of narrative to make sense of ideological challenges from students. While the government of Chile is promoting English in connection with the nation's export-oriented economic…

  7. Uneven Distribution of Novice Teachers in the Chilean Primary School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckes, Lorena; Bascope, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the allocation of novice primary teachers in Chilean schools, looking at their characteristics and at the attributes of the schools at which they are hired after having completed their initial teacher training. The study reveals that in Chile, more qualified novice teachers are more prone to get jobs in socio-economically…

  8. Higher Education Policy in Authoritarian Regimes: Comparative Perspectives on the Chilean Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel

    A Chilean case study of higher education under an authoritarian regime is presented. The study restricts itself to the most prevalent sub-type of the authoritarian regime which is "bureaucratic-authoritarianism" (BA). The BA designation refers to regimes which exert considerable repressive control over societies that have undergone substantial…

  9. Educational Effectiveness in Chilean Secondary Education: Comparing Different "Value Added" Approaches to Evaluate Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz-Chereau, B.; Thomas, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an original investigation into school performance measures and the multilevel nature of pupil achievement data in the Chilean school system using a sample of 177,461 students, nested within 7146 classrooms, 2283 secondary schools and 313 municipalities. The data-set comprised Year 10 students' 2006 SIMCE test's results in two…

  10. External Technical Support for School Improvement: Critical Issues from the Chilean Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osses, Alejandra; Bellei, Cristián; Valenzuela, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To what extent school improvement processes can be initiated and sustained from the outside has been a relevant question for policy-makers seeking to increase quality in education. Since 2008, the Chilean Government is strongly promoting the use of external technical support (ETS) services to support school improvement processes, as part of the…

  11. The Class and Culture-Based Exclusion of the Chilean Neoliberal Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavieres, Eduardo A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I analyze the class- and cultural-based exclusion produced by the Chilean neoliberal educational reform, carried out during the period from 1990 to 2010. This educational reform follows the same neoliberal model applied to the economy of the country. Although some indicators improved in relation to coverage and public spending in…

  12. Native American Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Carl D., Comp.; And Others

    Focusing on the Southeastern American Indian cultures, this Native American resource guide is designed for use in the elementary and secondary schools of the East Baton Rouge Parish and is a product of a 1975 Indian Advisory Committee composed of Indian parents, teachers, and staff members. Objectives of these materials require the Indian student,…

  13. The Native American Speaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberg, Walter; And Others

    This publication is the product of several workshops and is aimed at multi-ethnic integration of teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching techniques. The 7 articles and 3 bibliographies, contributed by Native American consultants, emphasize recognition and alteration of bias in teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching…

  14. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  15. Rebuilding Native American Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyhis, Don; Simonelli, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Wellbriety Movement in Native American communities draws on the wisdom and participation of traditional elders. Beginning with a basic community teaching called the Four Laws of Change and the Healing Forest Model, the Wellbriety Movement blends Medicine Wheel knowledge with the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous to provide culture-specific…

  16. Native American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, C. Fayne; And Others

    Designed to accommodate a semester course in Native American Literature for secondary students, this teacher's guide includes a general introduction, a statement of the philosophy and goals upon which it is predicated, a nine-week block on post-Columbian literature, a nine-week block on oral literature, separate appendices for each block, a…

  17. Native American Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 13 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American and other indigenous cultural groups. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of…

  18. Exploring Native American Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Phoebe

    This paper described the events and results of a workshop on Native American symbolism presented to educators and held in Kansas City, Missouri. The presenter maintained that some of the most crucial problems facing U.S. educators and students are caused by racial misunderstandings, and that the universality of artistic expression can be a vehicle…

  19. Last millenium environmental changes in Lake Bertrand sediments, Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacré, V.; Fagel, N.; Schmidt, S.; Alvarez, D.; Araneda, A.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-04-01

    'W). The identification of the diatom assemblages and its temporal variability in both lake sediments will help to identify the origin of those silica-rich layers. In addition, further sedimentological analyses are in progress to better characterize the sediment deposition models. This research was funded by Chilean Fondecyt project number 1070508 and Belgian projects (FNRS proposal 1360 2007-2010, ULg CFRA 1060 2009-2010).

  20. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomstein, Bente Aa.; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Schubert, Carsten J.; Niggemann, Jutta

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers ( D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions: at ˜23 °S off Antofagasta and at ˜36 °S off Concepción. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon (%T AAC: 7-14%) and total nitrogen (%T AAN: 23-38%) in surface sediments decreased with increasing water depth (from 126 to 1350 m) indicating that organic matter becomes increasingly decomposed in surface sediments at greater water depth. Changes in the ratio between the protein amino acid aspartate and its non-protein degradation product β-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated into the sediment. Reactivity of organic matter in the sediment was also assessed using the Degradation Index (DI) developed by [Dauwe, B., Middelburg, J.J., 1998. Amino acids and hexosamines as indicators of organic matter degradation state in North Sea sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr.43, pp. 782-798.]. Off Concepción, DI was successfully applied to examine the degradation status of sedimentary organic matter at different water depths. However, unexpected results were obtained at the Antofagasta stations as DI increased with sediment depth, suggesting more degraded organic matter at the surface than deeper in the cores. The contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA was estimated from the concentrations of D-aspartate, D-glutamic acid, D-serine, and D-alanine. Peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for >18% of THAA in all investigated samples. In surface sediments peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for a progressively larger fraction of THAA at increasing water depths (up to >26%). Further, the contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA increased with

  1. 75 FR 3219 - Richard Moss; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... January 12, 2010. On January 31, 2008, Richard Moss, licensee for the Cinnamon Ranch Hydroelectric Project... regulations thereunder. The Cinnamon Ranch Hydroelectric Project is located on the Middle, Birch, and... operation of the Cinnamon Ranch Hydroelectric Project, until such time as the Commission acts on...

  2. [Effects of moss crust on soil seed bank at southeast edge of Tengger Desert].

    PubMed

    Su, Yan-gui; Li, Xin-Rong; Jia, Rong-Liang; Pan, Yan-Xie

    2007-03-01

    An investigation was made on the soil seed bank at southeast edge of Tengger Desert with moss crust under natural and artificial vegetations. The results showed that the density of soil seed bank increased with the development of moss crust, which was 3.4 times higher under natural vegetation than under 24 years old artificial vegetation. In the seed bank, a total of 12 species belonging to 6 families were identified, among which, annuals occupied more than 70%. No perennial seeds were found under artificial vegetation, but under natural vegetation, 20% of the seeds were of perennials. As for semi-shrub seeds, they occupied 20% and 10% under artificial and natural, vegetation, respectively. Under artificial vegetation, the species richness index of soil seed bank was relatively lower, being about a half of that under natural vegetation. The species diversity index of the seed bank had a slight decrease with the development of moss crust under artificial vegetation, but increased to the maximum (0. 693) under natural vegetation. The species similarity index was 1 among the seed banks under artificial vegetations, and 0.4 between those under artificial and natural vegetation. The development of moss crust increased the roughness of surface soil and improved soil environment significantly, which could have positive effects on seed entrapment and plant establishment.

  3. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170 Federal Dam, Oklawaha River... high water, the discharge past the dam shall be regulated in such manner as he may direct until...

  4. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170 Federal Dam, Oklawaha River... high water, the discharge past the dam shall be regulated in such manner as he may direct until...

  5. Gravitropic moss cells default to spiral growth on the clinostat and in microgravity during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Volker D.; Schwuchow, Jochen M.; Reed, David W.; Nadeau, Jeanette A.; Lucas, Jessica; Skripnikov, Alexander; Sack, Fred D.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to shoots and roots, the gravity (g)-vector orients the growth of specialized cells such as the apical cell of dark-grown moss protonemata. Each apical cell of the moss Ceratodon purpureus senses the g-vector and adjusts polar growth accordingly producing entire cultures of upright protonemata (negative gravitropism). The effect of withdrawing a constant gravity stimulus on moss growth was studied on two NASA Space Shuttle (STS) missions as well as during clinostat rotation on earth. Cultures grown in microgravity (spaceflight) on the STS-87 mission exhibited two successive phases of non-random growth and patterning, a radial outgrowth followed by the formation of net clockwise spiral growth. Also, cultures pre-aligned by unilateral light developed clockwise hooks during the subsequent dark period. The second spaceflight experiment flew on STS-107 which disintegrated during its descent on 1 February 2003. However, most of the moss experimental hardware was recovered on the ground, and most cultures, which had been chemically fixed during spaceflight, were retrieved. Almost all intact STS-107 cultures displayed strong spiral growth. Non-random culture growth including clockwise spiral growth was also observed after clinostat rotation. Together these data demonstrate the existence of default non-random growth patterns that develop at a population level in microgravity, a response that must normally be overridden and masked by a constant g-vector on earth.

  6. Appearance of the Moss-Harlow Effect with Stimuli Equated for Novelty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, David P.; Cross, Henry A.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment tested for the Moss Harlow Effect in 3- and 5-year-olds with stimulus novelty equated. Experimental groups familiarized themselves with each pair of test objects by sorting them, then received a P or N information trial and test trials. (JH)

  7. First survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Kosovo using moss biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Maxhuni, Albert; Lazo, Pranvera; Kane, Sonila; Qarri, Flora; Marku, Elda; Harmens, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. The atmospheric deposition of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn in Kosovo was investigated by using carpet-forming moss species (Pseudocleropodium purum and Hypnum cupressiforme) as bioindicators. This research is part of the European moss survey coordinated by the ICP Vegetation, an International Cooperative Programme reporting on the effects of air pollution on vegetation to the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Sampling was performed during the summer of 2011 at 25 sampling sites homogenously distributed over Kosovo. Unwashed, dried samples were digested by using wet digestion in Teflon tubes. The concentrations of metal elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and/or furnace systems. The heavy metal concentration in mosses reflected local emission sources. The data obtained in this study were compared with those of similar studies in neighboring countries and Europe (2010-2014 survey). The geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn were higher than the respective median values of Europe, suggesting that the zones with heavy vehicular traffic and industry emission input are important emitters of these elements. Selected zones are highly polluted particularly by Cd, Pb, Hg, and Ni. The statistical analyses revealed that a strong correlation exists between the Pb and Cd content in mosses, and the degree of pollution in the studied sites was assessed.

  8. Active biomonitoring of element uptake with terrestrial mosses: a comparison of bulk and dry deposition.

    PubMed

    Couto, J A; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A

    2004-05-25

    Moss (Scleropodium purum) transplants were used to study bioconcentration originating from dry and bulk deposition, by measuring the tissue contents of Al, As, Ca, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn. Furthermore, a laboratory experiment was carried out to determine the sequence of maximum concentration and affinity of Al, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn, in S. purum. We found that in many of the transplants, for the same period of exposure, higher levels of metals were accumulated via dry deposition than via bulk deposition. This result may be explained by the simple washing action of the rain on the surface of the moss, and by the existence of processes that provoke the loss of some of the accumulated elements: intercationic displacement and leaching caused by acid precipitation. Modelling of the final bioconcentration observed, as a balance of inputs and outputs of elements, revealed that this terrestrial moss does not integrate, but rather concentrates atmospheric deposition, and there exists a state of unstable equilibrium between inputs and outputs of elements, a state that is determined by the characteristics of the surrounding environment. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, we can conclude that at present, it is not possible to extrapolate the calibrations between the concentrations of elements accumulated in a certain species of moss to values of atmospheric deposition (bulk deposition) from one place to another with different environmental conditions.

  9. Biomonitoring of air pollution with mercury in Croatia by using moss species and CV-AAS.

    PubMed

    Spirić, Zdravko; Vučković, Ivana; Stafilov, Trajče; Kušan, Vladimir; Bačeva, Katerina

    2014-07-01

    Moss samples from four dominant species (Hypnum cupressiforme, Pleurozium schreberi, Homalothecium sericeum and Brachythecium rutabulum) were collected during the summer and autumn of 2010 from 121 sampling sites evenly distributed over the territory of Croatia. Samples were totally digested by using microwave digestion system, whilst mercury was analysed by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). Descriptive statistics were done from analyses of mercury in all moss samples. The content of mercury ranged from 0.010 to 0.145 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 0.043 mg kg(-1). Hg distribution map shows the sites of the country with higher levels of this element. High contents of Hg were found in moss samples collected from the regions of Podravina and Istria as a result of anthropogenic pollution. Comparison of median values and ranges with those found in moss samples in 2006 shows slight reduction of mercury air pollution. When compared to the results obtained from recent studies conducted in Slovenia, Macedonia and especially in Norway-which serves as a reference considering the fact that it is a pristine area-mercury air pollution in Croatia is insignificant.

  10. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in lichen and moss samples from the Antarctic Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Bacci, E.; Calamari, D.; Gaggi, C.; Fanelli, R.; Focardi, S.; Morosini, M.

    1986-01-01

    The concentrations of some chlorinated hydrocarbon residues (HCB, HCH isomers, p,p'DDT and DDE, PCB cogeners) in lichen and moss samples from the Antarctic Peninsula are reported and compared with available data from other parts of the world. The use of these materials as indicators of tropospheric contamination levels in Antarctica is discussed.

  11. Gravitropic moss cells default to spiral growth on the clinostat and in microgravity during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Kern, Volker D; Schwuchow, Jochen M; Reed, David W; Nadeau, Jeanette A; Lucas, Jessica; Skripnikov, Alexander; Sack, Fred D

    2005-04-01

    In addition to shoots and roots, the gravity (g)-vector orients the growth of specialized cells such as the apical cell of dark-grown moss protonemata. Each apical cell of the moss Ceratodon purpureus senses the g-vector and adjusts polar growth accordingly producing entire cultures of upright protonemata (negative gravitropism). The effect of withdrawing a constant gravity stimulus on moss growth was studied on two NASA Space Shuttle (STS) missions as well as during clinostat rotation on earth. Cultures grown in microgravity (spaceflight) on the STS-87 mission exhibited two successive phases of non-random growth and patterning, a radial outgrowth followed by the formation of net clockwise spiral growth. Also, cultures pre-aligned by unilateral light developed clockwise hooks during the subsequent dark period. The second spaceflight experiment flew on STS-107 which disintegrated during its descent on 1 February 2003. However, most of the moss experimental hardware was recovered on the ground, and most cultures, which had been chemically fixed during spaceflight, were retrieved. Almost all intact STS-107 cultures displayed strong spiral growth. Non-random culture growth including clockwise spiral growth was also observed after clinostat rotation. Together these data demonstrate the existence of default non-random growth patterns that develop at a population level in microgravity, a response that must normally be overridden and masked by a constant g-vector on earth.

  12. Moss bags as sentinels for human safety in mercury-polluted groundwaters.

    PubMed

    Cesa, Mattia; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Buora, Clara; Lorenzonetto, Alberta; Pozzobon, Alessandro; Raris, Marina; Rosa, Maria; Salvadori, Michela

    2014-05-01

    An equation to estimate Hg concentrations of <4 μg/L in groundwaters of a polluted area in NE Italy was set out by using transplants of the aquatic moss Rhynchostegium riparioides as trace element bioaccumulators. The equation is derived from a previous mathematical model which was implemented under laboratory conditions. The work aimed at (1) checking the compliance of the uptake kinetics with the model, (2) improving/adapting the model for groundwater monitoring, (3) comparing the performances of two populations of moss collected from different sites, and (4) assessing the environmental impact of Hg contamination on a small river. The main factors affecting Hg uptake in the field were-as expected-water concentration and time of exposure, even though the uptake kinetics in the field were slightly different from those which were previously observed in the lab, since the redox environmental conditions influence the solubility of cationic Fe, which is a negative competitor of Hg(2+). The equation was improved by including the variable 'dissolved oxygen concentration'. A numerical parameter depending on the moss collection site was also provided, since the differences in uptake efficiency were observed between the two populations tested. Predicted Hg concentrations well fitted the values measured in situ (approximately ±50%), while a notable underestimation was observed when the equation was used to predict Hg concentration in a neighbouring river (-96%), probably due to the organic pollution which hampers metal uptake by mosses.

  13. Does spore ultrastructure mirror different dispersal strategies in mosses? A study of seven iberian orthotrichum species.

    PubMed

    Medina, Nagore G; Estébanez, Belén

    2014-01-01

    Most mosses have xerochastic dispersal (i.e., they open their capsules when conditions are dry), which is thought to favor long-distance dispersal. However, there are several species that use a hygrochastic strategy: spores are dispersed when conditions are wet. The significance of this strategy in the Mediterranean region is unknown. In this study, we explored whether ultrastructural features related to differences in spore resistance may explain these different strategies of spore dispersal. To this end, we examined the ultrastructural features of the spores of seven closely related species in the moss genus Orthotrichum. These species all grow as epiphytes in sub-Mediterranean forests, and the group includes both xerochastic and hygrochastic members. First, we found that the spore wall layers exhibit several features previously undescribed in mosses. Second, we discovered that there are only subtle differences in spore ultrastructure with regards to spore wall thickness, the degree of plastid development, or the storage substances used. We suggest that the hygrochastic dispersal in mosses from Mediterranean environments might be related to a safe-site strategy, rather than to drought avoidance, and we underscore the necessity of conducting spore ultrastructural studies on a greater number of bryophyte species.

  14. Lead isotope systematics in Polytrichum formosum: An example from a biomonitoring field study with mosses

    SciTech Connect

    Kunert, M.; Friese, K.; Weckert, V.; Markert, B.

    1999-10-15

    With the aid of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratios were determined in 34 moss samples (Polytrichum formosum) taken from the Hoerner Bruch area near Osnabrueck (FRG) in the years 1987--1996. The goal was to distinguish different sources of atmospheric lead pollution by the investigation of lead isotope ratios. Reproducibility tests were carried out to ensure the reliability of analyzing Pb isotope ratios in moss samples by means of quadrupole ICP-MS. The reproducibility of the isotope ratios for one digested sample and the day-to-day reproducibility were determined. In all the moss samples analyzed, relative standard deviations of < 0.26% for five replicate measurements of one digested sample were achieved for the {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratios. On the basis of the {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratio, it was possible to establish that the sources of man-made atmospheric inputs of lead have changed over the 10-year period investigated. In the moss samples analyzed, the {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratio was found to have risen significantly from 1.131 in 1987 to 1.154 in 1996. This increase in the {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratio can be attributed to a reduction of atmospheric inputs of lead from petrol.

  15. Trace element contamination in industrial regions of Poland studied by moss monitoring.

    PubMed

    Grodzińska, K; Frontasyeva, M; Szarek-Lukaszewska, G; Klich, M; Kucharska-Fabiś, A; Gundorina, S F; Ostrovnaya, T M

    2003-09-01

    The use of terrestrial mosses as biomonitors in large-scale multi-element studies of heavy metal deposition from the atmosphere is a well established technique in Europe. In such studies it is advantageous to determine as many elements as possible in order to distinguish between different source categories. A combination of INAA and AAS has been found very useful in this respect, in particular when epithermal activation is used for instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 33 elements (Al, Cl, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Pb, Th, and U) in Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. moss samples from the Silesia-Kraków Industrial Region and Legnica-Głogów Copper Basin and from the control (background) area in Northeast Poland were identified. The highest concentrations of the majority of trace elements were found in mosses growing in the Silesia-Kraków Industrial Region, only Cu and As concentrations were higher in mosses in the Legnica-Głogów Copper Basin. These results are in conformity with the load of trace elements emissions in these areas. PMID:12952355

  16. Does Spore Ultrastructure Mirror Different Dispersal Strategies in Mosses? A Study of Seven Iberian Orthotrichum Species

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Nagore G.; Estébanez, Belén

    2014-01-01

    Most mosses have xerochastic dispersal (i.e., they open their capsules when conditions are dry), which is thought to favor long-distance dispersal. However, there are several species that use a hygrochastic strategy: spores are dispersed when conditions are wet. The significance of this strategy in the Mediterranean region is unknown. In this study, we explored whether ultrastructural features related to differences in spore resistance may explain these different strategies of spore dispersal. To this end, we examined the ultrastructural features of the spores of seven closely related species in the moss genus Orthotrichum. These species all grow as epiphytes in sub-Mediterranean forests, and the group includes both xerochastic and hygrochastic members. First, we found that the spore wall layers exhibit several features previously undescribed in mosses. Second, we discovered that there are only subtle differences in spore ultrastructure with regards to spore wall thickness, the degree of plastid development, or the storage substances used. We suggest that the hygrochastic dispersal in mosses from Mediterranean environments might be related to a safe-site strategy, rather than to drought avoidance, and we underscore the necessity of conducting spore ultrastructural studies on a greater number of bryophyte species. PMID:25412450

  17. Putting Physcomitrella Patens on the Tree of Life: The Evolution and Ecology of Mosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physcomitrella patens is an important model system for studies of genetics and physiology, and with its newly-sequenced genome, is perfectly placed phylogenetically to serve as a point of comparison for angiosperms. This chapter addresses three main questions. (1) How typical of a moss is P. patens...

  18. Cell-specific transcriptomic analyses of three-dimensional shoot development in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Frank, Margaret H; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Haploid moss gametophytes harbor distinct stem cell types, including tip cells that divide in single planes to generate filamentous protonemata, and bud cells that divide in three planes to yield axial gametophore shoots. This transition from filamentous to triplanar growth occurs progressively during the moss life cycle, and is thought to mirror evolution of the first terrestrial plants from Charophycean green algal ancestors. The innovation of morphologically complex plant body plans facilitated colonization of the vertical landscape, and enabled development of complex vegetative and reproductive plant morphologies. Despite its profound evolutionary significance, the molecular programs involved in this transition from filamentous to triplanar meristematic plant growth are poorly understood. In this study, we used single-cell type transcriptomics to identify more than 4000 differentially expressed genes that distinguish uniplanar protonematal tip cells from multiplanar gametophore bud cells in the moss Physcomitrella patens. While the transcriptomes of both tip and bud cells show molecular signatures of proliferative cells, the bud cell transcriptome exhibits a wider variety of genes with significantly increased transcript abundances. Our data suggest that combined expression of genes involved in shoot patterning and asymmetric cell division accompanies the transition from uniplanar to triplanar meristematic growth in moss.

  19. Desiccation sensitivity and tolerance in the moss Physcomitrella patens: assessing limits and damage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is becoming the model of choice for functional genomic studies at the cellular level. Studies report that P. patens survives moderate osmotic and salt stress, and that desiccation tolerance can be induced by exogenous ABA. Our goal was to quantify the extent of dehydr...

  20. Moss Mediates the Influence of Shrub Species on Soil Properties and Processes in Alpine Tundra

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Scott N.; Barrio, Isabel C.; Helgadóttir, Ágústa; HiK, David S.

    2016-01-01

    In tundra ecosystems, bryophytes influence soil processes directly and indirectly through interactions with overstory shrub species. We experimentally manipulated moss cover and measured seasonal soil properties and processes under two species of deciduous shrubs with contrasting canopy structures, Salix planifolia pulchra and Betula glandulosa-nana complex. Soil properties (seasonal temperature, moisture and C:N ratios) and processes (seasonal litter decomposition and soil respiration) were measured over twelve months. Shrub species identity had the largest influence on summer soil temperatures and soil respiration rates, which were higher under Salix canopies. Mosses were associated with lower soil moisture irrespective of shrub identity, but modulated the effects of shrubs on winter soil temperatures and soil C:N ratios so that moss cover reduced differences in soil winter temperatures between shrub species and reduced C:N ratios under Betula but not under Salix canopies. Our results suggest a central role of mosses in mediating soil properties and processes, with their influence depending on shrub species identity. Such species-dependent effects need to be accounted for when forecasting vegetation dynamics under ongoing environmental changes. PMID:27760156

  1. High-resolution observations of active region moss and its dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R. J.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2014-07-10

    The High Resolution Coronal Imager has provided the sharpest view of the EUV corona to date. In this paper, we exploit its impressive resolving power to provide the first analysis of the fine-scale structure of moss in an active region. The data reveal that the moss is made up of a collection of fine threads that have widths with a mean and standard deviation of 440 ± 190 km (FWHM). The brightest moss emission is located at the visible head of the fine-scale structure and the fine structure appears to extend into the lower solar atmosphere. The emission decreases along the features, implying that the lower sections are most likely dominated by cooler transition region plasma. These threads appear to be the cool, lower legs of the hot loops. In addition, the increased resolution allows for the first direct observation of physical displacements of the moss fine structure in a direction transverse to its central axis. Some of these transverse displacements demonstrate periodic behavior, which we interpret as a signature of kink (Alfvénic) waves. Measurements of the properties of the transverse motions are made and the wave motions have means and standard deviations of 55 ± 37 km for the transverse displacement amplitude, 77 ± 33 s for the period, and 4.7 ± 2.5 km s{sup –1} for the velocity amplitude. The presence of waves in the transition region of hot loops could have important implications for the heating of active regions.

  2. Biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere with mosses: performance and application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qimei; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have aroused environmentalists and public concerns due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. However, monitoring atmospheric POPs using conventional instrumental methods is difficult and expensive, and POP levels in air samples represent an instantaneous value at a sampling time. Biomonitoring methods can overcome this limitation, because biomonitors can accumulate POPs, serve as long-term integrators of POPs and provide reliable information to assess the impact of pollutants on the biota and various ecosystems. Recently, mosses are increasingly employed to monitor atmospheric POPs. Mosses have been applied to indicate POP pollution levels in the remote continent of Antarctica, trace distribution of POPs in the vicinity of pollution sources, describe the spatial patterns at the regional scale, and monitor the changes in the pollution intensity along time. In the future, many aspects need to be improved and strengthened: (i) the relationship between the concentrations of POPs in mosses and in the atmosphere (different size particulates and vapor phases); and (ii) the application of biomonitoring with mosses in human health studies.

  3. Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Russell, Ed.

    Based on a conference, this volume examines the past, present, and future of Native American studies. Native American studies seeks to understand Native Americans, America, and the world from a Native American indigenous perspective, and thereby broaden the education of both Native and non-Native Americans. Part 1 asks who Native Americans are…

  4. Gravity regulation in tuber-bearing moss Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw.) Wilson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobachevska, Oksana

    Considerable number of moss species is propagated asexually, and asexual reproduction is the key factor of their life strategy and effective mechanism of rapid population and attaching plants to habitats with great environmental fluctuations (Velde et al., 2001; Frey, Kűrshner, 2010). It has been shown for the first time for gravisensitive species Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw.) Wilson that the development of propagules as organs of vegetative reproduction and accumulation of nutrient substances is gravidependent phenomenon. L. pyriforme differs from other moss species in higher growth and development rate. In darkness the greatest bundle of gravisensitive negatively gravitropic filaments (above 50 filaments) of both caulonemal and chloronemal type arised from 1 protonemal ball of moss. Perhaps, it is caused by high protonema gravisensitivity and morphogenetic effectiveness of gravitation force. It has been shown that propagules of L. pyriforme are formed much faster in darkness and their number is twice higher than on light. After five-day clinorotation of the L. pyriforme turfs the number of propagules is lower in darkness compared to gravistimulated turfs and higher than on the light. Thus, vegetative reproduction of L. pyriforme is the gravidependent process and gravitation force has stimulating influence on the formation of propagula. In L. pyriforme rhizoid tubers from round to oval (93-116 x ({) } ({х) } 120-148 muμm) are formed from 5-6 big cells (70 x ({) } ({х) } 80 muμm). Due to small capsules, L{it pyriforme }does not have a lot of big spores which are spread to insignificant distances, the mass formation of brood organs promotes moss survival and its preservation. The results of investigation prove the participation of rhizoids and rhizoid tubers as imperceptible but important phase of vital cycle of moss species - settlers in realization of vital tolerance strategy to extreme conditions of temporarily available habitats: due to rapid method of

  5. Sensitivity of Spruce/Moss Boreal Forest Net Ecosystem Productivity to Seasonal Anomalies in Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolking, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Abstract. A process-oriented, daily time step model of a spruce/moss boreal ecosystem simulated 1994 and 1995 productivity for a Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study site near Thompson, Manitoba. Simulated black spruce net primary productivity (NPP) was 139 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 112 in 1995; feathermoss NPP was 13.0 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 9.7 in 1995; decomposition was 126 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 130 in 1995; net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was an uptake of 26.3 g C m(exp -2)in 1994 and 2.5 in 1995. A very dry period for the first half of the 1995 summer was the major cause of that year's lower productivity. Sensitivity simulations explored the impact of 2-month long warmer, cooler, wetter, and drier spells on ecosystem productivity. Warmer summers decreased spruce NPP, moss NPP, and NEP; cooler summers had the opposite effect. Earlier snowmelt (due to either warmer spring temperatures or reduced winter precipitation) increased moss and spruce NPP; later snowmelt had the opposite effect. The largest effect on decomposition was a 5% reduction due to a drier summer. One-month droughts (April through October) were also imposed on 1975 base year weather. Early summer droughts reduced moss annual NPP by -30-40%; summer droughts reduced spruce annual NPP by 10%; late summer droughts increased moss NPP by about 20% due to reduced respiration; May to September monthly droughts reduced heterotrophic respiration by about 10%. Variability in NEP was up to roughly +/- 35%. Finally, 1975 growing season precipitation was redistributed into frequent, small rainstorms and infrequent, large rainstorms. These changes had no effect on spruce NPP. Frequent rainstorms increased decomposition by a few percent, moss NPP by 50%, and NEP by 20%. Infrequent rainstorms decreased decomposition by 5%, moss NPP by 50% and NEP by 15%. The impact of anomalous weather patterns on productivity of this ecosystem depended on their timing during the year. Multiyear data sets are necessary to

  6. Characterizing the distribution of selected PBDEs in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Na, Guangshui; Ma, Xindong; Ge, Linke; Lin, Zhongsheng; Yao, Ziwei

    2015-10-01

    Distribution of 12 selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was characterized in soil, moss and reindeer dung samples collected simultaneously at Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic. The average PBDE concentrations were 42 pg/g (dry weight) in soil, 122 pg/g in moss and 72 pg/g in reindeer dung. Significant log/log-linear relationship was observed between the soil/moss quotients (QSM) and the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures of PBDEs (r(2)=0.80). Moreover, excellent log/log-linear relationships between QSM and the octanol/air partition coefficients as well as between the moss/dung quotient (QMD) and the octanol/water partition coefficients of PBDEs were also observed, indicating that the physicochemical properties of PBDEs are appropriate parameters for characterizing the distribution of PBDEs in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Ålesund. Capsule abstract: Significant log-linear correlations were observed between physicochemical properties of PBDEs and their soil/moss (moss/dung) quotients. PMID:25965290

  7. Characterizing the distribution of selected PBDEs in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Na, Guangshui; Ma, Xindong; Ge, Linke; Lin, Zhongsheng; Yao, Ziwei

    2015-10-01

    Distribution of 12 selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was characterized in soil, moss and reindeer dung samples collected simultaneously at Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic. The average PBDE concentrations were 42 pg/g (dry weight) in soil, 122 pg/g in moss and 72 pg/g in reindeer dung. Significant log/log-linear relationship was observed between the soil/moss quotients (QSM) and the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures of PBDEs (r(2)=0.80). Moreover, excellent log/log-linear relationships between QSM and the octanol/air partition coefficients as well as between the moss/dung quotient (QMD) and the octanol/water partition coefficients of PBDEs were also observed, indicating that the physicochemical properties of PBDEs are appropriate parameters for characterizing the distribution of PBDEs in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Ålesund. Capsule abstract: Significant log-linear correlations were observed between physicochemical properties of PBDEs and their soil/moss (moss/dung) quotients.

  8. Relevance of canopy drip for the accumulation of nitrogen in moss used as biomonitors for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michaela; Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Leblond, Sébastien; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Mohr, Karsten; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Santamaria, Jesus Miguel; Skudnik, Mitja; Thöni, Lotti; Beudert, Burkhard; Dieffenbach-Fries, Helga; Schulte-Bisping, Hubert; Zechmeister, Harald G

    2015-12-15

    High atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) impacts functions and structures of N limited ecosystems. Due to filtering and related canopy drip effects forests are particularly exposed to N deposition. Up to now, this was proved by many studies using technical deposition samplers but there are only some few studies analysing the canopy drip effect on the accumulation of N in moss and related small scale atmospheric deposition patterns. Therefore, we investigated N deposition and related accumulation of N in forests and in (neighbouring) open fields by use of moss sampled across seven European countries. Sampling and chemical analyses were conducted according to the experimental protocol of the European Moss Survey. The ratios between the measured N content in moss sampled inside and outside of forests were computed and used to calculate estimates for non-sampled sites. Potentially influencing environmental factors were integrated in order to detect their relationships to the N content in moss. The overall average N content measured in moss was 20.0mgg(-1) inside and 11.9mgg(-1) outside of forests with highest N values in Germany inside of forests. Explaining more than 70% of the variance, the multivariate analyses confirmed that the sampling site category (site with/without canopy drip) showed the strongest correlation with the N content in moss. Spatial variances due to enhanced dry deposition in vegetation stands should be considered in future monitoring and modelling of atmospheric N deposition.

  9. Relevance of canopy drip for the accumulation of nitrogen in moss used as biomonitors for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michaela; Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Leblond, Sébastien; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Mohr, Karsten; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Santamaria, Jesus Miguel; Skudnik, Mitja; Thöni, Lotti; Beudert, Burkhard; Dieffenbach-Fries, Helga; Schulte-Bisping, Hubert; Zechmeister, Harald G

    2015-12-15

    High atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) impacts functions and structures of N limited ecosystems. Due to filtering and related canopy drip effects forests are particularly exposed to N deposition. Up to now, this was proved by many studies using technical deposition samplers but there are only some few studies analysing the canopy drip effect on the accumulation of N in moss and related small scale atmospheric deposition patterns. Therefore, we investigated N deposition and related accumulation of N in forests and in (neighbouring) open fields by use of moss sampled across seven European countries. Sampling and chemical analyses were conducted according to the experimental protocol of the European Moss Survey. The ratios between the measured N content in moss sampled inside and outside of forests were computed and used to calculate estimates for non-sampled sites. Potentially influencing environmental factors were integrated in order to detect their relationships to the N content in moss. The overall average N content measured in moss was 20.0mgg(-1) inside and 11.9mgg(-1) outside of forests with highest N values in Germany inside of forests. Explaining more than 70% of the variance, the multivariate analyses confirmed that the sampling site category (site with/without canopy drip) showed the strongest correlation with the N content in moss. Spatial variances due to enhanced dry deposition in vegetation stands should be considered in future monitoring and modelling of atmospheric N deposition. PMID:26318813

  10. Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop: Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    The Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop was held on October 28 through November 01,1998, as part of a series of workshops being held around the U.S. to improve the understanding of the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the Nation. This workshop was specifically designed by Native Peoples to examine the impacts of climate change and extreme weather variability on Native Peoples and Native Homelands from an indigenous cultural and spiritual perspective and to develop recommendations as well as identify potential response actions. The workshop brought together interested Native Peoples, representatives of Tribal governments, traditional elders, Tribal leaders, natural resource managers, Tribal College faculty and students, and climate scientists fiom government agencies and universities. It is clear that Tribal colleges and universities play a unique and critical role in the success of these emerging partnerships for decision-making in addition to the important education function for both Native and non-Native communities such as serving as a culturally-appropriate vehicle for access, analysis, control, and protection of indigenous cultural and intellectual property. During the discussions between scientists and policy-makers from both Native and non-Native communities, a number of important lessons emerged which are key to building more effective partnerships between Native and non-Native communities for collaboration and decision-making for a more sustainable future. This talk summarizes the key issues, recommendations, and lessons learned during this workshop.

  11. Air pollution monitoring using emission inventories combined with the moss bag approach.

    PubMed

    Iodice, P; Adamo, P; Capozzi, F; Di Palma, A; Senatore, A; Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S

    2016-01-15

    Inventory of emission sources and biomonitoring with moss transplants are two different methods to evaluate air pollution. In this study, for the first time, both these approaches were simultaneously applied in five municipalities in Campania (southern Italy), deserving attention for health-oriented interventions as part of a National Interest Priority Site. The pollutants covered by the inventory were CO, NOx, particulate matter (PM10), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and some heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). The biomonitoring survey was based on the use of the devitalized moss Hypnum cupressiforme transplanted into bags, following a harmonized protocol. The exposure covered 40 agricultural and urban/residential sites, with half of them located in proximity to roads. The pollutants monitored were Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn, as well as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) only in five sites. Using the emission inventory approach, high emission loads were detected for all the major air pollutants and the following heavy metals: Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, over the entire study area. Arsenic, Pb, and Zn were the elements most accumulated by moss. Total PAH postexposure contents were higher than the preexposure values (~20-50% of initial value). Moss uptakes did not differ substantially among municipalities or within exposure sites. In the five municipalities, a similar spatial pattern was evidenced for Pb by emission inventory and moss accumulation. Both approaches indicated the same most polluted municipality, suggesting their combined use as a valuable resource to reveal contaminants that are not routinely monitored.

  12. Trace element concentrations in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme growing in a presumably unpolluted area.

    PubMed

    Boquete, M T; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Martínez-Abaigar, J; Tomás-Las-Heras, R; Núñez-Olivera, E

    2016-09-01

    In this study we determined the concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Ni and Pb in samples of the moss Hypnum cupressiforme collected during 5 different sampling surveys (2006-2014) in a presumably unpolluted area in northern Spain (25 sampling sites). We then applied factor analysis (FA) to the data to explore the factors underlying the spatial and temporal variability in the concentrations. The percentage of variance explained by the FA ranged between 34 and 98%, and was usually higher than 70%. The FA yielded 5 factors that explained the variance in the concentrations of Cd, As, Hg and Pb in all sampling surveys and also a single factor that explained the variance in Hg and Pb concentrations in 2006. Although the lack of obvious sources of pollution in the study region (at least for the elements considered) suggests that most elements (except perhaps Ni) probably originated from long-range atmospheric transport, this would not explain the results of the FA. We suggest that rather than being due to the origin of the pollutants (as frequently assumed), the spatio-temporal variability in the concentrations of these elements is probably determined by a series of other factors: the physicochemical characteristics of the pollutants and of the moss binding surfaces, physiological processes (e.g. moss growth), and the characteristics of the sampling sites (e.g. vegetation cover, elevation, slope, aspect). We therefore conclude that the assumption that variations in element concentrations in moss tissues are due to the origin of the pollutants is an oversimplification that leads to erroneous interpretation of the results of biomonitoring studies with terrestrial mosses. PMID:27269992

  13. Trace element concentrations in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme growing in a presumably unpolluted area.

    PubMed

    Boquete, M T; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Martínez-Abaigar, J; Tomás-Las-Heras, R; Núñez-Olivera, E

    2016-09-01

    In this study we determined the concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Ni and Pb in samples of the moss Hypnum cupressiforme collected during 5 different sampling surveys (2006-2014) in a presumably unpolluted area in northern Spain (25 sampling sites). We then applied factor analysis (FA) to the data to explore the factors underlying the spatial and temporal variability in the concentrations. The percentage of variance explained by the FA ranged between 34 and 98%, and was usually higher than 70%. The FA yielded 5 factors that explained the variance in the concentrations of Cd, As, Hg and Pb in all sampling surveys and also a single factor that explained the variance in Hg and Pb concentrations in 2006. Although the lack of obvious sources of pollution in the study region (at least for the elements considered) suggests that most elements (except perhaps Ni) probably originated from long-range atmospheric transport, this would not explain the results of the FA. We suggest that rather than being due to the origin of the pollutants (as frequently assumed), the spatio-temporal variability in the concentrations of these elements is probably determined by a series of other factors: the physicochemical characteristics of the pollutants and of the moss binding surfaces, physiological processes (e.g. moss growth), and the characteristics of the sampling sites (e.g. vegetation cover, elevation, slope, aspect). We therefore conclude that the assumption that variations in element concentrations in moss tissues are due to the origin of the pollutants is an oversimplification that leads to erroneous interpretation of the results of biomonitoring studies with terrestrial mosses.

  14. Air pollution monitoring using emission inventories combined with the moss bag approach.

    PubMed

    Iodice, P; Adamo, P; Capozzi, F; Di Palma, A; Senatore, A; Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S

    2016-01-15

    Inventory of emission sources and biomonitoring with moss transplants are two different methods to evaluate air pollution. In this study, for the first time, both these approaches were simultaneously applied in five municipalities in Campania (southern Italy), deserving attention for health-oriented interventions as part of a National Interest Priority Site. The pollutants covered by the inventory were CO, NOx, particulate matter (PM10), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and some heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). The biomonitoring survey was based on the use of the devitalized moss Hypnum cupressiforme transplanted into bags, following a harmonized protocol. The exposure covered 40 agricultural and urban/residential sites, with half of them located in proximity to roads. The pollutants monitored were Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn, as well as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) only in five sites. Using the emission inventory approach, high emission loads were detected for all the major air pollutants and the following heavy metals: Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, over the entire study area. Arsenic, Pb, and Zn were the elements most accumulated by moss. Total PAH postexposure contents were higher than the preexposure values (~20-50% of initial value). Moss uptakes did not differ substantially among municipalities or within exposure sites. In the five municipalities, a similar spatial pattern was evidenced for Pb by emission inventory and moss accumulation. Both approaches indicated the same most polluted municipality, suggesting their combined use as a valuable resource to reveal contaminants that are not routinely monitored. PMID:26479914

  15. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  16. Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) in U.S. Latinas and Chileans: Clinical features, Ancestry Analysis, and Admixture Mapping.

    PubMed

    Bull, Laura N; Hu, Donglei; Shah, Sohela; Temple, Luisa; Silva, Karla; Huntsman, Scott; Melgar, Jennifer; Geiser, Mary T; Sanford, Ukina; Ortiz, Juan A; Lee, Richard H; Kusanovic, Juan P; Ziv, Elad; Vargas, Juan E

    2015-01-01

    In the Americas, women with Indigenous American ancestry are at increased risk of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), relative to women of other ethnicities. We hypothesized that ancestry-related genetic factors contribute to this increased risk. We collected clinical and laboratory data, and performed biochemical assays on samples from U.S. Latinas and Chilean women, with and without ICP. The study sample included 198 women with ICP (90 from California, U.S., and 108 from Chile) and 174 pregnant control women (69 from California, U.S., and 105 from Chile). SNP genotyping was performed using Affymetrix arrays. We compared overall genetic ancestry between cases and controls, and used a genome-wide admixture mapping approach to screen for ICP susceptibility loci. We identified commonalities and differences in features of ICP between the 2 countries and determined that cases had a greater proportion of Indigenous American ancestry than did controls (p = 0.034). We performed admixture mapping, taking country of origin into account, and identified one locus for which Native American ancestry was associated with increased risk of ICP at a genome-wide level of significance (P = 3.1 x 10(-5), Pcorrected = 0.035). This locus has an odds ratio of 4.48 (95% CI: 2.21-9.06) for 2 versus zero Indigenous American chromosomes. This locus lies on chromosome 2, with a 10 Mb 95% confidence interval which does not contain any previously identified hereditary 'cholestasis genes.' Our results indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk of developing ICP in the Americas, and support the utility of clinical and genetic studies of ethnically mixed populations for increasing our understanding of ICP. PMID:26126184

  17. The effect of ethnicity and age on palatal size and shape: a study in a northern Chilean healthy population.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Tartaglia, G M; Carvajal, R; Palomino, H

    2000-01-01

    Race and ethnicity influence the form of the human craniofacial complex in varying ways. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the effects of ethnicity (mestizos, Aymara, non-Aymara), age (adolescents and adults), and sex on the form (size and shape) of the hard palate in normal Native American individuals. From the dental casts of 51 individuals with a complete permanent dentition, the x, y, and z coordinates of several standardized palatal landmarks were obtained with a computerized 3-dimensional digitizer. Palatal landmarks were used to derive a mathematical equation for palatal shape in the frontal and sagittal planes. Palatal width and length, frontal and sagittal heights, sagittal slope, and deviation of the raphe from the midline were also calculated. In the Aymara subjects, there was no effect of sex on palatal size, but there was an effect on palatal shape independent of size, especially with respect to male growth. Indeed, female palates apparently did not change their shape between adolescence and adulthood, while male palates increased their posterior "height." Overall, the 3 ethnic groups appeared to possess similar palatal size, with small significant differences. In the adult individuals, ethnicity did not seem to influence palatal shape. In contrast, adolescent males showed differences: non-Aymara subjects had the "highest" palatal shape, Aymara the "lowest," and mestizos an intermediate position. In conclusion, ethnicity does not seem to be a factor of major variability of human hard palate morphology, at least in the present 3 northern Chilean groups, as already found for dental arch shape. Age probably has a larger effect, particularly in the posterior part of the palate, where the eruption of the second and third molars between adolescence and young adulthood may play a role. A further development of the present investigation may involve larger samples of individuals from different ethnic groups.

  18. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Leticia; Herrera, Christian L.; Montenegro, Gloria; Ortega, Ximena; Veloz, Jorge; Alvear, Marysol; Cuevas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 μg mL−1). Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them. PMID:24294257

  19. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Leticia; Herrera, Christian L; Montenegro, Gloria; Ortega, Ximena; Veloz, Jorge; Alvear, Marysol; Cuevas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 μg mL(-1)). Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them.

  20. Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) in U.S. Latinas and Chileans: Clinical features, Ancestry Analysis, and Admixture Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Laura N.; Hu, Donglei; Shah, Sohela; Temple, Luisa; Silva, Karla; Huntsman, Scott; Melgar, Jennifer; Geiser, Mary T.; Sanford, Ukina; Ortiz, Juan A.; Lee, Richard H.; Kusanovic, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    In the Americas, women with Indigenous American ancestry are at increased risk of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), relative to women of other ethnicities. We hypothesized that ancestry-related genetic factors contribute to this increased risk. We collected clinical and laboratory data, and performed biochemical assays on samples from U.S. Latinas and Chilean women, with and without ICP. The study sample included 198 women with ICP (90 from California, U.S., and 108 from Chile) and 174 pregnant control women (69 from California, U.S., and 105 from Chile). SNP genotyping was performed using Affymetrix arrays. We compared overall genetic ancestry between cases and controls, and used a genome-wide admixture mapping approach to screen for ICP susceptibility loci. We identified commonalities and differences in features of ICP between the 2 countries and determined that cases had a greater proportion of Indigenous American ancestry than did controls (p = 0.034). We performed admixture mapping, taking country of origin into account, and identified one locus for which Native American ancestry was associated with increased risk of ICP at a genome-wide level of significance (P = 3.1 x 10-5, Pcorrected = 0.035). This locus has an odds ratio of 4.48 (95% CI: 2.21-9.06) for 2 versus zero Indigenous American chromosomes. This locus lies on chromosome 2, with a 10 Mb 95% confidence interval which does not contain any previously identified hereditary ‘cholestasis genes.’ Our results indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk of developing ICP in the Americas, and support the utility of clinical and genetic studies of ethnically mixed populations for increasing our understanding of ICP. PMID:26126184

  1. 76 FR 22413 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ...) to Afognak Native Corporation, Successor in Interest to Port Lions Native Corporation. The decision... surface estate is conveyed to Afognak Native Corporation, Successor in Interest to Port Lions...

  2. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  3. Biogeomorphic relationships between slope processes and globular Grimmia mosses in Haleakala's Crater (Maui, Hawai’i)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Francisco L.

    2010-04-01

    Globular mosses were found in Haleakala's crater (Maui) at five locations between 2175 and 2725 m; the highest-altitude site, with abundant epilithic mosses growing on alkali-olivine basalt outcrops and a large mossball population, was studied. Mossballs form when moss cushions are dislodged from rocks but continue growing unattached to substrate; detachment agents include rainsplash, desiccation, wind, frost, and disturbance by birds (dark-rumped petrels) that burrow nests under outcrops, or by goats. When loosened, moss polsters are transported down steep (26-34°) slopes by different geomorphic processes, including frost—mainly needle ice—activity, runoff, and wind. Mossballs contained two species, Grimmia trichophylla Grev. and Grimmia torquata Drumm., growing separately or commingled. Weight, size, and various shape indices were determined for 260 specimens. Shape and size were correlated; larger mosses become less spheroidal because heavier specimens are less disturbed by needle ice, remaining immobile for increasingly longer time periods, thus becoming flattened. Distance of downslope transport from source rockwalls was measured for 330 specimens; 83% shifted ≤ 100 cm, but only ˜ 5% had moved > 200-839 cm. Heavier mossballs moved short distances, thus ˜ 88% of all biomass remained within 200 cm from outcrops. Substrate soils were compared with those within globoids; surface site soils were much coarser than mossball grains. Twelve substrate samples had, on average, 21.3% gravel (≥ 2 mm), 6.1% fines (≤ 0.063 mm) and 2.1% organic matter; in contrast, 12 mossballs contained < 0.1% gravel, 47.9% fines, and 34.1% organic matter. G. torquata polsters had slightly finer soil (53.2%) than G. trichophylla (43.5%). This significant fine-grain concentration results as mosses trap aeolian dust among stems and leaves; ˜ 91% of moss grains were ≤ 0.25 mm, but only ˜ 30% of substrate particles measured ≤ 0.25 mm. Such fine texture, along with abundant

  4. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness. PMID:25733067

  5. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness.

  6. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  7. Gravity-induced buds formation from protonemata apical cells in the mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyyak, Natalia; Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava

    The acceleration of moss protonemata development after the exit it to light from darkness is important gravidependent morphogenetic manifestation of the moss protonemata. The accelerated development of mosses shows in transformation of apical protonemata cells into the gametophores buds (Ripetskyj et al., 1999). In order to establish, that such reaction on gravitation is general property of gravisensity species, or its typical only for single moss species, experiments with the following moss species - Bryum intermedium (Ludw.) Brig., Bryum caespiticium Hedw., Bryum argenteum Hedw., Dicranodontium denudatum (Brid.) Britt. were carried out. All these species in response to influence of gravitation were capable to form rich bunches of gravitropical protonemata in darkness, that testified to their gravisensity. After the transference of Petri dishes with gravitropical protonemata from darkness on light was revealed, that in 3 of the investigated species the gametophores buds were absent. Only B. argenteum has reacted to action of gravitation by buds formation from apical cells of the gravitropical protonemata. With the purpose of strengthening of buds formation process, the experiments with action of exogenous kinetin (in concentration of 10 (-6) M) were carried out. Kinetin essentially stimulated apical buds formation of B. argenteum. The quantity of apical buds has increased almost in three times in comparison with the control. Besides, on separate stolons a few (3-4) buds from one apical cell were formed. Experimentally was established, that the gametophores buds formation in mosses is controlled by phytohormones (Bopp, 1985; Demkiv et al., 1991). In conditions of gravity influence its essentially accelerated. Probably, gravity essentially strengthened acropetal transport of phytohormones and formation of attractive center in the protonemata apical cell. Our investigations have allowed to make the conclusion, that gravi-dependent formation of the apical buds is

  8. Bioweathering of a basalt from Etna (Sicily) by the moss Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, S.; Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens and mosses, as pioneer plants, firstly colonize rocky surfaces enhancing biogeophysical and biogeochemical degradation of their substrates. Indeed, the contact area between the lithological substrates and the cryptogams is considered a simplified environment for studying the mechanisms of bioweathering, which, in many cases, characterize the initial stages of pedogenesis. In this paper we report the results of a study conducted for the recognition and characterization of the bioweathering processes of a basaltic lava present on the slopes of Mt Etna (western Sicily) at an altitude of 1550 m above sea level, associated with the growth of the moss Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm. The Etnean rock, characterised by a porphiric structure, is mainly made by a microcrystalline groundmass in which are immersed abundant phenocrysts of plagioclase, augite and rare olivine crystals. The groundmass shows the same mineral assemblage. With the use of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, we determined the chemical composition of the fresh rock, of the materials collected at the rock-moss interface and of the plant tissues. The X-ray diffraction has allowed to have detailed information on the mineralogy of the bioaltered rocky and interface materials. Scanning electron microscope observations and microanalytical investigations carried out on fragments of rock colonized by moss showed a significant disintegration of the rock and the presence of crystals with tabular habit, containing Cu and Fe, aligned tangentially to the surface of Grimmia pulvinata rhizoids. The weathered material covered by the moss cushion has the chemical and physical characteristics of low pedogenized soils. The high value of the C/N ratio has to be referred to the presence of plant residues with high resistance to mineralize. The significant amount of plant available phosphorus, as assessed by Olsen extraction, confirmed the possibility that the bryophytes constitute important reserves of phosphorus

  9. Analysis of mosses and topsoils for detecting sources of heavy metal pollution: multivariate and enrichment factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Dragović, S; Mihailović, N

    2009-10-01

    In order to assess the contribution of emission sources to the pollution of areas remote from industrial facilities, a combined approach of enrichment factor analysis and multivariate statistics was used for detecting the origin of heavy metal pollution in the Zlatibor ecosystem, in Serbia. Samples of moss (Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Scleropodium purum, Hypnum cupressiforme and Thuidum delicatulum) and of topsoil (0-5 cm) were collected in 2005. The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in moss and soil samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained by enrichment factor analysis and two multivariate statistical methods, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, enabled discrimination of the lithologic and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals in the mosses. Enrichment factors, calculated to evaluate the contribution to the metal content in moss from anthropogenic sources, revealed pollution of the investigated area by Cd and Pb, originating from long-range transport and fossil fuel burning.

  10. Lead spatio-temporal pattern identification in urban microenvironments using moss bags and the Kohonen self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deljanin, Isidora; Antanasijević, Davor; Vuković, Gordana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Tomašević, Milica; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra; Ristić, Mirjana

    2015-09-01

    The first investigation of the use of the Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) which includes lead concentration and its isotopic composition in moss bags to assess the spatial and temporal patterns of lead in the urban microenvironments is presented in this paper. The moss bags experiment was carried out during 2011 in the city tunnel in Belgrade, as well as in street canyons at different heights (4, 8 and 16 m) and in public garages. The moss bags were exposed for 5 and 10 weeks. The results revealed that the 10 weeks period represents suitable exposure time in screening Pb isotopic composition in active biomonitoring analysis. The obtained results showed that the SOM analysis, by recognizing slight differences among moss samples regarding exposure time, horizontal and vertical spatial distribution, with both, contribution of stable lead isotopes and Pb concentration, could be recommended in biomonitoring analysis of lead distribution in urban microenvironments.

  11. Heavy metal and nitrogen concentrations in mosses are declining across Europe whilst some "hotspots" remain in 2010.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Norris, D A; Sharps, K; Mills, G; Alber, R; Aleksiayenak, Y; Blum, O; Cucu-Man, S-M; Dam, M; De Temmerman, L; Ene, A; Fernández, J A; Martinez-Abaigar, J; Frontasyeva, M; Godzik, B; Jeran, Z; Lazo, P; Leblond, S; Liiv, S; Magnússon, S H; Maňkovská, B; Karlsson, G Pihl; Piispanen, J; Poikolainen, J; Santamaria, J M; Skudnik, M; Spiric, Z; Stafilov, T; Steinnes, E; Stihi, C; Suchara, I; Thöni, L; Todoran, R; Yurukova, L; Zechmeister, H G

    2015-05-01

    In recent decades, naturally growing mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. In 2010, the lowest concentrations of metals and nitrogen in mosses were generally found in northern Europe, whereas the highest concentrations were observed in (south-)eastern Europe for metals and the central belt for nitrogen. Averaged across Europe, since 1990, the median concentration in mosses has declined the most for lead (77%), followed by vanadium (55%), cadmium (51%), chromium (43%), zinc (34%), nickel (33%), iron (27%), arsenic (21%, since 1995), mercury (14%, since 1995) and copper (11%). Between 2005 and 2010, the decline ranged from 6% for copper to 36% for lead; for nitrogen the decline was 5%. Despite the Europe-wide decline, no changes or increases have been observed between 2005 and 2010 in some (regions of) countries.

  12. Heavy metal and nitrogen concentrations in mosses are declining across Europe whilst some "hotspots" remain in 2010.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Norris, D A; Sharps, K; Mills, G; Alber, R; Aleksiayenak, Y; Blum, O; Cucu-Man, S-M; Dam, M; De Temmerman, L; Ene, A; Fernández, J A; Martinez-Abaigar, J; Frontasyeva, M; Godzik, B; Jeran, Z; Lazo, P; Leblond, S; Liiv, S; Magnússon, S H; Maňkovská, B; Karlsson, G Pihl; Piispanen, J; Poikolainen, J; Santamaria, J M; Skudnik, M; Spiric, Z; Stafilov, T; Steinnes, E; Stihi, C; Suchara, I; Thöni, L; Todoran, R; Yurukova, L; Zechmeister, H G

    2015-05-01

    In recent decades, naturally growing mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. In 2010, the lowest concentrations of metals and nitrogen in mosses were generally found in northern Europe, whereas the highest concentrations were observed in (south-)eastern Europe for metals and the central belt for nitrogen. Averaged across Europe, since 1990, the median concentration in mosses has declined the most for lead (77%), followed by vanadium (55%), cadmium (51%), chromium (43%), zinc (34%), nickel (33%), iron (27%), arsenic (21%, since 1995), mercury (14%, since 1995) and copper (11%). Between 2005 and 2010, the decline ranged from 6% for copper to 36% for lead; for nitrogen the decline was 5%. Despite the Europe-wide decline, no changes or increases have been observed between 2005 and 2010 in some (regions of) countries. PMID:25703579

  13. Short period wave generation in Moss Landing Harbor caused by offshore landslides induced by the Loma Prieta earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner-Taggart, J.M.; Barminski, R.F. Jr. )

    1991-07-01

    Short period waves were observed in the Moss Landing Harbor approximately 2 minutes after the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Offshore submarine landslides in the region of wave generation was noted by scuba divers and recorded by side scanning sonographs, fathometer records and ROV video footage taken in the area after the quake. These waves are believed to have been generated by offshore submarine landslides along the canyon walls of the Monterey Canyon directly offshore of the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories.

  14. Content of long-lived radionuclides in the moss cover of the eastern-Ural radioactive trace region

    SciTech Connect

    Nifontova, M.G.

    1995-07-01

    This study examines the extent of radioactive pollution of moss cover of forest communities of the Kamenskii district of the Sverdlovsk region. This area contains the periphery section of the Eastern-Ural Radioactive Trace, formed as a result of the Kyshtymskii accident. Mosses do not release radionuclides for a long time, making them a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution and making them useful for radioecological monitoring. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Native Americans Today: An Outer View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    Considers two primary aspects of the Native American situation in contemporary society: the rediscovery of the Native American and how the Native American is viewed by non-Native Americans. Notes positive attitude change among non-Native Americans concerning Native Americans, but stresses that political and social change also are needed. (NB)

  16. Heavy metals in molluscan, crustacean, and other commercially important Chilean marine coastal water species

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, A.G.; Gonzalez, M.; Santa Maria, I.

    1987-03-01

    The work reported here is part of a general program to monitor the marine chemical pollution along the Chilean coast. The present investigation was designated to provide information on the nature and levels of the heavy metals present in the marine species commonly consumed by the population, and to learn whether these levels may constitute a hazard to consumers. The authors report here the typical contents of 10 heavy metals in 12 commercially significant marine species from the Chilean coastal waters (Valparaiso, Concepcion and Puerto Montt). The analyzed species included 7 molluscs, 3 curstacea, and 2 other shellfish species of wide consumption. The metals chosen for analysis were copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, antimony, selenium, iron and chromium.

  17. Spanish and Chilean Standardizations of the Personality Assessment Inventory: the Influence of Sex.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; Ferragut, Marta; Santamaría, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the adaptation of psychological questionnaires in different countries, due to the need for cross-cultural research using the same tests adapted to diverse populations. This paper presents the standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) in Spain and Chile (both Spanish-speaking countries). The Spanish sample was made up of 940 people (461 men and 479 women), and the Chilean sample of 569 people (231 men and 338 women). Results revealed that the Chilean means were higher than those of the Spanish sample at confidence level 99.9%, although the associated effect sizes were generally small to moderate (partial eta-square between 0.008 and 0.187). Sex differences in the variables evaluated were commented on, and the importance of cross-cultural research and the influence of sex on personality and psychopathology variables were discussed.

  18. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Socially Disadvantaged Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Bernales, Margarita; Cabieses, Báltica

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk among socioeconomically disadvantaged Chilean women. A correlational analysis with data from the NIH-funded project, “Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women,” was conducted. Two hundred and sixtyone women were included in this analysis (n = 261). Those women who had experienced any type of IPV in the past 3 months had significantly higher risk for HIV than those who had not (t = −2.016, p < .05). Also a linear trend was found among those women who had experienced more than one type of IPV in the past 3 months and HIV risk. PMID:21486859

  19. Draft genome sequence of the Chilean isolate Aeromonas salmonicida strain CBA100.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Natalia; Espinoza, Carolina; Sanhueza, Loreto; Gonzalez, Alex; Corsini, Gino; Tello, Mario

    2015-03-01

    We report the draft genome sequence from Aeromonas salmonicida sp. strain CBA100, which was characterized as an antibiotic-resistant bacterium isolated from infected rainbow trout. The total size of the genome is 4,788,109 bp, with a G + C content of 60.55%. Comparison of its open reading frames shows that the closest homologue to one third of the genes of strain CBA100 are found in A. hydrophila. The strain contains several efflux pumps and putative genes that confer resistance to multiclass antibiotics, including macrolide, β-lactamics, florfenicol and quinolones. The antibiogram profile suggests that efflux pumps are the main mechanism of resistance to non-β-lactamic antibiotics. This is the first genome of a Chilean isolate of A. salmonicida, which should shed light on the design of strain-specific vaccines against this pathogen and reduce the use of antibiotics for preventive treatment in Chilean aquaculture.

  20. Socioeconomic Status and Internalizing Symptoms in Chilean Children: Does Reserve Capacity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Informed by the reserve capacity model, we examined pathways between socioeconomic status (SES) and internalizing symptoms (IS) in 1119 Chilean 10-year-olds. Mediators included parental disciplinary style and reserve capacity resources (RCR), namely home environment, parent-child engagement, and self-esteem, and conduct problems. Using structural equation modeling, the model was stratified by gender. For boys, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment and parental disciplinary style. For girls, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment, parent-child engagement, self-esteem, and conduct problems. Findings suggest different RCR may protect against IS in a sample of Chilean children. PMID:27123471

  1. Physiological ecology of desert biocrust moss following 10 years exposure to elevated CO2: evidence for enhanced photosynthetic thermotolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, Kirsten K.; Belnap, Jayne; Grote, Edmund E.; Sparks, Jed P.

    2012-01-01

    In arid regions, biomes particularly responsive to climate change, mosses play an important biogeochemical role as key components of biocrusts. Using the biocrust moss Syntrichia caninervis collected from the Nevada Desert Free Air CO2 Enrichment Facility, we examined the physiological effects of 10 years of exposure to elevated CO2, and the effect of high temperature events on the photosynthetic performance of moss grown in CO2-enriched air. Moss exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited a 46% decrease in chlorophyll, a 20% increase in carbon and no difference in either nitrogen content or photosynthetic performance. However, when subjected to high temperatures (35–40°C), mosses from the elevated CO2 environment showed higher photosynthetic performance and photosystem II (PSII) efficiency compared to those grown in ambient conditions, potentially reflective of a shift in nitrogen allocation to components that offer a higher resistance of PSII to heat stress. This result suggests that mosses may respond to climate change in markedly different ways than vascular plants, and observed CO2-induced photosynthetic thermotolerance in S. caninervis will likely have consequences for future desert biogeochemistry.

  2. Physiological ecology of desert biocrust moss following 10 years exposure to elevated CO₂: evidence for enhanced photosynthetic thermotolerance.

    PubMed

    Coe, Kirsten K; Belnap, Jayne; Grote, Edmund E; Sparks, Jed P

    2012-04-01

    In arid regions, biomes particularly responsive to climate change, mosses play an important biogeochemical role as key components of biocrusts. Using the biocrust moss Syntrichia caninervis collected from the Nevada Desert Free Air CO₂ Enrichment Facility, we examined the physiological effects of 10 years of exposure to elevated CO₂, and the effect of high temperature events on the photosynthetic performance of moss grown in CO₂-enriched air. Moss exposed to elevated CO₂ exhibited a 46% decrease in chlorophyll, a 20% increase in carbon and no difference in either nitrogen content or photosynthetic performance. However, when subjected to high temperatures (35-40°C), mosses from the elevated CO₂ environment showed higher photosynthetic performance and photosystem II (PSII) efficiency compared to those grown in ambient conditions, potentially reflective of a shift in nitrogen allocation to components that offer a higher resistance of PSII to heat stress. This result suggests that mosses may respond to climate change in markedly different ways than vascular plants, and observed CO₂-induced photosynthetic thermotolerance in S. caninervis will likely have consequences for future desert biogeochemistry.

  3. The density and diversity of gymnamoebae associated with terrestrial moss communities (Bryophyta: Bryopsida) in a northeastern U.S. forest.

    PubMed

    Anderson, O Roger

    2006-01-01

    Moss communities are commonly found in temperate forests and form a nearly continuous understory in some high latitude forests. However, little is known about the microbial component of these communities, especially the non-testate amoeboid protists. Fifty morphospecies of naked amoebae were identified in samples collected at eight sites in a northeastern North American forest. The mean number (+/-SE) of morphospecies found per sample site based on laboratory cultures was 17+/-2.1. The density of amoebae expressed as number/g dry weight of moss ranged from 3.5+/-0.04 x 10(3) to 4.3+/-0.2 x 10(4) and was positively correlated with the moss moisture content (r=0.9, P<0.001, df=26). Densities of gymnamoebae in the moss are generally higher than found in the surrounding soil, but this may be due in part to the greater weight of soil per unit volume compared with moss. The percentage of encysted forms was inversely related to the moisture content of the moss sample.

  4. [Nitrogen concentrations and stable isotope in epilithic mosses to investigate atmospheric N deposition and N sources in Jiangxi Province].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Ying; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Zhu, Ren-Guo; Wu, Dai-She

    2011-04-01

    Atmospheric N deposition and N sources in Jiangxi Province were investigated on the basis of the nitrogen concentrations and nitrogen isotope in epilithic mosses which collected from 11 cities of the province during 2009-2010. Mean nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.46% to 3.48% and showed a significant regional difference. The highest was found in the northwestern of the province and the lowest in the southeastern, reflecting that the level of the atmospheric N deposition gradually decreased from the north to the south in the province. The higher N concentrations in urban mosses than in suburban mosses indicated that the urban areas received higher rates of nitrogen deposition than suburbs areas. Mosses 15N values varied from (-9.74 +/- 0.25) per thousand to (-1.96 +/- 1.30) per thousand. More negative delta15N values of urban mosses (-5.51 per thousand-9.74 per thousand) indicated that more NH3 was released from excretory wastes and sewage, while less negative delta15N values of suburban mosses (-4.81 per thousand-1.96 per thousand) suggested an important contribution from agricultural NH3 emission due to intensive fertilizer application. This research provides basic information for further study on the ecological and environmental effects of atmospheric N deposition.

  5. Pilot Testing an Internet-Based STI and HIV Prevention Intervention With Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132

  6. Original footage of the Chilean miners with manganism published in Neurology in 1967.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marcelo; Bustamante, M Leonor; Mena, Francisco; Lees, Andrew

    2015-12-15

    Manganism has captured the imagination of neurologists for more than a century because of its similarities to Parkinson disease and its indirect but seminal role in the "l-dopa miracle." We present unpublished footage of the original case series reported in Neurology® in 1967 by Mena and Cotzias depicting the typical neurologic signs of manganism in 4 Chilean miners and their response to high doses of l-dopa.

  7. Perceived and objective breast cancer risk assessment in Chilean women living in an underserved area

    PubMed Central

    Banegas, Matthew P.; Püschel, Klaus; Martinez, Javiera; Anderson, Jennifer C.; Thompson, Beti

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among Chilean women and an increasingly significant public health threat. This study assessed the accuracy of breast cancer risk perception among underserved, Chilean women. Methods Women aged 50 to 70 years, with no mammogram during the last two years, were randomly selected from a community clinic registry in Santiago, Chile (n=500). Perceived risk was measured using three methods: absolute risk, comparative risk and numerical risk. Risk comprehension was measured by comparing women’s perceived and objective risk estimates. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess overestimation of perceived risk. Results Women at high risk of breast cancer were more likely than average risk women to perceive themselves at high or higher risk, using absolute and comparative risk approaches (p<0.001). The majority of participants (67%) overestimated their breast cancer risk, based on risk comprehension; although, participants achieved higher accuracy with comparative risk (40%) and absolute risk (31.6%) methods. [Age, breast cancer knowledge and Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) 5-year risk were significantly associated (p<0.01) with accuracy of perceived risk]. Conclusion Chilean women residing in an underserved community may not accurately assess their breast cancer risk, though risk perception and level of accuracy differed between perceived risk measures. Comparative and absolute risk methods may better reflect women’s interpretation and accuracy of risk perception. Impact Improving our understanding of Chilean women’s perceptions of developing breast cancer may lead to the development of culturally relevant efforts to reduce the breast cancer burden in this population. PMID:22837144

  8. Conservation of the plastid sedimentation zone in all moss genera with known gravitropic protonemata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J. M.; Kern, V. D.; White, N. J.; Sack, F. D.

    2002-01-01

    Moss protonemata from several species are known to be gravitropic. The characterization of additional gravitropic species would be valuable to identify conserved traits that may relate to the mechanism of gravitropism. In this study, four new species were found to have gravitropic protonemata, Fissidens adianthoides, Fissidens cristatus, Physcomitrium pyriforme, and Barbula unguiculata. Comparison of upright and inverted apical cells of P. pyriforme and Fissidens species showed clear axial sedimentation. This sedimentation is highly regulated and not solely dependent on amyloplast size. Additionally, the protonemal tip cells of these species contained broad subapical zones that displayed lateral amyloplast sedimentation. The conservation of a zone of lateral sedimentation in a total of nine gravitropic moss species from five different orders supports the idea that this sedimentation serves a specialized and conserved function in gravitropism, probably in gravity sensing.

  9. The omnivorous Tyrolean Iceman: colon contents (meat, cereals, pollen, moss and whipworm) and stable isotope analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, J H; Oeggl, K; Holden, T G; Handley, L L; O'Connell, T C; Preston, T

    2000-01-01

    The contents of the colon of the Tyrolean Iceman who lived ca. 5300 years ago include muscle fibres, cereal remains, a diversity of pollen, and most notably that of the hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) retaining cellular contents, as well as a moss leaf (Neckera complanata) and eggs of the parasitic whipworm (Trichuris trichiura). Based almost solely on stable isotope analyses and ignoring the work on the colon contents, two recently published papers on the Iceman's diet draw ill-founded conclusions about vegetarianism and even veganism. Neither the pollen nor the moss is likely to have been deliberately consumed as food by the Iceman. All the available evidence concerning the Iceman's broad-based diet is reviewed and the significance of the colon contents for matters other than assessment of food intake is outlined. PMID:11205345

  10. Infraspecific variation within and across complete organellar genomes and nuclear ribosomal repeats in a moss.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lily R; Liu, Yang; Rozzi, Ricardo; Goffinet, Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) are diverse and ecologically and evolutionarily significant yet genome scale data sets and analyses remain extremely sparse relative to other groups of plants, and are completely lacking at the infraspecific level. By sequencing the complete organellar genomes and nuclear ribosomal repeat from seven patches of a South American sub-Antarctic neo-endemic non-model moss, we present the first characterization of infraspecific polymorphism within and across the three genomic compartments for a bryophyte. Diversity within patches is accounted for by both intraindividual and interindividual variation for the nuclear ribosomal repeat and plastid genome, respectively. This represents the most extensive infraspecific genomic dataset generated for an early land plant lineage thus far and provides insight into relative rates of substitution between organellar genomes, including high rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions. PMID:26724407

  11. Effect of fire on phosphorus forms in Sphagnum moss and peat soils of ombrotrophic bogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoping; Yu, Xiaofei; Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Lu, Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of burning Sphagnum moss and peat on phosphorus forms was studied with controlled combustion in the laboratory. Two fire treatments, a light fire (250 °C) and a severe fire (600 °C), were performed in a muffle furnace with 1-h residence time to simulate the effects of different forest fire conditions. The results showed that fire burning Sphagnum moss and peat soils resulted in losses of organic phosphorus (Po), while inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations increased. Burning significantly changed detailed phosphorus composition and availability, with severe fires destroying over 90% of organic phosphorus and increasing the availability of inorganic P by more than twofold. Our study suggest that, while decomposition processes in ombrotrophic bogs occur very slowly, rapid changes in the form and availability of phosphorus in vegetation and litter may occur as the result of forest fires on peat soils.

  12. Assessment of the Altitudinal Atmospheric Metal(loid) Deposition in a Mountainous City by Mosses.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixia; Zhang, Guoping; Liu, Hong; Li, Ling; Fu, Zhiping; Ouyang, Xiaoxue; Chen, Jingjing; Hu, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Samples of moss (Haplocladium microphyllum) were collected at different elevations on a mountain and four representative sites in Guiyang City, and the concentrations of metal(loid)s were determined by ICP-MS. The altitudinal deposition of soil-originated metals differed from that of anthropogenic metal(loid)s. The concentrations of soil-related elements decreased with elevation, indicating that these elements tend to deposit at lower elevations and their impact on the higher elevations is less. The concentrations of anthropogenic elements varied only slightly with elevation, indicating that the atmospheric deposition of these elements did not vary largely with elevation. The results of this study showed that the mosses at different locations may serve to indicate a vertical gradient of atmospheric metal(loid) deposition. PMID:26055166

  13. SOLAR MOSS PATTERNS: HEATING OF CORONAL LOOPS BY TURBULENCE AND MAGNETIC CONNECTION TO THE FOOTPOINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kittinaradorn, R.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H. E-mail: scdjr@mahidol.ac.th

    2009-09-10

    We address the origin of the patchy dark and bright emission structure, known as 'moss', observed by TRACE extreme ultraviolet observations of the solar disk. Here we propose an explanation based on turbulent, patchy heat conduction from the corona into the transition region. Computer simulations demonstrate that magnetic turbulence in coronal loops develops a flux rope structure with current sheets near the flux rope boundaries. Localized heating due to current sheet activity such as magnetic reconnection is followed by heat conduction along turbulent magnetic field lines. The field line trajectories tend to remain near the flux rope boundaries, resulting in selective heating of the plasma in the transition region. This can explain the network of bright regions in the observed moss morphology.

  14. Vitrification of mosses: a useful method for the cryopreservation of Splachnum ampullaceum Hedw.

    PubMed

    Mallon, R; Rodriguez-Oubina, J; Luz Gonzalez, M

    2010-01-01

    The source of germplasm as well as the technique used for storage of mosses can enhance survival after cryopreservation. Samples of gametophores, protonemata and protonemal brood cells from in vitro cultures of Splachnum ampullaceum were cryopreserved following exposure to a plant vitrification solution (PVS2) for two different times (5 and 10 min) at 0 degree C. Half of the samples were pretreated with a loading solution containing 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose before exposure to PVS2. After one week storage in liquid nitrogen, S. ampullaceum samples were regenerated on Gamborg's B5 mineral medium with B5 vitamins. Exposure to a loading solution was a prerequisite for high survival in all samples. Four weeks after cryopreservation, 92.3 percent brood cells, 60.0 percent gametophores and 46.0 percent protonemata pretreated with a loading solution had regenerated, displaying normal growth and development, thus demonstrating that vitrification is a useful method for moss cryopreservation.

  15. Spatio-temporal patterns of Cu contamination in mosses using geostatistical estimation.

    PubMed

    Martins, Anabela; Figueira, Rui; Sousa, António Jorge; Sérgio, Cecília

    2012-11-01

    Several recent studies have reported temporal trends in metal contamination in mosses, but such assessments did not evaluate uncertainty in temporal changes, therefore providing weak statistical support for time comparisons. Furthermore, levels of contaminants in the environment change in both space and time, requiring space-time modelling methods for map estimation. We propose an indicator of spatial and temporal variation based on space-time estimation by indicator kriging, where uncertainty at each location is estimated from the local distribution function, thereby calculating variability intervals for comparison between several biomonitoring dates. This approach was exemplified using copper concentrations in mosses from four Portuguese surveys (1992, 1997, 2002 and 2006). Using this approach, we identified a general decrease in copper contamination, but spatial patterns were not uniform, and from the uncertainty intervals, changes could not be considered significant in the majority of the study area.

  16. The omnivorous Tyrolean Iceman: colon contents (meat, cereals, pollen, moss and whipworm) and stable isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Dickson, J H; Oeggl, K; Holden, T G; Handley, L L; O'Connell, T C; Preston, T

    2000-12-29

    The contents of the colon of the Tyrolean Iceman who lived ca. 5300 years ago include muscle fibres, cereal remains, a diversity of pollen, and most notably that of the hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) retaining cellular contents, as well as a moss leaf (Neckera complanata) and eggs of the parasitic whipworm (Trichuris trichiura). Based almost solely on stable isotope analyses and ignoring the work on the colon contents, two recently published papers on the Iceman's diet draw ill-founded conclusions about vegetarianism and even veganism. Neither the pollen nor the moss is likely to have been deliberately consumed as food by the Iceman. All the available evidence concerning the Iceman's broad-based diet is reviewed and the significance of the colon contents for matters other than assessment of food intake is outlined.

  17. Architecture of the PPR gene family in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Mamoru; Ichinose, Mizuho; Ide, Mizuki; Sugita, Chieko

    2013-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are widespread in eukaryotes and in particular, include several hundred members in land plants. The majority of PPR proteins are localized in mitochondria and plastids, where they play a crucial role in various aspects of RNA metabolism at the post-transcriptional level in gene expression. However, many of their functions remain to be characterized. In contrast to vascular plants, the moss Physcomitrella patens has only 105 PPR genes. This number may represent a minimum set of PPR proteins required for post-transcriptional regulation in plant organelles. Here, we review the overall structure of the P. patens PPR gene family and the current status of the functional characterization of moss PPR proteins.

  18. Effect of fire on phosphorus forms in Sphagnum moss and peat soils of ombrotrophic bogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoping; Yu, Xiaofei; Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Lu, Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of burning Sphagnum moss and peat on phosphorus forms was studied with controlled combustion in the laboratory. Two fire treatments, a light fire (250 °C) and a severe fire (600 °C), were performed in a muffle furnace with 1-h residence time to simulate the effects of different forest fire conditions. The results showed that fire burning Sphagnum moss and peat soils resulted in losses of organic phosphorus (Po), while inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations increased. Burning significantly changed detailed phosphorus composition and availability, with severe fires destroying over 90% of organic phosphorus and increasing the availability of inorganic P by more than twofold. Our study suggest that, while decomposition processes in ombrotrophic bogs occur very slowly, rapid changes in the form and availability of phosphorus in vegetation and litter may occur as the result of forest fires on peat soils. PMID:24630445

  19. Systemic Acquired Resistance in Moss: Further Evidence for Conserved Defense Mechanisms in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Peter S.; Bowman, Collin E.; Villani, Philip J.; Dolan, Thomas E.; Hauck, Nathanael R.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular plants possess multiple mechanisms for defending themselves against pathogens. One well-characterized defense mechanism is systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In SAR, a plant detects the presence of a pathogen and transmits a signal throughout the plant, inducing changes in the expression of various pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Once SAR is established, the plant is capable of mounting rapid responses to subsequent pathogen attacks. SAR has been characterized in numerous angiosperm and gymnosperm species; however, despite several pieces of evidence suggesting SAR may also exist in non-vascular plants6–8, its presence in non-vascular plants has not been conclusively demonstrated, in part due to the lack of an appropriate culture system. Here, we describe and use a novel culture system to demonstrate that the moss species Amblystegium serpens does initiate a SAR-like reaction upon inoculation with Pythium irregulare, a common soil-borne oomycete. Infection of A. serpens gametophores by P. irregulare is characterized by localized cytoplasmic shrinkage within 34 h and chlorosis and necrosis within 7 d of inoculation. Within 24 h of a primary inoculation (induction), moss gametophores grown in culture became highly resistant to infection following subsequent inoculation (challenge) by the same pathogen. This increased resistance was a response to the pathogen itself and not to physical wounding. Treatment with β-1,3 glucan, a structural component of oomycete cell walls, was equally effective at triggering SAR. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that this important defense mechanism exists in a non-vascular plant, and, together with previous studies, suggest that SAR arose prior to the divergence of vascular and non-vascular plants. In addition, this novel moss – pathogen culture system will be valuable for future characterization of the mechanism of SAR in moss, which is necessary for a better understanding of the evolutionary history of SAR

  20. The Sensitivity of Moss-Associated Nitrogen Fixation towards Repeated Nitrogen Input.

    PubMed

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation is a major source of available N in ecosystems that receive low amounts of atmospheric N deposition. In boreal forest and subarctic tundra, the feather moss Hylocomium splendens is colonized by N2 fixing cyanobacteria that could contribute fundamentally to increase the N pool in these ecosystems. However, N2 fixation in mosses is inhibited by N input. Although this has been shown previously, the ability of N2 fixation to grow less sensitive towards repeated, increased N inputs remains unknown. Here, we tested if N2 fixation in H. splendens can recover from increased N input depending on the N load (0, 5, 20, 80, 320 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) after a period of N deprivation, and if sensitivity towards increased N input can decrease after repeated N additions. Nitrogen fixation in the moss was inhibited by the highest N addition, but was promoted by adding 5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), and increased in all treatments during a short period of N deprivation. The sensitivity of N2 fixation towards repeated N additions seem to decrease in the 20 and 80 kg N additions, but increased in the highest N addition (320 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)). Recovery of N in leachate samples increased with increasing N loads, suggesting low retention capabilities of mosses if N input is above 5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). Our results demonstrate that the sensitivity towards repeated N additions is likely to decrease if N input does not exceed a certain threshold. PMID:26731691

  1. [Leaf cell damage and changes in photosynthetic pigment contents of three moss species under cadmium stress].

    PubMed

    Gong, Shuang-jiao; Ma, Tao-wu; Li, Jing; Liu, Ying-di

    2010-10-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the leaf cell damage and the changes in photosynthetic pigment contents of three moss species under Cd stress, aimed to reveal the Cd sensibility and tolerance of the species. Even though the Cd stress was relatively low (1 mg Cd x L(-1)), the leaf cells of Dolichomitriopsis diversiformis and Plagiomnium acutum were damaged. With the increasing level of Cd stress, the leaf cell damage of the three moss species aggravated significantly, and the resulted damage under high level (100 mg x L(-1)) Cd stress was in the order Brachythecium procumbens > P. acutum > D. diversiformis. Relatively low (1 mg x L(-1)) Cd stress had no significant effects on the total chlorophyll content of the three species. However, with the increase of Cd stress (> or = 10 mg x L(-1)), the total chlorophyll content decreased significantly, with the order of B. procumbens > P. acutum > D. diversiformis. The Cd stress at 1 and 10 mg x L(-1) had no significant effects on the chlorophyll a/b, but the Cd stress at 100 mg x L(-1) led to a significant decrease of chlorophyll a/b in P. acutum and B. procumbens. The maximal decline of carotenoid content in B. procumbens was observed at 1 mg x L(-1) of Cd. The three moss species could significantly enrich Cd, and the Cd enrichment was D. diversiformis > P. acutum > B. procumbens. The leaf cell damage rate and the changes of chlorophyll and carotenoid contents could be used to indicate the differences in the sensitivity of D. diversiformis, P. acutum, and B. procumbens to Cd stress. D. diversiformis had the strongest tolerance to Cd stress, while P. acutum and B. procumbens had weaker tolerance. The tolerance of the three moss species to Cd stress was positively correlated to the capability of their Cd enrichment.

  2. Content of oak moss allergens atranol and chloroatranol in perfumes and similar products.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Suresh C; Bossi, Rossana; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil; Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2004-06-01

    Chloroatranol and atranol have been identified as the main allergens in the fragrance material of botanical origin, oak moss absolute. A previous study has shown that nearly all individuals sensitized to chloroatranol will elicit to 5 microg/ml. in a repeated open application test and that 50% will get a reaction to 0.15 micro g/ml under patch test conditions. Thus, chloroatranol is known as a potent allergen. The aim of the current investigation was to quantify exposure to chloroatranol and the chemically related substance atranol in some popular perfumes, eaux de parfum and eaux de toilette available on the European market. In total, 31 products were analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandemmass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) for their contents of atranol and chloroatranol. The 2 substances were found in 87% (n = 27) of the products. The median concentration of atranol in perfumes was 0.502 micro g/ml and 0.012 micro g/ml in eaux de toilette, and 0.235 micro g/ml and 0.006 micro g/ml for chloroatranol, respectively, in perfumes and eaux de toilette. Chloroatranol was found at a maximum concentration of 53 micro g/ml and atranol at one of 190 micro g/ml. The wide exposure to oak moss allergens, together with significant amounts of these potent allergens in at least half of perfumes and some eaux de toilettes explains the high frequencies of oak moss absolute allergy. It is suggested that regulations should be introduced aimed directly at these substances, and not just at oak moss absolute.

  3. Chemical, molecular, and proteomic analyses of moss bag biomonitoring in a petrochemical area of Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Cortis, Pierluigi; Vannini, Candida; Cogoni, Annalena; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Bracale, Marcella; Mezzasalma, Valerio; Labra, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were used to examine the atmospheric deposition of trace elements in the oil refinery region of Sardinia (Italy) compared with surrounding natural zones. The concentrations of 13 elements [arsenic (As), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A significant accumulation of pollutants was detected using active biomonitoring with moss bags compared with a control site. The most relevant contaminants for all of the tested sites were Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Moreover, the accumulation of Cr and Zn in the refinery industrial areas, IA1 and IA2, was more than five times greater than that detected at the control site. Levels of Cd, Mg, and Pb were also higher at all of the monitored sites compared with the control site. Both genomic and proteomic methods were used to study the response of H. cupressiforme to air pollution. No DNA damage or mutations were detected using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) method. At the protein level, 15 gel spots exhibited differential expression profiles between the moss samples collected at the IA1 site and the control site. Furthermore, among the 14 spots that showed a decrease in protein expression, nine were associated with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem (PS) II, three were associated with protein synthesis, and three were stress-related proteins. Thus, some of these proteins may represent good moss biosensors which could be used as pre-alert markers of environmental pollution.

  4. Observation of a Burstein-Moss shift in rhenium-doped MoS2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi-C; Yadgarov, Lena; Rosentsveig, Rita; Seifert, Gotthard; Tenne, Reshef; Musfeldt, Janice L

    2013-04-23

    We investigated the optical properties of rhenium-doped MoS2 nanoparticles and compared our findings with the pristine and bulk analogues. Our measurements reveal that confinement softens the exciton positions and reduces spin-orbit coupling, whereas doping has the opposite effect. We model the carrier-induced exciton blue shift in terms of the Burstein-Moss effect. These findings are important for understanding doping and finite length scale effects in low-dimensional nanoscale materials.

  5. Chemical, molecular, and proteomic analyses of moss bag biomonitoring in a petrochemical area of Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Cortis, Pierluigi; Vannini, Candida; Cogoni, Annalena; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Bracale, Marcella; Mezzasalma, Valerio; Labra, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were used to examine the atmospheric deposition of trace elements in the oil refinery region of Sardinia (Italy) compared with surrounding natural zones. The concentrations of 13 elements [arsenic (As), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A significant accumulation of pollutants was detected using active biomonitoring with moss bags compared with a control site. The most relevant contaminants for all of the tested sites were Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Moreover, the accumulation of Cr and Zn in the refinery industrial areas, IA1 and IA2, was more than five times greater than that detected at the control site. Levels of Cd, Mg, and Pb were also higher at all of the monitored sites compared with the control site. Both genomic and proteomic methods were used to study the response of H. cupressiforme to air pollution. No DNA damage or mutations were detected using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) method. At the protein level, 15 gel spots exhibited differential expression profiles between the moss samples collected at the IA1 site and the control site. Furthermore, among the 14 spots that showed a decrease in protein expression, nine were associated with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem (PS) II, three were associated with protein synthesis, and three were stress-related proteins. Thus, some of these proteins may represent good moss biosensors which could be used as pre-alert markers of environmental pollution. PMID:26408120

  6. Impacts of Environmental Heterogeneity on Moss Diversity and Distribution of Didymodon (Pottiaceae) in Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Shanshan; Liu, Xuehua; Bai, Xueliang; Jiang, Yanbin; Zhang, Xianzhou; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Tibet makes up the majority of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, often referred to as the roof of the world. Its complex landforms, physiognomy, and climate create a special heterogeneous environment for mosses. Each moss species inhabits its own habitat and ecological niche. This, in combination with its sensitivity to environmental change, makes moss species distribution a useful indicator of vegetation alteration and climate change. This study aimed to characterize the diversity and distribution of Didymodon (Pottiaceae) in Tibet, and model the potential distribution of its species. A total of 221 sample plots, each with a size of 10 × 10 m and located at different altitudes, were investigated across all vegetation types. Of these, the 181 plots in which Didymodon species were found were used to conduct analyses and modeling. Three noteworthy results were obtained. First, a total of 22 species of Didymodon were identified. Among these, Didymodon rigidulus var. subulatus had not previously been recorded in China, and Didymodon constrictus var. constrictus was the dominant species. Second, analysis of the relationships between species distributions and environmental factors using canonical correspondence analysis revealed that vegetation cover and altitude were the main factors affecting the distribution of Didymodon in Tibet. Third, based on the environmental factors of bioclimate, topography and vegetation, the distribution of Didymodon was predicted throughout Tibet at a spatial resolution of 1 km, using the presence-only MaxEnt model. Climatic variables were the key factors in the model. We conclude that the environment plays a significant role in moss diversity and distribution. Based on our research findings, we recommend that future studies should focus on the impacts of climate change on the distribution and conservation of Didymodon. PMID:26181326

  7. The Sensitivity of Moss-Associated Nitrogen Fixation towards Repeated Nitrogen Input

    PubMed Central

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation is a major source of available N in ecosystems that receive low amounts of atmospheric N deposition. In boreal forest and subarctic tundra, the feather moss Hylocomium splendens is colonized by N2 fixing cyanobacteria that could contribute fundamentally to increase the N pool in these ecosystems. However, N2 fixation in mosses is inhibited by N input. Although this has been shown previously, the ability of N2 fixation to grow less sensitive towards repeated, increased N inputs remains unknown. Here, we tested if N2 fixation in H. splendens can recover from increased N input depending on the N load (0, 5, 20, 80, 320 kg N ha-1 yr-1) after a period of N deprivation, and if sensitivity towards increased N input can decrease after repeated N additions. Nitrogen fixation in the moss was inhibited by the highest N addition, but was promoted by adding 5 kg N ha-1 yr-1, and increased in all treatments during a short period of N deprivation. The sensitivity of N2 fixation towards repeated N additions seem to decrease in the 20 and 80 kg N additions, but increased in the highest N addition (320 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Recovery of N in leachate samples increased with increasing N loads, suggesting low retention capabilities of mosses if N input is above 5 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Our results demonstrate that the sensitivity towards repeated N additions is likely to decrease if N input does not exceed a certain threshold. PMID:26731691

  8. Impacts of Environmental Heterogeneity on Moss Diversity and Distribution of Didymodon (Pottiaceae) in Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shanshan; Bai, Xueliang; Jiang, Yanbin; Zhang, Xianzhou; Yu, Chengqun

    2015-01-01

    Tibet makes up the majority of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, often referred to as the roof of the world. Its complex landforms, physiognomy, and climate create a special heterogeneous environment for mosses. Each moss species inhabits its own habitat and ecological niche. This, in combination with its sensitivity to environmental change, makes moss species distribution a useful indicator of vegetation alteration and climate change. This study aimed to characterize the diversity and distribution of Didymodon (Pottiaceae) in Tibet, and model the potential distribution of its species. A total of 221 sample plots, each with a size of 10 × 10 m and located at different altitudes, were investigated across all vegetation types. Of these, the 181 plots in which Didymodon species were found were used to conduct analyses and modeling. Three noteworthy results were obtained. First, a total of 22 species of Didymodon were identified. Among these, Didymodon rigidulus var. subulatus had not previously been recorded in China, and Didymodon constrictus var. constrictus was the dominant species. Second, analysis of the relationships between species distributions and environmental factors using canonical correspondence analysis revealed that vegetation cover and altitude were the main factors affecting the distribution of Didymodon in Tibet. Third, based on the environmental factors of bioclimate, topography and vegetation, the distribution of Didymodon was predicted throughout Tibet at a spatial resolution of 1 km, using the presence-only MaxEnt model. Climatic variables were the key factors in the model. We conclude that the environment plays a significant role in moss diversity and distribution. Based on our research findings, we recommend that future studies should focus on the impacts of climate change on the distribution and conservation of Didymodon. PMID:26181326

  9. [Comparisons of sulfur contents and isotopes between mosses and surface soils in Jiangxi Province].

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Chen, Yong-Zhong; Zhou, Dan; Luo, Li; Wu, Dai-She

    2013-10-01

    In order to study the influence of atmospheric sulfur on soil sulfur, the forest surface soil samples and moss samples were collected in north areas of Jiangxi province. Contents and isotopes of sulfur in different forms (total sulfur, water-soluble sulfur, absorbed sulfur and organic sulfur) were determined. The average sulfur content of mosses was 0. 34% +/- 0. 20%. All of the delta34S values except at Fengcheng (-3. 31 per thousand) were positive, the average was 5.64 per thousand +/- 2. 23 per thousand. The average contents of soil total sulfur were between 189.0 mg.kg-1 and 793.5 mg.kg-1. The organic sulfur was the main sulfur form in surface soils and the contents of water-soluble sulfur were the lowest. The delta34S values of total sulfur were in the range of 4. 45 per thousand +/-10. 28 per thousand. The highest soil delta34S values were determined for organic sulfur and the delta34S values of water-soluble and absorbed sulfur were similar. The contents of soil total sulfur were much lower than those of the mosses. Except for organic sulfur (R = 0. 50, P >0. 05) , the delta34S values of total sulfur, water-soluble sulfur and absorbed sulfur were all significantly correlated with those of moss sulfur (R >0.7, P <0. 01). These results indicated that atmospheric sulfur directly affected the total sulfur, water-soluble sulfur and absorbed sulfur, but not the organic sulfur.

  10. Atmospheric Pb and Ti accumulation rates from Sphagnum moss: dependence upon plant productivity.

    PubMed

    Kempter, H; Krachler, M; Shotyk, W

    2010-07-15

    The accumulation rates of atmospheric Pb and Ti were obtained using the production rates of Sphagnum mosses collected in four ombrotrophic bogs from two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and one year later the production of plant matter was harvested. Metal concentrations were determined in acid digests using sector field ICP-MS employing well established analytical procedures. Up to 12 samples (40 x 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites were investigated per bog. Variations within a given sampling site were in the range 2.3-4x for Pb concentrations, 1.8-2.5x for Ti concentrations, 3-8.3x for Pb/Ti, 5.6-7.8x for Pb accumulation rates, and 2.3-6.4x for Ti accumulation rates. However, the median values of these parameters for the sites (6-10 per bog) were quite consistent. The mosses from the bogs in NBF exhibited significantly greater productivity (187-202 g m(-2) a(-1)) compared to the OB peat bogs (71-91 g m(-2) a(-1)), and these differences had a pronounced effect on the Pb and Ti accumulation rates. Highly productive mosses showed no indication of a "dilution effect" of Pb or Ti concentrations, suggesting that more productive plants were simply able to accumulate more particles from the air. The median rates of net Pb accumulation by the mosses are in excellent agreement with the fluxes obtained by direct atmospheric measurements at nearby monitoring stations in both regions (EMEP and MAPESI data). PMID:20545344

  11. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2.

  12. The Sensitivity of Moss-Associated Nitrogen Fixation towards Repeated Nitrogen Input.

    PubMed

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation is a major source of available N in ecosystems that receive low amounts of atmospheric N deposition. In boreal forest and subarctic tundra, the feather moss Hylocomium splendens is colonized by N2 fixing cyanobacteria that could contribute fundamentally to increase the N pool in these ecosystems. However, N2 fixation in mosses is inhibited by N input. Although this has been shown previously, the ability of N2 fixation to grow less sensitive towards repeated, increased N inputs remains unknown. Here, we tested if N2 fixation in H. splendens can recover from increased N input depending on the N load (0, 5, 20, 80, 320 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) after a period of N deprivation, and if sensitivity towards increased N input can decrease after repeated N additions. Nitrogen fixation in the moss was inhibited by the highest N addition, but was promoted by adding 5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), and increased in all treatments during a short period of N deprivation. The sensitivity of N2 fixation towards repeated N additions seem to decrease in the 20 and 80 kg N additions, but increased in the highest N addition (320 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)). Recovery of N in leachate samples increased with increasing N loads, suggesting low retention capabilities of mosses if N input is above 5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). Our results demonstrate that the sensitivity towards repeated N additions is likely to decrease if N input does not exceed a certain threshold.

  13. Mosses and some mushroom species as bioindicators of radiocaesium contamination and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Marović, Gordana; Franić, Zdenko; Sencar, Jasminka; Bituh, Tomislav; Vugrinec, Ozren

    2008-10-01

    Mosses, lichens, mushrooms are able to efficiently accumulate different radioactive elements from their environment to a much higher degree than other vegetation. They are sensitive bioindicators of radioactive contamination for various ecosystems, particularly in the event of a nuclear accident and uncontrolled emission oh fission products. Results of systematic, long-term measurements of 137Cs activities in mosses and in some edible mushroom species in North Croatia for the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2007) are summarized. The study was conducted in the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb, as a part of an extensive monitoring program of the Croatian environment. In the overall observed period the highest activity concentration of 137Cs deposited by fallout has been recorded in 1986, which is the year of Chernobyl accident, causing peak S7Cs activity concentration in moss of 8800 Bq/kg in May 1986. In the same period mean 137Cs activity concentration in grass was 390 Bq/kg. The highest value of 137Cs activity concentration in Cortinarius caperatus mushrooms of 1351 Bq/kg has been recorded in 1989. Fitting the measured 137Cs activity concentrations to the theoretical curve the ecological half-life of 137Cs in moss was found to be around 978 days, in grass around 126 days in the period 1986-1990, in Cortinarius caperatus mushroom around 5865 days (16.1 years). Regarding the risk assessment to Croatian population, due to consumption of mushrooms, the collective effective dose for Croatian population, estimated to be about 35 mSv per year, was found to be quite low. Therefore, it can be concluded that mushroom consumption was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to humans after the Chernobyl accident.

  14. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. PMID:27058127

  15. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni.

    PubMed

    Correa, Margarita C G; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader. PMID:26559636

  16. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni.

    PubMed

    Correa, Margarita C G; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-11-12

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader.

  17. Impact of Mano a Mano Mujer, an HIV Prevention Intervention, on Depressive Symptoms among Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Lara, Loreto; Villegas, Natalia; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide, an in Chile, the number of women living with HIV is increasing. Depression is considered a factor that interferes with HIV prevention. Depression may reach 41% among low income Chilean women. Depressed people are less willing to participate in behaviors that protect them against HIV. Objectives To analyze the impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer (MM-M) on depressive symptoms among Chilean women. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of MM-M, an HIV prevention intervention. The research was conducted in Santiago- Chile, a total of 400 women participated in the study (intervention group, n = 182; control group, n = 218). The intervention was guided by the social-cognitive model and the primary health model. The intervention consists of six two-hour sessions delivered in small groups. Sessions covered: HIV prevention, depression, partner's communication, and substance abuse. Face to face interviews were conducted at baseline and at 3 months follow-up Results At 3 months post-intervention, Chilean women who participated in MM-M significantly decreased their reported depressive symptoms. Conclusions MM-M provided significant benefits for women's depression symptoms. This study offers a model that address depression, a risk factor for HIV. It uses nurses as leaders for the screening of depressive symptoms and as facilitators of community interventions. PMID:22452388

  18. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Cappellacci, Marcelo; Leyton, Fernanda Aleitte; Carreño, Joshua Durán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries. PMID:26815160

  19. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  20. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Margarita C. G.; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader. PMID:26559636